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Sample records for geothermal area northeast

  1. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  2. Hydrogeology of the Krafla geothermal system, northeast Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Bird, D. K.; Arnórsson, S.

    2016-01-01

    The Krafla geothermal system is located in Iceland's northeastern neovolcanic zone, within the Krafla central volcanic complex. Geothermal fluids are superheated steam closest to the magma heat source, two-phase at higher depths, and sub-boiling at the shallowest depths. Hydrogen isotope ratios...... of geothermal fluids range from -87‰, equivalent to local meteoric water, to -94‰. These fluids are enriched in 18O relative to the global meteoric line by +0.5-3.2‰. Calculated vapor fractions of the fluids are 0.0-0.5 wt% (~0-16% by volume) in the northwestern portion of the geothermal system and increase...... the benefits of combining phase segregation effects in two-phase systems during analysis of wellhead fluid data with stable isotope values of hydrous alteration minerals when evaluating the complex hydrogeology of volcano-hosted geothermal systems....

  3. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  4. Geophysical investigations of the geologic and hydrothermal framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Jonathan; McPhee, Darcy K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Pilgrim Hot Springs, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, is characterized by hot springs, surrounding thawed regions, and elevated lake temperatures. The area is of interest because of its potential for providing renewable energy for Nome and nearby rural communities. We performed ground and airborne geophysical investigations of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area to identify areas indicative of high heat flow and saline geothermal fluids, and to map key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Studies included ground gravity and magnetic measurements, as well as an airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey. The structural and conceptual framework developed from this study provides critical information for future development of this resource and is relevant more generally to our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Potential field data reveal the Pilgrim area displays a complex geophysical fabric reflecting a network of intersecting fault and fracture sets ranging from inherited basement structures to Tertiary faults. Resistivity models derived from the airborne EM data reveal resistivity anomalies in the upper 100 m of the subsurface that suggest elevated temperatures and the presence of saline fluids. A northwest trending fabric across the northeastern portion of the survey area parallels structures to the east that may be related to accommodation between the two major mountain ranges south (Kigluaik) and east (Bendeleben) of Pilgrim Springs. The area from the springs southward to the range front, however, is characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with north-south extension that formed the basin. The area around the springs (~10 km2 ) is coincident with a circular magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. These features

  5. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Garry J. [Gradient Geophysics Inc., Missoula, MT (United States); Birkby, Jeff [Birkby Consulting LLC, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  6. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  7. Geologic structure and volcanic history of the Yanaizu-Nishiyama (Okuaizu) geothermal field, Northeast Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizugaki, Keiko [Geological Survey of Japan, Geothermal Research Dept., Higashi Tsukuba (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The Yanaizu-Nishiyama geothermal field, also known as Okuaizu, supports a 65 MWe geothermal power station. It is located in the western part of Fukushima Prefecture, northeast Japan. This field is characterised by rhyolitic volcanism of about 0.3-0.2 Ma that formed Sunagohara volcano. Drillcore geology indicates that volcanism began with a caldera-forming eruption in the center of this field, creating a 2-km-diameter funnel-shaped caldera. Subsequently, a fault-bounded block including this caldera subsided to form a 5-km-wide lake that accumulated lake sediments. Post-caldera volcanism formed lava domes and intrusions within the lake, and deposited ash-flow tuffs in and around the lake. The hydrothermal system of this field is strongly controlled by subvertical faults that have no relation to the volcanism. The principal production zone occurs at a depth of 1.0-2.6 km within fractured Neogene formations along two northwest-trending faults to the southeast of the caldera. These faults also formed fracture zones in the lake sediments, but there was no apparent offset of the sediments. Stratigraphic studies suggest that post-caldera activities of Sunagohara volcano have migrated southeastward to the present high-temperature zone. The source magma of Sunagohara volcano may contribute to the thermal potential of this field. (Author)

  8. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  9. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River Geothermal Area, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, L. R.; Bruhn, R. L.; Beck, S. L.

    1981-07-01

    Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene salt lake formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the salt lake formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 50 on top of metamorphosed precambrian and lower paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 500 and 700. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 100 to 200 and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field.

  10. Detectability of geothermal areas using Skylab X-5 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Kahle, A. B.; Goetz, A. F. H.; Gillespie, A. R.; Abrams, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study which was undertaken to determine if data from a single near-noon pass of Skylab could be used to detect geothermal areas. The size and temperature requirements for a geothermally heated area to be seen by Skylab S-192 MSS X-5 thermal sensor were calculated. This sensor obtained thermal data with the highest spatial resolution of any nonmilitary satellite system. Only very large hot areas could be expected to be unambiguously recognized with a single data set from this instrument. The study area chosen was The Geysers geothermal field in Sonoma County, California, the only geothermal area of significant size scanned by Skylab. Unfortunately, 95% of the Skylab thermal channel data was acquired within 3 hours of local noon. For The Geysers area only daytime X-5 data were available. An analysis of the thermal channel data (10.2 to 12.5 um) revealed that ground temperatures determined by Skylab were normally distributed. No anomalous hot spots were apparent. Computer enhancement techniques were used to delineate the hottest 100 and 300 ground areas (pixel, 75 m by 75 m) within the study region. It was found that the Skylab MSS with the X-5 thermal detector does not have sufficient spatial resolution to locate unambiguously from daytime data any but the largest and hottest convectively created geothermal features, which in general are prominent enough to have been previously recognized.

  11. Rock geochemistry related to mineralization processes in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kausar, A. Al; Indarto, S.; Setiawan, I.

    2018-02-01

    Abundant geothermal systems in Indonesia suggest high heat and mass transfer associated with recent or paleovolcanic arcs. In the active geothermal system, the upflow of mixed fluid between late stage hydrothermal and meteoric water might contain mass of minerals associated with epithermal mineralisation process as exemplified at Lihir gold mine in Papua New Guinea. In Indonesia, there is a lack of study related to the precious metals occurrence within active geothermal area. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate the possibility of mineralization process in active geothermal area of Guci, Central Java by using geochemical analysis. There are a lot of conducted geochemical analysis of water, soil and gas by mapping the temperature, pH, Hg and CO2 distribution, and estimating subsurface temperature based on geothermometry approach. Then we also apply rock geochemistry to find minerals that indicate the presence of mineralization. The result from selected geothermal area shows the presence of pyrite and chalcopyrite minerals on the laharic breccias at Kali Putih, Sudikampir. Mineralization is formed within host rock and the veins are associated with gold polymetallic mineralization.

  12. Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Bruneau Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) is part of the Bruneau-Grandview thermal anomaly, the largest geothermal area in the western US. This part of Owyhee County is the driest part of Idaho. The KGRA is associated with the southern boundary fault zone of the Snake River Plain. Thermal water, produced from numerous artesian wells in the region, is supplied from two major aquifers. Ecological concerns include the threatened Astragalus mulfordiae and the numerous birds of prey nesting in the Snake River canyon northwest of the KGRA. Extensive geothermal development may strain the limited health care facilities in the county. Ethnographic information suggests that there is a high probability of prehistoric cultural materials being remnant in the Hot Spring locality.

  13. Crustal structure in Tengchong Volcano-Geothermal Area, western Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Huangfu, Gang

    2004-02-01

    Based upon the deep seismic sounding profiles carried out in the Tengchong Volcano-Geothermal Area (TVGA), western Yunnan Province of China, a 2-D crustal P velocity structure is obtained by use of finite-difference inversion and forward travel-time fitting method. The crustal model shows that a low-velocity anomaly zone exists in the upper crust, which is related to geothermal activity. Two faults, the Longling-Ruili Fault and Tengchong Fault, on the profile extend from surface to the lower crust and the Tengchong Fault likely penetrates the Moho. Moreover, based on teleseismic receiver functions on a temporary seismic network, S-wave velocity structures beneath the geothermal field show low S-wave velocity in the upper crust. From results of geophysical survey, the crust of TVGA is characterized by low P-wave and S-wave velocities, low resistivity, high heat-flow value and low Q. The upper mantle P-wave velocity is also low. This suggests presence of magma in the crust derived from the upper mantle. The low-velocity anomaly in upper crust may be related to the magma differentiation. The Tengchong volcanic area is located on the northeast edge of the Indian-Eurasian plate collision zone, away from the eastern boundary of the Indian plate by about 450 km. Based on the results of this paper and related studies, the Tengchong volcanoes can be classified as plate boundary volcanoes.

  14. Castle Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Castle Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is part of the large Bruneau-Grand View thermal anomaly in southwestern Idaho. The KGRA is located in the driest area of Idaho and annual precipitation averages 230 mm. The potential of subsidence and slope failure is high in sediments of the Glenns Ferry Formation and Idaho Group found in the KGRA. A major concern is the potential impact of geothermal development on the Snake River Birds of Prey Natural Area which overlaps the KGRA. Any significant economic growth in Owyhee County may strain the ability of the limited health facilities in the county. The Idaho Archaeological survey has located 46 archaeological sites within the KGRA.

  15. Geophysical investigations of the Seferihisar geothermal area, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meric A. [Dokuz Eyluel University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysics, Tinaztepe Campus, 35160 Buca-Izmir (Turkey)

    2006-06-15

    Self-potential (SP), magnetic and very low frequency electromagnetic (EM-VLF) surveys were carried out in the Seferihisar geothermal area to identify major and minor fault zones and characterize the geothermal system. The SP study provided useful information on the local faults and subsurface fluid flow. The main SP anomalies appear mostly along and near active fault zones in the area of the Cumali, Tuzla and Doganbey hot springs. Two of these anomalies near the Tuzla hot springs were further evaluated by SP modelling. Total magnetic field values increase from the Doganbey to the Cumali hot springs. Modelling performed on the magnetic data indicates that between these two spring areas are four different regions or units that can be distinguished on the basis of their magnetic susceptibility values. Fraser filtering of EM-VLF data also indicates that there are three significant conductive zones in the regions around the Cumali, Tuzla and Doganbey hot springs, and that they lie between important fault systems. The EM-VLF and total (stacked) SP data show that the conductive tilt anomalies obtained by Fraser filtering generally coincide with negative SP areas. According to our geophysical investigations, new exploratory wells should be drilled into the conductive zones located between the Cumali and Tuzla hot springs. We further recommend that resistivity and magnetotelluric methods be carried out in the area to obtain additional information on the Seferihisar geothermal system. (author)

  16. Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Vulcan Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is one of the more remote KGRAs in Idaho. The chemistry of Vulcan Hot Springs indicates a subsurface resource temperature of 147/sup 0/C, which may be high enough for power generation. An analysis of the limited data available on climate, meteorology, and air quality indicates few geothermal development concerns in these areas. The KGRA is located on the edge of the Idaho Batholith on a north-trending lineament which may be a factor in the presence of the hot springs. An occasional earthquake of magnitude 7 or greater may be expected in the region. Subsidence or elevation as a result of geothermal development in the KGRA do not appear to be of concern. Fragile granitic soils on steep slopes in the KGRA are unstable and may restrict development. The South fork of the Salmon River, the primary stream in the region, is an important salmon spawning grounds. Stolle Meadows, on the edge of the KGRA, is used as a wintering and calving area for elk, and access to the area is limited during this period. Socioeconomic and demographic surveys indicate that facilities and services will probably not be significantly impacted by development. Known heritage resources in the KGRA include two sites and the potential for additional cultural sites is significant.

  17. Crane Creek known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Crane Creek known geothermal resource area (KGRA) is located in Washington County, in southwestern Idaho. Estimated hydrothermal resource temperatures for the region are 166/sup 0/C (Na-K-Ca) and 176/sup 0/C (quartz). The KGRA is situated along the west side of the north-south trending western Idaho Fault Zone. Historic seismicity data for the region identify earthquake activity within 50 km. The hot springs surface along the margin of a siliceous sinter terrace or in adjacent sediments. Approximately 75% of the KGRA is underlain by shallow, stony soils on steep slopes indicating topographic and drainage limitations to geothermal development. Species of concern include sage grouse, antelope, and mule deer. There is a high probability of finding significant prehistoric cultural resources within the proposed area of development.

  18. Estimate of Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Resource in Daqing Oilfield, Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Guangzheng Jiang; Yi Wang; Yizuo Shi; Chao Zhang; Xiaoyin Tang; Shengbiao Hu

    2016-01-01

    Development and utilization of deep geothermal resources, especially a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource, is beneficial for both economic and environmental consideration in oilfields. This study used data from multiple sources to assess the geothermal energy resource in the Daqing Oilfield. The temperature logs in boreholes (both shallow water wells and deep boreholes) and the drilling stem test temperature were used to create isothermal maps in depths. Upon the temperature field and the...

  19. Rock alteration in some geothermal areas of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Y

    1966-01-01

    Petrological studies were made of stable metamorphic mineral assemblages found in drill cores taken in Japan and New Zealand. These studies showed that the temperature and depth of the point at which zeolite assemblages are transformed into feldspar bearing assemblages can be used as indicators of water pressure or of the ratio of water pressure to total pressure in the deeper part of geothermal areas.

  20. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Thomas R. [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Worthing, Wade [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cannon, Cody [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Palmer, Carl [Univ. of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Neupane, Ghanashyam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McLing, Travis L [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Mattson, Earl [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Dobson, Patric [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Conrad, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need

  1. Mountain home known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Mountain Home KGRA encompasses an area of 3853 hectares (ha) at the foot of the Mount Bennett Hills in Elmore County, Idaho. The site is associated with an arid climate and high winds that generate an acute dust problem. The KGRA lies adjacent to the northwest-southeast trending fault zone that reflects the northern boundary of the western Snake River Plain graben. Data indicate that a careful analysis of the subsidence potential is needed prior to extensive geothermal development. Surface water resources are confined to several small creeks. Lands are utilized for irrigated farmlands and rangeland for livestock. There are no apparent soil limitations to geothermal development. Sage grouse and mule deer are the major species of concern. The potential of locating significant heritage resources other than the Oregon Trail or the bathhouse debris appears to be relatively slight.

  2. Geophysical exploration of the Boku geothermal area, Central Ethiopian Rift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiye, Tamiru A. [School of Geosciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag X3, P.O. Box Wits, 2050 Johannesburg (South Africa); Tigistu Haile [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-12-15

    The Boku central volcano is located within the axial zone of the Central Ethiopian Rift near the town of Nazareth, Ethiopia. An integrated geophysical survey involving thermal, magnetic, electrical and gravimetric methods has been carried out over the Boku geothermal area in order to understand the circulation of fluids in the subsurface, and to localize the 'hot spot' providing heat to the downward migrating groundwaters before they return to the surface. The aim of the investigations was to reconstruct the geometry of the aquifers and the fluid flow paths in the Boku geothermal system, the country's least studied. Geological studies show that it taps heat from the shallow acidic Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Rift floor. The aquifer system is hosted in Quaternary Rift floor ignimbrites that are intensively fractured and receive regional meteoric water recharge from the adjacent escarpment and locally from precipitation and the Awash River. Geophysical surveys have mapped Quaternary faults that are the major geologic structures that allow the ascent of the hotter fluids towards the surface, as well as the cold-water recharge of the geothermal system. The shallow aquifers are mapped, preferred borehole sites for the extraction of thermal fluids are delineated and the depths to deeper thermal aquifers are estimated. (author)

  3. Preliminary study of Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokawaty, Ribka; Nugroho, Indra; Satriana, Joshua; Hafidz, Muhamad; Suryantini

    2017-12-01

    Songa-Wayaua geothermal prospect area is located on Bacan Island, Northern Molluca Province. Geothermal systems in this area associated with three Quartenary volcanoes, such as Mt. Pele-pele, Mt. Lansa, and Mt. Bibinoi. Based on literature study, five surface manifestations such as hot springs and alteration occurred within this area. The active manifestations indicate that Songa-Wayaua area has potential geothermal resource. This study objective is to evaluate Songa-Wayaua geothermal system on preliminary study stage by using volcanostratigraphy and remote sensing analysis to delineate the boundary of geothermal system area. The result of this study showed that Songa-Wayaua prospect area has four heat sources potential (e.g. Pele-pele Hummock, Lansa Hummock, Songa Hummock, and Bibinoi Hummock), controlled by geological structure presented by Pele-pele Normal Fault, and had three places as the recharge and discharge area which are very fulfilling as a geothermal system.

  4. An Investigation of the 3D Electrical Resistivity Structure in the Chingshui Geothermal Area, NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wen Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chingshui geothermal area southwest of the Ilan plain is identified as a western extension of the Okinawa Trough in the northern Taiwan subduction system. Numerous geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations have been conducted since the 1970s by the Industrial Technology Research Institute, the Chinese Petroleum Corporation of Taiwan and the National Science Council of Taiwan. These studies indicated that the Chingshui stream is one of the largest geothermal areas for electricity generation in Taiwan. However, the power generation efficiency has not met initial expectations. Magnetotelluric (MT data analyses show that the Chingshui geothermal region is a geologically complex area. A full three-dimensional (3D inversion was therefore applied to reprocess the MT data and provide the detailed electrical structure beneath the Chingshui geothermal region. The 3D geoelectrical model displays an improved image that clearly delineates the Chingshui geothermal system geometry. Two conductive anomalies are imaged that possibly indicate high potential areas for geothermal energy in the Chingshui geothermal system. One of the potential areas is located in the eastern part of the Chingshui Fault at shallow depths. A significant conductive anomaly is associated with high heat flow and fluid content situations southwest of the geothermal manifest area at depth. A higher interconnected fluid indicates that this area contains the highest potential for geothermal energy in the Chingshui geothermal system.

  5. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  6. 76 FR 12643 - Proposed Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... northeast corridor between the Washington, DC and New York City metropolitan areas. The FAA is proposing... northeast corridor between the New York City and Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. The routes would serve...

  7. Estimate of Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Resource in Daqing Oilfield, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzheng Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Development and utilization of deep geothermal resources, especially a hot dry rock (HDR geothermal resource, is beneficial for both economic and environmental consideration in oilfields. This study used data from multiple sources to assess the geothermal energy resource in the Daqing Oilfield. The temperature logs in boreholes (both shallow water wells and deep boreholes and the drilling stem test temperature were used to create isothermal maps in depths. Upon the temperature field and thermophysical parameters of strata, the heat content was calculated by 1 km × 1 km × 0.1 km cells. The result shows that in the southeastern part of Daqing Oilfield, the temperature can reach 150 °C at a depth of 3 km. The heat content within 3–5 km is 24.28 × 1021 J, wherein 68.2% exceeded 150 °C. If the recovery factor was given by 2% and the lower limit of temperature was set to be 150 °C, the most conservative estimate for recoverable HDR geothermal resource was 0.33 × 1021 J. The uncertainties of the estimation are mainly contributed to by the temperature extrapolation and the physical parameter selections.

  8. Geothermal Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluska, Oscar P.; Tangir, Daniel; Perri, Matias S.

    2002-01-01

    A general overview of geothermal energy is given that includes a short description of the active and stable areas in the world. The possibilities of geothermal development in Argentina are analyzed taking into account the geothermal fields of the country. The environmental benefits of geothermal energy are outlined

  9. A Rock Physics Feasibility Study of the Geothermal Gassum Reservoir, Copenhagen Area, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredesen, Kenneth; Dalgaard, Esben Borch; Mathiesen, Anders

    The subsurface of Denmark stores significant amounts of renewable geothermal energy which may contribute to domestic heating for centuries. However, establishing a successful geothermal plant with robust production capacity require reservoirs with sufficient high porosity and permeability. Modern...... quantitative seismic interpretation is a good approach to de-risk prospects and gain reservoir insight, but is so far not widely used for geothermal applications. In this study we perform a rock physics feasibility study as a pre-step towards quantitative seismic interpretation of geothermal reservoirs......, primarily in areas around Copenhagen. The results argue that it may be possible to use AVO and seismic inversion data to distinguish geothermal sandstone reservoirs from surrounding shales and to estimate porosity and permeability. Moreover, this study may represent new possibilities for future rock physics...

  10. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles geothermal area, California, part of the resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1980-11-10

    Some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges is included, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. Results for two geophysical methods that have been used in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys, are discussed and interpreted.

  11. Geophysics of Geothermal Areas: State of the Art and Future Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabey, Don R.

    In May 1980 a workshop organized by the Advanced School of Geophysics of the Ettore Majorana Center for Scientific Culture was held in Erice, Italy. The purpose was to present the state of the art and future development of geophysics as related to exploration for geothermal resources and the environmental impact of the development of geothermal systems. The workshop was addressed to “younger researchers working in scientific institutions and in public or private agencies and who are particularly interested in these aspects of the energy problem.” Fourteen formal lectures were presented to the workshop. This volume contains papers based on 10 of these lectures with a preface, forward, and introduction by the editors. The ten papers are “Heat Transfer in Geothermal Areas,” “Interpretation of Conductive Heat Flow Anomalies,” “Deep Electromagnetic Soundings in Geothermal Exploration,” “A Computation Method for dc Geoelectric Fields,” “Measurement of Ground Deformation in Geothermal Areas,” “Active Seismic Methods in Geothermal Exploration,” “The Role of Geophysical Investigations in the Discovery of the Latera Geothermal Field,” “Geothermal Resources Exploration in the European Community: The Geophysical Case,” “Activity Performed by AGIP (ENI Group) in the Field of Geothermal Energy,” and “Geothermal Exploration in the Western United States.” Six of the authors are from Italy, and one each is from Iceland, the Netherlands, West Germany, and the United States. All of the papers are in English.

  12. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste

  14. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  15. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  16. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, d' E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  17. Deep geothermal resources in Quebec and in Colombia: an area that may develop based on French experience on geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessent, D.; Raymond, J.; Dezayes, C.

    2016-01-01

    Because of an increasing demand in electricity and a necessity of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, several countries envisage the development of the renewable energies. The geothermal energy is a particularly interesting alternative because it allows a production of electricity which is not influenced by weather conditions and it requires relatively restricted surface areas compared, for example, to the area required by a hydroelectric power plant. The literature review presented here summarizes the main characteristics of the geothermal potential in Quebec, in sedimentary basins, and in Colombia, in the area of the Nevado del Ruiz volcanic complex. Currently, in these two regions, the hydro-electric power dominates the electricity production, but there is a similar interest to the development of geothermal power plants. The French sites of Soultz-sous-Forets in Alsace and Boiling in Guadeloupe are respectively presented as an example of exploitation of geothermal improved systems (Enhanced Geothermal System; EGS) and geothermal resources in volcanic regions. The first site constitutes a model for the future development of the deep geothermal exploitation in Quebec, whereas the second is an example for Colombia. A description of environmental impacts related to the exploitation of deep geothermal resources is presented at the end of this paper. (authors)

  18. Geothermal studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ji-Yang; Chen Mo-Xiang; Wang Ji-An; Deng Xiao; Wang Jun; Shen Hsien-Chieh; Hsiung Liang-Ping; Yan Shu-Zhen; Fan Zhi-Cheng; Liu Xiu-Wen

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuosly since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research of geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; (3) geothermal studies in mines. (orig./ME)

  19. User's guide to the Geothermal Resource Areas Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Leung, K.; Yen, W.

    1981-10-01

    The National Geothermal Information Resource project at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is developing a Geothermal Resource Areas Database, called GRAD, designed to answer questions about the progress of geothermal energy development. This database will contain extensive information on geothermal energy resources for selected areas, covering development from initial exploratory surveys to plant construction and operation. The database is available for on-lie interactive query by anyone with an account number on the computer, a computer terminal with an acoustic coupler, and a telephone. This report will help in making use of the database. Some information is provided on obtaining access to the computer system being used, instructions on obtaining standard reports, and some aids to using the query language.

  20. Design A Prototype of Temperature Logging Tools for Geothermal Prospecting Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyanto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The costs of geothermal exploration are very high because technology is still imported from other countries. The local business players in the geothermal sector do not have the ability to compete with global companies. To reduce costs, we need to develop our own equipment with competitive prices. Here in Indonesia, we have started to design a prototype of temperature logging tools for geothermal prospecting areas. This equipment can be used to detect temperature versus depth variations. To measure the thermal gradient, the platinum resistor temperature sensor is moved slowly down along the borehole. The displacement along the borehole is measured by a rotary encoder. This system is controlled by a 16-bit H8/3069F microcontroller. The acquired temperature data is displayed on a PC monitor using a Python Graphical User Interface. The system has been already tested in the Gunung Pancar geothermal prospect area in Bogor.

  1. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of geothermal waters in the southern hachimantai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Etchu, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Teruo; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1985-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Matsukawa and Kakkonda Geothermal Plants, wells at Amihari-Motoyu, and Nyuto and Tazawako areas were isotopically studied. The geothermal waters from Mutsukawa, Kakkonda and Amihari-Motoyu have hydrogen isotope ratios similar to the local meteoric waters, while have higher oxygen isotope ratios than the local meteoric waters. This relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, that is called ''oxygen shift'', means that these geothermal waters are meteoric waters undergone the oxygen isotope exchange with rocks at high temperature of underground. The exygen shifts are 2 -- 3 per mil in Matsukawa and Kakkonda, and 7 per mil in Amihari-Motoyu. This difference may be important to understand the processe of water-rock interaction in this area. The geothermal waters at Nyuto and Tazawako areas also show 2 -- 3 per mil oxygen shift. The steam from the Tazawako-cho well and the hot spring water form the Tsurunoyu are estimated to be vapor and liquid phases separated form a single geothermal water of NaCl type, though the hot water from the Tsurunoyu is diluted with shallow meteoric water. (author)

  2. Heat flow, heat transfer and lithosphere rheology in geothermal areas: Features and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, G.; Rybach, L.

    2005-10-01

    Surface heat flow measurements over active geothermal systems indicate strongly positive thermal anomalies. Whereas in "normal" geothermal settings, the surface heat flow is usually below 100-120 mW m - 2 , in active geothermal areas heat flow values as high as several watts per meter squared can be found. Systematic interpretation of heat flow patterns sheds light on heat transfer mechanisms at depth on different lateral, depth and time scales. Borehole temperature profiles in active geothermal areas show various signs of subsurface fluid movement, depending on position in the active system. The heat transfer regime is dominated by heat advection (mainly free convection). The onset of free convection depends on various factors, such as permeability, temperature gradient and fluid properties. The features of heat transfer are different for single or two-phase flow. Characteristic heat flow and heat transfer features in active geothermal systems are demonstrated by examples from Iceland, Italy, New Zealand and the USA. Two main factors affect the rheology of the lithosphere in active geothermal areas: steep temperature gradients and high pore fluid pressures. Combined with lithology and structure, these factors result in a rheological zonation with important consequences both for geodynamic processes and for the exploitation of geothermal energy. As a consequence of anomalously high temperature, the mechanical lithosphere is thin and its total strength can be reduced by almost one order of magnitude with respect to the average strength of continental lithosphere of comparable age and thickness. The top of the brittle/ductile transition is located within the upper crust at depths less than 10 km, acts as the root zone of listric normal faults in extensional environments and, at least in some cases, is visible on seismic reflection lines. These structural and rheological features are well illustrated in the Larderello geothermal field in Tuscany.

  3. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: Variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G. R.

    1995-04-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The likely strain rate calculated from thermal and tectonic considerations is 10 -15 s -1, and temperature measurements from four drill sites within the area indicate average, near-surface geothermal gradients of up to 150 °C km -1 throughout the upper 2 km. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ± 50 °C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes located highly accurately by performing a simultaneous inversion for three-dimensional structure and hypocentral parameters. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. Beneath the high-temperature part of the geothermal area, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be as shallow as 4 km. The geothermal gradient below drilling depths in various parts of the area ranges from 84 ± 9 °Ckm -1 within the low-temperature geothermal area of the transform zone to 138 ± 15 °Ckm -1 below the centre of the high-temperature geothermal area. Shallow maximum depths of earthquakes and therefore high average geothermal gradients tend to correlate with the intensity of the geothermal area and not with the location of the currently active spreading axis.

  4. Applicability of `GREATEM' system in mapping geothermal regions in volcanic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S. K.; Mogi, T.; Abd Allah, S.

    2010-12-01

    The ‘GREATEM’ helicopter borne TEM system employs a long grounded cable as transmitter while a light weight receiver coil is flown below a helicopter. This arrangement greatly simplifies the flying logistics and speed of the survey. Also there is very little reduction in the anomaly amplitude when the survey altitude is increased. This is a great advantage particularly in volcanic regions usually having rough topography, as the ‘GREATEM’ survey can be done with helicopter flying at a safe height. Many volcanic areas have anomalous geothermal regions containing hydrothermal fluids. Eruption of volcanoes may cause changes in the thermal character and spatial distribution of these regions. Mapping of these regions is important as they may be associated with hazards. Sometimes, if the temperature is high and volume of the geothermal region is large, they can provide a good source of geothermal energy. Applicability of ‘GREATEM’ system in mapping geothermal regions in volcanic areas is studied by numerical modeling. We have considered a 3D conductor at a shallow depth (50 t0 100m), representing the anomalous geothermal region with dimensions of 500m X 500m X 500m. Different types of geological host environment are considered by varying their resistivities from 10 Ohm.m to 2000 Ohm.m. The ‘GREATEM’ response is analyzed as ‘Percentage Difference (PD)’ over the response produced by the host environment. It is found that the “GREATEM’ system can delineate the geothermal region well. Many geothermal regions are associated with a deeper (> 1 km) reservoir of much larger dimensions. In this situation also it is found that the ‘GREATEM’ system can pick up the response of the shallower geothermal region against the background response of different types of geological host environment containing the deeper reservoir (Figure 1).

  5. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  6. Geologic study for evaluation of geothermal resources in northern Tohoku area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka, Hirofumi

    1986-10-01

    Similar geothermal signs are widely distributed not only in the neighborhood of the Hakkoda volcano but all over the Hakkoda area. In this report, the area is defined as the Hakkoda regional volcanic field. Part of the geothermal signs are closely related with the Hakkoda volcano. But for the many others, relations with specific volcanos remained unknown. Surveys and investigations carried out in the present work clarified that there exists a group of volcanos that correspond well to these geothermal signs. They are referred to as the Yunosawa caldera, Ikarigaseki caldera and Okiura caldera. Thus, with the Hakkoda caldera and Towada caldera, which have already been known, there are five calderas in the Hakkoda area. The basic structure is characterized by a combination of horst/graben structures bounded by reversed faults, and depressed zones resulting from the formation of calderas. The volcanos were generated in the Pliocene or succeeding epochs. Observations have shown that the geothermal sources, reservoir layer structures and geothermal flows are basically governed by these calderas. (10 figs, 3 tabs, 14 refs)

  7. Geothermal area detection using Landsat ETM+ thermal infrared data and its mechanistic analysis—A case study in Tengchong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qiming; Zhang, Ning; Nan, Peng; Chai, Leilei

    2011-08-01

    Thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is an important technique in the exploration of geothermal resources. In this study, a geothermal survey is conducted in Tengchong area of Yunnan province in China using TIR data from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor. Based on radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction and emissivity calculation, a simple but efficient single channel algorithm with acceptable precision is applied to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) of study area. The LST anomalous areas with temperature about 4-10 K higher than background area are discovered. Four geothermal areas are identified with the discussion of geothermal mechanism and the further analysis of regional geologic structure. The research reveals that the distribution of geothermal areas is consistent with the fault development in study area. Magmatism contributes abundant thermal source to study area and the faults provide thermal channels for heat transfer from interior earth to land surface and facilitate the present of geothermal anomalies. Finally, we conclude that TIR remote sensing is a cost-effective technique to detect LST anomalies. Combining TIR remote sensing with geological analysis and the understanding of geothermal mechanism is an accurate and efficient approach to geothermal area detection.

  8. Deformation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas, Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland, 1993-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Verhagen, Sandra; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Spaans, Karsten; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún

    2017-09-01

    The Krafla volcanic system has geothermal areas within the Krafla caldera and at Bjarnarflag in the Krafla fissure swarm, 9-km south of the Krafla caldera. Arrays of boreholes extract geothermal fluids for power plants in both areas. We collected and analyzed InSAR, GPS, and leveling data spanning 1993-2015 in order to investigate crustal deformation in these areas. The volcanic zone hosting the geothermal areas is also subject to large scale regional deformation processes, including plate spreading and deflation of the Krafla volcanic system. These deformation processes have to be taken into account in order to isolate the geothermal deformation signal. Plate spreading produces the largest horizontal displacements, but the regional deformation pattern also suggests readjustment of the Krafla system at depth after the 1975-1984 Krafla rifting episode. Observed deformation can be fit by an inflation source at about 20 km depth north of Krafla and a deflation source at similar depth directly below the Krafla caldera. Deflation signal along the fissure swarm can be reproduced by a 1-km wide sill at 4 km depth closing by 2-4 cm per year. These sources are considered to approximate the combined effects of vertical deformation associated with plate spreading and post-rifting response. Local deformation at the geothermal areas is well resolved in addition to these signals. InSAR shows that deformation at Bjarnarflag is elongated along the direction of the Krafla fissure swarm (∼ 4 km by ∼ 2 km) while it is circular at Krafla (∼ 5 km diameter). Rates of deflation at Krafla and Bjarnarflag geothermal areas have been relatively steady. Average volume decrease of about 6.6 × 105 m3/yr for Krafla and 3.9 × 105 m3/yr for Bjanarflag are found at sources located at ∼ 1.5 km depth, when interpreted by a spherical point source of pressure. This volume change represents about 8 × 10-3 m3/ton of the mass of geothermal fluid extracted per year, indicating important renewal

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the area northeast of Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.; Edmond, C.L.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Rock and steam-sediment samples were collected to define areas favorable for uranium deposits northeast of Gunnison, Colorado. Areas considered most favorable for further exploration are: (1) the Bronco Mountain area, approximately 10 mi south of Taylor Park Reservoir, (2) the area near the Big Red mine, and (3) the area 5 mi north-northeast of Taylor Park Reservoir. On the basis of known deposits in the Marshall Pass and Cochetopa districts, fault contacts between Precambrian granites and Paleozoic or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are favorable structural sites

  10. Studies on wide area deep geothermal resources reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    In order to establish techniques for the exploitation of geothermal reservoirs of large extent and deep location, the Hachimandaira field was chosen as a model. Studies were carried out using the AFMT system, thermographic, remote sensing and geothermometric methods. In the AFMT study the equipment was custom manufactured. It included a five component receiver and a transmitter with an output current of 10 A. Calculations were made for the electromagnetic fields of each transmitting source using both electric and magnetic dipoles. In the thermographic study a thermo-camera was employed to survey springs in Fukushima prefecture as well as the Ofuka springs in Akita prefecture. These studies were made with the intention of deriving correlations between surface heat flow and subterranean structure.

  11. Geothermal Energy Potential in Low Enthalpy Areas as a Future Energy Resource: Identifying Feasible Targets, Quebec, Canada, Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Majorowicz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat flow of the sedimentary succession of the Eastern Canada Sedimentary Basins varies from 40 mW/m2 close to the exposed shield in the north to high 60–70 mW/m2 in the southwest–northeast St. Lawrence corridor. As high fluid flow rates are required for a successful geothermal application, the most important targets are deep existing permeable aquifers rather than hard rock, which would need to be fracked. Unfortunately, the ten most populated Québec urban centers are in the areas where the Grenville (Canadian Shield is exposed or at shallow depths with sedimentary cover where temperatures are 30 °C or less. The city of Drummondville will be the exception, as the basement deepens sharply southwest, and higher temperatures reaching >120 °C are expected in the deep Cambrian sedimentary aquifers near a 4–5-km depth. Deep under the area where such sediments could be occurring under Appalachian nappes, temperatures significantly higher than 140 °C are predicted. In parts of the deep basin, temperatures as high as 80 °C–120 °C exist at depths of 3–4 km, mainly southeast of the major geological boundary: the Logan line. There is a large amount of heat resource at such depths to be considered in this area for district heating.

  12. INTERPRETATION OF BOUGUER ANOMALY TO DETERMINE FAULT AND SUBSURFACE STRUCTURE AT BLAWAN-IJEN GEOTHERMAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjar Pranggawan Azhari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gravity survey has been acquired by Gravimeter Lacoste & Romberg G-1035 at Blawan-Ijen geothermal area. It was a focusing study from previous research. The residual Bouguer anomaly data was obtain after applying gravity data reduction, reduction to horizontal plane, and upward continuation. Result of Bouguer anomaly interpretation shows occurrence of new faults and their relative movement. Blawan fault (F1, F2, F3, and F6 are normal fault. Blawan fault is main fault controlling hot springs at Blawan-Ijen geothermal area. F4 and F5 are oblique fault and forming a graben at Banyupahit River. F7 is reverse fault. Subsurface model shows that Blawan-Ijen geothermal area was dominated by the Ijen caldera forming ignimbrite (ρ1=2.670 g/cm3, embedded shale and sand (ρ2=2.644 g/cm3 as Blawan lake sediments, magma intrusion (ρ3=2.814 g/cm3 & ρ7=2.821 g/cm3, andesite rock (ρ4=2.448 g/cm3 as geothermal reservoir, pyroclastic air fall deposits (ρ5=2.613 g/cm3 from Mt. Blau, and lava flow (ρ6=2.890 g/cm3.

  13. Geothermal spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, J.L.; Takahashi, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The spa business, part of the health and fitness industry that has sprung up in recent years, is highly successful world-wide. The most traditional type of spa is the geothermal spa, found in geothermal areas around the world. In Japan, for example, some 2,000 geothermal spas and resorts generate $6 billion annually. Hawaii has an ideal environment for geothermal spas, and several locations in the islands could supply warm mineral water for spa development. Hawaii receives about 6 million visitors annually, a high percentage of whom are familiar with the relaxing and therapeutic value of geothermal spas, virtually guaranteeing the success of this industry in Hawaii. Presently, Hawaii does not have a single geothermal spa. This paper reports that the geothermal spa business is an industry whose time has come, an industry that offers very promising investment opportunities, and one that would improve the economy while expanding the diversity of pleasurable vacation options in Hawaii

  14. Survey of selecting the promising drilling points out of the ground survey of the FY 1992 geothermal development promotion survey. Soil gas survey (No.C-1 - Shirotori area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chijo chosa no uchi yubo kussaku chiten sentei chosa (Dojo gas chosa) hokokusho (No. C-1 Shirotori chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    As a part of the survey of selecting promising drilling points, survey was made using soil gas to grasp the area of existence of geothermal fluid in the area for careful examination and the locational distribution of fractures controlling the behavior of fluid. In the survey, the concentration of Hg in soil gas/carbon isotopic ratio of CO2 were measured at 247 measuring points. Generally speaking, there existed the hydrothermal fluid along the structure controlling geothermal activities in the area where the concentration of Hg in soil gas is high, and the volcanic gas as a heating source of geothermal fluid was rising in the area where the carbon isotopic ratio is high. In the survey, areas where both the Hg concentration and the carbon isotopic ratio were high were extracted as promising areas where the high temperature geothermal fluid possibly exists. The promising areas extracted were the periphery of the Daiichi (No.1) Shirotori Hot Spring, periphery of KT-4, southern periphery of N4-ST-2, periphery of 54E-OBN-1 - 54E-OBN-2, and periphery of N4-ST-2. Besides, a possibility of existence of geothermal fluid was indicated in the northeast of N4-ST-1 and in the northeast of KT-9. (NEDO)

  15. Geochemical Study of Ampallas Geothermal Area, Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziyyah, F.; Prabowo, T. R.; Shalihin, M. G. J.; Setiawan, D. I.; Yushantarti, A.

    2016-09-01

    Ampallas is one of the areas with geothermal potential which located in Mamuju district, near from the capital city of West Sulawesi. This research was carried out to understand the characteristic of this geothermal field based on chemistry of the surface manifestation, including fluid characteristic and soil anomaly. Geothermal research in Ampallas area focused on 4 hot springs; Ampallas, Batupane, Karema, and Gantungan. With average temperature around 34 - 67°C. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8 hot springs water type is chloride - bicarbonate, which means it came from the reservoir while Batupane, Gantungan, Karema and Ampallas 5 are all bicarbonate type. Ampallas 1,2,3,4,7,8, Karema and Gantungan hot springs fluid plotted in partial equilibrium zone while Batupane and Ampallas 5 plotted in immature water zone. It means the Ampallas hot springs (except Ampallas-5) mixed with meteoric water right after reached the equilibrium state. It is also concluded that Ampallas 5 hot springs came from the same reservoir with Batupane, but not Gantungan and Karema hot springs. The speculative resource potential of Ampallas geothermal system is estimated around 30 MWe. But if detailed geophysical method was applied the result could be more accurate.

  16. Overall analysis report on the fiscal 1994 geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area (secondary); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-2. Wasabizawa chiiki (dainiji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Wasabizawa area is located near the boundary between Yuzawa city south of Akita pref. and Ogachi-machi, Ogachi-gun, Akita pref, having a range of 3.0km northeast-southwest and 2.5km northwest-southeast of Wasabizawa almost as a center. The area for survey and its circumference are national forests, and the east and a part of the south of the area are designated as the Kurikoma quasi-national park third type special region. From the geochemical temperature distribution, it can be assumed that geothermal fluids of around 300{degree}C exist in the deep underground of the Kaminotai-Wasabizawa-Akinomiya area. From the distribution of density basements, the block structure of the basement can be estimated. Around the boundary of the ridge/sedimentation region of this density basement, fractures develop and the formation of reservoir structure is expected from the comparison with the result of the well survey. In the blowout test, obtained were 284.3{degree}C and 83.05 kgf/cm{sup 2} at a depth of 1,300m. In the geothermal system, it is assumed that reservoir structures of geothermal fluids develop in the deep underground of the central part of the area. The heat source to the geothermal system is supposed to be the magma reservoir remaining in Takamatsudake volcanic rocks. 110 refs., 177 figs., 105 tabs.

  17. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests

  18. How to boost shallow geothermal energy exploitation in the adriatic area: the LEGEND project experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesco, Tinti; Annamaria, Pangallo; Martina, Berneschi; Dario, Tosoni; Dušan, Rajver; Simona, Pestotnik; Dalibor, Jovanović; Tomislav, Rudinica; Slavisa, Jelisić; Branko, Zlokapa; Attilio, Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation, monitoring and reduction of the heating and cooling consumptions are topics of increasing importance. One promising technology is the geothermal heat pump. Despite its undoubted advantages compared to fossil fuels in terms of RES production, CO_2 reduction and primary energy savings, there are still significant barriers for the creation of sustainable local markets. Many regions present similar conditions in terms of climate, geology, hydrogeology, infrastructure and political conditions. Because of the context-driven nature of shallow geothermal systems, similarities should be taken into account and strategies shared across borders to foster the introduction and exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. Focusing on the results of the LEGEND Project, this paper presents an attempt at creating an interregional strategy for the widespread introduction of geothermal heat pumps in the Adriatic area, which includes EU and non-EU countries. The multi-level approach adopted (a combination of desk studies on the transferability potential, pilot plants across the regions and programs to involve, educate and train stakeholders) allowed to set up the strategy. Therefore, different actions are proposed to stimulate the development of the market, whose interconnection across the Adriatic can accelerate the achievement of the main energy and climate targets for all the countries involved. - Highlights: •The Interregional Adriatic strategy for shallow geothermal energy is presented. •The strategy speeds up renewable energy introduction in border countries. •Geological, climate, market and political similarities must be taken into account. •The preparatory action is the creation of trained market and supply chain.

  19. The underground geothermal resource about Bure is not exceptional. Answers by the ANDRA to critics made by associations on the geothermal resource in the Cigeo study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Marc-Antoine

    2013-01-01

    As some documents published by associations stated that the site chosen for Cigeo (Industrial centre for geological storage of nuclear materials and wastes) could be a geothermal resource of interest, the ANDRA herein states again that this resource is neither exceptional nor attractive in the present technological and economical conditions. In order to precisely answer to the arguments stated by the associations, it notably refers to some drillings performed in this area. It discusses drilling conditions and tests, test result interpretation, measurements, the process transparency, and the actual assessment of geothermal resources

  20. 77 FR 5733 - Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Docket No. FAA-2011-1407; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-25 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  1. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-DA-10-0089; DA-11-01] Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Determination of equivalent price series. SUMMARY: It has been...

  2. Determination of the Geothermal Potential by Geophysical Investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci Area, in the Vicinity of Shtip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Goshe; Panovska, Sanja; Delipetrov, Marjan; Dimov, Gjorgji; Jovanovski, Vlatko

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical methods used in the determination of geothermal potential by geophysical investigations in the Karbinci-Tarinci area included as follows: detailed reflective seismic scanning, geomagnetic profiling, geo electric probe and electromagnetic VLF prospecting. The site investigated consists of rocks of Precambrian, Mesozoic (Jurassic), Tertiary (Paleogene Neogene) and Quaternary age. From earlier investigations carried out in the wider vicinity and from investigations carried out by the present authors, one can expect occurrence geothermal water in the area. (Author)

  3. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappelmeyer, O.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth. It represents an inexhaustible source of energy. In many countries, which are mostly located within the geothermal belts of the world, geothermal energy is being used since many decades for electricity generation and direct heating applications comprising municipal, industrial and agricultural heating. Outside the geothermal anomalous volcanic regions, hot ground water from deep rock formations at temperatures above 70 o C is used for process heat and space heating. Low prices for gas and oil hinder the development of geothermal plants in areas outside positive geothermal anomalies; the cost of drilling to reach depths, where temperatures are above 50 o C to 70 o C, is high. The necessary total investment per MW th installed capacity is in the order of 5 Mio- DM/MW th (3 Mio $/MW th ). Experience shows, that an economic break even with oil is reached at an oil price of 30$ per barrel or if an adequate bonus for the clean, environmentally compatible production of geothermal heat is granted. Worldwide the installed electric capacity of geothermal power plants is approximately 6 000 MW e . About 15 000 MW th of thermal capacity is being extracted for process heat and space heat. The importance of the terrestrial heat as an energy resource would be substantially increased, if the heat, stored in the hot crystalline basement could be extracted at economical production costs. Geothermal energy is a competitive energy source in areas with high geothermal gradients (relative low cost for drilling) and would be competitive in areas with normal geothermal gradients, if a fair compensation for environmental implications from fossil and nuclear power production would be granted. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  4. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Du, H.; Bouchot, V.; Lopez, S.; Bialkowski, A.; Colnot, A.; Rigollet, C.; Sanjuan, B.; Millot, R.; Brach, M.; Asmundsson, R.; Giroud, N.

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal energy has shown a revival for several years and should strongly develop in a near future. Its potentiality is virtually unexhaustible. Its uses are multiple and various: individual and collective space heating, heat networks, power generation, heat storage, heat exchanges etc.. Re-launched by the demand of renewable energy sources, geothermal energy has become credible thanks to the scientific works published recently which have demonstrated its economical and technical relevance. Its image to the public is changing as well. However, lot of work remains to do to make geothermal energy a real industry in France. Several brakes have to be removed rapidly which concern the noise pollution of geothermal facilities, the risk of bad results of drillings, the electricity costs etc. This dossier gives an overview of today's main research paths in the domain of geothermal energy: 1 - geothermal energy in France: historical development, surface and deep resources, ambitions of the French national energy plan (pluri-annual investment plan for heat generation, incentives, regional 'climate-air-energy' schemes), specific regulations; 2 - geothermal energy at the city scale - sedimentary basins: Ile-de-France 40 years of Dogger reservoir exploitation, potentialities of clastic reservoirs - the Chaunoy sandstones example; 3 - geothermal power generation: conventional reservoirs - the Bouillante model (Guadeloupe, French Indies); the Soultz-sous-Forets pilot plant (Bas-Rhin, France); the supercritical reservoirs - the Krafla geothermal area (Iceland). (J.S.)

  5. Geothermal in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the current market for geothermal projects in the US and overseas. The topics of the article include future capacity needs, upgrading the Coso Geothermal project, the productivity of the Geysers area of Northern California, the future of geothermal, and new projects at Soda Lake, Carson Basin, Unalaska Island, and the Puna Geothermal Venture in Hilo, Hawaii

  6. FY 1993 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of geothermal water (No.36 - Amemasu-dake area); 1993 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.36 Amemasu dake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1993, survey of geothermal fluid was made using a precise structure drilling well N5-AM-5 as exploration well in the Amemasu-dake area, Hokkaido. The induced jetting of geothermal fluid was carried out by the Swabbing method in the total number of times of 185 in 11 days at 10-20 times/day, but did not result in the jetting of geothermal water. The sampling of geothermal water was conducted by guiding the geothermal water that overflowed the guide pipe to the tank. The temperature of geothermal water indicated approximately 20 degrees C in the 1st time and 40-60 degrees C in and after the 2nd time every day. The electric conductivity of geothermal water was 2.033 mS/cm, chlorine ion concentration was 420-500 ppm, and pH value was 7.17-7.72. As a result of the survey, it was presumed that the geothermal water of this well originated in the meteoric water around the area and formed slightly supported by emitted volcanic matters. As to the geochemical temperature, the silica temperature indicated about 120 degrees C and the alkali ratio temperature did about 180 degrees C. It was considered that there possibly existed geothermal reservoirs of approximately 180 degrees C in alkali ratio temperature around the well. (NEDO)

  7. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough - the Chociwel area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miecznik, Maciej; Sowiżdżał, Anna; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Pająk, Leszek

    2015-09-01

    The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method). An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years' time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  8. Modelling geothermal conditions in part of the Szczecin Trough – the Chociwel area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miecznik Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chociwel region is part of the Szczecin Trough and constitutes the northeastern segment of the extended Szczecin-Gorzów Synclinorium. Lower Jurassic reservoirs of high permeability of up to 1145 mD can discharge geothermal waters with a rate exceeding 250 m3/h and temperatures reach over 90°C in the lowermost part of the reservoirs. These conditions provide an opportunity to generate electricity from heat accumulated in geothermal waters using binary ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems. A numerical model of the natural state and exploitation conditions was created for the Chociwel area with the use of TOUGH2 geothermal simulator (i.e., integral finite-difference method. An analysis of geological and hydrogeothermal data indicates that the best conditions are found to the southeast of the town of Chociwel, where the bottom part of the reservoir reaches 3 km below ground. This would require drilling two new wells, namely one production and one injection. Simulated production with a flow rate of 275 m3/h, a temperature of 89°C at the wellhead, 30°C injection temperature and wells being 1.2 km separated from each other leads to a small temperature drop and moderate requirements for pumping power over a 50 years’ time span. The ORC binary system can produce at maximum 592.5 kW gross power with the R227ea found as the most suitable working fluid. Geothermal brine leaving the ORC system with a temperature c. 53°C can be used for other purposes, namely mushroom growing, balneology, swimming pools, soil warming, de-icing, fish farming and for heat pumps.

  9. The Hengill geothermal area, Iceland: variation of temperature gradients deduced from the maximum depth of seismogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Given a uniform lithology and strain rate and a full seismic data set, the maximum depth of earthquakes may be viewed to a first order as an isotherm. These conditions are approached at the Hengill geothermal area, S. Iceland, a dominantly basaltic area. The temperature at which seismic failure ceases for the strain rates likely at the Hengill geothermal area is determined by analogy with oceanic crust, and is about 650 ?? 50??C. The topographies of the top and bottom of the seismogenic layer were mapped using 617 earthquakes. The thickness of the seismogenic layer is roughly constant and about 3 km. A shallow, aseismic, low-velocity volume within the spreading plate boundary that crosses the area occurs above the top of the seismogenic layer and is interpreted as an isolated body of partial melt. The base of the seismogenic layer has a maximum depth of about 6.5 km beneath the spreading axis and deepens to about 7 km beneath a transform zone in the south of the area. -from Author

  10. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no dedicated recruitment survey data available in support of the assessment of the abundance and distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus), one of the most widespread and commercially important fish stocks in the North Atlantic. This is despite the f......, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  11. The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area, California - an updated geophysical perspective of heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, W.D.; Blakely, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area encompasses a large dry-steam production area in The Geysers field and a documented high-temperature, high-pressure, water-dominated system in the area largely south of Clear Lake, which has not been developed. An updated view is presented of the geological/geophysical complexities of the crust in this region in order to address key unanswered questions about the heat source and tectonics. Forward modeling, multidimensional inversions, and ideal body analysis of the gravity data, new electromagnetic sounding models, and arguments made from other geophysical data sets suggest that many of the geophysical anomalies have significant contributions from rock property and physical state variations in the upper 7 km and not from "magma' at greater depths. Regional tectonic and magmatic processes are analyzed to develop an updated scenario for pluton emplacement that differs substantially from earlier interpretations. In addition, a rationale is outlined for future exploration for geothermal resources in The Geysers-Clear Lake area. -from Authors

  12. Structural analysis of the northeast nevado del Ruiz volcano area, Colombia - a contribution to geothermal exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Eliana L; Velandia, Francisco; Zuluaga, Carlos A; Lopez, Julian A; Cramer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The structural geology studies around the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano (NRV), based on aerial photographs and digital terrene models interpretation, in conjunction with analysis of morphological, tectonic features, striated fault planes data and stress field calculation allow to propose a structural scheme that explains the pattern of location of hot springs and fluid released in the western part of the NRV. Structures and kinematics in the region are closely related to the dominant tectonic features of the NVR, nominally longitudinal NE-SW and N-S faults (Palestina, Santa Rosa and San Jeronimo) and a transverse NW-SE to E-W system (Villamaria-Termales,Campoalegrito, San Ramon faults). Quaternary stress tensor was obtained with a WSW-ENE direction of contraction, and dextral strike slip deformation by simple shear along main longitudinal faults, while left lateral displacement is transmitted to most of the NW transverse structures. A WSW-ENE direction of compression was also calculated from striated planes of Cretaceous-Paleocene and older rocks, meaning previous right lateral displacements along longitudinal faults (i.e. Palestina or San Jeronimo).

  13. Geothermal characteristics of deep wells using geophysical logs in Pohang area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIM, W.; Hamm, S. Y.; Lee, C.; Song, Y.; Kim, H.

    2016-12-01

    Pohang area displays a larger potential of geothermal energy with the highest heat flow of 83 mWm-2 in South Korea. A geothermal binary power plant with a generation capacity of 1.5MW using enhanced geothermal system (EGS) is under construction in Pohang area and will be completed until 2017. This study aims to reveal geothermal characteristics of four wells (BH-1 to BH-4 wells) of 2,383 m in depth in Pohang area, using geophysical logs. The geology of the study area is composed of tertiary mudstone of 200 - 359.1 m, tuff of 73 - 240 m, sandstone/mudstone of 46 - 907 m, rhyolite of 259 - 375 m, and andesitic volcanic breccia of 834 m in thicknesses from the surface, with granodiorite at bottom. By the result of the study, temperature and maximum electrical conductivity (EC) are 69.5°C at 1,502.6 m and 1,162 μS/cm at BH-2 well, 44.4°C at 912.3 m and 1,105 μS/cm at BH-3 well, and 82.5°C at 1,981.3 m and 3,412 μS/cm at BH-4 well. Thermal conductivity values at saturated state are 2.14 - 3.95 W/m-K (average 3.47 W/m-K) at BH-1 well and 2.36 - 3.61 W/m-K (average 2.85 W/m-K) at BH-4 well. ß (determining heat flow rate and up/down direction) values were estimated by using 1-D steady-state heat transfer equation and were determined as -0.77 - 0.99 with the geothermal gradients (Ks) of 42.5 - 46.3°C/km at BH-1 well, -3.15 - 3.05 with the Ks of 25.0 - 29.1°C/km at BH-2, -1.80 - 2.09 with the Ks of 20.0 - 23.0°C/km at BH-3 well, and -4.10 - 5.18 with the Ks of 30.2 - 39.0°C/km at BH-4 well. Most depths of all the wells showed upward heat transfer. Based on the geophysical logs, the main aquifer is located between 200 and 300 meters. KEY WORDS: Geothermal gradient, thermal conductivity, geophysical logs, ß value, heat transfer equation, Pohang area Acknowledgement This work was supported by grants from the Principal Research Fund of Korea Institute of the Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM 16-3411).

  14. Trampling Impacts on Thermotolerant Vegetation of Geothermal Areas in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R.; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  15. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  16. Trampling impacts on thermotolerant vegetation of geothermal areas in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bruce R; Ward, Jonet; Downs, Theresa M

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal features such as geysers, mud pools, sinter terraces, fumaroles, hot springs, and steaming ground are natural attractions often visited by tourists. Visitation rates for such areas in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand are in the order of hundreds of thousands annually. These areas are also habitat for rare and specialized plant and microbial communities that live in the steam-heated soils of unusual chemical composition. We evaluated historical and current trampling impacts of tourists on the thermotolerant vegetation of the Waimangu and Waiotapu geothermal areas near Rotorua, and compared the results to experimental trampling at a third site (Taheke) not used by tourists. Historical tourism has removed vegetation and soil from around key features, and remaining subsoil is compacted into an impervious pavement on which vegetation recolonization is unlikely in the short term. Social tracks made by tourists were present at both tourist sites often leading them onto hotter soils than constructed tracks. Vegetation height and cover were lower on and adjacent to social tracks than further from them. Thermotolerant vegetation showed extremely low resistance to experimental trampling. This confirms and extends previous research that also shows that thallophytes and woody shrubs, life forms that dominate in thermotolerant vegetation, are vulnerable to trampling damage. Preservation of these vulnerable ecosystems must ensure that tourist traffic is confined to existing tracks or boardwalks, and active restoration of impacted sites may be warranted.

  17. Design of a geothermal monitoring network in a coastal area and the evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan Shim, Byoung; Lee, Chulwoo; Park, Chanhee

    2016-04-01

    In Seockmodo Island (area of 48.2 km2) located at the northwest of South Korea, a renewable energy development project to install photovoltaic 136 kW and geothermal 516.3 kW is initiated. Since the 1990s, more than 20 deep geothermal wells for hot springs, greenhouse and aquaculture have been developed along coastal areas. The outflow water of each site has the pumping capacity between 300 and 4,800 m3/day with the salinity higher than 20,000 mg/l, and the maximum temperature shows 70 ?C. Because of the required additional well drillings, the increased discharge rate can cause serious seawater intrusion into freshwater aquifers, which supply groundwater for drinking and living purposes from 210 wells. In order to manage the situation, advanced management skills are required to maintain the balance between geothermal energy development and water resources protection. We designed real-time monitoring networks with monitoring stations for the sustainable monitoring of the temperature and salinity. Construction of borehole temperature monitoring for deep and shallow aquifer consists with the installation of automated temperature logging system and cellular telemetry for real-time data acquisition. The DTS (distributed temperature sensing) system and fiber optic cables will be installed for the logging system, which has enough temperature resolution and accuracy. The spatial distribution and the monitoring points can be determined by geological and hydrological situations associated with the locations of current use and planned facilities. The evaluation of the temperature and salinity variation will be conducted by the web-based monitoring system. The evaluation system will be helpful to manage the balance between the hot water development and the fresh water resources conservation.

  18. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbjorg Kristbjornsdottir

    Full Text Available Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence.The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR, 95% confidence intervals (CI non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model.The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30 as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06, breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80, prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77, kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05, lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97, non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15 and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94. Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas.The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal

  19. Association of Cancer Incidence and Duration of Residence in Geothermal Heating Area in Iceland: An Extended Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristbjornsdottir, Adalbjorg; Aspelund, Thor; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2016-01-01

    Residents of geothermal areas have higher incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and kidney cancers than others. These populations are exposed to chronic low-level ground gas emissions and various pollutants from geothermal water. The aim was to assess whether habitation in geothermal areas and utilisation of geothermal water is associated with risk of cancer according to duration of residence. The cohort obtained from the census 1981 was followed to the end of 2013. Personal identifier was used in record linkage with nation-wide emigration, death, and cancer registries. The exposed population, defined by community codes, was located on young bedrock and had utilised geothermal water supply systems since 1972. Two reference populations were located by community codes on older bedrock or had not utilised geothermal water supply systems for as long a period as had the exposed population. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) non-stratified and stratified on cumulative years of residence were estimated in Cox-model. The HR for all cancer was 1.21 (95% CI 1.12-1.30) as compared with the first reference area. The HR for pancreatic cancer was 1.93 (1.22-3.06), breast cancer, 1.48 (1.23-1.80), prostate cancer 1.47 (1.22-1.77), kidney cancer 1.46 (1.03-2.05), lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue 1.54 (1.21-1.97), non-Hodgkin´s lymphoma 2.08 (1.38-3.15) and basal cell carcinoma of the skin 1.62 (1.35-1.94). Positive dose-response relationship was observed between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, and between incidence of cancer and degree of geothermal/volcanic activity in the comparison areas. The higher cancer incidence in geothermal areas than in reference areas is consistent with previous findings. As the dose-response relationships were positive between incidence of cancers and duration of residence, it is now more urgent than before to investigate the chemical and physical content of the geothermal water

  20. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on resource assessment for Shiramizugoe area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Shiramizugoe chiiki shigen hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Under an assumed plan of building a geothermal power station in the Shiramizugoe area of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, Kagoshima Prefecture, investigations will be conducted under a 4-year program into the amount of geothermal resources, the dimensions and cost performance of a geothermal power station under consideration, and the environmental impact that the locating of such will incur, through for example identifying areas containing geothermal reservoirs suitable for geothermal power generation. In fiscal 1999, activities were conducted in the three fields of (1) survey plan preparation, (2) comprehensive analysis, and (3) environmental assessment. Under item (1), a survey and coordination implementation plan was prepared, existing data were analyzed for the construction of geothermal models out of which a suitable geothermal structure was specified for digging, and a list was drafted of locations for borehole digging for fiscal 2000. Under item (2), it was found that most of the past surveys covered the Ogiri area and that the Shiramizugoe area was but poorly covered. Discussion was made on the geological structure, geothermal structure, geothermal water hydraulic structure, and the geothermal water system. Under item (3), the plan was summarily explained to the local administration, associations of hot spring hotels, and inhabitants in the vicinity, and their consent was obtained. (NEDO)

  1. Using PS-InSAR to detect surface deformation in geothermal areas of West Java in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser; van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; Perissin, Daniele; Saepuloh, Asep

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique is applied in order to investigate the ground deformation in and around two geothermal areas in West Java, Indonesia. Two time-series of ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel-1A acquisitions, covering the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2015-2016, are analysed. The first case study examines the Wayang Windu geothermal zone where the PS-InSAR analysis provides an overview of the surface deformation around a geothermal reservoir. Uplift is observed around the injection wells in the area. The second example involves the use of the PS-InSAR technique over a more recent geothermal system in Patuha field. Again, a pattern of uplift was observed around the only available injection well in the area. Due to the dense vegetation coverage of the geothermal areas in West Java, the longer wavelength ALOS PALSAR data is provides better results by identifying a larger number of PS points. Additionally, experiments have been carried out to compare the resulting deformation with another example of the fluid migration process i.e. water extraction in Bandung basin. The potential of sentinel-1A and ALOS PALSR data are compared in all the experiments.

  2. Exploration and comparison of geothermal areas in Indonesia by fluid-rock geochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deon, F.; Barnhoorn, A.; Lievens, C.; Saptadij, N.; Sutopo, S.; van der Meer, F; den Hartog, T.; Brehmer, M; Bruhn, D.F.; de Jong, M; Ryannugroho, R.; Hutami, R.; Sule, R.; Hecker, C.; Bonté, D

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia with its large, but partially unexplored geothermal potential is one of the most interesting and suitable places in the world to conduct geothermal exploration research.
    This study focuses on geothermal exploration based on fluid-rock geochemistry/geomechanics and aims to compile an

  3. Analysis of heterogeneous characteristics in a geothermal area with low permeability and high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Aragón-Aguilar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical methodology for reservoir characterization was applied in the central and southwestern zones of Los Humeros geothermal field (LHGF. This study involves analysis of temperature, pressure, enthalpy and permeability in wells and their distribution along the area. The wells located in the central western side of the geothermal field are productive, whereas those located at the central-eastern side are non-productive. Through temperature profiles, determined at steady state in the analyzed wells, it was observed that at bottom conditions (approximately 2300 m depth, temperatures vary between 280 and 360 °C. The temperatures are higher at the eastern side of central zone of LHGF. A review of transient pressure tests, laboratory measurements of core samples, and correlation of circulation losses during drilling suggest that permeability of the formation is low. The enthalpy behavior in productive wells shows a tendency of increase in the steam fraction. It was found that productivity behavior has inverse relation with permeability of rock formation. Further, it is observed that an imbalance exists between exploitation and recharge. It is concluded from the results that the wells located at central-eastern area have low permeability and high temperature, which indicates possibility of heat storage.

  4. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  5. Study of structural change in volcanic and geothermal areas using seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhana, Najwa; Foulger, Gillian; Julian, Bruce; peirce, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Long Valley caldera is a large silicic volcano. It has been in a state of volcanic and seismic unrest since 1978. Farther escalation of this unrest could pose a threat to the 5,000 residents and the tens of thousands of tourists who visit the area. We have studied the crustal structure beneath 28 km X 16 km area using seismic tomography. We performed tomographic inversions for the years 2009 and 2010 with a view to differencing it with the 1997 result to look for structural changes with time and whether repeat tomography is a capable of determining the changes in structure in volcanic and geothermal reservoirs. Thus, it might provide a useful tool to monitoring physical changes in volcanoes and exploited geothermal reservoirs. Up to 600 earthquakes, selected from the best-quality events, were used for the inversion. The inversions were performed using program simulps12 [Thurber, 1983]. Our initial results show that changes in both V p and V s were consistent with the migration of CO2 into the upper 2 km or so. Our ongoing work will also invert pairs of years simultaneously using a new program, tomo4d [Julian and Foulger, 2010]. This program inverts for the differences in structure between two epochs so it can provide a more reliable measure of structural change than simply differencing the results of individual years.

  6. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it's true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  7. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O{sub 3} was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O{sub 3} chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O{sub 3} and transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this area.

  8. Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Zhao, Zhuzi; Dong, Jungang; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Surface O 3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O 3 ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O 3 followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O 3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O 3 . It was found that O 3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO x in the ambient air, thus limiting O 3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O 3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O 3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O 3 was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O 3 chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O 3 and transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this area

  9. Preliminary determination of geothermal working area based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Nugroho, Indra; Kurniawahidayati, Beta; Syahputra Mulyana, Reza; Saepuloh, Asep

    2017-12-01

    Remote sensing is one of the methods for geothermal exploration. This method can be used to map the geological structures, manifestations, and predict the geothermal potential area. The results from remote sensing were used as guidance for the next step exploration. Analysis of target in remote sensing is an efficient method to delineate geothermal surface manifestation without direct contact to the object. The study took a place in District Merangin, Jambi Province, Indonesia. The area was selected due to existing of Merangin volcanic complex composed by Mounts Sumbing and Hulunilo with surface geothermal manifestations presented by hot springs and hot pools. The location of surface manifestations could be related with local and regional structures of Great Sumatra Fault. The methods used in this study were included identification of volcanic products, lineament extraction, and lineament density quantification. The objective of this study is to delineate the potential zones for sitting the geothermal working site based on Thermal Infrared and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors. The lineament-related to geological structures, was aimed for high lineament density, is using ALOS - PALSAR (Advanced Land Observing Satellite - The Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) level 1.1. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis was used to predict the vegetation condition using Landsat 8 OLI-TIRS (The Operational Land Imager - Thermal Infrared Sensor). The brightness temperature was extracted from TIR band to estimate the surface temperature. Geothermal working area identified based on index overlay method from extracted parameter of remote sensing data was located at the western part of study area (Graho Nyabu area). This location was identified because of the existence of high surface temperature about 30°C, high lineament density about 4 - 4.5 km/km2 and low NDVI values less than 0.3.

  10. Geothermal concept for energy efficient improvement of space heating and cooling in highly urbanized area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranjes Ana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New Belgrade is a highly urbanized commercial and residential district of Belgrade lying on the alluvial plane of the Sava and the Danube rivers. The groundwater of the area is a geothermal resource that is usable through geothermal heat pumps (GHP. The research has shown that the “heat island effect” affects part of the alluvial groundwater with the average groundwater temperature of about 15.5°C, i.e. 2°C higher than the one in less urbanized surroundings. Based on the measured groundwater temperatures as well as the appraisal of the sustainable aquifer yield, the available thermal power of the resource is estimated to about 29MWt. The increasing urbanization trend of the New Belgrade district implies the growing energy demands that may partly be met by the available groundwater thermal power. Taking into consideration the average apartment consumption of 80 Wm-2, it is possible to heat about 360,000 m2 and with the consumption efficiency of 50 Wm-2, it would be possible to heat over 570,000 m2. Environmental and financial aspects were considered through the substitution of conventional fuels and the reduction of greenhouse gas emission as well as through the optimization of the resource use.

  11. An evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Tecuamburro Volcano area of Guatemala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Duffield, W. (eds.)

    1990-09-01

    Radiometric ages indicate that the Tecuamburro Volcano and three adjacent lava domes grew during the last 38,300 years, and that a 360-m-wide phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, was formed near the base of these domes about 2900 years ago. Laguna Ixpaco is located within the Chupadero crater, from which pyroxene pumice deposits were erupted 38,300 years ago. Thus, the likelihood is great for a partly molten or solid-but-still-hot near-surface intrusion beneath the area. Fumaroles and hot springs issue locally from the Tecuamburro volcanic complex and near Laguna Ixpaco. Analyses of gas and fluid samples from these and other nearby thermal manifestations yield chemical-geothermometer temperatures of about 150{degree} to 300{degree}C, with the highest temperatures at Ixpaco. The existence of a commercial-grade geothermal reservoir beneath the Ixpaco area seems likely. 84 refs., 70 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  13. Geothermal development promotion survey. No. B-3 Kumaishi area; Chinethu kaihatsu sokushin chosa seika hokokusho. No. B-3. Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This paper summarizes the result of a geothermal resource survey carried out from fiscal 1995 through fiscal 1997 in the Kumaishi Area located in the western center of Oshima Peninsula in the south western part of Hokkaido. The survey for this area was performed with an objective to search the spread of high temperature area continuing from the adjoining Yakumo area where the highest temperature of 233 degrees C has been confirmed in a structural test well (N63-YK-6), to identify high water permeating areas in great depth points underground, and to find possibility of existence of geothermal resources. The survey included geological and alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravitation exploration, electromagnetic exploration, drilling and temperature logging of five structural test wells, water injection test, temperature restoration test, core survey and hot water survey. Also performed were environmental effect survey, rock age measurement, alteration age measurement, and fluid inclusion test. As a result of the survey, it was identified that the verified geothermal hot water has been stored in granites with poor water permeability, whose low temperature has not formed convection systems spreading in wide areas despite having been heated, making each system exist in small scale independently. It was estimated that the possibility is low to expect geothermal power generation. (NEDO)

  14. Microbial life in volcanic/geothermal areas: how soil geochemistry shapes microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, Antonina Lisa; D'Alessandro, Walter; Franzetti, Andrea; Parello, Francesco; Tagliavia, Marcello; Quatrini, Paola

    2015-04-01

    Extreme environments, such as volcanic/geothermal areas, are sites of complex interactions between geosphere and biosphere. Although biotic and abiotic components are strictly related, they were separately studied for long time. Nowadays, innovative and interdisciplinary approaches are available to explore microbial life thriving in these environments. Pantelleria island (Italy) hosts a high enthalpy geothermal system characterized by high CH4 and low H2S fluxes. Two selected sites, FAV1 and FAV2, located at Favara Grande, the main exhalative area of the island, show similar physical conditions with a surface temperature close to 60° C and a soil gas composition enriched in CH4, H2 and CO2. FAV1 soil is characterized by harsher conditions (pH 3.4 and 12% of H2O content); conversely, milder conditions were recorded at site FAV2 (pH 5.8 and 4% of H2O content). High methanotrophic activity (59.2 nmol g-1 h-1) and wide diversity of methanotrophic bacteria were preliminary detected at FAV2, while no activity was detected at FAV1(1). Our aim was to investigate how the soil microbial communities of these two close geothermal sites at Pantelleria island respond to different geochemical conditions. Bacterial and Archaeal communities of the sites were investigated by MiSeq Illumina sequencing of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. More than 33,000 reads were obtained for Bacteria and Archaea from soil samples of the two sites. At FAV1 99% of the bacterial sequences were assigned to four main phyla (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi). FAV2 sequences were distributed in the same phyla with the exception of Chloroflexi that was represented below 1%. Results indicate a high abundance of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs in site FAV1 dominated by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (25%), Nitrosococcus halophilus (10%), Alicyclobacillus spp. (7%) and the rare species Ktedonobacter racemifer (11%). The bacterial community at FAV2 soil is dominated by

  15. Fiscal 1999 survey report. Survey of environmental effect pertaining to survey for geothermal development and promotion (Hakusuigoe area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa no uchi kankyo eikyo chosa (Hakusuigoe chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This survey of environmental effect was intended to grasp actual state concerning some environmental factors that should agree with survey/development and also to assess its effect on the surrounding environment, particularly as a part of the 'stage C' in the 'survey for geothermal development and promotion', which was implemented by the Government for the purpose of guiding geothermal development by enterprises. This report compiles the plan details of the environmental effect survey to be conducted in the Hakusuigoe district, and presents proposals. The survey area is in the north of Makizono-cho, Aira-gun, in Kagoshima prefecture and situated about 3 km west of Onaminoike in Karakunidake, one of the peaks in the Kirishima mountain range. The Ogiri geothermal power plant is in the west of the site, a tourist spot Ebino Heights about 4 km northeast, and the Kirishima hot-spring about 4 km southeast. The location is in the national park, with a part designated as No. 2 and 3 class special areas. The environmental effect survey was divided broadly into such categories as fauna/flora, hot-spring water alteration and inland water, landscape, noise/vibration/subsoil, and air/water, and was further subdivided in accordance with the actual operations. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1990 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Survey of geothermal water (No.34 - Kaminoyu/Santai area); 1990 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the structure of geothermal reservoir in the Kaminoyu/Santai area in the southwest part of Hokkaido, jetting test/sampling of geothermal fluid/analysis of properties were carried out in Structural Drilling Well N2-KS-2. The induced jetting of N2-KS-2 was conducted by the air lift method in consideration of the well temperature, state of lost circulation while drilling and results of the water pouring test. As a result, the mean jetting amount of geothermal water was 202.4L/min. The total pumping amount was 559kL, which is equal to approximately 119 times as much as the volume of well. The maximum temperature was 95.9 degrees C, resulting in no steam jetting. The pH of geothermal water was 7.41-8.44, electric conductivity was 9,620-10,450 {mu}s/cm, and the Cl ion concentration was 2,204-2,545 mg/L, which are almost stable. Properties of geothermal water is classified into an alkalescent CL-SO{sub 4} type. As a result of the study, the geothermal reservoir of N2-KS-2 is basically formed by a mechanism of a mixture of the surface water and the deep geothermal water that is similar in isotope to the geothermal water of Nigorikawa production well, which indicated a tight relation in the origin with the group of Kaminoyu hot spring. (NEDO)

  17. Data integration and conceptual modelling of the Larderello geothermal area, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, Adele; Gola, Gianluca; Bertini, Giovanni; Bonini, Marco; Botteghi, Serena; Brogi, Andrea; De Franco, Roberto; Dini, Andrea; Donato, Assunta; Gianelli, Giovanni; Liotta, Domenico; Montanari, Domenico; Montegrossi, Giordano; Petracchini, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Santilano, Alessandro; Scrocca, Davide; Trumpy, Eugenio

    2017-04-01

    The Larderello geothermal field, located in southern Tuscany (Italy), is one of the most important long-living hydrothermal system in the world. The inner zone of the Northern Apennines is characterized by high heat flow, well constrained by several hundred measurements deriving from both shallow boreholes and deep exploration wells. It is widely accepted that the interplay among extensional tectonics, thinning of the previously overthickened crust and lithosphere, and magmatism related to crustal melting and hybridism, controlled the NW-SE trending geothermal anomaly occurring in southern Tuscany. At Larderello, the geothermal exploitation started at the beginning of the last century from the shallow evaporite-carbonate reservoir (about 700 - 1000 m b.g.l. on average) hosting a super-heated steam with temperature ranging from 150°C to 260°C. A deep exploration program was carried out in the early 1980s. Deep boreholes found a super-heated steam-dominated system hosted in the metamorphic basement (about 2500 - 4000 m b.g.l), characterized by temperatures ranging from 300°C to 350°C. In the SW part of the Larderello area (Lago locality), a temperature exceeding 400°C was measured down to 3000 m b.s.l. The 2D and 3D seismic exploration activities provided evidences of a seismic marker, locally showing bright spot features, defining the top of a deeper reflective crustal interval, named as "K-horizon". The K-horizon has not yet been drilled, but some boreholes approached it. This seismic reflector exhibits interesting positive correlation with the maximum peak of the hypocentre distribution of low-magnitude earthquakes and, at the same time, its shape coincides with the thermal anomaly distribution, in plain view. The review and updating of the velocity and resistivity models suggest the existence of over-pressurized fluids, likely of magmatic and/or thermo-metamorphic origin, which originate the seismic velocity anomalies. The upward migration and storage of the

  18. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dildar Hussain, S; Ahmad, M; Akram, W; Sajjad, M I [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gonfiantini, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Isotope Hydrology Section; Tasneem, M A

    1995-02-01

    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO{sub 3}, Na-SO{sub 4} and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs.

  19. 77 FR 57010 - Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... proposed rulemaking to modify RNAV route Q-62 in Northeast United States by extending it further west (77...

  20. Preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area northeast of Victorville, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Black Mountain area is in the Mojave Desert about 20 km northeast of Victorville, California. The geology of this area is of interest primarily for its excellent exposures of the early Mesozoic Fairview Valley Formation, a sequence of weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks including a thick, commercially important unit of limestone conglomerate that has been mined for cement at Black Mountain Quarry for several decades. Recent geochronologic work has shown that the Fairview Valley Formation is probably of Early Jurassic age. This preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area depicts the stratigraphic and structural relations of the Fairview Valley Formation and the associated rocks, most notably the overlying Sidewinder Volcanics of Early(?), Middle, and Late(?) Jurassic age. The map is based on new field studies by the author designed to clarify details of the stratigraphy and structure unresolved by previous investigations. The map is considered preliminary because the ages of some geologic units critical for a satisfactory understanding of the stratigraphic and structural framework remain unknown. The map area also includes a segment of the Helendale Fault, one of several faults of known or inferred late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement that make up the Eastern California Shear Zone. The fault is marked by aligned northeast-facing scarps in Pleistocene or older alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock units. Relations in the map area suggest that right-lateral displacement on the Helendale Fault probably does not exceed 2 km, a conclusion compatible with previous estimates of displacement on this fault based on relations both within and outside the Black Mountain area.

  1. 76 FR 37261 - Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...) structure and designates two helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes) in the northeast corridor between the... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish two helicopter RNAV routes in Northeast United States...

  2. Geology and Conceptual Model of the Domuyo Geothermal Area, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, A. S.; Ferrari, L.; Norini, G.

    2017-12-01

    Cerro Domuyo is the highest mountain in Patagonia and its western slope is characterized by thermal springs with boiling fluids as well as silicic domes and pyroclastic deposits that suggest the existence of a geothermal reservoir. Early studies proposed that the thermal springs were fault-controlled and the reservoir was located in a graben bounded by E-W normal faults. A recent geochemical study estimated a temperature of 220ºC for the fluid reservoir and a thermal energy release of 1.1 GW, one of the world largest advective heat flux from a continental volcanic center. We carried out a geologic survey and U-Pb and U-Th geochronologic study to elaborate an updated conceptual model for the Domuyo geothermal area. Our study indicates that the Domuyo Volcanic Complex (DVC) is a dome complex overlying an older, Middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic sequence widely exposed to the southwest and to the north, which in turn covers: 1) the Jurassice-Early Creteacoeus Neuquen marine sedimentary succession, 2) silicic ignimbrites dated at 186.7 Ma and, 3) the Paleozoic metamorphic basement intruded by 288 Ma granite bodies. These pre-Cenozoic successions are involved in dominantly N-S trending folds and thrust faults later displaced by E-W striking normal faults with a right lateral component of motion that underlie the DVC. The volcanic cycle forming the DVC is distinctly bimodal with the emplacement of massive silicic domes but also less voluminous olivine basalts on its southern slope. The central dome underwent a major collapse that produced 0.35 km3 of ash and block flow and associated pyroclastic flows that filled the valley to the southwest up to 30 km from the source. This was followed by a voluminous effusive activity that formed silicic domes dated between 254-322 Ky, which is inferred to overlain a partially molten silicic magma chamber. Integrating the geologic model with magnetotelluric and gravity surveys we developed a conceptual model of the geothermal system

  3. FY1997 geothermal development promotion survey. Development feasibility study 'Ashiro area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kaihatsu kanosei chosa (Ashiro chiiki) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    With regard to the Ashiro Town area in Iwate Prefecture, this paper reports the result of evaluations based on temperature and pressure logging after a lapse of an extended period of time (well No.2) and a steam jet test (well No.1). These activities were performed as the survey on promotion of geothermal development and survey on development feasibility in fiscal 1997. As a result of the overall analysis based on the present survey and ones in the past, the geothermal system model in the surveyed area may be conceived as follows: in both of the N7-AR-1 and N7-AR-2 wells drilled in the southern part of the surveyed area, temperature as high as 250 degrees C or higher was confirmed; the underground temperature is 200 degrees C or higher at an altitude level of zero meter and 250 degrees C at around -500 m, leading to a belief that the high temperature area spreads to south; as a fracture system holding geothermal fluid, a fault was identified at the N7-AR-1 well drilling depth of 1710 m; in the steam jet test, a geothermal reservoir (a shallow geothermal reservoir) was confirmed to exist; the geothermal fluid that has jetted out shows alkaline Na-SO{sub 4} type; and the deep geothermal reservoir has high temperature and is presumed to be in the two-phase condition, presenting promising factors as the geothermal resources. (NEDO)

  4. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  5. Geochemical studies of the geothermal area East of the Jombo Hill intrusion Coast Province. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tole, M.P.

    1985-09-01

    Geothermal resources in Kenya can be classified into two types; (i) High temperature geothermal resources, found within the Kenyan section of Rift Valley System, and (ii) Low temperature geothermal resources found outside the main Rift Valley System (figure 1). The high temperature geothermal resources have received first priority in research and development, and this has culminated in their exploitation at the Olkaria Geothermal Field which currently generates 45 MW of electricity, representing approximately 18% of Kenya's electricity requirements. Further research is directed at opening up electricity generating plants within the Rift Valley Geothermal Systems occuring between Lake Bogoria and Lake Magadi. The low temperature geothermal resources have received less attention in Kenya. In some countries, low temperature geothermal resources have been utilised for a number of domestic and commercial undertakings (table 1), among them (a) space heating (b) recreational baths (c) sugar refining. In china, low temperature (less than 90 o C) geothermal reservoirs have been used to provide energy for electrical generating plants (Reed and Bliss, 1983). An examination of the distribution of the low temperature geothermal sites in Kenya (figure 1) indicates that most of them could be easily utilised for one or more of the domestic and commercial activities mentioned above, by virtue of their location. In order that recommendations regarding the type of use that each of these hotsprings can be put to can be made, proper evaluation of each site must be made: in particular the underground hotwater temperatures as well as the extent of the geothermal field at each site must be evaluated. Geochemical studies provide the cheapest (most cost-effective) method of geothermal energy exploration. The purpose of this project was to determine the extent of the hot zone, as well as the underground reservoir temperatures in the geothermal field North East of the Jomo Hill intrusion

  6. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-7. Kuwanosawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Kuwanosawa area' which was carried out in Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: geology/alteration zone survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, environmental effect survey, well geology survey by drilling structural boreholes of N11-KN-1 and N12-KN-2, cuttings test, temperature log, temperature recovery test, electrical log, water injection test, etc. The geology in the Kuwanosawa area is composed of Pre-neogene period basement rocks, Neogene system and Quaternary system. In this area, there were recognized no gush of geothermal fluids such as hot spring and fumarolic gas and no obvious geothermal manifestation such as high-temperature places and new geothermal alteration zones. Around N12-KN-2, there exists the geothermal water with comparatively high-temperature/high-Cl concentration which is similar to that in the Wasabizawa area, but how it flows is unknown because there was no lost circulation in the depths of the borehole. Around N11-KN-1, there exists the low-temperature/low-Cl concentration geothermal water originating in meteoric water, and therefore, the area can be a rechargeable area. The Kuwanosawa area is regarded as the periphery of the Wasabizawa-Akinomiya geothermal area. (NEDO)

  7. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-7. Kuwanosawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Kuwanosawa area' which was carried out in Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: geology/alteration zone survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, environmental effect survey, well geology survey by drilling structural boreholes of N11-KN-1 and N12-KN-2, cuttings test, temperature log, temperature recovery test, electrical log, water injection test, etc. The geology in the Kuwanosawa area is composed of Pre-neogene period basement rocks, Neogene system and Quaternary system. In this area, there were recognized no gush of geothermal fluids such as hot spring and fumarolic gas and no obvious geothermal manifestation such as high-temperature places and new geothermal alteration zones. Around N12-KN-2, there exists the geothermal water with comparatively high-temperature/high-Cl concentration which is similar to that in the Wasabizawa area, but how it flows is unknown because there was no lost circulation in the depths of the borehole. Around N11-KN-1, there exists the low-temperature/low-Cl concentration geothermal water originating in meteoric water, and therefore, the area can be a rechargeable area. The Kuwanosawa area is regarded as the periphery of the Wasabizawa-Akinomiya geothermal area. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (Survey of geothermal water) (No.36 - Hongu area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chikagaku chosa (Nessui no chosa) hokokusho (No.36 Hongu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The test on jetting of geothermal water by the induced jetting, sampling of geothermal water and analysis/survey were carried out in the structure drilling well of N4-HG-2 in the Hongu area, Wakayama Prefecture. The induced jetting of the well was conducted by the Swabbing method up to the total pumping amount of 459.9m{sup 3} that is equal to about 24 times as much as the inner quantity of the well, but it did not result in jetting. The maximum temperature of geothermal water was 65.6 degrees C, pH was 6.6-7.5, electric conductivity was 2,800-2,900 {mu}S/cm, and Cl concentration was 500-700ppm. The geothermal water was classified into the HCO{sub 3} type that is neutral, and the spring quality and liquidity were the same as those of existing hot springs in this area. In the Hongu area, the distribution of new volcanic rocks has not known. The K-Ar age of quartz porphyry intrusive rocks was made about 13Ma, and it was considered that a possibility was low of the rocks being heat sources of geothermal activities. It was also considered that the geothermal water/hot spring water in this area, which originate in the surface water, were heated in heat transfer by magma activities in the deep underground and were flowing forming a small scale of hydrothermal convection system. (NEDO)

  9. Geo-electrical and geological strikes of the Mount Lamongan geothermal area, East Java, Indonesia – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, L. R.; Niasari, S. W.; Nukman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Geothermal manifestations located in the Tiris, Mount Lamongan, Probolinggo, consist of warm springs. These warm springs have temperature from 35° until 45°C. Tiris fault has NW-SE dominant orientation, similar to some lineaments of maars and cinder cones around Mount Lamongan. The Mount Lamongan geothermal area is situated between Bromo and Argapura volcanoes. This study aims to map the geo-electrical and geological strikes in the study area. Phase tensor analysis has been performed in this study to determine geo-electrical strike of study area. Geological field campaign has been conducted to measure geological strikes. Then, orientation of geo-electrical strike was compared to geological strike. The result presents that the regional geological strike of study area is NW-SE while the orientation of geo-electrical strike is N-S.

  10. 75 FR 10121 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... marketing areas. The other 8 orders have no similar route disposition limit. The 3 southeastern orders... Part IV Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1000, 1001, 1005, et al. Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

  11. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D. (eds.)

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  12. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  13. The needs of the science teachers of Shenyang area, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this research was to survey those individuals teaching science in the middle schools of the Shenyang area, Northeast China. Specifically, the study attempted to differentiate between rural and nonrural teachers with respect to demographic differences, problem areas, instructional activities, and perceived needs. Procedure. A 100-item survey was used to collect data for this study. The sample consisted of 224 science teachers (Rural 114, nonrural 110) who taught at least science class in 1996--97 academic year in a middle school of Shenyang area, Northeast China. Frequencies and percentages presented the needs of the teachers. The differences between rural and nonrural groups were analyzed by Chi Square statistics. Findings. Almost three quarters (74.9%) of returns were younger than 41, and 43.9% of returns held no degree. Significant differences were fond between rural and nonrural groups according to age, classroom experience, school enrollment, lab activities, motivating students to learn science, using science test data bank, peer tutoring and evaluating your own instructional effectiveness as a science teacher. Rural and nonrural teachers shared 10 of 14 greatest needs. Conclusions. Teacher in-service program designers need to establish academic training programs which lead to entry level degrees and certificates and improve young teacher's instructional skills. Increased efforts should be given to meet the perceived needs addressed in this study in order to improve teachers' teaching and students' learning. Lack of person energy or motivation and program fail to meet teachers' needs were considered as barriers of attending inservice programs.

  14. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  15. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  16. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  17. Geophysical studies of the Crump Geyser known geothermal resource area, Oregon, in 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical studies in support of the resource appraisal of the Crump Geyser Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). This area was designated as a KGRA by the USGS, and this designation became effective on December 24, 1970. The land classification standards for a KGRA were established by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-581). Federal lands so classified required competitive leasing for the development of geothermal resources. The author presented an administrative report of USGS geophysical studies entitled 'Geophysical background of the Crump Geyser area, Oregon, KGRA' to a USGS resource committee on June 17, 1975. This report, which essentially was a description of geophysical data and a preliminary interpretation without discussion of resource appraisal, is in Appendix 1. Reduction of sheets or plates in the original administrative report to page-size figures, which are listed and appended to the back of the text in Appendix 1, did not seem to significantly degrade legibility. Bold print in the text indicates where minor changes were made. A colored page-size index and tectonic map, which also show regional geology not shown in figure 2, was substituted for original figure 1. Detailed descriptions for the geologic units referenced in the text and shown on figures 1 and 2 were separately defined by Walker and Repenning (1965) and presumably were discussed in other reports to the committee. Heavy dashed lines on figures 1 and 2 indicate the approximate KGRA boundary. One of the principal results of the geophysical studies was to obtain a gravity map (Appendix 1, fig. 10; Plouff, and Conradi, 1975, pl. 9), which reflects the fault-bounded steepness of the west edge of sediments and locates the maximum thickness of valley sediments at about 10 kilometers south of Crump Geyser. Based on the indicated regional-gravity profile and density-contrast assumptions for the two-dimensional profile, the maximum

  18. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, Brazoria and Kenedy Counties, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W.A.; McGraw, M.; Gustavson, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land: (1) near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, where a geopressured-geothermal test well was drilled in 1978, and (2) near the rural community of Armstrong, Kenedy County, Texas, where future geopressured-geothermal test well development may occur. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for geopressured-geothermal wells.

  19. Report on strategic survey on promising areas for geothermal development in fiscal 1999. Hohi Area (second report); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki wo taisho to shita senryakuteki chosa hokokusho. 2. Hohi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This paper describes a strategic consideration on promising areas for geothermal development in fiscal 1999. Areas of importance to be given surveys corresponding to the geothermal development promotion survey range C were extracted from the promising areas extracted in the previous year, based on further objective analysis and evaluation criteria. Geothermal structure models were prepared on each promising area from geological and geothermal structural elements according to the standard method for the geothermal structure model structuring technology. Amount of geothermal resources in the promising areas was evaluated by using the evaluation supporting tools. In order to extract the areas of importance to be given the surveys, the extraction criteria were discussed based on the resource density, the Natural Park Law, and the data accuracy. Furthermore, comprehensive evaluation was given on geothermal structure properties, location and environmental conditions based on the geothermal structure models. Areas expected of effective achievements in the development promotion survey were selected, and a reservoir conception model was prepared. Assuming the single flash power generation, the resource amount was evaluated by using the Monte Carlo analysis of the Stored Heat Law. Social and environmental issues were also considered. A draft of the optimum survey program corresponding to each survey stage was prepared, with the areas of importance to be given the survey as the object. (NEDO)

  20. Geothermal handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  1. Terrestrial Species in Protected Areas and Community-Managed Lands in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Velho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas (including areas that are nominally fully protected and those managed for multiple uses encompass about a quarter of the total tropical forest estate. Despite growing interest in the relative value of community-managed lands and protected areas, knowledge about the biodiversity value that each sustains remains scarce in the biodiversity-rich tropics. We investigated the species occurrence of a suite of mammal and pheasant species across four protected areas and nearby community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot in northeast India. Over 2.5 years we walked 98 transects (half of which were resampled on a second occasion across the four paired sites. In addition, we interviewed 84 key informants to understand their perceptions of species trends in these two management regimes. We found that protected areas had higher overall species richness and were important for species that were apparently declining in occurrence. On a site-specific basis, community-managed lands had species richness and occurrences comparable to those of a protected area, and in one case their relative abundances of mammals were higher. Interviewees indicated declines in the abundances of larger-bodied species in community-managed lands. Their observations agreed with our field surveys for certain key, large-bodied species, such as gaur and sambar, which generally occurred less in community-managed lands. Hence, the degree to which protected areas and community-managed lands protect wildlife species depends upon the species in question, with larger-bodied species usually faring better within protected areas.

  2. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  3. World geothermal congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarov, O.A.; Tomarov, G.V.

    2001-01-01

    The World geothermal congress took place in the period from 28 May up to 10 June 2000 in Japan. About 2000 men from 43 countries, including specialists in the area of developing geothermal fields, creating and operating geothermal electrical and thermal plants and various systems for the earth heat application, participated in the work of the Congress. It was noted at the Congress, that development of the geothermal power engineering in the world is characterized by the large-scale application of geothermal resources for the electrical energy generation [ru

  4. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  5. Thermus arciformis sp. nov., a thermophilic species from a geothermal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Ying, Yi; Ye, Ying; Xu, Xue-Wei; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2010-04-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, yellow-pigmented bacteria, strains TH92(T) and TH91, were isolated from a hot spring located in Laibin, Guangxi, in the south-eastern geothermal area of China. The isolates grew at 40-77 degrees C (optimally at 70 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimally at pH 7.5-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness together indicated that the new isolates represented a novel species of the genus Thermus with closest affinity to Thermus aquaticus, Thermus igniterrae and Thermus thermophilus. Compared with their closest relatives, strains TH92( T) and TH91 were able to assimilate a wider range of carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids as sole carbon sources for growth, such as lactose and melibiose. The new isolates had lower combined levels of C(16 : 0 ) and iso-C(16 : 0) compared with their closest relatives. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strains TH92(T) and TH91 are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus arciformis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH92(T) (=CGMCC 1.6992(T) =JCM 15153(T)).

  6. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveying in the Kakkonda geothermal area; Kakkonda chinetsu chiiki deno MT ho tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Y; Takakura, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Uchida, T [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    This paper describes the MT surveying conducted at the vicinity of a deep well (WD-1) in the Kakkonda geothermal area. For the MT surveying, the interval between measuring points was 300 m. Electric field dipole with a length of 300 m was given in the direction of traverse line, and that with a length of 50 m was given in the direction perpendicular to the line. Three components of magnetic field were measured using induction coil. Frequency band of the data was between 0.0005 Hz and 300 Hz. Characteristics of specific resistance model obtained from the MT surveying were illustrated. Low specific resistance zone less than 30 ohm-m was observed in the shallow zone below the altitude 0 m. This zone was comparable to the distribution of montmorillonite. High specific resistance anomaly was analyzed at the western half of the traverse line in the altitude between 0 m and -2000 m, which corresponded to the collective part of focuses. The bottom surface of the anomaly agreed well with the upper surface of neo-granite, i.e., the lower limits of earthquakes. Low specific resistance was observed in the altitude below -2000 m. 17 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in Paso Robles, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campion, L.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-eight geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted, and a geologic map and cross sections were compiled. Detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The geological and geophysical work delineated the basement highs and trough-like depressions that can exercise control on the occurrence of the thermal waters. The Rinconada fault was also evident. Cross sections drawn from oil well logs show the sediments conforming against these basement highs and filling the depressions. It is along the locations where the sediments meet the basement highs that three natural warm springs in the area occur. Deep circulation of meteoric waters along faults seems to be a reasonable source for the warm water. The Santa Margarita, Pancho Rico, and Paso Robles Formations would be the first permeable zones that abut the faults through which water would enter. Temperatures and interpretation of well logs indicate the warmest aquifer at the base of the Paso Robles Formation. Warm water may be entering higher up in the section, but mixing with water from cooler zones seems to be evident. Geothermometry indicates reservoir temperatures could be as high as 91/sup 0/C (196/sup 0/F).

  8. Geothermal investigation in Idaho. Part 14. Geochemical and isotopic investigations of thermal water occurrences of the Boise Front Area, Ada County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, A.L.; Muller, A.B.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    A limited chemical and isotopic investigation was undertaken and geological, geophysical, and hydrological data in the literature were reviewed to evaluate the geothermal potential of the Boise area. 68 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs. (ACR)

  9. Carbon and Noble Gas Isotopes in the Tengchong Volcanic Geothermal Area, Yunnan, Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng; Shun'ich NAKAI; Hiroshi WAKITA; WANG Xianbin

    2004-01-01

    Carbon and noble gas isotope analyses are reported for bubbling gas samples from the Tengchong volcanic geothermal area near the Indo-Eurasian suture zone. All samples contain a resolvable component of mantle-derived 3He.Occurrence of mantle-derived 3He coincides with surface volcanism. However, 3He occurs over a larger geographic area than do surface volcanics. δ13C values for CO2 and CH4 vary from -33.4 ‰ to 1.6 ‰ and from -52.8 ‰ to -2.8 ‰,respectively. He and C isotope systematics indicate that CO2 and CH4 in the CO2-rich gases originated predominantly from magmatic component mixed with crustal CO2 produced from carbonate. However, breakdown of organic matter and nearsurface processes accounts for the CH4 and CO2 in N2-rich gases. 3He/4He ratio distribution pattern suggests that mantlederived He and heat sources of high-temperature system in central Tengchong originate from a hidden magma reservoir at subsurface. CO2-rich gases with the highest 3He/4He ratio (5.2 Ra) may be representative of the Tengchong magmatic component. Compared with MORB, this relative low 3He/4He ratio could be fully attributed to either deep crustal contamination, or radioactive aging, or past contamination of the local mantle by U- and Th-rich subducted crustal material.However, a combination of low 3He/4He, high radiogenic 4He/40Ar ratio and identical CO2/3He and δ13Cco2 relative to MORB may suggest addition of prior subductedd crsustal material (ca 1%-2%) to the MORB reservoir around 1.3 Ga ago,which is essentially compatible with the LIL-elements, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes of volcanic rocks.

  10. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  11. Geothermal energy in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1993-11-01

    The potential of geothermal energy utilization in Jordan was discussed. The report gave a summary of the location of geothermal anomalies in Jordan, and of ongoing projects that utilize geothermal energy for greenhouse heating, fish farming, refrigeration by absorption, and water desalination of deep aquifers. The problems facing the utilization of geothermal energy in Jordan were identified to be financial (i.e. insufficient allocation of local funding, and difficulty in getting foreign financing), and inadequate expertise in the field of geothermal energy applications. The report gave a historical account of geothermal energy utilization activities in Jordan, including cooperation activities with international organizations and foreign countries. A total of 19 reports already prepared in the areas of geochemical and hydrological studies were identified. The report concluded that the utilization of geothermal energy offers some interesting economic possibilities. (A.M.H.). 4 refs. 1 map

  12. Isotope and chemical investigation of geothermal springs and thermal water produced by oil wells in potwat area, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Rafique, M.; Tariq, J.A; Choudhry, M.A.; Hussain, Q.M.

    2008-10-01

    Isotopes and geochemical techniques were applied to investigate the origin, subsurface history and reservoir temperatures of geothermal springs in Potwar. Two sets of water samples were collected. Surface temperatures of geothermal springs ranges from 52 to 68.3 C. Waters produced by oil wells in Potwar area were also investigated. Geothermal springs of Potwar area are Na-HCO/sub 3/ type, while the waters produced by oil wells are Na-Cl and Ca-Cl types. Source of both the categories of water is meteoric water recharged from the outcrops of the formations in the Himalayan foothills. These waters undergo very high /sup 18/O-shift (up to 18%) due to rock-water interaction at higher temperatures. High salinity of the oil field waters is due to dissolution of marine evaporites. Reservoir temperatures of thermal springs determined by the Na-K geo thermometers are in the range of 56-91 deg. C, while Na-K-Ca, Na-K-Mg, Na-K-Ca-Mg and quartz geo thermometers give higher temperatures up to 177 C. Reservoir temperature determined by /sup 18/O(SO/Sub 4/-H/sub 2/O) geo thermometer ranges from 112 to 138 deg. C. There is wide variation in reservoir temperatures (54-297 deg. C) of oil fields estimated by different chemical geo thermometers. Na-K geo thermometer seems more reliable which gives close estimates to real temperature (about 100 deg. C) determined during drilling of oil wells. (author)

  13. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, C. (comp.)

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  14. Report on geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on hot water (collection and analysis of hot water) in Tsujinodake Area No. B-6; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. Nessui no chosa (nessui no saishu oyobi bunseki) No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This paper reports the survey on hot water in the geothermal development promotion survey in fiscal 1999 in the Tsujinodake area. The hot water pumped up at the N11-TD-2 well is considered to have been originated from sea water mixed with the same amount of meteoric water including waters from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond, and been heated mainly by heat conduction. The hot water temperature near the well is 120 to 130 degrees C, but the upper stream of hot water flow is estimated to be 160 to 230 degrees C. The test samples collected and analyzed are those pumped up from depths greater than 1,500 m, having the same origin as the high temperature hot water of higher than 200 degrees C flowing sideways at the relatively shallow portions (depths of 400 to 800 m). The hot water is estimated to be rising from deep portions of mainly the north-east shore of Unagi Pond in which exhalation bands are located, and its temperature is considered to be 260 to 270 degrees C at deep sections. The high temperature geothermal reservoir spreading in relatively shallow sections of the N11-TD-2 well mainly around the vicinity of the north-east shore of Unagi Pond has a high possibility of being continued even to the vicinity of the west Ibusuki area in the north-east direction. However, the spread of the geothermal reservoir with high temperatures (200 degrees C or higher) is considered not too large in the direction of the Matsugakubo in the north-west and the Narikawa area direction in the south-east. (NEDO)

  15. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.36. Mt. Amemasudake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 36 Amemasudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Amemasudake area' which was carried out at Akaigawa village, Yoichi county, Hokkaido, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration and electric exploration, core test by drilling 5 boreholes, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids, measurement of in-borehole temperature/pressure, survey of geochemical properties of geothermal water. As to the fracture system in this area, the Amemasudake fault and the Amemasuzawa fault are especially important, and it was assumed that these faults had relation to the present geothermal distribution. It is thought that structural conditions of geothermal reservoirs are fractures in basement rocks. As a result of the borehole survey, it was indicated that the center of the high-temperature part with a temperature of 250 degrees C or more was in the boundary zone southeast of this area at a level of 500m below sea level. The scale, which reached about 3km both in east/west and north/south, is almost the same scale as that of the neighboring Toyoha area where great potentiality of the geothermal development is expected. (NEDO)

  16. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.36. Mt. Amemasudake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 36 Amemasudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Amemasudake area' which was carried out at Akaigawa village, Yoichi county, Hokkaido, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration and electric exploration, core test by drilling 5 boreholes, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids, measurement of in-borehole temperature/pressure, survey of geochemical properties of geothermal water. As to the fracture system in this area, the Amemasudake fault and the Amemasuzawa fault are especially important, and it was assumed that these faults had relation to the present geothermal distribution. It is thought that structural conditions of geothermal reservoirs are fractures in basement rocks. As a result of the borehole survey, it was indicated that the center of the high-temperature part with a temperature of 250 degrees C or more was in the boundary zone southeast of this area at a level of 500m below sea level. The scale, which reached about 3km both in east/west and north/south, is almost the same scale as that of the neighboring Toyoha area where great potentiality of the geothermal development is expected. (NEDO)

  17. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummel, F.; Kappelmeyer, O.; Herde, O.A.

    1992-01-01

    Objective of this brochure is to present the subject Geothermics and the possible use of geothermal energy to the public. The following aspects will be refered to: -present energy situation -geothermal potential -use of geothermal energy -environemental aspects -economics. In addition, it presents an up-dated overview of geothermal projects funded by the German government, and a list of institutions and companies active in geothermal research and developments. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Truck-mounted Area-wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    TRUCK-MOUNTED AREA-WIDE APPLICATION OF PYRIPROXYFEN TARGETING AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA1 CARL W. DOUD,2,3 ANTHONY M...truck-mounted ultra-low volume applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus...larval control, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus INTRODUCTION Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Asian tiger mosquito) and Ae. aegypti (L.) (yellow fever

  19. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  20. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.34. Kaminoyu/Santai area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Kaminoyu/Santai area' which was carried out at Yakumo town, Yamakoshi county, and Mori town, Kayabe county, Hokkaido, from FY 1990 to FY 1992. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and gravity exploration, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids by drilling 7 boreholes, temperature/pressure log, etc. The geological structure of this area is featured by the uplift structure/caldera structure and the anticline structure. In the wide-area geothermal system, it is thought that the low-temperature seawater permeates underground by mixture with meteoric water, is heated, and forms the deep geothermal water. It is thought that the hot spring water in this area is stored in the hot spring reservoir by mixture with the surface water, and it is gushing. In the area, the region which is regarded as favorable as passage/storage place of geothermal fluid is a region of 1.5km width extending linearly in the E-W direction from the Nigorikawa basin to Kaminoyu. Further, it is thought that fractures were unfavorably developed in the Santai/Kaminoyu area. (NEDO)

  1. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.34. Kaminoyu/Santai area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 34 Kaminoyu Santai chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Kaminoyu/Santai area' which was carried out at Yakumo town, Yamakoshi county, and Mori town, Kayabe county, Hokkaido, from FY 1990 to FY 1992. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and gravity exploration, test to induce jetting of geothermal fluids by drilling 7 boreholes, temperature/pressure log, etc. The geological structure of this area is featured by the uplift structure/caldera structure and the anticline structure. In the wide-area geothermal system, it is thought that the low-temperature seawater permeates underground by mixture with meteoric water, is heated, and forms the deep geothermal water. It is thought that the hot spring water in this area is stored in the hot spring reservoir by mixture with the surface water, and it is gushing. In the area, the region which is regarded as favorable as passage/storage place of geothermal fluid is a region of 1.5km width extending linearly in the E-W direction from the Nigorikawa basin to Kaminoyu. Further, it is thought that fractures were unfavorably developed in the Santai/Kaminoyu area. (NEDO)

  2. Geochemistry and tectonomagatic setting of Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Kangan area, northeast of Sarbisheh, southern Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Malekian Dastjerdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 12km away from the north east of Sarbisheh at the eastern border of the Lut block (Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012. The magmatic activity in the Lut blockhas begun in the middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in the Tertiary age (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the Tertiary age cover over half of the Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and they were formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. In the Kangan area, the basaltic lavas cropped out beyond the above intermediate to acid volcanic rocks. In this area, bentonite and perlite deposits have an economic importance. The main purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of the tectono-magmatic settings of volcanic rocks in the northeast of Sarbisheh, east of Iran based on their geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Fifteen samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Results The Kangan area is located at the northeast of Sarbishe, Southern Khorasan and the eastern border of the Lut block. In this area, basaltic lavas have cropped out above intermediate to acid lavas such as andesite, dacite, rhyolite (sometimes perlitic .The main minerals in the basalt are plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, in andesite contain plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite and amphibole and in acid rocks include plagioclase, quartz, sanidine, biotite and amphibole. Intermediate to acid rocks have medium to high-K calc-alkaline nature and basalt is alkaline. Enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (Ce/Yb= 21.14-28.7, high ratio of Zr/Y(4.79- 10.81, enrichment in LILE

  3. Heat‐tolerant Flowering Plants of Active Geothermal Areas in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOUT, RICHARD G.; AL‐NIEMI, THAMIR S.

    2002-01-01

    A broad survey of most of the major geyser basins within Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA) was conducted to identify the flowering plants which tolerate high rhizosphere temperatures (≥40 °C) in geothermally heated environments. Under such conditions, five species of monocots and four species of dicots were repeatedly found. The predominant flowering plants in hot soils (>40 °C at 2–5 cm depth) were grasses, primarily Dichanthelium lanuginosum. Long‐term (weeks to months) rhizosphere temperatures of individual D. lanuginosum above 40 °C were recorded at several different locations, both in the summer and winter. The potential role of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the apparent adaptation of these plants to chronically high rhizosphere temperatures was examined. Antibodies to cytoplasmic class I small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and to HSP101 were used in Western immunoblot analyses of protein extracts from plants collected from geothermally heated soils. Relatively high levels of proteins reacting with anti‐sHSP antibodies were consistently detected in root extracts from plants experiencing rhizosphere temperatures above 40 °C, though these proteins were usually not highly expressed in leaf extracts from the same plants. Proteins reacting with antibodies to HSP101 were also present both in leaf and root extracts from plants collected from geothermal soils, but their levels of expression were not as closely related to the degree of heat exposure as those of sHSPs. PMID:12197524

  4. Isotopic geothermometers in geothermal areas. A comparative experimental study in Larderella, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuti, S.; Panichi, C.

    1979-06-01

    The stable isotope composition of some geothermal fluid components has been determined in view of evaluating the temperature at depth in Italian geothermal fields (Larderello, Mt. Amiata, Travale). The isotopic systems used are: 13 C(CO 2 -CH 4 ), 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O), D(H 2 -CH 4 ) and D(H 2 O-H 2 ), for which the isotopic equilibrium variation with temperature are known either experimentally or theoretically. The 18 O(CO 2 -H 2 O) geothermometer gives temperatures similar to those observed at the well-head, and provides therefore useful information on the physical state of water (steam or evaporating liquid water) at the well bottom. On the contrary, all other geothermometers produce too high temperatures which can be explained by incomplete equilibration or lack of equilibrium between components and, perhaps in some cases, by the insufficient knowledge of the fractionation factors. The comparison between the different isotopic geothermometers, along with some chemical and physico-chemical evidence, suggests that the reaction already proposed, i.e. CO 2 +4H 2 =CH 4 +2H 2 O, is unable to explain the isotopic composition observed. On the contrary, the water dissociation reaction (H 2 O=H 2 +1/2O 2 ) and the synthesis reaction of methane (C+2H 2 =CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (C+O 2 =CO 2 ) seem able to provide an appropriate explanation of the isotopic behaviour of the geothermal field fluid components

  5. Review of historiographic aspects of geothermal energy in the Mediterranean and Mesoamerican areas prior to the Modern Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldi, R. (ENEL International, Pisa (Italy))

    1993-08-01

    This investigation aims not only to gain greater insight into the ancient uses of natural heat and its by-products, but also to gather elements for comprehending what kind of impact the presence of geothermal manifestations and the occurrence of volcanic eruptions may have produced on the ancient inhabitants of the Mediterranean and Mesoamerican regions. The first part of the paper discusses what may have occurred in the time period from the Lower Paleolithic (10[sup 5]--10[sup 6] years ago) until the end of the Neolithic. Throughout this period, the relationship of man with the various manifestations of terrestrial heat and its associated products was quite close and intense. In addition to the initial development of direct uses, this relationship with geothermal energy also involved man's cultural sphere. The second part of the paper discusses the development of direct uses and the importance that thermal balneology attained in some regions of the Mediterranean area in historical times. The exploitation and processing of hydrothermal products by the Etruscans, the blossoming of balneotherapy and the multiple functions of the spas in Roman times, the decline of all direct uses between the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. following the collapse of the Roman Empire, and the intensive exploitation of the manifestations of Larderello between the 11th and 16th centuries are discussed. The third part of the work refers to the Mesoamerican area (Mexico and neighboring regions) and covers the period extending from several millennia before the Christian era until the time of the voyages of Columbus. The last part of the paper attempts to reconstruct the birth and initial development of scientific thought regarding the various types of geothermal phenomena, starting from the oldest known illustration of a volcanic eruption until the end of the Middle Ages. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Geochemistry of thermal fluids in NW Honduras: New perspectives for exploitation of geothermal areas in the southern Sula graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capaccioni, Bruno; Franco, Tassi; Alberto, Renzulli; Orlando, Vaselli; Marco, Menichetti; Salvatore, Inguaggiato

    2014-06-01

    The results of a geochemical survey on thermal waters and, for the first time for this site, gas discharges in five geothermal sites (Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua, Río Gualcarque, El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente) in NW Honduras are here presented and discussed. El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente, in the southern part of the Sula graben are very close to a Quaternary basaltic field, whereas Azacualpa "La Cueva", Río Ulua and Río Gualcarque, located to the southwest of the Yojoa Lake, direcly emerge from the Cretaceous limestone deposits. The measured temperatures range between 37.5 and 104.8 °C. "Mature", alkaline, Na-SO4 thermal waters discharge from Azacualpa "La Cueva", while those from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente are "immature" and show a Na-HCO3 composition. Chemical equilibria of waters and gases from the Azacualpa "La Cueva" thermal springs indicate temperatures ranging from 150 to 200 °C. Conversely, gas discharges from El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente have attained a partial chemical equilibrium in the liquid phase at slightly higher temperatures (200-250 °C), although gas-gas faster reactions involving CO seem to be adjusted in an isothermally separated vapor phase. Unlike Azacualpa, SiO2 geothermometer at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente indicates equilibrium temperatures for the liquid phase much lower than those calculated for the gas phase (≤ 120 °C). We conclude that thermal waters from the Azacualpa area likely represent the direct emergence of a water dominated reservoir having temperatures ≤ 150-200 °C. By contrast, at El Olivar and Laguna de Agua Caliente hot springs are supplied by a boiling shallow aquifer fed by a vapor phase rising from a steam-dominated zone. The above geochemical model is consistent with a geothermal reservoir hosted within the Cretaceous carbonate sequences of the Yojoa Group in the whole investigated sites. The reservoir extensively crops out in the Azacualpa area whereas the

  7. Sedimentology and geomorphology analysis of coastal area along pantai penarik, terengganu before and during northeast monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Tengku Ahmad Imran Ku; Shaufi Sokiman, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    This research is conducted to understand the sedimentology and morphological change before and during the northeast monsoon at the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. The increase in wind speed, wave energy and rainfall during the northeast monsoon are believed to causes the coastal erosion to increase during the season. Rapid development along the east coast area might disrupt the sediments distribution which can increase the coastal erosion rate every year. The understanding on the sediments distribution, erosion and deposition as well as the morphological change can help to figure out if the coastal erosion can affect the infrastructure in the future. The result of the study can show the necessity to perform mitigation or any required action toward the problem that might happen

  8. Modeling research in low-medium temperature geothermal field, Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Kun(王坤); LI; Chunhua(李春华)

    2002-01-01

    The geothermal reservoir in Tianjin can be divided into two parts: the upper one is the porous medium reservoir in the Tertiary system; the lower one includes the basement reservoir in Lower Paleozoic and Middle-Upper Proterozoic. Hot springs are exposed in the northern mountain and confined geothermal water is imbedded in the southern plain. The geothermal reservoir is incised by several fractures. In recent years, TDS of the geothermal water have gone up along with the production rate increasing, along the eastern fracture zone (Cangdong Fracture and West Baitangkou Fracture). This means that the northern fracture system is the main seepage channel of the deep circulation geothermal water, and the reservoir has good connection in a certain area and definite direction. The isotopic research about hydrogen and carbon chronology indicates that the main recharge period of geothermal water is the Holocene Epoch, the pluvial and chilly period of 20 kaBP. The karst conduits in weathered carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic and Lower Paleozoic and the northeast regional fracture system are the main feeding channels of Tianjin geothermal water. Since the Holocene epoch, the geothermal water stayed at a sealed warm period. The tracer test in WR45 doublet system shows that the tracer test is a very effective measure for understanding the reservoir's transport nature and predicting the cooling time and transport velocity during the reinjection. 3-D numerical simulation shows that if the reinjection well keeps a suitable distance from the production well, reinjection will be a highly effective measure to extract more thermal energy from the rock matrix. The cooling of the production well will not be a problem.

  9. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  10. Survey of some natural decay-series isotopes in the Wairakei geothermal area and possible residence-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Burnett, W.C.; Whitehead, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of selected isotopes in the uranium decay series were determined for samples collected from the Wairakei, Broadlands/Ohaaki and Waiotapu areas. /sup 226/Ra concentrations were found to be low (0.05-0.22 dpm/l), similar to values reported in neutral hot springs at Tatun geothermal area, Taiwan, but lower than other geothermal systems (Yellowstone, USA, and Latera, Central Italy) (up to 25 dpm/l). The potential of /sup 226/Ra//sup 228/Ra ratios for indicating water residence times could not be explored because /sup 228/Ra data was not available. /sup 222/Rn concentrations are higher and related to steam fractions and CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The short half-life (3.8 days) makes /sup 222/Rn suitable for estimating residence times of radon in steam, and therefore the distance of travel of steam from its source (e.g., wells WK9 and 52). /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po concentrations were very low and less than detection limits in many of the Wairakei waters; no residence time applications are apparent for these isotopes. (author). 11 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Diversity and abundance of the arsenite oxidase gene aioA in geothermal areas of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Wu, Geng; Dong, Hailiang; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Bing; Wang, Yanxin; Guo, Qinghai

    2014-01-01

    A total of 12 samples were collected from the Tengchong geothermal areas of Yunnan, China, with the goal to assess the arsenite (AsIII) oxidation potential of the extant microbial communities as inferred by the abundance and diversity of the AsIII oxidase large subunit gene aioA relative to geochemical context. Arsenic concentrations were higher (on average 251.68 μg/L) in neutral or alkaline springs than in acidic springs (on average 30.88 μg/L). aioA abundance ranged from 1.63 × 10(1) to 7.08 × 10(3) per ng of DNA and positively correlated with sulfide and the ratios of arsenate (AsV):total dissolved arsenic (AsTot). Based on qPCR estimates of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene abundance, aioA-harboring organisms comprised as much as ~15% of the total community. Phylogenetically, the major aioA sequences (270 total) in the acidic hot springs (pH 3.3-4.4) were affiliated with Aquificales and Rhizobiales, while those in neutral or alkaline springs (pH 6.6-9.1) were inferred to be primarily bacteria related to Thermales and Burkholderiales. Interestingly, aioA abundance at one site greatly exceeded bacterial 16S rRNA gene abundance, suggesting these aioA genes were archaeal even though phylogenetically these aioA sequences were most similar to the Aquificales. In summary, this study described novel aioA sequences in geothermal features geographically far removed from those in the heavily studied Yellowstone geothermal complex.

  12. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-2 Wasabizawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Wasabizawa area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1993 to FY 1996. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, temperature log by drilling 9 exploration wells, short-term/long-term jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, geothermal water/hydraulic structure, geothermal system models, etc. As a result, a high-temperature (about 300 degrees C) zone promising as the geothermal development area was picked out, and the existence was confirmed of a dominant geothermal reservoir around the fault. In the jetting test, a total steam amount of 111.6 t/h was confirmed, and from the reservoir simulation, the result was obtained that there was a high possibility of 30-year power generation of 30MW/y. As a result of studying 'a power generation system by small-scale unit serial development' considering regional characteristics in the Wasabizawa area, the power generation cost (sending end, 15-year average) was estimated at approximately 9-10 yen/kWh. (NEDO)

  13. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-2. Wasabizawa area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-2 Wasabizawa chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Wasabizawa area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1993 to FY 1996. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, temperature log by drilling 9 exploration wells, short-term/long-term jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, geothermal water/hydraulic structure, geothermal system models, etc. As a result, a high-temperature (about 300 degrees C) zone promising as the geothermal development area was picked out, and the existence was confirmed of a dominant geothermal reservoir around the fault. In the jetting test, a total steam amount of 111.6 t/h was confirmed, and from the reservoir simulation, the result was obtained that there was a high possibility of 30-year power generation of 30MW/y. As a result of studying 'a power generation system by small-scale unit serial development' considering regional characteristics in the Wasabizawa area, the power generation cost (sending end, 15-year average) was estimated at approximately 9-10 yen/kWh. (NEDO)

  14. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endeshaw, A.; Belaineh, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  15. Comparison of estimated and background subsidence rates in Texas-Louisiana geopressured geothermal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, L.M.; Clayton, M.; Everingham, J.; Harding, R.C.; Massa, A.

    1982-06-01

    A comparison of background and potential geopressured geothermal development-related subsidence rates is given. Estimated potential geopressured-related rates at six prospects are presented. The effect of subsidence on the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast is examined including the various associated ground movements and the possible effects of these ground movements on surficial processes. The relationships between ecosystems and subsidence, including the capability of geologic and biologic systems to adapt to subsidence, are analyzed. The actual potential for environmental impact caused by potential geopressured-related subsidence at each of four prospects is addressed. (MHR)

  16. Helix probe areas for the utilization of geothermal power. A practical example; Helix-Sondenfelder zur Nutzung von Erdwaerme. Ein Praxisbeispiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebert, Markus; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone [tewag Technologie - Erdwaermeanlagen - Umweltschutz GmbH, Starzach (Germany); Tietz, Jan [REHAU AG und Co., Erlangen-Eltersdorf (Germany); Riepold, Markus; Gloeckl, Andreas [MR Tiefbau GmbH, Brunnen (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    Thanks to their spiral shape so-called helix probes with a tube length of 40 meter have a height of only three meter: A lot of heat exchange area in a small space. Thus, helix probes are an ideal solution for the utilization of geothermal energy at places at which one cannot drill deeply due to geothermal reasons. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on the planning of a helix probe area being sustainably adapted to the user requirements for the new construction of a production facility.

  17. Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, De Witt and Colorado counties, Texas. Final report, March 1 - August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, T.C.; Reeder, F.S.; Badger, E.A.

    1980-02-01

    Information collected and analyzed for a preliminary environmental analysis of geopressured geothermal prospect areas in Colorado and DeWitt Counties, Texas is presented. Specific environmental concerns for each geopressured geothermal prospect area are identified and discussed. Approximately 218 km/sup 2/(85 mi/sup 2/) were studied in the vicinity of each prospect area to: (1) conduct an environmental analysis to identify more and less suited areas for geopressured test wells; and (2) provide an environmental data base for future development of geopressured geothermal energy resources. A series of maps and tables are included to illustrate environmental characteristics including: geology, water resources, soils, current land use, vegetation, wildlife, and meteorological characteristics, and additional relevant information on cultural resources, power- and pipelines, and regulatory agencies. A series of transparent overlays at the scale of the original mapping has also been produced for the purposes of identifying and ranking areas of potential conflict between geopressured geothermal development and environmental characteristics. The methodology for ranking suitability of areas within the two prospect areas is discussed in the appendix. (MHR)

  18. The Fulong coastal area in northeast Taiwan: Late Holocene sedimentary phases including destruction and aggradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Margot; Luethgens, Christopher; Bauersachs, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are often subject to rapid morphological transformations owing to varying processes such as sea level changes, tectonic uplift, and geomorphological changes by catastrophic storm events, followed by phases of resilience. The study sites in northeast Taiwan at Fulong beach and adjacent areas, situated close to a nuclear power plant construction site, give evidence of an aggradational phase, a destructive phase, and resilience by a second aggradational phase. According to OSL data, a first aeolian accumulation started on top of marine and peri-marine/fluvial sediments at about 3 ka and lasted about 1500 years, interrupted by one palaeosoil. These data refer to an outcrop at a meander bluff at the southern bank of the Shuangsi river, not far from its present-day mouth. According to the morphological situation, this sand accumulation is only the remnant of a former greater dune system that has been eroded in its northern part. The former course of the Shuangsi and the location of its mouth are not known. The top of the outcrop is represented by two sand layers which are definitely younger than the lower sands as their deposition started about max. 630 years ago. The present-day dune system to the north of the river shows at least four dune ridges and the seaward aggradation is still continuing. The oldest dune ridge was sampled close to its top and dated to about 600 years ago (Dörschner et al. 2012). About 3 km upstream, a sedimentary sequence at the river bank has been studied, comprising a lower silty deposit with organic remnants and layered tree trunks at its top. This deposit is considered to be of marine origin, probably a peri-marine situation. This fine-grained sediment is covered by coarse fluvial gravels, indicating one or several catastrophic events in this morphological environment. Above the gravels, another fine-grained sediment related to flood events with low energy has been found. Radiocarbon analyses of organic material in both fine

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the data processing in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    The comprehensive analysis was conducted of various data obtained in the geothermal development promotion survey conducted in the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, from FY 1998 to FY 2000. The geology of the Kuwanosawa area consists of the Pretertiary system and Quarternary system, through which intrusive rocks are recognized. Basement rocks are composed of the Paleozoic-origin crystalline schist and the Cretaceous-period granites which intruded into the schist. In the Kuwanosawa area, there were recognized no clear geothermal signs such as the discharge of geothermal fluids like hot spring, fumarolic gas, etc., places of high temperature and new geothermal alteration zones. The geothermal water of borehole N11-KN-1 is a low temperature/low CL concentration geothermal water which was stored in basement rocks, which is supposed to be the one conductively heated in the process of the meteoric water penetrating deep-underground. The geothermal system heat source in the Kuwanosawa area and the periphery is regarded as the relic magma which spewed out the volcanic rocks of Mt. Takamatsu-dake in the Quaternary period. However, the geothermal fluid included no components originating in high temperature volcanic emissions, and therefore, it is considered that the geothermal fluid was formed by the meteoric water conductively heated by volcanic heat source. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geochemical survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chikagaku chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of studying an expanse and characteristics of the geothermal system and a possibility of geothermal development in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, geochemical survey was conducted. In the survey, various kinds of analyses were made for 13 specimens of hot spring water and 5 specimens of surface water in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 402 measuring points of the concentration of Hg in soil gas. The results of the survey were as follows: In this survey area, it was thought that the HCO{sub 3} type geothermal water of a comparatively low temperature which was heated by the wide-spread conduction heat from the depths was widely distributed deeper than the depth of 500-700m, and it was presumed that a possibility was low of existence of a high geothermal potential which can be used for the geothermal power generation in the part deeper than the drilling depth of 700m. In the Noya area in the southwest part of the survey area, the high temperature deep geothermal reservoir was confirmed. In this area, the high temperature neutral-alkalescent Cl-SO{sub 4} type geothermal water was distributed in the depth of several 100 meters or deeper. The geothermal water seemed to flow from NE to SW along the structure in the NE-SW direction, and it was concluded that the area was the most promising one. (NEDO)

  1. Areas to explore surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC; Areas para exploracion en los alrededores del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Dumas, Alvaro [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Residencia General de Cerro Prieto, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: alvaro.aguilar@cfe.gob.mx

    2009-07-15

    Exploration plays an important role in tapping underground natural resources-whether water, oil, natural gas or minerals. Exploratory data allow us to learn reservoir conditions, increasing probable reserves and reservoir life span. Around the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, BC, and in the Mexicali Valley in general, exploration had almost stopped but recently was resumed by the Studies Division of Comision Federal de ELectricidad (CFE)'s Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos. The division sent technical personnel to structurally map the northern and eastern portions of Laguna Salada. The paper offers a general outline of the main zones undergoing exploratory studies-studies perhaps culminating in siting exploratory wells to locate more geothermal resources (and ultimately producing them using binary power plants). CFE also wants to site injection wells west of the current production zone, and this is covered, as well. All activities are meant to increase the productive lifespan of the geothermal reservoir. [Spanish] Cuando se trata de la explotacion de recursos naturales del subsuelo, sea agua, gas, petroleo o minerales, la exploracion juega un papel muy importante, ya que permite conocer las condiciones del yacimiento que pudieran llevar a incrementar las reservas de los recursos explotados y extender su vida util. En las zonas aledanas al campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC, y en general en el Valle de Mexicali, la exploracion estaba practicamente detenida habiendose reactivado a raiz de que la Subgerencia de Estudios de la Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) envio personal para realizar mapeos estructurales en las porciones norte y oriente de la Laguna Salada. Este trabajo presenta un panorama general de las areas prioritarias para realizar estudios exploratorios y poder programar, con mas bases, pozos exploratorios enfocados a localizar mas recursos geotermicos, inclusive para generar energia por medio

  2. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  3. A new high background radiation area in the Geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranwal, V.C.; Sharma, S.P.; Sengupta, D.; Sandilya, M.K.; Bhaumik, B.K.; Guin, R.; Saha, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    A high natural radiation zone is investigated for the first time in a geothermal region of Eastern Ghats Mobile Belt (EGMB) of Orissa state in India. The surrounding area comprises a geothermal region which has surveyed using a portable pulsed Geiger-Muller counter. On the basis of findings of GM counter, an area was marked as a high radiation zone. Soil and rock samples collected from the high radiation zone were analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry (GRS) using NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity is found to be contributed mainly by thorium. Concentration of thorium is reported to be very high compared to their normal abundance in crustal rocks. Further, concentrations of 238 U and 40 K are also high compared to normal abundance in crustal rocks but their magnitude is comparatively less than that of thorium. The average concentrations of 238 U (i.e. U(β-γ)), 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 33, 459ppm and 3%, respectively, in soils and 312, 1723ppm and 5%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Maximum concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K are found to be 95, 1194ppm and 4%, respectively, in soils and 1434, 10,590ppm and 8%, respectively, in the granitic rocks. Radioactive element emits various energies in its decay chain. High energies are utilized to estimate the concentration of actual 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K using a NaI(Tl) detector, however, low energies are used for the same in an HPGe detector. Some of the rock samples (eight in number) were also analyzed using HPGe detector for studying the behavior of low energies emitted in the decay series of uranium and thorium. The absorbed gamma dose rate in air and external annual dose rate of the high radiation zone are calculated to be 2431nGy/h and 3.0mSv/y, respectively. It is approximately 10 times greater than the dose rates obtained outside the high radiation zone. The high concentration of uranium and thorium may be one of the possible heat sources together with the normal geothermal gradient for hot springs

  4. Fruit and Vegetables Consumption: A Pointer for Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention in Northeast Thailand, the Highest Incidence Area in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.

  5. Novel Solution for Low-Lying Land Areas Safe from Natural Hazards—Toward Reconstruction of Lost Coastal Areas in Northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Nakajima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The imminent fear of water-related hazards such as flooding hangs over low-lying areas, in particular now because climate changes have led to increased hazards, like storm surges, that could result in serious harm. This paper aims to provide a novel solution—namely “the floating platform”—that can transform dangerous low-lying areas into those safeguarded against potential hazards. Additionally, by utilizing this solution as a secure base for society to build atop this new artificial reservoir, we offer a better future role for such areas. Meanwhile, we propose adoption of our concept soon at two low-lying areas in northeast Japan hard-hit by the huge 11 March 2011 tsunami: Sendai’s Arahama coastal district and the still-devastated residential harbor area of Kesennuma, both cities in need of a fresh perspective.

  6. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of geothermal energy may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of geothermal energy, the geothermal resource, hydrothermal fluids, electricity production, district heating, process heating, geopressured brines, technology and costs, hot dry rock, magma, and environmental and siting issues

  7. Recovery of uranium as a by product of phosphorites from Brazilian northeast area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, M.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction and recobery of uranium contained in marine phosphates of northeast Brazil were investigated by treating ores with hydrochloric acid. The average content of uranium in the ore was found to be about 0,03 percent which corresponds to the highest worldly known content of uranium in phoshorite. The solutions obtained in laboratory, by leaching the phosphorite with hydrochloric acid, contained 40-70mg U/1. A method to control the uranium solubilization was outlined. A liquid-liquid extrction of uranium from these liquors was performed using a mixture of 3 percent di (2-ethyl hexyl)-phosphoric acid and 2.2 percent TBP in Kerosene. An overall uranium recovery of about 85 percent was reached

  8. Selecting ground-motion models developed for induced seismicity in geothermal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Douglas, John

    2013-11-01

    We present a case study of the ranking and weighting of ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for seismic hazard assessment of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs). The study region is Cooper Basin (Australia), where a hot-fractured-rock project was established in 2002. We test the applicability of 36 GMPEs based on stochastic simulations previously proposed for use at EGSs. Each GMPE has a set of corresponding model parameters describing stress drop, regional and local (near-surface) attenuation. To select suitable GMPEs for Cooper Basin from the full set, we applied two methods. In the first, seismograms recorded on the local monitoring network were spectrally analysed to determine characteristic stress and attenuation parameters. In a second approach, residual analysis using the log-likelihood (LLH) method was used to directly compare recorded and predicted short-period response spectral accelerations. The resulting ranking was consistent with the models selected based on spectral analysis, with the advantage that a transparent weighting approach was available using the LLH method. Region-specific estimates of variability were computed, with significantly lower values observed compared to previous studies of small earthquakes. This was consistent with the limited range of stress drops and attenuation observed from the spectral analysis.

  9. Convection of geothermal fluids in the Timanfaya volcanic area, Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, V.; Diez, J.L.; Ortiz, R.; Yuguero, J.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model has been derived to study the superficial thermal anomalies to be found in Lanzarote (605 C at 13 m depth) in association with the convection of geothermal fluids. The model is valid for a wide range of conditions, in particular for those found beneath the Timanfaya volcano (active between 1730 and 1736). Geological and geophysical data suggest that the heat source is related to a cylindrical magma body with a radius of 200 +/- 100 m and a top temperature of 850 +/- 100 C at a depth of 4 +/- 1 km. Energy is transported through fractures by magmatic volatiles and/or by water vapor coming from a deeply located water table: in such a convection system, a fluid flow of 10 1/m/sup 2/ day, which corresponds to a thermal flux of 130 W/m/sup 2/, is sufficient to explain the temperature anomalies observed at the surface. The relationships between gas flow and the surface temperatures, as well as the thermal gradients in the conducting fracture are also discussed. 27 references.

  10. Quantitative impact of hydrothermal alteration on electrical resistivity in geothermal systems from a joint analysis of laboratory measurements and borehole data in Krafla area, N-E Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Léa; Páll Hersir, Gylfi; Flóvenz, Ólafur; Gibert, Benoit; Pézard, Philippe; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Briole, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Rock permeability and fluid temperature are the two most decisive factors for a successful geothermal drilling. While those parameters are only measured from drilling, they might be estimated on the basis of their impact on electrical resistivity that might be imaged from surface soundings, for example through TEM (Transient Electro Magnetic) down to one km depth. The electrical conductivity of reservoir rocks is the sum of a volume term depending on fluid parameters and a surface term related to rock alteration. Understanding the link between electrical resistivity and geothermal key parameters requires the knowledge of hydrothermal alteration and its petrophysical signature with the Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC). Fluid-rock interactions related to hydrothermal circulation trigger the precipitation of alteration minerals, which are both witnesses of the temperature at the time of reaction and new paths for the electrical current. Alteration minerals include zeolites, smectites, chlorites, epidotes and amphiboles among which low temperatures parageneses are often the most conductive. The CEC of these mineral phases contributes to account for surface conductivity occuring at the water-rock interface. In cooling geothermal systems, these minerals constitute in petrophysical terms and from surface electrical conduction a memory of the equilibrium phase revealed from electrical probing at all scales. The qualitative impact of alteration minerals on resistivity structure has been studied over the years in the Icelandic geothermal context. In this work, the CEC impact on pore surfaces electrical conductivity is studied quantitatively at the borehole scale, where several types of volcanic rocks are mixed together, with various degrees of alteration and porosity. Five boreholes located within a few km at the Krafla volcano, Northeast Iceland, constitute the basis for this study. The deepest and reference hole, KJ-18, provides cuttings of rock and logging data down to 2215

  11. Electricity generation from enhanced geothermal systems by oilfield produced water circulating through reservoir stimulated by staged fracturing technology for horizontal wells: A case study in Xujiaweizi area in Daqing Oilfield, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yan-Jun; Li, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Liang-Liang; Gao, Ping; Jin, Xian-Peng; Xu, Tian-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of generating electricity from EGS (enhanced geothermal systems) by oilfield produced water circulating through reservoir stimulated by staged fracturing technology for horizontal wells is investigated based on the geological data of Xujiaweizi area, located in the Daqing Oilfield, northeast China. HDR (hot dry rock) resource potential assessment is carried out by using volumetric method. Reservoir stimulation is numerically simulated based on the geological data of well YS-1 and field fracturing experience in this region. Geometric dimensions and flow conductivity of the resulting fracture are imported into the hydro-thermal model to calculate the electricity generation potential of the proposed EGS power plant. An EGS design scheme is proposed based on the simulation results. The system is also evaluated from the economic and environmental aspects. The results indicate that HDR resource in Xujiaweizi area is of great potential for development. Through the staged fracturing technology for horizontal wells, electricity generation power of the proposed EGS project can roughly meet the commercial standard. For 20 years of continuous production, power generation from the proposed EGS power plant is economic feasible. Meanwhile, significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions can be achieved. - Highlights: • Staged fracturing technology for horizontal well is used in HDR (hot dry rock) development. • Fracturing simulations and heat production simulations are combined. • A 3 MW power plant is designed in Xujiaweizi based on the simulation results

  12. Geothermal survey handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this handbook is to publicize widely the nature of geothermal surveys. It covers geothermal survey planning and measurement as well as measurement of thermal conductivity. Methods for the detection of eruptive areas, the measurement of radiative heat using snowfall, the measurement of surface temperature using infrared radiation and the measurement of thermal flow are described. The book also contains information on physical detection of geothermal reservoirs, the measurement of spring wells, thermographic measurement of surface heat, irregular layer surveying, air thermographics and aerial photography. Isotope measurement techniques are included.

  13. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.C-3. Akinomiya area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the survey of the geothermal development promotion survey - Akinomiya area which was carried out in Yuzawa City and Ogachi Town, Akita Prefecture, from FY 1996 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as the geological alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity survey and electromagnetic exploration, logging by drilling 8 boreholes, jetting test, etc. Further, using the data obtained from these, analysis was made of geology/reservoir structure, thermal structure, hydraulic structure, etc. As a result, grasped were the distribution of the main underground fracture structure and the distribution of promising high-temperature zones. In the short-term/long-term jetting test, a total steam amount of 124 t/h was confirmed. Moreover, there was the pressure interference between the geothermal reservoir in the Akinomiya area and the geothermal reservoir in the Wasabizawa area, and it was confirmed that there was the hydraulic relation between those reservoirs. Further, it was assumed that there was not so much effect on hot spring reservoirs in the Akinomiya area. In the simulation of production prediction, the result was obtained that there was a possibility of power generation of 30MW only in the Akinomiya area and of 60MW both in the Akinomiya area and the Wasabizawa area. (NEDO)

  14. Subsurface structure identification uses derivative analyses of the magnetic data in Candi Umbul-Telomoyo geothermal prospect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Septyasari, U.; Niasari, S. W.; Maghfira, P. D.

    2018-04-01

    Telomoyo geothermal prospect area is located in Central Java, Indonesia. One of the manifestations around Telomoyo is a warm spring, called Candi Umbul. The hydrothermal fluids from the manifestation could be from the subsurface flowing up through geological structures. The previous research about 2D magnetic modeling in Candi Umbul showed that there was a normal fault with strike/dip N60°E/45° respectively. This research aims to know the distance boundary and the kind of the geological structure in the study area. We also compared the geological structure direction based on the geologic map and the derivative maps. We used derivative analyses of the magnetic data, i.e. First Horizontal Derivative (FHD) which is the rate of change of the horizontal gradient in the horizontal direction. FHD indicates the boundaries of the geological structure. We also used Second Vertical Derivative (SVD) which is the rate of change of the vertical gradient in the vertical direction. SVD can reveal normal fault or thrust fault. The FHD and SVD maps show that the geological structure boundary has the same direction with the north west-south east geological structure. The geological structure boundary is in 486 m of the local distance. Our result confirms that there is a normal fault in the study area.

  15. Lens Opacity and Hydrogen Sulfide in a New Zealand Geothermal Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael N; Bailey, Ian L; DiMartino, Robert B; Pope, Karl; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a highly toxic gas with well-established, acute irritation effects on the eye. The population of Rotorua, New Zealand, sited on an active geothermal field, has some of the highest ambient H2S exposures in the world. Evidence from ecological studies in Rotorua has suggested that H2S is associated with cataract. The purpose of the present study was, using more detailed exposure characterization, clinical examinations, and anterior eye photography, to more directly investigate this previously reported association. Enrolled were 1637 adults, ages 18 to 65, from a comprehensive Rotorua primary care medical register. Patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, including pupillary dilation and lens photography to capture evidence of any nuclear opacity, nuclear color, and cortical and posterior subcapsular opacity. Photographs were scored for all four outcomes on the LOCS III scale with decimalized interpolation between the exemplars. H2S exposure for up to the last 30 years was estimated based on networks of passive samplers set out across Rotorua and knowledge of residential, workplace, and school locations over the 30 years. Data analysis using linear and logistic regression examined associations between the degree of opacification and nuclear color or cataract (defined as a LOCS III score ≥2.0) in relation to H2S exposure. No associations were found between estimated H2S exposures and any of the four ophthalmic outcome measures. Overall, results were generally reassuring. They provided no evidence that H2S exposure at the levels found in Rotorua is associated with cataract. The previously found association between cataract and H2S exposure in the Rotorua population seems likely to be attributable to the limitations of the ecological study design. These results cannot rule out the possibility of an association with cataract at higher levels of H2S exposure.

  16. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Kurikoma peripheral region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kurikoma shuhen chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kurikoma peripheral region with the aim of contributing to the selection of important areas for survey, plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and effective geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount in the areas, etc. In the study, based on the geological survey, geochemical survey, physical survey and well survey which were conducted directly for the Kurikoma peripheral region, the data needed to elucidate geothermal structure elements were extracted and re-analyzed to make geothermal models. Based on the geothermal system conceptual model made, the data on the areas already developed, etc. were arranged to make criteria for extraction of promising areas. By the criteria, the following three areas were selected, and geothermal structure models were made for the areas: promising area 1 in geothermal development (Sanzugawa-Oyu spa, 66km{sup 2}), promising area 2 (Wasabizawa-Akinomiya area, 37km{sup 2}), promising area 3 (Onikobe-Kamitaki spa, 21km{sup 2}). These promising areas were evaluated by the resource amount density, data likelihood, regulation by the natural park law, etc. Important areas for survey were selected and the resource amount was calculated. (NEDO)

  17. Hydrogeology in the area of a freshwater lens in the Floridan aquifer system, northeast Seminole County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.; Rohrer, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Northeast Seminole County, Florida, contains an isolated recharge area of the Floridan aquifer system that forms a freshwater lens completely surrounded by saline water. The freshwater lens covers an area of about 22 sq mi surrounding the town of Geneva, and generally is enclosed by the 25 ft land surface altitude contour. Thickness of the lens is about 350 ft in the center of the recharge area. The geohydrologic units in descending order consist of the post-Miocene sand and shell of the surficial aquifer; Miocene clay, sand, clay, and shell that form a leaky confining bed; and permeable Eocene limestones of the Floridan aquifer system. The freshwater lens is the result of local rainfall flushing ancient seawater from the Floridan aquifer system. Sufficient quantities of water for domestic and small public supply systems are available from the Floridan aquifer system in the Geneva area. The limiting factor for water supply in the area is the chemical quality of the water. Chloride concentrations range from recharge area to about 5,100 mg/L near the St. Johns River southeast of Geneva. Constituents analyzed included sulfate (range 1 to 800 mg/L), hardness (range 89 to 2,076 mg/L), and iron (range 34 to 6,600 mg/L). Because the freshwater lens results entirely from local recharge, the long-term sustained freshwater yield of the aquifer in the Geneva area depends on the local recharge rate. In 1982, recharge was about 13 inches (13.8 million gal/day). Average recharge for 1941 through 1970 was estimated to be about 11 inches (11.3 million gal/day). Freshwater that recharges the aquifer in the Geneva area is either pumped out or flows north and northeast to discharge near or in the St. Johns River. Average annual outflow from the lens is about 10 in/yr. No measurable change in the size or location of the freshwater lens has occurred since studies in the early 1950's. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles Geothermal area, California: Part of the Resource Assessment of Low- and Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Resource Areas in California; Part of the Second year Report, 1979-80 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Youngs, Les G.

    1980-11-10

    This report presents the details of new geophysical work for the Paso Robles geothermal area, California performed under terms of the second year contract, 1979-80 between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG). The report contains two sections. The first section is to provide background for the reader and consists of a reprint from CDMG's first year report (1979-80) to DOE. It describes only the Paso Robles studies performed by CDMG in its first year effort. The second section provides new information developed by CDMG in its 1979-80 studies concerning the geophysical survey of the Paso Robles geothermal area. Included in the first section is some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. The second section is concerned only with discussion and interpretation of results for two geophysical methods that have so far been used by CDMG in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys. The CDMG studies of the Paso Robles area are not yet complete and additional studies using newly acquired resistivity equipment are planned for the near future, as are more complete surveys of existing wells and new studies of the geothermal aquifers present in the area. A final report to DOE on the Paso Robles area is planned following completion of those studies.

  19. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  20. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  1. Deep electrical resistivity tomography and geothermal analysis of Bradano foredeep deposits in Venosa area (Southern Italy: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lapenna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical surveys have been carried out to characterize the stratigraphical and structural setting and to better understand the deep water circulation system in the Venosa area (Southern Italy located in the frontal portion of the southern Appenninic Subduction. In this area there are some deep water wells from which a water conductivity of about 3 mS/cm and a temperature of about 35°C was measured. A deep geoelectrical tomography with dipole-dipole array has been carried out along a profile of 10000 m and an investigation depth of about 900 m. Furthermore a broad band magnetotelluric profile consisting of six stations was performed to infer the resistivity distribution up to some kilometres of depth. The MT profile was almost coincident with the geoelectrical outline. The applied methods allow us to obtain a mutual control and integrated interpretation of the data. The high resolution of the data was the key to reconstruct the structural asset of buried carbonatic horst whose top is located at about 600 m depth. The final results coming from data wells, geothermal analysis and geophysical data, highlighted a horst saturated with salted water and an anomalous local gradient of 60°C/km. The proposed mechanism is that of a mixing of fossil and fresh water circulation system.

  2. Change with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rock in geothermal areas in central Kyushu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    1986-10-01

    Changes with time in extrusion and chemical composition of volcanic rocks in central Kyushu are studied to provide basic data required for evaluation of geothermal resources. Distribution of volcanic rocks in successive 1Ma (10/sup 6/ year) periods and the average thickness of volcanic rock layers in each period are determined, from which the volume of volcanic rocks in each 1Ma period is calculated. Results indicate that volcanos in central Kyushu extruded about 3,000 km/sup 3//Ma of volcanic rocks during the early periods (about 5Ma), followed by a series of declining periods up to the present. Comparison of volcanic extrusive rocks of each 1Ma period shows that lava of hornblende andesite and pyroxenic andesite has been extruded in great quantities in every period. Chemical composition is studied based on diagrams showing changes in SiO/sub 2/ content. The K/sub 2/O content is relatively high in most volcanos younger than 1.6Ma, compared to those older than 1.6Ma. the K/sub 2/O content in extruded rocks has been high during the latest 0.4Ma in the Aso volcanic area, unlike other island arc conjunction areas. (4 figs, 5 tabs, 28 refs)

  3. Investigation report on promotion of geothermal development. No. A-4, Mt. Kunbetsu area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This paper summarizes the results of investigations in the Mt. Kunbetsu area out of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development having been performed during the period from 1998 to 1999. The investigated area is an area located in the eastern Hokkaido with an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The wide area investigation has discussed possibilities of existence of geothermal resources mainly from existence of high-temperature anomalies. The investigation has performed the following activities: fluid geochemical investigations on ten spring water sources, three spring gas sources, and five surface water points; gravity exploration at 153 measuring points; electromagnetic exploration at 52 measuring points; excavation of two heat flow rate wells (to depths of 997m and 995m), temperature logging, core cuttings tests, thermal hot water survey; other fluid inclusions tests, rock alteration age measurement; and temperature logging at Ryuun Shiretoko Spa. As a result of the investigations, it was estimated that, as the geothermal system model, the heat source is assumed to exist at a great depth below Mt. Kaibetsu; the spring water and the mineral spring water show diverse spring qualities because of mixing of meteoric water with fossil sea water; the fossil sea water and the meteoric water have been heated by thermal conduction; and the high-temperature zone is not spread to the positions of the investigation wells. (NEDO)

  4. Marysville, Montana, Geothermal Project: Geological and Geophysical Exploration at Marysville Geothermal Area: 1973 Results (With a Section on ''Contemporary Seismicity in the Helena, Montana Region'')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, D.D.; Brott, C.A.; Goforth, T.T.; Holdaway, M.J.; Morgan, P.; Friedline, R.; Smith, R.L.

    1974-04-01

    This report describes field geological and geophysical investigations of the Marysville geothermal area, including geological mapping, sample collection, a ground total field magnetic survey, gravity survey, seismic ground noise survey, microearthquake survey, and heat flow study. Although sufficient data are not available, it is likely that a magma chamber is the heat source. A second section, ''Contemporary Seismicity in the Helena, Montana, Region'' examines the coincidence of high heat flow and earthquake swarm activity in this region. (GRA)

  5. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, Ph.; Lemale, J.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source which consists in exploiting the heat coming from the Earth. It covers a wide range of techniques and applications which are presented in this article: 1 - the Earth, source of heat: structure of the Earth, geodynamic model and plate tectonics, origin of heat, geothermal gradient and terrestrial heat flux; 2 - geothermal fields and resources; 3 - implementation of geothermal resources: exploration, main characteristic parameters, resource exploitation; 4 - uses of geothermal resources: power generation, thermal uses, space heating and air conditioning heat pumps, district heating, addition of heat pumps; 5 - economical aspects: power generation, heat generation for district heating; 6 - environmental aspects: conditions of implementation, impacts as substitute to fossil fuels; 7 - geothermal energy in France: resources, organisation; 8 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  6. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-6. Mt. Tsujinodake area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey B 'Mt. Tsujinodake area' which was carried out at Yamagawa town, Ibusuki county, Kagoshima prefecture, from FY 1997 to FY 1999. In the survey, the following were conducted: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration, and geothermal fluid survey by drilling 4 structural testing boreholes. In the Mt. Tsujinodake area, active fumarolic activities are still now continuing around the Unagi hot spring in the north, and the acidic alteration zone is distributed in the peripheral surface area. In Borehole N11-TD-2 in the north, it is assumed that there exists the hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 230 degrees C in the depth of 400-800m, which is comparatively shallow, and that the stored geothermal water flows laterally. In the central area, a hydrothermal bed of a temperature of approximately 130 degrees C was confirmed in N11-TD-1, but it is judged that chances of the existence of high temperature hydrothermal bed are not very good. In N11-TD-3 in the south, the existence of promising heat sources is expected in the deeper part since the remarkable alteration was seen in the depth of 1,435m or deeper, and the sharp rise in temperature was recognized. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1999 report on the geothermal development promotion survey data processing. No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area (secondary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (dai niji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    As a part of the FY 1999 geothermal development promotion survey - Kuwanosawa area, the following were conducted and the results were arranged: ground surface survey (electromagnetic survey, analysis of numerical map), N11-KN-1 structure test boring survey, geothermal water survey, environmental effect survey, supplementary survey related to data processing, and comprehensive analysis. As to the reservoir structure, it seems that the area is low in water permeability from the results that there was seen little lost circulation at the time of drilling N11-KN-1 and that transmission coefficients in the water poring test indicated smaller values than those of the production well. In the underground temperature distribution, the temperature at a depth of 1,800m was 164.5 degrees C, which is lower than that in the neighboring Wasabizawa area. The geothermal water of N11-KN-1 does not have many dissolved constituents, showing alkalescence, which belongs to the Na-HCO{sub 3} type. As to the geothermal water of N11-KN-1, it seems that the meteoric water went down along faults and fractures, was stored in basement rocks and heated by heat conduction to form the geothermal water. In the Kuwanosawa area, there are seen very few geothermal signs on the ground surface, and a possibility seems to be small that high temperature and dominated geothermal fluids are active on a large scale. (NEDO)

  8. Development of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes the geothermal development promotion survey project. NEDO is taking the lead in investigation and development to reduce risks for private business entities and promote their development. The program is being moved forward by dividing the surveys into three ranks of A, B and C from prospects of geothermal resource availability and the state of data accumulation. The survey A lacks number of data, but covers areas as wide as 100 to 300 km{sup 2}, and studies possible existence of high-temperature geothermal energy. The survey B covers areas of 50 to 70 km{sup 2}, investigates availability of geothermal resources, and assesses environmental impacts. The survey C covers areas of 5 to 10 km{sup 2}, and includes production well drilling and long-term discharge tests, other than those carried out by the surveys A and B. Results derived in each fiscal year are evaluated and judged to establish development plans for the subsequent fiscal year. This paper summarizes development results on 38 areas from among 45 areas surveyed since fiscal 1980. Development promotion surveys were carried out over seven areas in fiscal 1994. Development is in progress not only on utilization of high-temperature steam, but also on binary cycle geothermal power generation utilizing hot waters of 80 to 150{degree}C. Fiscal 1994 has carried out discussions for spread and practical use of the systems (particularly on economic effects), and development of small-to-medium scale binary systems. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Geothermal energy

    OpenAIRE

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. Fo...

  10. FY 1993 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Jetting/reduction test (No.36 - Amemasu-dake area); 1993 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Funshutsu kangen shiken hokokusho (No.36 Amemasu dake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion, the jetting/reduction test using a structure drilling well N4-AM-4 was made in the Amemasu-dake area, Hokkaido, survey was conducted of the state of jetting of geothermal fluid, the state of borehole, analysis of geothermal fluid, etc. The induced jetting was carried out by the Swabbing method in the total number of times of 97 in 10 days. As to the jetting of geothermal fluid, jetting was recognized in a short time from 2 hours 49 minutes to 3 hours 51 minutes, but did not result in the continuous jetting. The mean jetting amount of geothermal fluid was totally 4.03 t/h (0.69 t/h in steam flow and 3.34 t/h in water flow). The temperature of geothermal water while jetting was 90 degrees C, pH was 8.6-8.9, chlorine ion concentration was 520-960 ppm, and electric conductivity was 2.41-3.57 ms/cm. The pressure at the feed point while stopping jetting was 5,800 MPa, and the pressure just before stopping jetting was 1,191 MPa. Chemical components in geothermal water belonged to the alkali C1 type. The geochemical temperature of geothermal water by Na-K temperature was 229 degrees C at maximum and 202 degrees C at minimum. (NEDO)

  11. Spatio-Temporal Changes in the Rice Planting Area and Their Relationship to Climate Change in Northeast China: A Model-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, T.; Wu, W.; Zhou, Q.; Yu, Q.; Verburg, P.H.; Yang, P.; Lu, Z.F.; Tang, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important grain crops in Northeast China (NEC) and its cultivation is sensitive to climate change. This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal changes in the NEC rice planting area over the period of 1980-2010 and to analyze their relationship to climate change. To do so,

  12. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  13. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  14. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri - EESJC (07º 25' S and 36º 30' W, located in the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. Forty-five lizards inhabiting granite outcrops in an area of Caatinga were captured, belonging to the following species: Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 (18 individuals, T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 (15 individuals, Phyllopezus periosus Rodrigues, 1986 (6 individuals, and P. pollicaris (Spix, 1825 (6 individuals. Laboratory examination revealed that all species had some degree of pulmonary infection caused by Raillietiella mottae. The highest rates of prevalence (66.7% and mean intensity of infection (5.25 ± 2.01, range of 2-11 were observed in P. periosus. The results obtained in this study show that lizards of the Brazilian semi-arid region are infected by a generalist species of pentastomid. The most likely cause for such pattern is the similarity in lizards' diets (ants and termites. It is particularly noteworthy that T. semitaeniatus, P. periosus, and P. pollicaris represent new host records for R. mottae.

  15. Geothermal studies in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji-Yang, Wang; Mo-Xiang, Chen; Ji-An, Wang; Xiao, Deng; Jun, Wang; Hsien-Chieh, Shen; Liang-Ping, Hsiung; Shu-Zhen, Yan; Zhi-Cheng, Fan; Xiu-Wen, Liu; Ge-Shan, Huang; Wen-Ren, Zhang; Hai-Hui, Shao; Rong-Yan, Zhang

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal studies have been conducted in China continuously since the end of the 1950's with renewed activity since 1970. Three areas of research are defined: (1) fundamental theoretical research on geothermics, including subsurface temperatures, terrestrial heat flow and geothermal modeling; (2) exploration for geothermal resources and exploitation of geothermal energy; and (3) geothermal studies in mines. Regional geothermal studies have been conducted recently in North China and more than 2000 values of subsurface temperature have been obtained. Temperatures at a depth of 300 m generally range from 20 to 25°C with geothermal gradients from 20 to 40°C/km. These values are regarded as an average for the region with anomalies related to geological factors. To date, 22 reliable heat flow data from 17 sites have been obtained in North China and the data have been categorized according to fault block tectonics. The average heat flow value at 16 sites in the north is 1.3 HFU, varying from 0.7 to 1.8 HFU. It is apparent that the North China fault block is characterized by a relatively high heat flow with wide variations in magnitude compared to the mean value for similar tectonic units in other parts of the world. It is suggested that although the North China fault block can be traced back to the Archaean, the tectonic activity has been strengthening since the Mesozoic resulting in so-called "reactivation of platform" with large-scale faulting and magmatism. Geothermal resources in China are extensive; more than 2000 hot springs have been found and there are other manifestations including geysers, hydrothermal explosions, hydrothermal steam, fumaroles, high-temperature fountains, boiling springs, pools of boiling mud, etc. In addition, there are many Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary basins with widespread aquifers containing geothermal water resources in abundance. The extensive exploration and exploitation of these geothermal resources began early in the 1970's. Since then

  16. Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at a High-Priority Area on the Utah Testing and Training Range–South (UTTR–S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2012-04-01

    Field investigations conducted during 2011 support and expand the conclusion of the original Preliminary Report that discovery of a viable geothermal system is possible in the northwestern part of the Utah Testing and Training Range-South (UTTR-S), referred to henceforth as Focus Area 1. The investigations defined the southward extent of the Wendover graben into and near Focus Area 1, enhanced the understanding of subsurface conditions, and focused further geothermal exploration efforts towards the northwestern-most part of Focus Area 1. Specifically, the detailed gravity survey shows that the Wendover graben, first defined by Cook et al. (1964) for areas north of Interstate Highway 80, extends and deepens southwest-ward to the northwest corner of Focus Area 1. At its deepest point, the intersection with a northwest-trending graben there is favorable for enhanced permeability associated with intersecting faults. Processing and modeling of the gravity data collected during 2011 provide a good understanding of graben depth and distribution of faults bounding the graben and has focused the interest area of the study. Down-hole logging of temperatures in wells made available near the Intrepid, Inc., evaporation ponds, just north of Focus Area 1, provide a good understanding of the variability of thermal gradients in that area and corroborate the more extensive temperature data reported by Turk (1973) for the depth range of 300-500 m. Moderate temperature gradients in the northern part of the Intrepid area increase to much higher gradients and bottom-hole temperatures southeastward, towards graben-bounding faults, suggesting upwelling geothermal waters along those faults. Water sampling, analysis, and temperature measurements of Blue Lakes and Mosquito Willey's springs, on the western boundary of Focus Area 1, also show elevated temperatures along the graben-bounding fault system. In addition, water chemistry suggests origin of those waters in limestone rocks

  17. Finding Large Aperture Fractures in Geothermal Resource Areas Using a Three-Component Long-Offset Surface Seismic Survey, PSInSAR and Kinematic Structural Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teplow, William J. [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States); Warren, Ian [US Geothermal, Inc., Boise, ID (United States)

    2015-08-12

    The DOE cost-share program applied innovative and cutting edge seismic surveying and processing, permanent scatter interferometry-synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR) and structural kinematics to the exploration problem of locating and mapping largeaperture fractures (LAFs) for the purpose of targeting geothermal production wells. The San Emidio geothermal resource area, which is under lease to USG, contains production wells that have encountered and currently produce from LAFs in the southern half of the resource area (Figure 2). The USG lease block, incorporating the northern extension of the San Emidio geothermal resource, extends 3 miles north of the operating wellfield. The northern lease block was known to contain shallow thermal waters but was previously unexplored by deep drilling. Results of the Phase 1 exploration program are described in detail in the Phase 1 Final Report (Teplow et al., 2011). The DOE cost shared program was completed as planned on September 30, 2014. This report summarizes results from all of Phase 1 and 2 activities.

  18. FY 1997 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Primary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, age determination of rocks, alteration age determination by thermoluminescence method, geochemical survey (hot spring gas, hot spring water), gravity exploration and electromagnetic exploration. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were made. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. The geothermal system in this area seems to be controlled by the Mt. Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, folding zone along the fault and Graben-state structure extending southeast of the zone. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction and volcanic effluences from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1998 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. Secondary. No.B-5 Mt. Musadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No. B-5 Musadake chiiki (Dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Mt. Musadake area, Shibetsu county, Hokkaido, which was conducted in FY 1997 and FY 1998. In the surface survey, the following were carried out: survey of geology/alteration zone, geochemical survey, gravity exploration, wide-area gravity/magnetic structure analysis, seismic exploration, etc. In the well exploration, structural boreholes N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2 were drilled, and the following were conducted: temperature logging/temperature recovery test, electric logging, water injection test and survey of core cuttings. For borehole N10-MD-2, the survey of geothermal water was made. In the survey of environmental effects, survey of flora/fauna and survey of hot spring variations were conducted. The results of the analysis were outlined as follows. At deep underground, the existence of the deep geothermal water forming geothermal reservoirs is presumed, and the deep geothermal water seems to be helped by the thermal conduction from the magma reservoir related to a series of volcanoes, centered on Mt. Musadake that is regarded as heat source. The geothermal water has a temperature of over 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. (NEDO)

  20. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  1. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Hachimantai south region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Hachimantai nanbu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Hachimantai south region with the aim of contributing to plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and important geothermal development promotion surveys, estimation of the developmental resource amount, etc. In the survey, the data were widely collected/arranged on the geothermal development surveys so far made in the Hachimantai south region, and wide-area geothermal system conceptual models in this region were constructed. Based on the wide-area geothermal system conceptual models and the manual for strategic survey, the following were extracted as areas for which the existence of geothermal reservoir structures is expected: Toshichi spa and the southeast area, Kakkonda-Matsukawa-Iwateyama area, Nyuto spa and the southwest area. Further, from the criteria for extraction such as the resource amount density, the natural park law and data likelihood, extracted were the Moroedake area (9km{sup 2}), Matsukawa east area (10km{sup 2}), Omatsukurayama south area (9km{sup 2}) and Kakkonda east area (14km{sup 2}). In the Monte Carlo analysis by the stored heat method, the resource amount was estimated as 5MWe, 14MWe, 4MWe and 48MWe, respectively. (NEDO)

  2. Life cycle of a geyser discharge apron: Evidence from Waikite Geyser, Whakarewarewa geothermal area, North Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Renaut, Robin W.; Owen, R. Bernhart

    2011-05-01

    Waikite, a geyser located in the Whakarewarewa geothermal area on the North Island, New Zealand, has a history of eruptive-dormancy cycles that have been attributed to natural and anthropogenic causes. The last cycle involved an active period from ~ 1932 to 1968/69 that was followed by a period of dormancy that continues today. Such cycles are important because they control the temporal development of the discharge apron. When the geyser is active, growth of the discharge apron is dictated by the precipitation of opal-A, which is controlled by factors such as discharge patterns, water chemistry, pH, temperature, rate of cooling, and the resident microbiota. With dormancy, conditions change radically because water no longer flows down the discharge apron. Instead, the discharge apron lapses into a phase of degradation that, on Waikite, is evident from (1) deflation of the apron surface, (2) blocks splaying off the apron margins along margin-parallel fractures, (3) tension fractures, (4) saucer-shaped collapse zones, (5) increasingly unstable surfaces resulting from subsurface opal-A dissolution, (6) fractures, from which steam and other gases emanate, and (7) incursion of native vegetation around the edge of the apron and on the distal parts of the discharge apron. When the geyser becomes active again, silica precipitation will resume and the discharge apron will once again accrete vertically and expand laterally. Analysis of the Waikite system shows that successions that develop on geyser discharge aprons are formed of unconformity-bounded packages of sinter that reflect the eruptive-dormancy history of the parent geyser.

  3. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jiang

    Full Text Available Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86. Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation, Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation, Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation. Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  4. Microbial Community Structure and Arsenic Biogeochemistry in an Acid Vapor-Formed Spring in Tengchong Geothermal Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhou; Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Dai, Xinyue; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yanhong; Wang, Yanxin

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic biogeochemistry has been studied extensively in acid sulfate-chloride hot springs, but not in acid sulfate hot springs with low chloride. In this study, Zhenzhuquan in Tengchong geothermal area, a representative acid sulfate hot spring with low chloride, was chosen to study arsenic geochemistry and microbial community structure using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Over 0.3 million 16S rRNA sequence reads were obtained from 6-paired parallel water and sediment samples along its outflow channel. Arsenic oxidation occurred in the Zhenxhuquan pool, with distinctly high ratios of arsenate to total dissolved arsenic (0.73-0.86). Coupled with iron and sulfur oxidation along the outflow channel, arsenic accumulated in downstream sediments with concentrations up to 16.44 g/kg and appeared to significantly constrain their microbial community diversity. These oxidations might be correlated with the appearance of some putative functional microbial populations, such as Aquificae and Pseudomonas (arsenic oxidation), Sulfolobus (sulfur and iron oxidation), Metallosphaera and Acidicaldus (iron oxidation). Temperature, total organic carbon and dissolved oxygen significantly shaped the microbial community structure of upstream and downstream samples. In the upstream outflow channel region, most microbial populations were microaerophilic/anaerobic thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, such as Sulfolobus, Nocardia, Fervidicoccus, Delftia, and Ralstonia. In the downstream region, aerobic heterotrophic mesophiles and thermophiles were identified, including Ktedonobacteria, Acidicaldus, Chthonomonas and Sphingobacteria. A total of 72.41-95.91% unassigned-genus sequences were derived from the downstream high arsenic sediments 16S rRNA clone libraries. This study could enable us to achieve an integrated understanding on arsenic biogeochemistry in acid hot springs.

  5. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  6. Evaluation of the United States Department of Agriculture Northeast Area-Wide Tick Control Project by Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Brandon; George, John E.; Pound, J. Mathews; Miller, J. Allen; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Stafford, Kirby C.; Schulze, Terry L.; Mather, Thomas N.; Carroll, John F.; Fish, Durland

    2009-01-01

    Abstract As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using U.S. Department of Agriculture “4-Poster” devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed deer. Although reductions in the abundance of all life-stages of Ixodes scapularis were the measured outcomes, this study focused on metrics associated with I. scapularis nymphal tick densities as this measure has consistently proven to directly correlate with human risk of acquiring Lyme disease. Since independent tick sampling schemes were undertaken at each of the five environmentally distinct study locations, a meta-analytic approach permitted estimation of a single true control-effect size for each treatment year of the NEATCP. The control-effect is expressed as the annual percent I. scapularis nymphal control most consistent with meta-analysis data for each treatment year. Our meta-analyses indicate that by the sixth treatment year, the NEATCP effectively reduced the relative density of I. scapularis nymphs by 71% on the 5.14 km2 treatment sites, corresponding to a 71% lower relative entomologic risk index for acquiring Lyme disease. PMID:19650737

  7. Impact assessment of recent climate change on rice yields in the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Dong, Guanpeng; Wu, Wenxiang

    2013-08-30

    Investigating the degree to which climate change may have impacted on rice yields can provide an insight into how to adapt to climate change in the future. Meteorological and rice yield data over the period 1960-2009 from the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China (HRANC) were used to explore the possible impacts of climate change on rice yields at sub-regional scale. Results showed that a warming trend was obvious in the HRANC and discernible climate fluctuations and yield variations on inter-annual scale were detected to have occurred in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was observed between growing season temperature and rice yields, with an increase rate by approximately 3.60% for each 1°C rise in the minimum temperature during growing season. Such findings are consistent with the current mainstream view that warming climate may exert positive impacts on crop yields in the middle and higher latitude regions. Our study indicated that the growing season minimum temperature was a major driver of all the climatic factors to the recent increase trends in rice yield in HRANC over the last five decades. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Outline of tectonic geology of the cenozoic Pacific volcanic zone concerned with geothermal areas in the central America; Chubei ni okeru chinetsutai wo tomonau shinseidai Taiheiyo kazantai no chishitsu gaisetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasaki, T [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Matsumoto, Y [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    1994-09-16

    For the purpose of technological cooperation on geothermal development, investigations and discussions have been given on the geological background in the geothermal areas in Central America where the Pacific volcanic zone stretches. The geology in Central America is divided largely into three geological structures distributed in a band form in the east-west direction. Among these structure, the Pacific Volcanic Province is a Caenozoic volcanic area ranging along the Pacific Ocean coast in the south-east direction, where young and active Quarternary volcanoes are lined straight over a distance of 1,400 km. The geological structure is such that continuously traceable rift valley or pit structure agrees with the array of volcanoes. The long and wide rift valley that governs this volcanic activity forms the base of the geothermal areas dotted in the above structure. Guatemala had been proceeding with a 24-MW power plant plan in Zunil, the most important point, but the construction has been delayed because of a landslide that caused impediment to the productive wells. The plant completion is now scheduled for 1995. El Salvador is the most advanced country in geothermal power generation, which operates three plants in the Ahuachapa geothermal area, with the output reaching 95 MW. The geothermal condition per production well is 110 tons per hour at 250{degree}C. Nicaragua had been successful in generating power of 70 KW with two plants in Momtombo by 1989. 22 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuataz, F.-D.

    2005-01-01

    This article gives a general overview of the past and present development of geothermal energy worldwide and a more detailed one in Switzerland. Worldwide installed electrical power using geothermal energy sources amounts to 8900 MW el . Worldwide utilization of geothermal energy for thermal applications amounts to 28,000 MW th . The main application (56.5%) is ground-coupled heat pumps, others are thermal spas and swimming pools (17.7%), space heating (14.9%), heating of greenhouses (4.8%), fish farming (2.2%), industrial uses (1,8%), cooling and melting of snow (1.2%), drying of agricultural products (0.6 %). Switzerland has become an important user of geothermal energy only in the past 25 years. Earlier, only the exploitation of geothermal springs (deep aquifers) in Swiss thermal baths had a long tradition, since the time of the Romans. Today, the main use of geothermal energy is as a heat source for heat pumps utilizing vertical borehole heat exchangers of 50 to 350 meters length. 35,000 installations of this type with heating powers ranging from a few kW to 1000 kW already exist, representing the highest density of such installations worldwide. Other developments are geostructures and energy piles, the use of groundwater for heating and cooling, geothermal district heating, the utilization of draining water from tunnels and the project 'Deep Heat Mining' allowing the combined production of heat and electric power

  10. Fiscal 1998 report on data processing for geothermal energy development enhancement. No. A-4 Mount Kumbetsu area (primary data processing); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.A-4. Kunbetsu chiiki (dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This is part of the state-operated 'geothermal energy development enhancement' project, under which a comprehensive analysis is conducted into the results of a survey of geothermal resources in existence in the Mount Kumbetsu area. The local geothermal structure is examined, and the Kumbetsu hot spring area, the Uebetsu river middle reach area, and the Unabetsu hot spring area are extracted as promising high-temperature supply areas. The Kumbetsu hot spring area and the Uebetsu river middle reach area lie on a heave positioned west of the Mount Musa/Mount Shitabanupuri fault. There is a distinguished bending in the zone of discontinuous resistivity, and, when geology is considered, it is inferred that there exists a geothermal fluid field formed by the Mount Musa/Mount Shitabanupuri fault running NNW-SSW and a fracture zone that runs across the fault. The two areas are located at spots where gravity gradient is sharp. It is concluded that, with the alteration zone, temperature distribution, etc., also taken into account, the Kumbetsu hot spring area is the more promising as a source of geothermal energy. The water of the Kumbetsu hot spring is of the Cl-SO{sub 4} type, 64.5 degrees C hot and neutral, and arises from the depth where water of meteoric origin is heated by heat conduction. The heat source is supposedly the magma reservoir whose eruption once formed Mount Unabetsu etc. (NEDO)

  11. Magmatism and mineralization ages from northeast area of La Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulacco, Jose H

    2001-01-01

    Three igneous rock groups, characterized as pre, sin and post-kinematics, have intruded the crystalline basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. The ore deposits are associated with Devonian to Carboniferous epizonal granite stocks and batholiths in an area underlain by metamorphic rocks. This granitoids are characterized as post-kinematics magmatism. Model lead ages on the ore deposits (338,8 - 292,1 Ma) are strongly supported by K-Ar ages of the intrusives. The bulk of the north Sierra de San Luis ore deposits are genetically related to late Carboniferous granite plutons. The ore bodies are tungsten veins with greisen envelopes, lead veins, epithermal fluorite veins and REE and Th deposit. A generalized scheme of ore bodies related to granites is proposed. The ore deposits and their lithotectonic setting are characteristic of Gondwana metallogenetic Epoch in the Sierra de San Luis (au)

  12. Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov., a novel thermophilic species isolated from a geothermal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Lan; Dong, Lei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Two thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777, were isolated from two hot springs, one in the Hydrothermal Explosion (Shuirebaozhaqu) area and Frog Mouth Spring in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The taxonomic positions of the two isolates were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. They were able to grow at 50-70 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5% (w/v). Colonies are circular, convex, non-transparent and produce yellow pigment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison clearly demonstrated that strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 represent members of the genus Thermus, and they also detected low-level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 97%) compared with all other species in this genus. Their predominant menaquinone was MK-8. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 were 65.6 mol% and 67.2 mol%, respectively. Based on the results of physiological and biochemical tests and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 could not be classified as representing any species of the genus Thermus with a validly published name. Thus the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 77925(T) ( = DSM 25901(T) = CCTCC 2012061(T)).

  13. Geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemale, J.

    2009-01-01

    The geothermal energy, listed among the new and renewable energy sources, is characterized by a huge variety of techniques and applications. This book deals with the access to underground geothermal resources and with their energy valorization as well. After a presentation of the main geological, hydrogeological and thermal exploitation aspects of this resource, the book presents the different geothermal-related industries in detail, in particular the district heating systems, the aquifer-based heat pumps, the utilizations in the agriculture, fishery and balneology sectors, and the power generation. (J.S.)

  14. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  15. Report on a survey for promotion of geothermal development and an overall analysis of areas in fiscal 1996. Report No.C-3 for the Akinomiya area (First analysis); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-3 (Akinomiya chiiki dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This paper summarizes the result of a survey for promotion of geothermal development and an overall analysis of the Akinomiya area in fiscal 1996. The subject area is located in Katsuo Town in south of Akita Prefecture. The geothermal reservoirs are regulated by the irregular construction created by upheaval and subsidence of the pre-Tertiary basement rocks. The underground temperature construction shows the temperatures rising toward Mt. Yamabushi. The latest geothermal activities should have taken place after the eruption of Mt. Takamatsu. The geothermal activities near the Arayu area have been most active until recently, and is still predominant. Transformation activities were active in the former period of the Pleistocene era. The acidic transformation band has been active after sedimentation of andesites in Mt. Takamatsu thereafter, which should have been active not only in areas where it is now active on the ground surface, but also in greatly wider areas. Geothermal fluid flows being regulated by faults, whereas fractures with high permeability existing along the faults are suitable for developing steam collection. Hot spring waters were produced by the geothermal fluid having risen along the faults and been mixed with and diluted by ground surface water near the ground surface. Areas promising for geothermal development would spread over the areas with high permeability along structural lines such as faults which show the convection type temperature pattern and temperatures higher than 250 degrees C. (NEDO)

  16. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  17. Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

    2013-04-01

    favorable conditions for development of the cod larvae and fry and provide them with food stock, finally, direct influence on forming total stock biomass of cod and helping its population forecast. Key words: satellite monitoring of SST, Northeast Arctic cod, spawning area, maps of SST, prognosis.

  18. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  19. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  20. Geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  1. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  2. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treis, Tania [Southern Oregon Economic Development Department, Medford, OR (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  3. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  4. Geothermal and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The production of geothermal-electric energy, presents relatively few contamination problems. The two bigger problems associated to the geothermal production are the disposition of waste fluids and the discharges to the atmosphere of non-condensable gases as CO 2 , H 2 O and NH 3 . For both problems the procedures and production technologies exist, like it is the integral use of brines and gases cleaning systems. Other problems consist on the local impact to forest areas for the effect of the vapor discharge, the contamination for noise, the contamination of aquifer shallow and the contamination related with the construction and termination of wells

  5. Plant species as a therapeutic resource in areas of the savanna in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Manuele Eufrasio; Ulisses, Ana Vartan Ribeiro de Alencar; Ribeiro, Daiany Alves; de Oliveira, Liana Geraldo Souza; de Macêdo, Delmácia Gonçalves; de Sousa, Francisca de Fátima Silva; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barretto; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida

    2015-08-02

    Ethnobotanical studies have contributed significantly in research of plants with therapeutic potential. The aim of the present study was to learn about the use of native medicinal plants cited by the traditional population in "cerradão" (savanna woodland) areas in Northeast Brazil, providing data on therapeutic indications of the species used and their versatility. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the basis of a standardized questionnaire designed for key informants selected using the "snowball" technique. The selection of plants species with therapeutic potential was performed on the basis of the relative importance (RI) and informant consensus fator (ICF). A total of 78 species were indicated for 87 therapeutic purposes. Of these, 11 species presented great versatility of use (RI>1), as e.g.including Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Hybanthus calceolaria (Mart.) Plumel., Heliotropium cf. indicum L., Croton zehntneri, Croton heliotropiifolius, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Stryphnodendro rotundifolium. Medicinal uses could be generalized Pax & K. Hoffm and Hymenaea courbaril L. The therapeutic indications were grouped into 14 use 15 categories with 594 species-category combinations. The largest number of medicinal species was indicated for illnesses or undefined pain, followed by diseases associated with respiratory, digestive and genitourinaryof body systems. The factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and showed that the, of which Diseases of the Nervous System and, Diseases of the Circulatory System had the greatest agreement 1.0 and 0.87 repectively, Disorders of the Visual Sensory System - Eyes and Respiratory System Disorder showed the highest agreement of use. Most of the species cited by the key informants are well known scientifically, but it is interesting that some have been studied little or not all with regard to confirming their purported medicinal properties and can contribute substantially to pharmacological

  6. Epidemiological investigation and analysis of bronchial asthma in combat troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang SHI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence and related risk factors of occurrence of bronchial asthma in troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China, and explore the corresponding prevention strategy. Methods  A portion of the recruits enlisted in 2012 to Shenyang Command were enrolled as the subjects of the study with three questionnaires. The first questionnaire was carried out during training just after recruit. The second survey was carried out after winter training in selected recruits entering the army for two years, and the last questionnaire was carried out to select recruits just before their discharge from army. The final diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the suspected cases was established by pulmonary function test. Results  In the first period of the survey, the prevalence of asthma was found to be 3.55‰in the newly enlisted recruits; in the second survey 1067 cases were found to be suspicious to have asthma; in the last survey, 26 subjects were finally diagnosed to have asthma, the incidence was 1.73‰. The most common symptoms of the illness at first attack were cough (88.5% and wheeziness (56.3%, and the main inducing factors were respiratory tract infection (76.9% and exposure to cold air (65.4%, and it frequently appeared at early morning (30.8% and forenoon (23.1%. Asthmatic attack presented obvious seasonal predisposition, and it occurred in 19 of 26 patients (73.1% during winter, and 10 (38.5% during spring. The attacks of asthma could be increased by fatigue, allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust, or dysthymia. Conclusion  Fatigue may be the most frequent factor in inducing asthma, and allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust and dysthymia are the risk factors of asthmatic attack. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.13

  7. Ecological Land Fragmentation Evaluation and Dynamic Change of a Typical Black Soil Farming Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is a land use category provided with considerable ecological value and a vital indicator reflecting regional eco-environmental quality. However, it has experienced severe fragmentation during the rapid urbanization in China which strongly threatened the regional ecological security, land use pattern and human living environment. Therefore, analysis of spatiotemporal change of ecological land use and ecological landscape pattern is particularly essential. In this paper, a case study was made in Nong’an County, which is a typical black soil farming area located in northeast China facing severe conflicts among cultivated land protection, urban expansion and ecological security. A landscape fragmentation evaluation model was proposed to measure the degree of regional ecological land fragmentation. We also determined the land use change features through the methods of dynamic change information exploration and by performing transfer trajectory analysis during the period from 1996 to 2014. The results showed that the ecological land in Nong’an County has experienced increasing fragmentation during the past 18 years. The statistical results showed that the land transition between ecological land and other land categories was quite frequent, and it especially appeared as a dramatic decline of grassland and severe increase of saline-alkali land. In addition, human interferences especially construction activities and cultivated land occupation were still the dominant factors to the fragmentation of ecological land and the frequent transition among the land use categories. The fragmentation degree showed a downward tendency at the end of the study, which indicated noticeable benefits of land use regulation and land protection policies directed towards land ecological value. This study aims to provide a scientific evaluation model for measuring ecological land fragmentation degree, and figure out the regional land use transition

  8. Geothermal energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Geothermal energy research and development by the Sunshine Project is subdivided into five major categories: exploration and exploitation technology, hot-water power generation technology, volcanic power generation technology, environmental conservation and multi-use technology, and equipment materials research. The programs are being carried out by various National Research Institutes, universities, and private industry. During 1976 and 1977, studies were made of the extent of resources, reservoir structure, ground water movement, and neotectonics at the Onikobe and Hachimantai geothermal fields. Studies to be performed in the near future include the use of new prospecting methods, including artificial magnetotellurics, heat balance calculation, brightspot techniques, and remote sensing, as well as laboratory studies of the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of rock. Studies are continuing in the areas of ore formation in geothermal environments, hot-dry-rock drilling and fracturing, large scale prospecting technology, high temperature-pressure drilling muds and well cements, and arsenic removal techniques.

  9. Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-08-01

    This general publication describes geothermal direct use systems, and how they have been effectively used throughout the country. It also describes the DOE program R&D efforts in this area, and summarizes several projects using direct use technology.

  10. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  11. Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

  12. 3D Groundwater flow model at the Upper Rhine Graben scale to delineate preferential target areas for geothermal projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandine Les Landes, Antoine; Guillon, Théophile; Peter-Borie, Mariane; Rachez, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Any deep unconventional geothermal project remains risky because of the uncertainty regarding the presence of the geothermal resource at depth and the drilling costs increasing accordingly. That's why this resource must be located as precisely as possible to increase the chances of successful projects and their economic viability. To minimize the risk, as much information as possible should be gathered prior to any drilling. Usually, the position of the exploration wells of geothermal energy systems is chosen based on structural geology observations, geophysics measurements and geochemical analyses. Confronting these observations to results from additional disciplines should bring more objectivity in locating the region to explore and where to implant the geothermal system. The Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is a tectonically active rift system that corresponds to one branch of the European Cenozoic Rift System where the basin hosts a significant potential for geothermal energy. The large fault network inherited from a complex tectonic history and settled under the sedimentary deposits hosts fluid circulation patterns. Geothermal anomalies are strongly influenced by fluid circulations within permeable structures such as fault zones. In order to better predict the location of the geothermal resource, it is necessary to understand how it is influenced by heat transport mechanisms such as groundwater flow. The understanding of fluid circulation in hot fractured media at large scale can help in the identification of preferential zones at a finer scale where additional exploration can be carried out. Numerical simulations is a useful tool to deal with the issue of fluid circulations through large fault networks that enable the uplift of deep and hot fluids. Therefore, we build a numerical model to study groundwater flow at the URG scale (150 x 130km), which aims to delineate preferential zones. The numerical model is based on a hybrid method using a Discrete Fracture Network

  13. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  14. Fiscal 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Annex to on-the-ground survey report, geothermal development promotion survey (Part 2. Electromagnetic surveillance using simplified MT method - No. 30: Western part of Hakkoda area); 1989 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo (Denji tansa (MT kan'i ho) hokokusho - No.30 Hakkoda seibu chiiki - 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-01-01

    An electromagnetic surveillance using the simplified MT (magnetotelluric) method was conducted to help clarify the geothermal structure in the western part of the Hakkoda area, Aomori Prefecture. The survey covered approximately 60 km{sup 2,} and involved 38 survey points, 3 magnetic field components, 2 electric field components, not less than 10 measuring frequencies in the range of 0.01-125 Hz, and a measuring time of not less than 2 hours. An analysis was performed, with data previously collected at 60 points added to the data collected at the said 38 points. As the result, the resistivity structure in this area was divided into 3 layers of high-low-high as described from the surface to the depth, and the middle layer was further divided into 3 layers of high-middle-low and the bottom layer into 2 layers of high-low. The result conformed though roughly to the result obtained by the electrical logging carried out in the structure boring. In the geothermal zone including the Sukayu hot spa in the southeastern part of this area and along the Jogakura valley, there exist a complicated resistivity structure attributable to geothermal activities and a number of discontinuous lines of resistivity running in the directions of WNW-ESE and N-S. This enabled an inference that there is a deep-seated geothermal source between Odake and Akamizusawa extending eastward from the said geothermal zone. (NEDO)

  15. Geothermal district heating system feasibility analysis, Thermopolis, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.; Mickley, M.C.

    1982-04-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a district heating system to serve the residential, commercial, and public sectors in Thermopolis. The project geothermal resource assessment, based on reviews of existing information and data, indicated that substantial hot water resources likely exist in the Rose Dome region 10 miles northeast of Thermopolis, and with quantities capable of supporting the proposed geothermal uses. Preliminary engineering designs were developed to serve the space heating and hot water heating demands for buildings in the Thermopolis-East Thermopolis town service area. The heating district design is based on indirect geothermal heat supply and includes production wells, transmission lines, heat exchanger units, and the closed loop distribution and collection system necessary to serve the individual customers. Three options are presented for disposal of the cooled waters-reinjection, river disposal, and agricultural reuse. The preliminary engineering effort indicates the proposed system is technically feasible. The design is sized to serve 1545 residences, 190 businesses, and 24 public buildings. The peak design meets a demand of 128.2 million Btu at production rates of 6400 gpm.

  16. Geothermal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzella A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology, spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth’s crust.

  17. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  18. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs

  19. Geothermal investigations in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ravnik

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodology and the results of geothermal investigations, based on seventy-two boreholes in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia.The data of fundamental geothermal quantities: formation temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production of rocks as well as surface heat flow density are stored in a computerized data base. Their synthesis is given in the map of formation temperatures at 1000 m depth and in the map of surface heat flow density. In both maps the thermal difference between the Pannonian basin in theeastern and the Dinarides in the western part of Slovenia is clearly expressed.However, in the boundary area between these two tectonic units, for a distance of about 100 km in SW-NE direction, elevated horizontal gradients of formation temperature as well as heat flow density are evident. A small positive thermal anomaly in the Ljubljana depression is conspicuous.The low-temperature geothermal resources in Slovenia such as thermalsprings and thermal water from boreholes, are estimated to have a flow rate of 1120 kg/s, corresponding to the ideal total heat production of 144 MWt. In the geothermally promising areas amounting to 3200 km2 the rate of accessible resource base (ARB down to the depth of 3 km has been assessed to about 8.5 x lO 20» J.

  20. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you

  1. Japanese geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    At the end of the seventies, the NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organisation) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry have started two independent projects of deep geothermics research in Honshu island (Japan). The two sites are 50 km apart of each other and the boreholes have been drilled up to 2300 and 1100 m of depth, respectively, in hot-dry moderately fractured volcanic rocks. These sites are characterized by high geothermal gradients with a rock temperature reaching 250 C at the bottom of the wells. Hydraulic circulation tests are still in progress to evaluate the profitability of these sites. (J.S.). 1 fig., 1 photo

  2. Using satellite data for monitoring temperature conditions in fishing areas of the Northeast Atlantic for improving prognosis of fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, G.; Borisov, V.; Bogdanov, M.; Bulatova, T.

    2012-04-01

    The attempt to establish the relationship between current temperature conditions in fishing areas of the Northeast Atlantic (The Norwegian and Barents Seas) and the management of capelin fishery was made. The capelin stock depends on abundance of its predators, as well as on hydrological and climatic conditions, which affect the spawning success, the egg hatching, duration and direction of the larval drift, availability of micro and macrozooplankton food to capelin at its various life stages. Taking into account all these points and importance of capelin for Norwegian and Russian fisheries, we can easily understand an heightened interest in cause of the observed variations in capelin stocks. We are still inclined to see hydrology as the driving force of these variations. Hydrological conditions in concrete year influence on capelin directly, as well as its prey stocks and predators, which, in their turn, affect capelin. The sea surface temperature (SST) is the most suitable index of annual and seasonal variations in hydrological conditions. The temperature data were derived from satellite monitoring basically. Continuous long-term database on the sea surface temperature (SST) comprising results of regional satellite monitoring (the NOAA satellite data) is used to resolve several applied problems particularly for prognosis of fish recruitment strenght. The maps of SST were created with the satellite data, as well as information of vessels, buoies and coastal stations. Here we use the maps of SST in fishing areas of the Norwegian and Barents Seas to clarify impact which duration of warm and cold seasons has on successful survival of capelin during its first year of life. The identified relation between onset of these seasons and their duration can allow us to forecast strength of the next capelin year-classes. Seasonal dynamics of heat content water in areas of young capelin presence were analyzed by the time when the 5°C isotherm passed the 35°E meridian (from the

  3. The Springhill Formation (Jurassic-Cretaceous) as a potential low enthalpy geothermal reservoir in the Cerro Sombrero area, Magallanes Basin, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarrigue, S. C.; Elgueta, S.; Arancibia, G.; Morata, D.; Sanchez, J.; Rojas, L.

    2017-12-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy technologies are being developed around the world as part of policies to replace the use of conventional sources of energy by renewable ones. The reuse of abandoned oil and gas wells in sedimentary basins, whose reservoirs are saturated with water at temperatures above 120°C, is of increasing interest due to the low initial cost.In Chile, interest in applying this technology is focused on the Magallanes Basin (Austral Basin in Argentina) in the extreme south of the country, where important hydrocarbon deposits have been exploited for more than six decades with more than 3,500 wells drilled to depths of over 4,000m. Hydrocarbons have been extracted mainly from the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous Springhill Formation, which includes sandstone lithofacies with porosities of 12% to 19% and permeability of 10mD and 1100mD. This formation has been drilled mainly at depths of 1500m to 3000m, the estimated geothermal gradient in the zone is 4.9 °C/100m with well bottom temperature measurements oscillating between 60° and 170°C, sufficient for district heating, and even, electricity generation by means of ORC technologies.To understand in detail the behavior and distribution of the different lithofacies of the Springhill Formation in the Sombrero Oil and Gas Field, sedimentological and geological 3D models have been generated from existing well logs and seismic data. To comprehend the quality of the reservoirs on the other hand, many petrophysical studies of drill core samples representative of the different lithofacies, complemented by electric well log interpretations, were carried out. Results confirm the existence of at least two quartz-rich sandstone lithofacies as potential geothermal reservoirs. In the principal settlement in this area, Cerro Sombrero township (1,800 population), the annual average temperature is 6.4°C, requiring constant domestic heating which, at present comes exclusively from natural gas. The study shows

  4. Geothermal properties and groundwater flow estimated with a three-dimensional geological model in a late Pleistocene terrace area, central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabiki, A.; Takemura, T.; Hamamoto, S.; Komatsu, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction The ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a highly efficient and renewable energy technology for space heating and cooling, with benefits that include energy conservation and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. One result of the huge Tohoku-oki earthquake and tsunami and the subsequent nuclear disasters is that GSHPs are receiving more attention from the media and they are being introduced by some local governments. Heat generated by underground GSHP installation, however, can pollute the geothermal environment or change groundwater flow patterns . In this study, we estimated possible effects from the use of GSHPs in the Tokyo area with a three-dimensional (3D) geological model. 2. Geological model The Tokyo Metropolitan Area is surrounded by the Late Pleistocene terraces called the Musashino uplands. The terrace surfaces are densely populated residential areas. One of these surfaces, the Shimosueyohi surface, formed along the Tama River during the last deglacial period. The CRE-NUCHS-1 core (Funabiki et al., 2011) was obtained from this surface, and the lithology, heat transfer coefficients, and chemical characteristics of the sediments were analyzed. In this study, we used borehole log data from a 5 km2 area surrounding the CRE-NUCHS-1 core site to create a 3D geological model. In this area, the Pleistocene Kazusa Group is overlain by terrace gravels and a volcanic ash layer called the Kanto Loam. The terrace gravels occur mainly beneath the Kanda, Kitazawa, and Karasuyama rivers , which flow parallel to the Tama River, whereas away from the rivers , the Kanto Loam directly overlies the Kazusa Group sediments. 3. Geothermal disturbance and groundwater flow Using the geological model, we calculated the heat transfer coefficients and groundwater flow velocities in the sediments. Within the thick terrace gravels, which are at relatively shallow depth (8-20 m), heat transfer coefficients were high and groundwater flow was relatively fast. The amount

  5. Policy for geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, S [Public Utilities Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

    1973-01-01

    Government actions related to Japanese geothermal energy development in the past include: a mining and industrial research subsidy of 27 million yen granted to Kyushu Electric Power Co. in 1952, a mining and industrial research subsidy of 13 million yen granted to Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. in 1960, a study on steam production technology for geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 3.5 hundred million yen from the Research Development Corporation of Japan, and a study on steam production technology for large scale geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 7.6 hundred million yen by the Research Development Corporation of Japan. The following projects are planned by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for 1973: a two-year geothermal power promotion including investigations into the utilization of hot water, new methods for geothermal reservoir detection and steam well drilling, and environmental effects, studies on hydrothermal systems, basic investigations for geothermal indicators in 30 areas, and a means to finance the construction of geothermal power plants in Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture) and Hatchobara (Oita Prefecture).

  6. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of basic map from among maps of nationwide geothermally promising areas (south Kyushu and north Kyushu); 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Zenkoku chinetsu yubo chiikizu no uchi motozu sakusei (Minaikyushu oyobi Kitakyushu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    With an objective to prepare the basic map from among maps of geothermally promising areas in the south Kyushu and north Kyushu, comprehensive analysis has been performed from the standpoint of geothermal analysis by combining the data derived from remote sensing with the data obtained by different physical exploration processes. The analysis has used mainly the gravity data, magnetism data, radar lineament, and Landsat lineament, as well as the latest data processing technology and analytical methods. As a result of the analysis, the area around Kirishima in south Kyushu was indicated as the most promising area for the future geothermal development. This area contains a series of new volcanoes, has the fault systems grown widely, and is expected of existence of water permeable reservoirs in deep underground. The Kagoshima bay area and the Sakurajima Island area were also regarded promising. In the north Kyushu area, such promising areas were indicated as the Futagoyama area in which highly magnetized and high-density volcanic rocks are recognized, and moreover, penetration rocks with magnetic anomaly are recognized in wide area, the area with volcanic actions from the Pliocene period to the Quarternary period, and the area at the north latitude of 33 degrees 38 minutes, and the east longitude of 131 degrees 02 minute. (NEDO)

  7. Deep geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The hot-dry-rocks located at 3-4 km of depth correspond to low permeable rocks carrying a large amount of heat. The extraction of this heat usually requires artificial hydraulic fracturing of the rock to increase its permeability before water injection. Hot-dry-rocks geothermics or deep geothermics is not today a commercial channel but only a scientific and technological research field. The Soultz-sous-Forets site (Northern Alsace, France) is characterized by a 6 degrees per meter geothermal gradient and is used as a natural laboratory for deep geothermal and geological studies in the framework of a European research program. Two boreholes have been drilled up to 3600 m of depth in the highly-fractured granite massif beneath the site. The aim is to create a deep heat exchanger using only the natural fracturing for water transfer. A consortium of german, french and italian industrial companies (Pfalzwerke, Badenwerk, EdF and Enel) has been created for a more active participation to the pilot phase. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 photos

  8. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  9. Report on the geothermal development promotion survey. No.38. Mt. Aso West area; Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. No. 38 Asozan seibu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The paper summed up the results of the geothermal development promotion survey 'Mt. Aso West area' which was carried out at Choyo village and Kugino village, Aso county, and at Otsu town, Kikuchi county, Kumamoto prefecture, from FY 1991 to FY 1994. In the survey, the following were conducted for the comprehensive analysis: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone survey, geochemical survey and high precision MT method survey, and temperature log, electrical log, water injection test, core test and hydrothermal survey by drilling 7 structural boreholes. In the numerical analysis of thermal structure models, the present geothermal manifestation was obtained, assuming that the past magma reservoir in a state of agglomeration/semi-agglomeration exists in the depths of caldera and that the depth is set at 4km. It is assumed that the deep hydrothermal reservoir around Yunoya/Tarutama exists around the depth of 500-600m below sea level and that the temperature is 230-300 degrees C. The meteoric water permeating into the depths forms high-temperature reservoirs around Yunoya/Tarutama. The reservoir rises up to about 400m below sea level to become a vapor-dominated phase. It forms an acidic SO{sub 4} type reservoir phase around the earth surface. (NEDO)

  10. Overview of Resources for Geothermal Absorption Cooling for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature review in three areas: available low-temperature/coproduced geothermal resources in the United States, energy use for space conditioning in commercial buildings, and state of the art of geothermal absorption cooling.

  11. Preliminary investigation of two areas in New York State in terms of possible potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy. [Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1978-09-27

    Two areas in New York State were studied in terms of possible long range potential for geothermal energy: the Adirondack Mountains which are undergoing contemporary doming, and an anomalous circular feature centered on Panther Mountain in the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The domical configuration of the area undergoing uplift, combined with subsidence at the northeastern perimeter of the dome, argues for a geothermal rather than glacioisostatic origin. A contemporary hot spot near the crust-mantle boundary is proposed as the mechanism of doming, based on analogy with uplifts of similar dimensions elsewhere in the world, some of which have associated Tertiary volcanics. The lack of thermal springs in the area, or high heat flow in drill holes up to 370 m deep, indicates that the front of the inferred thermal pulse must be at some depth greater than 1 km. From isopach maps by Rickard (1969, 1973), it is clear that the present Adirondack dome did not come into existence until sometime after Late Devonian time. Strata younger than this are not present to provide further time stratigraphic refinement of this lower limit. However, the consequent radial drainage pattern in the Adirondacks suggests that the dome is a relatively young tectonic feature. Using arguments based on fixed hot spots in central Africa, and the movement of North American plate, Kevin Burke (Appendix I) suggests that the uplift may be less than 4 m.y. old.The other area of interest, the Panther Mountain circular feature in the Catskill Mountains, was studied using photogeology, gravity and magnetic profiling, gravity modeling, conventional field methods, and local shallow seismic refraction profiling.

  12. Prospecting for a Blind Geothermal System Utilizing Geologic and Geophysical Data, Seven Troughs Range, Northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Corina

    To aid in the discovery and evaluation of blind resources, it is important to utilize geologic, geophysical, and geochemical techniques to find the required elements (e.g., heat source, fluid to transport the heat, and permeability in a reservoir) for geothermal energy production. Based on a regional low resistivity anomaly discovered through a reconnaissance magnetotelluric (MT) survey, detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and a 2 m temperature survey were conducted to delineate the most likely areas for blind geothermal activity in the Seven Troughs Range, Nevada. The Seven Troughs Range resides in the northwestern Basin and Range province 190 km northeast of Reno and 50 km northwest of Lovelock in western Nevada. There is no known geothermal system in the area. Mesozoic metasedimentary strata and intrusions dominate the northern and southern parts of the range but are nonconformably overlain by a thick sequence (~ 1.5 km) of Oligocene to Miocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and Quaternary sediments in the central part of the range. The southern part of the range consists of a basement horst block bounded by two major range-front faults, with Holocene fault scarps marking the more prominent fault on the east side of the range. In contrast, several gently to moderately west-tilted fault blocks, with good exposures of the Tertiary volcanic strata and bounded by a series of steeply east-dipping normal faults, characterize the central part of the range. Kinematic analysis of faults in the range and regional relations indicate a west-northwest-trending extension direction. Accordingly, slip and dilation tendency analyses suggest that north-northeast striking faults are the most favorably oriented for reactivation and fluid flow under the current stress field. Two areas in the Seven Troughs Range have a favorable structural setting for generating permeability and channeling geothermal fluids to the near surface: 1) A major right step in the range

  13. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Maricopa County Geothermal Development Plan evaluated the market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified six potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F) and in addition, four suspected intermediate temperature areas (90{sup 0} to 150{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0} to 300{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in and near the Phoenix metropolitan area where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing, trade and service sectors of the regional economy provides opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. A regional energy use analysis is included containing energy use and price projections. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support this growth, though agricultural water use is expected to diminish. The study also contains a detailed section matching geothermal resources to potential users. Two comparative analyses providing economic details for space heating projects are incorporated.

  14. FY 2000 report on the survey for extraction of areas promising in strategic exploration geothermal development. Kirishima region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chosa chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kirishima chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kirishima region with the aim of contributing to working out future medium- and long-term plans of geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount, extraction of technology development subjects effectively connecting to the increase in kW, etc. In the study, literature is collected such as reports of the surveys already made in the Kirishima region and the periphery, the data were re-analyzed and divided into geological structure elements and geological structure elements, and a conceptual model of the geothermal system in the whole Kirishima region was made. As a result, two areas were extracted for which the existence of high temperature geothermal reservoirs is expected. The total resource amount was estimated at 2,785MWe at promising area 1 and at 3,237MWe at promising area 2. With the resource amount density, data likelihood and distribution status of national/quasi-national parks as extraction criteria, 6 out of these promising areas were focused on important areas for survey. Geothermal structure models were made for each of the 6 areas, and the evaluation of the resource amount using evaluation assist tools was carried out. (NEDO)

  15. Honey Lake Geothermal Project, Lassen County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    The drilling, completion, and testing of deep well WEN-2 for a hybrid electric power project which will use the area's moderate temperature geothermal fluids and locally procured wood fuel is reported. The project is located within the Wendel-Amedee Known Geothermal Resource Area.

  16. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  17. FY 1999 report on the comprehensive analysis of the geothermal development promotion survey. Forth. No.C-3 Akinomiya area; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No. C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 4 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    As part of the geothermal development promotion survey, the comprehensive analysis was made on the survey of the existence amount of geothermal resource in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi town, Akita prefecture, which was conducted in FY 1999. In the evaluation of reservoirs, the following were carried out: comprehensive analysis of various data on the surface survey, well exploration, etc., which were stored in surveys from the primary to the forth, modification/construction of geothermal system models, numerical simulation using 3D models, etc. In the long-term jetting test, production/reduction tests were conducted using N9-AY-3 and N10-AY-8 as production wells and N8-AY-1 and N10-AY-6 as reduction wells. The results of the comprehensive analysis were outlined as follows. The distribution of high temperature zones promising as areas for geothermal development was grasped. The distribution of the main fracture structure underground was grasped. A total amount of 124t/h steam was confirmed by short/long term jetting tests. In the simulation of prediction of production, the result was obtained that there was potential power generation of 30MW in the Akinomiya area alone and 60MW both in the Akinomiya area and the Wasabizawa area. (NEDO)

  18. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  19. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  20. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orren, L.H.; Ziman, G.M.; Jones, S.C.; Lee, T.K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model is used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents are analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance are examined. (MHR)

  1. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Supplementary survey on data processing (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1992, chemical/isotopic analysis of fumarolic gas in the Yoshioka district was made to elucidate the underground geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso in Kumamoto Prefecture. Items for analysis of fumarolic gas were 16 items including the temperature, concentration of non-condensable gas, CO2, H2O, CH{sub 4}, {delta}D(CH{sub 4}) and {delta}{sup 13}C(CO2). Items for analysis of condensed water were 9 items including pH, Na, NH{sub 4}, {delta}D(H2O) and {delta}{sup 18}O. As a result of the analysis, the main component of non-condensable gas of fumarolic gas was CO2, and the composition was similar to that of the fumarolic gas in the Yunoya/Tarutama district in the periphery. It was presumed that the origin and formation mechanism of fumarolic gas were also similar to those in the Yunoya/Tarutama district. It was presumed that the deep geothermal reservoir which is the source of vapor/gas generation was composed of the neutral or alkalescent geothermal water, and a possibility that the reservoir is connected with the deep geothermal reservoir in the Yunoya district was presumed from a viewpoint of geographical location. (NEDO)

  2. Linkage of the king eider population in Northeast Greenland: Migration, moult and discovery of a new offshore wintering area at Spitsbergenbanken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Sonne, Christian

    In late July 2009, two female king eiders were caught on the breeding grounds in Myggbukta, Northeast Greenland and equipped with satellite transmitters. Both individuals were tracked for approximately two years. The birds remained in the Myggbukta area until the onset of the autumn migration...... arrival 6 April) where they stayed for some time before returning on the spring migration to Greenland. During a ship-based survey in the offshore winter location at Spitsbergenbanken in April 2013, a previously unknown wintering ground with approximately 10.000 king eiders was discovered. The birds were...... concentrated in a partly ice-covered area 79 km from shore and of about 20 m depth. The number of king eiders indicated that Spitsbergenbanken is a wintering area for both the East Greenland and the Svalbard breeding populations. The discovery has important conservation implications due to the expanding...

  3. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sionneau, B.; Dusclaud, M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  4. NEDO Forum 2000. Geothermal technology development session (new development of geothermal energy); Chinetsu gijutsu kaihatsu session. Chinetsu energy no shintenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    The following themes were presented at this session: (1) geothermal development in the future, (2) the current status of geothermal development and utilization, (3) surveys on the promotion of geothermal development, and (4) verification and investigation on geothermal exploration technologies, development of hot water utilizing power generation plants, and international cooperation on geothermal development and utilization. In Item 2, report was made on the current status of geothermal power plants in Japan and their future development targets, long-term overview of geothermal development, measures and budgets to achieve the targets of geothermal development. In Item 3, it is reported that out of 48 areas completed of the survey (including the new promotion surveyed areas), the areas possible of steam power generation and confirmed of temperatures higher than 200 degrees C are 30 areas, and the areas possible of binary power generation (using down hole pumps) and small to medium scale power generation, confirmed of temperatures of 100 to 200 degrees C are 13 areas. In Item 4, reports were made on the reservoir bed variation exploring method, surveys on deep geothermal resources, a 10-MW demonstration plant, a system to detect well bottom information during excavation of geothermal wells, a technology to collect deep geothermal resources, and a hot-rock using power generation system. In Item 5, geothermal exploration in remote islands in the eastern part of Indonesia, and the IEA cooperation projects were reported. (NEDO)

  5. FY 1999 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. No. B-6 Tsujinodake area (Tertiary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki (dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of confirming the existence of geothermal reservoirs, this survey was conducted as Survey B in the range of 30km{sup 2} east of Lake Ikeda at the south east end of Satsuma Peninsula, Kagoshima pref. from FY 1997 to FY 1999. By the geology/alteration zone survey, fluid geochemical survey, electromagnetic survey and gravity survey which were conducted in FY 1997 as surface survey, the following three were extracted as the areas which have great potentiality of geothermal resource existence: 1) area along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line on which calderas and explosion craters lie (north part); 2) area along the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line on which Ata central dome volcanic rocks lie (central part); 3) area around Kozukahama where the south wall of the Ata caldera extends in east-west direction (south part). In the survey after that, in north part, it was considered that aquicludes in clayey alteration zone were widely distributed around levels of 100m above - 200m below sea level and there existed geothermal reservoirs under the aquicludes. It was presumed that the mixed water of sea water and surface water was thermally conducted by heat sources of 300-490 degrees C and geothermal reservoirs of 260-270 degrees C were formed. (NEDO)

  6. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  7. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  8. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  9. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  10. What are the cultural effects on consumers' perceptions? A case study covering coalho cheese in the Brazilian northeast and southeast area using word association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eveline K B; Esmerino, Erick A; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius S; da Silva, Maria Aparecida A P; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of regional diversity aspects related to consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese, with Brazilian Northeast and Southeast consumers (n=400, divided equally in each area) using Word Association (WA) task. Different perceptions were detected for both Northeast and Southeast consumers, and among 17 categories elicited for describing coalho cheese, only 7 categories (positive feeling, social aspects, sensory characteristic, dairy product technology, negative feeling, and lack of quality standard) presented significant differences in the frequency of mention according to chi-square per cell approach. The application of the discriminant technique Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the categories "Social", "Accompaniment", "Manufacturing method" were the main responsible for differentiating consumers' perceptions of both areas. Overall, the main dimensions involved in the consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese from different Brazilian regions were identified, thus obtaining comprehensive insights that can be used as a guideline for coalho cheese producers to develop marketing strategies considering the intra-cultural differences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasparovic, N

    1962-07-01

    Live steam, transformed steam, and steam produced by expansion flashing are outlined with respect to their use in the production of electricity. The capacity, pressure, and temperature of a steam must be determined empirically by exploratory drilling. These factors are dependent on time and on the extent of nearby drilling-activity. Particulars of geothermal-steam power-plants such as steam dryness, hot-water flashing, condensation, gas extraction, and corrosion are discussed in detail. All available data (as per 1962) concerning the costs of operation and construction of geothermal power plants are tabulated. For space-heating purposes, two basic systems are utilized. When little corrosion or precipitation is expected, an open system is used, otherwise, closed systems are necessary. The space-heating system of Reykjavik, Iceland is cited as an example. A brief description of industrial applications of geothermal energy, such as the extraction of NaCl, D/sub 2/O, or boric acid, is provided. Thirty-two references are given.

  12. Proceedings and findings of the geothermal commercialization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.; Dhillon, H.

    1979-04-01

    The proceedings are presented of a Geothermal Commercialization Workshop conducted by the Division of Geothermal Resource Management, Department of Energy. The workshop was held in January-February 1979 at The MITRE Corporation facility in McLean, Virginia. The workshop addressed geothermal hydrothermal commercialization achievements and needs in the areas of Marketing and Outreach, Economics, Scenarios, and Progress Monitoring.

  13. Panel discussion on exploitation of geothermal resources in thermal zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viramonte, J G; Mange, J; Stefani, G

    1978-03-01

    The topics discussed include the major known geothermal resources, varying ways of exploiting geothermal resources, technical and economic difficulties in the exploitation, the place of geothermal energy in the total energy policy of a given country, advanced exploration techniques, and indications of needed areas of study. The panelists represented most of the South American countries, Mexico, and Italy. (JSR)

  14. A Geological and Geophysical Study of the Geothermal Energy Potential of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    The Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located about 75 km north of Nome, was the subject of an intensive, reconnaissance-level geophysical and geological study during a 90-day period in the summer of 1979. The thermal springs are located in a northeast-oriented, oval area of thawed ground approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} in size, bordered on the north by the Pilgrim River. A second, much smaller, thermal anomaly was discovered about 3 km northeast of the main thawed area. Continuous permafrost in the surrounding region is on the order of 100 m thick. Present surface thermal spring discharge is {approx} 4.2 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (67 gallons/minute) of alkali-chloride-type water at a temperature of 81 C. The reason for its high salinity is not yet understood because of conflicting evidence for seawater vs. other possible water sources. Preliminary Na-K-Ca geothermometry suggests deep reservoir temperatures approaching 150 C, but interpretation of these results is difficult because of their dependence on an unknown water mixing history. Based on these estimates, and present surface and drill hole water temperatures, Pilgrim Springs would be classified as an intermediate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system.

  15. Isotope study in geothermal fields in Java Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo, Z.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study in two geothermal fields, Dieng and Kamojang, in Java island by utilizing isotope technique has been carried out. Isotopic data of wells, springs and other geothermal manifestations providing informations on the recharge area of precipitation contributed to geothermal resources, flow paths and origin of geothermal fluids. The data of oxygen shift has also provided information on the characteristic the fields. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Insight into the Geothermal Structure in Chingshui, Ilan, Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Lun-Tao Tong; Shoung Ouyang; Tai-Rong Guo; Ching-Ray Lee; Kou-Hsin Hu; Chun-Li Lee; Chun-Jao Wang

    2008-01-01

    The Chingshui geothermal field is the largest known productive geothermal area in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to delineate this geothermal structure by integrating geophysical data and borehole information. The existence of a magma chamber in the shallow crust and shallow intrusive igneous rock results in a high heat flow and geothermal gradient; furthermore, the NE deep fault system within the meta-sandstones provides meteoric recharge from a higher elevation to artesianally drive t...

  17. Fluid inclusion from drill hole DW-5, Hohi geothermal area, Japan: Evidence of boiling and procedure for estimating CO2 content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasada, M.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Fluid inclusion studies have been used to derive a model for fluid evolution in the Hohi geothermal area, Japan. Six types of fluid inclusions are found in quartz obtained from the drill core of DW-5 hole. They are: (I) primary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (II) primary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (III) primary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling); (IV) secondary liquid-rich with evidence of boiling; (V) secondary liquid-rich without evidence of boiling; (VI) secondary vapor-rich (assumed to have been formed by boiling). Homogenization temperatures (Th) range between 196 and 347??C and the final melting point of ice (Tm) between -0.2 and -4.3??C. The CO2 content was estimated semiquantitatively to be between 0 and 0.39 wt. % based on the bubble behavior on crushing. NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of fluid inclusions was determined as being between 0 and 6.8 wt. % after minor correction for CO2 content. Fluid inclusions in quartz provide a record of geothermal activity of early boiling and later cooling. The CO2 contents and homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions with evidence of boiling generally increase with depth; these changes, and NaCl equivalent solid solute salinity of the fluid can be explained by an adiabatic boiling model for a CO2-bearing low-salinity fluid. Some high-salinity inclusions without CO2 are presumed to have formed by a local boiling process due to a temperature increase or a pressure decrease. The liquid-rich primary and secondary inclusions without evidence of boiling formed during the cooling process. The salinity and CO2 content of these inclusions are lower than those in the boiling fluid at the early stage, probably as a result of admixture with groundwater. ?? 1986.

  18. Seismic characterisation for geothermal energy prospecting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huck, A.; Groot, P. de; Simmelink, E.; Vandeweijer, V.P.; Willemsen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The city of The Hague intends to use geothermal energy to heat approx. 4000 houses in a planned urban development area called The Hague South-West. This paper describes the application of advanced seismic interpretation workflows to help positioning a geothermal doublet consisting of one injector -

  19. Structural controls on fluid circulation at the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex (CCVC) geothermal area (Chile-Argentina), revealed by soil CO2 and temperature, self-potential, and helium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulleau, Emilie; Bravo, Francisco; Pinti, Daniele L.; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pizarro, Marcela; Tardani, Daniele; Muñoz, Carlos; Sanchez, Juan; Sano, Yuji; Takahata, Naoto; de la Cal, Federico; Esteban, Carlos; Morata, Diego

    2017-07-01

    Natural geothermal systems are limited areas characterized by anomalously high heat flow caused by recent tectonic or magmatic activity. The heat source at depth is the result of the emplacement of magma bodies, controlled by the regional volcano-tectonic setting. In contrast, at a local scale a well-developed fault-fracture network favors the development of hydrothermal cells, and promotes the vertical advection of fluids and heat. The Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ), straddling Chile and Argentina, has an important, yet unexplored and undeveloped geothermal potential. Studies on the lithological and tectonic controls of the hydrothermal circulation are therefore important for a correct assessment of the geothermal potential of the region. Here, new and dense self-potential (SP), soil CO2 and temperature (T) measurements, and helium isotope data measured in fumaroles and thermal springs from the geothermal area located in the north-eastern flank of the Copahue volcanic edifice, within the Caviahue Caldera (the Caviahue-Copahue Volcanic Complex - CCVC) are presented. Our results allowed to the constraint of the structural origin of the active thermal areas and the understanding of the evolution of the geothermal system. NE-striking faults in the area, characterized by a combination of SP, CO2, and T maxima and high 3He/4He ratios (up to 8.16 ± 0.21Ra, whereas atmospheric Ra is 1.382 × 10- 6), promote the formation of vertical permeability preferential pathways for fluid circulation. WNW-striking faults represent low-permeability pathways for hydrothermal fluid ascent, but promote infiltration of meteoric water at shallow depths, which dilute the hydrothermal input. The region is scattered with SP, CO2, and T minima, representing self-sealed zones characterized by impermeable altered rocks at depth, which create local barriers for fluid ascent. The NE-striking faults seem to be associated with the upflowing zones of the geothermal system, where the boiling process

  20. Report on achievements in fiscal 1974 in Sunshine Project. Study on hot water systems in geothermal areas; 1974 nendo chinetsu chiiki no netsusuikei ni kansuru kenkyu seika chukan hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    This study has begun in fiscal 1973 under a five year plan with an objective to elucidate origin and maintenance of reservoirs of geothermal fluids. To achieve the objective, estimation was made on the systems of infiltration, storage and gushing of the fluids, particularly on infiltration areas. In the hydraulic flow rate study, observation was carried out in the Onikubi area on amount of rainfall, air pressures, temperatures, electric conductivity, and pH, and in ten fluid sources on flow rates, temperatures and pH. Flow rate observation was started at three rivers. In the Kuju area, flow rate observation was started on four fluid sources. Observations were started on temperatures, electric conductivity, flow rates, amount of rainfall by using the Takenoyu geothermal steal wells, and on amount of rainfall in the Teraono and Hacchobara areas. In the study of isotopic geology, site analyses and water collection were carried out in the Kuju area for underground water in six locations, hot spring water in seven locations, and 17 test samples from two geothermal wells. As a study on reservoirs, observation was started in the southern Hachimantai area on measurement of ground fluctuation in association with steam collection. In parallel, fracture survey and gravity measurement were carried out. In order to investigate transformed geology, analytic samples were collected from 12 survey wells in the Onikubi area. A spinner flow mater was tested in that area. (NEDO)

  1. Investigation of geothermal development and promotion for fiscal 1997. Investigation report on geological/alteration zone (No. B-5 Musadake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Chishitsu henshitsutai chosa hokokusho (No.B-5 Musadake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This investigation was intended to clarify the possibility of existence of geothermal reservoir layer by elucidating the underground structure and thermal source forming the geothermal system around Musadake, in the area extending over Nakashibetu-cho and Shibetu-cho, Shibetu district, Hokkaido, and further by grasping the distribution and properties of the geothermal alteration zone. The geothermal system of the subject area seems to be governed by Musadake - Mt. Shitabanupuri fault, its incidental bent zone, and the graben extending to the southeast side. The thermal source is presumably a magma reservoir that evolved Musa volcano. The depth hot water is presumed to exist in the underground depth around Mt. Imora; and it seems that the thermal conduction and volcanic ejecta are caused by a chain of volcano-related magma reservoirs around Musadake, the thermal source presumably. The depth hot water is estimated to be not less than 250 degrees C and a high Cl concentration. Within the graben, mudstones are distributed such as Kawakita layer and Yokoushigawa geological layer. Moreover, it is possible that an impermeable layer due to alteration is spread. (NEDO)

  2. Geothermal Modesty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    This publication of the Areva Group, a world nuclear industry leader, provides information on the energy in many domains. This issue deals with the uses for radioactivity, the future of the green electricity, the energy policy of Rhone-alps region, the end of the nuclear in Belgium, the nuclear propulsion to explore the solar system, the involvement of the Unites States in the hydrogen development, the gas exportation of China. A special part is devoted to the possibility of the geothermal energy. (A.L.B.)

  3. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  4. Status on high enthalpy geothermal resources in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutinas, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Greece is privileged to have many high and medium enthalpy geothermal resources. Related activities during the last 5 years were conducted mainly on the previously discovered geothermal fields of Milos, Nisyros and Lesvos islands, without any deep geothermal drilling. Most efforts were focused on the demonstration of a high enthalpy geothermal reservoir on Milos, by generating electricity from high salinity fluid, with a 2 MW pilot plant. Significant experience has been gained there, by solving technical problems, but still site specific constraints have to be overcome in order to arrive at a comprehensive feasibility study, leading to the development phase. A pre-feasibility study has been carried out in the Nisyros geothermal field. Moreover, a detailed geoscientific exploration program has been completed on Lesvos island, where very promising geothermal areas have been identified. In this paper, reference is made to the most important data concerning high enthalpy geothermal resources by emphasizing the Milos geothermal field

  5. Prospects of geothermal resource exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrelier, P.H.; Cornet, F.; Fouillac, C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of geothermal energy to generate electricity has only occurred during the past 50 years by drilling wells in aquifers close to magmas and producing either dry steam or hot water. The world's production of electricity from geothermal energy is over 6000 MWe and is still growing. The direct use of geothermal energy for major urban communities has been developed recently by exploitation of aquifers in sedimentary basins under large towns. Scaling up the extraction of heat implies the exploitation of larger and better located fields requiring an appropriate method of extraction; the objective of present attempts in USA, Japan and Europe is to create heat exchangers by the circulation of water between several deep wells. Two field categories are considered: the extension of classical geothermal fields beyond the aquifer areas, and areas favoured by both a high geothermal gradient, fractures inducing a natural permeability at large scale, and good commercial prospects (such as in the Rhenan Graben). Hot dry rocks concept has gained a large interest. 1 fig., 5 tabs., 11 refs

  6. CO2 emissions and heat flow through soil, fumaroles, and steam heated mud pools at the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridriksson, Thrainn; Kristjansson, Bjarni Reyr; Armannsson, Halldor; Margretardottir, Eygerour; Olafsdottir, Snjolaug; Chiodini, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions and heat flow through soil, steam vents and fractures, and steam heated mud pools were determined in the Reykjanes geothermal area, SW Iceland. Soil diffuse degassing of CO 2 was quantified by soil flux measurements on a 600 m by 375 m rectangular grid using a portable closed chamber soil flux meter and the resulting data were analyzed by both a graphical statistical method and sequential Gaussian simulations. The soil temperature was measured in each node of the grid and used to evaluate the heat flow. The heat flow data were also analyzed by sequential Gaussian simulations. Heat flow from steam vents and fractures was determined by quantifying the amount of steam emitted from the vents by direct measurements of steam flow rate. The heat loss from the steam heated mud pools was determined by quantifying the rate of heat loss from the pools by evaporation, convection, and radiation. The steam flow rate into the pools was calculated from the observed heat loss from the pools, assuming that steam flow was the only mechanism of heat transport into the pool. The CO 2 emissions from the steam vents and mud pools were determined by multiplying the steam flow rate from the respective sources by the representative CO 2 concentration of steam in the Reykjanes area. The observed rates of CO 2 emissions through soil, steam vents, and steam heated mud pools amounted to 13.5 ± 1.7, 0.23 ± 0.05, and 0.13 ± 0.03 tons per day, respectively. The heat flow through soil, steam vents, and mud pools was 16.9 ± 1.4, 2.2 ± 0.4, and 1.2 ± 0.1 MW, respectively. Heat loss from the geothermal reservoir, inferred from the CO 2 emissions through the soil amounts to 130 ± 16 MW of thermal energy. The discrepancy between the observed heat loss and the heat loss inferred from the CO 2 emissions is attributed to steam condensation in the subsurface due to interactions with cold ground water. These results demonstrate that soil diffuse degassing can be a more

  7. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  8. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ferreira Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are recognised as an excellent source of information on the distribution of their hosts. Here, the macroparasite fauna of 20 species of Pleuronectiformes belonging to five different families and inhabiting the Portuguese coast was investigated and compared with that known in four other areas (the North Sea, north Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Northwest African coast in order to determine (1 their zoogeographical pattern and (2 the role of the Portuguese coast as an intermediate biogeographic province. Macroparasites infecting Pleuronectiformes sampled along the Portuguese coast were collected using standard parasitological techniques, whereas data on those in the other four areas were obtained from the literature, rendering a total of 73 macroparasite species. Both sets of data were then compiled in a presence/absence matrix. Hosts and macroparasites were placed into zoogeographical categories according to their known distribution, and patterns were evaluated using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The zoogeography of hosts and parasites was not entirely concordant, although that of endoparasites was generally consistent with the patterns for marine free-living species. On the other hand, only specific ectoparasites truly mirrored the distribution of their hosts. These differences reflect the importance of host ecology and dispersal and environmental factors on the patterns revealed. The Portuguese coast seems to play a significant role in the distribution of Pleuronectiformes’ parasites along the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, due to its transitional character and to the sympatric occurrence of related hosts, both promoting the acquisition of new parasite species or the maintenance of historical host-parasite relationships.

  9. DMRC studies geothermal energy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-01

    The Deep Mining Research Consortium (DMRC) is an industry-led research consortium that includes Vale Inco, Xstrata, Rio Tinto, Goldcorp, Agnico-Eagle, Barrick Gold, CANMET and the City of Sudbury. This article reported on the application of geothermal energy technologies to cool deep mine workings and use the heat from underground to produce energy to heat surface buildings. Researchers at the University of British Columbia's Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials have proposed the use of heat pumps and water-to-air heat exchangers at depth to chill mine workings. The heat pumps would act as refrigerators, taking heat from one area and moving it elsewhere. The purpose would be to extract heat from naturally occurring ground water and pass the chilled water through a heat exchanger to cool the air. The heated water would then be pumped to surface and used to heat surface facilities. The technology is well suited for using geothermal energy from decommissioned mines for district heating. The technology has been successfully used in Spring Hill, Nova Scotia, where geothermal energy from a decommissioned coal mine is used to heat an industrial park. A feasibility study is also underway for the city of Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories to produce up to 10 megawatts of heat from the Con Gold Mine, enough energy to heat half of Yellowknife. Geothermal energy can also be used to generate electricity, particularly in the Pacific Rim where underground temperatures are higher and closer to surface. In Sudbury Ontario, the enhanced geothermal systems technology would require two holes drilled to a depth of four kilometers. The ground between the two holes should be fractured to create an underground geothermal circuit. Geothermal energy does not produce any greenhouse gases or chemical wastes. 1 fig.

  10. FY 1998 report on the comprehensive analysis in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.C-3 Akinomiya area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho. No.C-3 Akinomiya chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The geothermal development promotion survey was conducted in the Akinomiya area, Ogachi county, Akita prefecture, and the FY 1998 results were summed up. In the surface survey, geology/electromagnetism/precision gravity survey was made as supplementary survey, and re-analysis of 3D models was made. In the well survey, three wells of N10-AY-6 to N10-AY-8 were drilled to conduct the core examination, temperature/pressure logging, sampler logging, short-term jetting test, etc. Also conducted were the reservoir evaluation, environmental effect survey, etc. by pressure monitoring and water level observation. The results of the comprehensive analysis predict the following. In the Akinomiya area, there exists heat source in deep parts around Mt. Yamabushi-dake and Mt. Takamatsu-dake; Being given heat from this heat source, rocks, ground water and volcanic gas react on each other to form geothermal fluids. It is presumed that high temperature geothermal reservoirs exist in the east of the area. Moreover, the pressure distribution indicates that the Akinomiya reservoir and Wasabizawa reservoir can be a chain hydraulically. On the other hand, the west of the area is the low temperature and heat conductive area, and therefore, there seem to be no high temperature fluids there. (NEDO)

  11. Geothermal energy. Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal energy has certain features that make it highly recommendable as a source of power production. It is noted by its high load factor; it may be used as a basic or peak source; its versatility and high availability among others. In spite of these advantages, geothermal energy has not attained a significant development up to now. There are several reasons for this to happen, while the main one is that it requires an important initial investment. Assessing if an area is potentially profitable for the obtention of a given type of energy implies performing a complex set of analyses and prospective work, but it is not so significant as that associated with petroleum. The strategy for the exploration of geothermal resources is based on the execution of consecutive stages ranging from a surveillance at a regional scale to a project feasibility study, with growing investments and using more and more complex techniques. Many Latin American countries are located in areas considered as promisory concerning the development of this type of exploitation. Another factor supporting this view is a special demographic feature, showing a very irregular distribution of the population, with extense isolated areas with a minimun number of inhabitants that does not justify the extension of the electric power network. There are plants operating in four countries producing, as a whole, 881 MW. In Argentina the activities are aimed to intensifying the knowledge about the availability of this resource within the local territory and to estimating the feasibility of its usage in areas where exploration is more advanced [es

  12. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  13. Fiscal 1995 verification survey of geothermal exploration technology. Report on a deep geothermal resource survey; 1995 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa. Shinbu chinetsu shigen hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    For the purpose of reducing the risk of deep geothermal resource development, the paper investigated three factors for the formation of geothermal resource in the deep underground, that is, heat supply from heat source, supply of geothermal fluids, and the developmental status of fracture systems forming reservoir structures. The survey further clarified the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system including shallow geothermal energy in order to research/study usability of deep geothermal resource. In the deep geothermal resource survey, drilling/examination were made of a deep geothermal exploration well (`WD-1,` target depth: approximately 3,000-4,000m) in the already developed area, with the aim of making rationalized promotion of the geothermal development. And the status of existence of deep geothermal resource and the whole image of the geothermal system were clarified to investigate/study usability of the geothermal system. In fiscal 1995, `WD-1` in the Kakkonda area reached a depth of 3,729m. By this, surveys were made to grasp the whole image of the shallow-deep geothermal system and to obtain basic data for researching usability of deep geothermal resource. 22 refs., 531 figs., 136 tabs.

  14. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  15. Insight into the Geothermal Structure in Chingshui, Ilan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chingshui geothermal field is the largest known productive geothermal area in Taiwan. The purpose of this paper is to delineate this geothermal structure by integrating geophysical data and borehole information. The existence of a magma chamber in the shallow crust and shallow intrusive igneous rock results in a high heat flow and geothermal gradient; furthermore, the NE deep fault system within the meta-sandstones provides meteoric recharge from a higher elevation to artesianally drive the geothermal system. There is evidence that geothermal fluid deeply circulated within the fracture zone and was heated by a deeply located body of hot rock. The geothermal reservoir of the Chingshui geothermal field might be related to the fracture zone of the Chingshuihsi fault. It is bounded by the C-fault in the north and Xiaonanao fault in the south. Based on information obtained from geophysical interpretations and well logs, a 3-D geothermal conceptual model is constructed in this study. Further, the geothermal reservoir is confined to an area that is 260 m in width, N21°W, 1.5 km in length, and has an 80° dip toward the NE. Ahigh-temperature zone is found in the SE region of the reservoir, which is about 500 m in length; this zone is located near the intersection of the Chingshuihsi and Xiaonanao faults. An area on the NE side of the high-temperature zone has been recommended for the drilling of production wells for future geothermal development.

  16. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  17. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  18. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives

  19. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, R.J.; Laney, P.T.

    2002-05-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  20. Geothermal Technologies Program Geoscience and Supporting Technologies 2001 University Research Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creed, Robert John; Laney, Patrick Thomas

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Wind and Geothermal Technologies (DOE) is funding advanced geothermal research through University Geothermal Research solicitations. These solicitations are intended to generate research proposals in the areas of fracture permeability location and characterization, reservoir management and geochemistry. The work funded through these solicitations should stimulate the development of new geothermal electrical generating capacity through increasing scientific knowledge of high-temperature geothermal systems. In order to meet this objective researchers are encouraged to collaborate with the geothermal industry. These objectives and strategies are consistent with DOE Geothermal Energy Program strategic objectives.

  1. Characteristics of geothermal structures of Poprad basin in terms of numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagelova, A.; Fendek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poprad basin is one of the promising areas in terms of geothermal resources. In terms of impact on the environment and the exploitation of geothermal waters it is important to quantify the natural geothermal water quantity. One of the most progressive methods of their evaluation is a method of numerical modelling. Before model creation it is necessary to characterize the geothermal structure. Character of hydro-geothermal structure consists of an analysis of Spatial distribution of collectors, hydraulic properties of collectors of geothermal water, pressure and temperature conditions and boundary conditions. Basic characteristics of geothermal energy transfer in the Poprad basin are described. (authors)

  2. Geothermal heating saves energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romsaas, Tor

    2003-01-01

    The article reviews briefly a pioneer project for a construction area of 200000 m''2 with residences, business complexes, a hotel and conference centre and a commercial college in Oslo. The energy conservation potential is estimated to be about 60-70 % compared to direct heating with oil, gas or electricity as sources. There will also be substantial reduction in environmentally damaging emissions. The proposed energy central combines geothermal energy sources with heat pump technology, utilises water as energy carrier and uses terrestrial wells for energy storage. A cost approximation is presented

  3. Poisson's ratio analysis (Vp/Vs) on volcanoes and geothermal potential areas in Central Java using tomography travel time method of grid search relocation hypocenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raharjo, W.; Palupi, I. R.; Nurdian, S. W.; Giamboro, W. S.; Soesilo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Poisson's Ratio illustrates the elasticity properties of a rock. The value is affected by the ratio between the value of P and S wave velocity, where the high value ratio associated with partial melting while the low associated with gas saturated rock. Java which has many volcanoes as a result of the collision between the Australian and Eurasian plates also effects of earthquakes that result the P and S wave. By tomography techniques the distribution of the value of Poisson's ratio can be known. Western Java was dominated by high Poisson's Ratio until Mount Slamet and Dieng in Central Java, while the eastern part of Java is dominated by low Poisson's Ratio. The difference of Poisson's Ratio is located in Central Java that is also supported by the difference characteristic of hot water manifestation in geothermal potential area in the west and east of Central Java Province. Poisson's ratio value is also lower with increasing depth proving that the cold oceanic plate entrance under the continental plate. (paper)

  4. An assessment of dispersing pollutants from the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane in rural areas in the northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria Gabriela L.; Henríquez, Jorge R.; Costa, José A. P.; de Lira Junior, José C.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the Brazilian government has been applying several restrictions with regard to preventing environmental pollution. Although Brazilian legislation is becoming stricter as to the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane, this practice is frequently used in order to assist manual harvesting. In the northeast region of Brazil, sugarcane is an important crop, which accounts for about 15% of the national production in a total area of 1,060,660 ha, the average production being 51,119 kg per hectare. The pre-harvest burning of sugarcane generates smoke, which has a high concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (P.M. 2.5 and 10), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This article estimates the volume of CO, P.M. 2.5 and NOX generated and how they are dispersed in the atmosphere when this arises from the burning of sugarcane biomass in rural areas of Northeast Brazil, and does so by using AERMOD VIEW® simulation software. Using the characteristics of the emissions and environmental (meteorological and topographical) data, quality air profiles based on pollutant dispersion were obtained. Three studies were taken into account in order to determine the relationship between pollutant dispersion and some parameters of the burning process, such as those for the spatial distribution of resources, the duration of pre-harvest burning and the influence of undertaking burning in different months. As to spatial distribution, to divide an area into small lots contributes to decreasing the maximum concentration of pollutants by 53% compared to burning a single area of equivalent size. The study of the burning duration indicated that doing so gradually (using a lengthier procedure) could decrease the maximum concentration of the pollutants by an inverse relation. The harvesting period in this region is between November and April. The pollutants

  5. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  6. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  7. "I used to be as fit as a linnet" - beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Radioactive status of seawater and its assessment in the northeast South China Sea and the Luzon Strait and its adjacent areas from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Li; Li, Haitao; Zhao, Feng; Zheng, Yuanlai; Fang, Hongda; Lou, Quansheng; Cai, Weixu

    2018-06-01

    To understand the impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA), 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, and gross beta were analyzed in the northeast South China Sea (NSCS), the Luzon Strait (LS) and its adjacent areas. 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and gross beta values in the NSCS were similar to those prior to the FNA. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the LS and its adjacent areas were consistent with those in the NSCS. The high 137 Cs-peak values occurred at depth of 150 m whereas the high 90 Sr-peak values occurred at depth of 0.5 m. The 137 Cs and gross beta mean values in Cruise I were higher than those in Cruise II whereas the 90 Sr mean value was just the reverse. 134 Cs in all seawater were below the minimum detectable activity. The past and present data since the 1970s suggested 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the study areas still originated from global fallout and the FNA influence were negligible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; Raymond Marler; Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1977-01-01

    The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New York and Pennsylvania. The approach to measuring the impact of gypsy moth was to determine the interaction of a...

  10. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  11. Geothermal, Geochemical and Geomagnetic Mapping Of the Burning Coal Seam in Fire- Zone 18 of the Coal Mining Area Wuda, Inner Mongolia, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, W.; Han, J.; Halisch, M.; Lindner, H.; Rueter, H.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2008-12-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal has become a world wide problem caused by and affecting technical operations in coal mining areas. The localization of the burning centre is a prerequisite for any planning of fire fighting operations. In the German - Chinese coal fire project sponsored by the German Ministry of Science and Technologies (Grant No. 0330490K) the so called fire zone 18 of the coal mining area of Wuda (InnerMongolia, PR China) serves as a test area for geophysical measurements. For the geothermal and geochemical mapping 25 up to 1m deep boreholes with a diameter of approx. 30 mm are distributed over the particular fire-zone with an extension of 320 × 180 m2. To avoid the highly dynamic gas flow processes in fire induced fractures caused by weather conditions, all boreholes were situated in the undisturbed rock compartments. In these boreholes, plastic tubes of 12 mm diameter provide access to the borehole ground filled with highly permeable gravel. The boreholes are otherwise sealed to the atmosphere by clay. The geothermal observations consist of measurements of temperature profiles in the boreholes and thermal conductivity measurement on rock samples in the lab. For depths greater then 0.2 m diurnal variations in the temperature gradient were neglected. The derived heat flow with maximum values of 80 W/m2 is more then three orders of magnitude higher than the natural undisturbed heat flow. The high heat flow suggests that the dominant heat transport is gas convection through the system of porous rock and fractures. Any temperature anomaly caused by the burning coal in a depth of more than 18 m would need years to reach the surface by a heat transport restricted to conduction. The geochemical soil gas probing is performed by gas extraction from the boreholes. Measured are the concentrations of O2, CO, CO2, H2S and CH4. The O2 deficit in the soil air and the concentrations of the other combustion products compared to the concentrations in the free

  12. FY 1996 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 2); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin data shori hokokusho. 2 . No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1996 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3 and N8-KI-4; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the N8-KI-1 and N8-KI-2; and environmental impact investigation. The following conclusions are derived from the findings. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. The geothermal hot water was not heated to an extent to form the widely distributed convection systems, but arise in the form of separate, small-scale systems. (NEDO)

  13. Geothermal pilot study final report: creating an international geothermal energy community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresee, J.C.; Yen, W.W.S.; Metzler, J.E. (eds.)

    1978-06-01

    The Geothermal Pilot Study under the auspices of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS) was established in 1973 to apply an action-oriented approach to international geothermal research and development, taking advantage of the established channels of governmental communication provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Pilot Study was composed of five substudies. They included: computer-based information systems; direct application of geothermal energy; reservoir assessment; small geothermal power plants; and hot dry rock concepts. The most significant overall result of the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study, which is now complete, is the establishment of an identifiable community of geothermal experts in a dozen or more countries active in development programs. Specific accomplishments include the creation of an international computer file of technical information on geothermal wells and fields, the development of studies and reports on direct applications, geothermal fluid injection and small power plants, and the operation of the visiting scientist program. In the United States, the computer file has aready proven useful in the development of reservoir models and of chemical geothermometers. The state-of-the-art report on direct uses of geothermal energy is proving to be a valuable resource document for laypersons and experts in an area of increasing interest to many countries. Geothermal fluid injection studies in El Salvador, New Zealand, and the United States have been assisted by the Reservoir Assessment Substudy and have led to long-range reservoir engineering studies in Mexico. At least seven small geothermal power plants are in use or have been planned for construction around the world since the Small Power Plant Substudy was instituted--at least partial credit for this increased application can be assigned to the CCMS Geothermal Pilot Study. (JGB)

  14. Geothermal Technologies Program: Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Alaska. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  15. Annotated geothermal bibliography of Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budding, K.E.; Bugden, M.H. (comps.)

    1986-01-01

    The bibliography includes all the Utah geothermal references through 1984. Some 1985 citations are listed. Geological, geophysical, and tectonic maps and reports are included if they cover a high-temperature thermal area. The references are indexed geographically either under (1) United States (national studies), (2) regional - western United States or physiographic province, (3) Utah - statewide and regional, or (4) county. Reports concerning a particular hot spring or thermal area are listed under both the thermal area and the county names.

  16. The Use of Geothermal Waters in Podhale in Terms of Tourism and Industrial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Michał Bugajski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been observed an increased interest of various industrial and economy branches in geothermal waters. In Poland, one of the more famous geothermal systems is the Podhale Basin, which forms an important reservoir of geothermal waters with relatively low mineralization and high temperatures. More and more often geothermal water is used not only for balneological or recreational purposes, but also as a heat source for heating. New areas of application of geothermal waters are also appearing, eg. use of cooled geothermal water as a raw material to produce fresh water. Another example of the application of geothermal waters is the cosmetic industry. For instance, a cream based on geothermal water from Podhale was introduced to the cosmetics market in 2013. This paper presents the possibilities of using the geothermal waters of Podhale, with particular emphasis on geothermal waters from Banska PGP-1, Banska IG-1 and Banska PGP-3 boreholes.

  17. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  18. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  19. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  20. Surface heat flow and lithosphere thermal structure of the larger Luxembourg area as a basis for the evaluation of its geothermal potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintgen, Tom; Förster, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation of the geothermal potential and the type of geothermal use necessitates knowledge of the subsurface temperature distribution in combination with hydraulic properties (e.g. porosity, permeability and hydraulic conductivity). In the larger Luxembourg area, only a few subsurface temperature data are available restricted to shallow depth. This paucity in data required to assess the thermal regime to drillable depths by modeling. The thermal model was constrained by surface heat flow and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) characterized by the 1300° C isotherm. A surface heat-flow value of 75 ± 7 (2σ) mW m-2 was determined in central Luxembourg, which corroborates most values known from adjacent areas. The conceptual geological model for thermal modeling has a high resolution in the upper 15 km due to a wealth of geological data, while refraction seismic data and xenoliths provide petrological constraints for the lower part of the model down to the crust/mantle boundary. Thermal rock properties assigned to geological units are based on a large set of laboratory data, complemented by some literature data for the lower parts of the crust. The thermal structure is investigated by calculating 2-D steady-state thermal models along three crustal cross sections developed for the study area assuming a purely conductive lithosphere. The location of the LAB at 100 km depth, as typical for the Ardennes, provides the best fit with the measured surface heat flow of about 75 mW m-2. This LAB model provides temperatures at 5 km of 115-118° C on average and of about 600° C at the Moho. The resulting mantle heat flow in this model is 39-40 mW m-2. A reduced lithosphere thickness of 50 km as typical for the Eifel area to the east results in an increase of surface heat flow to 97 mW m-2 and of the mantle heat flow to 65 mW m-2, respectively. If heating from the Eifel plume had reached the surface yet, temperatures at 5 km would be about 20° C higher (and

  1. Modelling Local Sea-Breeze Flow and Associated Dispersion Patterns Over a Coastal Area in North-East Spain: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. R.; Arasa, R.; Merino, M.; Olid, M.; Ortega, S.

    2011-07-01

    The structure and evolution of the sea breeze in the north-west part of the Mediterranean (Catalonia, north-east Spain) is studied both experimentally and, predominantly, using numerical models to increase understanding of sea-breeze structure and three-dimensional (3D) pollution distributions in coastal environments. Sea-breeze components are modelled and analyzed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results show that the growth and structure of the sea-breeze circulation is modulated by the synoptic flow and especially by the complex topography of the area. 3D pollution transport in a sea breeze is modelled by coupling the MM5 to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, with results indicating that topography and synoptic flow are the main factors modulating horizontal and vertical pollutant transport in sea-breeze episodes. In this way, horizontal dispersion is limited by the complex topography of the area, whilst the sea-breeze flow is intensified by anabatic upslope winds that contribute to vertical pollutant transport. The numerical model results also indicate that the sea-breeze circulation with a weak return flow at upper levels grows due to a synoptic onshore wind component. However, such a sea-breeze circulation is capable of transporting pollutants towards the coast.

  2. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  3. Comparison of hyperspectral transformation accuracies of multispectral Landsat TM, ETM+, OLI and EO-1 ALI images for detecting minerals in a geothermal prospect area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Nguyen Tien; Koike, Katsuaki

    2018-03-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing generally provides more detailed spectral information and greater accuracy than multispectral remote sensing for identification of surface materials. However, there have been no hyperspectral imagers that cover the entire Earth surface. This lack points to a need for producing pseudo-hyperspectral imagery by hyperspectral transformation from multispectral images. We have recently developed such a method, a Pseudo-Hyperspectral Image Transformation Algorithm (PHITA), which transforms Landsat 7 ETM+ images into pseudo-EO-1 Hyperion images using multiple linear regression models of ETM+ and Hyperion band reflectance data. This study extends the PHITA to transform TM, OLI, and EO-1 ALI sensor images into pseudo-Hyperion images. By choosing a part of the Fish Lake Valley geothermal prospect area in the western United States for study, the pseudo-Hyperion images produced from the TM, ETM+, OLI, and ALI images by PHITA were confirmed to be applicable to mineral mapping. Using a reference map as the truth, three main minerals (muscovite and chlorite mixture, opal, and calcite) were identified with high overall accuracies from the pseudo-images (> 95% and > 42% for excluding and including unclassified pixels, respectively). The highest accuracy was obtained from the ALI image, followed by ETM+, TM, and OLI images in descending order. The TM, OLI, and ALI images can be alternatives to ETM+ imagery for the hyperspectral transformation that aids the production of pseudo-Hyperion images for areas without high-quality ETM+ images because of scan line corrector failure, and for long-term global monitoring of land surfaces.

  4. Seismicity preliminary results in a geothermal and volcano activity area: study case Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system in Southern Andes, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, N. P.; Yáñez Morroni, G.; Crempien, J. G. F.; Roquer, T.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid transport through the crust takes place in domains with high permeability. For this reason, fault damage zones are a main feature where fluids may circulate unimpeded, since they have much larger permeability than normal country rocks. With the location of earthquakes, it is possible to infer fault geometry and stress field of the crust, therefore we can determine potential places where fluid circualtion is taking place. With that purpose, we installed a seismic network in an active volcanic-geothermal system, the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), located in Puyuhuapi, Southern Andes (44°-45°S). This allowed to link epicentral seismicity, focal mechanisms and surface expression of fluid circulation (hot-springs and volcanos). The LOFS is composed by two NS-striking dextral master faults, and several secondary NE-striking dextral and normal faults. Surface manifestation of fluid circulation in Puyuhuapi area are: 1) six hot-springs, most of them spatially associated with different mapped faults; 2) seven minor eruptive centers aligned over a 10-km-along one of the master NS-striking fault, and; 3) the Melimouyu strato-volcano without any spatial relationship with mapped faults. The network consists of 6 short period seismometers (S31f-2.0a sensor of IESE, with natural frequency of 2Hz), that were installed between July 2016 and August 2017; also 4 permanent broad-band seismometers (Guralp 6TD/ CD 24 sensor) which belong to the Volcano Observatory of Southern Andes (OVDAS). Preliminary results show a correlation between seismicity and surface manifestation of fluid circulation. Seismicity has a heterogeneous distribution: most of the earthquake are concentrated is the master NS-striking fault with fluid circulation manifestations; however along the segments without surface manifestation of fluids do not have seismicity. These results suggest that fluid circulation mostly occur in areas with high seismicity, and thus, the increment in fluid pressure enhances

  5. Preliminary environmental assessment of selected geopressured - geothermal prospect areas: Louisiana Gulf Coast Region. Volume II. Environmental baseline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newchurch, E.J.; Bachman, A.L.; Bryan, C.F.; Harrison, D.P.; Muller, R.A.; Newman, J.P. Jr.; Smith, C.G. Jr.; Bailey, J.I. Jr.; Kelly, G.G.; Reibert, K.C.

    1978-10-15

    A separate section is presented for each of the six prospect areas studied. Each section includes a compilation and discussion of environmental baseline data derived from existing sources. The data are arranged as follows: geology and geohydrology, air quality, water resources and flood hazards, ecological systems, and land use. When data specific to the prospect were not available, regional data are reported. (MHR)

  6. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S. [SUNY, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  7. Outcrop - core correlation and seismic modeling of the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit, Fort McMurray area, northeast Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, F.J. [Alberta Geological Survey, Calgary, AB (Canada); Langenberg, C.W.; Cotterill, D.C.; Berhane, H. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lawton, D.; Cunningham, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    A joint study between the Alberta Geological Survey and the University of Calgary was conducted which involved a detailed facies analysis of cores and outcrops from the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in Alberta`s Steepbank area. A unified facies classification for the deposit was developed. Larger scale facies associations were also determined, as well as proxy sonic logs for outcrops used in seismic modeling. The cores which were displayed exhibited detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of 10 outcrops in the area. 7 refs.

  8. SPP retains interest in geothermal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2007-01-01

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) officially indicated that it intended to drop its project of using geothermal energy in the Kosicka kotlina. This spring it published an advert that it was looking for a company that wished to acquire a majority stake in the company, Geoterm Kosice. The company was established to commercially develop this geothermal source. But it seems SPP does not want to drop the project completely. It has kept some important cards, such as control over the land where the boreholes are located Any company that wants to use geothermal energy needs a ruling issued by the Ministry of Environment defining the exploration area. Geothermal sources were found in the villages of Durkov, Svinica, Bidovce and Olsovany. Not so long ago the area was assigned to Geoterm but from May 9 the area can be explored by Slovgeoterm. Both companies have the same majority shareholder - SPP. It controls 96% of Geoterm shares and 50% of Slovgeoterm. So far it has only officially announced its intention to sell the Geoterm shares. But as far as the use of the geothermal resource is concerned since May Slovgeoterm has played a key role.The company focuses on the utilization of geothermal energy. In addition to the project in the Kosice region, it has also participated in a project to heat more than a thousand flats using geothermal water in Galanta and a project to heat greenhouses in Podhajske. There are also other geothermal projects running in Presov and Michalovce. Icelandic company, Enex, with the same specialisation controls 28% of the company and a further 20% is owned by the investment group, NEFCO based in Helsinki. Two percent of the company is owned by its general director and the general proxy of Geoterm, Otto Halas. And so without the agreement of this company no-one can start any activities related to the utilization of geothermal energy. (authors)

  9. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  10. Fiscal 1999 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on survey of structural boring (No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    Borehole N11-KN-1 was digged and investigated for clarifying the geothermal structure of the Kuwanosawa area, with attention fully paid to the existing survey results. The hole is inclined, 1,802.30m deep in total, with a casing pipe installed down to the 1,101.76m level. Temperature was measured and electrical logging was performed at levels 410m, 1,110m, and 1,802.23m while the hole walls were still exposed bear. The maximum temperature of 161 degrees C was observed at the hole bottom, and the product of permeability - layer thickness transmission coefficient was described by 3.72 to 4.75 times 10{sup -1} darcy.m. The geothermal structures in presence in the south-western part of the survey area and along the Wasabizawa fault were made clear, and it was found that there exists no high-temperature water system in the vicinity of borehole N11-NK-1. As tasks for the future, it was proposed that a geothermal survey of the south-eastern part which includes borehole N57-YO-2 and a geochemical survey of fluids including hot spring water and surface be conducted. (NEDO)

  11. 78 FR 9247 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... survey. All make allowances were adjusted for marketing costs. Nineteen proposals were published in the....0015 per pound marketing cost factor) the resulting make allowances should be: $0.1780 per pound for... manufacturing for the highest cost Federal order marketing area. The witness said that classified prices are...

  12. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  13. BACA Project: geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-12-01

    The various activities that have been conducted by Union in the Redondo Creek area while attempting to develop the resource for a 50 MW power plant are described. The results of the geologic work, drilling activities and reservoir studies are summarized. In addition, sections discussing the historical costs for Union's involvement with the project, production engineering (for anticipated surface equipment), and environmental work are included. Nineteen geothermal wells have been drilled in the Redondo Creek area of the Valles Caldera: a prominent geologic feature of the Jemez mountains consisting of Pliocene and Pleistocene age volcanics. The Redondo Creek area is within a complex longitudinal graben on the northwest flank of the resurgent structural dome of Redondo Peak and Redondo Border. The major graben faults, with associated fracturing, are geologically plausible candidates for permeable and productive zones in the reservoir. The distribution of such permeable zones is too erratic and the locations too imprecisely known to offer an attractive drilling target. Log analysis indicates there is a preferred mean fracture strike of N31W in the upper portion of Redondo Creek wells. This is approximately perpendicular to the major structure in the area, the northeast-striking Redondo Creek graben. The geothermal fluid found in the Redondo Creek reservoir is relatively benign with low brine concentrations and moderate H/sub 2/S concentrations. Geothermometer calculations indicate that the reservoir temperature generally lies between 500/sup 0/F and 600/sup 0/F, with near wellbore flashing occurring during the majority of the wells' production.

  14. Classification of public lands valuable for geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, L.H.; Haigler, L.B.; Rioux, R.L.; White, D.E.; Muffler, L.J.P.; Wayland, R.G.

    1973-01-01

    The Organic Act of 1879 (43 USC 31) that established the US Geological Survey provided, among other things, for the classification of the public lands and for the examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain. In order to provide uniform executive action in classifying public lands, standards for determining which lands are valuable for mineral resources, for example, leasable mineral lands, or for other products are prepared by the US Geological Survey. This report presents the classification standards for determining which Federal lands are classifiable as geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources lands under the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (84 Stat. 1566). The concept of a geothermal resouces province is established for classification of lands for the purpose of retention in Federal ownership of rights to geothermal resources upon disposal of Federal lands. A geothermal resources province is defined as an area in which higher than normal temperatures are likely to occur with depth and in which there is a resonable possiblity of finding reservoir rocks that will yield steam or heated fluids to wells. The determination of a known geothermal resources area is made after careful evaluation of the available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and any evidence derived from nearby discoveries, competitive interests, and other indicia. The initial classification required by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 is presented.

  15. Application of heat-flow techniques to geothermal energy exploration, Leach Hot Springs area, Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sass, J.H.; Ziagos, J.P.; Wollenberg, H.A.; Munroe, R.J.; di Somma, D.E.; Lachenbruch, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 82 holes ranging in depth from 18 to 400 meters were drilled for thermal and hydrologic studies in a 200 km/sup 2/ area of Grass Valley, Nevada, near Leach Hot Springs. Outside the immediate area of Leach Hot Springs, heat flow ranges from 1 to 6.5 hfu with a mean of 2.4 hfu (1 hfu = 10/sup -6/ cal cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ = 41.8 mWm/sup -2/). Within 2 km of the springs, conductive heat flow ranges between 1.6 and more than 70 hfu averaging 13.6 hfu. Besides the conspicuous thermal anomaly associated with the hot springs, two additional anomalies were identified. One is associated with faults bounding the western margin of the Tobin Range near Panther Canyon, and the other is near the middle of Grass Valley about 5 km SSW of Leach Hot Springs. The mid-valley anomaly appears to be caused by hydrothermal circulation in a bedrock horst beneath about 375 meters of impermeable valley sediments. If the convective and conductive heat discharge within 2 km of the Leach Hot Springs is averaged over the entire hydrologic system (including areas of recharge), the combined heat flux from this part of Grass Valley is about 3 hfu, consistent with the average regional conductive heat flow in the Battle Mountain High. The hydrothermal system can be interpreted as being in a stationary stable phase sustained by high regional heat flow, and no localized crustal heat sources (other than hydrothermal convection to depths of a few kilometers) need be invoked to explain the existence of Leach Hot Springs.

  16. Geothermal fields of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearey, P.; HongBing, Wei

    1993-08-01

    There are over 2500 known occurrences of geothermal phenomena in China. These lie mainly in four major geothermal zones: Xizang (Tibet)-Yunnan, Taiwan, East Coast and North-South. Hot water has also been found in boreholes in major Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary basins. This paper presents a summary of present knowledge of these geothermal zones. The geological settings of geothermal occurrences are associated mainly with magmatic activity, fault uplift and depressional basins and these are described by examples of each type. Increased multipurpose utilisation of geothermal resources is planned and examples are given of current usages.

  17. Hawaii geothermal project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  18. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  19. Groundwater origin investigation with isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen area, Northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buaphan, C.; Yangme, W.; Wannakao, L.; Sriboonlue, V.; Tassanasorn, A.; Buapeng, S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of groundwater origin by using isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen Province is emphasized on hydrogeology and isotopes technique. The study area consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary. Phu Tok aquifers in the southern part of the study area are mainly confined in very well sorted, fine grained sandstone as well as in fractures and joints. They extend from Ban Tha Pra to Ban Phai covering area 500 km 2 . Depth to the aquifers is from 20 to 250 m, while their piezometric surface ranges from 0.35 m to 15 m from the ground surface. Their thickness range from 50 to 100 m. The transmissivity is from 0.45 to 1,047 m 2 /d on the pumping rate of 48-1,200 m 3 /d with drawdown of less than 10% and rough annual safe yield is 83.34x10 6 m 3 . The water is very good in quality for drinking, except for the TDS and total hardness around aquifer boundary. The groundwater and surface water are analysed for stable and radioactive isotopes, including 2 H, 18 O, 3 H and 14 C. The results show that the shallow groundwater of the depth less than 50 m is originated by direct recharge of rainfall between 180 and 6,820 a. The groundwater flow is relatively rapid from west to east and northwest to southeast, the high productive deep aquifer of Phu Tok flow radiate from recharging area to all direction. However, the groundwater flow rate based on 14 C analyses for Phu Tok is 2 to 3 m/a. Within some areas the flow is about 8 m/a, while the unconsolidated aquifers along the Phong River give flow rate about 4 m/a. The deeper aquifers also have direct rain recharge the same as the above aquifers but the flow rate are lower, especially the deepest aquifer at the depth of nearly 200 m indicated no direct rain recharge with age of more than 20 000 a, which is confirmed with the amount of tritium less than 1.0 TU. (author)

  20. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavera, L.; Balcazar, M.; Camacho, M.E.; Chavez, A.; Perez, H.; Gomez, J.

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m -3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies

  1. Radon studies for extending Los Azufres geothermal energy field in Mexico

    CERN Document Server

    Tavera, L; Camacho, M E; Chavez, A; Pérez, H; Gómez, J

    1999-01-01

    Los Azufres is a 98 MW producing geothermal energy field situated in the Mexican volcanic belt at the west part of the country. Recently, hydrothermal activity and geochemical analysis of geothermal fluids from the north part of the geothermal field gave indications of a possible geothermal-production area, similar to the already producing field. In order to investigate the activity of geological structures, which are considered the means of geothermal fluids transporters, radon mapping was carried out using sets of 240 LR-115 detectors in the area of interest. Radon values higher than 10 kBq m sup - sup 3 were considered anomalous and indicative of geothermal anomalies.

  2. Laminae development in opal-A precipitates associated with seasonal growth of the form-genus Calothrix (Cyanobacteria), Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2015-04-01

    The western discharge apron at Meinuquan (Rehai geothermal area, Yunnan Province, China), which incorporates the upper terrace, terrace front, and lower terrace, is covered with laminated opal-A precipitates that have formed from the spring waters that flow across its surface. Laminae are formed of silicified Calothrix mats or featureless opal-A that contains no microbes, scattered spherical and rod-shaped microbes, and/or rare Calothrix. Rapid silicification of the Calothrix led to preservation of their basal heterocysts, vegetative cells, trichomes, tapering filaments, and laminated and splayed sheaths. The Calothrix mats grew during the dry season when there was maximum sunlight because of low cloud cover. During this time, the mats grew under stable conditions because the water that flowed across the discharge apron was sourced from the springs, and temperature and water geochemistry was more or less constant. Growth of the Calothrix mats decreased during the wet season (April to late September) when sunlight is reduced due to the extensive cloud cover associated with the monsoonal rains. During the wet season, water flowing over the discharge apron is a mixture of rainwater, runoff from the surrounding hillsides, and spring water. Such variable flow conditions, water temperatures, and water geochemistry curtailed microbe growth and impacted silica precipitation. The precipitates at Meinuquan are like those associated with some Icelandic hot springs. Although growth of Calothrix is controlled by sunlight in both settings, the periods of maximum sunlight in China (October-March) and Iceland (June-August) are at different times of the year because of their geographic locations.

  3. Geothermal for kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemzer, M.; Condy, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that educating children about geothermal energy is crucial to the future growth of the geothermal industry. The Geothermal Education Office (GEO) was founded in 1989 to provide materials and support to teachers and the geothermal community in educating grades K-12 about geothermal energy. GEO's goals are to: provide easy access to or referral to appropriate sources of geothermal information; foster teacher interest; create posters, booklets, lesson plans and other educational materials; monitor and review textbooks, encyclopedias and other educational materials distributed by educational groups to ensure inclusion of appropriate, accurate information and to encourage fair treatment of alternative energy resources; contribute articles to industry, science and educational publications; and foster communication and cooperation among GEO, the geothermal industry, government agencies, and educational and environmental groups

  4. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, WO.; Santana, GG.; Vieira, WLS.; Wanderley, IC.; Freire, EMX.; Vasconcellos, A.

    2008-01-01

    Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri - EESJC (07º 25' S and 36º 30' W), located in the state ...

  5. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes.

  6. The identification of critical groups and its application to fish and shellfish consumers in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Hewett, C.J.; Shepherd, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Control of radioactive waste disposal to the environment, based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), necessitates an identification of the critical group of members of the public exposed from a given practice. Criteria for identification of critical groups based mainly on ICRP recommendations are discussed. Methods existing up to 1974 are briefly reviewed in the light of these criteria. Two more recent methods are described and compared on the basis of previous data; these methods, which are complementary, are based on homogeneity considerations and satisfy the criteria generally rather better than do the earlier methods. The application of the newer techniques to recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea is described, in relation to discharges from the Windscale reprocessing plant. The results of this survey are presented, and estimates are given of the effective dose equivalent to members of these critical groups in recent years, to show the effect of liquid discharges from Windscale in terms of public radiation exposure. (author)

  7. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Gravity prospecting (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Juryoku tansa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area in Oita Prefecture, gravity prospecting was conducted. Survey was carried out in the area of about 280km{sup 2} at 205 measuring points, and analysis was made altogether with the existing 3,273 gravity measuring points. As a result, the following were made clear. The gravity basement forms the fault-state structure that sinks several 100 meters to the south side on the line from the south edge of the Higashi-shiiya ridge to Mt. Kurotake - Mt. Daigansen - Amagase hot spring in the SW direction. This fault was made correspondent to the Beppu north fault on the east side of Mt. Kurodake. Each of the following regions is the region where the fault-state structure that predicts the development of fracture and the area of distribution of alteration zone that can be cap rock overlap each other: NW edge of Shishimuta sedimentation zone - Machida alteration zone distribution area; N edge of the Shishimuta sedimentation zone - Ibushi alteration zone/Noya alteration zone distribution area; Vicinity of Mt. Kurodake - Hijiu alteration zone distribution area. It seems that the above-mentioned regions have high potentiality of geothermal exploration. The region where new igneous activities are seen, which is near the heat source, is important for exploration. The distribution area is seen near the west of the Mizuwake Pass ridge. (NEDO)

  8. Site Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Surrounding Communities of The Geysers Geothermal Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, M.; Hutchings, L. J.; Savy, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis from induced and tectonic earthquakes for a 50 km radius area centered on The Geysers, California and for the next ten years. We calculate hazard with both a conventional and physics-based approach. We estimate site specific hazard. We convert hazard to risk of nuisance and damage to structures per year and map the risk. For the conventional PSHA we assume the past ten years is indicative of hazard for the next ten years from Mnoise. Then, we interpolate within each geologic unit in finely gridded points. All grid points within a unit are weighted by distance from each data collection point. The entire process is repeated for all of the other types of geologic units until the entire area is gridded and assigned a hazard value for every grid points. We found that nuisance and damage risks calculated by both conventional and physics-based approaches provided almost identical results. This is very surprising since they were calculated by completely independent means. The conventional approach used the actual catalog of the past ten years of earthquakes to estimate the hazard for the next ten year. While the physics-based approach used geotechnical modeling to calculate the catalog for the next ten years. Similarly, for the conventional PSHA, we utilized attenuation relations from past earthquakes recorded at the Geysers to translate the ground motion from the source to the site. While for the physics-based approach we calculated ground motion from simulation of actual earthquake rupture. Finally, the source of the earthquakes was the actual source for the conventional PSHA. While, we assumed random fractures for the physics-based approach. From all this, we consider the calculation of the conventional approach, based on actual data, to validate the physics-based approach used.

  9. Environmental effects of geothermal energy exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H [Japan Metals and Chemicals Co., Ltd., Japan

    1975-01-01

    The environmental effects of geothermal power generation which cause air and water pollution and destruction of natural areas are reviewed. The production of steam and hot water affect existing hot springs sources and can cause ground subsidence. Harmful gas can be released onto the atmosphere from fumarolic gas and hot springs. Hydrothermal geothermal fields occasionally contain harmful substances such as arsenic in the hot water. Serious environmental effects can result from geothermal exploitation activities such as the felling of trees for road construction, well drilling, and plant construction. Once geothermal power generation has begun, the release of H/sub 2/S into the atmosphere and the reinjection of hot water are conducted continuously and sufficient countermeasures can be taken. One problem is the effects of plant construction and operation on natural parks. It is important to reach a compromise between development and protection of natural senic areas. Two figures, two tables, and 13 references are provided.

  10. FY 1999 geothermal development promotion study. Report on results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) in No.B-5, Busadake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Danseiha tansa (hanshaho) hokokusho No.B-5 Busadake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Described herein are results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) conducted in the Busadake area in Hokkaido to elucidate the geological and geothermal structures. The elastic wave exploitation used large-size vibrators, an explosive and 4 courses of traverse (total length: 25.675 km, number of vibration-receiving points: 1,031, and number of vibration source points: 342). The data were processed by the standard procedure of the common reflection synthesis method. The acoustic velocity logging data, collected at the structural drillings N10-MD-1 and N10-MD-2, were synthesized to have the reflection seismic records. The existing surface geology, drilling geology and gravity data were compared with the recorded deep sections for the comprehensive discussion, to extract the reflection horizon corresponding to the geological boundary, and investigate the relationships of the discrete lines of deposit structures, unconformity relations and reflection with geological and default structures determined by the data analysis. The study results of the geothermal structures suggest possible formation of the geothermal reservoir deep in the west of the default found by Line-1, based on the observed temperature structures at the drilling N7-SB-1. (NEDO)

  11. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Investigative construction and analysis for structural boring (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shitsui chosakoji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, the paper carried out the drilling of structural boring exploration wells, N6-HN-1 (1,605m) and N6-HN-2 (1,402m), and the well exploration. In the well exploration, the following were conducted: measurement of earth temperature, temperature recovery test, electrical log, simple water injection test, core/cutting observation, core test, powder X-ray diffraction analysis, physical property test, measurement of homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion, etc. In the temperature log and temperature recovery test, the terminal temperature at a 1,600m depth of N6-HN-1 well and at a 1,400m depth of N6-HN-2 well was 139.6 degrees C and 26.2 degrees C, respectively. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusion was relatively higher, +70 degrees C to +100 degrees C, than that in the results of the temperature log, but was on the side of lower temperature, -30 degrees C to -100 degrees C, in a comparison with the saturated boiling curve of the earth surface and ground water level. Namely, it was thought that around the N6-HN-1 well, there used to exist the high temperature fluid of 250 degrees C or higher at the peak period of geothermal activities, but there only existed the geothermal water of approximately 140 degrees C at the present time. (NEDO)

  12. Report on geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997. Tsujinodake Area No. B-6 (first report); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. Tsujinodake chiiki No.B-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the geothermal development promotion survey data processing in fiscal 1997 for Tsujinodake Area. Geological, alteration band and fluid geochemical surveys, gravity and electromagnetic exploration, and environment influence survey were generalized to summarize the state of existence of geothermal resources. Sea water permeated into deep underground portion was mixed with meteoric water from Ikeda Lake and Unagi Pond; heated by deep hot water originated from magma pools as the source of volcanic activities after formation of the Ata caldera; the resultant neutral high salt concentration hot water has risen on the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structural line; and was reserved in deep portion of Mr. Tsujinodake. The sea water permeated into deep underground portion was heated by the same deep hot water originated from magma pools as described above, has risen along the Ata caldera wall, and been reserved in the deep portion of Kaimon Dake Spa. Around the Yamakawa geothermal power plant, the permeated sea water was heated by the same magma pools as described above and by the intrusive rocks originated therefrom as the heat source. The water has risen along the shattered belt developing around the intrusive rocks or the Takeyama-Tsujinodake structure line, and been reserved. Around the Unagi pond, mixed sea and meteoric water has risen along the Yamakawa-Matsugakubo structure line, and been reserved. (NEDO)

  13. Geothermal Energy in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Villalba, Fabio

    1999-11-01

    Energy represents an essential element for economy, and for any sustainable development strategy, assuming it is a basic input for all production activities. It is a fundamental contra int for country's competitivity and also a main component of population's standard of life. The Agenda 21 and the General Agreement on Climatic Changes emphasize that the development and sustainable use of energy should promote economy, but taking care of the environment. Under these basic concepts, for the particular case of energy, the sustain ability of development requires the adoption of a strategy which guarantee an energy supply in terms of quality, opportunity, continuity and afford ability and, in addition, without production of negative environmental impacts. Geothermal energy is a serious energetic option for sustainable development, since presents technical and economic advantages for production of electricity at medium and large scale. Furthermore, geothermal energy allows a wide spectrum of direct applications of heat in profitable projects of high social impact as green houses, drying of seeds and wood products, fish farming, recreation and others. All of them can help the increase of communal production activities in rural areas affected by poverty

  14. Geochemical and geophysical investigations, and fluid inclusion studies in the exploration area of Zafarghand (Northeast Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA is a good prospective area for Cu, Cu-Mo and Cu-Au deposits (Fig. 1A and B. The Zafarghand district is located in the central part of the UDMA and the northeastern Isfahan. The present study concerns geological observations, alteration investigations, geochemical data and fluid inclusion studies. The purpose of the research is to identify geochemical anomalies and source of metals in this area. Geochemical anomalies for mineralizing elements and element associations were identified by using statistical analysis methods. Additionally, these results together suggest a site for exploration drilling in this study area. Materials and methods We collected 186 samples (rock along multi-cross sections oriented perpendicular to the strike of the South -Ardestan fault (Fig. 2.Trace element concentrations were determined by the ICP-MS technique in Amdel laboratory (Australia. Thin sections and doubly polished sections (100–200 µm thick from quartz veins were prepared from samples collected from the Zafarghand district in the University of Isfahan. Heating and freezing experiments on fluid inclusions were performed as defined (by Goldstein and Reynolds (1994 on a Linkam THM600 stage. Results Igneous rocks in the Zafarghand area are dominated by the Eocene and post Eocene acidic-intermediate rocks that include dacite, rhyodacite and andesite associated with diorite, quartz diorite and microdiorite intrusions. The present investigations indicate that all rocks of the Zafarghand district exhibit a variety of alterations. Hydrothermal alterations include phyllic, potassic, silicification, and argillic with widespread propylitic. The mineralization consists of malachite, azurite, hematite, and goethite, rare amounts of magnetite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. Numerical traditional statistical analysis techniques have been applied to interpret the geochemical data of the study area. These methods are aimed at

  15. FY 1999 report on the data processing of the geothermal development promotion survey. No. A-4 Kunbetsudake area (Secondary); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki (dai 2 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-10-01

    This survey studies possibilities of geothermal resource existence by checking the presence of high temperature anomaly by a wide-area survey with the aim of extracting the area for Survey B and Survey C to be conducted. The area for survey is an area of approximately 300km{sup 2} including Shibetsu town, Shibetsu county, and Rausu town, Menashi county, which are located east of Hokkaido. Conceptual models of the geothermal system in this area which are thought of from the results of the survey are as follows. It is assumed that heat source exists deeply in Unabetsudake (Mt. Unabetsu). From the fact that the K-Ar method age of the ejecta is 0.5Ma and the TL method age of the rate. (NEDO)ch the position of drilling of the well for survey of heeffective as heat source. It is thought that the water of hot spring/mineral spring came to indicate various spring qualities by mixture of meteoric water and fossil seawater at various ratios. The fossil seawater and old meteoric water are being heated by thermal conduction. The mixture with the original water of Kawakita hot spa is recognized in Shibetsu Kanayama hot spa. It is assumed that the high temperature area exists mostly in Unabetsudake, but the spread does not reach the position of drilling of the well for survey of heat flow rate. (NEDO)

  16. South Dakota Geothermal Commercialization Project. Final report, July 1979-October 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegman, S.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the South Dakota Energy Office in providing technical assistance, planning, and commercialization projects for geothermal energy. Projects included geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, and active demonstration/commercialization projects. (ACR)

  17. Colorado geothermal commercialization planning. Semi-annual progress report, January 1, 1979-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    The potential for developing the geothermal resources of Colorado is detailed. Constraints that are limiting geothermal energy development are described. Area development plans, an institutional analysis, and the outreach program are presented. (MHR)

  18. Summary of geothermal studies in Montana, 1980 through 1983. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonderegger, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The geology, hydrology, and surface manifestations of geothermal systems in Montana are described by area. Water-quality information, tables of inventory and water analysis data for springs and wells, and a geothermal resource map are included. (MHR)

  19. The Newcastle geothermal system, Iron County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, R.E.; Shubat, M.A.; Bishop, C.E. (Utah Geological and Mineral Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (USA)); Chapman, D.S.; Forster, C.B.; Schlinger, C.M. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1990-03-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical studies contributed to conceptual hydrologic model of the blind'' (no surface expression), moderate-temperature (greater than 130{degree}C) Newcastle geothermal system, located in the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau transition zone of southwestern Utah. Temperature gradient measurements define a thermal anomaly centered near the surface trace of the range-bounding Antelope Range fault with and elongate dissipative plume extending north into the adjacent Escalante Valley. Spontaneous potential and resistivity surveys sharply define the geometry of the dominant upflow zone (not yet explored), indicating that most of the thermal fluid issues form a short segment along the Antelope Range fault and discharges into a gently-dipping aquifer. Production wells show that this aquifer lies at a depth between 85 and 95 meter. Electrical surveys also show that some leakage of thermal fluid occurs over a 1.5 km (minimum) interval along the trace of the Antelope Range fault. Major element, oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analyses of water samples indicate that the thermal fluid is a mixture of meteoric water derived from recharge areas in the Pine Valley Mountains and cold, shallow groundwater. A northwest-southeast trending system of faults, encompassing a zone of increased fracture permeability, collects meteoric water from the recharge area, allows circulation to a depth of 3 to 5 kilometers, and intersects the northeast-striking Antelope Range fault. We postulate that mineral precipitates form a seal along the Antelope Range fault, preventing the discharge of thermal fluids into basin-fill sediments at depth, and allowing heated fluid to approach the surface. Eventually, continued mineral deposition could result in the development of hot springs at the ground surface.

  20. Volume changes of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, due to surface mass balance, ice flow, and subglacial melting at geothermal areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Björnson, Helgi; Dall, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present observed changes in the geometry of western Vatnajökull over a period of about ten years which are caused by the surface mass balance, ice flow (both during surges and quiescent periods), and basal melting due to geothermal and volcanic activity. Comparison of two digital elevation...

  1. Pueblo of Jemez Geothermal Feasibility Study Fianl Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Kelley; N. Rogers; S. Sandberg; J. Witcher; J. Whittier

    2005-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of developing geothermal energy on the Pueblo of Jemez, with particular attention to the Red Rocks area. Geologic mapping of the Red Rocks area was done at a scale of 1:6000 and geophysical surveys identified a potential drilling target at a depth of 420 feet. The most feasible business identified to use geothermal energy on the reservation was a greenhouse growing culinary and medicinal herbs. Space heating and a spa were identified as two other likely uses of geothermal energy at Jemez Pueblo. Further geophysical surveys are needed to identify the depth to the Madera Limestone, the most likely host for a major geothermal reservoir.

  2. Assessment of trace metal contamination in groundwater in a highly urbanizing area of Shenfu New District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yintao; Zang, Xinghua; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Shichao; Sun, Shaobin; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Shenfu New District, located between two old industrial cities, Shenyang and Fushun, is a typical area undergoing industrialization and urbanization in China. The sources and distributions of heavy metals were analyzed in groundwater by multivariate analysis and GIS, and the impact of urbanization on the aqueous distribution of these metals was investigated. The results indicated that the mean contents of zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the wet periods were about two times of those in the dry period. Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) were considered to be associated with the same anthropogenic origins (i.e., wastewater from agricultural processing). The concentration of Zn was high under natural conditions, but was also affected by human activities (e.g., wastewater from foundry and instrument manufacturers). As, Cd, and Pb are likely derived from both anthropogenic and natural sources (agricultural and water-rock interactions). The spatial distributions of heavy metals in groundwater were region-specific, with the highest concentrations mostly along the Hun River. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values from the dry and wet periods showed similar trends at different sampling sites. Only one site's HPI was above the critical value of 100. These results provide information that can be used to understand potential threats to the groundwater resources of other developing cities.

  3. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  4. Sign of Radon for locate geothermic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Teran, D.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of a geothermic field is based upon geological, geophysical and geochemical studies that enable the evaluation of the deposit potential, that is to say, the amount of energy per unit mass, the volume of the trapped fluid, vapor fraction and fluid chemistry. This thesis has as its objective the evaluation of radon gas emanation in high potential geothermic zones in order to utilize the results as a low cost and easy to manage complimentary tool in geothermic source prospection. In chapter I the importance and evaluation of a geothermic deposit is discussed. In chapter II the general characteristics of radon are discussed: its radioactivity and behavior upon diffusion over the earth's surface> Chapter III establishes the approach used in the geothermic field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, to carry out samplings of radon and the laboratory techniques that were used to evaluate the concentration of radon in the subsoil. Finally in chapter IV measurements of radon in the field are compared to geological faults in the area under study. The sampling zones were: low geothermic potential zone of the northern and the southern zone having a greater geothermic potential than that in the north. The study was carried out at different sampling times using plastics detectors of from 30 to 46 days from February to July. From the results obtained we concluded that the emission of radon was greater in the zones of greatest geothermic potential than in the low geothermic potential zones it was also affected by the fault structure and the time of year in which sampling was done. (Author)

  5. Geothermal development of the Salton Trough, California and Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, T.D.; Howard, J.H.; Lande, D.P. (eds.)

    1975-04-01

    A geological description is given of the Salton Trought followed by a chronological history of attempts to exploit the area's geothermal resources. In addition, detailed descriptions are given of all ongoing geothermal projects in the area and the organizations conducting them.

  6. A review of geothermal mapping techniques using remotely sensed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploiting geothermal (GT) resources requires first and foremost locating suitable areas for its development. Remote sensing offers a synoptic capability of covering large areas in real time and can cost effectively explore prospective geothermal sites not easily detectable using conventional survey methods, thus can aid in ...

  7. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  8. Report for fiscal 1982 on comprehensive survey for nationwide geothermal resources. Preparation of lineament density maps - radar image analyses - in north-eastern area; 1982 nendo zenkoku chinetsu shigen sogo chosa hokokusho. Lineament mitsudozu sakusei (radar gazo kaiseki (Tohoku chiiki))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    Geological structure analysis maps and lineament maps were prepared on the north-eastern area and parts of the ancillary areas thereof by analyzing radar images of a 1 to 200,000 scale. With regard to the geological structures, analyses were performed by using as the original data the north look radar images for the three special geothermal areas to have prepared the geological structure analysis maps. The analysis of the radar images identified ground bed boundary lines in more detail than in the existing geological maps, and new discoveries were made available on faults. The lineament maps were compiled by implanting into respectively corresponding topographic maps the 24 N-S lineament maps made by the west look radar images for the whole surveyed areas, and the 16 E-W lineament maps made by the north look radar images for the special geothermal areas. Based on the clarity and characteristics deciphered on the images, the lineaments were classified into the major, minor, and subtle lineaments, which were indicated on the lineament maps. The lineaments were digitized by positions of the edge points, and the histograms and statistical tables were prepared by computer processing. (NEDO)

  9. Investigations in fiscal 1983 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 1. Report on investigation of fumarolic environmental effects in Oku-Aizu area; 1983 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. 1. Okuaizu chiiki funkichu kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    As part of the investigations on promotion of geothermal development, surveys have been carried out in the Oku-Aizu area to identify the existence and/or extent of effects of collecting geothermal fluids above the ground imposed on the environment, such as the natural ecological system. The investigated area is an area of 60 km{sup 2} covering Kawanuma County and Onuma County in Fukushima Prefecture, a mountainous area with undulations. The investigation result may be summarized as follows: the area shows the inland climate and has snow fall as much as 2 m in winter; according to the H2S diffusion prediction, the concentration thereof on the land in seasonal average is 0.7 ppm at maximum, which is a value presenting no problems. No fumarolic effects of SO2 were identified, and floating dust and Hg showed values that present no problems. With regard to water quality during and after the blowout test, no effects of blowout return were identified. The noise level was 41 to 45 phones at a place 100 m distant, and the vibration level has become the lower detection limit at a place 50 m distant. Leveling has discovered no ground movement. No variation in major constituents in thermal spring water was verified before and after the blowout test. (NEDO)

  10. New Geothermal Prospect in North-Eastern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Rimi, Abdelkrim; Correia, António; Carneiro, Júlio; Verdoya, Massimo; Zarhloule, Yassine; Lucazeau, Francis; Boughriba, Mimoun; Barkaoui, Alae Eddine

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal data has been indicating promising potentialities in the north-eastern Morocco. This paperpresents new temperature data, recently recorded in water borehole located in the Berkane and Oujda areas. Generally, the observed temperature gradients are rather high. One hole near Berkane, revealed an average geothermal gradient of more than 110 ºC/km at depths greater than 300 m. This result confirms the geothermal gradient estimated in a mining borehole located about 30 km west ...

  11. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the first quarter of FY-97. It describes 174 contracts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  12. Geothermal energy worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Enriko

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal energy, as a natural steam and hot water, has been exploited for decades in order to generate electricity as well as district heating and industrial processes. The present geothermal electrical installed capacity in the world is about 10.000 MWe and the thermal capacity in non-electrical uses is about 8.200 MWt. Electricity is produced with an efficiency of 10-17%, and the cost of the kWh is competitive with conventional energy sources. In the developing countries, where a total installed electrical power is still low, geothermal energy can play a significant role: in El Salvador, for example, 25% of electricity comes from geothermal spring, 20% in the Philippines and 8% in Kenya. Present technology makes it possible to control the environmental impact of geothermal exploitation. Geothermal energy could also be extracted from deep geopressured reservoirs in large sedimentary basins, hot dry rock systems and magma bodies. (author)

  13. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  14. Coordination of geothermal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessop, A.M.; Drury, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visits were made in 1983 to various investigators and institutions in Canada to examine developments in geothermal research. Proposals for drilling geothermal wells to provide hot water for heating at a college in Prince Edward Island were made. In Alberta, the first phase of a program examining the feasibility of mapping sedimentary geothermal reservoirs was discussed. Some sites for possible geothermal demonstration projects were identified. In British Columbia, discussions were held between BC Hydro and Energy, Mines and Resources Canada on the drilling of a research hole into the peak of a temperature anomaly in the Meager Creek Valley. The British Columbia government has offered blocks of land in the Mount Cayley volcanic complex for lease to develop geothermal resources. A list of papers of interest to the Canadian geothermal energy program is appended.

  15. The geothermal power organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  16. Geothermal Today - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  17. Success in geothermal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, V.

    1992-01-01

    Success in geothermal development can be defined as the ability to produce geothermal energy at compatible energy prices to other energy sources. Drilling comprises usually the largest cost in geothermal development, and the results of drilling is largely influencing the final price of geothermal energy. For 20 geothermal fields with operating power plants, the ratio between installed capacity and the total number of well in the field is 1.9 MWe/well. The drilling history in 30 geothermal fields are analyzed by plotting the average cumulative well outputs as function of the number of wells drilled in the field. The range of the average well output is 1-10 MWe/well with the mean value 4.2 MWe/well for the 30 geothermal fields studied. A leaning curve is defined as the number of wells drilled in each field before the average output per well reaches a fairly constant value, which is characteristic for the geothermal reservoir. The range for this learning time is 4-36 wells and the average is 13 wells. In general, the average well output in a given field is fairly constant after some 10-20 wells has been drilled in the field. The asymptotic average well output is considered to be a reservoir parameter when it is normalized to the average drilling depth. In average, this reservoir parameter can be expressed as 3.3 MWe per drilled km for the 30 geothermal fields studied. The lifetime of the resource or the depletion time of the geothermal reservoir should also be considered as a parameter influencing the success of geothermal development. Stepwise development, where the reservoir response to the utilization for the first step is used to determine the timing of the installment of the next step, is considered to be an appropriate method to minimize the risk for over investment in a geothermal field

  18. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Electromagnetic exploration (TDEM method) (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Denji tansa (TDEM ho) hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    For the purpose of elucidating a possibility of existence of geothermal reservoirs in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, Electromagnetic survey by the TDEM method was conducted. The survey was made for the area of 80km{sup 2} at 105 measuring points in the south of the Haneyama area, and the resistivity structure reaching the depth of 4,000m from the earth surface was made clear. The resistivity structure in this area is composed of 4 layers: upper medium resistivity layer, central medium resistivity layer, central low resistivity layer and lower high resistivity layer. The resistivity structure discontinuous line ranges between the uplift zone of basement and the sedimentation zone, and the greater part of the alteration zone is distributed and arranged concomitant with the position and direction of the line. As the region with high potential of geothermal existence, cited were the low resistivity zone distributed in the west of the resistivity structure discontinuous line that continues from Mt. Fukuman to the south, the low resistivity zone distributed in the north of the resistivity structure discontinuous line from Noya to the west, and the low resistivity zone distributed in the north of Hosenji and lying between resistivity structure discontinuous lines. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1998 Geothermal development promotion study. Report on results of the elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) in No.B-6, Tsujinodake area; 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Danseiha tansa (hanshaho) hokokusho (No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The elastic wave exploitation (reflection method) was conducted to elucidate the geothermal reservoirs, estimated to exist on the Ata caldera walls in the Tsujino area, Kagoshima Pref. The elastic wave exploitation used large-size vibrators as the vibration sources and 4 courses of traverse (total length: 6.56 km, number of vibration-receiving points: 332, and number of vibration source points: 102). The data were processed by the standard procedure of the common reflection synthesis method. The geological structures were analyzed by comparing the existing geological data with the data obtained at the drilling. The analysis results suggest that the Ata caldera walls considered to exist in the surveyed area possibly correspond to the vicinity of the default existing at the south-east boundary of the collapse structure. The analysis of the geothermal structures suggest that the sheet-shaped intruding rocks, considered to exist at a depth of around 1,000 m in the vicinity of the Kaimon hot spring resort, was possibly formed by the magma ascending along the default. The presence of the magma reservoirs deep below the area is strongly suggested to work as the heat source for the area. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1992 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Geological structure (geology/alteration zone) survey (No. A-1 - Haneyama area); 1992 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. Chishitsu kozo (chishitsu henshitsutai) chosa hokokusho (No. A-1 Haneyama chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    For the purpose of elucidating a possibility of existence of geothermal reservoirs in the Haneyama area, Oita Prefecture, survey of the geological structure (geology/alteration zone) was conducted. The survey was made for the area of 280km{sup 2} lying from Kusu Town to Kokonoe Town, Oita Prefecture in terms of the route survey of 174km, fabrication/judgement of 52 rock slices, whole rock chemical analysis of 21 rocks, age determination, analysis of rock mineral, X-ray diffraction, literature collection, etc. As a result of the survey, the following conclusion was obtained. When considering a possibility of existence of heat source near this area, the area near the present volcanic front was regarded as promising. The fracture structure in the depths seen in the gravity structure (part of sharp dip of gravity) is more closely related to activity of geothermal water than the active structure of E-W system near the earth surface newly formed and is important when considering the existence of geothermal resource. The periphery of the Shishimuta sedimentation zone where Takigami, Oodake, Hacchobaru and Oguni are located was especially regarded as an area propmising of geothermal energy. In the survey area, the geothermal potential was the highest near Noya - Mizuwake Pass. (NEDO)

  1. Geothermal Power Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montagud, Maria E. Mondejar; Chamorro, C.R.

    2017-01-01

    Although geothermal energy has been widely deployed for direct use in locations with especial geologic manifestations, its potential for power generation has been traditionally underestimated. Recent technology developments in drilling techniques and power conversion technologies from low......-temperature heat resources are bringing geothermal energy to the spotlight as a renewable baseload energy option for a sustainable energy mix. Although the environmental impact and economic viability of geothermal exploitation must be carefully evaluated for each case, the use of deep low-temperature geothermal...... reservoirs could soon become an important contributor to the energy generation around the world....

  2. Geothermal reservoir engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Malcolm Alister

    2011-01-01

    As nations alike struggle to diversify and secure their power portfolios, geothermal energy, the essentially limitless heat emanating from the earth itself, is being harnessed at an unprecedented rate.  For the last 25 years, engineers around the world tasked with taming this raw power have used Geothermal Reservoir Engineering as both a training manual and a professional reference.  This long-awaited second edition of Geothermal Reservoir Engineering is a practical guide to the issues and tasks geothermal engineers encounter in the course of their daily jobs. The bo

  3. Geothermal Energy Program overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained with the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost- effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy -- the heat of the Earth -- is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40% of the total US energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma ( the four types of geothermal energy) still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program

  4. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  5. Numerical investigation of the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir: a case study of the Daming geothermal field in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuyang; Song, Hongqing; Killough, John; Du, Li; Sun, Pengguang

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy is clean and has great potential worldwide, and it is important to utilize geothermal energy in a sustainable manner. Mathematical modeling studies of geothermal reservoirs are important as they evaluate and quantify the complex multi-physical effects in geothermal reservoirs. However, previous modeling efforts lack the study focusing on the emission reduction efficiency and the deformation at geothermal wellbores caused by geothermal water extraction/circulation. Emission efficiency is rather relevant in geothermal projects introduced in areas characterized by elevated air pollution where the utilization of geothermal energy is as an alternative to burning fossil fuels. Deformation at geothermal wellbores is also relevant as significant deformation caused by water extraction can lead to geothermal wellbore instability and can consequently decrease the effectiveness of the heat extraction process in geothermal wells. In this study, the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir in Daming County, China, are numerically investigated based on a coupled multi-physical model. Relationships between the efficiency of emission reduction and heat extraction, deformation at geothermal well locations, and geothermal field parameters including well spacing, heat production rate, re-injection temperature, rock stiffness, and geothermal well placement patterns are analyzed. Results show that, although large heat production rates and low re-injection temperatures can lead to decreased heat production in the last 8 years of heat extraction, they still improve the overall heat production capacity and emission reduction capacity. Also, the emission reduction capacity is positively correlated with the heat production capacity. Deformation at geothermal wellbore locations is alleviated by smaller well spacing, lower heat production rates, and smaller numbers of injectors in the well pattern, and by

  6. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  7. Minutes of the conference 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98'. Symposium on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-22

    This paper summarizes the proceedings presented at the 'Geothermal energy in Asia '98' held on October 22, 1998 in the Philippines. The Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, China, Malaysia, and Vietnam presented proceedings on the current status and the future of developing geothermal energy in each country. Technical theses presented relate to the following matters: a geothermal development model in the Khoy geothermal area in Iran, the result of surveys on promotion of geothermal development in Japan, the thermal fluid sources in the geothermal fluid systems in the Hachijo volcanic island in Japan, strategies for heat reservoir management by using numerical simulation in the Hacchobari geothermal area in Japan, a geological model for the north Negros geothermal area in the center of the Philippines, application of the NEDO rock core analyzing method in the Wasabizawa geothermal development area in Japan, measurements of geomagnetism, geocurrent, and gravity in the north Negros in the center of the Philippines, geophysical studies in geothermal exploration in the Mataloko area in the Nustenggara island in the eastern Indonesia, and the background of magma/crust structure in the geothermal systems. (NEDO)

  8. Comparison of the microbial communities of hot springs waters and the microbial biofilms in the acidic geothermal area of Copahue (Neuquén, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbieta, María Sofía; González-Toril, Elena; Bazán, Ángeles Aguilera; Giaveno, María Alejandra; Donati, Edgardo

    2015-03-01

    Copahue is a natural geothermal field (Neuquén province, Argentina) dominated by the Copahue volcano. As a consequence of the sustained volcanic activity, Copahue presents many acidic pools, hot springs and solfataras with different temperature and pH conditions that influence their microbial diversity. The occurrence of microbial biofilms was observed on the surrounding rocks and the borders of the ponds, where water movements and thermal activity are less intense. Microbial biofilms are particular ecological niches within geothermal environments; they present different geochemical conditions from that found in the water of the ponds and hot springs which is reflected in different microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to compare microbial community diversity in the water of ponds and hot springs and in microbial biofilms in the Copahue geothermal field, with particular emphasis on Cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic species that have not been detected before in Copahue. In this study, we report the presence of Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi and chloroplasts of eukaryotes in the microbial biofilms not detected in the water of the ponds. On the other hand, acidophilic bacteria, the predominant species in the water of moderate temperature ponds, are almost absent in the microbial biofilms in spite of having in some cases similar temperature conditions. Species affiliated with Sulfolobales in the Archaea domain are the predominant microorganism in high temperature ponds and were also detected in the microbial biofilms.

  9. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (animals/plants, No. B-7 Kuwanosawa area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (doshokubutsu, No.B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This survey was conducted to estimate effects of drilling of geothermal exploration well on the environment, aiming at grasping the present state of environmental elements before the survey/development. As a result of the literature survey, the following distribution were confirmed in the fauna: 5 orders 10 families 19 species in the mammalia, 10 orders 25 families 73 species in the aves, 1 order 3 families 6 species in the reptilia, 2 orders 6 families 9 species in the amphibia, and 17 orders 179 families 719 species in the insecta. In the flora, a distribution of 132 families 670 species was confirmed. The results of studying the above indicated that in the fauna, there were 10 species such as antelope as valuable animal in the area surveyed and that it is necessary to pay much attention to the environmental preservation of the habitat for those animals in the well drilling associated with geothermal survey. In the flora, the 13 valuable animals selected as animal having a fear of extinction in the 'plant-version red list' were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery. Further, as to the plant colony, there are no important colonies in terms of preservation. In well drilling, important things are efforts exerted to restore to the original state of the area altered, prevention of the washed-away of mud water, etc., and efforts exerted to preserve the environment of vegetation. (NEDO)

  10. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-4 'Kuenohira-yama area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-4 Kuenohira-yama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The above-named survey had been scheduled to be conducted in fiscal years 1996-1998 for an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area of Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-gun, Oita Prefecture. In fiscal 1996, surface surveys were conducted, such as geological and alteration zone surveys, gravity prospecting, and electromagnetic survey. In fiscal 1997, an exploration well (N9-KH-1: depth 2,222.0m) was drilled. Since the maximum temperature in the well was found to be so low as 78.5 degrees C, the survey was given up in the second year. The survey conducted at N9-KH-1 showed that deep-seated and shallow-seated ruptures developed there in the absence of aquicludes, and so it was inferred that it was a recharge area, as predicted by the temperature logging profile, with surface water flowing into the depth. The above showed that there was no deep-seated blind geothermal system which the survey was after. Since it was not likely that the shallow-seated geothermal system located in the southern part of the Mizuwake pass would be found expanding into the area of the current survey, it was decided that the survey not be carried forward to the following fiscal year. (NEDO)

  11. Investigations in fiscal 1986 on promotion of geothermal development. Part 2. Report on precision structural test well drilling and investigation works in Otaki area; 1986 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa hokokusho. 2. Otaki chiiki seimitsu kozo shisui oyobi chosa koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-09-01

    With an objective of promotion of geothermal development in the Otaki area in Nagano Prefecture, precision structural test well drilling and investigation works have been carried out, and the result thereof reported. The investigated area is an inclined land with an area of 70 km{sup 2} at altitudes of 1,000 to 2,000 m in the southern foot of the Mitake volcano having Otaki River as the southern border. The investigation has performed during the period from March 2 to September 30, 1987 the drilling of the N61-OT-5 test well hole (depth of 502.0 m), temperature logging, temperature restoration test, water injection test, and core test. The result of the investigation may be summarized as follows: existence of the stratigraphic succession as predicted by ground surface investigation, and existence of the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic strata of the Mino belt were verified; the Mesozoic and Palaeozoic strata of the Mino belt being the base bed have only small cracks, and very little alteration can be identified; X-ray diffraction of powder from test drilled cores recognized very little minerals altered by hot water; and the temperature logging and temperature restoration test identified no temperature indication that clearly indicates existence of heat sources. As a conclusion, there is no alteration due to hot water down to 500 m below the surface in the vicinity of the investigation well, and the possibility of a geothermal reservoir to exist is extremely low. (NEDO)

  12. Geothermal development promotion survey. No.B-4 'Kuenohira-yama area'; 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. No.B-4 Kuenohira-yama chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The above-named survey had been scheduled to be conducted in fiscal years 1996-1998 for an approximately 10km{sup 2}-large area of Kokonoe-cho, Kusu-gun, Oita Prefecture. In fiscal 1996, surface surveys were conducted, such as geological and alteration zone surveys, gravity prospecting, and electromagnetic survey. In fiscal 1997, an exploration well (N9-KH-1: depth 2,222.0m) was drilled. Since the maximum temperature in the well was found to be so low as 78.5 degrees C, the survey was given up in the second year. The survey conducted at N9-KH-1 showed that deep-seated and shallow-seated ruptures developed there in the absence of aquicludes, and so it was inferred that it was a recharge area, as predicted by the temperature logging profile, with surface water flowing into the depth. The above showed that there was no deep-seated blind geothermal system which the survey was after. Since it was not likely that the shallow-seated geothermal system located in the southern part of the Mizuwake pass would be found expanding into the area of the current survey, it was decided that the survey not be carried forward to the following fiscal year. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1997 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 3); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 3. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Described herein are the results of the comprehensive analysis of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area, investigated in the FY 1995 to 1997 period as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The ground investigation project covers geological and altered band, geochemical, gravitational and electromagnetic investigations. The drilling investigation project covers the test drilling for the structural investigation, temperature logging, water injection and temperature recovery tests at the N7-KI-1, N7-KI-2, N8-KI-3, N8-KI-4 and N9-KI-5; core cutting investigation; hot water investigation at the 4 wells; environmental impact investigation; and supplementary investigations for determination of ages of rocks and alteration, and analysis of the substances contained in the fluid. The following conclusions are derived from the findings by the comprehensive analysis. The geothermal hot water in the test area came from seawater (fossil seawater) locally captured by the highly water-permeable strata (e.g., interfaces in the strata, and fractured strata) and underground water from rain water, heated by the conducted heat to around 200 degrees C at the highest. It is estimated that the center of the conducted heat is located in the eastern part of the Yagumo Area. (NEDO)

  14. FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey. Report of hot water survey results (No. B-3 Kumaishi area); 1996 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Nessui no chosa hokokusho (No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Reported herein are the survey results of hot water in the Kumaishi area, Hokkaido, as part of the FY 1996 geothermal development/promotion survey project. A total of 277 spouting guidance tests were conducted by the swabbing method for 10 days at the N7-KI-1 well, which, however, failed to achieve continuous spouting of geothermal fluid. A total of 144 swabbing tests were conducted for 8 days at the N7-KI-2 well. The geothermal fluid is spontaneously spouted out, although intermittently, after the main valve was opened, because it had a pressure of 4.1 kg/cm{sup 2} G at the mouth of the well from the first. However, the final self-spouting quantity remained unchanged in spite of the guidance works. The hot water had a pH 6.4, and contained Na as a cation at 8,940 mg/L and Cl as an anion at 14,500 mg/L as the major impurities. The associated gas was mainly composed of carbon dioxide, containing little hydrogen sulfide. The hot water spouted out through the wells contained Na and a high concentration of Cl as the major impurities, suggesting possibility of mixing hot water containing a high concentration of salt with surface water. It is considered that neither hot water nor its impurity concentrations are evenly distributed in the deep underground of the Kumaishi area. It is therefore considered that the deep underground hot water sources for hot spring slightly vary in composition and impurity concentrations. (NEDO)

  15. Geothermal Today: 2003 Geothermal Technologies Program Highlights (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-01

    This outreach publication highlights milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. Included in this publication are discussions of geothermal fundamentals, enhanced geothermal systems, direct-use applications, geothermal potential in Idaho, coating technology, energy conversion R&D, and the GeoPowering the West initiative.

  16. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  18. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  19. Prospects of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzella, A.; Bianchi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal energy has great potential as a renewable energy with low environmental impact, the use of heat pumps is becoming established in Italy but the national contributions are still modest when compared to other nations. Mature technologies could double the installed geothermal power in Italy at 2020. [it

  20. Studies of geothermal background and isotopic geochemistry of thermal waters in Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenbin; Sun Zhanxue; Li Xueli; Shi Weijun

    1996-10-01

    The terrestrial heat flow measurement, isotope and geochemical techniques have been systematically applied to the geothermal systems in Jiangxi Province. Results show that the thermal waters in the study area all belong to the low-medium temperature convective geothermal system, which essentially differs from high temperature geothermal systems with deep magmatic heat sources. It has been proven that the isotope and geochemical techniques are very useful and effective in geothermal exploration. (13 refs., 14 tabs., 8 figs.)

  1. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  2. Geothermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-15

    Mexican Institute de Investigaciones de la Industria Electrica is actively participating. The program is itself a part of a natural resources study in...brtlan de Los Hervores geothermax area. Michoacan. Mexico. IN: ibid., v. 2, pt. 1, 381-398. 215. Mercado , S. Hißh activ.dy...indiciated that in the volcanic environment of the Taupo graben the most useful technique is de -resistivity profiling using linear arrays. 58

  3. Microearthquakes in the ahuachapan geothermal field, el salvador, central america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P L; Jacob, K H

    1971-07-23

    Microearthquakes occur on a steeply dipping plane interpreted here as the fault that allows hot water to circulate to the surface in the geothermal region. These small earthquakes are common in many geothermal areas and may occur because of the physical or chemical effects of fluids and fluid pressure.

  4. The Silting-Up Prevention in the Geothermal Absorbent Openings of Geothermal Energy Plant Pyrzyce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noga Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents precipitation results from cold thermal water deposits that are the main cause of clogging in absorbent geothermal wells and borehole areas. As a result of physical and chemical analysis, laboratory tests and observation of the operation of a geothermal installation, a new method was developed to prevent the precipitation of sludge from cooled thermal water. The method being a modification of soft acidising was tentatively named as a super soft acidising method

  5. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  6. Fiscal 1998 geothermal energy development promotion survey. Report on data processing (No. B-6 - Tsujinodake area - Phase 2); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 2. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The result of the data processing (Phase 1) and the result of the 1998 survey carried out for the Tsujinodake area, Kagoshima Prefecture, were subjected to a comprehensive analysis, and the state of existence of geothermal resources in this area was compiled into a report. In fiscal 1998, structural boring (N10-TD-1), thermal water examination, seismic exploration, environmental impact assessment, fluid inclusion examination, and rock dating were conducted. Some findings obtained from the comprehensive analysis are mentioned below. In the vicinity of structural borehole N10-TD-1, fluids move along geological boundaries and in permeable layers in the horizontal direction, with an aquiclude serving as a border. At levels deeper than 980m, there flows a mixture of seawater heated to approximately 135 degrees C by thermal conduction and water originating in Lake Ikeda. Still deeper, water from Ikeda Lake flows in and lowers the temperature. It is suggested that there may be a sharp and abrupt rise in temperature at levels deeper than the cooling region near the bottom of structural borehole N10-TD-1. It is inferred that the magma reservoir that produced the Tsujinodake lava is small as a heat source or that it has not yet formed a high temperature geothermal system shallow in the ground. (NEDO)

  7. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  8. Geothermal country update of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higo, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy in Japan. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, present utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, information about geothermal localities, and wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources to January 1, 1990

  9. [Monitoring temporal dynamics in leaf area index of the temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in Maoershan region, Northeast China with tower-based radiation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Wang, Xing Chang

    2016-08-01

    Broadband vegetation indices (BVIs) derived from routine radiation measurements on eddy flux towers have the advantage of high temporal resolutions, and thus have the potential to obtain detailed information of dynamics in canopy leaf area index (LAI). Taking the temperate broadleaved deciduous forest around the Maoershan flux tower in Northeast China as a case, we investigated the controlling factors and smoothing method of four BVI time-series, i.e., broadband norma-lized difference vegetation index (NDVI B ), broadband enhanced vegetation index (EVI B ), the ratio of the near-infrared radiation reflectance to photosynthetically active radiation reflectance (SR NP ), and the ratio of the shortwave radiation reflectance to photosynthetically active radiation reflectance (SR SP ). We compared the seasonal courses of the BVIs with the LAI based on litterfall collection method. The values for each BVI were slightly different among the three calculation methods by Huemmrich, Wilson, and Jenkins, but showed similar seasonal patterns. The diurnal variations in BVIs were mainly influenced by the solar elevation and the angle between the solar elevation and slope, but the BVIs were relatively stable around 12:30. The noise of daily BVI time-series could be effectively smoothed by a threshold of clearness index (K). The seasonal courses of BVIs for each time of day around the noon had similar patterns, but their thresholds of K and the percen-tages of remaining data were different. Therefore, the daily values of BVIs might be optimized based on the smoothing and the proportion of remaining data. The NDVI B was closely correlated linearly with the LAI derived from the litterfall collection method, while the EVI B , SR NP , and SR SP had a logarithmic relationship with the LAI. The NDVI B had the advantage in tracking the seasonal dyna-mics in LAI and extrapolating LAI to a broader scale. Given that most eddy flux towers had equipped with energy balance measurements, a

  10. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  11. Absence of remote earthquake triggering within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong; Lin, Guoqing; Zhan, Zhongwen; Chen, Xiaowei; Qin, Yan; Wdowinski, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal areas are long recognized to be susceptible to remote earthquake triggering, probably due to the high seismicity rates and presence of geothermal fluids. However, anthropogenic injection and extraction activity may alter the stress state and fluid flow within the geothermal fields. Here we examine the remote triggering phenomena in the Coso geothermal field and its surrounding areas to assess possible anthropogenic effects. We find that triggered earthquakes are absent within the geothermal field but occur in the surrounding areas. Similar observation is also found in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We hypothesize that continuous geothermal operation has eliminated any significant differential pore pressure between fractures inside the geothermal field through flushing geothermal precipitations and sediments out of clogged fractures. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the pore-pressure-driven earthquake swarms, and they are found to occur outside or on the periphery of the geothermal production field. Therefore, our results suggest that the geothermal operation has changed the subsurface fracture network, and differential pore pressure is the primary controlling factor of remote triggering in geothermal fields.

  12. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  13. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  14. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  15. Work for the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) in 2006; Arbeiten fuer das IEA Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA) 2006 - Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybach, L.; Megel, T.

    2006-12-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses work done in 2006 within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Geothermal Implementing Agreement (GIA). Information exchange with representatives of countries where geothermal energy is used is discussed as are the contributions made in this area by Swiss representatives. In particular, comprehensive appendices to the report present the Swiss Country Report, a basic paper on geothermal sustainability, comments on the environmental impact of geothermal energy development and risks posed by fluid injection in enhanced geothermal systems.

  16. Study with liquid and steam tracers at the Tejamaniles area, Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field; Estudio con trazadores de liquido y vapor en el area Tejamaniles del campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias, Eduardo R. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: iglesias@iie.org.mx; Flores Armenta, Magaly [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Torres, Rodolfo J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Ramirez Montes, Miguel [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Reyes Picasso, Neftali [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Reyes Delgado, Lisette [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    The Mexican Federal Commission for Electricity injects brines produced by nearby geothermal wells into well Az-08, located in the Tejamaniles area, in the southwestern portion of Los Azufres, Mich., geothermal field. The main goals of this study are to determine whether or not the injected fluid recharges nine producing wells in the area, and if so, to estimate the fraction of the injected fluid recharging each producing well. Five of the selected wells produce mixes of liquid and steam and the rest produce only steam. For this reason, we designed this study with simultaneous injections of liquid- and steam-tracers. The nine selected producing wells detected the steam-tracer, and the five wells producing mixes detected the liquid-phase tracer. The residence curves of both tracers present a series of peaks reflecting the known fractured nature of the reservoir. The results show the feeding areas of the nine selected wells are recharged by the fluid injected into well Az-08. When this paper was written, the arrival of steam-tracers in all wells was completed, but the wells producing mixes of liquid and steam continued to record the arrival of the liquid-tracer. Until 407 days after injecting the tracer, the total percentage recovery of liquid phase tracer in the five wells producing mixes of liquid and steam was 3.5032%. The arrival of the steam tracer ended in all nine wells 205 days after the tracer was injected, with an overall recovery rate of 2.1553 x 10-2%. The recovery rates imply the recharge rates of the monitored wells by the injector Az-08 are modest, but it appears the amounts of the recovered liquid-phase tracer will increase significantly. The modest recovery rates suggest most of the fluid injected into the well Az-08 disperses in the reservoir, contributing to recharge and maintaining the pressure. Results reveal that: (i) the injected fluid is heated at depths from 700 to over 1000 m, where it boils and rises to reach the feeding areas of the

  17. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    National Park, are unique in North America and highly unlikely to have counterparts with equivalent characteristics among the systems comprising the undiscovered resources. (2) Historical geothermal exploration has been limited in both the effectiveness of techniques employed and spatial coverage, since most exploration has targeted areas associated with surface thermal manifestations in the most easily accessible lands. (3) As noted by other investigators, in general, the hottest and largest geothermal systems are those with heat sources arising from recent magmatic activity. Consequently, a larger fraction of the undiscovered resource is associated with those areas favorable to the formation of this type of geothermal system, including some relatively remote areas, such as the Aleutian volcanic arc in Alaska.

  18. The geopressured-geothermal resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wys, J.N.; Dorfman, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Geopressured-Geothermal resource has an estimated 5,700 recoverable quad of gas and 11,000 recoverable quad of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coasts area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured-geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. The Pleasant Bayou Well has a 1 MWe hybrid power system converting some gas and the thermal energy to electricity. The Gladys McCall Well produced over 23 MM bbls brine with 23 scf per bbl over 4 1/2 years. It is now shut-in building up pressure. The deep Hulin Well has been cleaned out and short term flow tested. It is on standby awaiting funds for long-term flow testing. In January 1990 an Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource was convened at Rice University, Houston, TX. Sixty-five participants heard industry cost-shared proposals for using the hot geopressured brine. Proposals ranged from thermal enhanced oil recovery to aquaculture, conversion, and environmental clean up processes. By the September meeting at UTA-Balcones Research Center, industry approved charters will have been received, an Advisory Board will be appointed, and election of officers from industry will he held

  19. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Fiscal 1999 geothermal development promotion survey. Structural boring survey work and analysis report (No.B-6 - Tsujinodake area); 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kozo shisui chosa koji oyobi kaiseki hokokusho (No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    Cuttings from bores N11-TD-2 and N11-TD-3 drilled for the purpose of confirming the existence of geothermal resources in the Tsujinodake area were examined and tested, and the results of temperature logging, electrical logging, and water injection tests carried out during the structural boring work were analyzed. Activities were conducted in the four fields of (1) test boring work, (2) survey and measurement, (3) core cutting examination, and (4) comprehensive analysis. In bore N11-TD-2 positioned in the northern part of Tsujinodake, a sharp temperature rise was detected in the clay converted alteration zone between 200m above sea level and 200m below sea level. A high temperature of 215 degrees C was recorded at 200m below sea level, and it was found that high temperature geothermal water was in reserve at the bottom of the clay converted alteration zone between 100m above sea level and 200m below sea level. In bore N11-TD-3 in the southern wall of the Ata caldera, a convection type low temperature profile was observed at a shallow level and low temperature convection of underground water was detected there. (NEDO)

  1. FY 2000 report on the investigation of environmental effects in the geothermal development promotion survey. Tertiary. No.B-7 Kuwanosawa area; 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho - No. B-7 Kuwanosawa chiiki (Dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    In the Kuwanosawa area, Yuzawa city, Akita prefecture, survey was conducted to grasp effects of drilling for structural boring in the geothermal survey on the peripheral environment. In the survey of animals, there were 5 orders/10 families/19 species of mammals and 10 orders/25 families/73 species of birds. Three kinds of precious animals were confirmed. There were 132 families/6,670 species in the flora. Three kinds of precious plants and three kinds of precious floras were confirmed. During the survey, drilling for structural boring was conducted. At three spas for survey, there were recognized some survey items of which there were great fluctuations. However, those are seasonal valuations or valuations related to the situation of the inside of hot springs. It is not recognized that the fluctuations were caused by the drilling work and pumping-up of geothermal water. The noise made during the well drilling was reduced around the well as theoretical values indicated. At a spot 200m away from the well, the noise was reduced from the environmental standard, and accordingly, it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. The vibration was reduced around the well more than theoretical values indicated. That was below the control level at a spot 25m away from the well, and it seems that there are few effects on the peripheral environment. (NEDO)

  2. Report on achievements in fiscal 1975 in Sunshine Project. Studies on physical and chemical properties of rocks in geothermal areas; 1975 nendo chinetsu chitai ni okeru ganseki no butsuri kagakuteki tokusei ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements of (A) studies on change in rock specific resistance due to temperature and water content, and (B) petrological, mineralogical and chemical studies on thermally transformed rocks. In the study (A), it was discovered that use of high-pressure capsules allow to obtain test samples in a condition of containing hot water as a result of studies on temperature change in rock specific resistance due to hot water content. In the measurements of geothermal gradient and heat conductivity of test drilled rock cores, the experiments revealed that there are different patterns of temperature restoration due to geological conditions and finish of wells, and properties of mud water used. The studies on thermal structures and underground structures decided shapes of measurement test samples of test drilled cores. In the measurements of heat conductivity and heat flow rate of test drilled rock cores, considerations were given on the relationship among sectional temperature increasing rate, heat conductivity and heat flow rate. The measurements of residual magnetism and magnetization in rocks described interpretation on the result of test drilled core measurement. In the study (B), aluminous sphere in the Hachimantai Onuma geothermal area is first described. Then, a description is given on the relationship between chemical constituents and electric conductivity of natural water in Mt. Akita Yakeyama and its vicinity. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1994 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Complementary survey on the fracture system, etc. (Wasabizawa area); 1994 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo kaiseki hokokusho futai shiryo. Wasabizawa chiiki danretsu kei tou hokan chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    For the contribution to elucidation of the geothermal structure in the Wasabizawa area, Akita Prefecture, survey by the paleomagnetic measurement and fracture system measurement was conducted of the borehole cores and specimens of outcrop granite obtained from boreholes of N6-WZ-3 and N6-WZ-4. In the survey, the following were carried out: measurement of the core fracture system of N6-WZ-3 (102-1,505m) and N6-WZ-4 (507-1,556m), paleomagnetic measurement of 9 outcrop granite specimens and 16 core specimens, and k/Ar age determination of 3 outcrop granite specimens. As a result of the paleomagnetic measurement of outcrop granite, the magnetization azimuth of the schistose granodiorite distributed in Kuwanosawa was regarded as almost NS. The measured magnetization azimuth of the core specimen obtained from the same rock mass was also made NS-based, and measurement of the fracture in the neighborhood was made. As a result, it was found out that the NNW system was dominant in dikes and that there was the NE system in most of the small geothermal channels. The fracture system of well tended to develop around the boundary between granite and metamorphic rock, and it was thought that this part could be a reservoir if temperature conditions are prepared. (NEDO)

  4. Geothermic Characters Of The Most Promising Geothermal Filed For Power Generation In Republic Of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Kubati M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents geothermal exploration and their geothermometric characteristics in the western part of Yemen. Geologically this volcanic province totals areas approximately 45000 km2. Tectonically the study area is considered one of the most active in the Arabian Plate boundaries that affected by the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden as well as by the African rift valley. Extensive field work had been carried out to evaluate the geothermal characteristics of this area. Water and gas samples were collected from hundreds of thermal springs and shallow domestic wells and geochemically analyzed and reported. Temperatures and PH values range from 35 to 96.3 C and from 4.5 to 8.5 respectively. Deep geothermal gradient indicates that the geothermal gradients in the western part of the province Red Sea coast are relatively high up to 182 C at the depth of 3290 m. Volcanic units are affected by hydrothermal processes and became intensively altered. By applying geothermometric methods four geothermal fields have been primarily identified they are Al-Lisi and Isbil Dhamar province Al-Qafr Ibb province Damt Dhala province and the Red Sea coast geothermal fields and three water types were recognized which are Na-HCO3-Cl-S and Ca-Na-Cl and Na HCO3.Results from Al-Lisi and Isbil geothermal area are considered the most promising field. Geothermal detail studies have been achieves and location of the first geothermal exploration well is located in Al-Lisi and Isbil field.By applyig geophisical methods Iso- Resistivity contour mapsthese maps reflected high resistivity areas and low.Clearly shows the low resistivity values incentral and Western part of the study area about 11amp937mWhile up Resistivity values to the area in the eastern 600amp937m.Also through the use ofthe different current electrode spacing AB2 700 1000 1500 and 2000m.We find the low- Resistivity areas becoming more widespread and concentrated in the center of the study area and

  5. Global geothermal energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.; Singh, A.; Pandey, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    To resolve the energy crisis efforts have been made in exploring and utilizing nonconventional energy resources since last few decades. Geothermal energy is one such energy resource. Fossil fuels are the earth's energy capital like money deposited in bank years ago. The energy to build this energy came mainly from the sun. Steam geysers and hot water springs are other manifestations of geothermal energy. Most of the 17 countries that today harness geothermal energy have simply tapped such resources where they occur. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Worldwide installed geothermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplaige, P.

    1995-01-01

    Worldwide electric energy production data are easy to compile, according to the informations given by individual countries. On the contrary, thermal applications of geothermics are difficult to quantify due to the variety of applications and the number of countries concerned. Exhaustive informations sometimes cannot be obtained from huge countries (China, Russia..) because of data centralization problems or not exploitable data transmission. Therefore, installed power data for geothermal heat production are given for 26 countries over the 57 that have answered the International Geothermal Association questionnaire. (J.S.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 1 photo

  7. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  8. Navy Geothermal Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  9. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  10. The Study of Geological Structures in Suli and Tulehu Geothermal Regions (Ambon, Indonesia Based on Gravity Gradient Tensor Data Simulation and Analytic Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lewerissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In early 2017, the geothermal system in the Suli and Tulehu areas of Ambon (Indonesia was investigated using a gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal. The gravity gradient tensor and analytic signal were obtained through forward modeling based on a rectangular prism. It was applied to complete Bouguer anomaly data over the study area by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The analysis was conducted to enhance the geological structure like faults as a pathway of geothermal fluid circulation that is not visible on the surface because it is covered by sediment. The complete Bouguer anomaly ranges of 93 mGal up to 105 mGal decrease from the southwest in Suli to the northeast in Tulehu. A high gravity anomaly indicates a strong magmatic intrusion below the Suli region. The gravity anomalies decrease occurs in the Eriwakang mountain and most of Tulehu, and it is associated with a coral limestone. The lower gravity anomalies are located in the north to the northeast part of Tulehu are associated with alluvium. The residual anomaly shows that the drill well TLU-01 and geothermal manifestations along with the Banda, and Banda-Hatuasa faults are associated with lowest gravity anomaly (negative zone. The gravity gradient tensor simulation and an analytic signal of Suli and Tulehu give more detailed information about the geological features. The gzz component allows accurate description of the shape structures, especially the Banda fault associated with a zero value. This result will be useful as a geophysical constraint to subsurface modeling according to gravity gradient inversion over the area.

  11. Proceedings 43rd Stanford Geothermal Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Stuart; Kirby, Stefan; Verplanck, Philip; Kelley, Karen

    2018-02-12

    Herein we summarize the results of an investigation dealing with the concentrations and inventories of strategic, critical and valuable materials (SCVM) in produced fluids from geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs (50-250° C) in Nevada and Utah. Water samples were collected from thirty-four production wells across eight geothermal fields, the Uinta Basin oil/gas province in northeast Utah, and the Covenant oil field in southwestern Utah; additional water samples were collected from six hot springs in the Sevier Thermal Belt in southwestern Utah. Most SCVM concentrations in produced waters range from <0.1 to 100 µg/kg; the main exception is lithium, which has concentrations that range from <1000 to 25,000 ug/kg. Relatively high concentrations of gallium, germanium, scandium, selenium, and tellurium are measured too. Geothermal waters contain very low concentrations of REEs, below analytical detections limits (0.01 µg/kg), but the concentrations of lanthanum, cerium, and europium range from 0.05 to 5 µg/kg in Uinta basin waters. Among the geothermal fields, the Roosevelt Hot Spring reservoir appears to have the largest inventories of germanium and lithium, and Patua appears to have the largest inventories of gallium, scandium, selenium, and tellurium. By comparison, the Uinta basin has larger inventories of gallium. The concentrations of gallium, germanium, lithium, scandium, selenium, and tellurium in produced waters appear to be partly related to reservoir temperature and concentrations of total dissolved salts. The relatively high concentration and large inventory of lithium occurring at Roosevelt Hot Springs may be related to granitic-gneissic crystalline rocks, which host the reservoir. Analyses of calcite scales from Dixie Valley indicate enrichments in cobalt, gallium, gold, palladium, selenium and tellurium, and these metals appear to be depositing at deep levels in production wells due to boiling. Comparisons with SCVM mineral deposits suggest that

  12. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  13. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringe, A.C. (ed.)

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  14. Effective geothermal heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle

    2006-01-01

    Scandinavia's currently largest geothermal heating project: the New Ahus hospital, is briefly presented. 300-400 wells on a field outside the hospital are constructed to store energy for both heating and cooling purposes

  15. NGDC Geothermal Data Bases

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geothermics is the study of heat generated in Earth's interior and its manifestation at the surface. The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has a variety of...

  16. Geothermics in Aquitaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The geothermal exploitation of the Aquitanian Basin (S W France) started 15 years ago and has extended today to 12 different places. Three main aquifers of different depth are exploited in Bordeaux region: the old alluvial deposits of Garonne river (20-30 m), the Middle Eocene aquifer (300-400 m), and the Cenomanian-Turonian aquifer (900-1100 m) which is the deepest and most exploited for geothermal purposes. The drinkable quality of the water and the use of single-well technique are important factors that reduce the operating costs. Geothermics remains competitive with other energy sources due to the long-term stability of geothermal energy costs. (J.S.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 5 photos

  17. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  18. Submarine geothermal resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (characteristics of these systems before they can be considered a viable resource. Until several of the most promising areas are carefully defined and drilled, the problem will remain unresolved. ?? 1976.

  19. Development of Genetic Occurrence Models for Geothermal Prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Monastero, F. C.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exploration for utility-grade geothermal resources has mostly relied on identifying obvious surface manifestations of possible geothermal activity, e.g., locating and working near steaming ground or hot springs. This approach has lead to the development of over 130 resources worldwide, but geothermal exploration done in this manner is akin to locating hydrocarbon plays by searching for oil seeps. Confining exploration to areas with such features will clearly not discover a blind resource, that is, one that does not have surface expression. Blind resources, however, constitute the vast majority of hydrocarbon plays; this may be the case for geothermal resources as well. We propose a geothermal exploration strategy for finding blind systems that is based on an understanding of the geologic processes that transfer heat from the mantle to the upper crust and foster the conditions for hydrothermal circulation or enhanced geothermal exploration. The strategy employs a genetically based screening protocol to assess potential geothermal sites. The approach starts at the plate boundary scale and progressively focuses in on the scale of a producing electrical-grade field. Any active margin or hot spot is a potential location for geothermal resources. Although Quaternary igneous activity provides a clear indication of active advection of hot material into the upper crust, it is not sufficient to guarantee a potential utility-grade resource. Active faulting and/or evidence of high strain rates appear to be the critical features associated with areas of utility-grade geothermal potential. This is because deformation on its own can advect sufficient heat into the upper crust to create conditions favorable for geothermal exploitation. In addition, active deformation is required to demonstrate that open pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids are present and/or can be maintained. The last step in the screening protocol is to identify any evidence of geothermal activity

  20. Renewable Energy Essentials: Geothermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Geothermal energy is energy available as heat contained in or discharged from the earth's crust that can be used for generating electricity and providing direct heat for numerous applications such as: space and district heating; water heating; aquaculture; horticulture; and industrial processes. In addition, the use of energy extracted from the constant temperatures of the earth at shallow depth by means of ground source heat pumps (GSHP) is also generally referred to as geothermal energy.

  1. Geothermal environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armannsson, H.; Kristmannsdottir, H.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal utilization can cause surface disturbances, physical effects due to fluid withdrawal noise, thermal effects and emission of chemicals as well as affect the communities concerned socially and economically. The environmental impact can be minimized by multiple use of the energy source and the reinjection of spent fluids. The emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can be substantially reduced by substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuels as an industrial energy source wherever possible

  2. A complementary geothermal application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedard, R.

    1998-01-01

    A geothermal project for air conditioning and heating at four health centres in Quebec was presented. The four health centres are: le centre Dominique-Tremblay, le centre Cardinal-Villeneuve, le centre Louis-Hebert, et le centre Francois-Charon. The investment made to install the geothermal heating and cooling system, the cost of operating the system, and energy savings resulting from the investment were discussed

  3. General evaluation survey report on fiscal 1998 investigation of geothermal development and promotion. No.C-3 Akinomiya area (Third); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa sogo hyoka chosa hokokusho. No.C-3. Akinomiya chiiki (dai 3 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    With Akinomiya area (11.4 km{sup 2}) selected in Akita prefecture as the survey C area in fiscal 1996, the first survey was conducted. This paper is a summary of memorandum from an advisory standpoint on the evaluation survey concerning the fiscal 1998 investigation results. The contents of the survey are geological investigation, precision gravity exploration, soil gas investigation, electromagnetic exploration, fluid chemical investigation, well drilling and short-term eruption test. An alteration zone was recognized around the place where clay minerals used to be mined, with the center of the zone situated 500-600 m east of a fault. The alteration condition of Akinomiya area seems to be different from that of Doroyu Wasabisawa area. The supplementary gravity survey was carried out at total 58 points in fiscal 1998. It is desirable to set supplementary measuring points over a wide surrounding area for a depth structure analysis. Also performed was a study of mercury concentration in the soil gas. While CSAMT and TDEM methods were employed for the electromagnetic exploration, a suitable method should be carefully selected for a wide area high-density exploration. Consistency with adjacent areas is essential in preparing investigation items particularly for a geothermal model. (NEDO)

  4. Geothermal direct-heat utilization assistance. Quarterly project progress report, July 1996--September 1996. Federal Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes geothermal technical assistance, R&D and technology transfer activities of the Geo-Heat Center at Oregon Institute of Technology for the fourth quarter of FY-96. It describes 152 contacts with parties during this period related to technical assistance with geothermal direct heat projects. Areas dealt with include geothermal heat pumps, space heating, greenhouses, aquaculture, equipment, economics and resources. Research activities are summarized on greenhouse peaking. Outreach activities include the publication of a geothermal direct use Bulletin, dissemination of information, geothermal library, technical papers and seminars, and progress monitor reports on geothermal resources and utilization.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns of deformation at the Tendaho geothermal prospect, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtime, Tesfaye; Biggs, Juliet; Lewi, Elias; Hamling, Ian; Wright, Tim; Ayele, Atalay

    2018-05-01

    Observations of ground deformation in East Africa have been fundamental for unveiling the tectonics of continental rifting, assessing the seismic and volcanic hazard to development, and identifying geothermal resources. Here we investigate the active natural and anthropogenic processes in the Tendaho Graben, Afar using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) collected by the Envisat satellite in 2004-2010. We used the Poly-Interferometric Rate And time series Estimation (π-RATE) method to calculate displacement in satellite line-of-sight, and a least-square inversion to decompose the line-of-sight displacement into vertical and rift perpendicular components. We observe two zones of deformation: a 20 km wide circular region of subsidence located 10 km northeast of the town of Semera with a maximum displacement rate of ∼5 cm/yr; and elongated zone (50 km) of subsidence in the area of the geothermal prospect, maximum rate of ∼4 cm/yr. The temporal characteristics of subsidence varies between these zones, with an increase in subsidence rate observed in the circular region in August 2008. We used a Bayesian inversion to find the best fitting source models and compared this to locations of seismicity and other geophysical observations. The pattern of deformation is consistent with a combination of magmatic and geothermal processes, but there does not appear to be a direct link to a sequence of dyke intrusions during 2005-2010 at Manda Hararo graben ∼60 km away, but dynamic stress changes or deep crustal flow could account for the observations.

  6. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  7. Geothermal System Extensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnerson, Jon [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States); Pardy, James J. [Boise City Corporation, ID (United States)

    2017-09-30

    This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0000318. The City of Boise operates and maintains the nation’s largest geothermal heating district. Today, 91 buildings are connected, providing space heating to over 5.5 million square feet, domestic water heating, laundry and pool heating, sidewalk snowmelt and other related uses. Approximately 300 million gallons of 177°F geothermal water is pumped annually to buildings and institutions located in downtown Boise. The closed loop system returns all used geothermal water back into the aquifer after heat has been removed via an Injection Well. Water injected back into the aquifer has an average temperature of 115°F. This project expanded the Boise Geothermal Heating District (Geothermal System) to bring geothermal energy to the campus of Boise State University and to the Central Addition Eco-District. In addition, this project also improved the overall system’s reliability and increased the hydraulic capacity.

  8. Geothermal Program Review VII: proceedings. DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an indepth review of its entire geothermal R and D program. The 2--3 day conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R and D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. This year's conference, Program Review 7, was held in San Francisco on March 21--23, 1989. As indicated by its title, ''DOE Research and Development for the Geothermal Marketplace'', Program Review 7 emphasized developing technologies, concepts, and innovations having potential for commercial application in the foreseeable future. Program Review 7 was comprised of eight sessions including an opening session and a special presentation on the ''Role of Geothermal Energy in Minimizing Global Environmental Problems.'' The five technical sessions covered GTD-sponsored R and D in the areas of hydrothermal (two sessions), hot dry rock, geopressured, and magma. Presentations were made by the relevant field researchers, and sessions were chaired by the appropriate DOE Operations Office Geothermal Program Manager. The technical papers and commentary of invited speakers contained in these Proceedings have been compiled in the order in which they were presented at Program Review 7.

  9. Geothermal energy - Overview of research in 2002; Geothermie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gohran, H. L.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office for Energy reviews activities in the area of geothermal energy usage in Switzerland in 2002. Several main points of interest are discussed, including Deep Heat Mining, the thermal use of drainage water from alpine railway tunnels, the quality assurance aspects of geothermal installations and pilot and demonstration (P+D) activities designed to promote the use of geothermal energy. Also, the use of constructional elements such as energy piles and novel applications such as geothermally heated greenhouses and fish farms are discussed. Examples of various P+D projects that utilise bore-hole heat exchangers and piles are given. Also, examples of the thermal use of deep aquifers are quoted and projects involving the mapping of geothermal resources and the creation of quality labels are described. Prospects for future work are discussed. The report is rounded off with lists of research and development projects and P+D projects.

  10. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.G.

    1999-05-01

    This report reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Research Program for Fiscal Year 1998. The Exploration Technology research area focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to expose the deep portions of known systems. The Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal and hot dry rock reservoirs. The Drilling Technology projects focus on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. The Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Direct use research covers the direct use of geothermal energy sources for applications in other than electrical production.

  11. Subsurface temperatures and geothermal gradients on the North Slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Magoon, Leslie B.

    1989-01-01

    Geothermal gradients as interpreted from a series of high-resolution stabilized well-bore-temperature surveys from 46 North Slope, Alaska, wells vary laterally and vertically throughout the near-surface sediment (0-2,000 m). The data from these surveys have been used in conjunction with depths of ice-bearing permafrost, as interpreted from 102 well logs, to project geothermal gradients within and below the ice-bearing permafrost sequence. The geothermal gradients calculated from the projected temperature profiles are similar to the geothermal gradients measured in the temperature surveys. Measured and projected geothermal gradients in the ice-bearing permafrost sequence range from 1.5??C/100m in the Prudhoe Bay area to 5.1??C/100m in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA).

  12. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Geothermal Fluids in the Chabu High-Temperature Geothermal System, Southern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study defines reasonable reservoir temperatures and cooling processes of subsurface geothermal fluids in the Chabu high-temperature geothermal system. This system lies in the south-central part of the Shenzha-Xietongmen hydrothermal active belt and develops an extensive sinter platform with various and intense hydrothermal manifestations. All the geothermal spring samples collected systematically from the sinter platform are divided into three groups by cluster analysis of major elements. Samples of group 1 and group 3 are distributed in the central part and northern periphery of the sinter platform, respectively, while samples of group 2 are scattered in the transitional zone between groups 1 and 3. The hydrochemical characteristics show that the geothermal waters of the research area have generally mixed with shallow cooler waters in reservoirs. The reasonable reservoir temperatures and the mixing processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids could be speculated by combining the hydrochemical characteristics of geothermal springs, calculated results of the chemical geothermometers, and silica-enthalpy mixing models. Contour maps are applied to measured emerging temperatures, mass flow rates, total dissolved solids of spring samples, and reasonable subsurface temperatures. They indicate that the major cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids gradually transform from adiabatic boiling to conduction from the central part to the peripheral belt. The geothermal reservoir temperatures also show an increasing trend. The point with the highest reservoir temperature (256°C appears in the east-central part of the research area, which might be the main up-flow zone. The cooling processes of the subsurface geothermal fluids in the research area can be shown on an enthalpy-chloride plot. The deep parent fluid for the Chabu geothermal field has a Cl− concentration of 290 mg/L and an enthalpy of 1550 J/g (with a water temperature of

  13. Pacific Northwest geothermal 1977 review - 1978 outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngquist, W

    1978-06-01

    A survey covers some of the more important geothermal exploration and development activity in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho in 1977, including a projection of what may be expected in these areas in 1978 and the Pacific Northwest extensive young volcanic terrain as a prime exploration target; continuing investment by the geothermal industry; and recommendations that access should be provided to public lands which hold much of this resource, that it should be recognized that the hydrologic systems which bring this energy to the well bore in economic quantities can be depleted, and that taxation should account for this depletion.

  14. FY 1991 report on the survey of geothermal development promotion. Attached data. Electromagnetic exploration (High accuracy MT method) (No.38 - West area of Mt. Aso); Chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa chijo chosa hokokusho futai shiryo. 1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa - Denji tansa (Koseido MT ho) hokokusho (No.38 Asosan seibu chiiki - Tenpu shiryo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    As a part of the survey of geothermal development promotion in FY 1991, electromagnetic exploration by the high accuracy MT method was conducted to acquire the information on the geothermal structure in the west area of Mt. Aso, Kumamoto Prefecture. The detailed data were arranged as the data attached to the report on the electromagnetic exploration. As the attached data, included were the results of the 1D analysis (measuring/analysis {rho}a-F chart, analytic structure drawing), results of the 1D analysis (numerical list of the apparent resistivity analytic value and inverse analytic value) and numerical list of the apparent resistivity measured value. (NEDO)

  15. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the greenhouse industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular greenhouse firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  16. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing

  17. The Parisian basin, birthplace of geothermics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, E.

    1995-01-01

    The exploitation of low energy geothermics in France is mainly localized in the Parisian Basin. About 40 geothermal plants are established in urbanized areas for heating and sanitary hot water supplies and also for air conditioning. Each plant can supply about 2500 to 5000 lodgings of collective buildings. Excluding drilling costs, urban investments can reach 70% of the total operating cost. Most of the exploitations draw the geothermal fluids from the Dogger reservoir located at a 1500-2000 m depth using double-well technique. Water temperature is about 60 to 85 C and solutes (salts and sulfides) represent 15 to 35 g/l. The deeper Albian and Neocomian drinking water reservoirs are exceptionally used due to their strategic nature. The corrosion problems and the age of the installations are the principal problems of the existing installations but the operating costs remain competitive with other energy sources. (J.S.). 3 figs., 9 photos

  18. Utilization of geothermal energy in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, V.I.; Dvorov, I.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at present geothermal energy is utilized in the USSR mostly for district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. The populations of 7 towns have district heating that is supplied by thermal waters. The population supplied totals about 125,000 people. The total area of greenhouses is 850,000 m 2 . Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations still remains negligible with the installed capacity of the single Pauzhetka station (Kamchatka) being 11 MW. another station at Mutnovka is currently under construction and is expected to be producing 50 MW by 1992 and 200 MW by 1998. The proven geothermal resources in the USSR provide hope for a significant increase in the utilization of the earth's deep heat in the near future

  19. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  20. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  1. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Lima, J.O.V.; Dornelles, G.H.; Laborne, J.J.; Sakamoto, L.H.; Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1987-10-01

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  2. 2016 Geothermal Technologies Office Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-03-01

    This report highlights project successes and continued efforts in all of our program areas – EGS, Hydrothermal, Low-Temperature, and Systems Analysis – which are flanked by useful tools and resources and links to more information. Such highlights include FORGE and EGS successes, projects reducing geothermal costs and risks, and advancements in technology research and development.

  3. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal. Section 2: Products and services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This is a directory of companies providing products and services in the area of geothermal power. The subheadings of the directory include developers and owner operators, equipment manufacturers, measuring instruments and controls, consulting services, engineering and construction, operation and maintenance, project management, repair, and financial and legal services

  5. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  7. Utilising geothermal energy in Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal energy is generated from the radioactive decay of naturally occurring isotopes and about 20% is generated from primordial heat associated with the formation of the earth. Geothermal project reduce energy and water cost and reduces greenhouse gas emissions

  8. Fiscal 1998 research report on promotion of geothermal development. Environment impact research report (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-Dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsu chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    For extracting the areas to be conserved from the viewpoint of environment for the research on geothermal well drilling, the environment impact research was made on the protection and regulation states of animals and plants in Kunbetsu-Dake area. 46 species in 12 families of mammals were confirmed in/around the area by document survey, and among them 19 species in 10 families of mammals were important academically. 340 species in 55 families of birds were confirmed, and among them 79 species in 29 families of birds were important academically. 3 species in 3 families of amphibians, and 6 species in 4 families of reptiles were confirmed, and among them 1 species of amphibian was important. 873 species in 135 families of land insects were confirmed, and among them 20 species in 11 families were important. 1055 species in 115 families of plants were confirmed, and among them 126 species in 46 families were important. Most of vegetation was 9 or more in degree of naturalness. The peripheral area of Kaibetsu-Dake is the plant colony area specified by the 2nd basic survey on natural environmental conservation (Environment Agency). (NEDO)

  9. FY 1998 report on the verification survey of geothermal exploration technology, etc. 2/2. Survey of deep geothermal resource; 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa hokokusho. 2/2. Shinbu chinetsu shigen chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    For the purpose of commercializing deep geothermal resource, a deep exploration well of 4000m class was drilled in the existing geothermal development area to survey the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the availability. Concretely, the deep geothermal exploration well was drilled for study in the Kakkonda area, Shizukuishi town, Iwate prefecture, to clarify the situation of deep geothermal resource existence and the whole image of geothermal system. Consideration was made of the deep geothermal exploration method, systematization of deep high temperature drilling technology, and availability of deep geothermal resource. The results of the survey were summed up as follows: 1) general remarks; 2) deep exploration well drilling work; 3) details of the study. This report contained 3). In 3), the items were as follows: heightening of accuracy of the deep geothermal resource exploration method, making of a geothermal model in the Kakkonda area, study of deep drilling technology, study of deep fluid utilization technology, and making of a guide for deep geothermal resource exploration/development in the Kakkonda area. As to the technology of high temperature deep geothermal well drilling, studies were made of the borehole cooling method, mud water cooling method, survey of deterioration of casing with age, etc. (NEDO)

  10. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  11. Report on the supplementary survey on the data processing in the FY 1997 survey of the promotion of geothermal development. Gravity filter analysis (No. B-6 Tsujino-dake area); 1997 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori ni kakawaru hosoku chosa (juryoku filter kaiseki) hokokusno. No.B-6 Tsujinodake chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    As a part of the FY 1997 survey of the promotion of geothermal development, the gravity filter analysis was made of the data processing in the Tsujino-dake area of Kagoshima prefecture, and the results were summarized. The geothermal fluid used in the Yamagawa geothermal power plant has the residual magma brought by activities of volcanic rocks of the Ata central shield volcano as heat source, and the fracture system and deep intrusive rocks are reservoirs. A small scale of gravity anomaly area is located, and it reflects high-density volcanic rock masses which are distributed on the earth surface or shallowly under the ground. The ridge stretching from Kiyomi-dake to the Narukawa tunnel and the ridge connecting Kuze-dake and Tsujino-dake are in the high-gravity area and reflect high-density rocks in the shallow part and deep part. There is a possibility of the existence of the fracture system in the high-density deep basement. Calderas continue close to the south of the high-gravity ridge stretching from the Kiyomi-dake to the Narukawa tunnel, and the fracture system which brings the eruption of volcanic rocks of the Ata central shield volcano and the fracture system forming caldera exist in parallel. From the aspect of the geothermal structure, a consideration was made of rock layers which possibly compose the rise of high-density basement in the deep part near the Tsujino-dake. (NEDO)

  12. Application for Underground Injection Control Permit for the PUNA Geothermal Venture Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-06-01

    Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) plans to construct and operate the 25 MW Puna Geothermal Venture Project in the Puna District of the Island of Hawaii. The project will drill geothermal wells within a dedicated 500-acre project area, use the produced geothermal fluid to generate electricity for sale to the Hawaii Electric Light Company for use on the Island of Hawaii, and inject all the produced geothermal fluids back into the geothermal reservoir. Since the project will use injection wells, it will require an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit from the Drinking Water Section of the State of Hawaii Department of Health. The PGV Project is consistent with the State and County of Hawaii's stated objectives of providing energy self-sufficiency and diversifying Hawaii's economic base. The project will develop a new alternate energy source as well as provide additional information about the nature of the geothermal resource.

  13. FY 1995 Report on the data processing for the geothermal development promotion investigation. No.B-3 Kumaishi Area (Phase 1); 1995 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa data shori hokokusho. 1. No.B-3 Kumaishi chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Described herein are the FY 1995 results of the No.B-3 Kumaishi Area investigation, conducted as part of the geothermal development promotion investigation project. The project covers the geological structure, geochemical, gravitational, electromagnetic, environmental impact and supplementary investigations. The following findings are obtained by the comprehensive analysis of the data. The Kumaishi Area is based on the sedimentary rocks and granite formed in the Pre-Ternary, which are unconformably covered by the strata belonging to Upper Oligocene of Ternary to Lower Pleistocene of Quaternary. The presence of NW-SE to E-W to NE-SW systems is suggested as the main fracture systems. It is estimated by the K-Ar method that the intrusion was formed in the 2.06 to 2.28Ma. The geochemical temperature suggests the presence of the fluid of 200 degrees C or higher as the deep hot water temperature. The resistivity structure generally indicates the NW-SE direction. Each stratum is confirmed by the test drilling for the structural investigation. The fluid motion model suggests possibility of hot water of high salt content, similar to that confirmed deep in the Yagumo Area, distributed deep in the Kumaishi Area. (NEDO)

  14. Report on achievements in fiscal 1973 in studies of technologies to develop and utilize resources and preserve national land. Study on hot water systems in geothermal areas; 1973 nendo chinetsu chiiki no nessuikei ni kansuru kenkyu seika chukan hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-03-01

    It is important for geothermal energy to develop and utilize it in a rational manner. To achieve the objective, hot water systems must be studied comprehensively and elucidated from the standpoint of the systems as a whole. The present study, standing on this viewpoint, is intended to elucidate hot water systems and establish a survey method thereon. Fiscal 1973 has selected four areas (northern Hachimantai, southern Hachimantai, Onikubi and Kuju areas) as the model study fields, and used as the main field the Onikubi area, which clearly shows the structural catchment basin. Studies were performed in this area on hydraulic hot flow rates, isotopic geology, and reservoirs. In the hydraulic hot flow rate study, the amount of rainfall, amount of flowing water, and amount of hot spring water flow-out were observed continually. In the isotopic geology study, hydrogen in hot spring water and underground water, and composition of oxygen isotope were analyzed. Estimation was made from the result thereof on water balance, heat balance, and underground residence time. In the study of reservoirs, measurements were performed inside the wells, and estimation was made on locations and sizes of the reservoirs by surveying distribution of transformed minerals and cracks. (NEDO)

  15. On geothermal resources of India. Geotectonic aspects and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, M L [National Geophysical Research Inst., Hyderabad (India)

    1988-11-10

    Research programs launched for exploration and development of the geothermal energy in India, since the 1973-1974 oil embargo, have led to the identification of many potential areas for geothermal resources. Resources comprise high/intermediate/low temperature hydrothermal convection and hot water aquifer systems, geopressured geothermal system and conduction-dominated regimes. Location and properties of these geothermal systems are controlled by the geodynamic and tectonic characteristics of the Indian continental lithosphere Main sectors for the utilization of India's proved and identified geothermal resources are the power generation, space heating, green house cultivation, aquaculture, poultry, sheep breeding, mineral processing, mushroom raising, processing of farm and forest produce, refrigeration, tourism, health-resorts and mineral water bottling. The R and D efforts have given some encouraging results. Geothermal resources of India, although primarily are of medium to low grade, could supplement, to a great extent, direct heat energy needs and may also provide electricity to some of the remote hilly areas. Development of geothermal energy sources in India is likely to get some more attention, with the setting up of separate departments and agencies, by various Provincial Governments, for R and D backing toward the alternate sources of energy.

  16. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Bathymetry Model - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a bathymetry model of the seafloor of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) of the Northeast Ecological Reserve:...

  17. Geothermal heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; Tinti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, for several types of buildings and users, the choice of conditioning by heat pump and low enthalpy geothermal reservoir has been increasing in the Italian market. In fact, such systems are efficient in terms of energy and consumption, they can perform, even at the same time, both functions, heating and cooling and they are environmentally friendly, because they do not produce local emissions. This article will introduce the technology and will focus on critical points of a geothermal field design, from actual practice, to future perspectives for the geo exchanger improvement. Finally, the article presents a best practice case in Bologna district, with an economic analysis showing the convenience of a geothermal heat pump. Conclusions of the real benefits of these plants can be drawn: compared to a non-negligible initial cost, the investment has a pay-back period almost always acceptable, usually less than 10 years. [it

  18. Understanding the circulation of geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau using oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hongbing; Zhang, Yanfei; Zhang, Wenjie; Kong, Na; Zhang, Qing; Huang, Jingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Unique geothermal resources in Tibetan Plateau were discussed. • Isotopes were used to trace circulation of geothermal water. • Magmatic water mixing dominates geothermal water evolution. - Abstract: With the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, many of the world’s rarest and most unique geothermal fields have been developed. This study aims to systematically analyze the characteristics of the hydrogen and oxygen isotopic data of geothermal, river, and lake waters to understand the circulation of groundwater and to uncover the mechanism of geothermal formation in the Tibetan Plateau. Field observations and isotopic data show that geothermal water has higher temperatures and hydraulic pressures, as well as more depleted D and 18 O isotopic compositions than river and lake waters. Thus, neither lakes nor those larger river waters are the recharge source of geothermal water. Snow-melt water in high mountains can vertically infiltrate and deeply circulate along some stretching tensile active tectonic belts or sutures and recharge geothermal water. After deep circulation, cold surface water evolves into high-temperature thermal water and is then discharged as springs at the surface again in a low area, under high water-head difference and cold–hot water density difference. Therefore, the large-scale, high-temperature, high-hydraulic-pressure geothermal systems in the Tibetan Plateau are developed and maintained by rapid groundwater circulation and the heat source of upwelled residual magmatic water. Inevitably, the amount of geothermal water will increase if global warming accelerates the melting of glaciers in high mountains

  19. Using the geothermal resources in the power engineering of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrokhotov, V.I.; Povarov, O.A.

    2003-01-01

    The areas of the geothermal heat application in various regions of Russia are considered. Expansion of applying the local nontraditional renewable sources of energy, primarily the earth geothermal heat, should be considered one of the basic directions of improving and developing the heat supply systems. Already in the nearest 7-10 years it is possible to save significant sources of organic heat due to the geothermal heat through application of the modern heat supply technologies. The proposals for organization of the financial schemes for realization of new power projects are considered by the example of the GeoPP construction on the Kamchatka [ru

  20. Geothermal gradients in Iraqi Kurdistan deduced from bottom hole temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Abdula, Rzger A.

    2016-01-01

    Bottom hole temperature (BHT) data from 12 oil wells in Iraqi Kurdistan were used to obtain the thermal trend of Iraqi Kurdistan. Due to differences in thermal conductivity of rocks and groundwater movement, variations in geothermal gradients were observed. The highest geothermal gradient (29.2 °C/km) was found for well Taq Taq-8 in the Low Folded Zone (central part of the area). The lowest geothermal gradients (14.9 °C/km) were observed for well Bekhme-1 in the High Folded Zone (northern and...

  1. RiverHeath: Neighborhood Loop Geothermal Exchange System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geall, Mark [RiverHeath LLC, Appleton, WI (United States)

    2016-07-11

    The goal of the RiverHeath project is to develop a geothermal exchange system at lower capital infrastructure cost than current geothermal exchange systems. The RiverHeath system features an innovative design that incorporates use of the adjacent river through river-based heat exchange plates. The flowing water provides a tremendous amount of heat transfer. As a result, the installation cost of this geothermal exchange system is lower than more traditional vertical bore systems. Many urban areas are located along rivers and other waterways. RiverHeath will serve as a template for other projects adjacent to the water.

  2. Geothermal district heating in Turkey: The Gonen case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oktay, Zuhal; Aslan, Asiye

    2007-01-01

    The status of geothermal district heating in Turkey and its future prospects are reviewed. A description is given of the Gonen project in Balikesir province, the first system to begin citywide operation in the country. The geology and geothermal resources of the area, the history of the project's development, the problems encountered, its economic aspects and environmental contributions are all discussed. The results of this and other such systems installed in Turkey have confirmed that, in this country, heating an entire city based on geothermal energy is a significantly cleaner, cheaper option than using fossil fuels or other renewable energy resources. (author)

  3. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  4. Geophysical considerations of geothermics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, M

    1967-01-01

    The development and utilization of geothermal energy is described from the standpoint of geophysics. The internal temperature of the Earth and the history and composition of magmas are described. Methods of exploration such as gravity, magnetic, thermal and electrical surveys are discussed, as are geochemical and infrared photogrammetric techniques. Examples are provided of how these techniques have been used in Italy and at the Matsukawa geothermal field in Japan. Drilling considerations such as muds, casings and cementing materials are discussed. Solutions are proposed for problems of environmental pollution and plant expansion.

  5. Victorian first for geothermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    AGL Limited (AGL) will assist Maroondah Sports Club to save hundreds of thousands of dollars on its energy bills over the next decade by commencing work to install Victoria's first GeoAir geothermal cooling and heating system. Utilising the earth's constant temperature, the new GeoAir geothermal system provides a renewable source of energy that will save the club up to $12,000 in the first year and up to $150,000 over the next 10 years

  6. Report on achievements in fiscal 1975 in Sunshine Project. Studies on wide area existence of geothermal resources in great depth; 1975 nendo koiki shinbu chinetsu shigen fuson ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-03-01

    This paper reports the achievements in the following study items: (1) studies on the AFMT method, (2) observation of heat dissipation by using infrared thermal images, (3) evaluation on the annular topographic pattern in the Hachimantai area identified from the Landsat satellite images, (4) studies on the Tamagawa welded pyroclastic rocks, (5) studies on minerals transformed from the Tamagawa welded pyroclastic rocks, and (6) a method to analyze ground temperature data by using graphic display. Items 2 and 6 in the studies are on the heat balance method, and Item 3 is on remote sensing. Items 4 and 5 were performed as the study on geologic thermometry. In Item 1, a prototype AFMT method exploration device was fabricated, and field experiments were performed in the Onuma area in the Hachimantai wide-area geothermal experiment field. The experiment placed importance on finding problems in transmission and reception of signals from an artificially fluctuating magnetic field, whose result was found greatly contributive to understanding the physical phenomena. However, it was not possible to reach a level to analyze geological structures from the data. In Item 2, simple meteorological observation was performed on ground surface temperature distribution by using an infrared radiation thermometer of remote sensing type. Development was made on a method to measure natural heat dissipation amount from heat balance on the ground surface. (NEDO)

  7. FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey. Report on the environmental effect survey (No. A-4 Kunbetsu-dake area); 1998 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. Kankyo eikyo chosa hokokusho (No.A-4 Kunbetsudake chiiki)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-30

    Of the FY 1998 geothermal development promotion survey, the primary environmental effect survey in the Kunbetsu-dake area was conducted, and the results were arranged. In the well drilling survey, etc., the survey was made aiming at extracting areas to be preserved from an environmental aspect. The results of the survey were summarized as follows: As to the mammalia, 12 families 46 species were confirmed in the area surveyed and the periphery by literature survey. Out of them, the noticeable species which are considered important from an academic viewpoint are 10 families 19 species. As to the aves, 55 families 340 species were confirmed, of which 29 families 79 species are noticeable species. About the amphibia/reptilia, 3 families 3 species in the amphibia and 4 families 6 species in the reptilia were confirmed by literature and hearing survey. The noticeable species is 1 family 1 species in the amphilia. Concerning the terrestrial insecta, 135 families 873 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 11 families 20 species. As to the flora, 115 families 1055 species were confirmed, and the noticeable species is 46 families 126 species. Relating to the living vegetation, the one higher than 9 in nature reserves shows a substantial rate, and the periphery of Kaibetsu-dake is designated as the specified flora colony. (NEDO)

  8. FY 1999 report on the geothermal development promotion survey - Akinomiya area survey. Temperature/pressure logging before the long-term jetting test; 1999 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa Akinomiya chiiki chosa hokokusho. Choki funshutsu shikenmae no ondo atsuryoku kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    As a part of the FY 1999 geothermal development promotion survey - Akinomiya area survey, the rising speed/vertical permeability of the fluid associated with the natural flow were calculated by grasping the temperature of geologic layers/reservoir pressure in the survey area and the temperature distribution for vertical depth. In the survey of boreholes in the Akinomiya area: N9-AY-3, N10-AY-6, N10-AY-7, N10-AY-8, temperature/pressure logging was conducted in the stationary state at the time when a lot of time passed after drilling, water-filling test and jetting test having been finished. In the temperature/pressure logging, the continued measurement was made using PTS logging device to simultaneously measure temperature/pressure/impeller revolution number and lowering measuring device. As a result of the survey, it was assumed that there is a possibility of occurrence of the borehole fluid flow around the depth of 980-1290m and 1320-1540m of N9-AY-3 and around the depth of 880-1090m of N10-AY-8. The rising speed and permeability of fluid from each well indicated the same order at three wells. (NEDO)

  9. FY 2000 report on the geothermal development promotion survey - No.C-4 Shiro-mizukoshi area. Resource survey (Primary); 2000 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa. No. C-4 Shiromizukoshi chiiki shigen chosa hokokusho (Dai 1 ji)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    As a part of the FY 2000 geothermal development promotion survey, survey was conducted in the Shiro-mizukoshi area (about 10km{sup 2}), Kagoshima prefecture, the gradually-inclined area located at the southwest foot of Volcano Kirishima, and the results were summed up. In the survey, the following were carried out: surface survey such as geology/alteration zone/fracture system, high-density gravity exploration, electromagnetic exploration, geochemical fluid survey, core test by drilling three exploration boreholes, temperature log, temperature recovery test, water injection test, short-term jetting test, etc. N12-SZ-1 came across the reservoir associated with the ENE-WSW system fault at a depth of 1,085m. The result of the temperature log and the geochemical temperature indicated that the temperature of the reservoir was between 230 and 240 degrees C. However, the reservoir was regarded as the vapor heating reservoir heated by the high-temperature vapor which is thought to be the shallow ground water separated from the deep reservoir. N12-SZ-2 was a large lost circulation zone at a depth between 1,325 and 1,486m, which indicated that N12-SZ-2 came across the ENE-WSW system Shiro-mizukoshi fault. N12-SZ-3 seems to be the area into which ground water flows. (NEDO)

  10. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  11. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal