#### Sample records for geostrophic wind equation

1. Implementation of large-scale average geostrophic wind shear in WAsP12.1

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Floors, Rogier Ralph; Troen, Ib; Kelly, Mark C.

The vertical extrapolation model described in the European Wind Atlas Troen and Petersen (1989) is modified to take into account large-scale average geostrophic wind shear to describe the effect of horizontal temperature gradients on the geostrophic wind. The method is implemented by extracting...... the average geostrophic wind shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and the values of nearest grid point are automatically used in the WAsP 12.1 user interface to provide better AEP predictions....

2. Derivation of Inviscid Quasi-geostrophic Equation from Rotational Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Flows

Science.gov (United States)

Kwon, Young-Sam; Lin, Ying-Chieh; Su, Cheng-Fang

2018-04-01

In this paper, we consider the compressible models of magnetohydrodynamic flows giving rise to a variety of mathematical problems in many areas. We derive a rigorous quasi-geostrophic equation governed by magnetic field from the rotational compressible magnetohydrodynamic flows with the well-prepared initial data. It is a first derivation of quasi-geostrophic equation governed by the magnetic field, and the tool is based on the relative entropy method. This paper covers two results: the existence of the unique local strong solution of quasi-geostrophic equation with the good regularity and the derivation of a quasi-geostrophic equation.

3. Incorporating geostrophic wind information for improved space–time short-term wind speed forecasting

KAUST Repository

Zhu, Xinxin

2014-09-01

Accurate short-term wind speed forecasting is needed for the rapid development and efficient operation of wind energy resources. This is, however, a very challenging problem. Although on the large scale, the wind speed is related to atmospheric pressure, temperature, and other meteorological variables, no improvement in forecasting accuracy was found by incorporating air pressure and temperature directly into an advanced space-time statistical forecasting model, the trigonometric direction diurnal (TDD) model. This paper proposes to incorporate the geostrophic wind as a new predictor in the TDD model. The geostrophic wind captures the physical relationship between wind and pressure through the observed approximate balance between the pressure gradient force and the Coriolis acceleration due to the Earth’s rotation. Based on our numerical experiments with data from West Texas, our new method produces more accurate forecasts than does the TDD model using air pressure and temperature for 1to 6-hour-ahead forecasts based on three different evaluation criteria. Furthermore, forecasting errors can be further reduced by using moving average hourly wind speeds to fit the diurnal pattern. For example, our new method obtains between 13.9% and 22.4% overall mean absolute error reduction relative to persistence in 2-hour-ahead forecasts, and between 5.3% and 8.2% reduction relative to the best previous space-time methods in this setting.

4. Dependence of the wind climate of Ireland on the direction distribution of geostrophic wind; Die Abhaengigkeit des Windklimas von Irland von der Richtungsverteilung des geostrophischen Windes

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Frank, H.P. [Forskningcenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark). Afdelingen for Vindenergi og Atmosfaerefysik

1998-01-01

The wind climate of Ireland is calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The dependence of the simulated wind energy on the direction distribution of geostrophic wind is studied. As geostrophic winds from the south-west are most frequent, sites on the north-west coast are particularly suited for wind power stations. In addition, geostrophic wind increases from the south-east to the north-west. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Windklima von Irland wurde mit dem Karlsruher Atmosphaerischen Mesoskaligen Modell KAMM berechnet. Hier wird die Abhaengigkeit der simultierten Windenergie von der Richtungsverteilung des geostrophischen Windes untersucht. Da geostrophische Winde aus Suedwest am haeufigsten vorkommen, eignet sich besonders die Nordwestkueste als Standort fuer Windkraftanlagen. Zusaetzlich nimmt auch der mittlere geostrophische Wind von Suedost nach Nordwest zu. (orig.)

5. Conservation Properties of the Hamiltonian Particle-Mesh method for the Quasi-Geostrophic Equations on a sphere

NARCIS (Netherlands)

H. Thorsdottir (Halldora)

2011-01-01

htmlabstractThe Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method is used to solve the Quasi-Geostrophic model generalized to a sphere, using the Spherepack modeling package to solve the Helmholtz equation on a colatitude-longitude grid with spherical harmonics. The predicted energy conservation of a

6. Quasi-geostrophic dynamics in the presence of moisture gradients

OpenAIRE

Monteiro, Joy M.; Sukhatme, Jai

2016-01-01

The derivation of a quasi-geostrophic (QG) system from the rotating shallow water equations on a midlatitude beta-plane coupled with moisture is presented. Condensation is prescribed to occur whenever the moisture at a point exceeds a prescribed saturation value. It is seen that a slow condensation time scale is required to obtain a consistent set of equations at leading order. Further, since the advecting wind fields are geostrophic, changes in moisture (and hence, precipitation) occur only ...

7. A vectorized Poisson solver over a spherical shell and its application to the quasi-geostrophic omega-equation

Science.gov (United States)

Mullenmeister, Paul

1988-01-01

The quasi-geostrophic omega-equation in flux form is developed as an example of a Poisson problem over a spherical shell. Solutions of this equation are obtained by applying a two-parameter Chebyshev solver in vector layout for CDC 200 series computers. The performance of this vectorized algorithm greatly exceeds the performance of its scalar analog. The algorithm generates solutions of the omega-equation which are compared with the omega fields calculated with the aid of the mass continuity equation.

8. Spatial evolution equation of wind wave growth

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

WANG; Wei; (王; 伟); SUN; Fu; (孙; 孚); DAI; Dejun; (戴德君)

2003-01-01

Based on the dynamic essence of air-sea interactions, a feedback type of spatial evolution equation is suggested to match reasonably the growing process of wind waves. This simple equation involving the dominant factors of wind wave growth is able to explain the transfer of energy from high to low frequencies without introducing the concept of nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and the results agree well with observations. The rate of wave height growth derived in this dissertation is applicable to both laboratory and open sea, which solidifies the physical basis of using laboratory experiments to investigate the generation of wind waves. Thus the proposed spatial evolution equation provides a new approach for the research on dynamic mechanism of air-sea interactions and wind wave prediction.

9. The limit of small Rossby numbers for randomly forced quasi-geostrophic equation on $\\beta$-plane

OpenAIRE

Kuksin, Sergei; Maiocchi, Alberto

2014-01-01

We consider the 2d quasigeostrophic equation on the $\\beta$-plane for the stream function $\\psi$, with dissipation and a random force: $$(*)\\qquad (-\\Delta +K)\\psi_t - \\rho J(\\psi, \\Delta\\psi) -\\beta\\psi_x= \\langle \\text{random force}\\rangle -\\kappa\\Delta^2\\psi +\\Delta\\psi,$$ where $\\psi=\\psi(t,x,y), \\ x\\in\\mathbb{R}/2\\pi L\\mathbb{Z}, \\ y\\in \\mathbb{R}/2\\pi \\mathbb{Z}$. For typical values of the horizontal period $L$ we prove that the law of the action-vector of a solution for $(*)$ (formed...

10. Quasi-Geostrophic Diagnosis of Mixed-Layer Dynamics Embedded in a Mesoscale Turbulent Field

Science.gov (United States)

Chavanne, C. P.; Klein, P.

2016-02-01

A new quasi-geostrophic model has been developed to diagnose the three-dimensional circulation, including the vertical velocity, in the upper ocean from high-resolution observations of sea surface height and buoyancy. The formulation for the adiabatic component departs from the classical surface quasi-geostrophic framework considered before since it takes into account the stratification within the surface mixed-layer that is usually much weaker than that in the ocean interior. To achieve this, the model approximates the ocean with two constant-stratification layers : a finite-thickness surface layer (or the mixed-layer) and an infinitely-deep interior layer. It is shown that the leading-order adiabatic circulation is entirely determined if both the surface streamfunction and buoyancy anomalies are considered. The surface layer further includes a diabatic dynamical contribution. Parameterization of diabatic vertical velocities is based on their restoring impacts of the thermal-wind balance that is perturbed by turbulent vertical mixing of momentum and buoyancy. The model skill in reproducing the three-dimensional circulation in the upper ocean from surface data is checked against the output of a high-resolution primitive-equation numerical simulation. Correlation between simulated and diagnosed vertical velocities are significantly improved in the mixed-layer for the new model compared to the classical surface quasi-geostrophic model, reaching 0.9 near the surface.

11. Wind profile modelling using WAsP and "tall" wind measurements

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Floors, Rogier Ralph; Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

2015-01-01

extrapolations (the wind profile) this is done using the Weibull distribution and the geostrophic drag law. Wind lidar measurements obtained during the ’Tall wind’ campaign at three different sites are used to evaluate the assumptions and equations that are used in the WAsP vertical extrapolation strategy...

12. Greater Role of Geostrophic Currents on Ekman Dynamics in the Western Arctic Ocean as a Mechanism for Beaufort Gyre Stabilization

Science.gov (United States)

Steele, M.; Zhong, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, J.

2017-12-01

Seven different methods, with and without including geostrophic currents, were used to explore Ekman dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean for the period 1992-2014. Results show that surface geostrophic currents have been increasing and are much stronger than Ekman layer velocities in recent years (2003-2014) when the oceanic Beaufort Gyre (BG) is spinning up in the region. The new methods that include geostrophic currents result in more realistic Ekman pumping velocities than a previous iterative method that does not consider geostrophic currents and therefore overestimates Ekman pumping velocities by up to 52% in the central area of the BG over the period 2003-2014. When the BG is spinning up as seen in recent years, geostrophic currents become stronger, which tend to modify the ice-ocean stress and to cause an Ekman divergence that counteracts wind-driven Ekman convergence in the Canada Basin. This is a mechanism we have identified to play an important and growing role in stabilizing the Ekman convergence and therefore the BG in recent years. This mechanism may be used to explain three scenarios that describe the interplay of changes in wind forcing, sea ice motion, and geostrophic currents that control the variability of the Ekman dynamics in the central BG during 1992-2014. Results also reveal several upwelling regions in the southern and northern Canada Basin and the Chukchi Abyssal Plain which may plays a significant role in biological processes in these regions.

13. Greater Role of Geostrophic Currents in Ekman Dynamics in the Western Arctic Ocean as a Mechanism for Beaufort Gyre Stabilization

Science.gov (United States)

Zhong, Wenli; Steele, Michael; Zhang, Jinlun; Zhao, Jinping

2018-01-01

Seven different methods, with and without including geostrophic currents, were used to explore Ekman dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean for the period 1992-2014. Results show that surface geostrophic currents have been increasing and are much stronger than Ekman layer velocities in recent years (2003-2014) when the oceanic Beaufort Gyre (BG) is spinning up in the region. The new methods that include geostrophic currents result in more realistic Ekman pumping velocities than a previous iterative method that does not consider geostrophic currents and therefore overestimates Ekman pumping velocities by up to 52% in the central area of the BG over the period 2003-2014. When the BG is spinning up as seen in recent years, geostrophic currents become stronger, which tend to modify the ice-ocean stress and moderate the wind-driven Ekman convergence in the Canada Basin. This is a mechanism we have identified to play an important and growing role in stabilizing the Ekman convergence and therefore the BG in recent years. This mechanism may be used to explain three scenarios that describe the interplay of changes in wind forcing, sea ice motion, and geostrophic currents that control the variability of the Ekman dynamics in the central BG during 1992-2014. Results also reveal several upwelling regions in the southern and northern Canada Basin and the Chukchi Abyssal Plain which may play a significant role in physical and biological processes in these regions.

14. Downscaling ocean conditions: Experiments with a quasi-geostrophic model

Science.gov (United States)

Katavouta, A.; Thompson, K. R.

2013-12-01

The predictability of small-scale ocean variability, given the time history of the associated large-scales, is investigated using a quasi-geostrophic model of two wind-driven gyres separated by an unstable, mid-ocean jet. Motivated by the recent theoretical study of Henshaw et al. (2003), we propose a straightforward method for assimilating information on the large-scale in order to recover the small-scale details of the quasi-geostrophic circulation. The similarity of this method to the spectral nudging of limited area atmospheric models is discussed. Results from the spectral nudging of the quasi-geostrophic model, and an independent multivariate regression-based approach, show that important features of the ocean circulation, including the position of the meandering mid-ocean jet and the associated pinch-off eddies, can be recovered from the time history of a small number of large-scale modes. We next propose a hybrid approach for assimilating both the large-scales and additional observed time series from a limited number of locations that alone are too sparse to recover the small scales using traditional assimilation techniques. The hybrid approach improved significantly the recovery of the small-scales. The results highlight the importance of the coupling between length scales in downscaling applications, and the value of assimilating limited point observations after the large-scales have been set correctly. The application of the hybrid and spectral nudging to practical ocean forecasting, and projecting changes in ocean conditions on climate time scales, is discussed briefly.

15. Effects of anisotropy in geostrophic turbulence

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Hejda, Pavel; Reshetnyak, M.

2009-01-01

Roč. 177, č. 3-4 (2009), s. 152-160 ISSN 0031-9201 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : liquid core * thermal convection * geostrophic balance * cascade processes Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.993, year: 2009

16. On the flow, thermal field and winds along the western continental shelf of India

Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

Antony, M.K.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

drift will be in phase with the density field or in geostrophic balance. The instrusion of the Bay of 438 M.K. ANTONY and S. S. C. SHENOI Bengal water (less dense than the Arabian Sea water) into the Arabian Sea along the shelf/slope region (SARMA et... flows during May and November are in geostrophic balance or not. For this purpose we used the thermal wind equation Or_-g Op (1) Oz f Ox and substituted the observed values for the average shear (Ov/Oz) and cross-shore density gradient (Op...

17. What can asymptotic expansions tell us about large-scale quasi-geostrophic anticyclonic vortices?

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Stegner

1995-01-01

Full Text Available The problem of the large-scale quasi-geostrophic anticyclonic vortices is studied in the framework of the baratropic rotating shallow- water equations on the β-plane. A systematic approach based on the multiplescale asymptotic expansions is used leading to a hierarchy of governing equations for the large-scale vortices depending on their characteristic size, velocity and a free surface elevation. Among them are the Charney-Obukhov equation, the intermediate geostrophic model equation, the frontal dynamics equation and some new nonlinear quasi-geostrophic equation. We are looking for steady-drifting axisymmetric anticyclonic solutions and find them in a consistent way only in this last equation. These solutions are soliton-like in the sense that the effects of weak non-linearity and dispersion balance each other. The same regimes on the paraboloidal β-plane are studied, all giving a negative result in what concerns the axisymmetric steady solutions, except for a strong elevation case where any circular profile is found to be steadily propagating within the accuracy of the approximation.

18. Generalized multidemensional propagation velocity equations for pool-boiling superconducting windings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Christensen, E.H.; O'Loughlin, J.M.

1984-09-01

Several finite difference, finite element detailed analyses of propagation velocities in up to three dimensions in pool-boiling windings have been conducted for different electromagnetic and cryogenic environments. Likewise, a few full scale simulated winding and magnet tests have measured propagation velocities. These velocity data have been correlated in terms of winding thermophysical parameters. This analysis expresses longitudinal and transverse propagation velocities in the form of power function regression equations for a wide variety of windings and electromagnetic and thermohydraulic environments. The generalized velocity equations are considered applicable to well-ventilated, monolithic conductor windings. These design equations are used piecewise in a gross finite difference mode as functions of field to predict the rate of normal zone growth during quench conditions. A further check of the validity of these predictions is available through total predicted quench durations correlated with actual quench durations of large magnets

19. Currents, Geostrophic, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Meridional

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Meridional Geostrophic Current is inferred from Sea Surface Height Deviation, climatological dynamic height, and basic fluid mechanics.

20. Currents, Geostrophic, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Zonal

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Zonal Geostrophic Current is inferred from Sea Surface Height Deviation, climatological dynamic height, and basic fluid mechanics.

1. Short-term Probabilistic Forecasting of Wind Speed Using Stochastic Differential Equations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

2016-01-01

and uncertain nature. In this paper, we propose a modeling framework for wind speed that is based on stochastic differential equations. We show that stochastic differential equations allow us to naturally capture the time dependence structure of wind speed prediction errors (from 1 up to 24 hours ahead) and......It is widely accepted today that probabilistic forecasts of wind power production constitute valuable information for both wind power producers and power system operators to economically exploit this form of renewable energy, while mitigating the potential adverse effects related to its variable......, most importantly, to derive point and quantile forecasts, predictive distributions, and time-path trajectories (also referred to as scenarios or ensemble forecasts), all by one single stochastic differential equation model characterized by a few parameters....

2. Probabilistic Forecasts of Wind Power Generation by Stochastic Differential Equation Models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Zugno, Marco; Madsen, Henrik

2016-01-01

The increasing penetration of wind power has resulted in larger shares of volatile sources of supply in power systems worldwide. In order to operate such systems efficiently, methods for reliable probabilistic forecasts of future wind power production are essential. It is well known...... that the conditional density of wind power production is highly dependent on the level of predicted wind power and prediction horizon. This paper describes a new approach for wind power forecasting based on logistic-type stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The SDE formulation allows us to calculate both state......-dependent conditional uncertainties as well as correlation structures. Model estimation is performed by maximizing the likelihood of a multidimensional random vector while accounting for the correlation structure defined by the SDE formulation. We use non-parametric modelling to explore conditional correlation...

3. Probabilistic Forecast of Wind Power Generation by Stochastic Differential Equation Models

KAUST Repository

Elkantassi, Soumaya

2017-04-01

Reliable forecasting of wind power generation is crucial to optimal control of costs in generation of electricity with respect to the electricity demand. Here, we propose and analyze stochastic wind power forecast models described by parametrized stochastic differential equations, which introduce appropriate fluctuations in numerical forecast outputs. We use an approximate maximum likelihood method to infer the model parameters taking into account the time correlated sets of data. Furthermore, we study the validity and sensitivity of the parameters for each model. We applied our models to Uruguayan wind power production as determined by historical data and corresponding numerical forecasts for the period of March 1 to May 31, 2016.

4. Local Equation of State for Protons, and Implications for Proton Heating in the Solar Wind.

Science.gov (United States)

Zaslavsky, A.; Maksimovic, M.; Kasper, J. C.

2017-12-01

The solar wind protons temperature is observed to decrease with distance to the Sun at a slower rate than expected from an adiabatic expansion law: the protons are therefore said to be heated. This observation raises the question of the evaluation of the heating rate, and the question of the heat source.These questions have been investigated by previous authors by gathering proton data on various distances to the Sun, using spacecraft as Helios or Ulysses, and then computing the radial derivative of the proton temperature in order to obtain a heating rate from the internal energy equation. The problem of such an approach is the computation of the radial derivative of the temperature profile, for which uncertainties are very large, given the dispersion of the temperatures measured at a given distance.An alternative approach, that we develop in this paper, consists in looking for an equation of state that links locally the pressure (or temperature) to the mass density. If such a relation exists then one can evaluate the proton heating rate on a local basis, without having any space derivative to compute.Here we use several years of STEREO and WIND proton data to search for polytropic equation of state. We show that such relationships are indeed a good approximation in given solar wind's velocity intervals and deduce the associated protons heating rates as a function of solar wind's speed. The obtained heating rates are shown to scale from around 1 kW/kg in the slow wind to around 10 kW/kg in the fast wind, in remarkable agreement with the rate of energy observed by previous authors to cascade in solar wind's MHD turbulence at 1 AU. These results therefore support the idea of proton turbulent heating in the solar wind.

5. Toward an extended-geostrophic Euler-Poincare model for mesoscale oceanographic flow

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Allen, J.S.; Newberger, P.A. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Coll. of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences; Holm, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1998-07-01

The authors consider the motion of a rotating, continuously stratified fluid governed by the hydrostatic primitive equations (PE). An approximate Hamiltonian (L1) model for small Rossby number {var_epsilon} is derived for application to mesoscale oceanographic flow problems. Numerical experiments involving a baroclinically unstable oceanic jet are utilized to assess the accuracy of the L1 model compared to the PE and to other approximate models, such as the quasigeostrophic (QG) and the geostrophic momentum (GM) equations. The results of the numerical experiments for moderate Rossby number flow show that the L1 model gives accurate solutions with errors substantially smaller than QG or GM.

6. Reference depth for geostrophic computation - A new method

Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

Varkey, M.J.; Sastry, J.S.

Various methods are available for the determination of reference depth for geostrophic computation. A new method based on the vertical profiles of mean and variance of the differences of mean specific volume anomaly (delta x 10) for different layers...

7. Modeling real-time balancing power demands in wind power systems using stochastic differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olsson, Magnus; Perninge, Magnus; Soeder, Lennart

2010-01-01

The inclusion of wind power into power systems has a significant impact on the demand for real-time balancing power due to the stochastic nature of wind power production. The overall aim of this paper is to present probabilistic models of the impact of large-scale integration of wind power on the continuous demand in MW for real-time balancing power. This is important not only for system operators, but also for producers and consumers since they in most systems through various market solutions provide balancing power. Since there can occur situations where the wind power variations cancel out other types of deviations in the system, models on an hourly basis are not sufficient. Therefore the developed model is in continuous time and is based on stochastic differential equations (SDE). The model can be used within an analytical framework or in Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

8. Aeroelastic equations of motion of a Darrieus vertical-axis wind-turbine blade

Science.gov (United States)

Kaza, K. R. V.; Kvaternik, R. G.

1979-01-01

The second-degree nonlinear aeroelastic equations of motion for a slender, flexible, nonuniform, Darrieus vertical-axis wind turbine blade which is undergoing combined flatwise bending, edgewise bending, torsion, and extension are developed using Hamilton's principle. The blade aerodynamic loading is obtained from strip theory based on a quasi-steady approximation of two-dimensional incompressible unsteady airfoil theory. The derivation of the equations has its basis in the geometric nonlinear theory of elasticity and the resulting equations are consistent with the small deformation approximation in which the elongations and shears are negligible compared to unity. These equations are suitable for studying vibrations, static and dynamic aeroelastic instabilities, and dynamic response. Several possible methods of solution of the equations, which have periodic coefficients, are discussed.

9. Forecasting tropical cyclone recurvature with upper tropospheric winds

Science.gov (United States)

Gentry, R. C.

1983-01-01

Data from 17 tropical cyclones during the 1974 through 1979 hurricane seasons are used to investigate whether the high level winds far to the northwest, north and northeast of the hurricane center can be used to predict hurricane track recurvature. When the man 200-mb winds 1500 to 2000 km northwest and north of the storm center equal or exceed 20 m/s, 80 per cent of the storms recurved before traveling as much as 12 degrees of longitude farther west. The high winds were also used to predict change in direction of forward motion during the next 72 hours. The regression equations developed explain up to 41 per cent of the variance in future direction. In addition to the geostrophic winds used, winds were also obtained by tracking clouds with successive satellite imagery. The u-components of the satellite winds are highly correlated with the geostrophic winds at 200-mb and could probably be used instead of them when available. The v-components are less highly correlated.

10. Sea level anomaly on the Patagonian continental shelf: Trends, annual patterns and geostrophic flows

Science.gov (United States)

Saraceno, M.; Piola, A. R.; Strub, P. T.

2016-01-01

Abstract We study the annual patterns and linear trend of satellite sea level anomaly (SLA) over the southwest South Atlantic continental shelf (SWACS) between 54ºS and 36ºS. Results show that south of 42°S the thermal steric effect explains nearly 100% of the annual amplitude of the SLA, while north of 42°S it explains less than 60%. This difference is due to the halosteric contribution. The annual wind variability plays a minor role over the whole continental shelf. The temporal linear trend in SLA ranges between 1 and 5 mm/yr (95% confidence level). The largest linear trends are found north of 39°S, at 42°S and at 50°S. We propose that in the northern region the large positive linear trends are associated with local changes in the density field caused by advective effects in response to a southward displacement of the South Atlantic High. The causes of the relative large SLA trends in two southern coastal regions are discussed as a function meridional wind stress and river discharge. Finally, we combined the annual cycle of SLA with the mean dynamic topography to estimate the absolute geostrophic velocities. This approach provides the first comprehensive description of the seasonal component of SWACS circulation based on satellite observations. The general circulation of the SWACS is northeastward with stronger/weaker geostrophic currents in austral summer/winter. At all latitudes, geostrophic velocities are larger (up to 20 cm/s) close to the shelf‐break and decrease toward the coast. This spatio‐temporal pattern is more intense north of 45°S. PMID:27840784

11. Spectrum Analysis of Inertial and Subinertial Motions Based on Analyzed Winds and Wind-Driven Currents from a Primitive Equation General Ocean Circulation Model.

Science.gov (United States)

1982-12-01

1Muter.Te Motions Based on Ana lyzed Winds and wind-driven December 1982 Currents from. a Primitive Squat ion General a.OW -love"*..* Oean Circulation...mew se"(comeS.... do oISN..u am ae~ 00do OWaor NUN Fourier and Rotary Spc , Analysis Modeled Inertial and Subinrtial Motion 4 Primitive Equation 12. PDF models and synthetic model for the wind speed fluctuations based on the resolution of Langevin equation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Calif, Rudy 2012-01-01 Highlights: ► Probability Density Functions are proposed to fit the wind speed fluctuations distributions for three representative classes. ► Stochastic simulations are performed using a Langevin equation for each class. ► The properties of simulated and measured wind speed sequences are close. -- Abstract: Wind energy production is very sensitive to turbulent wind speed. Thus rapid variation of wind speed due to changes in the local meteorological conditions can lead to electrical power variations of the order of the nominal power output, in particular when wind power variations on very short time scales, range at few seconds to 1 h, are considered. In small grid as they exist on islands (Guadeloupean Archipelago: French West Indies) such fluctuations can cause instabilities in case of intermediate power shortages. The developed analysis in reveals three main classes of time series for the wind speed fluctuations. In this work, Probability Density Functions (PDFs) are proposed to fit the wind speed fluctuations distributions in each class. After, to simulate wind speed fluctuations sequences, we use a stochastic differential equation, the Langevin equation considering Gaussian turbulence PDF (class I), Gram–Charlier PDF (class II) and a mixture of gaussian PDF (class III). The statistical and dynamical properties of simulated wind sequences are close to those of measured wind sequences, for each class. 13. Referencing geostrophic velocities using ADCP data Referencing geostrophic velocities using ADCP data Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Isis Comas-Rodríguez 2010-06-01 Full Text Available Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs have proven to be a useful oceanographic tool in the study of ocean dynamics. Data from D279, a transatlantic hydrographic cruise carried out in spring 2004 along 24.5°N, were processed, and lowered ADCP (LADCP bottom track data were used to assess the choice of reference velocity for geostrophic calculations. The reference velocities from different combinations of ADCP data were compared to one another and a reference velocity was chosen based on the LADCP data. The barotropic tidal component was subtracted to provide a final reference velocity estimated by LADCP data. The results of the velocity fields are also shown. Further studies involving inverse solutions will include the reference velocity calculated here. 14. The geostrophic velocity field in shallow water over topography Science.gov (United States) Charnock, Henry; Killworth, Peter D. 1998-01-01 A recent note (Hopkins, T.S., 1996. A note on the geostrophic velocity field referenced to a point. Continental Shelf Research 16, 1621-1630) suggests a method for evaluating absolute pressure gradients in stratified water over topography. We demonstrate that this method requires no along-slope bottom velocity, in contradiction to what is usually observed, and that mass is not conserved. 15. Random forcing of geostrophic motion in rotating stratified turbulence Science.gov (United States) Waite, Michael L. 2017-12-01 Random forcing of geostrophic motion is a common approach in idealized simulations of rotating stratified turbulence. Such forcing represents the injection of energy into large-scale balanced motion, and the resulting breakdown of quasi-geostrophic turbulence into inertia-gravity waves and stratified turbulence can shed light on the turbulent cascade processes of the atmospheric mesoscale. White noise forcing is commonly employed, which excites all frequencies equally, including frequencies much higher than the natural frequencies of large-scale vortices. In this paper, the effects of these high frequencies in the forcing are investigated. Geostrophic motion is randomly forced with red noise over a range of decorrelation time scales τ, from a few time steps to twice the large-scale vortex time scale. It is found that short τ (i.e., nearly white noise) results in about 46% more gravity wave energy than longer τ, despite the fact that waves are not directly forced. We argue that this effect is due to wave-vortex interactions, through which the high frequencies in the forcing are able to excite waves at their natural frequencies. It is concluded that white noise forcing should be avoided, even if it is only applied to the geostrophic motion, when a careful investigation of spontaneous wave generation is needed. 16. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation solutions of wind turbine wakes Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Ludwig, Daniel Evandro; Horn, Diego Anderson; Petry, Adriane Prisco [Thermal and Energy Study Group, Mechanical Engeneering Department, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil)], E-mail: adrianep@mecanica.ufrgs.br 2010-07-01 This paper aims to evaluate the influence of three different turbulence models in the study of a wind turbine wake. Numerical Simulation is used as working tool to characterize the flow through the wind turbines, it is used the numeric simulation. The numerical analysis is based on the finite volume method and the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. Three turbulence models are used to represent the total effects of turbulence in the flow: the two equations k-classical and the RNG k- models, based on the turbulent viscosity; and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) model, based on the transport of the Reynolds tensor. The results of the 'u' velocity profiles are compared to experimental data from Vermeer (2003) at distances equivalent to 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 16 diameters downstream from the turbine. Results shows that the SST model gives better results until 6 diameters, beyond this distance there is no significant differences between the compared models. (author) 17. Scour depth estimation using an equation based on wind tunnel experiments Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Tsutsui Takayuki 2016-01-01 Full Text Available Scour is the result of degradation and aggradation by wind or moving fluid in the front and back of a pole standing in sand, respectively, and is often observed at the bottom of bridge piers in rivers. In this study, we propose a method of estimating the scour depth around a cylindrical structure standing in sand. The relationships among the depth of the scour, the aspect ratio of the structure (= height/diameter, the fluid velocity, and the sand properties (particle size and density were determined experimentally using a wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out under clear-water scour conditions. In the experiments, the aspect ratio of the cylindrical structure, the fluid velocity, and the sand particle size were varied systematically. The diameters of the structure were 20, 40, and 60 mm, and the aspect ratio was varied from 0.25 to 3.0. Sand particles of four sizes (200, 275, 475, and 600 μm were used in the experiment, and the velocity was varied from 4 to 11 m/s. The depth and radius of the scour were measured. As a result, we have developed an equation for estimating the scour depth that uses the aspect ratio, fluid velocity, and sand particle size as parameters. 18. The Hamburg large scale geostrophic ocean general circulation model. Cycle 1 International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Maier-Reimer, E.; Mikolajewicz, U. 1992-02-01 The rationale for the Large Scale Geostrophic ocean circulation model (LSG-OGCM) is based on the observations that for a large scale ocean circulation model designed for climate studies, the relevant characteristic spatial scales are large compared with the internal Rossby radius throughout most of the ocean, while the characteristic time scales are large compared with the periods of gravity modes and barotropic Rossby wave modes. In the present version of the model, the fast modes have been filtered out by a conventional technique of integrating the full primitive equations, including all terms except the nonlinear advection of momentum, by an implicit time integration method. The free surface is also treated prognostically, without invoking a rigid lid approximation. The numerical scheme is unconditionally stable and has the additional advantage that it can be applied uniformly to the entire globe, including the equatorial and coastal current regions. (orig.) 19. An Integrated Assessment Framework of Offshore Wind Power Projects Applying Equator Principles and Social Life Cycle Assessment Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yu-Che Tseng 2017-10-01 Full Text Available This paper reviews offshore wind power project finance and provides an integrated assessment that employs Equator Principles, life cycle assessment, risk assessment, materiality analysis, credit assessment, and ISAE 3000 assurance. We have not seen any comprehensive review papers or book chapters that covers the entire offshore wind power project finance process. We also conducted an SWancor Formosa Phase 1 case study to illustrate the application of integrated assessment to better assist policymakers, wind farm developers, practitioners, potential investors and observers, and stakeholders in their decisions. We believe that this paper can form part of the effort to reduce information asymmetry and the transaction costs of wind power project finance, as well as mobilize green finance investments from the financial sector to renewable energy projects to achieve a national renewable energy policy. 20. Validation of Simplified Load Equations Through Loads Measurement and Modeling of a Small Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Tower Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Dana, Scott [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Van Dam, Jeroen J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States) 2018-04-24 As part of an ongoing effort to improve the modeling and prediction of small wind turbine dynamics, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) tested a small horizontal-axis wind turbine in the field at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine was a 2.1-kW downwind machine mounted on an 18-m multi-section fiberglass composite tower. The tower was instrumented and monitored for approximately 6 months. The collected data were analyzed to assess the turbine and tower loads and further validate the simplified loads equations from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61400-2 design standards. Field-measured loads were also compared to the output of an aeroelastic model of the turbine. In particular, we compared fatigue loads as measured in the field, predicted by the aeroelastic model, and calculated using the simplified design equations. Ultimate loads at the tower base were assessed using both the simplified design equations and the aeroelastic model output. The simplified design equations in IEC 61400-2 do not accurately model fatigue loads and a discussion about the simplified design equations is discussed. 1. A methodology for the prediction of offshore wind energy resources Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Watson, S J; Watson, G M [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Holt, R.J. [Univ. of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom)] Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark); Zuylen, E.J. van [Ecofys Energy and Environment, Utrecht (Netherlands)] Cleijne, J.W. [Kema Sustainable, Arnhem (Netherlands) 1999-03-01 There are increasing constraints on the development of wind power on land. Recently, there has been a move to develop wind power offshore, though the amount of measured wind speed data at potential offshore wind farm sites is sparse. We present a novel methodology for the prediction of offshore wind power resources which is being applied to European Union waters. The first stage is to calculate the geostrophic wind from long-term pressure fields over the sea area of interest. Secondly, the geostrophic wind is transformed to the sea level using WA{sup s}P, taking account of near shore topography. Finally, these values are corrected for land/sea climatology (stability) effects using an analytical Coastal discontinuity Model (CDM). These values are further refined using high resolution offshore data at selected sites. The final values are validated against existing offshore datasets. Preliminary results are presented of the geostrophic wind speed validation in European Union waters. (au) 2. Arctic Ocean surface geostrophic circulation 2003–2014 Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) T. W. K. Armitage 2017-07-01 Full Text Available Monitoring the surface circulation of the ice-covered Arctic Ocean is generally limited in space, time or both. We present a new 12-year record of geostrophic currents at monthly resolution in the ice-covered and ice-free Arctic Ocean derived from satellite radar altimetry and characterise their seasonal to decadal variability from 2003 to 2014, a period of rapid environmental change in the Arctic. Geostrophic currents around the Arctic basin increased in the late 2000s, with the largest increases observed in summer. Currents in the southeastern Beaufort Gyre accelerated in late 2007 with higher current speeds sustained until 2011, after which they decreased to speeds representative of the period 2003–2006. The strength of the northwestward current in the southwest Beaufort Gyre more than doubled between 2003 and 2014. This pattern of changing currents is linked to shifting of the gyre circulation to the northwest during the time period. The Beaufort Gyre circulation and Fram Strait current are strongest in winter, modulated by the seasonal strength of the atmospheric circulation. We find high eddy kinetic energy (EKE congruent with features of the seafloor bathymetry that are greater in winter than summer, and estimates of EKE and eddy diffusivity in the Beaufort Sea are consistent with those predicted from theoretical considerations. The variability of Arctic Ocean geostrophic circulation highlights the interplay between seasonally variable atmospheric forcing and ice conditions, on a backdrop of long-term changes to the Arctic sea ice–ocean system. Studies point to various mechanisms influencing the observed increase in Arctic Ocean surface stress, and hence geostrophic currents, in the 2000s – e.g. decreased ice concentration/thickness, changing atmospheric forcing, changing ice pack morphology; however, more work is needed to refine the representation of atmosphere–ice–ocean coupling in models before we can fully 3. Probabilistic Forecast of Wind Power Generation by Stochastic Differential Equation Models KAUST Repository Elkantassi, Soumaya 2017-01-01 Reliable forecasting of wind power generation is crucial to optimal control of costs in generation of electricity with respect to the electricity demand. Here, we propose and analyze stochastic wind power forecast models described by parametrized 4. Simplified equations for the rotational speed response to inflow velocity variation in fixed-pitch small wind turbines Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Suzuki, H; Hasegawa, Y, E-mail: hsuzuki@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan) 2015-02-01 We propose simplified equations for the rotational speed response to inflow velocity variation in fixed-pitch small wind turbines. The present formulation is derived by introducing a series expansion for the torque coefficient at the constant tip-speed ratio. By focusing on the first- and second-order differential coefficients of the torque coefficient, we simplify the original differential equation. The governing equation based only on the first-order differential coefficient is found to be linear, whereas the second-order differential coefficient introduces nonlinearity. We compare the numerical solutions of the three governing equations for rotational speed in response to sinusoidal and normal-random variations of inflow velocity. The linear equation gives accurate solutions of amplitude and phase lag. Nonlinearity occurs in the mean value of rotational speed variation. We also simulate the rotational speed in response to a step input of inflow velocity using the conditions of two previous studies, and note that the form of this rotational speed response is a system of first-order time lag. We formulate the gain and time constant for this rotational speed response. The magnitude of the gain is approximately three when the wind turbine is operated at optimal tip-speed ratio. We discuss the physical meaning of the derived time constant. (paper) 5. The Use of a Code-generating System for the Derivation of the Equations for Wind Turbine Dynamics Science.gov (United States) Ganander, Hans 2003-10-01 For many reasons the size of wind turbines on the rapidly growing wind energy market is increasing. Relations between aeroelastic properties of these new large turbines change. Modifications of turbine designs and control concepts are also influenced by growing size. All these trends require development of computer codes for design and certification. Moreover, there is a strong desire for design optimization procedures, which require fast codes. General codes, e.g. finite element codes, normally allow such modifications and improvements of existing wind turbine models. This is done relatively easy. However, the calculation times of such codes are unfavourably long, certainly for optimization use. The use of an automatic code generating system is an alternative for relevance of the two key issues, the code and the design optimization. This technique can be used for rapid generation of codes of particular wind turbine simulation models. These ideas have been followed in the development of new versions of the wind turbine simulation code VIDYN. The equations of the simulation model were derived according to the Lagrange equation and using Mathematica®, which was directed to output the results in Fortran code format. In this way the simulation code is automatically adapted to an actual turbine model, in terms of subroutines containing the equations of motion, definitions of parameters and degrees of freedom. Since the start in 1997, these methods, constituting a systematic way of working, have been used to develop specific efficient calculation codes. The experience with this technique has been very encouraging, inspiring the continued development of new versions of the simulation code as the need has arisen, and the interest for design optimization is growing. 6. Hydromagnetic quasi-geostrophic modes in rapidly rotating planetary cores DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Canet, E.; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, A. 2014-01-01 The core of a terrestrial-type planet consists of a spherical shell of rapidly rotating, electrically conducting, fluid. Such a body supports two distinct classes of quasi-geostrophic (QG) eigenmodes: fast, primarily hydrodynamic, inertial modes with period related to the rotation time scale...... decreases toward the outer boundary in a spherical shell, QG modes tend to be compressed towards the outer boundary. Including magnetic dissipation, we find a continuous transition from diffusionless slow magnetic modes into quasi-free decay magnetic modes. During that transition (which is controlled......, or shorter than, their oscillation time scale.Based on our analysis, we expect Mercury to be in a regime where the slow magnetic modes are of quasi-free decay type. Earth and possibly Ganymede, with their larger Elsasser numbers, may possess slow modes that are in the transition regime of weak diffusion... 7. A Unified Model of Geostrophic Adjustment and Frontogenesis Science.gov (United States) Taylor, John; Shakespeare, Callum 2013-11-01 Fronts, or regions with strong horizontal density gradients, are ubiquitous and dynamically important features of the ocean and atmosphere. In the ocean, fronts are associated with enhanced air-sea fluxes, turbulence, and biological productivity, while atmospheric fronts are associated with some of the most extreme weather events. Here, we describe a new mathematical framework for describing the formation of fronts, or frontogenesis. This framework unifies two classical problems in geophysical fluid dynamics, geostrophic adjustment and strain-driven frontogenesis, and provides a number of important extensions beyond previous efforts. The model solutions closely match numerical simulations during the early stages of frontogenesis, and provide a means to describe the development of turbulence at mature fronts. 8. Incorporating geostrophic wind information for improved space–time short-term wind speed forecasting KAUST Repository Zhu, Xinxin; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Genton, Marc G. 2014-01-01 pressure, temperature, and other meteorological variables, no improvement in forecasting accuracy was found by incorporating air pressure and temperature directly into an advanced space-time statistical forecasting model, the trigonometric direction diurnal 9. A case study using kinematic quantities derived from a triangle of VHF Doppler wind profilers Science.gov (United States) Carlson, Catherine A.; Forbes, Gregory S. 1989-01-01 Horizontal divergence, relative vorticity, kinematic vertical velocity, and geostrophic and ageostrophic winds are computed from Colorado profiler network data to investigate an upslope snowstorm in northeastern Colorado. Horizontal divergence and relative vorticity are computed using the Gauss and Stokes theorems, respectively. Kinematic vertical velocities are obtained from the surface to 9 km by vertically integrating the continuity equation. The geostrophic and ageostrophic winds are computed by applying a finite differencing technique to evaluate the derivatives in the horizontal equations of motion. Comparison of the synoptic-scale data with the profiler network data reveals that the two datasets are generally consistent. Also, the profiler-derived quantities exhibit coherent vertical and temporal patterns consistent with conceptual and theoretical flow fields of various meteorological phenomena. It is suggested that the profiler-derived quantities are of potential use to weather forecasters in that they enable the dynamic and kinematic interpretation of weather system structure to be made and thus have nowcasting and short-term forecasting value. 10. The effect of baroclinicity on the wind in the planetary boundary layer DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Floors, Rogier Ralph; Peña, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik 2015-01-01 close to zero and a standard deviation of approximately 3ms−1km−1. The geostrophic wind shear had a strong seasonal dependence because of temperature differences between land and sea. The mean wind profile in Hamburg, observed during an intensive campaign using radio sounding and during the whole year...... using the wind lidar, was influenced by baroclinicity. For easterly winds at Høvsøre, the estimated gradient wind decreased rapidly with height, resulting in a mean low-level jet. The turning of the wind in the boundary layer, the boundary-layer height and the empirical constants in the geostrophic drag... 11. A diagnostic approach to obtaining planetary boundary layer winds using satellite-derived thermal data Science.gov (United States) Belt, Carol L.; Fuelberg, Henry E. 1984-01-01 The feasibility of using satellite derived thermal data to generate realistic synoptic scale winds within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) is examined. Diagnostic modified Ekman wind equations from the Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) Boundary Layer Model are used to compute winds at seven levels within the PBL transition layer (50 m to 1600 m AGL). Satellite derived winds based on 62 predawn TIROS-N soundings are compared to similarly derived wind fields based on 39 AVE-SESAME II rawinsonde (RAOB) soundings taken 2 h later. Actual wind fields are also used as a basis for comparison. Qualitative and statistical comparisons show that the Ekman winds from both sources are in very close agreement, with an average vector correlation coefficient of 0.815. Best results are obtained at 300 m AGL. Satellite winds tend to be slightly weaker than their RAOB counterparts and exhibit a greater degree of cross-isobaric flow. The modified Ekman winds show a significant improvement over geostrophic values at levels nearest the surface. 12. Nudging Satellite Altimeter Data Into Quasi-Geostrophic Ocean Models Science.gov (United States) Verron, Jacques 1992-05-01 This paper discusses the efficiency of several variants of the nudging technique (derived from the technique of the same name developed by meteorologists) for assimilating altimeter data into numerical ocean models based on quasi-geostrophic formulation. Assimilation experiments are performed with data simulated in the nominal sampling conditions of the Topex-Poseidon satellite mission. Under experimental conditions it is found that nudging on the altimetric sea level is as efficient as nudging on the vorticity (second derivative in space of the dynamic topography), the technique used thus far in studies of this type. The use of altimetric residuals only, instead of the total altimetric sea level signal, is also explored. The critical importance of having an adequate reference mean sea level is largely confirmed. Finally, the possibility of nudging only the signal of sea level tendency (i.e., the successive time differences of the sea level height) is examined. Apart from the barotropic mode, results are not very successful compared with those obtained by assimilating the residuals. 13. Leveraging stochastic differential equations for probabilistic forecasting of wind power using a dynamic power curve DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg 2017-01-01 Short-term (hours to days) probabilistic forecasts of wind power generation provide useful information about the associated uncertainty of these forecasts. Standard probabilistic forecasts are usually issued on a per-horizon-basis, meaning that they lack information about the development of the u... 14. Sound Propagation Around Off-Shore Wind Turbines. Long-Range Parabolic Equation Calculations for Baltic Sea Conditions Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Johansson, Lisa 2003-07-01 Low-frequency, long-range sound propagation over a sea surface has been calculated using a wide-angel Cranck-Nicholson Parabolic Equation method. The model is developed to investigate noise from off-shore wind turbines. The calculations are made using normal meteorological conditions of the Baltic Sea. Special consideration has been made to a wind phenomenon called low level jet with strong winds on rather low altitude. The effects of water waves on sound propagation have been incorporated in the ground boundary condition using a boss model. This way of including roughness in sound propagation models is valid for water wave heights that are small compared to the wave length of the sound. Nevertheless, since only low frequency sound is considered, waves up to the mean wave height of the Baltic Sea can be included in this manner. The calculation model has been tested against benchmark cases and agrees well with measurements. The calculations show that channelling of sound occurs at downwind conditions and that the sound propagation tends towards cylindrical spreading. The effects of the water waves are found to be fairly small. 15. Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements of neutral winds and F2 layer variations at the magnetic equator Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) P. Vila 1998-06-01 Full Text Available This letter presents some night-time observations of neutral wind variations at F2 layer levels near the dip equator, measured by the Fabry-Perot interferometer set up in 1994 at Korhogo (Ivory Coast, geographic latitude 9.25°N, longitude 355°E, dip latitude –2.5°. Our instrument uses the 630 nm (O1D line to determine radial Doppler velocities of the oxygen atoms between 200 and 400 km altitude. First results for November 1994 to March 1995 reveal persistent eastward flows, and frequent intervals of southward winds of larger than 50 ms–1 velocity. Compared with the simultaneous ionospheric patterns deduced from the three West African equatorial ionosondes at Korhogo, Ouagadougou (Burkina-Faso, dip latitude +1.5° and Dakar (Sénégal, dip latitude +5°, they illustrate various impacts of the thermospheric winds on F2 layer density: (1 on the mesoscale evolution (a few 103 km and a few 100 minutes scales and (2 on local fluctuations (hundreds of km and tens of minutes characteristic times. We report on these fluctuations and discuss the opportunity to improve the time-resolution of the Fabry-Perot interferometer at Korhogo.Key words. Ionosphere (Equatorial ionosphere; Ionosphere-atmosphere interaction · Meteorology and Atmospheric Dynamics (General circulation 16. Coupling of an aeroacoustic model and a parabolic equation code for long range wind turbine noise propagation Science.gov (United States) Cotté, B. 2018-05-01 This study proposes to couple a source model based on Amiet's theory and a parabolic equation code in order to model wind turbine noise emission and propagation in an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Two broadband noise generation mechanisms are considered, namely trailing edge noise and turbulent inflow noise. The effects of wind shear and atmospheric turbulence are taken into account using the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The coupling approach, based on the backpropagation method to preserve the directivity of the aeroacoustic sources, is validated by comparison with an analytical solution for the propagation over a finite impedance ground in a homogeneous atmosphere. The influence of refraction effects is then analyzed for different directions of propagation. The spectrum modification related to the ground effect and the presence of a shadow zone for upwind receivers are emphasized. The validity of the point source approximation that is often used in wind turbine noise propagation models is finally assessed. This approximation exaggerates the interference dips in the spectra, and is not able to correctly predict the amplitude modulation. 17. Surface drag effects on simulated wind fields in high-resolution atmospheric forecast model Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Lim, Kyo Sun; Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team,Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hye Yum [NOAA/Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Hong, Jin Kyu [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) 2017-04-15 It has been reported that the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model generally shows a substantial over prediction bias at low to moderate wind speeds and winds are too geostrophic (Cheng and Steenburgh 2005), which limits the application of WRF model in the area that requires the accurate surface wind estimation such as wind-energy application, air-quality studies, and radioactive-pollutants dispersion studies. The surface drag generated by the subgrid-scale orography is represented by introducing a sink term in the momentum equation in their studies. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the simulated meteorological fields in the high-resolution WRF framework, that includes the parameterization of subgrid-scale orography developed by Mass and Ovens (2010), and enhance the forecast skill of low-level wind fields, which plays an important role in transport and dispersion of air pollutants including radioactive pollutants. The positive bias in 10-m wind speed is significantly alleviated by implementing the subgrid-scale orography parameterization, while other meteorological fields including 10-m wind direction are not changed. Increased variance of subgrid- scale orography enhances the sink of momentum and further reduces the bias in 10-m wind speed. 18. Kinematic validation of a quasi-geostrophic model for the fast dynamics in the Earth's outer core Science.gov (United States) Maffei, S.; Jackson, A. 2017-09-01 We derive a quasi-geostrophic (QG) system of equations suitable for the description of the Earth's core dynamics on interannual to decadal timescales. Over these timescales, rotation is assumed to be the dominant force and fluid motions are strongly invariant along the direction parallel to the rotation axis. The diffusion-free, QG system derived here is similar to the one derived in Canet et al. but the projection of the governing equations on the equatorial disc is handled via vertical integration and mass conservation is applied to the velocity field. Here we carefully analyse the properties of the resulting equations and we validate them neglecting the action of the Lorentz force in the momentum equation. We derive a novel analytical solution describing the evolution of the magnetic field under these assumptions in the presence of a purely azimuthal flow and an alternative formulation that allows us to numerically solve the evolution equations with a finite element method. The excellent agreement we found with the analytical solution proves that numerical integration of the QG system is possible and that it preserves important physical properties of the magnetic field. Implementation of magnetic diffusion is also briefly considered. 19. Scour depth estimation using an equation based on wind tunnel experiments OpenAIRE Tsutsui Takayuki 2016-01-01 Scour is the result of degradation and aggradation by wind or moving fluid in the front and back of a pole standing in sand, respectively, and is often observed at the bottom of bridge piers in rivers. In this study, we propose a method of estimating the scour depth around a cylindrical structure standing in sand. The relationships among the depth of the scour, the aspect ratio of the structure (= height/diameter), the fluid velocity, and the sand properties (particle size and density) were d... 20. Maximum entropy state of the quasi-geostrophic bi-disperse point vortex system: bifurcation phenomena under periodic boundary conditions Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Funakoshi, Satoshi; Sato, Tomoyoshi; Miyazaki, Takeshi, E-mail: funakosi@miyazaki.mce.uec.ac.jp, E-mail: miyazaki@mce.uec.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1, Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan) 2012-06-01 We investigate the statistical mechanics of quasi-geostrophic point vortices of mixed sign (bi-disperse system) numerically and theoretically. Direct numerical simulations under periodic boundary conditions are performed using a fast special-purpose computer for molecular dynamics (GRAPE-DR). Clustering of point vortices of like sign is observed and two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium states are formed. It is shown that they are the solutions of the 2D mean-field equation, i.e. the sinh-Poisson equation. The sinh-Poisson equation is generalized to study the 3D nature of the equilibrium states, and a new mean-field equation with the 3D Laplace operator is derived based on the maximum entropy theory. 3D solutions are obtained at very low energy level. These solution branches, however, cannot be traced up to the higher energy level at which the direct numerical simulations are performed, and transitions to 2D solution branches take place when the energy is increased. (paper) 1. Extreme winds in Denmark DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, Ole; Hansen, S.O. 1999-01-01 Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity which is defined as the 50-year wind speed under standard conditions, i.e. ten-minute averages at the height 10 m over a uniform terrainwith the roughness length 0.05 m. The sites...... by means of the geostrophic drag law for neutral stratification. The basic wind velocity in 30o sectors are obtainedthrough ranking of the largest values of the ¤friction velocity pressure¤ 1/2 ¤#rho#¤¤u¤"2_x taken both once every two months and once every year. The main conclusion is that the basic wind... 2. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Warneford, Emma S.; Dellar, Paul J. 2014-01-01 Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune 3. Modelling the wind climate of Ireland DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Frank, H.P.; Landberg, L. 1997-01-01 The wind climate of Ireland has been calculated using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model KAMM. The climatology is represented by 65 frequency classes of geostrophic wind that were selected as equiangular direction sectors and speed intervals with equal frequency in a sector. The results...... are compared with data from the European Wind Atlas which have been analyzed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program, WA(S)P. The prediction of the areas of higher wind power is fair. Stations with low power are overpredicted.... 4. Nudging and predictability in regional climate modelling: investigation in a nested quasi-geostrophic model Science.gov (United States) Omrani, Hiba; Drobinski, Philippe; Dubos, Thomas 2010-05-01 In this work, we consider the effect of indiscriminate and spectral nudging on the large and small scales of an idealized model simulation. The model is a two layer quasi-geostrophic model on the beta-plane driven at its boundaries by the « global » version with periodic boundary condition. This setup mimics the configuration used for regional climate modelling. The effect of large-scale nudging is studied by using the "perfect model" approach. Two sets of experiments are performed: (1) the effect of nudging is investigated with a « global » high resolution two layer quasi-geostrophic model driven by a low resolution two layer quasi-geostrophic model. (2) similar simulations are conducted with the two layer quasi-geostrophic Limited Area Model (LAM) where the size of the LAM domain comes into play in addition to the first set of simulations. The study shows that the indiscriminate nudging time that minimizes the error at both the large and small scales is reached for a nudging time close to the predictability time, for spectral nudging, the optimum nudging time should tend to zero since the best large scale dynamics is supposed to be given by the driving large-scale fields are generally given at much lower frequency than the model time step(e,g, 6-hourly analysis) with a basic interpolation between the fields, the optimum nudging time differs from zero, however remaining smaller than the predictability time. 5. Tests of the frozen-flux and tangentially geostrophic assumptions using magnetic satellite data DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Chulliat, A.; Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T. In 1984, Jean-Louis Le Mouël published a paper suggesting that the flow at the top of the Earth’s core is tangentially geostrophic, i.e., the Lorentz force is much smaller than the Coriolis force in this particular region of the core. This new assumption wassubsequently used to discriminate among... 6. Partial differential equation methods for stochastic dynamic optimization: an application to wind power generation with energy storage. Science.gov (United States) Johnson, Paul; Howell, Sydney; Duck, Peter 2017-08-13 A mixed financial/physical partial differential equation (PDE) can optimize the joint earnings of a single wind power generator (WPG) and a generic energy storage device (ESD). Physically, the PDE includes constraints on the ESD's capacity, efficiency and maximum speeds of charge and discharge. There is a mean-reverting daily stochastic cycle for WPG power output. Physically, energy can only be produced or delivered at finite rates. All suppliers must commit hourly to a finite rate of delivery C , which is a continuous control variable that is changed hourly. Financially, we assume heavy 'system balancing' penalties in continuous time, for deviations of output rate from the commitment C Also, the electricity spot price follows a mean-reverting stochastic cycle with a strong evening peak, when system balancing penalties also peak. Hence the economic goal of the WPG plus ESD, at each decision point, is to maximize expected net present value (NPV) of all earnings (arbitrage) minus the NPV of all expected system balancing penalties, along all financially/physically feasible future paths through state space. Given the capital costs for the various combinations of the physical parameters, the design and operating rules for a WPG plus ESD in a finite market may be jointly optimizable.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s). 7. Application of a fuzzy cognitive map based on a structural equation model for the identification of limitations to the development of wind power International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Huang, Shih-Chieh; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Yen-Ching 2013-01-01 Despite numerous researchers having investigating the development of wind power, the correlation between the elements influencing wind power development has often been ignored. Hence, this research hopes to incorporate both structural equation model (SEM) and fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) to identify a mutual relationship between the various elements, so as to provide feasible recommendations for management strategies. Initially, SEM is used for identification of correlation between the elements and indicating their direction and strength. A standardized causal coefficient from SEM was then used to create an FCM illustrating the effect of the status of one component on the status of another component. The research results pointed out that “policy” would be the major challenge faced by wind power development, as well as the main cause for other obstructions. Therefore, under the objective of maximizing economic benefits, short-term strategies can adopt suitable measures for the two dimensions of “technology” and “environment”; and while mid-term strategies must consider the indirect influences from “social” dimension, long-term strategies must work on “policy”. - Highlights: • Apply SEM to explain interrelationships between the obstacles of wind power. • Adopt ‘what if’ simulation analysis to explore the optimal management strategies. • Intermediary variables were existed in the potential paths. • The results prove that correlations do exist between the obstacles. • The “policy aspect” is the main obstacle faced by wind power 8. On the extension of the wind profile over homogeneous terrain beyond the surface boundary layer DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Brümmer, B. 2007-01-01 -Obukhov similarity. Above the surface layer the second length scale (L-MBL ) becomes independent of height but not of stability, and at the top of the boundary layer the third length scale is assumed to be negligible. A simple model for the combined length scale that controls the wind profile and its stability...... dependence is formulated by inverse summation. Based on these assumptions the wind profile for the entire boundary layer is derived. A parameterization of L-MBL is formulated using the geostrophic drag law, which relates friction velocity and geostrophic wind. The empirical parameterization of the resistance...... law functions A and B in the geostrophic drag law is uncertain, making it impractical. Therefore an expression for the length scale, L-MBL , for applied use is suggested, based on measurements from the two sites.... 9. Errors of Mean Dynamic Topography and Geostrophic Current Estimates in China's Marginal Seas from GOCE and Satellite Altimetry DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Jin, Shuanggen; Feng, Guiping; Andersen, Ole Baltazar 2014-01-01 and geostrophic current estimates from satellite gravimetry and altimetry are investigated and evaluated in China's marginal seas. The cumulative error in MDT from GOCE is reduced from 22.75 to 9.89 cm when compared to the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field model ITG-Grace2010 results......The Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) and satellite altimetry can provide very detailed and accurate estimates of the mean dynamic topography (MDT) and geostrophic currents in China's marginal seas, such as, the newest high-resolution GOCE gravity field model GO......-CONS-GCF-2-TIM-R4 and the new Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales mean sea surface model MSS_CNES_CLS_11 from satellite altimetry. However, errors and uncertainties of MDT and geostrophic current estimates from satellite observations are not generally quantified. In this paper, errors and uncertainties of MDT... 10. Large Eddy Simulations of a Bottom Boundary Layer Under a Shallow Geostrophic Front Science.gov (United States) Bateman, S. P.; Simeonov, J.; Calantoni, J. 2017-12-01 The unstratified surf zone and the stratified shelf waters are often separated by dynamic fronts that can strongly impact the character of the Ekman bottom boundary layer. Here, we use large eddy simulations to study the turbulent bottom boundary layer associated with a geostrophic current on a stratified shelf of uniform depth. The simulations are initialized with a spatially uniform vertical shear that is in geostrophic balance with a pressure gradient due to a linear horizontal temperature variation. Superposed on the temperature front is a stable vertical temperature gradient. As turbulence develops near the bottom, the turbulence-induced mixing gradually erodes the initial uniform temperature stratification and a well-mixed layer grows in height until the turbulence becomes fully developed. The simulations provide the spatial distribution of the turbulent dissipation and the Reynolds stresses in the fully developed boundary layer. We vary the initial linear stratification and investigate its effect on the height of the bottom boundary layer and the turbulence statistics. The results are compared to previous models and simulations of stratified bottom Ekman layers. 11. Representation of fine scale atmospheric variability in a nudged limited area quasi-geostrophic model: application to regional climate modelling Science.gov (United States) Omrani, H.; Drobinski, P.; Dubos, T. 2009-09-01 In this work, we consider the effect of indiscriminate nudging time on the large and small scales of an idealized limited area model simulation. The limited area model is a two layer quasi-geostrophic model on the beta-plane driven at its boundaries by its « global » version with periodic boundary condition. This setup mimics the configuration used for regional climate modelling. Compared to a previous study by Salameh et al. (2009) who investigated the existence of an optimal nudging time minimizing the error on both large and small scale in a linear model, we here use a fully non-linear model which allows us to represent the chaotic nature of the atmosphere: given the perfect quasi-geostrophic model, errors in the initial conditions, concentrated mainly in the smaller scales of motion, amplify and cascade into the larger scales, eventually resulting in a prediction with low skill. To quantify the predictability of our quasi-geostrophic model, we measure the rate of divergence of the system trajectories in phase space (Lyapunov exponent) from a set of simulations initiated with a perturbation of a reference initial state. Predictability of the "global", periodic model is mostly controlled by the beta effect. In the LAM, predictability decreases as the domain size increases. Then, the effect of large-scale nudging is studied by using the "perfect model” approach. Two sets of experiments were performed: (1) the effect of nudging is investigated with a « global » high resolution two layer quasi-geostrophic model driven by a low resolution two layer quasi-geostrophic model. (2) similar simulations are conducted with the two layer quasi-geostrophic LAM where the size of the LAM domain comes into play in addition to the first set of simulations. In the two sets of experiments, the best spatial correlation between the nudge simulation and the reference is observed with a nudging time close to the predictability time. 12. Arctic-Mid-Latitude Linkages in a Nonlinear Quasi-Geostrophic Atmospheric Model Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Dörthe Handorf 2017-01-01 Full Text Available A quasi-geostrophic three-level T63 model of the wintertime atmospheric circulation of the Northern Hemisphere has been applied to investigate the impact of Arctic amplification (increase in surface air temperatures and loss of Arctic sea ice during the last 15 years on the mid-latitude large-scale atmospheric circulation. The model demonstrates a mid-latitude response to an Arctic diabatic heating anomaly. A clear shift towards a negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO− during low sea-ice-cover conditions occurs, connected with weakening of mid-latitude westerlies over the Atlantic and colder winters over Northern Eurasia. Compared to reanalysis data, there is no clear model response with respect to the Pacific Ocean and North America. 13. Coherent structure in geostrophic flow under density stratification; Mippei seisoka ni aru chikoryu no soshiki kozo Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Tsujimura, S.; Iida, O.; Nagano, Y. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan) 1998-10-25 The coherent structure and relevant heat transport in geostrophic flows under various density stratification has been studied by using both direct numerical simulation and rapid distortion theory. It is found that in a neutrally stratified flow under system rotation, the temperature fluctuations become very close to two-dimensional and their variation is very small in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation. Under the stable stratification, the velocity and temperature fluctuations tend to oscillate with the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Under the unstable stratification, on the other hand, vortex columns are formed in the direction parallel to the axis of rotation. However, the generation of the elongated vortex columns cannot be predicted by the rapid distortion theory. The non-linear term is required to generate these characteristic vortex columns. 11 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab. 14. Mapping sub-surface geostrophic currents from altimetry and a fleet of gliders Science.gov (United States) Alvarez, A.; Chiggiato, J.; Schroeder, K. 2013-04-01 Integrating the observations gathered by different platforms into a unique physical picture of the environment is a fundamental aspect of networked ocean observing systems. These are constituted by a spatially distributed set of sensors and platforms that simultaneously monitor a given ocean region. Remote sensing from satellites is an integral part of present ocean observing systems. Due to their autonomy, mobility and controllability, underwater gliders are envisioned to play a significant role in the development of networked ocean observatories. Exploiting synergism between remote sensing and underwater gliders is expected to result on a better characterization of the marine environment than using these observational sources individually. This study investigates a methodology to estimate the three dimensional distribution of geostrophic currents resulting from merging satellite altimetry and in situ samples gathered by a fleet of Slocum gliders. Specifically, the approach computes the volumetric or three dimensional distribution of absolute dynamic height (ADH) that minimizes the total energy of the system while being close to in situ observations and matching the absolute dynamic topography (ADT) observed from satellite at the sea surface. A three dimensional finite element technique is employed to solve the minimization problem. The methodology is validated making use of the dataset collected during the field experiment called Rapid Environmental Picture-2010 (REP-10) carried out by the NATO Undersea Research Center-NURC during August 2010. A marine region off-shore La Spezia (northwest coast of Italy) was sampled by a fleet of three coastal Slocum gliders. Results indicate that the geostrophic current field estimated from gliders and altimetry significantly improves the estimates obtained using only the data gathered by the glider fleet. 15. Imperfections of the North-Atlantic wind-driven ocean circulation: continental geometry and windstress shape NARCIS (Netherlands) Dijkstra, H.A.; Molemaker, M.J. 1998-01-01 Multiple equilibria of the wind-driven gyres have been found in idealized quasi- geostrophic and shallow water models.In this paper we demonstrate that multiple equilibria persist within a reduced gravity shallow water model under quite realis- tic continental geometry and windstress orcing for 16. Measured and modelled local wind field over a frozen lake in a mountainous area Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Smedman, A.S.; Bergstroem, H.; Hoegstroem, U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology 1996-03-01 The study is a follow-up of a previous paper and concentrates on two very characteristic flow regimes: forced channeling, where the driving geostrophic wind and the lake axis are roughly aligned, and pressure-driven channeling or gap winds, which are characterized by a geostrophic wind direction more or less perpendicular to the lake axis. Both situations produce winds along the main axis of the lake. In the forced channeling case the wind direction varies insignificantly with height and the wind speed increases monotonically with height. The gap wind flow, which can give supergeostrophic speed, is restricted to the lowest 500 m above the lake surface, drops in speed to near zero just above that layer, changing to an across-wind direction higher up. Gap winds are found to require slightly stable stratification for their existence; strong stability forces the flow to go round the mountains rather than over, and neutral conditions give a turbulent wake in the lee of the mountains. The gap wind starts at any occasion as a sudden warm front approaching from either of the two along-lake directions (115 or 295 degrees). It is argued that the relative warmth of the gap wind air is due to air originally flowing at mountain top height across the lake axis being gradually turned and accelerated along the synoptic pressure gradient while descending. The strongly sheared layer at the top of the gap wind region is dynamically highly unstable, giving rise to vertically coherent variations in wind speed and direction which appear to be triggered by gravity waves. When the driving geostrophic wind is high enough, the disturbed region reaches all the way down to the ground surface. Then periods with strong turbulence and low mean wind alternate with pronounced gap winds on typically a 10 minute scale. 11 refs, 18 figs 17. Long-term variabilities of meridional geostrophic volumn transport in North Pacific Ocean Science.gov (United States) Zhou, H.; Yuan, D.; Dewar, W. K. 2016-02-01 The meridional geostrophic volumn transport (MGVT) by the ocean plays a very important role in the climatic water mass and heat balance because of its large heat capacity which enables the oceans to store the large amount of radiation received in the summer and to release it in winter. Better understanding of the role of the oceans in climate variability is essential to assess the likely range of future climate fluctuations. In the last century the North Pacific Ocean experienced considerable climate variability, especially on decadal time scale. Some studies have shown that the North Pacific Ocean is the origin of North Pacific multidecadal variability (Latif and Barnett, 1994; Barnett et al., 1999). These fluctuations were associated with large anomalies in sea level, temperature, storminess and rainfall, the heat transport and other extremes are changing as well. If the MGVT of the ocean is well-determined, it can be used as a test of the validity of numerical, global climate models. In this paper, we investigate the long-term variability of the MGVT in North Pacific ocean based on 55 years long global ocean heat and salt content data (Levitus et al., 2012). Very clear inter-decadal variations can be seen in tropical , subtropical and subpolar regions of North Pacific Ocean. There are very consistent variations between the MGVT anomalies and the inter-decadal pacific oscillation (IPO) index in the tropical gyre with cold phase of IPO corresponding to negative MGVT anomalies and warm phase corresponding to positive MGVT anomalies. The subtropical gyre shows more complex variations, and the subpolar gyre shows a negative MGVT anomaly before late 1970's and a positive anomaly after that time. The geostrophic velocities of North Pacific Ocean show significantly different anomalies during the two IPO cold phases of 1955-1976 and 1999 to present, which suggests a different mechanism of the two cold phases. The long term variations of Sverdrup transport compares well 18. Absolute Geostrophic Velocity Inverted from the Polar Science Center Hydrographic Climatology (PHC3.0) of the Arctic Ocean with the P-Vector Method (NCEI Accession 0156425) Data.gov (United States) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset (called PHC-V) comprises 3D gridded climatological fields of absolute geostrophic velocity of the Arctic Ocean inverted from the Polar science center... 19. Synoptic Monthly Gridded WOD Absolute Geostrophic Velocity (SMG-WOD-V) (January 1945 - December 2014) with the P-Vector Method (NCEI Accession 0146195) Data.gov (United States) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SMG-WOD-V dataset comprises synoptic monthly global gridded fields of absolute geostrophic velocity inverted from the synoptic monthly gridded WOD temperature... 20. A Single Mode Study of a Quasi-Geostrophic Convection-Driven Dynamo Model Science.gov (United States) Plumley, M.; Calkins, M. A.; Julien, K. A.; Tobias, S. 2017-12-01 Planetary magnetic fields are thought to be the product of hydromagnetic dynamo action. For Earth, this process occurs within the convecting, turbulent and rapidly rotating outer core, where the dynamics are characterized by low Rossby, low magnetic Prandtl and high Rayleigh numbers. Progress in studying dynamos has been limited by current computing capabilities and the difficulties in replicating the extreme values that define this setting. Asymptotic models that embrace these extreme parameter values and enforce the dominant balance of geostrophy provide an option for the study of convective flows with actual relevance to geophysics. The quasi-geostrophic dynamo model (QGDM) is a multiscale, fully-nonlinear Cartesian dynamo model that is valid in the asymptotic limit of low Rossby number. We investigate the QGDM using a simplified class of solutions that consist of a single horizontal wavenumber which enforces a horizontal structure on the solutions. This single mode study is used to explore multiscale time stepping techniques and analyze the influence of the magnetic field on convection. 1. Geostrophic tripolar vortices in a two-layer fluid: Linear stability and nonlinear evolution of equilibria Science.gov (United States) Reinaud, J. N.; Sokolovskiy, M. A.; Carton, X. 2017-03-01 We investigate equilibrium solutions for tripolar vortices in a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow. Two of the vortices are like-signed and lie in one layer. An opposite-signed vortex lies in the other layer. The families of equilibria can be spanned by the distance (called separation) between the two like-signed vortices. Two equilibrium configurations are possible when the opposite-signed vortex lies between the two other vortices. In the first configuration (called ordinary roundabout), the opposite signed vortex is equidistant to the two other vortices. In the second configuration (eccentric roundabouts), the distances are unequal. We determine the equilibria numerically and describe their characteristics for various internal deformation radii. The two branches of equilibria can co-exist and intersect for small deformation radii. Then, the eccentric roundabouts are stable while unstable ordinary roundabouts can be found. Indeed, ordinary roundabouts exist at smaller separations than eccentric roundabouts do, thus inducing stronger vortex interactions. However, for larger deformation radii, eccentric roundabouts can also be unstable. Then, the two branches of equilibria do not cross. The branch of eccentric roundabouts only exists for large separations. Near the end of the branch of eccentric roundabouts (at the smallest separation), one of the like-signed vortices exhibits a sharp inner corner where instabilities can be triggered. Finally, we investigate the nonlinear evolution of a few selected cases of tripoles. 2. Subcritical thermal convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model Science.gov (United States) Cardin, P.; Guervilly, C. 2016-12-01 We study non-linear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals (10-2-1). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than 10-6, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of the interaction of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of 10-8. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than 1000, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the non-linear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis (E = 10-6, Pr =10-2). Non-linear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for E = 10-7 and Pr = 10-1. 3. Subcritical convection of liquid metals in a rotating sphere using a quasi-geostrophic model Science.gov (United States) Guervilly, Céline; Cardin, Philippe 2016-12-01 We study nonlinear convection in a rapidly rotating sphere with internal heating for values of the Prandtl number relevant for liquid metals (Pr\\in[10^{-2},10^{-1}]$). We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation, in which variations of the axial vorticity along the rotation axis are neglected, whereas the temperature field is fully three-dimensional. We identify two separate branches of convection close to onset: (i) a well-known weak branch for Ekman numbers greater than$10^{-6}$, which is continuous at the onset (supercritical bifurcation) and consists of thermal Rossby waves, and (ii) a novel strong branch at lower Ekman numbers, which is discontinuous at the onset. The strong branch becomes subcritical for Ekman numbers of the order of$10^{-8}$. On the strong branch, the Reynolds number of the flow is greater than$10^3$, and a strong zonal flow with multiple jets develops, even close to the nonlinear onset of convection. We find that the subcriticality is amplified by decreasing the Prandtl number. The two branches can co-exist for intermediate Ekman numbers, leading to hysteresis ($Ek=10^{-6}$,$Pr=10^{-2}$). Nonlinear oscillations are observed near the onset of convection for$Ek=10^{-7}$and$Pr=10^{-1}. 4. Convergence of Extreme Value Statistics in a Two-Layer Quasi-Geostrophic Atmospheric Model Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Vera Melinda Gálfi 2017-01-01 Full Text Available We search for the signature of universal properties of extreme events, theoretically predicted for Axiom A flows, in a chaotic and high-dimensional dynamical system. We study the convergence of GEV (Generalized Extreme Value and GP (Generalized Pareto shape parameter estimates to the theoretical value, which is expressed in terms of the partial information dimensions of the attractor. We consider a two-layer quasi-geostrophic atmospheric model of the mid-latitudes, adopt two levels of forcing, and analyse the extremes of different types of physical observables (local energy, zonally averaged energy, and globally averaged energy. We find good agreement in the shape parameter estimates with the theory only in the case of more intense forcing, corresponding to a strong chaotic behaviour, for some observables (the local energy at every latitude. Due to the limited (though very large data size and to the presence of serial correlations, it is difficult to obtain robust statistics of extremes in the case of the other observables. In the case of weak forcing, which leads to weaker chaotic conditions with regime behaviour, we find, unsurprisingly, worse agreement with the theory developed for Axiom A flows. 5. Assimilation of time-averaged observations in a quasi-geostrophic atmospheric jet model Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Huntley, Helga S. [University of Washington, Department of Applied Mathematics, Seattle, WA (United States); University of Delaware, School of Marine Science and Policy, Newark, DE (United States); Hakim, Gregory J. [University of Washington, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Seattle, WA (United States) 2010-11-15 The problem of reconstructing past climates from a sparse network of noisy time-averaged observations is considered with a novel ensemble Kalman filter approach. Results for a sparse network of 100 idealized observations for a quasi-geostrophic model of a jet interacting with a mountain reveal that, for a wide range of observation averaging times, analysis errors are reduced by about 50% relative to the control case without assimilation. Results are robust to changes to observational error, the number of observations, and an imperfect model. Specifically, analysis errors are reduced relative to the control case for observations having errors up to three times the climatological variance for a fixed 100-station network, and for networks consisting of ten or more stations when observational errors are fixed at one-third the climatological variance. In the limit of small numbers of observations, station location becomes critically important, motivating an optimally determined network. A network of fifteen optimally determined observations reduces analysis errors by 30% relative to the control, as compared to 50% for a randomly chosen network of 100 observations. (orig.) 6. On derivation and interpretation of Kuo-Eliassen equation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jun-Ichi Yano 2011-05-01 Full Text Available The Kuo–Eliassen equation provides a balance condition for both tropical–cyclone like vortex systems as well as zonally–symmetric meridional circulations. This condition is examined with the former application more in mind. The condition is derived more ped- agogically based on the bounded derivative method. Some physical interpretations as well as basic mathematical remarks on this condition are provided. Analogy with quasi–geostrophic system is also remarked. 7. Seasonal variability and geostrophic circulation in the eastern Mediterranean as revealed through a repeated XBT transect Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) V. Zervakis Full Text Available The evolution of the upper thermocline on a section across the eastern Mediterranean was recorded bi-weekly through a series of XBT transects from Piraeus, Greece to Alexandria, Egypt, extending from October 1999 to October 2000 on board Voluntary Observing Ships in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project. The data acquired provided valuable information on the seasonal variability of the upper ocean thermal structure at three different regions of the eastern Mediterranean: the Myrtoan, Cretan and Levantine Seas. Furthermore, the horizontal distance (~12 miles between successive profiles provides enough spatial resolution to analyze mesoscale features, while the temporal distance between successive expeditions (2–4 weeks allows us to study their evolution. Sub-basin scale features are identified using contemporaneous sea surface temperature satellite images. The cross-transect geostrophic velocity field and corresponding volume fluxes for several sub-basin scale features of the Levantine Sea are estimated by exploiting monthly q / S diagrams from operational runs of the Princeton Ocean Model in use at NCMR. A southwestward transport in the proximity of the southeast tip of Crete was estimated between 1–3 Sv. The transport increases after the winter formation of dense intermediate water in the Cretan Sea strengthens the pressure gradient across the Cretan Straits. The Mersah-Matruh anticyclone was identified as a closed gyre carrying about 2–6 Sv. This feature was stable throughout the stratified period and disappeared from our records in March 2000. Finally, our data reveal the existence of an eastward-flowing coastal current along the North African coast, transporting a minimum of 1–2 Sv. Key words. Oceanography: physical (eddies and mesoscale processes; currents; marginal and semi-closed seas 8. Vortex stability in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model: application to Mediterranean Water eddies Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Carton, Xavier; Ménesguen, Claire; Meunier, Thomas [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, UBO/IFREMER/CNRS/IRD, Brest (France); Sokolovskiy, Mikhail [Institute of Water Problems of the RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aguiar, Ana, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Instituto Dom Luiz, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal) 2014-12-01 The stability of circular vortices to normal mode perturbations is studied in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model. The stratification is fitted on the Gulf of Cadiz where many Mediterranean Water (MW) eddies are generated. Observations of MW eddies are used to determine the parameters of the reference experiment; sensitivity tests are conducted around this basic case. The objective of the study is two-fold: (a) determine the growth rates and nonlinear evolutions of unstable perturbations for different three-dimensional (3D) velocity structures of the vortices, (b) check if the different structure of our idealized vortices, mimicking MW cyclones and anticyclones, can induce different stability properties in a model that conserves parity symmetry, and apply these results to observed MW eddies. The linear stability analysis reveals that, among many 3D distributions of velocity, the observed eddies are close to maximal stability, with instability time scales longer than 100 days (these time scales would be less than 10 days for vertically more sheared eddies). The elliptical deformation is most unstable for realistic eddies (the antisymmetric one dominates for small eddies and the triangular one for large eddies); the antisymmetric mode is stronger for cyclones than for anticyclones. Nonlinear evolutions of eddies with radii of about 30 km, and elliptically perturbed, lead to their re-organization into 3D tripoles; smaller eddies are stable and larger eddies break into 3D dipoles. Horizontally more sheared eddies are more unstable and sustain more asymmetric instabilities. In summary, few differences were found between cyclone and anticyclone stability, except for strong horizontal velocity shears. (paper) 9. Vortex stability in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model: application to Mediterranean Water eddies International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Carton, Xavier; Ménesguen, Claire; Meunier, Thomas; Sokolovskiy, Mikhail; Aguiar, Ana 2014-01-01 The stability of circular vortices to normal mode perturbations is studied in a multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model. The stratification is fitted on the Gulf of Cadiz where many Mediterranean Water (MW) eddies are generated. Observations of MW eddies are used to determine the parameters of the reference experiment; sensitivity tests are conducted around this basic case. The objective of the study is two-fold: (a) determine the growth rates and nonlinear evolutions of unstable perturbations for different three-dimensional (3D) velocity structures of the vortices, (b) check if the different structure of our idealized vortices, mimicking MW cyclones and anticyclones, can induce different stability properties in a model that conserves parity symmetry, and apply these results to observed MW eddies. The linear stability analysis reveals that, among many 3D distributions of velocity, the observed eddies are close to maximal stability, with instability time scales longer than 100 days (these time scales would be less than 10 days for vertically more sheared eddies). The elliptical deformation is most unstable for realistic eddies (the antisymmetric one dominates for small eddies and the triangular one for large eddies); the antisymmetric mode is stronger for cyclones than for anticyclones. Nonlinear evolutions of eddies with radii of about 30 km, and elliptically perturbed, lead to their re-organization into 3D tripoles; smaller eddies are stable and larger eddies break into 3D dipoles. Horizontally more sheared eddies are more unstable and sustain more asymmetric instabilities. In summary, few differences were found between cyclone and anticyclone stability, except for strong horizontal velocity shears. (paper) 10. Generalization of the quasi-geostrophic Eliassen-Palm flux to include eddy forcing of condensation heating Science.gov (United States) Stone, P. H.; Salustri, G. 1984-01-01 A modified Eulerian form of the Eliassen-Palm flux which includes the effect of eddy forcing on condensation heating is defined. With the two-dimensional vector flux in the meridional plane which is a function of the zonal mean eddy fluxes replaced by the modified flux, both the Eliassen-Palm theorem and a modified but more general form of the nonacceleration theorem for quasi-geostrophic motion still hold. Calculations of the divergence of the modified flux and of the eddy forcing of the moisture field are presented. 11. Statistical characterization of roughness uncertainty and impact on wind resource estimation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Kelly, Mark C.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans 2017-01-01 In this work we relate uncertainty in background roughness length (z0) to uncertainty in wind speeds, where the latter are predicted at a wind farm location based on wind statistics observed at a different site. Sensitivity of predicted winds to roughness is derived analytically for the industry...... between mean wind speed and AEP. Following our developments, we provide guidance on approximate roughness uncertainty magnitudes to be expected in industry practice, and we also find that sites with larger background roughness incur relatively larger uncertainties.......-standard European Wind Atlas method, which is based on the geostrophic drag law. We statistically consider roughness and its corresponding uncertainty, in terms of both z0 derived from measured wind speeds as well as that chosen in practice by wind engineers. We show the combined effect of roughness uncertainty... 12. Multiple zonal jets and convective heat transport barriers in a quasi-geostrophic model of planetary cores Science.gov (United States) Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P. 2017-10-01 We study rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection driven by internal heating in a full sphere. We use a numerical model based on the quasi-geostrophic approximation for the velocity field, whereas the temperature field is 3-D. This approximation allows us to perform simulations for Ekman numbers down to 10-8, Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (˜10-1) and Reynolds numbers up to 3 × 104. Persistent zonal flows composed of multiple jets form as a result of the mixing of potential vorticity. For the largest Rayleigh numbers computed, the zonal velocity is larger than the convective velocity despite the presence of boundary friction. The convective structures and the zonal jets widen when the thermal forcing increases. Prograde and retrograde zonal jets are dynamically different: in the prograde jets (which correspond to weak potential vorticity gradients) the convection transports heat efficiently and the mean temperature tends to be homogenized; by contrast, in the cores of the retrograde jets (which correspond to steep gradients of potential vorticity) the dynamics is dominated by the propagation of Rossby waves, resulting in the formation of steep mean temperature gradients and the dominance of conduction in the heat transfer process. Consequently, in quasi-geostrophic systems, the width of the retrograde zonal jets controls the efficiency of the heat transfer. 13. Large-Scale Flows and Magnetic Fields Produced by Rotating Convection in a Quasi-Geostrophic Model of Planetary Cores Science.gov (United States) Guervilly, C.; Cardin, P. 2017-12-01 Convection is the main heat transport process in the liquid cores of planets. The convective flows are thought to be turbulent and constrained by rotation (corresponding to high Reynolds numbers Re and low Rossby numbers Ro). Under these conditions, and in the absence of magnetic fields, the convective flows can produce coherent Reynolds stresses that drive persistent large-scale zonal flows. The formation of large-scale flows has crucial implications for the thermal evolution of planets and the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. In this work, we explore this problem with numerical simulations using a quasi-geostrophic approximation to model convective and zonal flows at Re 104 and Ro 10-4 for Prandtl numbers relevant for liquid metals (Pr 0.1). The formation of intense multiple zonal jets strongly affects the convective heat transport, leading to the formation of a mean temperature staircase. We also study the generation of magnetic fields by the quasi-geostrophic flows at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. 14. Wind farm density and harvested power in very large wind farms: A low-order model Science.gov (United States) Cortina, G.; Sharma, V.; Calaf, M. 2017-07-01 In this work we create new understanding of wind turbine wakes recovery process as a function of wind farm density using large-eddy simulations of an atmospheric boundary layer diurnal cycle. Simulations are forced with a constant geostrophic wind and a time varying surface temperature extracted from a selected period of the Cooperative Atmospheric Surface Exchange Study field experiment. Wind turbines are represented using the actuator disk model with rotation and yaw alignment. A control volume analysis around each turbine has been used to evaluate wind turbine wake recovery and corresponding harvested power. Results confirm the existence of two dominant recovery mechanisms, advection and flux of mean kinetic energy, which are modulated by the background thermal stratification. For the low-density arrangements advection dominates, while for the highly loaded wind farms the mean kinetic energy recovers through fluxes of mean kinetic energy. For those cases in between, a smooth balance of both mechanisms exists. From the results, a low-order model for the wind farms' harvested power as a function of thermal stratification and wind farm density has been developed, which has the potential to be used as an order-of-magnitude assessment tool. 15. Modeling wind adjustment factor and midflame wind speed for Rothermel's surface fire spread model Science.gov (United States) Patricia L. Andrews 2012-01-01 Rothermel's surface fire spread model was developed to use a value for the wind speed that affects surface fire, called midflame wind speed. Models have been developed to adjust 20-ft wind speed to midflame wind speed for sheltered and unsheltered surface fuel. In this report, Wind Adjustment Factor (WAF) model equations are given, and the BehavePlus fire modeling... 16. Surface and subsurface geostrophic current variability in the Indian Ocean from altimetry Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India) Cadden, D.D.H.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Chambers, D.P.; Murty, V.S.N. the World Ocean Atlas 2005. The results of this method were validated with currents measured using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers moored along the equator at 77 degrees E, 83 degrees E, and 93 degrees E. The measured and computed currents compared... 17. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia–gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum Science.gov (United States) Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver 2014-01-01 Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth’s rotation and the atmosphere’s stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia–gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia–gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia–gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. PMID:25404349 18. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum. Science.gov (United States) Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver 2014-12-02 Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km. 19. Wind energy International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Anon. 1992-01-01 This chapter discusses the role wind energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of wind energy use, the wind energy resource, wind energy technology including intermediate-size and small wind turbines and intermittency of wind power, public attitudes toward wind power, and environmental, siting and land use issues 20. Closure of multi-fluid and kinetic equations for cyclotron-resonant interactions of solar wind ions with Alfvén waves Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) E. Marsch 1998-01-01 Full Text Available Based on quasilinear theory, a closure scheme for anisotropic multi-component fluid equations is developed for the wave-particle interactions of ions with electromagnetic Alfvén and ion-cyclotron waves propagating along the mean magnetic field. Acceleration and heating rates are calculated. They may be used in the multi-fluid momentum and energy equations as anomalous transport terms. The corresponding evolution equation for the average wave spectrum is established, and the effective growth/damping rate for the spectrum is calculated. Given a simple power-law spectrum, an anomalous collision frequency can be derived which depends on the slope and average intensity of the spectrum, and on the gyrofrequency and the differential motion (with respect to the wave frame of the actual ion species considered. The wave-particle interaction terms attain simple forms resembling the ones for collisional friction and temperature anisotropy relaxation (due to pitch angle scattering with collision rates that are proportional to the gyrofrequency but diminished substantially by the relative wave energy or the fluctuation level with respect the background field. In addition, a set of quasilinear diffusion equations is derived for the reduced (with respect to the perpendicular velocity component velocity distribution functions (VDFs, as they occur in the wave dispersion equation and the related dielectric function for parallel propagation. These reduced VDFs allow one to describe adequately the most prominent observed features, such as an ion beam and temperature anisotropy, in association with the resonant interactions of the particles with the waves on a kinetic level, yet have the advantage of being only dependent upon the parallel velocity component. 1. Use of recent geoid models to estimate mean dynamic topography and geostrophic currents in South Atlantic and Brazil Malvinas confluence Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Alexandre Bernardino Lopes 2012-03-01 Full Text Available The use of geoid models to estimate the Mean Dynamic Topography was stimulated with the launching of the GRACE satellite system, since its models present unprecedented precision and space-time resolution. In the present study, besides the DNSC08 mean sea level model, the following geoid models were used with the objective of computing the MDTs: EGM96, EIGEN-5C and EGM2008. In the method adopted, geostrophic currents for the South Atlantic were computed based on the MDTs. In this study it was found that the degree and order of the geoid models affect the determination of TDM and currents directly. The presence of noise in the MDT requires the use of efficient filtering techniques, such as the filter based on Singular Spectrum Analysis, which presents significant advantages in relation to conventional filters. Geostrophic currents resulting from geoid models were compared with the HYCOM hydrodynamic numerical model. In conclusion, results show that MDTs and respective geostrophic currents calculated with EIGEN-5C and EGM2008 models are similar to the results of the numerical model, especially regarding the main large scale features such as boundary currents and the retroflection at the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence.A utilização de modelos geoidais na determinação da Topografia Dinâmica Média foi impulsionada com o lançamento dos satélites do sistema GRACE, já que seus modelos apresentam precisão e resolução espacial e temporal sem precedentes. No presente trabalho, além do modelo de nível médio do mar DNSC08, foram utilizados os seguintes modelos geoidais com o objetivo de calcular as TDMs: EGM96, EIGEN-5C e EGM2008. No método adotado, foram calculadas as respectivas correntes geostróficas para o Atlântico Sul a partir das TDMs. O grau e ordem dos modelos geoidais influenciam diretamente na determinação da TDM e correntes. Neste trabalho verificou-se que presença de ruídos da TDM requer a utilização de técnicas de filtragem 2. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hand, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maples, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schwabe, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States) 2012-04-01 This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind. 3. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A. 2012-04-01 This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind. 4. Wind: new wind markets International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Cameron, A. 2005-01-01 The June 2005 edition of 'Wind Force 12' suggests that wind could generate 12% of global electricity requirements by 2020. But what moves a potential market into an emerging one? Geographical factors include a good wind resource, plenty of open space and the ability to get the generated electricity to end-users. A country's political framework is equally important, with fixed price systems, renewable quota systems and political will all playing a part. Some potential wind markets around the world are thought to have the conditions necessary to become key players in the wind industry. The emerging markets in countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan and the Philippines are highlighted as examples 5. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose 2007-01-01 This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand......, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model... 6. Late Pleistocene sequence architecture on the geostrophic current-dominated southwest margin of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea Science.gov (United States) Choi, Dong-Lim; Shin, Dong-Hyeok; Kum, Byung-Cheol; Jang, Seok; Cho, Jin-Hyung; Jou, Hyeong-Tae; Jang, Nam-Do 2018-06-01 High-resolution multichannel seismic data were collected to identify depositional sequences on the southwestern shelf of the Ulleung Basin, where a unidirectional ocean current is dominant at water depths exceeding 130 m. Four aggradational stratigraphic sequences with a 100,000-year cycle were recognized since marine isotope stage (MIS) 10. These sequences consist only of lowstand systems tracts (LSTs) and falling-stage systems tracts (FSSTs). Prograding wedge-shaped deposits are present in the LSTs near the shelf break. Oblique progradational clinoforms of forced regressive deposits are present in the FSSTs on the outer continental shelf. Each FSST has non-uniform forced regressional stratal geometries, reflecting that the origins of sediments in each depositional sequence changed when sea level was falling. Slump deposits are characteristically developed in the upper layer of the FSSTs, and this was used as evidence to distinguish the sequence boundaries. The subsidence rates around the shelf break reached as much as 0.6 mm/year since MIS 10, which contributed to the well-preserved depositional sequence. During the Quaternary sea-level change, the water depth in the Korea Strait declined and the intensity of the Tsushima Current flowing near the bottom of the inner continental shelf increased. This resulted in greater erosion of sediments that were delivered to the outer continental shelf, which was the main cause of sediment deposition on the deep, low-angled outer shelf. Therefore, a depositional sequence formation model that consists of only FSSTs and LSTs, excluding highstand systems tracts (HSTs) and transgressive systems tracts (TSTs), best explains the depositional sequence beneath this shelf margin dominated by a geostrophic current. 7. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Ghosh, K. 2006-01-01 The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs 8. One semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Ghosh, K. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kanpur (India). Aerospace Engineering Dept. 2006-07-01 The recent increase in energy consumption in India is resulting in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. Attempts to harness new renewable energy sources such as wind power is creating the need for trained manpower in aerospace engineering and mechanical engineering. The course outline for a one semester course in wind energy for advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students at the Indian Institute of Technology was presented in this paper. A history of wind energy was also presented along with the approaching global environmental crisis. International efforts and conventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions were discussed. India's geography and relationship to wind resources were presented in terms of its latitude and geostrophic winds. The course outline also includes a section on measuring instruments (anemometers) and organization of wind data using Weibull distribution as well as the impacts of summer and monsoon winds. The aerodynamics of wind turbines including airfoils, airscrew theory, and its application to wind turbines were discussed. Rural and remote area usage of wind turbines as well as the structural design and construction of wind turbine blades using composite materials are also examined in the course. Last, the course presents a video cassette and a 16 mm film on wind energy and advises students that they are exposed to laboratory and field practices and encouraged to do practical projects. The course contains a discussion of policy issues such as reaching the common people, and industry-academia interaction. 8 refs., 10 figs. 9. Wind Energy International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Rodriguez D, J.M. 1998-01-01 The general theory of the wind energy conversion systems is presented. The availability of the wind resource in Colombia and the ranges of the speed of the wind in those which is possible economically to use the wind turbines are described. It is continued with a description of the principal technological characteristics of the wind turbines and are split into wind power and wind-powered pumps; and its use in large quantities grouped in wind farms or in autonomous systems. Finally, its costs and its environmental impact are presented 10. Stellar wind theory International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Summers, D. 1980-01-01 The theory of stellar winds as given by the equations of classical fluid dynamics is considered. The equations of momentum and energy describing a steady, spherically symmetric, heat-conducting, viscous stellar wind are cast in a dimensionless form which involves a thermal conduction parameter E and a viscosity parameter γ. An asymptotic analysis is carried out, for fixed γ, in the cases E→O and E→infinity (corresponding to small and large thermal conductivity, respectively), and it is found that it is possible to construct critical solutions for the wind velocity and temperature over the entire flow. The E→O solution represents a wind which emanates from the star at low, subsonic speeds, accelerates through a sonic point, and then approaches a constant asymptotic speed, with its temperature varying as r/sup -4/3/ at large distances r from the star; the E→infinity solution represents a wind which, after reaching an approximately constant speed, with temperature varying as r/sup -2/7/, decelerates through a diffuse shock and approaches a finite pressure at infinity. A categorization is made of all critical stellar wind solutions for given values of γ and E, and actual numerical examples are given. Numerical solutions are obtained by integrating upstream 'from infinity' from initial values of the flow parameters given by appropriate asymptotic expansions. The role of viscosity in stellar wind theory is discussed, viscous and inviscid stellar wind solutions are compared, and it is suggested that with certain limitations, the theory presented may be useful in analyzing winds from solar-type stars 11. Influence of the synoptic circulation on the local wind field in a coastal area of the Tyrrhenian Sea International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Mastrantonio, G; Petenko, I; Viola, A; Argentini, S; Coniglio, L; Monti, P; Leuzzi, G 2008-01-01 In this paper the statistical analysis of the wind field measured by a Doppler sodar is used to characterize the local circulation at the Tyrrhenian sea coastal site of the Pratica di Mare airfield. Daily behaviour of the wind direction and intensity, as a function of the season, is highlighted and the existence of two nocturnal alternative components of the local circulation is evidenced. Rawinsonde data were used to determine geostrophic wind values. The comparison between low level and geostrophic wind directions allowed to establish the influence of the synoptic scale forcing in determining both which of the two nocturnal currents can be observed at the site and how their directions evolve during the day. Numerical simulations carried out by using the Colorado State University Mesoscale Model (CSUMM) confirm the statistical analysis results and allow to depict the low level wind field patterns in the area. The use of data from ECMWF analysis is proposed in cases in which rawinsonde data are not available to enquire on the synoptic scale forcing 12. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) David Jenn 2012-01-01 Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed. 13. Dynamic modeling and simulation of wind turbines International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Ghafari Seadat, M.H.; Kheradmand Keysami, M.; Lari, H.R. 2002-01-01 Using wind energy for generating electricity in wind turbines is a good way for using renewable energies. It can also help to protect the environment. The main objective of this paper is dynamic modeling by energy method and simulation of a wind turbine aided by computer. In this paper, the equations of motion are extracted for simulating the system of wind turbine and then the behavior of the system become obvious by solving the equations. The turbine is considered with three blade rotor in wind direction, induced generator that is connected to the network and constant revolution for simulation of wind turbine. Every part of the wind turbine should be simulated for simulation of wind turbine. The main parts are blades, gearbox, shafts and generator 14. Study of wind forces on low-rise hip-roof building African Journals Online (AJOL) DR OKE to predict the wind loads and the flow patterns around the hip-roof building. .... various wind angle attack on the roof using CFD simulation. .... SIMPLE algorithm substitutes the flux correction equations into the discrete continuity equation to ... 15. Modelling the Stem Curve of a Palm in a Strong Wind DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Philipsen, Claus; Markvorsen, Steen; Kliem, Wolfhard 1996-01-01 Nonlinear differential equations governing the stem curve of a wind-loaded palm are derived and solved numerically.......Nonlinear differential equations governing the stem curve of a wind-loaded palm are derived and solved numerically.... 16. Aeroservoelasticity of wind turbines Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Skovmose Kallesoee, B. 2007-12-14 This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand and address. The main contribution of this thesis is the development of an aeroelastic blade model which on the one hand includes the important effects of steady state blade deformation, gravity and pitch action, and on the other it is transparent, suitable for analytical analysis and parameter studies, and furthermore linear and therefore suitable for control design. The development of the primary aeroelastic blade model is divided into four steps: 1) Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) of structural blade motion are derived together with equations of pitch action and rotor speed; the individual terms in these equations are discussed and given physical interpretations; 2) Steady state blade deformation and induced velocities are computed by combining the PDEs with a steady state aerodynamic model; 3) Aeroelastic modes of motion are computed by combining the linearized PDEs with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model; this model is used to analyze how blade deformation effects the modes of motion; and 4) the linear aeroelastic blade model is derived by a modal expansion of the linearized PDEs combined with a linear unsteady aerodynamic model. The aeroelastic blade model has many similarities to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model is used to develop a state estimator for estimating the wind speed and wind shear, and to suggest a load reducing controller. The state estimator estimates the wind shear very 17. Wind energy International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Kotevski, Darko 2003-01-01 Wind is not only free, it is inexhaustible. Wind energy has come a very long way since the prototypes of just 20 years ago. today's wind turbines are state-of-the-art technology - modular and quick to install anywhere where there is sufficient wind potential to provide secure, centralised or distributed generation. It is a global phenomenon, the world's fastest growing energy sector, a clean and effective modern technology that completely avoids pollution and thus reducing the 'green house' effect. (Original) 18. Statistical characterization of roughness uncertainty and impact on wind resource estimation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) M. Kelly 2017-04-01 Full Text Available In this work we relate uncertainty in background roughness length (z0 to uncertainty in wind speeds, where the latter are predicted at a wind farm location based on wind statistics observed at a different site. Sensitivity of predicted winds to roughness is derived analytically for the industry-standard European Wind Atlas method, which is based on the geostrophic drag law. We statistically consider roughness and its corresponding uncertainty, in terms of both z0 derived from measured wind speeds as well as that chosen in practice by wind engineers. We show the combined effect of roughness uncertainty arising from differing wind-observation and turbine-prediction sites; this is done for the case of roughness bias as well as for the general case. For estimation of uncertainty in annual energy production (AEP, we also develop a generalized analytical turbine power curve, from which we derive a relation between mean wind speed and AEP. Following our developments, we provide guidance on approximate roughness uncertainty magnitudes to be expected in industry practice, and we also find that sites with larger background roughness incur relatively larger uncertainties. 19. Wind Structure and Wind Loading DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Brorsen, Michael The purpose of this note is to provide a short description of wind, i.e. of the flow in the atmosphere of the Earth and the loading caused by wind on structures. The description comprises: causes to the generation of windhe interaction between wind and the surface of the Earthhe stochastic nature... 20. Integral equations CERN Document Server Moiseiwitsch, B L 2005-01-01 Two distinct but related approaches hold the solutions to many mathematical problems--the forms of expression known as differential and integral equations. The method employed by the integral equation approach specifically includes the boundary conditions, which confers a valuable advantage. In addition, the integral equation approach leads naturally to the solution of the problem--under suitable conditions--in the form of an infinite series.Geared toward upper-level undergraduate students, this text focuses chiefly upon linear integral equations. It begins with a straightforward account, acco 1. Wind power International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Gipe, P. 2007-01-01 This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models 2. Differential equations CERN Document Server Tricomi, FG 2013-01-01 Based on his extensive experience as an educator, F. G. Tricomi wrote this practical and concise teaching text to offer a clear idea of the problems and methods of the theory of differential equations. The treatment is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and addresses only questions that can be resolved with rigor and simplicity.Starting with a consideration of the existence and uniqueness theorem, the text advances to the behavior of the characteristics of a first-order equation, boundary problems for second-order linear equations, asymptotic methods, and diff 3. Differential equations CERN Document Server Barbu, Viorel 2016-01-01 This textbook is a comprehensive treatment of ordinary differential equations, concisely presenting basic and essential results in a rigorous manner. Including various examples from physics, mechanics, natural sciences, engineering and automatic theory, Differential Equations is a bridge between the abstract theory of differential equations and applied systems theory. Particular attention is given to the existence and uniqueness of the Cauchy problem, linear differential systems, stability theory and applications to first-order partial differential equations. Upper undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics and systems theory with a background in advanced calculus will find this book particularly useful. Supplementary topics are covered in an appendix enabling the book to be completely self-contained. 4. Wind energy. Science.gov (United States) Leithead, W E 2007-04-15 From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented. 5. Modeling and implementation of wind shear data Science.gov (United States) Frost, Walter 1987-01-01 The problems of implementing the JAWS wind shear data are discussed. The data sets are described from the view of utilizing them in an aircraft performance computer program. Then, some of the problems of nonstandard procedures are described in terms of programming the equations of aircraft motion when the effects of temporal and spatially variable winds are included. Finally, some of the computed effects of the various wind shear terms are shown. 6. WindPACT Reference Wind Turbines Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rinker, Jennifer [Former National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) employee 2018-04-02 To fully understand how loads and turbine cost scale with turbine size, it is necessary to have identical turbine models that have been scaled to different rated powers. The report presents the WindPACT baseline models, which are a series of four baseline models that were designed to facilitate investigations into the scalings of loads and turbine cost with size. The models have four different rated powers (750 kW, 1.5 MW, 3.0 MW, and 5.0 MW), and each model was designed to its specified rated power using the same design methodology. The models were originally implemented in FAST_AD, the predecessor to NREL's open-source wind turbine simulator FAST, but have yet to be implemented in FAST. This report contains the specifications for all four WindPACT baseline models - including structural, aerodynamic, and control specifications - along with the inherent assumptions and equations that were used to calculate the model parameters. It is hoped that these baseline models will serve as extremely useful resources for investigations into the scalings of costs, loads, or optimization routines. 7. Extraction of wind and temperature information from hybrid 4D-Var assimilation of stratospheric ozone using NAVGEM Science.gov (United States) Allen, Douglas R.; Hoppel, Karl W.; Kuhl, David D. 2018-03-01 Extraction of wind and temperature information from stratospheric ozone assimilation is examined within the context of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) hybrid 4-D variational assimilation (4D-Var) data assimilation (DA) system. Ozone can improve the wind and temperature through two different DA mechanisms: (1) through the flow-of-the-day ensemble background error covariance that is blended together with the static background error covariance and (2) via the ozone continuity equation in the tangent linear model and adjoint used for minimizing the cost function. All experiments assimilate actual conventional data in order to maintain a similar realistic troposphere. In the stratosphere, the experiments assimilate simulated ozone and/or radiance observations in various combinations. The simulated observations are constructed for a case study based on a 16-day cycling truth experiment (TE), which is an analysis with no stratospheric observations. The impact of ozone on the analysis is evaluated by comparing the experiments to the TE for the last 6 days, allowing for a 10-day spin-up. Ozone assimilation benefits the wind and temperature when data are of sufficient quality and frequency. For example, assimilation of perfect (no applied error) global hourly ozone data constrains the stratospheric wind and temperature to within ˜ 2 m s-1 and ˜ 1 K. This demonstrates that there is dynamical information in the ozone distribution that can potentially be used to improve the stratosphere. This is particularly important for the tropics, where radiance observations have difficulty constraining wind due to breakdown of geostrophic balance. Global ozone assimilation provides the largest benefit when the hybrid blending coefficient is an intermediate value (0.5 was used in this study), rather than 0.0 (no ensemble background error covariance) or 1.0 (no static background error covariance), which is consistent with other hybrid DA studies. When perfect global ozone is 8. Extraction of wind and temperature information from hybrid 4D-Var assimilation of stratospheric ozone using NAVGEM Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) D. R. Allen 2018-03-01 Full Text Available Extraction of wind and temperature information from stratospheric ozone assimilation is examined within the context of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM hybrid 4-D variational assimilation (4D-Var data assimilation (DA system. Ozone can improve the wind and temperature through two different DA mechanisms: (1 through the flow-of-the-day ensemble background error covariance that is blended together with the static background error covariance and (2 via the ozone continuity equation in the tangent linear model and adjoint used for minimizing the cost function. All experiments assimilate actual conventional data in order to maintain a similar realistic troposphere. In the stratosphere, the experiments assimilate simulated ozone and/or radiance observations in various combinations. The simulated observations are constructed for a case study based on a 16-day cycling truth experiment (TE, which is an analysis with no stratospheric observations. The impact of ozone on the analysis is evaluated by comparing the experiments to the TE for the last 6 days, allowing for a 10-day spin-up. Ozone assimilation benefits the wind and temperature when data are of sufficient quality and frequency. For example, assimilation of perfect (no applied error global hourly ozone data constrains the stratospheric wind and temperature to within ∼ 2 m s−1 and ∼ 1 K. This demonstrates that there is dynamical information in the ozone distribution that can potentially be used to improve the stratosphere. This is particularly important for the tropics, where radiance observations have difficulty constraining wind due to breakdown of geostrophic balance. Global ozone assimilation provides the largest benefit when the hybrid blending coefficient is an intermediate value (0.5 was used in this study, rather than 0.0 (no ensemble background error covariance or 1.0 (no static background error covariance, which is consistent with other hybrid DA studies. When 9. On the Effect of Offshore Wind Parks on Ocean Dynamics Science.gov (United States) Ludewig, E.; Pohlmann, T. 2012-12-01 being hundred times bigger than the wind park itself. The emerged vertical structure is generated due to a newly created geostrophic balance resulting in a redistribution of the ocean mass field. A number of additional upwelling and downwelling cells around the wind park support an intensified vertical dispersion through all layers and incline the thermocline which also influences the lower levels. The disturbances of mass show a dipole structure across the main wind direction with a maximum change in thermocline depth of some meters close to the OWP. Diffusion, mostly driven by direct wind induced surface shear is also modified by the wind turbines and supports a further modification of the vertical patterns. Considering that wind turbines operate only in a special window of wind speed, i.e. wind turbines will stop in case of too weak or too strong wind speeds as well as in case of technical issues, the averaged dimension and intensity of occurring vertical cells depend on the number of rotors and expected wind speeds. Finally we will focus on scenario runs for the North Sea under fully realistic conditions to estimate possible changes in ocean dynamics due to OWPs in future and these results will be further used for process analyzes of the ecosystem. If we assume a continuous operation of North Sea's OWPs in future we expect a fundamental constant change in ocean dynamics and moreover in the ecosystem in its vicinity. 10. Grid Integration of Offshore Wind | Wind | NREL Science.gov (United States) Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Grid Integration of Offshore Wind Much can be learned from the existing land-based integration research for handling the variability and uncertainty of the wind resource Arklow Bank offshore wind park consists of seven GE Wind 3.6-MW wind turbines. Integration and 11. Satellite Observations of Imprint of Oceanic Current on Wind Stress by Air-Sea Coupling. Science.gov (United States) Renault, Lionel; McWilliams, James C; Masson, Sebastien 2017-12-18 Mesoscale eddies are present everywhere in the ocean and partly determine the mean state of the circulation and ecosystem. The current feedback on the surface wind stress modulates the air-sea transfer of momentum by providing a sink of mesoscale eddy energy as an atmospheric source. Using nine years of satellite measurements of surface stress and geostrophic currents over the global ocean, we confirm that the current-induced surface stress curl is linearly related to the current vorticity. The resulting coupling coefficient between current and surface stress (s τ [N s m -3 ]) is heterogeneous and can be roughly expressed as a linear function of the mean surface wind. s τ expresses the sink of eddy energy induced by the current feedback. This has important implications for air-sea interaction and implies that oceanic mean and mesoscale circulations and their effects on surface-layer ventilation and carbon uptake are better represented in oceanic models that include this feedback. 12. Wind Energy Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Beurskens, H.J.M. [SET Analysis, Kievitlaan 26, 1742 AD Schagen (Netherlands); Brand, A.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Unit Wind Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands) 2013-02-15 Over the years, wind energy has become a major source of renewable energy worldwide. The present chapter addresses the wind resource, which is available for exploitation for large-scale electricity production, and its specific physical properties. Furthermore, the technical options available to convert the energy of the air flow into mechanical energy and electricity are described. Specific problems of large-scale integration of wind energy into the grid as well as the present and future market developments are described in this chapter. Finally, environmental aspects are discussed briefly. 13. Multi-decadal Variability of the Wind Power Output Science.gov (United States) Kirchner Bossi, Nicolas; García-Herrera, Ricardo; Prieto, Luis; Trigo, Ricardo M. 2014-05-01 The knowledge of the long-term wind power variability is essential to provide a realistic outlook on the power output during the lifetime of a planned wind power project. In this work, the Power Output (Po) of a market wind turbine is simulated with a daily resolution for the period 1871-2009 at two different locations in Spain, one at the Central Iberian Plateau and another at the Gibraltar Strait Area. This is attained through a statistical downscaling of the daily wind conditions. It implements a Greedy Algorithm as classificator of a geostrophic-based wind predictor, which is derived by considering the SLP daily field from the 56 ensemble members of the longest homogeneous reanalysis available (20CR, 1871-2009). For calibration and validation purposes we use 10 years of wind observations (the predictand) at both sites. As a result, a series of 139 annual wind speed Probability Density Functions (PDF) are obtained, with a good performance in terms of wind speed uncertainty reduction (average daily wind speed MAE=1.48 m/s). The obtained centennial series allow to investigate the multi-decadal variability of wind power from different points of view. Significant periodicities around the 25-yr frequency band, as well as long-term linear trends are detected at both locations. In addition, a negative correlation is found between annual Po at both locations, evidencing the differences in the dynamical mechanisms ruling them (and possible complementary behavior). Furthermore, the impact that the three leading large-scale circulation patterns over Iberia (NAO, EA and SCAND) exert over wind power output is evaluated. Results show distinct (and non-stationary) couplings to these forcings depending on the geographical position and season or month. Moreover, significant non-stationary correlations are observed with the slow varying Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index for both case studies. Finally, an empirical relationship is explored between the annual Po and the 14. Optimization and Reliability Problems in Structural Design of Wind Turbines DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Sørensen, John Dalsgaard 2007-01-01 are discussed. Limit state equations are presented for fatigue limit states and for ultimate limit states with extreme wind load, and illustrated by bending failure. Illustrative examples are presented, and as a part of the results optimal reliability levels are obtained which corresponds to an annual...... reliability index equal to 3. An example with fatigue failure indicates that the reliability level is almost the same for single wind turbines and for wind turbines in wind farms if the wake effects are modeled equivalently in the design equation and the limit state equation.... 15. Bernoulli's Equation Indian Academy of Sciences (India) regarding nature of forces hold equally for liquids, even though the ... particle. Figure A. A fluid particle is a very small imaginary blob of fluid, here shown sche- matically in .... picture gives important information about the flow field. ... Bernoulli's equation is derived assuming ideal flow, .... weight acting in the flow direction S is. 16. Relativistic equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Gross, F. 1986-01-01 Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs 17. World Wind Data.gov (United States) National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience... 18. Wind power International Nuclear Information System (INIS) 2009-01-01 At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.) 19. Winter Counter-Wind Transport in the Inner Southwestern Yellow Sea Science.gov (United States) Wu, Hui; Gu, Jinghua; Zhu, Ping 2018-01-01 Coastal currents generally flow downshelf with land on the right side (Northern Hemisphere) under the geostrophic balance, and are often strengthened by downwelling-favorable winds. However, the recent mooring observation in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea showed that coastal transport direction can be substantially changed by tidal forcing. In the survey, the tidal-averaged transports at two out of three sites remained northward (i.e., in the upshelf direction) and opposite the downwelling-favorable northerly wind, except during a brief neap tide period. Numerical experiments showed that the incoming Poincaré wave tide from the East China Sea plays a key role in forming this counter-wind transport system. This tidal wave produces a shoreward tidal stress south of 33.5°N in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea, driving an upshelf transport under the Earth's rotation. Counterpropagating tidal waves from the East China Sea and the northern Yellow Sea collide in coastal water in 32.5-34°N, which produce a standing tidal wave and therefore a mean sea-surface setup with alongshore and cross-shelf scales of both >100 km. This sea-surface setup causes an alongshore sea surface gradient, which veers the upshelf transport to the offshore direction under geostrophic balance. The strong tidal current increases the tidal-mean bottom resistance in the SCW, thus reduces the wind-driven current to a magnitude smaller than the tide-induced residual transport velocity. Therefore, upshelf transport persists in the inner southwestern Yellow Sea, and the Changjiang River Estuary becomes a major source area for the inner southwestern Yellow Sea. 20. Wind power Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) 1979-01-01 This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs. 1. Winding around the winding number in topology, geometry, and analysis CERN Document Server Roe, John 2015-01-01 The winding number is one of the most basic invariants in topology. It measures the number of times a moving point P goes around a fixed point Q, provided that P travels on a path that never goes through Q and that the final position of P is the same as its starting position. This simple idea has far-reaching applications. The reader of this book will learn how the winding number can help us show that every polynomial equation has a root (the fundamental theorem of algebra), guarantee a fair division of three objects in space by a single planar cut (the ham sandwich theorem), explain why ever 2. Wind Generators Science.gov (United States) 1989-01-01 When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies. 3. Wind turbine Science.gov (United States) Cheney, Jr., Marvin C. 1982-01-01 A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment. 4. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4... Science.gov (United States) 2013-05-20 ...-005, QF07-55-005, QF07-56-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains... 5. Remote Sensing Wind and Wind Shear System. Science.gov (United States) Contents: Remote sensing of wind shear and the theory and development of acoustic doppler; Wind studies; A comparison of methods for the remote detection of winds in the airport environment; Acoustic doppler system development; System calibration; Airport operational tests. 6. Turbulent wind at the equatorial segment of an operating Darrieus wind turbine blade Science.gov (United States) Connell, J. R.; Morris, V. R. 1989-09-01 Six turbulent wind time series, measured at equally spaced equator-height locations on a circle 3 m outside a 34-m Darrieus rotor, are analyzed to approximate the wind fluctuations experienced by the rotor. The flatwise lower root-bending stress of one blade was concurrently recorded. The wind data are analyzed in three ways: wind components that are radial and tangential to the rotation of a blade were rotationally sampled; induction and wake effects of the rotor were estimated from the six Eulerian time series; and turbulence spectra of both the measured wind and the modeled wind from the PNL theory of rotationally sampled turbulence. The wind and the rotor response are related by computing the spectral response function of the flatwise lower root-bending stress. Two bands of resonant response that surround the first and second flatwise modal frequencies shift with the rotor rotation rate. 7. Differential Equations Compatible with KZ Equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Felder, G.; Markov, Y.; Tarasov, V.; Varchenko, A. 2000-01-01 We define a system of 'dynamical' differential equations compatible with the KZ differential equations. The KZ differential equations are associated to a complex simple Lie algebra g. These are equations on a function of n complex variables z i taking values in the tensor product of n finite dimensional g-modules. The KZ equations depend on the 'dual' variable in the Cartan subalgebra of g. The dynamical differential equations are differential equations with respect to the dual variable. We prove that the standard hypergeometric solutions of the KZ equations also satisfy the dynamical equations. As an application we give a new determinant formula for the coordinates of a basis of hypergeometric solutions 8. Total Organic Carbon Distribution and Bacterial Cycling Across A Geostrophic Front In Mediterranean Sea. Implications For The Western Basin Carbon Cycle Science.gov (United States) Sempere, R.; van Wambeke, F.; Bianchi, M.; Dafner, E.; Lefevre, D.; Bruyant, F.; Prieur, L. We investigated the dynamic of the total organic carbon (TOC) pool and the role it played in the carbon cycle during winter 1997-1998 in the Almeria-Oran jet-front (AOF) system resulting from the spreading of Atlantic surface water through the Gibraltar Strait in the Alboran Sea (Southwestern Mediterranean Sea). We determined TOC by using high temperature combustion technique (HTC) and bacterial produc- tion (BP; via [3H] leucine incorporation) during two legs in the frontal area. We also estimated labile TOC (l-TOC) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) by performing TOC biodegradation experiments on board during the cruise whereas water column semi-labile (sl-TOC), and refractory-TOC were determined from TOC profile exami- nation. These results are discussed in relation with current velocity measured by using accoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP). Lowest TOC stocks (6330-6853 mmol C m-2) over 0-100 m were measured in the northern side of the geostrophic Jet which is also the highest dynamic area (horizontal speed of 80 cm s-1 in the first 100 m di- rected eastward). Our results indicated variable turnover times of sl-TOC across the Jet-Front system, which might be explained by different coupling of primary produc- tion and bacterial production observed in these areas. We also estimated TOC and sl-TOC transports within the Jet core off the Alboran Sea as well as potential CO2 production through bacterial respiration produced from sl-TOC assimilation by het- erotrophic bacteria. 9. South Atlantic Ocean circulation: Simulation experiments with a quasi-geostrophic model and assimilation of TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimeter data Science.gov (United States) Florenchie, P.; Verron, J. 1998-10-01 Simulation experiments of South Atlantic Ocean circulations are conducted with a 1/6°, four-layered, quasi-geostrophic model. By means of a simple nudging data assimilation procedure along satellite tracks, TOPEX/POSEIDON and ERS 1 altimeter measurements are introduced into the model to control the simulation of the basin-scale circulation for the period from October 1992 to September 1994. The model circulation appears to be strongly influenced by the introduction of altimeter data, offering a consistent picture of South Atlantic Ocean circulations. Comparisons with observations show that the assimilating model successfully simulates the kinematic behavior of a large number of surface circulation components. The assimilation procedure enables us to produce schematic diagrams of South Atlantic circulation in which patterns ranging from basin-scale currents to mesoscale eddies are portrayed in a realistic way, with respect to their complexity. The major features of the South Atlantic circulation are described and analyzed, with special emphasis on the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence region, the Subtropical Gyre with the formation of frontal structures, and the Agulhas Retroflection. The Agulhas eddy-shedding process has been studied extensively. Fourteen eddies appear to be shed during the 2-year experiment. Because of their strong surface topographic signature, Agulhas eddies have been tracked continuously during the assimilation experiment as they cross the South Atlantic basin westward. Other effects of the assimilation procedure are shown, such as the intensification of the Subtropical Gyre, the appearance of a strong seasonal cycle in the Brazil Current transport, and the increase of the mean Brazil Current transport. This last result, combined with the westward oriention of the Agulhas eddies' trajectories, leads to a southward transport of mean eddy kinetic energy across 30°S. 10. Wind energy International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Portilla S, L.A. 1995-01-01 The wind energy or eolic energy is a consequence of solar energy, the one which is absorbed by the atmosphere and is transformed into energy of movement of large bulks of air. In this process the atmosphere acts as the filter to the solar radiation and demotes the ultraviolet beams that result fatal to life in the Earth. The ionosphere is the most external cap and this is ionized by means of absorption process of ultraviolet radiation arising to the Sun. The atmosphere also acts as a trap to the infrared radiation, it that results from the continual process of energetic degradation. In this way, the interaction between Earth - Atmospheres, is behaved as a great greenhouse, maintaining the constant temperatures, including in the dark nights. Processes as the natural convection (that occur by the thermodynamic phenomenon), equatorial calmness, trade winds and against trade winds and global distribution of the air currents are described. The other hand, techniques as the transformation of the wind into energy and its parameters also are shown 11. Wind power International Nuclear Information System (INIS) 2006-06-01 This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.) 12. Pulsar Magnetohydrodynamic Winds Science.gov (United States) Okamoto, Isao; Sigalo, Friday B. 2006-12-01 The acceleration and collimation/decollimation of relativistic magnetocentrifugal winds are discussed concerning a cold plasma from a strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron star in a steady axisymmetric state based on ideal magnetohydrodynamics. There exist unipolar inductors associated with the field line angular frequency, α, at the magnetospheric base surface, SB, with a huge potential difference between the poles and the equator, which drive electric current through the pulsar magnetosphere. Any current line'' must emanate from one terminal of the unipolar inductor and return to the other, converting the Poynting flux to the kinetic flux of the wind at finite distances. In a plausible field structure satisfying the transfield force-balance equation, the fast surface, SF, must exist somewhere between the subasymptotic and asymptotic domains, i.e., at the innermost point along each field line of the asymptotic domain of \\varpaA2/\\varpi2 ≪ 1, where \\varpiA is the Alfvénic axial distance. The criticality condition at SF yields the Lorentz factor, γF = μ\\varepsilon1/3, and the angular momentum flux, β, as the eigenvalues in terms of the field line angular velocity, α, the mass flux per unit flux tube, η, and one of the Bernoulli integrals, μδ, which are assumed to be specifiable as the boundary conditions at SB. The other Bernoulli integral, μɛ, is related to μδ as μɛ = μδ[1-(α2\\varpiA2/c2)]-1, and both μɛ and \\varpiA2 are eigenvalues to be determined by the criticality condition at SF. Ongoing MHD acceleration is possible in the superfast domain. This fact may be helpful in resolving a discrepancy between the wind theory and the Crab-nebula model. It is argued that the anti-collimation theorem'' holds for relativistic winds, based on the curvature of field streamlines determined by the transfield force balance. The theorem'' combines with the current-closure condition'' as a global condition in the wind zone to produce a 13. Wind Energy Japan Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Komatsubara, Kazuyo [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Tokyo (Japan) 2012-06-15 An overview is given of wind energy in Japan: Background; Wind Energy in Japan; Japanese Wind Energy Industry; Government Supports; Useful Links; Major Japanese Companies; Profiles of Major Japanese Companies; Major Wind Energy Projects in Japan. 14. Wind energy systems Science.gov (United States) Stewart, H. J. 1978-01-01 A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed. 15. Cryostatic stability equation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Sydoriak, S.G. 1976-01-01 Although criteria for cryostatic stability of superconducting magnets cooled by pool boiling of liquid helium have been widely discussed the same cannot be said for magnets cooled by natural convection or forced flow boiling in channels. Boiling in narrow channels is shown to be qualitatively superior to pool boiling because the recovery heat flux equals the breakaway flux for narrow channels, whereas the two are markedly different in pool boiling. A second advantage of channel boiling is that it is well understood and calculable; pool peak nucleate boiling heat flux has been adequately measured only for boiling from the top of an immersed heated body. Peak boiling from the bottom is much less and (probably) depends strongly on the extent of the bottom surface. Equations are presented by which one can calculate the critical boiling heat flux for parallel wall vertical channels subject to either natural convection or forced flow boiling, with one or both walls heated. The one-heated-wall forced flow equation is discussed with regard to design of a spiral wound solenoid (pancake magnet) having a slippery insulating tape between the windings 16. Wind effect in turbulence parametrization Science.gov (United States) Colombini, M.; Stocchino, A. 2005-09-01 The action of wind blowing over a closed basin ultimately results in a steady shear-induced circulation pattern and in a leeward rising of the free surface—and a corresponding windward lowering—known as wind set-up. If the horizontal dimensions of the basin are large with respect to the average flow depth, the occurrence of local quasi-equilibrium conditions can be expected, i.e. the flow can be assumed to be locally driven only by the wind stress and by the opposing free surface gradient due to set-up. This wind-induced flow configuration shows a strong similarity with turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flow, the one dimensional flow between parallel plates generated by the simultaneous action of a constant pressure gradient and of the shear induced by the relative motion of the plates. A two-equation turbulence closure is then employed to perform a numerical study of turbulent Couette-Poiseuille flows for different values of the ratio of the shear stresses at the two walls. The resulting eddy viscosity vertical distributions are analyzed in order to devise analytical profiles of eddy viscosity that account for the effect of wind. The results of this study, beside allowing for a physical insight on the turbulence process of this class of flows, will allow for a more accurate description of the wind effect to be included in the formulation of quasi-3D and 3D models of lagoon hydrodynamics. 17. Wind Loads on Structures DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook... 18. Jet stream wind power as a renewable energy resource: little power, big impacts Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) L. M. Miller 2011-11-01 Full Text Available Jet streams are regions of sustained high wind speeds in the upper atmosphere and are seen by some as a substantial renewable energy resource. However, jet streams are nearly geostrophic flow, that is, they result from the balance between the pressure gradient and Coriolis force in the near absence of friction. Therefore, jet stream motion is associated with very small generation rates of kinetic energy to maintain the high wind velocities, and it is this generation rate that will ultimately limit the potential use of jet streams as a renewable energy resource. Here we estimate the maximum limit of jet stream wind power by considering extraction of kinetic energy as a term in the free energy balance of kinetic energy that describes the generation, depletion, and extraction of kinetic energy. We use this balance as the basis to quantify the maximum limit of how much kinetic energy can be extracted sustainably from the jet streams of the global atmosphere as well as the potential climatic impacts of its use. We first use a simple thought experiment of geostrophic flow to demonstrate why the high wind velocities of the jet streams are not associated with a high potential for renewable energy generation. We then use an atmospheric general circulation model to estimate that the maximum sustainable extraction from jet streams of the global atmosphere is about 7.5 TW. This estimate is about 200-times less than previous estimates and is due to the fact that the common expression for instantaneous wind power 12 ρv3 merely characterizes the transport of kinetic energy by the flow, but not the generation rate of kinetic energy. We also find that when maximum wind power is extracted from the jet streams, it results in significant 19. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed 2011-01-01 In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January. 20. Stellar winds International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Weymann, R.J. 1978-01-01 It is known that a steady outflow of material at comparable rates of mass loss but vastly different speeds is now known to be ubiquitous phenomenon among both the luminous hot stars and the luminous but cool red giants. The flows are probably massive enough in both cases to give rise to significant effects on stellar evolution and the mass balance between stars and the interstellar medium. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena as well as the methods of observation used are described. In particular, the mass-loss processes in stars other than the sun that also involve a steady flow of matter are considered. The evidence for their existence is described, and then the question of whether the process thought to produce the solar wind is also responsible for producing these stellar winds is explored 1. Wind conditions for wind turbine design Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Maribo Pedersen, B. 1999-04-01 Delegates from Europe and USA attended the meeting and discussed general aspects of wind conditions for wind turbine design. The subjects and the presented papers covered a very broad range of aspects of wind conditions and related influence on the wind turbine. (EHS) 2. Wind and water erosion control on semiarid lands International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Siddoway, F.H. 1980-01-01 Commercial crop production on semiarid lands is difficult because insufficient water is often present to manage the system effectively. Erosion control presents the major management problem. The factors contributing to wind erosion and their interaction have been quantified into a wind erosion equation. The control of wind erosion through agronomic alteration of the various factors is discussed. The quantification and control of water erosion is also discussed with respect to the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Radioisotopes tracers have been used in conjunction with these erosion equations to measure soil losses. (author) 3. Comparative study of the behavior of wind-turbines in a wind farm Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Migoya, Emilio; Crespo, Antonio; Garcia, Javier; Manuel, Fernando; Jimenez, Angel [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos; Moreno, Fermin [Comision Nacional de la Energia, Madrid (Spain); Costa, Alexandre [Energia Eolica, Division de Energias Renovables, CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain) 2007-10-15 The Sotavento wind farm is an experimental wind farm which has different types of wind turbines. It is located in an area whose topography is moderately complex, and where wake effects can be significant. One of the objectives of Sotavento wind farm is to compare the performances of the different machines; particularly regarding power production, maintenance and failures. However, because of wakes and topography, the different machines are not working under identical conditions. Two linearized codes have been used to estimate topography effects: UPMORO and WAsP. For wind directions in which topography is abrupt, the non-linear flow equations have been solved with the commercial code FLUENT, although the results are only qualitatively used. For wake effects, the UPMPARK code has been applied. As a result, the incident velocity over each wind turbine is obtained, and the power production is estimated by means of the power curve of each machine. Experimental measurements give simultaneously the wind characteristics at the measuring stations, the wind velocity, at the nacelle anemometer, and the power production of each wind turbine. These experimental results are employed to validate the numerical predictions. The main objective of this work is to deduce and validate a relationship between the wind characteristics measured in the anemometers and the wind velocity and the power output in each machine. (author) 4. Review of climatic input data for wind load design in accordance with SANS 10160-3 CSIR Research Space (South Africa) Goliger, Adam MW 2017-12-01 Full Text Available factor QWE that provides for the wind engineering procedures, such as the wind speed profile and pressure coefficients. The characteristic wind load is then given by Equation 4, where CoV is the coefficient of variation (σV/µV): QW,k = QWE (µV + 2....59 σV)2 = QWE µVk2(1+ 2.59 CoVV)2 (6) Design wind load The design wind load can be obtained by determining the wind speed according to Equation 4 for an exceedance probability (PF) that corresponds with the appropriate target reliability (β... 5. Extended rate equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Shore, B.W. 1981-01-01 The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence 6. Whispering wind DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Barlieb, Christophe; Richter, Christoph; Greschner, Björn 2009-01-01 Low frequency noise generated by aircraft during pre-takeoff, takeoff, landing and post-landing operations equates to high levels of undesirable ground noise pollution. This phenomenon is gaining heightened popular interest among air transportation specialists and agencies as urban settlements an... 7. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P. 2013-03-01 This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program. 8. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines Science.gov (United States) Leble, V.; Barakos, G. 2016-09-01 The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance. 9. Forced pitch motion of wind turbines International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Leble, V; Barakos, G 2016-01-01 The possibility of a wind turbine entering vortex ring state during pitching oscillations is explored in this paper. The aerodynamic performance of the rotor was computed using the Helicopter Multi-Block flow solver. This code solves the Navier-Stokes equations in integral form using the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation for time-dependent domains with moving boundaries. A 10-MW wind turbine was put to perform yawing and pitching oscillations suggesting the partial vortex ring state during pitching motion. The results also show the strong effect of the frequency and amplitude of oscillations on the wind turbine performance. (paper) 10. Wind Power Meteorology DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed... 11. Nonlinear internal gravity waves and their interaction with the mean wind International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Grimshaw, R. 1975-01-01 The interaction of a wave packet of internal gravity waves with the mean wind is investigated, for the case when there is a region of wind shear and hence a critical level. The principal equations are the Doppler-shifted dispersion relation, the equation for conservation of wave action and the mean momentum equation, in which the mean wind is accelerated by a 'radiation stress' tensor, due to the waves. These equations are integrated numerically to study the behaviour of a wave packet approaching a critical level, where the horizontal phase speed matches the mean wind. The results demonstrate the exchange of energy from the waves to the mean wind in the vicinity of the critical level. The interaction between the waves and the mean wind is also studied in the absence of any initial wind shear. (author) 12. An equatorial temperature and wind anomaly (ETWA) International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Raghavarao, R.; Wharton, L.E.; Mayr, H.G.; Brace, L.H.; Spencer, N.W. 1991-01-01 Data obtained from the WATS (Wind and Temperature Spectrometer) and LP (Langmuir Probe) experiments on board DE-2 (Dynamic Explorer) during high solar activity show evidence of anomalous latitudinal variations in the zonal winds and temperature at low latitudes. The zonal winds exhibit a broad maximum centered around the dip equator, flanked by minima on either side around 25 degrees; while the temperature exhibits a pronounced bowl-shaped minimum at the dip equator which is flanked by maxima. The two minima in the zonal winds and the corresponding maxima in the temperature are nearly collocated with the crests of the well known Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). The maximum in the zonal winds and the minimum in the gas temperature are collected with the trough of the EIA. The differences between the maxima and minima in temperature and zonal winds, on many occasions, are observed to exceed 100 K and 100 m/s, respectively. The characteristics of this new phenomenon have eluded present day empirical models of thermospheric temperature and winds. The connection among these variables can be understood from the ion-neutral drag effect on the motions of the neutrals that in turn affect their energy balance 13. Wind Energy Basics | NREL Science.gov (United States) Wind Energy Basics Wind Energy Basics We have been harnessing the wind's energy for hundreds of grinding grain. Today, the windmill's modern equivalent-a wind turbine can use the wind's energy to most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more aboveground, they can take advantage of the faster and 14. Prospecting for Wind Science.gov (United States) Swapp, Andy; Schreuders, Paul; Reeve, Edward 2011-01-01 Many people use wind to help meet their needs. Over the years, people have been able to harness or capture the wind in many different ways. More recently, people have seen the rebirth of electricity-generating wind turbines. Thus, the age-old argument about technology being either good or bad can also be applied to the wind. The wind can be a… 15. Careers in Wind Energy Science.gov (United States) Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James 2011-01-01 As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and… 16. Reduction of the performance of a noise screen due to screen-induced wind-speed gradients: numerical computations and wind-tunnel experiments NARCIS (Netherlands) Salomons, E.M. 1999-01-01 Downwind sound propagation over a noise screen is investigated by numerical computations and scale model experiments in a wind tunnel. For the computations, the parabolic equation method is used, with a range-dependent sound-speed profile based on wind-speed profiles measured in the wind tunnel and 17. Evaluation of the RWEQ and SWEEP in simulating soil and PM10 loss from a portable wind tunnel Science.gov (United States) Wind erosion threatens sustainable agriculture and environmental quality in the Columbia Plateau region of the US Pacific Northwest. Wind erosion models such as Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) and the Revised Wind Erosion Equation (RWEQ) have been developed as tools for identifying practices t... 18. Wind energy program overview International Nuclear Information System (INIS) 1992-02-01 This overview emphasizes the amount of electric power that could be provided by wind power rather than traditional fossil fuels. New wind power markets, advances in technology, technology transfer, and wind resources are some topics covered in this publication 19. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction OpenAIRE Ju Feng; Wen Zhong Shen 2015-01-01 Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distributions of wind speed and wind direction, which is based on the parameters of sector-wise Weibull distributions and interpolations between direction sectors. It is applied to the wind measurement data a... 20. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture Science.gov (United States) Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka 2017-04-01 We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances. 1. Wind farm project economics : value of wind Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Bills-Everett, T. [Mainstream Renewable Power, Toronto, ON (Canada) 2010-07-01 This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of increasing the value of wind power projects. Appropriate turbine selection and layout is needed to ensure that wind resources are fully developed. Construction costs have a significant impact on project costs. The world turbine price index has not significantly fluctuated since 2006. Operating costs, and the value of wind power projects, are linked with OPEX fluctuations. Wind power projects can significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An increase in wind power capacity will reduce the overall cost of energy produced from wind power. Countries can use wind power as part of a renewable energy portfolio designed to reduce risks related to diminishing petroleum supplies. Wind power will help to ensure a global transition to renewable energy use. tabs., figs. 2. Wind turbines, is it just wind? International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Boiteux, M. 2012-01-01 The author first outlines that wind energy is not only random, but almost absent in extreme situations when it would be needed (for example and notably, very cold weather without wind). He suggests the association of a gas turbine to each wind turbine, so that the gas turbine will replace non operating wind turbines. He notices that wind turbines are not proximity energy as they were said to be, and that profitability in fact requires tens of grouped giant wind turbines. He also outlines the high cost of construction of grids for the connection of these wind turbines. Thus, he states that wind energy is far from being profitable in the present conditions of electricity tariffs in France 3. Mechanics of interrill erosion with wind-driven rain Science.gov (United States) The vector physics of wind-driven rain (WDR) differs from that of wind-free rain, and the interrill soil detachment equations in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model were not originally developed to deal with this phenomenon. This article provides an evaluation of the performance of the... 4. Wind of opportunity International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Jamieson, Peter 1999-01-01 This article traces the move towards the offshore exploitation of wind energy in Europe, and presents information on existing offshore wind energy projects and proposed wind turbine prototypes for offshore operation. The building of the first major offshore wind project at Vindeby, the use of rock socketed monopile foundations for pile drilling and erection of the wind turbines from a mobile jack-up barge, the costs of wind turbines, the fatigue loads on the support structures due to the wind loading, and the offshore wind market in the UK and Europe are discussed. (UK) 5. Advanced structural wind engineering CERN Document Server Kareem, Ahsan 2013-01-01 This book serves as a textbook for advanced courses as it introduces state-of-the-art information and the latest research results on diverse problems in the structural wind engineering field. The topics include wind climates, design wind speed estimation, bluff body aerodynamics and applications, wind-induced building responses, wind, gust factor approach, wind loads on components and cladding, debris impacts, wind loading codes and standards, computational tools and computational fluid dynamics techniques, habitability to building vibrations, damping in buildings, and suppression of wind-induced vibrations. Graduate students and expert engineers will find the book especially interesting and relevant to their research and work. 6. Partial Differential Equations CERN Document Server 1988-01-01 The volume contains a selection of papers presented at the 7th Symposium on differential geometry and differential equations (DD7) held at the Nankai Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin, China, in 1986. Most of the contributions are original research papers on topics including elliptic equations, hyperbolic equations, evolution equations, non-linear equations from differential geometry and mechanics, micro-local analysis. 7. Equating error in observed-score equating NARCIS (Netherlands) van der Linden, Willem J. 2006-01-01 Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of 8. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm Science.gov (United States) Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W. 1986-01-01 In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions 9. Dynamical and geometric aspects of Hamilton-Jacobi and linearized Monge-Ampère equations VIASM 2016 CERN Document Server Tran, Hung 2017-01-01 Consisting of two parts, the first part of this volume is an essentially self-contained exposition of the geometric aspects of local and global regularity theory for the Monge–Ampère and linearized Monge–Ampère equations. As an application, we solve the second boundary value problem of the prescribed affine mean curvature equation, which can be viewed as a coupling of the latter two equations. Of interest in its own right, the linearized Monge–Ampère equation also has deep connections and applications in analysis, fluid mechanics and geometry, including the semi-geostrophic equations in atmospheric flows, the affine maximal surface equation in affine geometry and the problem of finding Kahler metrics of constant scalar curvature in complex geometry. Among other topics, the second part provides a thorough exposition of the large time behavior and discounted approximation of Hamilton–Jacobi equations, which have received much attention in the last two decades, and a new approach to the subject, the n... 10. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær 2002-01-01 A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written... 11. Active control: Wind turbine model Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Bindner, Henrik 1999-07-01 This report is a part of the reporting of the work done in the project Active Control of Wind Turbines. This project aim is to develop a simulation model for design of control systems for turbines with pitch control and to use that model to design controllers. This report describes the model developed for controller design and analysis. Emphasis has been put on establishment of simple models describing the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine in adequate details for controller design. This has been done with extensive use of measurements as the basis for selection of model complexity and model validation as well as parameter estimation. The model includes a simple model of the structure of the turbine including tower and flapwise blade bending, a detailed model of the gear box and induction generator, a linearized aerodynamic model including modelling of induction lag and actuator and sensor models. The models are all formulated as linear differential equations. The models are validated through comparisons with measurements performed on a Vestas WD 34 400 kW wind turbine. It is shown from a control point of view simple linear models can be used to describe the dynamic behavior of a pitch controlled wind turbine. The model and the measurements corresponds well in the relevant frequency range. The developed model is therefore applicable for controller design. (au) EFP-91. 18 ills., 22 refs. 12. Wind engineering in Africa NARCIS (Netherlands) Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J. 2007-01-01 The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in 13. Turbulence in the solar wind CERN Document Server Bruno, Roberto 2016-01-01 This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in... 14. Optimum Operational Parameters for Yawed Wind Turbines Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) David A. Peters 2011-01-01 Full Text Available A set of systematical optimum operational parameters for wind turbines under various wind directions is derived by using combined momentum-energy and blade-element-energy concepts. The derivations are solved numerically by fixing some parameters at practical values. Then, the interactions between the produced power and the influential factors of it are generated in the figures. It is shown that the maximum power produced is strongly affected by the wind direction, the tip speed, the pitch angle of the rotor, and the drag coefficient, which are specifically indicated by figures. It also turns out that the maximum power can take place at two different optimum tip speeds in some cases. The equations derived herein can also be used in the modeling of tethered wind turbines which can keep aloft and deliver energy. 15. Automated Boundary Conditions for Wind Tunnel Simulations Science.gov (United States) Carlson, Jan-Renee 2018-01-01 Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of models tested in wind tunnels require a high level of fidelity and accuracy particularly for the purposes of CFD validation efforts. Considerable effort is required to ensure the proper characterization of both the physical geometry of the wind tunnel and recreating the correct flow conditions inside the wind tunnel. The typical trial-and-error effort used for determining the boundary condition values for a particular tunnel configuration are time and computer resource intensive. This paper describes a method for calculating and updating the back pressure boundary condition in wind tunnel simulations by using a proportional-integral-derivative controller. The controller methodology and equations are discussed, and simulations using the controller to set a tunnel Mach number in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are demonstrated. 16. Wind power plant Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Caneghem, A.E. von 1975-07-24 The invention applies to a wind power plant in which the wind is used to drive windmills. The plant consists basically of a vertical tube with a lateral wind entrance opening with windmill on its lower end. On its upper end, the tube carries a nozzle-like top which increases the wind entering the tube by pressure decrease. The wind is thus made suitable for higher outputs. The invention is illustrated by constructional examples. 17. Wind energy analysis system OpenAIRE 2014-01-01 M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu... 18. Wind power. [electricity generation Science.gov (United States) Savino, J. M. 1975-01-01 A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers. 19. The Crab Pulsar and Relativistic Wind Science.gov (United States) Coroniti, F. V. 2017-12-01 The possibility that the Crab pulsar produces a separated ion-dominated and pair-plasma-dominated, magnetically striped relativistic wind is assessed by rough estimates of the polar cap acceleration of the ion and electron primary beams, the pair production of secondary electrons and positrons, and a simple model of the near-magnetosphere-wind zone. For simplicity, only the orthogonal rotator is considered. Below (above) the rotational equator, ions (electrons) are accelerated in a thin sheath, of order (much less than) the width of the polar cap, to Lorentz factor {γ }i≈ (5{--}10)× {10}7({γ }e≈ {10}7). The accelerating parallel electric field is shorted out by ion-photon (curvature synchrotron) pair production. With strong, but fairly reasonable, assumptions, a set of general magnetic geometry relativistic wind equations is derived and shown to reduce to conservation relations that are similar to those of the wind from a magnetic monopole. The strength of the field-aligned currents carried by the primary beams is determined by the wind’s Alfvén critical point condition to be about eight times the Goldreich-Julian value. A simple model for the transition from the dipole region wind to the asymptotic monopole wind zone is developed. The asymptotic ratio of Poynting flux to ion (pair plasma) kinetic energy flux—the wind {σ }w∞ -parameter—is found to be of order {σ }w∞ ≈ 1/2({10}4). The far wind zone is likely to be complex, with the ion-dominated and pair-plasma-dominated magnetic stripes merging, and the oppositely directed azimuthal magnetic fields annihilating. 20. Chemical Equation Balancing. Science.gov (United States) Blakley, G. R. 1982-01-01 Reviews mathematical techniques for solving systems of homogeneous linear equations and demonstrates that the algebraic method of balancing chemical equations is a matter of solving a system of homogeneous linear equations. FORTRAN programs using this matrix method to chemical equation balancing are available from the author. (JN) 1. Handbook of integral equations CERN Document Server Polyanin, Andrei D 2008-01-01 This handbook contains over 2,500 integral equations with solutions as well as analytical and numerical methods for solving linear and nonlinear equations. It explores Volterra, Fredholm, WienerHopf, Hammerstein, Uryson, and other equations that arise in mathematics, physics, engineering, the sciences, and economics. This second edition includes new chapters on mixed multidimensional equations and methods of integral equations for ODEs and PDEs, along with over 400 new equations with exact solutions. With many examples added for illustrative purposes, it presents new material on Volterra, Fredholm, singular, hypersingular, dual, and nonlinear integral equations, integral transforms, and special functions. 2. Extreme wind estimate for Hornsea wind farm DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Larsén, Xiaoli Guo The purpose of this study is to provide estimation of the 50-year winds of 10 min and 1-s gust value at hub height of 100 m, as well as the design parameter shear exponent for the Hornsea offshore wind farm. The turbulence intensity required for estimating the gust value is estimated using two...... approaches. One is through the measurements from the wind Doppler lidar, WindCube, which implies serious uncertainty, and the other one is through similarity theory for the atmospheric surface layer where the hub height is likely to belong to during strong storms. The turbulence intensity for storm wind...... strength is taken as 0.1. The shear exponents at several heights were calculated from the measurements. The values at 100 m are less than the limit given by IEC standard for all sectors. The 50-year winds have been calculated from various global reanalysis and analysis products as well as mesoscale models... 3. Climatic wind tunnel for wind engineering tasks Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database Kuznetsov, Sergeii; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Král, Radomil 2015-01-01 Roč. 112, 2-B (2015), s. 303-316 ISSN 1897-628X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12892S Keywords : climatic tunnel * wind tunnel * atmospheric boundary layer * flow resistance * wind tunnel contraction Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering https://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/resources/i5/i6/i6/i7/i6/r56676/KuznetsovS_ClimaticWind.pdf 4. Dynamics of Line-Driven Winds from Disks in Cataclysmic Variables. I. Solution Topology and Wind Geometry OpenAIRE Feldmeier, Achim; Shlosman, Isaac 1999-01-01 We analyze the dynamics of 2-D stationary, line-driven winds from accretion disks in cataclysmic variable stars. The driving force is that of line radiation pressure, in the formalism developed by Castor, Abbott & Klein for O stars. Our main assumption is that wind helical streamlines lie on straight cones. We find that the Euler equation for the disk wind has two eigenvalues, the mass loss rate and the flow tilt angle with the disk. Both are calculated self-consistently. The wind is characte... 5. Wind Atlas for Egypt DEFF Research Database (Denmark) The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step... 6. Wind Atlas for Egypt DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake 2006-01-01 The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step... 7. Three-Dimensional, Ten-Moment, Two-Fluid Simulation of the Solar Wind Interaction with Mercury Science.gov (United States) Dong, C. F.; Wang, L.; Hakim, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.; DiBraccio, G. A. 2018-05-01 We investigate solar wind interaction with Mercury’s magnetosphere by using Gkeyll ten-moment multifluid code that solves the continuity, momentum, and pressure tensor equations of both protons and electrons, as well as the full Maxwell equations. 8. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC... Science.gov (United States) 2010-05-03 ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-62-000] Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower Development, LLC; TGP Development Company, LLC... 9. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC... Science.gov (United States) 2012-05-18 ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-68-000] Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower Development, LLC, TGP Development Company, LLC... 10. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation Science.gov (United States) Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit 2015-04-01 approximately 500 sites. Most terrestrial wind streaks are formed on a relatively young geological surface and are concentrated along the equator (± 30°). They are categorized by the combination of their planform and reflectance; with linear-bright and dark are the most common. A site-specific examination of remote-sensing effects on wind streaks identification has been conducted. The results thus far, indicate that in images with varying spatial and spectral specifications some wind streaks are actually composed of other aeolian bedforms, especially dunes. Specific regions of the Earth were then compared qualitatively to surface wind data extracted from a general circulation model. Understanding the mechanism and spatial and temporal distribution of wind streak formation is important not only for understanding surface modifications in the geomorphological context but also for shedding light on past and present climatic processes and atmospheric circulation on Earth. This study yields an explanation for wind streaks as a geomorphological feature. Moreover, it is in this planet-wide geomorphological research ability to lay down the foundations for comparative planetary research. 11. Wind energy information guide Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) NONE 1996-04-01 This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapters 1--8 provide background and annotated references on wind energy research, development, and commercialization. Chapter 9 lists additional sources of printed information and relevant organizations. Four indices provide alphabetical access to authors, organizations, computer models and design tools, and subjects. A list of abbreviations and acronyms is also included. Chapter topics include: introduction; economics of using wind energy; wind energy resources; wind turbine design, development, and testing; applications; environmental issues of wind power; institutional issues; and wind energy systems development. 12. Arctic wind energy Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Peltola, E. [Kemijoki Oy (Finland); Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Tammelin, B. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland) 1998-12-31 Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.) 13. Arctic wind energy International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Peltola, E.; Holttinen, H.; Marjaniemi, M.; Tammelin, B. 1998-01-01 Arctic wind energy research was aimed at adapting existing wind technologies to suit the arctic climatic conditions in Lapland. Project research work included meteorological measurements, instrument development, development of a blade heating system for wind turbines, load measurements and modelling of ice induced loads on wind turbines, together with the development of operation and maintenance practices in arctic conditions. As a result the basis now exists for technically feasible and economically viable wind energy production in Lapland. New and marketable products, such as blade heating systems for wind turbines and meteorological sensors for arctic conditions, with substantial export potential, have also been developed. (orig.) 14. Wind power today Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) NONE 1998-04-01 This publication highlights initiatives of the US DOEs Wind Energy Program. 1997 yearly activities are also very briefly summarized. The first article describes a 6-megawatt wind power plant installed in Vermont. Another article summarizes technical advances in wind turbine technology, and describes next-generation utility and small wind turbines in the planning stages. A village power project in Alaska using three 50-kilowatt turbines is described. Very brief summaries of the Federal Wind Energy Program and the National Wind Technology Center are also included in the publication. 15. Wind Power Career Chat Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) L. Flowers 2011-01-01 This document will teach students about careers in the wind energy industry. Wind energy, both land-based and offshore, is expected to provide thousands of new jobs in the next several decades. Wind energy companies are growing rapidly to meet America's demand for clean, renewable, and domestic energy. These companies need skilled professionals. Wind power careers will require educated people from a variety of areas. Trained and qualified workers manufacture, construct, operate, and manage wind energy facilities. The nation will also need skilled researchers, scientists, and engineers to plan and develop the next generation of wind energy technologies. 16. Introduction to differential equations CERN Document Server Taylor, Michael E 2011-01-01 The mathematical formulations of problems in physics, economics, biology, and other sciences are usually embodied in differential equations. The analysis of the resulting equations then provides new insight into the original problems. This book describes the tools for performing that analysis. The first chapter treats single differential equations, emphasizing linear and nonlinear first order equations, linear second order equations, and a class of nonlinear second order equations arising from Newton's laws. The first order linear theory starts with a self-contained presentation of the exponen 17. Nonlinear evolution equations CERN Document Server Uraltseva, N N 1995-01-01 This collection focuses on nonlinear problems in partial differential equations. Most of the papers are based on lectures presented at the seminar on partial differential equations and mathematical physics at St. Petersburg University. Among the topics explored are the existence and properties of solutions of various classes of nonlinear evolution equations, nonlinear imbedding theorems, bifurcations of solutions, and equations of mathematical physics (Navier-Stokes type equations and the nonlinear Schrödinger equation). The book will be useful to researchers and graduate students working in p 18. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær 2002-01-01 A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...... in polar coordinates. The developed algorithm is combined with a so-called actuator-line technique in which the loading is distributed along lines representing the blade forces. Computations are carried out for the 500kW Nordtank wind turbine equipped with three LM19 blades. ©2001 The American Institute... 19. Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak Science.gov (United States) Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan 2018-04-01 Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall. 20. Aeroelastic analysis of large horizontal wind turbine baldes? Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Di TANG; Zhiliang LU; Tongqing GUO 2016-01-01 A nonlinear aeroelastic analysis method for large horizontal wind turbines is described. A vortex wake method and a nonlinear ?nite element method (FEM) are coupled in the approach. The vortex wake method is used to predict wind turbine aero-dynamic loads of a wind turbine, and a three-dimensional (3D) shell model is built for the rotor. Average aerodynamic forces along the azimuth are applied to the structural model, and the nonlinear static aeroelastic behaviors are computed. The wind rotor modes are obtained at the static aeroelastic status by linearizing the coupled equations. The static aeroelastic performance and dynamic aeroelastic responses are calculated for the NH1500 wind turbine. The results show that structural geometrical nonlinearities signi?cantly reduce displacements and vibration amplitudes of the wind turbine blades. Therefore, structural geometrical nonlinearities cannot be neglected both in the static aeroelastic analysis and dynamic aeroelastic analysis. 1. Low-level wind response to mesoscale pressure systems Science.gov (United States) Garratt, J. R.; Physick, W. L. 1983-09-01 Observations are presented which show a strong correlation between low-level wind behaviour (e.g., rotation near the surface) and the passage of mesoscale pressure systems. The latter are associated with frontal transition zones, are dominated by a pressure-jump line and a mesoscale high pressure area, and produce locally large horizontal pressure gradients. The wind observations are simulated by specifying a time sequence of perturbation pressure gradient and subsequently solving the vertically-integrated momentum equations with appropriate initial conditions. Very good agreement is found between observed and calculated winds; in particular, (i) a 360 ° rotation in wind on passage of the mesoscale high; (ii) wind-shift lines produced dynamically by the pressure-jump line; (iii) rapid linear increase in wind speed on passage of the pressure jump. 2. Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Wind Flow Through Elevated Windbreak Science.gov (United States) Agarwal, Ashish; Irtaza, Hassan 2018-06-01 Analysis of airflow through elevated windbreaks is presented in this paper. Permeable nets and impermeable film increases considerable wind forces on the windbreaks which is susceptible to damage during high wind. A comprehensive numerical investigation has been carried out to analyze the effects of wind on standalone elevated windbreak clad with various permeable nets and an impermeable film. The variation of airflow behavior around and through permeable nets and airflow behavior around impermeable film were also been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics techniques using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations has been used to predict the wind force coefficient and thus wind forces on panels supporting permeable nets and impermeable film for turbulent wind flow. Elevated windbreak panels were analyzed for seven different permeable nets having various solidity ratio, specific permeability and aerodynamic resistant coefficients. The permeable nets were modelled as porous jump media obeying Forchheimer's law and an impermeable film modelled as rigid wall. 3. Wind-farm simulation over moderately complex terrain Science.gov (United States) Segalini, Antonio; Castellani, Francesco 2017-05-01 A comparison between three independent software to estimate the power production and the flow field in a wind farm is conducted, validating them against SCADA (Supervisory, Control And Data Acquisition) data. The three software were ORFEUS, WindSim and WAsP: ORFEUS and WAsP are linearised solvers, while WindSim is fully nonlinear. A wake model (namely a prescribed velocity deficit associated to the turbines) is used by WAsP, while ORFEUS and WindSim use the actuator-disc method to account for the turbines presence. The comparison indicates that ORFEUS and WAsP perform slightly better than WindSim in the assessment of the polar efficiency. The wakes simulated with ORFEUS appear more persistent than the ones of WindSim, which uses a two-equation closure model for the turbulence effects. 4. Evolution of wind towards wind turbine NARCIS (Netherlands) Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W. 2015-01-01 Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons is of high importance for further applications of the data. 5. Urban Wind Energy DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Beller, Christina important for the implementation of wind energy conversion systems are the macro and micro wind climate, the siting within a micro wind climate and the choice of a wind turbine model most appropriate for the selected site. In the frame of this work, all these important elements are analyzed and a row......New trends e.g. in architecture and urban planning are to reduce energy needs. Several technologies are employed to achieve this, and one of the technologies, not new as such, is wind energy. Wind turbines are installed in cities, both by companies and private persons on both old and new buildings....... However, an overview of the energy content of the wind in cities and how consequently turbines shall be designed for such wind climates is lacking. The objective of the present work is to deliver an objective and fundamental overview of the social, practical and physical conditions relevant... 6. Leadership Team | Wind | NREL Science.gov (United States) Leadership Team Leadership Team Learn more about the expertise and technical skills of the wind Initiative and provides leadership in the focus areas of high-fidelity modeling, wind power plant controls 7. Danish Wind Power DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both... 8. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Yunying Pan 2016-08-01 Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally. 9. Black-hole driven winds International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Punsly, B.M. 1988-01-01 This dissertation is a study of the physical mechanism that allows a large scale magnetic field to torque a rapidly rotating, supermassive black hole. This is an interesting problem as it has been conjectured that rapidly rotating black holes are the central engines that power the observed extragalactic double radio sources. Axisymmetric solutions of the curved space-time version of Maxwell's equations in the vacuum do not torque black holes. Plasma must be introduced for the hole to mechanically couple to the field. The dynamical aspect of rotating black holes that couples the magnetic field to the hole is the following. A rotating black hole forces the external geometry of space-time to rotate (the dragging of inertial frames). Inside of the stationary limit surface, the ergosphere, all physical particle trajectories must appear to rotate in the same direction as the black hole as viewed by the stationary observers at asymptotic infinity. In the text, it is demonstrated how plasma that is created on field lines that thread both the ergosphere and the equatorial plane will be pulled by gravity toward the equator. By the aforementioned properties of the ergosphere, the disk must rotate. Consequently, the disk acts like a unipolar generator. It drives a global current system that supports the toroidal magnetic field in an outgoing, magnetically dominated wind. This wind carries energy (mainly in the form of Poynting flux) and angular momentum towards infinity. The spin down of the black hole is the ultimate source of this energy and angular momentum flux 10. Dispersive stresses in wind farms Science.gov (United States) Segalini, Antonio; Braunbehrens, Robert; Hyvarinen, Ann 2017-11-01 One of the most famous models of wind farms is provided by the assumption that the farm can be approximated as a horizontally-homogeneous forest canopy with vertically-varying force intensity. By means of this approximation, the flow-motion equations become drastically simpler, as many of the three-dimensional effects are gone. However, the application of the horizontal average operator to the RANS equations leads to the appearance of new transport terms (called dispersive stresses) originating from the horizontal (small-scale) variation of the mean velocity field. Since these terms are related to the individual turbine signature, they are expected to vanish outside the roughness sublayer, providing a definition for the latter. In the present work, an assessment of the dispersive stresses is performed by means of a wake-model approach and through the linearised code ORFEUS developed at KTH. Both approaches are very fast and enable the characterization of a large number of wind-farm layouts. The dispersive stress tensor and its effect on the turbulence closure models are investigated, providing guidelines for those simulations where it is impossible to resolve the farm at a turbine scale due to grid requirements (as, for instance, mesoscale simulations). 11. Benney's long wave equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Lebedev, D.R. 1979-01-01 Benney's equations of motion of incompressible nonviscous fluid with free surface in the approximation of long waves are analyzed. The connection between the Lie algebra of Hamilton plane vector fields and the Benney's momentum equations is shown 12. An evaluation of the WindEye wind lidar DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Dellwik, Ebba; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mann, Jakob Prevision of the wind field by remote sensing wind lidars has the potential to improve the performance of wind turbines. The functionality of a WindEye lidar developed by Windar Photonics A/S (Denmark) for the wind energy market was tested in a two months long field experiment. The WindEye sensor...... with a high accuracy during the whole campaign.... 13. Wind Power Utilization Guide. Science.gov (United States) 1981-09-01 The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to 14. Wind electric power generation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T. 2001-01-01 The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS) 15. Wind electric power generation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T. 2002-01-01 The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM) 16. Turbulence and wind turbines DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob 2011-01-01 The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.... 17. The Irish Wind Atlas Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Watson, R [Univ. College Dublin, Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Dublin (Ireland); Landberg, L [Risoe National Lab., Meteorology and Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark) 1999-03-01 The development work on the Irish Wind Atlas is nearing completion. The Irish Wind Atlas is an updated improved version of the Irish section of the European Wind Atlas. A map of the irish wind resource based on a WA{sup s}P analysis of the measured data and station description of 27 measuring stations is presented. The results of previously presented WA{sup s}P/KAMM runs show good agreement with these results. (au) 18. Wind-US Users Guide Version 4.0 Science.gov (United States) Yoder, Dennis A. 2016-01-01 Wind-US is a computational platform which may be used to numerically solve various sets of equations governing physical phenomena. Currently, the code supports the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics, along with supporting equation sets governing turbulent and chemically reacting flows. Wind-US is a product of the NPARC Alliance, a partnership between the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) dedicated to the establishment of a national, applications-oriented flow simulation capability. The Boeing Company has also been closely associated with the Alliance since its inception, and represents the interests of the NPARC User's Association. The "Wind-US User's Guide" describes the operation and use of Wind-US, including: a basic tutorial; the physical and numerical models that are used; the boundary conditions; monitoring convergence; the files that are read and/or written; parallel execution; and a complete list of input keywords and test options. For current information about Wind-US and the NPARC Alliance, please see the Wind-US home page at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/winddocs/ and the NPARC Alliance home page at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/wind/. 19. Fractional Schroedinger equation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Laskin, Nick 2002-01-01 Some properties of the fractional Schroedinger equation are studied. We prove the Hermiticity of the fractional Hamilton operator and establish the parity conservation law for fractional quantum mechanics. As physical applications of the fractional Schroedinger equation we find the energy spectra of a hydrogenlike atom (fractional 'Bohr atom') and of a fractional oscillator in the semiclassical approximation. An equation for the fractional probability current density is developed and discussed. We also discuss the relationships between the fractional and standard Schroedinger equations 20. Ordinary differential equations CERN Document Server Greenberg, Michael D 2014-01-01 Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps 1. Beginning partial differential equations CERN Document Server O'Neil, Peter V 2014-01-01 A broad introduction to PDEs with an emphasis on specialized topics and applications occurring in a variety of fields Featuring a thoroughly revised presentation of topics, Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Third Edition provides a challenging, yet accessible,combination of techniques, applications, and introductory theory on the subjectof partial differential equations. The new edition offers nonstandard coverageon material including Burger's equation, the telegraph equation, damped wavemotion, and the use of characteristics to solve nonhomogeneous problems. The Third Edition is or 2. Wind-US Users Guide Version 3.0 Science.gov (United States) Yoder, Dennis A. 2016-01-01 Wind-US is a computational platform which may be used to numerically solve various sets of equations governing physical phenomena. Currently, the code supports the solution of the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations of fluid mechanics, along with supporting equation sets governing turbulent and chemically reacting flows. Wind-US is a product of the NPARC Alliance, a partnership between the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Arnold Engineering Development Complex (AEDC) dedicated to the establishment of a national, applications-oriented flow simulation capability. The Boeing Company has also been closely associated with the Alliance since its inception, and represents the interests of the NPARC User's Association. The "Wind-US User's Guide" describes the operation and use of Wind-US, including: a basic tutorial; the physical and numerical models that are used; the boundary conditions; monitoring convergence; the files that are read and/or written; parallel execution; and a complete list of input keywords and test options. For current information about Wind-US and the NPARC Alliance, please see the Wind-US home page at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/winddocs/ and the NPARC Alliance home page at http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/wind/. This manual describes the operation and use of Wind-US, a computational platform which may be used to numerically solve various sets of equations governing physical phenomena. Wind-US represents a merger of the capabilities of four CFD codes - NASTD (a structured grid flow solver developed at McDonnell Douglas, now part of Boeing), NPARC (the original NPARC Alliance structured grid flow solver), NXAIR (an AEDC structured grid code used primarily for store separation analysis), and ICAT (an unstructured grid flow solver developed at the Rockwell Science Center and Boeing). 3. Wind and Yaw correlation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results... 4. Offshore wind energy developments DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Stolpe, Mathias; Buhl, Thomas; Sumer, B. Mutlu 2014-01-01 This chapter will give a brief overview of a few of the activities within offshore wind energy research, specifically 1) Support structure optimization, 2) Blade coatings for wind turbines; 3) Scour protection of foundations, 4) Offshore HVDC and 5) Offshore wind services.... 5. Wind power outlook 2006 Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) anon. 2006-04-15 This annual brochure provides the American Wind Energy Association's up-to-date assessment of the wind industry in the United States. This 2006 general assessment shows positive signs of growth, use and acceptance of wind energy as a vital component of the U.S. energy mix. 6. Modelling Wind for Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Joint Distribution of Wind Speed and Wind Direction DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Feng, Ju; Shen, Wen Zhong 2015-01-01 Reliable wind modelling is of crucial importance for wind farm development. The common practice of using sector-wise Weibull distributions has been found inappropriate for wind farm layout optimization. In this study, we propose a simple and easily implementable method to construct joint distribu... 7. Canadian small wind market International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Moorhouse, E. 2010-01-01 This PowerPoint presentation discussed initiatives and strategies adopted by the Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) to support the development of Canada's small wind market. The general public has shown a significant interest in small wind projects of 300 kW. Studies have demonstrated that familiarity and comfort with small wind projects can help to ensure the successful implementation of larger wind projects. Small wind markets include residential, farming and commercial, and remote community applications. The results of CanWEA market survey show that the small wind market grew by 78 percent in 2008 over 2007, and again in 2009 by 32 percent over 2008. The average turbine size is 1 kW. A total of 11,000 turbines were purchased in 2007 and 2008. Global small wind market growth increased by 110 percent in 2008, and the average turbine size was 2.4 kW. Eighty-seven percent of the turbines made by Canadian mid-size wind turbine manufacturers are exported, and there is now a significant risk that Canada will lose its competitive advantage in small wind manufacturing as financial incentives have not been implemented. American and Canadian-based small wind manufacturers were listed, and small wind policies were reviewed. The presentation concluded with a set of recommendations for future incentives, educational programs and legislation. tabs., figs. 8. Wind Power Now! Science.gov (United States) Inglis, David Rittenhouse 1975-01-01 The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR) 9. Power from the Wind Science.gov (United States) Roman, Harry T. 2004-01-01 Wind energy is the fastest-growing renewable energy source in the world. Over the last 20 years, the wind industry has done a very good job of engineering machines, improving materials, and economies of production, and making this energy source a reality. Like all renewable energy forms, wind energy's successful application is site specific. Also,… 10. Wind power soars Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States) 1996-12-31 Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs. 11. Wind and Yaw correlation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results ar... 12. Wind and Yaw correlation DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber The report describes measurements carried out on a given turbine and period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A comparison between wind speed and wind direction on the met mast and nacelle wind speed and yaw direction is made in accordance to Ref. [2] and the results...... are presented on graphs and in a table.... 13. Denmark Wind Energy Programme DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Shen, Wen Zhong 2015-01-01 In this chapter, a summary of some ongoing wind energy projects in Denmark is given. The research topics comprise computational model development, wind turbine (WT) design, low-noise airfoil and blade design, control device development, wake modelling and wind farm layout optimization.... 14. Wind: French revolutions International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Jones, C. 2006-01-01 Despite having the second best wind resources in Europe after the UK, the wind industry in France lags behind its European counterparts with just 6 W of installed wind capacity per person. The electricity market in France is dominated by the state-owned Electricite de France (EdF) and its nuclear power stations. However, smaller renewable generators are now in theory allowed access to the market and France has transposed the EU renewables directive into national law. The French governement has set a target of generating 10,000 MW of renewable capacity by 2010. The announcement of an increased feed-in tariff and the introduction of 'development zones' (ZDEs) which could allow fast-tracking of planning for wind projects are also expected to boost wind projects. But grid access and adminstrative burdens remain major barriers. In addition, French politicians and local authorities remain committed to nuclear, though encouraged by the European Commission, wind is beginning to gain acceptance; some 325 wind farms (representing 1557 MW of capacity) were approved between February 2004 and January 2005. France is now regarded by the international wind energy sector as a target market. One of France's leading independent wind developers and its only listed wind company, Theolia, is expected to be one of the major beneficiaries of the acceleration of activity in France, though other companies are keen to maximise the opportunities for wind. France currently has only one indigenous manufacturer of wind turbines, but foreign suppliers are winning orders 15. Zonally averaged model of dynamics, chemistry and radiation for the atmosphere Science.gov (United States) Tung, K. K. 1985-01-01 A nongeostrophic theory of zonally averaged circulation is formulated using the nonlinear primitive equations on a sphere, taking advantage of the more direct relationship between the mean meridional circulation and diabatic heating rate which is available in isentropic coordinates. Possible differences between results of nongeostrophic theory and the commonly used geostrophic formulation are discussed concerning: (1) the role of eddy forcing of the diabatic circulation, and (2) the nonlinear nearly inviscid limit vs the geostrophic limit. Problems associated with the traditional Rossby number scaling in quasi-geostrophic formulations are pointed out and an alternate, more general scaling based on the smallness of mean meridional to zonal velocities for a rotating planet is suggested. Such a scaling recovers the geostrophic balanced wind relationship for the mean zonal flow but reveals that the mean meridional velocity is in general ageostrophic. 16. Galactic winds and the hubble sequence International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Bregman, J.N. 1978-01-01 The conditions for maintenance of supernova-driven galactic winds have been investigated to assess their role in the morphology of disk-bulge galaxies. A fluid mechanical model with gas and stars which includes galactic rotation has been used to investigate several classes of winds. It is found that many galaxies, once their initial gas is depleted, can maintain a wind throughout the entire galaxy, a conditon most easily satisfied by systems with a small bulge-to-disk ratio. If the ratio of supernova heating to total mass loss falls below a critical value that depends on galaxy type and mass, only a partial wind exterior to a critical surface can exist, with infall occurring at interior points. Galaxies in which only the bulge was depleted of gas may support a bulge wind that does not interact with the colder and denser gas in the disk.These results indicate that if SO galaxies are a transition class between elliptical and spiral galaxies, it is probably because early galactic winds, which may initially deplete a galaxy of gas, are more prevalent in SO than in spiral galaxies. However, if SO's form a parallel sequence with spirals, the initial gas-depletion mechanism must be independent of bulge-to-disk ratio. These results are not strongly influenced by altering the galactic mass model, including electron conduction in the flow equations, or adding massive halos 17. Averaged RMHD equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Ichiguchi, Katsuji 1998-01-01 A new reduced set of resistive MHD equations is derived by averaging the full MHD equations on specified flux coordinates, which is consistent with 3D equilibria. It is confirmed that the total energy is conserved and the linearized equations for ideal modes are self-adjoint. (author) 18. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Gaudiosi, G. 1991-01-01 In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts 19. Effects of setting angle on performance of fish-bionic wind wheel Science.gov (United States) Li, G. S.; Yang, Z. X.; Song, L.; Chen, Q.; Li, Y. B.; Chen, W. 2016-08-01 With the energy crisis and the increasing environmental pollutionmore and more efforts have been made about wind power development. In this paper, a new type of vertical axis named the fish-bionic wind wheel was proposed, and the outline of wind wheel was constructed by curve of Fourier fitting and polynomial equations. This paper attempted to research the relationship between the setting angle and the wind turbine characteristics by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The results showed that the setting angle of the fish-bionic wind wheel has some significant effects on the efficiency of the wind turbine, Within the range of wind speed from 13m/s to 15m/s, wind wheel achieves the maximum efficiency when the setting angle is at 37 degree. The conclusion will work as a guideline for the improvement of wind turbine design. 20. Aerodynamic Optimization of a Wind Turbine Blade Designed for Egypt's Saharan Environment Using a Genetic Algorithm Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Khaled Yassin 2015-08-01 Full Text Available This work aims to optimize the aerodynamic parameters (airfoil chord lengths and twist angles smoothed using Bezier curves of the NREL 5MW wind turbine and a wind turbine designed for site-specific wind conditions to increase the wind turbine's annual energy production (AEP under this site conditions. This optimization process is carried out using a Genetic Algorithm (GA developed in MATLAB and coupled with NREL's FAST Modularization Framework. The results shows that after optimizing the NREL 5MW wind turbine design, the AEP was improved by 5.9% of the baseline design AEP while a site-specific designed wind turbine using Schmitz equations shows 1.2% improvement in AEP. These results shows that optimization of wind turbine blade aerodynamic parameters for site-specific wind conditions leads to improvement in AEP and hence decreasing cost of energy generated by wind turbines. 1. Offshore wind resource estimation for wind energy DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Mouche, A. 2010-01-01 Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite observati......Satellite remote sensing from active and passive microwave instruments is used to estimate the offshore wind resource in the Northern European Seas in the EU-Norsewind project. The satellite data include 8 years of Envisat ASAR, 10 years of QuikSCAT, and 23 years of SSM/I. The satellite...... observations are compared to selected offshore meteorological masts in the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The overall aim of the Norsewind project is a state-of-the-art wind atlas at 100 m height. The satellite winds are all valid at 10 m above sea level. Extrapolation to higher heights is a challenge. Mesoscale...... modeling of the winds at hub height will be compared to data from wind lidars observing at 100 m above sea level. Plans are also to compare mesoscale model results and satellite-based estimates of the offshore wind resource.... 2. Singular stochastic differential equations CERN Document Server Cherny, Alexander S 2005-01-01 The authors introduce, in this research monograph on stochastic differential equations, a class of points termed isolated singular points. Stochastic differential equations possessing such points (called singular stochastic differential equations here) arise often in theory and in applications. However, known conditions for the existence and uniqueness of a solution typically fail for such equations. The book concentrates on the study of the existence, the uniqueness, and, what is most important, on the qualitative behaviour of solutions of singular stochastic differential equations. This is done by providing a qualitative classification of isolated singular points, into 48 possible types. 3. Wind power plant Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Weiss, G 1975-11-20 A wind power plant is proposed suitable for electicity generation or water pumping. This plant is to be self-adjusting to various wind velocities and to be kept in operation even during violent storms. For this purpose the mast, carrying the wind rotor and pivotable around a horizontal axis is tiltable and equipped with a wind blind. Further claims contain various configurations of the tilting base resp. the cut in of an elastic link, the attachment and design of the wind blind as well as the constructive arrangement of one or more dynamos. 4. Visualization of wind farms International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Pahlke, T. 1994-01-01 With the increasing number of wind energy installations the visual impact of single wind turbines or wind parks is a growing problem for landscape preservation, leading to resistance of local authorities and nearby residents against wind energy projects. To increase acceptance and to form a basis for planning considerations, it is necessary to develop instruments for the visualization of planned wind parks, showing their integration in the landscape. Photorealistic montages and computer animation including video sequences may be helpful in 'getting the picture'. (orig.) 5. Wind electric power generation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T. 1995-01-01 The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines 6. Potentials of wind power International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P. 2000-01-01 The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru 7. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Munk, Anders Kristian As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report... 8. Wind energy systems International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M. 1993-01-01 Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented 9. Wind Tunnel Measurements at LM Wind Power DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Bertagnolio, Franck 2012-01-01 This section presents the results obtained during the experimental campaign that was conducted in the wind tunnel at LM Wind Power in Lunderskov from August 16th to 26th, 2010. The goal of this study is to validate the so-called TNO trailing edge noise model through measurements of the boundary...... layer turbulence characteristics and the far-field noise generated by the acoustic scattering of the turbulent boundary layer vorticies as they convect past the trailing edge. This campaign was conducted with a NACA0015 airfoil section that was placed in the wind tunnel section. It is equipped with high... 10. Wind energy in Europe International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Evans, L.C. 1992-01-01 Wind energy should be an important part of the energy supply mix, both at home and abroad, to provide cleaner air and a more stable fuel supply. Not only can wind energy contribute to solving complex global issues, it also can provide a large market for American technological leadership. Even though utilities are paying more attention to wind in a number of states, there are no plans for major installations of wind power plants in the United States. At the same time, European nations have developed aggressive wind energy development programs, including both ambitious research and development efforts and market incentives. Many countries recognize the importance of the clean energy provided by wind technology and are taking steps to promote their fledgling domestic industries. The emphasis on market incentives is starting to pay off. In 1991, European utilities and developers installed nearly twice as much wind capacity as Americans did. In 1992 the gap will be even greater. This article reviews aggressive incentives offered by European governments to boost their domestic wind industries at home and abroad in this almost1 billion per year market. By offering substantial incentives - considerably more than the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is proposing - European nations are ensuring dramatic near-term wind energy development and are taking a major step toward dominating the international wind industry of the 21st century

11. Wind integration in Alberta

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frost, W.

2007-01-01

This presentation described the role of the Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) for Alberta's interconnected electric system with particular reference to wind integration in Alberta. The challenges of wind integration were discussed along with the requirements for implementing the market and operational framework. The AESO is an independent system operator that directs the reliable operation of Alberta's power grid; develops and operates Alberta's real-time wholesale energy market to promote open competition; plans and develops the province's transmission system to ensure reliability; and provides transmission system access for both generation and load customers. Alberta has over 280 power generating station, with a total generating capacity of 11,742 MW, of which 443 is wind generated. Since 2004, the AESO has been working with industry on wind integration issues, such as operating limits, need for mitigation measures and market rules. In April 2006, the AESO implemented a temporary 900 MW reliability threshold to ensure reliability. In 2006, a Wind Forecasting Working Group was created in collaboration with industry and the Canadian Wind Energy Association in an effort to integrate as much wind as is feasible without compromising the system reliability or the competitive operation of the market. The challenges facing wind integration include reliability issues; predictability of wind power; the need for dispatchable generation; transmission upgrades; and, defining a market and operational framework for the large wind potential in Alberta. It was noted that 1400 MW of installed wind energy capacity can be accommodated in Alberta with approved transmission upgrades. figs

12. Wind power takes over

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2002-01-01

All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

13. Wind energy conversion system

Science.gov (United States)

Longrigg, Paul

1987-01-01

The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

14. Estonian wind climate

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kull, Ain

1999-01-01

Estonia is situated on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. This is a region with intensive cyclonic activity and therefore with a relatively high mean wind speed. Atmospheric circulation and its seasonal variation determine the general character of the Estonian wind regime over the Atlantic Ocean and Eurasia. However, the Baltic sea itself is a very important factor affecting wind climate, it has an especially strong influence on the wind regime in costal areas. The mean energy density (W/m 2 ) is a wind energy characteristic that is proportional to the third power of wind speed and describes energy available in a flow of air through a unit area. The mean energy density is a characteristic which has practical importance in regional assessment of snowdrift, storm damage and wind energy

15. Extreme winds in Denmark

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kristensen, L.; Rathmann, O.; Hansen, S.O.

2000-01-01

(Technical Report, Danish Technical press, 1970) and by Abild (Technical Report R-522 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1994). A short discussion of the wind storm on the 3rd of December 1999 is included. It is demonstrated how the data can be applied to non-standard situations where the roughness length......Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates of the basic wind velocity, defined as the 50 yr wind speed (10 min averages) under standard conditions, i.e., 10 m over a homogeneous terrain with the roughness length 0.05 m, The sites are Skjern (15 yr......), Kegnaes (7 yr), Sprogo (20 yr), and Tystofte (16 yr). The measured data are wind speed, wind direction, temperature and pressure. The wind records are cleaned for terrain effects by means of WASP (Mortensew ct al., Technical Report I-666 (EN), Riso National Laboratory, 1993. Vol. 2. User's Guide...

16. Wind tower service lift

Science.gov (United States)

Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

2011-09-13

An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

17. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

2015-12-31

This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

18. High temperature co-axial winding transformers

Science.gov (United States)

Divan, Deepakraj M.; Novotny, Donald W.

1993-01-01

The analysis and design of co-axial winding transformers is presented. The design equations are derived and the different design approaches are discussed. One of the most important features of co-axial winding transformers is the fact that the leakage inductance is well controlled and can be made low. This is not the case in conventional winding transformers. In addition, the power density of co-axial winding transformers is higher than conventional ones. Hence, using co-axial winding transformers in a certain converter topology improves the power density of the converter. The design methodology used in meeting the proposed specifications of the co-axial winding transformer specifications are presented and discussed. The final transformer design was constructed in the lab. Co-axial winding transformers proved to be a good choice for high power density and high frequency applications. They have a more predictable performance compared with conventional transformers. In addition, the leakage inductance of the transformer can be controlled easily to suit a specific application. For space applications, one major concern is the extraction of heat from power apparatus to prevent excessive heating and hence damaging of these units. Because of the vacuum environment, the only way to extract heat is by using a cold plate. One advantage of co-axial winding transformers is that the surface area available to extract heat from is very large compared to conventional transformers. This stems from the unique structure of the co-axial transformer where the whole core surface area is exposed and can be utilized for cooling effectively. This is a crucial issue here since most of the losses are core losses.

19. Laminar-Turbulent transition on Wind Turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Martinez Hernandez, Gabriel Gerardo

The present thesis deals with the study of the rotational effects on the laminar-turbulent transition on wind turbine blades. Linear stability theory is used to formulate the stability equations that include the effect of rotation. The mean flow required as an input to stability computations...... parametrized and adapted to an wind turbine rotor geometry. The blade is resolved in radial sections along which calculations are performed. The obtained mean flow is classified according to the parameters used on the rotating configuration, geometry and operational conditions. The stability diagrams have been...... to define the resultant wave magnitude and direction. The propagation of disturbances in the boundary layers in three dimensional flows is relatively a complicated phenomena. The report discusses the available methods and techniques used to predict the transition location. Some common wind turbine airfoils...

20. Second wind in the offshore wind industry

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Philippe, Edouard; Neyme, Eric; Deboos, Christophe; Villageois, Jean-Remy; Gouverneur, Philippe; Gerard, Bernard; Fournier, Eric; Petrus, Raymond; Lemarquis, David; Dener, Marc; Bivaud, Jean-Pierre; Lemaire, Etienne; Nielsen, Steffen; Lafon, Xavier; Lagandre, Pierre; Nadai, Alain; Pinot de Villechenon, Edouard; Westhues, Markus; Herpers, Frederick; Bisiaux, Christophe; Sperlich, Miriam; Bales, Vincent; Vandenbroeck, Jan; His, Stephane; Derrey, Thierry; Barakat, Georges; Dakyo, Brayima; Carme, Laurent; Petit, Frederic; Ytournel, Sophie; Westhues, Markus; Diller, Armin; Premont, Antoine de; Ruer, Jacques; Lanoe, Frederic; Declercq, Jan; Holmager, Morten; Fidelin, Daniel; Guillet, Jerome; Dudziak, Gregory; Lapierre, Anne; Couturier, Ludovic; Audineau, Jean-Pierre; Rouaix, Eric; De Roeck, Yann-Herve; Quesnel, Louis; Duguet, Benjamin

2011-06-01

After several keynote addresses, this publication contains contributions and Power Point presentations proposed during this conference on the development of offshore wind energy. The successive sessions addressed the following issues: the offshore mass production of electricity (examples of Denmark and Belgium, laying and protecting offshore cables), the space, economic and environmental planning (the Danish experience, the role of the Coastal area integrated management, importance of the public debate, so on), the logistics of port infrastructures (simulation tools, example of Bremerhaven, issues related to project management), innovation at the core of industrial strategies (high power wind turbines, the 6 MW Alstom turbine, chain value and innovation in offshore wind energy, the Vertiwing innovating project of a floating wind turbine, a bench test in Charleston, foundations, gravity base structures, the British experience, the Danish experience), the economic and organisational conditions for development, the validation and certification of technologies

1. The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind

Science.gov (United States)

Janssen, Peter

2004-10-01

Describing in detail the two-way interaction between wind and ocean waves, this book discusses ocean wave evolution in accordance with the energy balance equation. An extensive overview of nonlinear transfer is given, and the role of four-wave interactions in the generation of extreme events as well as the effects on ocean circulation is included. The volume will interest ocean wave modellers, physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers.

2. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

2012-01-01

of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

3. On separable Pauli equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zhalij, Alexander

2002-01-01

We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field

4. Functional equations with causal operators

CERN Document Server

Corduneanu, C

2003-01-01

Functional equations encompass most of the equations used in applied science and engineering: ordinary differential equations, integral equations of the Volterra type, equations with delayed argument, and integro-differential equations of the Volterra type. The basic theory of functional equations includes functional differential equations with causal operators. Functional Equations with Causal Operators explains the connection between equations with causal operators and the classical types of functional equations encountered by mathematicians and engineers. It details the fundamentals of linear equations and stability theory and provides several applications and examples.

5. State of the Art and Trends in Wind Resource Assessment

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Oliver Probst

2010-06-01

Full Text Available Given the significant rise of the utilization of wind energy the accurate assessment of the wind potential is becoming increasingly important. Direct applications of wind assessment techniques include the creation of wind maps on a local scale (typically 5 20 km and the micrositing of wind turbines, the estimation of vertical wind speed variations, prospecting on a regional scale (>100 km, estimation of the long-term wind resource at a given site, and forecasting. The measurement of wind speed and direction still widely relies on cup anemometers, though sonic anemometers are becoming increasingly popular. Moreover, remote sensing by Doppler techniques using the backscattering of either sonic beams (SODAR or light (LIDAR allowing for vertical profiling well beyond hub height are quickly moving into the mainstream. Local wind maps are based on the predicted modification of the regional wind flow pattern by the local atmospheric boundary layer which in turn depends on both topographic and roughness features and the measured wind rose obtained from one or several measurement towers within the boundaries of the planned development site. Initial models were based on linearized versions of the Navier-Stokes equations, whereas more recently full CFD models have been applied to wind farm micrositing. Linear models tend to perform well for terrain slopes lower than about 25% and have the advantage of short execution times. Long-term performance is frequently estimated from correlations with nearby reference stations with concurrent information and continuous time series over a period of at least 10 years. Simple methods consider only point-to-point linear correlations; more advanced methods like multiple regression techniques and methods based on the theory of distributions will be discussed. Both for early prospecting in regions where only scarce or unreliable reference information is available, wind flow modeling on a larger scale (mesoscale is becoming

6. Observability of wind power

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gonot, J.P.; Fraisse, J.L.

2009-01-01

The total installed capacity of wind power grows from a few hundred MW at the beginning of 2005 to 3400 MW at the end of 2008. With such a trend, a total capacity of 7000 MW could be reached by 2010. The natural variability of wind power and the difficulty of its predictability require a change in the traditional way of managing supply/demand balance, day-ahead margins and the control of electrical flows. As a consequence, RTE operators should be informed quickly and reliably of the real time output power of wind farms and of its evolvement some hours or days ahead to ensure the reliability of the French electrical power system. French specificities are that wind farms are largely spread over the territory, that 95 % of wind farms have an output power below 10 MW and that they are connected to the distribution network. In this context, new tools were necessary to acquire as soon as possible data concerning wind power. In two years long, RTE set up an observatory of wind production 'IPES system' enable to get an access to the technical characteristics of the whole wind farms, to observe in real time 75 % of the wind generation and to implement a forecast model related to wind generation. (authors)

7. Financing wind projects

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manson, J.

2006-01-01

This presentation reviewed some of the partnership opportunities available from GE Energy. GE Energy's ecomagination commitment has promised to double research investment, make customers true partners and reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). GE Energy's renewable energy team provides a broad range of financial products, and has recently funded 30 wind farms and 2 large solar projects. The company has a diverse portfolio of technology providers and wind regimes, and is increasing their investment in technology. GE Energy recognizes that the wind industry is growing rapidly and has received increased regulatory support that is backed by strong policy and public support. It is expected that Canada will have 3006 wind projects either planned or under construction by 2007. According to GE Energy, successful wind financing is dependent on the location of the site and its wind resources, as well as on the wind developer's power sales agreement. The success of a wind project is also determined by clear financing goals. Site-specific data is needed to determine the quality of wind resource, and off-site data can also be used to provide validation. Proximity to load centres will help to minimize capital costs. Power sales agreements should be based on the project's realistic net capacity factor as well as on the cost of the turbines. The economics of many wind farms is driven by the size of the turbines used. Public consultations are also needed to ensure the success of wind power projects. It was concluded that a good partner will have staying power in the wind power industry, and will understand the time-lines and needs that are peculiar to wind energy developers. refs., tabs., figs

8. Noise from wind turbines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

2002-02-01

A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

9. Partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Evans, Lawrence C

2010-01-01

This text gives a comprehensive survey of modern techniques in the theoretical study of partial differential equations (PDEs) with particular emphasis on nonlinear equations. The exposition is divided into three parts: representation formulas for solutions; theory for linear partial differential equations; and theory for nonlinear partial differential equations. Included are complete treatments of the method of characteristics; energy methods within Sobolev spaces; regularity for second-order elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic equations; maximum principles; the multidimensional calculus of variations; viscosity solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi equations; shock waves and entropy criteria for conservation laws; and, much more.The author summarizes the relevant mathematics required to understand current research in PDEs, especially nonlinear PDEs. While he has reworked and simplified much of the classical theory (particularly the method of characteristics), he primarily emphasizes the modern interplay between funct...

10. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wei Khim Ng

2009-02-01

Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

11. Differential equations for dummies

CERN Document Server

Holzner, Steven

2008-01-01

The fun and easy way to understand and solve complex equations Many of the fundamental laws of physics, chemistry, biology, and economics can be formulated as differential equations. This plain-English guide explores the many applications of this mathematical tool and shows how differential equations can help us understand the world around us. Differential Equations For Dummies is the perfect companion for a college differential equations course and is an ideal supplemental resource for other calculus classes as well as science and engineering courses. It offers step-by-step techniques, practical tips, numerous exercises, and clear, concise examples to help readers improve their differential equation-solving skills and boost their test scores.

12. Degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations

CERN Document Server

Favini, Angelo

2012-01-01

The aim of these notes is to include in a uniform presentation style several topics related to the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, treated in the mathematical framework of evolution equations with multivalued m-accretive operators in Hilbert spaces. The problems concern nonlinear parabolic equations involving two cases of degeneracy. More precisely, one case is due to the vanishing of the time derivative coefficient and the other is provided by the vanishing of the diffusion coefficient on subsets of positive measure of the domain. From the mathematical point of view the results presented in these notes can be considered as general results in the theory of degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations. However, this work does not seek to present an exhaustive study of degenerate diffusion equations, but rather to emphasize some rigorous and efficient techniques for approaching various problems involving degenerate nonlinear diffusion equations, such as well-posedness, periodic solutions, asympt...

13. Drift-Diffusion Equation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

K. Banoo

1998-01-01

equation in the discrete momentum space. This is shown to be similar to the conventional drift-diffusion equation except that it is a more rigorous solution to the Boltzmann equation because the current and carrier densities are resolved into M×1 vectors, where M is the number of modes in the discrete momentum space. The mobility and diffusion coefficient become M×M matrices which connect the M momentum space modes. This approach is demonstrated by simulating electron transport in bulk silicon.

14. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Krogh, F. T.

1987-01-01

Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

15. Reactimeter dispersion equation

OpenAIRE

A.G. Yuferov

2016-01-01

The aim of this work is to derive and analyze a reactimeter metrological model in the form of the dispersion equation which connects reactimeter input/output signal dispersions with superimposed random noise at the inlet. It is proposed to standardize the reactimeter equation form, presenting the main reactimeter computing unit by a convolution equation. Hence, the reactimeter metrological characteristics are completely determined by this unit hardware function which represents a transient re...

16. Differential equations I essentials

CERN Document Server

REA, Editors of

2012-01-01

REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Differential Equations I covers first- and second-order equations, series solutions, higher-order linear equations, and the Laplace transform.

17. Wind Turbine Converter Control Interaction with Complex Wind Farm Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

2013-01-01

. The same wind turbine converter control strategy is evaluated in two different wind farms. It is emphasised that the grid-side converter controller should be characterised by sufficient harmonic/noise rejection and adjusted depending on wind farms to which it is connected. Various stability indices......This study presents wind turbine converter stability analysis of wind farms in frequency domain. The interaction between the wind turbine control system and the wind farm structure in wind farms is deeply investigated. Two wind farms (i.e. Horns Rev II and Karnice) are taken into consideration...... in this study. It is shown that wind farm components, such as long high-voltage alternating current cables and park transformers, can introduce significant low-frequency series resonances seen from the wind turbine terminals that can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall wind farm stability...

18. A new evolution equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Laenen, E.

1995-01-01

We propose a new evolution equation for the gluon density relevant for the region of small x B . It generalizes the GLR equation and allows deeper penetration in dense parton systems than the GLR equation does. This generalization consists of taking shadowing effects more comprehensively into account by including multigluon correlations, and allowing for an arbitrary initial gluon distribution in a hadron. We solve the new equation for fixed α s . We find that the effects of multigluon correlations on the deep-inelastic structure function are small. (orig.)

19. Along-wind response of a wind turbine tower with blade coupling subjected to rotationally sampled wind loading

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Murtagh, P J; Basu, B; Broderick, B M [Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland)

2005-07-15

20. Wind Energy Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

2017-01-01

transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve......Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

1. Wind energy economics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Milborrow, D.J.

1995-01-01

The economics of wind energy have improved rapidly in the past few years, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. As bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, the effect on the price of wind energy is discussed. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than that of centralised plant, since it is fed into the low voltage distribution network and it follows that the price of wind energy is converging with its value. The paper also includes a brief review of the capacity credit of wind plant and an assessment of the cost penalties which are incurred due to the need to hold extra plant on part load. These penalties are shown to be small. (author)

2. Wind power in France

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

2015-01-01

After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

3. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

2003-01-01

The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

4. Noise from wind turbines

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Andersen, B.; Jakobsen, J.

1992-11-01

Based on a previous project concerning the calculation of the amount of noise emanating from wind turbine arrays, this one examines the subject further by investigating whether there could be significant differences in the amount of noise made by individual wind turbines in an array, and whether the noise is transmitted in varying directions - so that when it is carried in the same direction as the wind blows it would appear to be louder. The aim was also to determine whether the previously used method of calculation lacked precision. It was found that differences in noise niveaux related to individual wind turbines were insignificant and that noise was not so loud when it was not borne in the direction of the wind. It was necessary to change the method of calculation as reckoning should include the influence of the terrain, wind velocity and distance. The measuring and calculation methods are exemplified and the resulting measurements are presented in detail. (AB)

5. Medicine Bow wind project

Science.gov (United States)

Nelson, L. L.

1982-05-01

The Bureau of Reclamation (Bureau) conducted studies for a wind turbine field of 100 MW at a site near Medicine Bow, WY, one of the windiest areas in the United States. The wind turbine system would be electrically interconnected to the existing Federal power grid through the substation at Medicine Bow. Power output from the wind turbines would thus be integrated with the existing hydroelectric system, which serves as the energy storage system. An analysis based on 'willingness to pay' was developed. Based on information from the Department of Energy's Western Area Power Administration (Western), it was assumed that 90 mills per kWh would represent the 'willingness to pay' for onpeak power, and 45 mills per kWh for offpeak power. The report concludes that a 100-MW wind field at Medicine Bow has economic and financial feasibility. The Bureau's construction of the Medicine Bow wind field could demonstrate to the industry the feasibility of wind energy.

6. Wind farm economics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Milborrow, D.J.

1995-01-01

The economics of wind energy are changing rapidly, with improvements in machine performance and increases in size both contributing to reduce costs. These trends are examined and future costs assessed. Although the United Kingdom has regions of high wind speed, these are often in difficult terrain and construction costs are often higher than elsewhere in Europe. Nevertheless, wind energy costs are converging with those of the conventional thermal sources. At present, bank loan periods for wind projects are shorter than for thermal plant, which means that energy prices are higher. Ways of overcoming this problem are explored. It is important, also, to examine the value of wind energy. It is argued that wind energy has a higher value than energy from centralized plant, since it is fed into the low-voltage distribution network. (Author)

7. SERI Wind Energy Program

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Noun, R. J.

1983-06-01

The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

8. Modal Analysis on Fluid-Structure Interaction of MW-Level Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Tower

OpenAIRE

Tan Jiqiu; Zhong Dingqing; Wang Qiong

2014-01-01

In order to avoid resonance problem of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine induced by wind, a flow field model of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine is established by using the fluid flow control equations, calculate flow’s velocity and pressure of the MW-level vertical axis wind turbine and load onto tower’s before and after surface, study the Modal analysis of fluid-structure interaction of MW-level vertical axis wind turbine tower. The results show that fluid-structure interaction fie...

9. Economics of wind energy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ranganathan, V.; Kumar, H.P.S.

1991-01-01

Conventional economic analysis of wind energy often ignores the fact that it is not an energy source available on tap, but is intermittent. The analysis at times is discriminatory in the sense that the costs of transmission and distribution are added to the central grid alternative but the costs of the locational constraints of wind energy siting are not quantified. This paper evaluates wind energy after correcting for these two factors. The results are not encouraging

10. Wind power barometer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2014-01-01

The worldwide wind power increased by 12.4% in 2013 to reach 318.6 GW but the world market globally decreased by losing 10 GW: only 35.6 GW have been installed in 2013 which is even less than was installed in 2009. This activity contraction is mainly due to the collapse of the American market, American authorities having been late to decide to maintain federal incentives. The European wind power market also contracted in 2013 because of the lack of trust of the investors in the new energy policies of the European governments. In the rest of the world wind energy has kept on growing particularly in China and Canada. At the end of 2013 the cumulated wind power reached 117,73 GW in Europe. About 1.5 MW out of 10 MW of wind power installed in Europe in 2013 come from off-shore wind farms, United-Kingdom and Denmark being the most important players by totalling more than 70% of the off-shore wind power installed at the end of 2013. Various charts and tables give the figures of the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 in different parts of the world: Europe, North America and Asia, the time evolution of the worldwide wind power since 1995, the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 for the different countries of Europe and the ratio between the cumulated wind power and the country population. A table lists the main manufacturers of wind turbines and gives their turnover and number of employees at the end of 2013

11. Wind power generation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anon.

1999-01-01

The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

12. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jose Zayas, Michael Derby, Patrick Gilman and Shreyas Ananthan,

2015-05-01

Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

13. Wind and Yaw correlation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

The report describes measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. A comparison between wind speed on the metmast and Nacelle Windspeed are made and the results are presented on graphs and in a table. The data used for the comparison are identical with the data used for the Risø-I-3246(EN) po......) power curve report. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1] and the wind and yaw correlation is analyzed in accordance to Ref. [2]....

14. INFERENCE AND SENSITIVITY IN STOCHASTIC WIND POWER FORECAST MODELS.

KAUST Repository

Elkantassi, Soumaya

2017-10-03

Reliable forecasting of wind power generation is crucial to optimal control of costs in generation of electricity with respect to the electricity demand. Here, we propose and analyze stochastic wind power forecast models described by parametrized stochastic differential equations, which introduce appropriate fluctuations in numerical forecast outputs. We use an approximate maximum likelihood method to infer the model parameters taking into account the time correlated sets of data. Furthermore, we study the validity and sensitivity of the parameters for each model. We applied our models to Uruguayan wind power production as determined by historical data and corresponding numerical forecasts for the period of March 1 to May 31, 2016.

15. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hao Hu

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP, was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement.

16. INFERENCE AND SENSITIVITY IN STOCHASTIC WIND POWER FORECAST MODELS.

KAUST Repository

Elkantassi, Soumaya; Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Tempone, Raul

2017-01-01

Reliable forecasting of wind power generation is crucial to optimal control of costs in generation of electricity with respect to the electricity demand. Here, we propose and analyze stochastic wind power forecast models described by parametrized stochastic differential equations, which introduce appropriate fluctuations in numerical forecast outputs. We use an approximate maximum likelihood method to infer the model parameters taking into account the time correlated sets of data. Furthermore, we study the validity and sensitivity of the parameters for each model. We applied our models to Uruguayan wind power production as determined by historical data and corresponding numerical forecasts for the period of March 1 to May 31, 2016.

17. Optimization of wind turbine rotors

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nygaard, Tor Anders

1999-07-01

The Constrained Steepest Descent method has been applied to the optimization of wind turbine rotors through the development of a numerical model. The model consists of an optimization kernel, an aerodynamic model, a structural dynamic model of a rotating beam, and a cost model for the wind turbine. The cost of energy is minimized directly by varying the blade design, the rotational speed and the resulting design of the drive-train and tower. The aerodynamic model is a combination of a fast engineering model based on strip-theory and two and three-dimensional Euler solvers. The two-dimensional Euler solver is used for generation of pre-stall airfoil data. Comparisons with experimental data verify that the engineering model effectively approximates non-stalled flow, except at the blade tip. The three-dimensional Euler solver is in good agreement with the experimental data at the tip, and is therefore a useful supplement for corrections of the tip-loss model, and evaluation of an optimized design. The structural dynamic model evaluates stresses and deformations for the blade. It is based on constitutive relations for a slender beam that are solved with the equations of motions using a finite-difference method. The cost model evaluates the design change of the wind turbine and the resulting costs that occur when a change in blade design modifies the blade mass and the overall forces. The cost model is based on engineering design rules for the drive-train and tower. The model was applied using a Danish 600 kW wind turbine as a reference. Two rotors were optimized using traditional NACA airfoils and a new low-lift airfoil family developed specifically for wind turbine purposes. The cost of energy decreased four percent for the NACA rotor, and seven percent for the low-lift rotor. Optimizations with a high number of degrees of freedom show that a designer has considerable flexibility in choosing some primary parameters such as rated power and rotor diameter, if the rest

18. Vertical axis wind turbines

Science.gov (United States)

Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

2011-03-08

A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

19. Vertical axis wind turbine

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obretenov, V.; Tsalov, T.; Chakarov, T.

2012-01-01

In recent years, the interest in wind turbines with vertical axis noticeably increased. They have some important advantages: low cost, relatively simple structure, reliable packaging system of wind aggregate long period during which require no maintenance, low noise, independence of wind direction, etc.. The relatively low efficiency, however, makes them applicable mainly for small facilities. The work presents a methodology and software for approximately aerodynamic design of wind turbines of this type, and also analyzed the possibility of improving the efficiency of their workflow

20. Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel

Data.gov (United States)

Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Microsystem Aeromechanics Wind Tunnel advances the study of fundamental flow physics relevant to micro air vehicle (MAV) flight and assesses vehicle performance...

1. Wind power in Norway

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1998-01-01

This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

2. Could wind replace nuclear?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2017-01-01

This article aims at assessing the situation produced by a total replacement of nuclear energy by wind energy, while facing consumption demand at any moment, notably in December. The authors indicate the evolution of the French energy mix during December 2016, and the evolution of the rate between wind energy production and the sum of nuclear and wind energy production during the same month, and then give briefly some elements regarding necessary investments in wind energy to wholly replace nuclear energy. According to them, such a replacement would be ruinous

3. Wind Turbine Technologies

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Anca Daniela

2017-01-01

, and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

4. Winds of change

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Palmer, C.; Short, L.

1998-01-01

The British countryside is oversubscribed with multiple and often irreconcilable demands. The siting of wind turbines is but one facet of this situation. While the problems of these demands are widely recognised, there is little understanding or agreement on how to resolve them. The 1996 Future Landscape: New Partnerships was an attempt to address this challenge. The use of wind energy as a case study initiated a partnership between contemporary artists and the wind energy industry. It became clear that artists have an important role to play in creating new ways of seeing that will establish wind turbines as new icons for a sustainable future. (Author)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Davies, N.G.

1995-01-01

This report examines the possible degradations of radar performance that may be caused by the presence of a wind turbine generator within the radar coverage area. A brief literature survey reviews the previously published work, which is mainly concerned with degradation of broadcast TV reception. Estimates are made of wind turbine generator scattering cross-sections, and of the time and Doppler characteristics of the echo signals from representative wind turbine generator. The general characteristics of radar detection and tracking methods are described, and the behaviour of such systems in the presence of strong returns from a wind turbine generator (or an array of them) is discussed. (author)

6. Wind power prediction models

Science.gov (United States)

Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

1976-01-01

Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

7. Wind on the moors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Martin, S.

1992-01-01

A local town councillor describes the setting up of a wind farm in the south Pennines which plans to sell electricity to the local electricity suppliers. The Coal Clough wind farm will generate sufficient electricity to meet the average demand of 7,500 households and will be managed by a consortium known as Wind Resources Limited linking the construction company and the utilities aiming to buy the electricity produced. While wind power offers many environmental advantages over other means of power generation, local opposition was strong on the basis of the noise produced and clearly visible structures in an area designated as being of outstanding natural beauty. (UK)

8. Offshore Wind Farms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Courtney, Michael

2015-01-01

: the rotor, the nacelle, the tower, and the foundation. Further the determinations of the essential environmental conditions are treated: the wind field, the wave field, the sea current, and the soil conditions. The various options for grid connections, advantages, and disadvantages are discussed. Of special...... concern are the problems associated with locating the turbines close together in a wind farm and the problems of placing several large wind farms in a confined area. The environmental impacts of offshore wind farms are also treated, but not the supply chain, that is, the harbors, the installation vessels...

9. Climate Wind Power Resources

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nana M. Berdzenishvili

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

10. Wind energy statistics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Holttinen, H.; Tammelin, B.; Hyvoenen, R.

1997-01-01

The recording, analyzing and publishing of statistics of wind energy production has been reorganized in cooperation of VTT Energy, Finnish Meteorological (FMI Energy) and Finnish Wind Energy Association (STY) and supported by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM). VTT Energy has developed a database that contains both monthly data and information on the wind turbines, sites and operators involved. The monthly production figures together with component failure statistics are collected from the operators by VTT Energy, who produces the final wind energy statistics to be published in Tuulensilmae and reported to energy statistics in Finland and abroad (Statistics Finland, Eurostat, IEA). To be able to verify the annual and monthly wind energy potential with average wind energy climate a production index in adopted. The index gives the expected wind energy production at various areas in Finland calculated using real wind speed observations, air density and a power curve for a typical 500 kW-wind turbine. FMI Energy has produced the average figures for four weather stations using the data from 1985-1996, and produces the monthly figures. (orig.)

11. Wind Energy Facilities

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Laurie, Carol

2017-02-01

This book takes readers inside the places where daily discoveries shape the next generation of wind power systems. Energy Department laboratory facilities span the United States and offer wind research capabilities to meet industry needs. The facilities described in this book make it possible for industry players to increase reliability, improve efficiency, and reduce the cost of wind energy -- one discovery at a time. Whether you require blade testing or resource characterization, grid integration or high-performance computing, Department of Energy laboratory facilities offer a variety of capabilities to meet your wind research needs.

12. Wind Power in Georgia

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NONE

2012-11-01

Georgia has good wind power potential. Preliminary analyses show that the technical wind power potential in Georgia is good. Meteorological data shows that Georgia has four main areas in Georgia with annual average wind speeds of over 6 m/s and two main areas with 5-6 m/s at 80m. The most promising areas are the high mountain zone of the Great Caucasus, The Kura river valley, The South-Georgian highland and the Southern part of the Georgian Black Sea coast. Czech company Wind Energy Invest has recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Georgian authorities for development of the first wind farm in Georgia, a 50MW wind park in Paravani, Southern Georgia, to be completed in 2014. Annual generation is estimated to 170.00 GWh and the investment estimated to 101 million US$. Wind power is suited to balance hydropower in the Georgian electricity sector Electricity generation in Georgia is dominated by hydro power, constituting 88% of total generation in 2009. Limited storage capacity and significant spring and summer peaks in river flows result in an uneven annual generation profile and winter time shortages that are covered by three gas power plants. Wind power is a carbon-free energy source well suited to balance hydropower, as it is available (often strongest) in the winter and can be exported when there is a surplus. Another advantage with wind power is the lead time for the projects; the time from site selection to operation for a wind power park (approximately 2.5 years) is much shorter than for hydro power (often 6-8 years). There is no support system or scheme for renewable sources in Georgia, so wind power has to compete directly with other energy sources and is in most cases more expensive to build than hydro power. In a country and region with rapidly increasing energy demands, the factors described above nevertheless indicate that there is a commercial niche and a role to play for Georgian wind power. Skra: An example of a wind power development 13. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States) 2013-07-01 Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation. 14. Equational type logic NARCIS (Netherlands) Manca, V.; Salibra, A.; Scollo, Giuseppe 1990-01-01 Equational type logic is an extension of (conditional) equational logic, that enables one to deal in a single, unified framework with diverse phenomena such as partiality, type polymorphism and dependent types. In this logic, terms may denote types as well as elements, and atomic formulae are either 15. Alternative equations of gravitation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Pinto Neto, N. 1983-01-01 It is shown, trough a new formalism, that the quantum fluctuation effects of the gravitational field in Einstein's equations are analogs to the effects of a continuum medium in Maxwell's Electrodynamics. Following, a real example of the applications of these equations is studied. Qunatum fluctuations effects as perturbation sources in Minkowski and Friedmann Universes are examined. (L.C.) [pt 16. Reduced Braginskii equations Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Yagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Horton, W. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies 1993-11-01 A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite {beta} that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohms law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation {del} {center_dot} j = 0. 17. Reduced Braginskii equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Yagi, M.; Horton, W. 1993-11-01 A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that we solve the perpendicular component of Ohm's law to conserve the physical energy while ensuring the relation ∇ · j = 0 18. Reduced Braginskii equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Yagi, M.; Horton, W. 1994-01-01 A set of reduced Braginskii equations is derived without assuming flute ordering and the Boussinesq approximation. These model equations conserve the physical energy. It is crucial at finite β that the perpendicular component of Ohm's law be solved to ensure ∇·j=0 for energy conservation 19. Model Compaction Equation African Journals Online (AJOL) The currently proposed model compaction equation was derived from data sourced from the. Niger Delta and it relates porosity to depth for sandstones under hydrostatic pressure condition. The equation is useful in predicting porosity and compaction trend in hydrostatic sands of the. Niger Delta. GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF ... 20. The Wouthuysen equation NARCIS (Netherlands) M. Hazewinkel (Michiel) 1995-01-01 textabstractDedication: I dedicate this paper to Prof. P.C. Baayen, at the occasion of his retirement on 20 December 1994. The beautiful equation which forms the subject matter of this paper was invented by Wouthuysen after he retired. The four complex variable Wouthuysen equation arises from an 1. The generalized Fermat equation NARCIS (Netherlands) Beukers, F. 2006-01-01 This article will be devoted to generalisations of Fermat’s equation xn + yn = zn. Very soon after the Wiles and Taylor proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem, it was wondered what would happen if the exponents in the three term equation would be chosen differently. Or if coefficients other than 1 would 2. Aero-acoustics noise assessment for Wind-Lens turbine International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Hashem, I.; Mohamed, M.H.; Hafiz, A.A. 2017-01-01 This paper introduces an aero-acoustic computational study that investigates the noise caused by one of the most promising wind energy conversion concepts, namely the 'Wind-Lens' technology. The hybrid method - where the flow field and acoustic field are solved separately, was deemed to be an appropriate tool to compute this study. The need to investigate this phenomenon increased gradually, since the feasibility of utilizing Wind-Lens turbine within densely populated cities and urban areas depends largely on their noise generation. Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation and its integral solution are used to predict the noise radiating to the farfield. CFD Simulations of transient three-dimensional flow field using (URANS) unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are computed to acquire the acoustic sources location and sound intensity. Then, the noise propagates from the before-mentioned sources to pre-defined virtual microphones positioned in different locations. ANSYS-FLUENT is used to calculate the flow field on and around such turbines which is required for the FW-H code. Some effective parameters are investigated such as Wind-Lens shape, brim height and tip speed ratio. Comparison of the noise emitted from the bare wind turbine and different types of Wind-Lens turbine reveals that, the Wind-Lens generates higher noise intensity. - Highlights: • Aero-acoustic noise generated by wind turbines are one of the major challenges. • Noise from wind turbine equipped with a brimmed diffuser is investigated. • A computational aero-acoustic study using the hybrid method is introduced. • Effective parameters are studied such Wind-Lens shape, brim height and speed ratio. • The optimal shape has a moderate power coefficient and the less noise generation. 3. Magnetically driven jets and winds Science.gov (United States) Lovelace, R. V. E.; Berk, H. L.; Contopoulos, J. 1991-01-01 Four equations for the origin and propagation of nonrelativistic jets and winds are derived from the basic conservation laws of ideal MHD. The axial current density is negative in the vicinity of the axis and positive at larger radii; there is no net current because this is energetically favored. The magnetic field is essential for the jet solutions in that the zz-component of the magnetic stress acts, in opposition to gravity, to drive matter through the slow magnetosonic critical point. For a representative self-consistent disk/jet solution relevant to a protostellar system, the reaction of the accreted mass expelled in the jets is 0.1, the ratio of the power carried by the jets to the disk luminosity is 0.66, and the ratio of the boundary layer to disk luminosities is less than about 0.13. The star's rotation rate decreases with time even for rotation rates much less than the breakup rate. 4. Wind resource estimation and siting of wind turbines DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, N.G.; Landberg, L. 1994-01-01 Detailed knowledge of the characteristics of the natural wind is necessary for the design, planning and operational aspect of wind energy systems. Here, we shall only be concerned with those meteorological aspects of wind energy planning that are termed wind resource estimation. The estimation...... of the wind resource ranges from the overall estimation of the mean energy content of the wind over a large area - called regional assessment - to the prediction of the average yearly energy production of a specific wind turbine at a specific location - called siting. A regional assessment will most often...... lead to a so-called wind atlas. A precise prediction of the wind speed at a given site is essential because for aerodynamic reasons the power output of a wind turbine is proportional to the third power of the wind speed, hence even small errors in prediction of wind speed may result in large deviations... 5. Applied partial differential equations CERN Document Server Logan, J David 2004-01-01 This primer on elementary partial differential equations presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. What makes this book unique is that it is a brief treatment, yet it covers all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. Mathematical ideas are motivated from physical problems, and the exposition is presented in a concise style accessible to science and engineering students; emphasis is on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than formal theory. This second edition contains new and additional exercises, and it includes a new chapter on the applications of PDEs to biology: age structured models, pattern formation; epidemic wave fronts, and advection-diffusion processes. The student who reads through this book and solves many of t... 6. Development of an Integrated Water and Wind Erosion Model Science.gov (United States) Flanagan, D. C.; Ascough, J. C.; Wagner, L. E.; Geter, W. F. 2006-12-01 Prediction technologies for soil erosion by the forces of wind or water have largely been developed independently from one another, especially within the United States. Much of this has been due to the initial creation of equations and models which were empirical in nature (i.e., Universal Soil Loss Equation, Wind Erosion Equation) and based upon separate water erosion or wind erosion plot and field measurements. Additionally, institutional organizations in place typically divided research efforts and funding to unique wind or water erosion research and modeling projects. However, during the past 20 years computer technologies and erosion modeling have progressed to the point where it is now possible to merge physical process-based computer simulation models into an integrated water and wind erosion prediction system. In a physically- based model, many of the processes which must be simulated for wind and water erosion computations are the same, e.g., climate, water balance, runoff, plant growth, etc. Model components which specifically deal with the wind or water detachment, transport and deposition processes are those that must differ, as well as any necessary parameterization of input variables (e.g., adjusted soil erodibilities, critical shear stresses, etc.) for those components. This presentation describes current efforts towards development of a combined wind and water erosion model, based in part upon technologies present in the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) and the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS) models. Initial efforts during the past two years have resulted in modular modeling components that allow for prediction of infiltration, surface runoff, and water erosion at a hillslope scale within an Object Modeling System. Additional components currently in development include wind detachment at a single field point, continuous water balance, and unified plant growth. Challenges in this project are many, and include adequate field 7. A wind turbine hybrid simulation framework considering aeroelastic effects Science.gov (United States) Song, Wei; Su, Weihua 2015-04-01 In performing an effective structural analysis for wind turbine, the simulation of turbine aerodynamic loads is of great importance. The interaction between the wake flow and the blades may impact turbine blades loading condition, energy yield and operational behavior. Direct experimental measurement of wind flow field and wind profiles around wind turbines is very helpful to support the wind turbine design. However, with the growth of the size of wind turbines for higher energy output, it is not convenient to obtain all the desired data in wind-tunnel and field tests. In this paper, firstly the modeling of dynamic responses of large-span wind turbine blades will consider nonlinear aeroelastic effects. A strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation will be used for the basic structural dynamic modeling, which will be coupled with unsteady aerodynamic equations and rigid-body rotations of the rotor. Full wind turbines can be modeled by using the multi-connected beams. Then, a hybrid simulation experimental framework is proposed to potentially address this issue. The aerodynamic-dominant components, such as the turbine blades and rotor, are simulated as numerical components using the nonlinear aeroelastic model; while the turbine tower, where the collapse of failure may occur under high level of wind load, is simulated separately as the physical component. With the proposed framework, dynamic behavior of NREL's 5MW wind turbine blades will be studied and correlated with available numerical data. The current work will be the basis of the authors' further studies on flow control and hazard mitigation on wind turbine blades and towers. 8. Sensing the wind profile Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Pena, A. 2009-03-15 This thesis consists of two parts. The first is a synopsis of the theoretical progress of the study that is based on a number of journal papers. The papers, which constitute the second part of the report, aim to analyze, measure, and model the wind prole in and beyond the surface layer by combining observations from cup anemometers with lidars. The lidar is necessary to extend the measurements on masts at the Horns Rev offshore wind farm and over at land at Hoevsoere, Denmark. Both sensing techniques show a high degree of agreement for wind speed measurements performed at either sites. The wind speed measurements are averaged for several stability conditions and compare well with the surface-layer wind profile. At Hoevsoere, it is sufficient to scale the wind speed with the surface friction velocity, whereas at Horns Rev a new scaling is added, due to the variant roughness length. This new scaling is coupled to wind prole models derived for flow over the sea and tested against the wind proles up to 160 m at Horns Rev. The models, which account for the boundary-layer height in stable conditions, show better agreement with the measurements than compared to the traditional theory. Mixing-length parameterizations for the neutral wind prole compare well with length-scale measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere and 950 m at Leipzig. The mixing-length-derived wind proles strongly deviate from the logarithmic wind prole, but agree better with the wind speed measurements. The length-scale measurements are compared to the length scale derived from a spectral analysis performed up to 160 m at Hoevsoere showing high agreement. Mixing-length parameterizations are corrected to account for stability and used to derive wind prole models. These compared better to wind speed measurements up to 300 m at Hoevsoere than the surface-layer wind prole. The boundary-layer height is derived in nearneutral and stable conditions based on turbulent momentum uxes only and in unstable conditions 9. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M. 2013-01-01 We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L x rot may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking. 10. Statement on Wind Power Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) 2010-01-15 Wind power will grow in importance in future electricity supply. In the next few decades it will to some degree replace fossil power but it will, at the same time also depend on fossil-b beyond, when wind power is expected to have a substantial share of the electricity market, CO{sub 2} emission-free electricity plants that are well suited for balancing the wind intermittency will be required. Predictions of the future penetration of wind power into the electricity market are critically dependent on a number of policy measures and will be especially influenced by climate driven energy policies. Very large investments will also be necessary as is shown by the lEA's Blue Map Scenario which includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity by 2050 at a cost of USD 700 billion. This implies an average 8% increase of wind electricity per year energy system, i.e. an energy system so large that it affects the entire world. The Energy Committee's scenario for electricity production in the year 2050 includes 5,000 TWh wind electricity out of a total of 45,000 TWh. Wind electricity thus has a within presently reached penetration of wind energy in a single country and within the calculated future projections of its penetration. Future large continental and intercontinental power grids may enable higher penetrations of wind energy since contributions of wind power from a larger area will tend to reduce its intermittency. Also, large-scale storage systems (thermal storage as is intermittent power systems. These alternatives have been discussed from a technical point of view [3] but for the required large-scale systems, further studies on the social, environmental and economical implications are needed 11. Wind energy - an overview International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Rangi, R.; Oprisan, M. 1998-01-01 The current status of wind technology developments in Canada and around the world was reviewed. Information regarding the level of wind turbine deployment was presented. It was shown that significant effort has been made on the national and international level to increase the capacity of this clean, non-polluting form of energy. Wind energy has become competitive with conventional sources of electricity due to lower cost, higher efficiency and improved reliability of generating equipment. The advantages and disadvantages of wind electricity generating systems and the economics and atmospheric emissions of the systems were described. At present, there is about 23 MW of wind energy generating capacity installed in Canada, but the potential is very large. It was suggested that wind energy could supply as much as 60 per cent of Canada's electricity needs if only one per cent of the land with 'good winds' were covered by wind turbines. Recently, the Canadian government has provided an accelerated capital cost allowance for certain types of renewable energies under the Income Tax Act, and the flow-through share financing legislation to include intangible expenses in certain renewable energy projects has been extended. Besides the support provided to the private sector through tax advantages, the Government also supports renewable energy development by purchasing 'green' energy for its own buildings across the country, and by funding a research and development program to identify and promote application of wind energy technologies, improve its cost effectiveness, and support Canadian wind energy industries with technology development to enhance their competitiveness at home and abroad. Details of the Wind Energy Program, operated by Natural Resources Canada, are described. 3 tabs., 5 figs 12. On multivariate imputation and forecasting of decadal wind speed missing data. Science.gov (United States) Wesonga, Ronald 2015-01-01 This paper demonstrates the application of multiple imputations by chained equations and time series forecasting of wind speed data. The study was motivated by the high prevalence of missing wind speed historic data. Findings based on the fully conditional specification under multiple imputations by chained equations, provided reliable wind speed missing data imputations. Further, the forecasting model shows, the smoothing parameter, alpha (0.014) close to zero, confirming that recent past observations are more suitable for use to forecast wind speeds. The maximum decadal wind speed for Entebbe International Airport was estimated to be 17.6 metres per second at a 0.05 level of significance with a bound on the error of estimation of 10.8 metres per second. The large bound on the error of estimations confirms the dynamic tendencies of wind speed at the airport under study. 13. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant NARCIS (Netherlands) Zhou, Y. 2009-01-01 As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power 14. Models for wind turbines - a collection Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Larsen, G.C.; Hansen, M.H. (eds.); Baumgart, A. 2002-02-01 This report is a collection of notes which were intended to be short communications. Main target of the work presented is to supply new approaches to stability investigations of wind turbines. The authors opinion is that an efficient, systematic stability analysis can not be performed for large systems of differential equations (i.e. the order of the differential equations > 100), because numerical 'effects' in the solution of the equations of motion as initial value problem, eigenvalue problem or whatsoever become predominant. It is therefore necessary to find models which are reduced to the elementary coordinates but which can still describe the physical processes under consideration with sufficiently good accuracy. Such models are presented. (au) 15. Wind Climate Parameters for Wind Turbine Fatigue Load Assessment DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Svenningsen, Lasse; Moser, Wolfgang 2016-01-01 Site-specific assessment of wind turbine design requires verification that the individual wind turbine components can survive the site-specific wind climate. The wind turbine design standard, IEC 61400-1 (third edition), describes how this should be done using a simplified, equivalent wind climate...... climate required by the current design standard by comparing damage equivalent fatigue loads estimated based on wind climate parameters for each 10 min time-series with fatigue loads estimated based on the equivalent wind climate parameters. Wind measurements from Boulder, CO, in the United States... 16. High-efficiency wind turbine Science.gov (United States) Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N. 1980-01-01 Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind. 17. Grid Integration Research | Wind | NREL Science.gov (United States) Grid Integration Research Grid Integration Research Researchers study grid integration of wind three wind turbines with transmission lines in the background. Capabilities NREL's grid integration electric power system operators to more efficiently manage wind grid system integration. A photo of 18. Status of Wind Power Technologies DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei 2018-01-01 With the development of wind turbine technology, wind power will become more controllable and grid‐friendly. It is desirable to make wind farms operate as conventional power plants. Wind turbine generators (WTGs) were mainly used in rural and remote areas for wind power generation. WTG‐based wind...... energy conversion systems (WECS) can be divided into the four main types (type 1‐4). Due to the inherent variability and uncertainty of the wind, the integration of wind power into the grid has brought challenges in several different areas, including power quality, system reliability, stability......, and planning. The impact of each is largely dependent on the level of wind power penetration in the grid. In many countries, relatively high levels of wind power penetration have been achieved. This chapter shows the estimated wind power penetration in leading wind markets.... 19. Type IV Wind Turbine Model DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D. . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level... 20. Fort Carson Wind Resource Assessment Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Robichaud, R. 2012-10-01 This report focuses on the wind resource assessment, the estimated energy production of wind turbines, and economic potential of a wind turbine project on a ridge in the southeastern portion of the Fort Carson Army base. 1. NORCOWE Reference Wind Farm DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Bak, Thomas; Graham, Angus 2015-01-01 Offshore wind farms are complex systems, influenced by both the environment (e.g. wind, waves, current and seabed) and the design characteristics of the equipment available for installation (e.g. turbine type, foundations, cabling and distance to shore). These aspects govern the capital and opera... 2. Alcoa wind turbines Science.gov (United States) Ai, D. K. 1979-01-01 An overview of Alcoa's wind energy program is given with emphasis on the the development of a low cost, reliable Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine System. The design layouts and drawings for fabrication are now complete, while fabrication and installation to utilize the design are expected to begin shortly. 3. The difficult wind power International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Groenaas, Sigbjoern 2005-01-01 The article presents a brief survey of the conditions for wind power production in Norway and points out that several areas should be well suited. A comparison to Danish climate is made. The wind variations, turbulence problems and regional conditions are discussed 4. Wind Energy Systems. Science.gov (United States) Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD. During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a… 5. Emerging wind energy technologies DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Rasmussen, Flemming; Grivel, Jean-Claude; Faber, Michael Havbro 2014-01-01 This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.......This chapter will discuss emerging technologies that are expected to continue the development of the wind sector to embrace new markets and to become even more competitive.... 6. Fixture for winding transformers Science.gov (United States) Mclyman, M. T. 1980-01-01 Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held. 7. Wind turbines and infrasound International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Howe, B. 2006-01-01 This paper provided the results of a study conducted to assess the impacts of wind farm-induced infrasound on nearby residences and human populations. Infrasound occurs at frequencies below those considered as detectable by human hearing. Infrasonic levels caused by wind turbines are often similar to ambient levels of 85 dBG or lower that are caused by wind in the natural environment. This study examined the levels at which infrasound poses a threat to human health or can be considered as an annoyance. The study examined levels of infrasound caused by various types of wind turbines, and evaluated acoustic phenomena and characteristics associated with wind turbines. Results of the study suggested that infrasound near modern wind turbines is typically not perceptible to humans through either auditory or non-auditory mechanisms. However, wind turbines often create an audible broadband noise whose amplitude can be modulated at low frequencies. A review of both Canadian and international studies concluded that infrasound generated by wind turbines should not significantly impact nearby residences or human populations. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs 8. The wind farm business International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Kirby, T. 1995-01-01 This article highlights the tasks to be undertaken by the wind farm business starting with the initial site selection, through the planning stage and the consideration of technical matters, to the implementation and financial aspects. The current situation in the UK with regard to installed wind turbines, public attitude, and future prospects are discussed. (UK) 9. South Baltic Wind Atlas DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Hasager, Charlotte Bay A first version of a wind atlas for the South Baltic Sea has been developed using the WRF mesoscale model and verified by data from tall Danish and German masts. Six different boundary-layer parametrization schemes were evaluated by comparing the WRF results to the observed wind profiles at the m... 10. Assessing offshore wind potential International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Adelaja, Adesoji; McKeown, Charles; Calnin, Benjamin; Hailu, Yohannes 2012-01-01 Quantifying wind potential is a pivotal initial step in developing and articulating a state’s policies and strategies for offshore wind industry development. This is particularly important in the Great Lakes States where lessons from other offshore environments are not directly applicable. This paper presents the framework developed for conducting a preliminary assessment of offshore wind potential. Information on lake bathymetry and wind resources were combined in simulating alternative scenarios of technically feasible turbine construction depths and distance concerns by stakeholders. These yielded estimates of developable offshore wind areas and potential power generation. While concerns about the visibility of turbines from shore reduce the power that can be generated, engineering solutions that increase the depths at which turbines can be sited increase such potential power output. This paper discusses the costs associated with technical limitations on depth and the social costs related to public sentiments about distance from the shoreline, as well as the possible tradeoffs. The results point to a very large untapped energy resource in the Michigan’s Great Lakes, large enough to prompt policy action from the state government. - Highlights: ▶ We build a theoretical framework for modeling offshore wind power production. ▶ Illustration of the impact of technology and social limitations on offshore wind energy development. ▶ Geospatial modeling of the offshore wind potential of the Great Lakes. 11. MODELLING OF TURBULENT WAKE FOR TWO WIND TURBINES Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Arina S. Kryuchkova 2018-01-01 Full Text Available The construction of several large wind farms (The Ulyanovsk region, the Republic of Adygea, the Kaliningrad region, the North of the Russian Federation is planned on the territory of the Russian Federation in 2018–2020. The tasks, connected with the design of new wind farms, are currently important. One of the possible direction in the design is connected with mathematical modeling. Large eddy method (eddy-resolving simulation, developed within the Computational Fluid Dynamics, allows to reproduce unsteady structure of the flow in details and define various integrated characteristics for wind turbines. The mathematical model included the main equations of continuity and momentum equations for incompressible viscous flow. The large-scale vortex structures were calculated by means of integration the filtered equations. The calculation was carried out using lagrangian dynamic Smagorinsky’s model to define turbulent subgrid viscosity. The parallelepiped-shaped numerical domain and 3 different unstructured meshes (with 2,4,8 million cells were used for numerical simulation.The geometrical parameters of wind turbine were set proceeding to open sources for BlindTest 2–4 project from Internet. All physical values were defined at the center of computational cell. The approximation of items in the equations was performed with the second order of accuracy for time and space. The equations for coupling of velocity, pressure were solved by means of iterative algorithm PIMPLE. The total quantity of the calculated physical values at each time step was equal 18. So, the resources of a high performance computer were required. As a result of flow simulation in the wake for two three-bladed wind turbines the average and instantaneous values of velocity, pressure, subgrid kinetic energy, turbulent viscosity, components of stress tensor were calculated. The received results qualitatively matching the known results of experiment and numerical simulation testify 12. Global Climatology of the Coastal Low-Level Wind Jets using different Reanalysis Science.gov (United States) Lima, Daniela C. A.; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Semedo, Alvaro; Cardoso, Rita M. 2016-04-01 Coastal Low-Level Jets (henceforth referred to as "coastal jets" or simply as CLLJ) are low-tropospheric mesoscale wind features, with wind speed maxima confined to the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL), typically bellow 1km. Coastal jets occur in the eastern flank of the semi-permanent subtropical mid-latitude high pressure systems, along equatorward eastern boundary currents, due to a large-scale synoptic forcing. The large-scale synoptic forcing behind CLLJ occurrences is a high pressure system over the ocean and a thermal low inland. This results in coastal parallel winds that are the consequence of the geostrophic adjustment. CLLJ are found along the California (California-Oregon) and the Canary (Iberia and Northeastern Africa) currents in the Northern Hemisphere, and along the Peru-Humboldt (Peru-Chile), Benguela (Namibia) and Western Australia (West Australia) currents in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Arabian Sea (Oman CLLJ), the interaction between the high pressure over the Indian Ocean in summer (Summer Indian Monsoon) and the Somali (also known as Findlater) Jet forces a coastal jet wind feature off the southeast coast of Oman. Coastal jets play an important role in the regional climates of the mid-latitude western continental regions. The decrease of the sea surface temperatures (SST) along the coast due to upwelling lowers the evaporation over the ocean and the coast parallel winds prevents the advection of marine air inshore. The feedback processes between the CLLJ and upwelling play a crucial role in the regional climate, namely, promoting aridity since the parallel flow prevents the intrusion of moisture inland, and increasing fish stocks through the transport of rich nutrient cold water from the bottom. In this study, the global coastal low-level wind jets are identified and characterized using an ensemble of three reanalysis, the ECMWF Interim Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) and the NCEP Climate Forecast 13. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting Science.gov (United States) Barrett, Joe H., III 2010-01-01 The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded 14. Offshore Wind Power DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Negra, Nicola Barberis reliability models, and a new model that accounts for all relevant factors that influence the evaluations is developed. According to this representation, some simulations are performed and both the points of view of the wind farm owner and the system operator are evaluated and compared. A sequential Monte...... Carlo simulation is used for these calculations: this method, in spite of an extended computation time, has shown flexibility in performing reliability studies, especially in case of wind generation, and a broad range of results which can be evaluated. The modelling is then extended to the entire power......The aim of the project is to investigate the influence of wind farms on the reliability of power systems. This task is particularly important for large offshore wind farms, because failure of a large wind farm might have significant influence on the balance of the power system, and because offshore... 15. Illinois Wind Workers Group Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) David G. Loomis 2012-05-28 The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions. 16. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hansen, Martin Otto Laver Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further... 17. Ice accreditation vs wind Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada) 2002-07-01 Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model. 18. Wind power forecast Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Pestana, Rui [Rede Electrica Nacional (REN), S.A., Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. Systems and Development System Operator; Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Delgado Domingos, Jose [Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Seccao de Ambiente e Energia 2012-07-01 Accurate wind power forecast are needed to reduce integration costs in the electric grid caused by wind inherent variability. Currently, Portugal has a significant wind power penetration level and consequently the need to have reliable wind power forecasts at different temporal scales, including localized events such as ramps. This paper provides an overview of the methodologies used by REN to forecast wind power at national level, based on statistical and probabilistic combinations of NWP and measured data with the aim of improving accuracy of pure NWP. Results show that significant improvement can be achieved with statistical combination with persistence in the short-term and with probabilistic combination in the medium-term. NWP are also able to detect ramp events with 3 day notice to the operational planning. (orig.) 19. Voltage-current characteristics of multiterminal HVDC-VSC for offshore wind farms Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol [Centre d' Innovacio Tecnologica en Convertidors Estatics i Accionaments (CITCEA-UPC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya UPC, Av. Diagonal, 647, Pl. 2., 08028 Barcelona (Spain); IREC Catalonia Institute for Energy Research, Barcelona (Spain); Liang, Jun; Ekanayake, Janaka; Jenkins, Nicholas [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA, Wales (United Kingdom) 2011-02-15 Voltage-current characteristics and equilibrium points for the DC voltages of multiterminal HVDC systems using voltage source converters are discussed. The wind farm rectifiers and grid connected inverters are analyzed through their operating modes, governing equations and graphical characteristics. Using the converter equations and the HVDC grid conductance matrix the equilibrium voltages and currents are found. Case studies are presented considering wind power generation, loss of a converter and voltage sags in the AC grid. (author) 20. Tenth ASME wind energy symposium International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Berg, D.E.; Veers, P.S. 1991-01-01 This book contains papers presented at the Fourteenth Annual Energy-Sources Technology Conference and Exhibition. Included are the following papers: Wind Power Farm Site Selection, Turbulence characterization for wind energy development, Effects of insect configuration on wind turbine airfoils, Power fluctuations from horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines, Power regulation by active yaw control for a teetered wind rotor, and economic aspects of wind energy 1. Free wake analysis of wind turbine aerodynamics. Wind energy conversion. ASRL-TR-184-14 Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Gohard, J.C. 1978-09-01 The underlying theory is presented for determining blade and rotor/tower vibration and dynamic stability characteristics as well as the basic dynamic (as opposed to aerodynamic) operating loads. Starting with a simple concept of equivalent hinged rotors, the equations of motion for the blade including pitch, flap and lag motions are developed. The nonlinear equations are derived first and linearized about a finite displacement of the blade out of the plane of rotation. This is important since wind turbines tend to operate at relatively high coning angles. The effect of distributed flexibility, as opposed to the equivalent hinge concept, is then discussed. 2. Hyperbolic partial differential equations CERN Document Server Witten, Matthew 1986-01-01 Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations III is a refereed journal issue that explores the applications, theory, and/or applied methods related to hyperbolic partial differential equations, or problems arising out of hyperbolic partial differential equations, in any area of research. This journal issue is interested in all types of articles in terms of review, mini-monograph, standard study, or short communication. Some studies presented in this journal include discretization of ideal fluid dynamics in the Eulerian representation; a Riemann problem in gas dynamics with bifurcation; periodic M 3. Nonlinear diffusion equations CERN Document Server Wu Zhuo Qun; Li Hui Lai; Zhao Jun Ning 2001-01-01 Nonlinear diffusion equations, an important class of parabolic equations, come from a variety of diffusion phenomena which appear widely in nature. They are suggested as mathematical models of physical problems in many fields, such as filtration, phase transition, biochemistry and dynamics of biological groups. In many cases, the equations possess degeneracy or singularity. The appearance of degeneracy or singularity makes the study more involved and challenging. Many new ideas and methods have been developed to overcome the special difficulties caused by the degeneracy and singularity, which 4. Differential equations problem solver CERN Document Server Arterburn, David R 2012-01-01 REA's Problem Solvers is a series of useful, practical, and informative study guides. Each title in the series is complete step-by-step solution guide. The Differential Equations Problem Solver enables students to solve difficult problems by showing them step-by-step solutions to Differential Equations problems. The Problem Solvers cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced and make excellent review books and textbook companions. They're perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.The Differential Equations Problem Solver is the perfect resource for any class, any exam, and 5. Supersymmetric quasipotential equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Zaikov, R.P. 1981-01-01 A supersymmetric extension of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze quasipotential approach is suggested. The supersymmetric Bethe- Salpeter equation is an initial equation. The transition from the four-time to the two-time Green function is made in the super- center-of-mass system. The two-time Green function has no inverse function in the whole spinor space. The resolvent operator if found using the Majorana character of the spinor wave function. The supersymmetric quasipotential equation is written. The consideration is carried out in the framework of the theory of chiral scalar superfields [ru 6. Local instant conservation equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Delaje, Dzh. 1984-01-01 Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface 7. Beginning partial differential equations CERN Document Server O'Neil, Peter V 2011-01-01 A rigorous, yet accessible, introduction to partial differential equations-updated in a valuable new edition Beginning Partial Differential Equations, Second Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to partial differential equations (PDEs) with a special focus on the significance of characteristics, solutions by Fourier series, integrals and transforms, properties and physical interpretations of solutions, and a transition to the modern function space approach to PDEs. With its breadth of coverage, this new edition continues to present a broad introduction to the field, while also addres 8. Ordinary differential equations CERN Document Server Miller, Richard K 1982-01-01 Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity, 9. Uncertain differential equations CERN Document Server Yao, Kai 2016-01-01 This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of and latest findings in the area of differential equations with uncertain factors. It covers the analytic method and numerical method for solving uncertain differential equations, as well as their applications in the field of finance. Furthermore, the book provides a number of new potential research directions for uncertain differential equation. It will be of interest to researchers, engineers and students in the fields of mathematics, information science, operations research, industrial engineering, computer science, artificial intelligence, automation, economics, and management science. 10. Combined effects of air temperature, wind, and radiation on the resting metabolism of avian raptors International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Hayes, S.R. 1978-01-01 American kestrels, Falco sparverius; red-tailed hawks, Buteo jamaicensis; and golden eagles, Aquila chrysaetos, were perched in a wind tunnel and subjected to various combinations of air temperature, wind, and radiation. Oxygen consumption was measured under the various combinations of environmental variables, and multiple regression equations were developed to predict resting metabolism as a function of body mass, air temperature, wind speed, and radiation load 11. A Method for Solving the Voltage and Torque Equations of the Split ... African Journals Online (AJOL) Akorede v′ Voltage applied across the d – axis rotor winding referred ... The embedded MATLAB function and other useful blocks from the ... III. EQUATIONS OF THE SPLIT PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR. The voltage, flux and electromagnetic torque equations are ..... of single phase induction motor using frequency control method ... 12. Offshore wind energy prospects International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Gaudiosi, Gaetano 1999-01-01 In last two years offshore wind energy is becoming a focal point of national and non national organisations particularly after the limitations of fossil fuel consumption, adopted by many developed countries after Kyoto conference at the end of 1997 on global climate change. North Europe is particularly interested in offshore for the limited land areas still available, due to the intensive use of its territory and its today high wind capacity. Really the total wind capacity in Europe could increase from the 1997 value of 4450 MW up to 40 000 MW within 2010, according the White Paper 1997 of the European Commission; a significant percentage (25%) could be sited offshore up to 10 000 MW, because of close saturation of the land sites at that time. World wind capacity could increase from the 1997 value of 7200 MW up to 60 000 MW within 2010 with a good percentage (20%) offshore 12 000 MW. In last seven years wind capacity in shallow water of coastal areas has reached 34 MW. Five wind farms are functioning in the internal seas of Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden; however such siting is mostly to be considered as semi-offshore condition. Wind farms in real offshore sites, open seas with waves and water depth over 10 m, are now proposed in North Sea at 10-20 km off the coasts of Netherlands, Denmark using large size wind turbine (1-2 MW). In 1997 an offshore proposal was supported in Netherlands by Greenpeace after the OWEMES '97 seminar, held in Italy on offshore wind in the spring 1997. A review is presented in the paper of European offshore wind programs with trends in technology, economics and siting effects. (Author) 13. Aeroacoustic Calculations of Wind Turbine Noise with the Actuator Line/ Navier-Stokes Technique DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Debertshäuser, Harald; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun 2016-01-01 technique where the wind turbine flow is calculated by using the in-house actuator line/LES/Navier-Stokes technique and the acoustics is obtained by solving the acoustic perturbation equations. In the flow solver, the wind turbine blades are modelled by rotating lines with body forces determined according... 14. European Wind Atlas and Wind Resource Research in Denmark DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Mortensen, Niels Gylling to estimate the actual wind climate at any specific site and height within this region. The Danish and European Wind Atlases are examples of how the wind atlas methodology can be employed to estimate the wind resource potential for a country or a sub-continent. Recently, the methodology has also been used...... - from wind measurements at prospective sites to wind tunnel simulations and advanced flow modelling. Among these approaches, the wind atlas methodology - developed at Ris0 National Laboratory over the last 25 years - has gained widespread recognition and is presently considered by many as the industry......-standard tool for wind resource assessment and siting of wind turbines. The PC-implementation of the methodology, the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP), has been applied in more than 70 countries and territories world-wide. The wind atlas methodology is based on physical descriptions and models... 15. Strongly at the wind; Hart am Wind Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Petersen, Niels Hendrik 2013-11-01 The company Easywind from North Friesland distributes a certified and stromproof small wind turbine. More than 300 systems have been sold. In Germany especially farmers and small businesses meet their needs so. [German] Die Firma Easywind aus Nordfriesland vertreibt eine zertifizierte und sturmfeste Kleinwindanlage. Mehr als 300 Anlagen sind bereits verkauft. In Deutschland decken vor allem Landwirte und kleine Betriebe so ihren Bedarf. 16. Wind power: Italian wind power industry International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Botta, G.; Casale, C. 2008-01-01 Trends in the world point a growing wind power sector in the future taking into account the safety of energy supply and environmental issues. Will determine the future scenario of price and availability of conventional energy sources. The current level reached by the price of oil create a win-win situation [it 17. A process-based evaluation of dust-emitting winds in the CMIP5 simulation of HadGEM2-ES Science.gov (United States) Fiedler, Stephanie; Knippertz, Peter; Woodward, Stephanie; Martin, Gill M.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Ross, Andrew N.; Heinold, Bernd; Schepanski, Kerstin; Birch, Cathryn E.; Tegen, Ina 2016-02-01 Despite the importance of dust aerosol in the Earth system, state-of-the-art models show a large variety for North African dust emission. This study presents a systematic evaluation of dust emitting-winds in 30 years of the historical model simulation with the UK Met Office Earth-system model HadGEM2-ES for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. Isolating the effect of winds on dust emission and using an automated detection for nocturnal low-level jets (NLLJs) allow an in-depth evaluation of the model performance for dust emission from a meteorological perspective. The findings highlight that NLLJs are a key driver for dust emission in HadGEM2-ES in terms of occurrence frequency and strength. The annually and spatially averaged occurrence frequency of NLLJs is similar in HadGEM2-ES and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Compared to ERA-Interim, a stronger pressure ridge over northern Africa in winter and the southward displaced heat low in summer result in differences in location and strength of NLLJs. Particularly the larger geostrophic winds associated with the stronger ridge have a strengthening effect on NLLJs over parts of West Africa in winter. Stronger NLLJs in summer may rather result from an artificially increased mixing coefficient under stable stratification that is weaker in HadGEM2-ES. NLLJs in the Bodélé Depression are affected by stronger synoptic-scale pressure gradients in HadGEM2-ES. Wintertime geostrophic winds can even be so strong that the associated vertical wind shear prevents the formation of NLLJs. These results call for further model improvements in the synoptic-scale dynamics and the physical parametrization of the nocturnal stable boundary layer to better represent dust-emitting processes in the atmospheric model. The new approach could be used for identifying systematic behavior in other models with respect to meteorological processes for dust emission. This would help to improve dust 18. Applied partial differential equations CERN Document Server Logan, J David 2015-01-01 This text presents the standard material usually covered in a one-semester, undergraduate course on boundary value problems and PDEs. Emphasis is placed on motivation, concepts, methods, and interpretation, rather than on formal theory. The concise treatment of the subject is maintained in this third edition covering all the major ideas: the wave equation, the diffusion equation, the Laplace equation, and the advection equation on bounded and unbounded domains. Methods include eigenfunction expansions, integral transforms, and characteristics. In this third edition, text remains intimately tied to applications in heat transfer, wave motion, biological systems, and a variety other topics in pure and applied science. The text offers flexibility to instructors who, for example, may wish to insert topics from biology or numerical methods at any time in the course. The exposition is presented in a friendly, easy-to-read, style, with mathematical ideas motivated from physical problems. Many exercises and worked e... 19. Nonlinear differential equations Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Dresner, L. 1988-01-01 This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics. 20. On Dust Charging Equation OpenAIRE Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N. 2008-01-01 A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed. 1. Equations For Rotary Transformers Science.gov (United States) Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A. 1988-01-01 Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits. 2. Problems in differential equations CERN Document Server Brenner, J L 2013-01-01 More than 900 problems and answers explore applications of differential equations to vibrations, electrical engineering, mechanics, and physics. Problem types include both routine and nonroutine, and stars indicate advanced problems. 1963 edition. 3. Applied partial differential equations CERN Document Server DuChateau, Paul 2012-01-01 Book focuses mainly on boundary-value and initial-boundary-value problems on spatially bounded and on unbounded domains; integral transforms; uniqueness and continuous dependence on data, first-order equations, and more. Numerous exercises included. 4. Nonlinear differential equations International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Dresner, L. 1988-01-01 This report is the text of a graduate course on nonlinear differential equations given by the author at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the summer of 1987. The topics covered are: direction fields of first-order differential equations; the Lie (group) theory of ordinary differential equations; similarity solutions of second-order partial differential equations; maximum principles and differential inequalities; monotone operators and iteration; complementary variational principles; and stability of numerical methods. The report should be of interest to graduate students, faculty, and practicing scientists and engineers. No prior knowledge is required beyond a good working knowledge of the calculus. The emphasis is on practical results. Most of the illustrative examples are taken from the fields of nonlinear diffusion, heat and mass transfer, applied superconductivity, and helium cryogenics 5. Modern nonlinear equations CERN Document Server Saaty, Thomas L 1981-01-01 Covers major types of classical equations: operator, functional, difference, integro-differential, and more. Suitable for graduate students as well as scientists, technologists, and mathematicians. "A welcome contribution." - Math Reviews. 1964 edition. 6. Exact Solutions of Atmospheric (2+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Incompressible Non-hydrostatic Boussinesq Equations Science.gov (United States) Liu, Ping; Wang, Ya-Xiong; Ren, Bo; Li, Jin-Hua 2016-12-01 Exact solutions of the atmospheric (2+1)-dimensional nonlinear incompressible non-hydrostatic Boussinesq (INHB) equations are researched by Combining function expansion and symmetry method. By function expansion, several expansion coefficient equations are derived. Symmetries and similarity solutions are researched in order to obtain exact solutions of the INHB equations. Three types of symmetry reduction equations and similarity solutions for the expansion coefficient equations are proposed. Non-traveling wave solutions for the INHB equations are obtained by symmetries of the expansion coefficient equations. Making traveling wave transformations on expansion coefficient equations, we demonstrate some traveling wave solutions of the INHB equations. The evolutions on the wind velocities, temperature perturbation and pressure perturbation are demonstrated by figures, which demonstrate the periodic evolutions with time and space. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11305031 and 11305106, and Training Programme Foundation for Outstanding Young Teachers in Higher Education Institutions of Guangdong Province under Grant No. Yq2013205 7. SIMULTANEOUS DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION COMPUTER Science.gov (United States) Collier, D.M.; Meeks, L.A.; Palmer, J.P. 1960-05-10 A description is given for an electronic simulator for a system of simultaneous differential equations, including nonlinear equations. As a specific example, a homogeneous nuclear reactor system including a reactor fluid, heat exchanger, and a steam boiler may be simulated, with the nonlinearity resulting from a consideration of temperature effects taken into account. The simulator includes three operational amplifiers, a multiplier, appropriate potential sources, and interconnecting R-C networks. 8. Structural Equations and Causation OpenAIRE Hall, Ned 2007-01-01 Structural equations have become increasingly popular in recent years as tools for understanding causation. But standard structural equations approaches to causation face deep problems. The most philosophically interesting of these consists in their failure to incorporate a distinction between default states of an object or system, and deviations therefrom. Exploring this problem, and how to fix it, helps to illuminate the central role this distinction plays in our causal thinking. 9. Coupling and reduction of the HAWC equations DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Nim, E. 2001-01-01 This report contains a description of a general method for coupling and reduction of the so-called HAWC equations, which constitute the basis equations of motion of the aeroelastic model HAWC used widely by research institutes and industrial companies formore than the ten years. The principal aim....... In addition, the method enables the reduction of the number of degrees of freedom of the structure in order to increase the calculation efficiency and improve thecondition of the system.......This report contains a description of a general method for coupling and reduction of the so-called HAWC equations, which constitute the basis equations of motion of the aeroelastic model HAWC used widely by research institutes and industrial companies formore than the ten years. The principal aim...... of the work has been to enable the modelling wind turbines with large displacements of the blades in order to predict phenomena caused by geometric non-linear effects. However, the method can also be applied tomodel the nacelle/shaft structure of a turbine more detailed than the present HAWC model... 10. Equations of radiation hydrodynamics International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Mihalas, D. 1982-01-01 The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the role of radiation in the transport of energy and momentum in a combined matter-radiation fluid. The transport equation for a moving radiating fluid is presented in both a fully Eulerian and a fully Lagrangian formulation, along with conservation equations describing the dynamics of the fluid. Special attention is paid to the problem of deriving equations that are mutually consistent in each frame, and between frames, to 0(v/c). A detailed analysis is made to show that in situations of broad interest, terms that are formally of 0(v/c) actually dominate the solution, demonstrating that it is esential (1) to pay scrupulous attention to the question of the frame dependence in formulating the equations; and (2) to solve the equations to 0(v/c) in quite general circumstances. These points are illustrated in the context of the nonequilibrium radiation diffusion limit, and a sketch of how the Lagrangian equations are to be solved will be presented 11. Quantum linear Boltzmann equation International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Vacchini, Bassano; Hornberger, Klaus 2009-01-01 We review the quantum version of the linear Boltzmann equation, which describes in a non-perturbative fashion, by means of scattering theory, how the quantum motion of a single test particle is affected by collisions with an ideal background gas. A heuristic derivation of this Lindblad master equation is presented, based on the requirement of translation-covariance and on the relation to the classical linear Boltzmann equation. After analyzing its general symmetry properties and the associated relaxation dynamics, we discuss a quantum Monte Carlo method for its numerical solution. We then review important limiting forms of the quantum linear Boltzmann equation, such as the case of quantum Brownian motion and pure collisional decoherence, as well as the application to matter wave optics. Finally, we point to the incorporation of quantum degeneracies and self-interactions in the gas by relating the equation to the dynamic structure factor of the ambient medium, and we provide an extension of the equation to include internal degrees of freedom. 12. Covariant field equations in supergravity Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Vanhecke, Bram [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium); Ghent University, Faculty of Physics, Gent (Belgium); Proeyen, Antoine van [KU Leuven, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leuven (Belgium) 2017-12-15 Covariance is a useful property for handling supergravity theories. In this paper, we prove a covariance property of supergravity field equations: under reasonable conditions, field equations of supergravity are covariant modulo other field equations. We prove that for any supergravity there exist such covariant equations of motion, other than the regular equations of motion, that are equivalent to the latter. The relations that we find between field equations and their covariant form can be used to obtain multiplets of field equations. In practice, the covariant field equations are easily found by simply covariantizing the ordinary field equations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) 13. Covariant field equations in supergravity International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Vanhecke, Bram; Proeyen, Antoine van 2017-01-01 Covariance is a useful property for handling supergravity theories. In this paper, we prove a covariance property of supergravity field equations: under reasonable conditions, field equations of supergravity are covariant modulo other field equations. We prove that for any supergravity there exist such covariant equations of motion, other than the regular equations of motion, that are equivalent to the latter. The relations that we find between field equations and their covariant form can be used to obtain multiplets of field equations. In practice, the covariant field equations are easily found by simply covariantizing the ordinary field equations. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) 14. Wind tipping point International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Wood, E. 2006-01-01 In this article the author looks at how in five years wind energy has rapidly evolved into a mainstream industry. The United States has begun to look at wind differently - from a macroeconomic perspective.'This country is going to become increasingly committed to renewable energy, and it's not about altruism', said Alan Waxman, managing director of Goldman Sachs and Co., a financial giant that has invested$1 billion in the resource. Wind is seen not just as an environmentally benign alternative, but also as a means to solve some large problems plaguing the energy business and ultimately the United States as a whole. The last year brought record-breaking electricity rate increases, in some cases doubling consumer costs, and escalating the flight of large enterprises out of high-cost energy regions - or out of business altogether. The rate hikes were caused by hurricanes that hit the southern states and disrupted natural gas and oil operations. Adding wind power to the grid is increasingly seen as a way to limit the price shock caused by such events. Wind power reduces reliance on gas and oil-fired generation and, in particular, creates a hedge against spikes in natural gas, a fuel that increasingly sets the marginal price. Large energy users, too, are becoming aware of wind's hedging benefits. The author looks at the cost issues and how the future of wind energy in the country can be sustained as a reliable alternative fuel

15. Wind farms and planning

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Arkesteijn, L.; Havinga, R.; Benner, J.H.B.

1992-01-01

The siting of wind farms is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands. This paper gives an overview of the current situation concerning the planning of wind farms. We will pay attention to: Wind energy in official Dutch planning policy. To select the optimal sites, the government has made an administrative agreement with the 7 windy provinces. Nevertheless, wind energy is still fighting for a rightful position in physical planning policy. Some examples will illustrate this. Studies on siting and siting problems in the Netherlands. In order to gain more insight into aspects of wind farming several studies have been executed. In this paper special attention will be paid to the results of a study on the potential impact of large windturbine clusters on an existing agricutural area. Experiences with siting of wind farms in the Netherlands. Based on experiences with the planning and realization of farms, this paper gives the main problems. In the final part of the paper we present some general conclusions. Generally speaking, the knowledge is available for selecting optimal sites in the Netherlands. The basic problems for wind farming nowadays seem to be the visual impact and actually obtaining the ground. Nevertheless, there do seem to be enough sites for realizing the goals in the Netherlands. (au)

16. Wind energy in Europe

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sesto, E.

1992-02-01

Interest in wind energy as a supplementary source for the production of electricity has recently gained renewed momentum due to widespread concern about environmental impacts from the large scale use of fossil fuels and nuclear energy. In addition, political unrest in the Middle East has drawn attention to the importance of national energy self-sufficiency. European government administrations, however, have not yet fully appreciated the real worth of the 'clean energy' afforded by wind energy. In this regard, the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) is acting as a strong voice to inform the public and energy planners by stimulating international wind energy R ampersand D cooperation, and organizing conferences to explain the advantages of wind energy. In October 1991, EWEA published a strategy document giving a picture of the real possibilities offered by wind energy within the geographical, social, and European economic context. This paper provides an overview of the more significant features to emerge from this document which represents a useful guideline for wind power plant technical/economic feasibility studies in that it contains brief notes on resource availability, land requirements, visual and acoustic impacts, turbine sizing, performance, interconnection to utility grids, maintenance and operating costs, safety, as well as, on marketing aspects

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

McDonald, J.R.

1989-01-01

The objective of the Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Project is to provide guidance and criteria for design of new facilities and for evaluation of existing ones subjected to extreme winds, earthquakes, and floods. This paper describes the treatment of wind and tornado hazards. Four facility-use categories are defined which represent increasing levels of risk to personnel or the environment in the event of a high wind event. Facilities are assigned to a particular category, depending on their mission, value, or toxic material content. The assigned facility-use category determines the design and evaluation criteria. The criteria are based on probabilistic hazard assessment. Performance goals are also specified for each facility-use category. A uniform approach to design wind loads, based on the ANSI A58.1-1982 standard, allows treatment of high winds and hurricane and tornado winds in a similar manner. Based on the wind hazard models, some sites must account for the possibility of tornadoes while others do not. Atmospheric pressure changes and missiles must be taken into account when considering tornadoes. The design and evaluation guidelines are designed to establish consistent levels of risk for different natural phenomena hazards and for facilities at different geographical locations

18. Betting on wind energy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2009-11-01

In the first part of this study, the authors try to identify whether the economical and environmental context is adapted to the wind energy development. In order to do so, they discuss wind energy as a possible answer to climate emergency, critics formulated against wind energy, the effects of the financial crisis and the opportunities offered by wind energy within this crisis. In the second part, they discuss the French context and the debates on wind energy, highlighting the importance of some parameters in the cost analysis of wind turbine, presenting the results of a sensitivity analysis, and highlighting the importance of the over-cost calculation. They assess the current development status of the French wind energy industry and underline the opportunities for the future. In the third part, they describe the development status, lever and perspectives in different countries: Germany where the development of this sector has been successful, China which is becoming a major actor, the United States which are displaying the highest growth in this area, and Denmark which is the world leader

19. Database on wind characteristics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hansen, K.S. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Courtney, M.S. [Risoe National Lab., (Denmark)

1999-08-01

The organisations that participated in the project consists of five research organisations: MIUU (Sweden), ECN (The Netherlands), CRES (Greece), DTU (Denmark), Risoe (Denmark) and one wind turbine manufacturer: Vestas Wind System A/S (Denmark). The overall goal was to build a database consisting of a large number of wind speed time series and create tools for efficiently searching through the data to select interesting data. The project resulted in a database located at DTU, Denmark with online access through the Internet. The database contains more than 50.000 hours of measured wind speed measurements. A wide range of wind climates and terrain types are represented with significant amounts of time series. Data have been chosen selectively with a deliberate over-representation of high wind and complex terrain cases. This makes the database ideal for wind turbine design needs but completely unsuitable for resource studies. Diversity has also been an important aim and this is realised with data from a large range of terrain types; everything from offshore to mountain, from Norway to Greece. (EHS)

20. Wind energy potential in Bulgaria

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shtrakov, Stanko Vl.

2009-01-01

In this study, wind characteristic and wind energy potential in Bulgaria were analyzed using the wind speed data. The wind energy potential at different sites in Bulgaria has been investigated by compiling data from different sources and analyzing it using a software tool. The wind speed distribution curves were obtained by using the Weibull and Rayleigh probability density functions. The results relating to wind energy potential are given in terms of the monthly average wind speed, wind speed probability density function (PDF), wind speed cumulative density function (CDF), and wind speed duration curve. A technical and economic assessment has been made of electricity generation from three wind turbines having capacity of (60, 200, and 500 kW). The yearly energy output capacity factor and the electrical energy cost of kWh produced by the three different turbines were calculated

1. Mongolia wind resource assessment project

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elliott, D.; Chadraa, B.; Natsagdorj, L.

1998-01-01

The development of detailed, regional wind-resource distributions and other pertinent wind resource characteristics (e.g., assessment maps and reliable estimates of seasonal, diurnal, and directional) is an important step in planning and accelerating the deployment of wind energy systems. This paper summarizes the approach and methods being used to conduct a wind energy resource assessment of Mongolia. The primary goals of this project are to develop a comprehensive wind energy resource atlas of Mongolia and to establish a wind measurement program in specific regions of Mongolia to identify prospective sites for wind energy projects and to help validate some of the wind resource estimates. The Mongolian wind resource atlas will include detailed, computerized wind power maps and other valuable wind resource characteristic information for the different regions of Mongolia

2. Differential Equation over Banach Algebra

OpenAIRE

Kleyn, Aleks

2018-01-01

In the book, I considered differential equations of order $1$ over Banach $D$-algebra: differential equation solved with respect to the derivative; exact differential equation; linear homogeneous equation. In noncommutative Banach algebra, initial value problem for linear homogeneous equation has infinitely many solutions.

3. Generation of electricity by wind power

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Golding, E W

1976-01-01

Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

4. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

Science.gov (United States)

US Department of Energy, 2007

2007-01-01

The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

5. Marine wind data presentation using wind transition matrix

Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

Mascarenhas, A.J.; Gouveia, A.D.; Desai, R.G.P.

One of the methods to simulate the random wind behaviour through time is to use historical wind data presented in the form of wind transition matrix. Here it is assumed that, the probability that the wind will shift from one direction to another...

6. An aeroelastic analysis of the Darrieus wind turbine

Science.gov (United States)

Meyer, E. E.; Smith, C. E.

1983-12-01

The stability of a single Darrieus wind turbine blade spinning in still air is investigated using linearized equations of motion. The three most dangerous flutter modes are characterized for a one-parameter family of blades. In addition, the influence of blade density, mass and aerodynamic center offsets, and structural damping is presented.

7. Effects of wind turbine wake on atmospheric sound propagation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

2017-01-01

In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine considering the effects of wake-induced velocity deficit and turbulence. In order to address this issue, an advanced approach was developed in which both scalar and vector parabolic equations in two dimensions are solved. Flow...

8. Multilevel panel method for wind turbine rotor flow simulations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van Garrel, Arne

2016-01-01

Simulation methods of wind turbine aerodynamics currently in use mainly fall into two categories: the first is the group of traditional low-fidelity engineering models and the second is the group of computationally expensive CFD methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations. For an engineering

9. A Zooming Technique for Wind Transport of Air Pollution

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Berkvens, P.J.F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; Lioen, W.; Verwer, J.G.

In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a

10. A zooming technique for wind transport of air pollution

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vilsmeier, R.; Berkvens, P.J.F.; Benkhaldoun, F.; Bochev, Mikhail A.; Lioen, W.M.; Haenel, D.; Verwer, J.G.

1999-01-01

In air pollution dispersion models, typically systems of millions of equations that describe wind transport, chemistry and vertical mixing have to be integrated in time. To have more accurate results over specific fixed areas of interest---usually highly polluted areas with intensive emissions---a

11. Wind farm design optimization

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

2010-09-15

Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

12. Wind Farm Wake

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

2017-01-01

On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...... together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen....

13. Financing renewables - wind energy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Armstrong, J.

1998-01-01

This paper describes the status of the wind energy markets world-wide, in Europe and in the UK. It outlines the main methods of financing wind energy installations and discusses why different institutional structures have led to different markets in the UK and in Germany, with some concern about the state of the UK onshore industry. The paper looks ahead to the opening up of the potentially much larger offshore wind resource, concluding that in this area, existing UK development and financing structures are well suited. (Author)

14. Wind power plant

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kling, A

1977-01-13

The wind power plant described has at least one rotor which is coupled to an electricity generator. The systems are fixed to a suspended body so that it is possible to set up the wind power plant at greater height where one can expect stronger and more uniform winds. The anchoring on the ground or on a floating body is done by mooring cables which can simultaneously have the function of an electric cable. The whole system can be steered by fins. The rotor system itself consists of at least one pair of contrarotating, momentum balanced rotors.

15. Transient Performance of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Science.gov (United States)

Onol, Aykut; Yesilyurt, Serhat

2016-11-01

A coupled CFD/rotor dynamics modeling approach is presented for the analysis of realistic transient behavior of a height-normalized, three-straight-bladed VAWT subject to inertial effects of the rotor and generator load which is manipulated by a feedback control under standardized wind gusts. The model employs the k- ɛ turbulence model to approximate unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and is validated with data from field measurements. As distinct from related studies, here, the angular velocity is calculated from the rotor's equation of motion; thus, the dynamic response of the rotor is taken into account. Results include the following: First, the rotor's inertia filters large amplitude oscillations in the wind torque owing to the first-order dynamics. Second, the generator and wind torques differ especially during wind transients subject to the conservation of angular momentum of the rotor. Third, oscillations of the power coefficient exceed the Betz limit temporarily due to the energy storage in the rotor, which acts as a temporary buffer that stores the kinetic energy like a flywheel in short durations. Last, average of transient power coefficients peaks at a smaller tip-speed ratio for wind gusts than steady winds. This work was supported by the Sabanci University Internal Research Grant Program (SU-IRG-985).

16. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

2009-01-01

As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

17. Application of a ray theory model to the prediction of noise emissions from isolated wind turbines and wind parks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prospathopoulos, John M.; Voutsinas, Spyros G.

2006-01-01

Various propagation models have been developed to estimate the level of noise near residential areas. Predictions and measurements have proven that proper modelling of the propagation medium is of particular importance. In the present work, calculations are performed using a ray theory methodology. The ray trajectory and transport equations are derived from the linear acoustics equations for a moving medium in three dimensions. Ground and atmospheric absorption, wave refraction and diffraction and atmospheric turbulence are taken into account by introducing appropriate coefficients in the equations. In the case of a wind turbine (W/T) it is assumed that noise is produced by a point source located at the rotor centre. Given the sound power spectrum, the noise spectrum at the receiver is obtained by solving the axisymmetric propagation problem. The procedure consists of (a) finding the eigenrays, (b) calculating the energy losses along the eigenrays and (c) synthesizing the sound pressure level (SPL) by superposing the contributions of the eigenrays. In the case of a wind park the total SPL is calculated by superposing the contributions of all W/Ts. Application is made to five cases of isolated W/Ts in terrains of varying complexity. In flat or even smooth terrain the predictions agree well with the measurements. In complex terrain the predictions can be considered satisfactory, taking into account the assumption of constant wind velocity profile. Application to a wind park shows clearly the influence of the terrain on the wind velocity and consequently on the SPL. (Author)

18. Operation Design of Wind Turbines in Strong Wind Conditions

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Shen, Wen Zhong; Montes, Melissa Barroso; Odgaard, Peter Fogh

2012-01-01

and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The variable speed design is more suitable for wind turbines to run at very high wind speeds which can help the turbine braking system to stop the turbine at the new "cut-out" wind speed. Reference power, rotational speed and pitch angle have been designed...... optimally. In order to reduce the possible increased loading, fatigue due to the wind gusts, control strategies have been considered for both constant sped and variable speed pitch regulated wind turbines. The control study shows that the designed controllers can reduce the standard deviations efficiently......In order to reduce the impact on the electrical grid from the shutdown of MW wind turbines at wind speeds higher than the cut-out wind speed of 25 m/s, we propose in this paper to run the turbines at high wind speeds up to 40 m/s. Two different operation designs are made for both constant speed...

19. Distributed Wind Resource Assessment: State of the Industry

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tinnesand, Heidi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

2016-06-01

In support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office (WWPTO) goals, researchers from DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are investigating the Distributed Wind Resource Assessment (DWRA) process, which includes pre-construction energy estimation as well as turbine site suitability assessment. DWRA can have a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that will help the distributed wind industry follow a similar trajectory to the low-wind-speed designs in the utility-scale industry sector. By understanding the wind resource better, the industry could install larger rotors, capture more energy, and as a result, increase deployment while lowering the LCOE. a direct impact on the Wind Program goals of maximizing stakeholder confidence in turbine performance and safety as well as reducing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). One of the major components of the LCOE equation is annual energy production. DWRA improvements can maximize the annual energy production, thereby lowering the overall LCOE and improving stakeholder confidence in the distributed wind technology sector by providing more accurate predictions of power production. Over the long term, one of the most significant benefits of a more defined DWRA process could be new turbine designs, tuned to site-specific characteristics that

20. Hybrid soft computing control strategies for improving the energy capture of a wind farm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Živković Predrag M.

2012-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, a fuzzy controller is proposed for wind turbine control. A model is analyzed and combined with a stochastic wind model for simulation purposes. Based on the model, a fuzzy control of wind turbine is developed. Wind turbine control loop provides the reference inputs for the electric generator control loop in order to make the system run with maximum power. Since the wind speed involved in the aerodynamic equations is a stochastic variable, whose effective value cannot be measured directly, a wind speed estimator is also proposed.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33036/2011: Development of new meteorological mast for turbulence parameters characterization and br. TR35005/2011: Research and development of new generation wind turbines of high-energy efficiency

1. Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Soerensen, Poul; Hansen, Anca D.; Thomsen, Kenneth (and others)

2005-09-01

This report is the final report of a Danish research project 'Operation and control of large wind turbines and wind farms'. The objective of the project has been to analyse and assess operational strategies and possibilities for control of different types of wind turbines and different wind farm concepts. The potentials of optimising the lifetime/energy production ratio by means of using revised operational strategies for the individual wind turbines are investigated. Different strategies have been simulated, where the power production is decreased to an optimum when taking loads and actual price of produced electricity into account. Dynamic models and control strategies for the wind farms have also been developed, with the aim to optimise the operation of the wind farms considering participation in power system control of power (frequency) and reactive power (voltage), maximise power production, keep good power quality and limit mechanical loads and life time consumption. The project developed models for 3 different concepts for wind farms. Two of the concepts use active stall controlled wind turbines, one with AC connection and one with modern HVDC/VSC connection of the wind farm. The third concept is based on pitch controlled wind turbines using doubly fed induction generators. The models were applied to simulate the behaviour of the wind farm control when they were connected to a strong grid, and some initial simulations were performed to study the behaviour of the wind farms when it was isolated from the main grid on a local grid. Also the possibility to use the available information from the wind turbine controllers to predict the wind speed has been investigated. The main idea has been to predict the wind speed at a wind turbine using up-wind measurements of the wind speed in another wind turbine. (au)

2. Wake Flow Simulation of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under the Influence of Wind Shear

Science.gov (United States)

Mendoza, Victor; Goude, Anders

2017-05-01

The current trend of the wind energy industry aims for large scale turbines installed in wind farms. This brings a renewed interest in vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) since they have several advantages over the traditional Horizontal Axis Wind Tubines (HAWTs) for mitigating the new challenges. However, operating VAWTs are characterized by complex aerodynamics phenomena, presenting considerable challenges for modeling tools. An accurate and reliable simulation tool for predicting the interaction between the obtained wake of an operating VAWT and the flow in atmospheric open sites is fundamental for optimizing the design and location of wind energy facility projects. The present work studies the wake produced by a VAWT and how it is affected by the surface roughness of the terrain, without considering the effects of the ambient turbulence intensity. This study was carried out using an actuator line model (ALM), and it was implemented using the open-source CFD library OpenFOAM to solve the governing equations and to compute the resulting flow fields. An operational H-shaped VAWT model was tested, for which experimental activity has been performed at an open site north of Uppsala-Sweden. Different terrains with similar inflow velocities have been evaluated. Simulated velocity and vorticity of representative sections have been analyzed. Numerical results were validated using normal forces measurements, showing reasonable agreement.

3. Noise from wind turbines

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

1993-01-01

Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

4. Wind_Speeds_Master

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

5. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented...... in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental...... setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises from...

Data.gov (United States)

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Clutter present in radar return signals as used for wind profiling is substantially removed by carrying out a Daubechies wavelet transformation on a time series of...

7. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

2009-12-01

With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

8. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

9. Small Wind Energy Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

2017-01-01

considered when selecting a generator for a wind power plant, including capacity of the AC system, types of loads, availability of spare parts, voltage regulation, technical personal and cost. If several loads are likely inductive, such asphase-controlled converters, motors and fluorescent lights......This chapter intends to serve as a brief guide when someone is considering the use of wind energy for small power applications. It is discussed that small wind energy systems act as the major energy source for residential or commercial applications, or how to make it part of a microgrid...... as a distributed generator. In this way, sources and loads are connected in such a way to behave as a renewable dispatch center. With this regard, non-critical loads might be curtailed or shed during times of energy shortfall or periods of high costs of energy production. If such a wind energy system is connected...

10. Wind Tunnel Testing Facilities

Data.gov (United States)

Federal Laboratory Consortium — NASA Ames Research Center is pleased to offer the services of our premier wind tunnel facilities that have a broad range of proven testing capabilities to customers...

11. Wind project gets boost

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oirere, Shem

2012-11-01

The development of a two-phase 100 MW wind power plant project in Tanzania moved a notch higher this year when Export-Import Bank of China extended a US\$ 123 million non-concessional loan for its construction.

12. Distributed Wind Market Applications

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

2007-11-01

Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

13. Monitoring of wind turbines

Science.gov (United States)

White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

2017-07-25

Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

14. Wind Turbine Acoustics

Science.gov (United States)

Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

2009-01-01

Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

15. Wind Tunnel Facility

Data.gov (United States)

Federal Laboratory Consortium — This ARDEC facility consists of subsonic, transonic, and supersonic wind tunnels to acquire aerodynamic data. Full-scale and sub-scale models of munitions are fitted...

16. EDITORIAL: Wind energy

Science.gov (United States)

Mann, Jakob; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Morthorst, Poul-Erik

2008-01-01

Wind energy is rapidly growing. In 2006 the installed generating capacity in the world increased by 25%, a growth rate which has more or less been sustained during the last decade. And there is no reason to believe that this growth will slow significantly in the coming years. For example, the United Kingdom's goal for installed wind turbines by 2020 is 33 GW up from 2 GW in 2006, an average annual growth rate of 22% over that period. More than half of all turbines are installed in Europe, but United States, India and lately China are also rapidly growing markets. The cradle of modern wind energy was set by innovative blacksmiths in rural Denmark. Now the wind provides more than 20% of the electrical power in Denmark, the industry has professionalized and has close ties with public research at universities. This focus issue is concerned with research in wind energy. The main purposes of research in wind energy are to: decrease the cost of power generated by the wind; increase the reliability and predictability of the energy source; investigate and reduce the adverse environmental impact of massive deployment of wind turbines; build research based educations for wind energy engineers. This focus issue contains contributions from several fields of research. Decreased costs cover a very wide range of activities from aerodynamics of the wind turbine blades, optimal site selection for the turbines, optimization of the electrical grid and power market for a fluctuating source, more efficient electrical generators and gears, and new materials and production techniques for turbine manufacturing. The United Kingdom recently started the construction of the London Array, a 1 GW off-shore wind farm east of London consisting of several hundred turbines. To design such a farm optimally it is necessary to understand the chaotic and very turbulent flow downwind from a turbine, which decreases the power production and increases the mechanical loads on other nearby turbines. Also

17. 2010 Wind Technologies Market Report

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ryan Wiser, Mark Bolinger

2011-06-01

This report provides a comprehensive overview of trends in the U.S. wind power market in 2010. The report analyzes trends in wind power capacity, industry, manufacturing, turbines, installed project costs, project performance, and wind power prices. It also describes trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers, and discusses financing issues.

18. Wind energy: A viable alternative

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soin, R.S.

1991-01-01

This article examines the economic feasibility of wind energy in the current economic and political environment. The article specifically addresses the wind farm application to India, with asides to Europe and the US. Topics discussed include cost of energy generation for a 10 MW wind farm, cost comparison for captive energy options (diesel, coal, wind), environmental impacts, and social benefits

19. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

Science.gov (United States)

1975-01-01

Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

20. Transport equation solving methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Granjean, P.M.

1984-06-01

This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

1. Introduction to partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Greenspan, Donald

2000-01-01

Designed for use in a one-semester course by seniors and beginning graduate students, this rigorous presentation explores practical methods of solving differential equations, plus the unifying theory underlying the mathematical superstructure. Topics include basic concepts, Fourier series, second-order partial differential equations, wave equation, potential equation, heat equation, approximate solution of partial differential equations, and more. Exercises appear at the ends of most chapters. 1961 edition.

2. Computer investigations of the turbulent flow around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine

Science.gov (United States)

Driss, Zied; Chelbi, Tarek; Abid, Mohamed Salah

2015-12-01

In this work, computer investigations are carried out to study the flow field developing around a NACA2415 airfoil wind turbine. The Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with the standard k-ɛ turbulence model are considered. These equations are solved numerically to determine the local characteristics of the flow. The models tested are implemented in the software "SolidWorks Flow Simulation" which uses a finite volume scheme. The numerical results are compared with experiments conducted on an open wind tunnel to validate the numerical results. This will help improving the aerodynamic efficiency in the design of packaged installations of the NACA2415 airfoil type wind turbine.

3. Wind energy handbook

CERN Document Server

Burton, Tony; Sharpe, David; Bossanyi, Ervin

2011-01-01

Named as one of Choice's Outstanding Academic Titles of 2012Every year, Choice subject editors recognise the most significant print and electronic works reviewed in Choice during the previous calendar year. Appearing annually inChoice's January issue, this prestigious list of publications reflects the best in scholarly titles and attracts extraordinary attention from the academic library community. The authoritative reference on wind energy, now fully revised and updated to include offshore wind power<

4. Next Generation Wind Turbine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

2012-09-01

The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

5. Renewable Energy Essentials: Wind

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NONE

2008-07-01

Subjects for further research, specific to wind energy technology, include more refined resource assessment; materials with higher strength to mass ratios; advanced grid integration and power quality and control technologies; standardisation and certification; development of low-wind regime turbines; improved forecasting; increased fatigue resistance of major components such as gearboxes; better models for aerodynamics and aeroelasticity; generators based on superconductor technology; deep-offshore foundations; and high-altitude 'kite' concepts.

6. Database on Wind Characteristics

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Højstrup, J.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Lundtang Petersen, Erik

1999-01-01

his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061......his report describes the work and results of the project: Database on Wind Characteristics which was sponsered partly by the European Commision within the framework of JOULE III program under contract JOR3-CT95-0061...

7. Solar wind velocity and geomagnetic moment variations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kalinin, Yu.D.; Rozanova, T.S.

1982-01-01

The mean year values of the solar wind velocity have been calculated from the mean-year values of a geomagnetic activity index am according to the Svalgard equation of regression for the pe-- riod from 1930 to 1960. For the same years the values of the geomagnetic moment M and separately of its ''inner'' (causes of which'' are inside the Earth) and ''external'' (causes of which are outside the Earth) parts have been calculated from the mean year data of 12 magnetic observatories. The proof of the presence of the 11-year variation in the moment M has been obtained. It is concluded that the 11-year variations in M result from the variations of the solar wind velocity

8. System Reliability for Offshore Wind Turbines

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

2013-01-01

E). In consequence, a rational treatment of uncertainties is done in order to assess the reliability of critical details in OWTs. Limit state equations are formulated for fatigue critical details which are not influenced by wake effects generated in offshore wind farms. Furthermore, typical bi-linear S-N curves...... are considered for reliability verification according to international design standards of OWTs. System effects become important for each substructure with many potential fatigue hot spots. Therefore, in this paper a framework for system effects is presented. This information can be e.g. no detection of cracks...... in inspections or measurements from condition monitoring systems. Finally, an example is established to illustrate the practical application of this framework for jacket type wind turbine substructure considering system effects....

9. Wind Conditions for Wind Farm Hanstholm

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Mann, Jakob

The net annual energy production (AEP) of the Hanstholm Wind Farm is 158 GWh per year for the Siemens SWT-3.6-120 turbine and 140 GWh for the Vestas V112-3.0 turbine. These values have an uncertainty (standard deviation) of 6%. This result is mainly based on the data for Risø DTU’s test station...... at Høvsøre where wind speeds are measured at approximately the same height as the turbines at Hanstholm and where the terrain is similar. On top of that meso-scale modeling has been used to extrapolate the climatology from Høvsøre to Hanstholm increasing the AEP by almost 6% compared to just using...... the Høvsøre climatology directly. This method of extrapolation is rather new, but several older investigations indicate that the wind resource at Hanstholm is slightly higher than at Høvsøre. The work is carried out for Grontmij-Carl Bro according to a contract dated January 18th 2011....

10. The potential of wind farms

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1992-01-01

Summaries of papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. It is stated that in Denmark today, wind energy provides about 3% to the Danish electricity consumption and the wind power capacity is, according to Danish wind energy policy, expected to increase substantially in the years to come. A number of countries in Europe and elsewhere are making significant progress in this repect. Descriptions of performance are given in relation to some individual wind farms. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigue, wakes, noise and control. (AB).

11. Offshore wind farm repowering optimization

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hou, Peng; Enevoldsen, Peter; Hu, Weihao

2017-01-01

is focused on optimization of offshore wind farm repowering, which is one option for the wind farm owner at end of life for the offshore wind farm. The LCoE is used as the evaluation index to identify whether it is economical to invest in such a way. In an optimized repowering strategy, different types...... of wind turbines are selected to replace the original wind turbines to reconstruct the wind farm, which is demonstrated to be better than the refurbishment approach which replaces the old wind turbines with the same type. The simulations performed in this research reveal that the reconstructed wind farm......, which consists of multiple types of wind turbine, has a smaller LCoE (10.43%) than the refurbishment approach, which shows the superiority of the proposed method. This research contributes an optimization tool to the wind industry, which consequently drives down the cost of energy produced by offshore...

12. The potential of wind farms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1992-09-01

Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigues, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

13. The potential of wind farms

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1992-09-01

Papers presented at the European wind energy conference on the potential of wind farms are presented. The aim of the conference was to bring into focus the problems, experiences and potential of the application of wind power in wind power farms as a contribution to the European and global energy supply. It was considered that the interchange of experience among representatives of science, utilities, industry, environment and energy planning, together with those who represent financial and insurance interests, would create a better understanding of all aspects of wind power for its future successful development. The subjects covered concern surveys of national planning and policies regarding wind energy utilization and national and global development of wind turbine arrays. The performance of some individual wind farms is described. Papers also deal with utility and project planning, wind prediction and certification, wind loads and fatigus, wakes, noise and control. (AB)

14. European wind turbine catalogue

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1994-01-01

The THERMIE European Community programme is designed to promote the greater use of European technology and this catalogue contributes to the fulfillment of this aim by dissemination of information on 50 wind turbines from 30 manufacturers. These turbines are produced in Europe and are commercially available. The manufacturers presented produce and sell grid-connected turbines which have been officially approved in countries where this approval is acquired, however some of the wind turbines included in the catalogue have not been regarded as fully commercially available at the time of going to print. The entries, which are illustrated by colour photographs, give company profiles, concept descriptions, measured power curves, prices, and information on design and dimension, safety systems, stage of development, special characteristics, annual energy production, and noise pollution. Lists are given of wind turbine manufacturers and agents and of consultants and developers in the wind energy sector. Exchange rates used in the conversion of the prices of wind turbines are also given. Information can be found on the OPET network (organizations recognised by the European Commission as an Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technologies (OPET)). An article describes the development of the wind power industry during the last 10-15 years and another article on certification aims to give an overview of the most well-known and acknowledged type approvals currently issued in Europe. (AB)

15. Wind farm production estimates

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Larsen, Torben J.; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

2012-01-01

In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind the DWMm......In this paper, the Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model is applied for simulation of wind farm production. In addition to the numerical simulations, measured data have been analyzed in order to provide the basis for a full-scale verification of the model performance. The basic idea behind...... the DWMmodel is to model the in- stationary wind farm flow characteristics by considering wind turbine wakes as passive tracers continuously emitted from the wind farm turbines each with a downstream transport pro- cess dictated by large scale turbulent eddies (lateral and ver- tical transportation; i.......e. meandering) and Taylor advection. For the present purpose, the DWM model has been im- plemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2 [1], and the per- formance of the resulting model complex is mainly verified by comparing simulated and measured loads for the Dutch off-shore Egmond aan Zee wind farm [2]. This farm...

Science.gov (United States)

Hsu, Cheng-Ting

1984-01-01

A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

17. Linear wind generator

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.

2006-01-01

The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

18. Wind turbines and health

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C.

2010-01-01

This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

19. Wind turbine aerodynamics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Johnson, D.A. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Wind Energy Group

2010-07-01

The need for clean, renewable electricity in remote communities of Canada and the world was discussed in this presentation. The University of Waterloo Wind Energy Laboratory (WEL) performs research in a large scale indoor environment on wind turbines, blade aerodynamics, and aeroacoustics. A key area of research involves developing turbines for remote off-grid communities where climatic conditions are challenging. This presentation outlined research that is underway on wind energy and off-grid renewable energy systems. Many communities in Canada and remote communities in the rest of the world are not connected to the grid and are dependent on other means to supply electrical energy to their community. Remote communities in northern Canada have no road access and diesel is the dominant source of electrical energy for these communities. All of the community supply of diesel comes from brief winter road access or by air. The presentation discussed existing diesel systems and the solution of developing local renewable energy sources such as wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and solar power. Research goals, wind energy activities, experimental equipment, and the results were also presented. Research projects have been developed in wind energy; hydrogen generation/storage/utilization; power electronics/microgrid; and community engagement. figs.

20. Floating wind turbine system

Science.gov (United States)

Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

CERN Document Server

Andreescu, Titu

2015-01-01

This monograph treats the classical theory of quadratic Diophantine equations and guides the reader through the last two decades of computational techniques and progress in the area. These new techniques combined with the latest increases in computational power shed new light on important open problems. The authors motivate the study of quadratic Diophantine equations with excellent examples, open problems, and applications. Moreover, the exposition aptly demonstrates many applications of results and techniques from the study of Pell-type equations to other problems in number theory. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers. It challenges the reader to apply not only specific techniques and strategies, but also to employ methods and tools from other areas of mathematics, such as algebra and analysis.

2. Stochastic porous media equations

CERN Document Server

Barbu, Viorel; Röckner, Michael

2016-01-01

Focusing on stochastic porous media equations, this book places an emphasis on existence theorems, asymptotic behavior and ergodic properties of the associated transition semigroup. Stochastic perturbations of the porous media equation have reviously been considered by physicists, but rigorous mathematical existence results have only recently been found. The porous media equation models a number of different physical phenomena, including the flow of an ideal gas and the diffusion of a compressible fluid through porous media, and also thermal propagation in plasma and plasma radiation. Another important application is to a model of the standard self-organized criticality process, called the "sand-pile model" or the "Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model". The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in mathematics, physics and biology.

3. Boussinesq evolution equations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bredmose, Henrik; Schaffer, H.; Madsen, Per A.

2004-01-01

This paper deals with the possibility of using methods and ideas from time domain Boussinesq formulations in the corresponding frequency domain formulations. We term such frequency domain models "evolution equations". First, we demonstrate that the numerical efficiency of the deterministic...... Boussinesq evolution equations of Madsen and Sorensen [Madsen, P.A., Sorensen, O.R., 1993. Bound waves and triad interactions in shallow water. Ocean Eng. 20 359-388] can be improved by using Fast Fourier Transforms to evaluate the nonlinear terms. For a practical example of irregular waves propagating over...... a submerged bar, it is demonstrated that evolution equations utilising FFT can be solved around 100 times faster than the corresponding time domain model. Use of FFT provides an efficient bridge between the frequency domain and the time domain. We utilise this by adapting the surface roller model for wave...

4. Wind turbine noise propagation modelling: An unsteady approach

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Barlas, Emre; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

2016-01-01

Wind turbine sound generation and propagation phenomena are inherently time dependent, hence tools that incorporate the dynamic nature of these two issues are needed for accurate modelling. In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine by considering the effects of unste...... Pressure Level (SPL).......Wind turbine sound generation and propagation phenomena are inherently time dependent, hence tools that incorporate the dynamic nature of these two issues are needed for accurate modelling. In this paper, we investigate the sound propagation from a wind turbine by considering the effects...... of unsteady flow around it and time dependent source characteristics. For the acoustics modelling we employ the Parabolic Equation (PE) method while Large Eddy Simulation (LES) as well as synthetically generated turbulence fields are used to generate the medium flow upon which sound propagates. Unsteady...

5. Large Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Wind Energy

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak

This research is devoted to the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), and to lesser extent, wind tunnel measurements of turbulent flows in wind energy. It starts with an introduction to the LES technique associated with the solution of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, discretized using a finite......, should the mesh resolution, numerical discretization scheme, time averaging period, and domain size be chosen wisely. A thorough investigation of the wind turbine wake interactions is also conducted and the simulations are validated against available experimental data from external sources. The effect...... Reynolds numbers, and thereafter, the fully-developed infinite wind farm boundary later simulations are performed. Sources of inaccuracy in the simulations are investigated and it is found that high Reynolds number flows are more sensitive to the choice of the SGS model than their low Reynolds number...

6. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gorsevski, Peter [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States); Afjeh, Abdollah [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Jamali, Mohsin [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Bingman, Verner [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

2014-04-04

7. Wind turbine control and monitoring

CERN Document Server

Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

2014-01-01

Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

8. Wind Energy Workforce Development & Jobs

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tegen, Suzanne

2016-11-08

The United States needs a skilled and qualified wind energy workforce to produce domestic clean power. To assist with wind energy workforce development, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are engaged with several efforts.This presentation by Suzanne Tegen describes these efforts, including a wind industry survey, DOE's Wind Career Map, the DOE Wind Vision report, and an in-depth discussion of the Jobs & Economic Development Impacts Model.

9. Performance of spanish wind turbines

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lago, C.

1995-01-01

In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

10. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

2015-09-01

Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

11. Equations of mathematical physics

CERN Document Server

Tikhonov, A N

2011-01-01

Mathematical physics plays an important role in the study of many physical processes - hydrodynamics, elasticity, and electrodynamics, to name just a few. Because of the enormous range and variety of problems dealt with by mathematical physics, this thorough advanced-undergraduate or graduate-level text considers only those problems leading to partial differential equations. The authors - two well-known Russian mathematicians - have focused on typical physical processes and the principal types of equations deailing with them. Special attention is paid throughout to mathematical formulation, ri

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lewins, J.D.

1994-01-01

Adjoint functions are the basis of variational methods and now widely used for perturbation theory and its extension to higher order theory as used, for example, in modelling fuel burnup and optimization. In such models, the adjoint equation is to be solved in a critical system with an adjoint source distribution that is not zero but has special properties related to ratios of interest in critical systems. Consequently the methods of solving equations by iteration and accumulation are reviewed to show how conventional methods may be utilized in these circumstances with adequate accuracy. (author). 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

13. Systematic Equation Formulation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lindberg, Erik

2007-01-01

A tutorial giving a very simple introduction to the set-up of the equations used as a model for an electrical/electronic circuit. The aim is to find a method which is as simple and general as possible with respect to implementation in a computer program. The “Modified Nodal Approach”, MNA, and th......, and the “Controlled Source Approach”, CSA, for systematic equation formulation are investigated. It is suggested that the kernel of the P Spice program based on MNA is reprogrammed....

14. Partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Agranovich, M S

2002-01-01

Mark Vishik's Partial Differential Equations seminar held at Moscow State University was one of the world's leading seminars in PDEs for over 40 years. This book celebrates Vishik's eightieth birthday. It comprises new results and survey papers written by many renowned specialists who actively participated over the years in Vishik's seminars. Contributions include original developments and methods in PDEs and related fields, such as mathematical physics, tomography, and symplectic geometry. Papers discuss linear and nonlinear equations, particularly linear elliptic problems in angles and gener

15. Generalized estimating equations

CERN Document Server

Hardin, James W

2002-01-01

Although powerful and flexible, the method of generalized linear models (GLM) is limited in its ability to accurately deal with longitudinal and clustered data. Developed specifically to accommodate these data types, the method of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) extends the GLM algorithm to accommodate the correlated data encountered in health research, social science, biology, and other related fields.Generalized Estimating Equations provides the first complete treatment of GEE methodology in all of its variations. After introducing the subject and reviewing GLM, the authors examine th

16. Nonlinear wave equations

CERN Document Server

Li, Tatsien

2017-01-01

This book focuses on nonlinear wave equations, which are of considerable significance from both physical and theoretical perspectives. It also presents complete results on the lower bound estimates of lifespan (including the global existence), which are established for classical solutions to the Cauchy problem of nonlinear wave equations with small initial data in all possible space dimensions and with all possible integer powers of nonlinear terms. Further, the book proposes the global iteration method, which offers a unified and straightforward approach for treating these kinds of problems. Purely based on the properties of solut ions to the corresponding linear problems, the method simply applies the contraction mapping principle.

17. Analysis of wave equation in electromagnetic field by Proca equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pamungkas, Oky Rio; Soeparmi; Cari

2017-01-01

This research is aimed to analyze wave equation for the electric and magnetic field, vector and scalar potential, and continuity equation using Proca equation. Then, also analyze comparison of the solution on Maxwell and Proca equation for scalar potential and electric field, both as a function of distance and constant wave number. (paper)

18. Comparison of Kernel Equating and Item Response Theory Equating Methods

Science.gov (United States)

Meng, Yu

2012-01-01

The kernel method of test equating is a unified approach to test equating with some advantages over traditional equating methods. Therefore, it is important to evaluate in a comprehensive way the usefulness and appropriateness of the Kernel equating (KE) method, as well as its advantages and disadvantages compared with several popular item…

19. Test equating methods and practices

CERN Document Server

Kolen, Michael J

1995-01-01

In recent years, many researchers in the psychology and statistical communities have paid increasing attention to test equating as issues of using multiple test forms have arisen and in response to criticisms of traditional testing techniques This book provides a practically oriented introduction to test equating which both discusses the most frequently used equating methodologies and covers many of the practical issues involved The main themes are - the purpose of equating - distinguishing between equating and related methodologies - the importance of test equating to test development and quality control - the differences between equating properties, equating designs, and equating methods - equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating The authors are acknowledged experts in the field, and the book is based on numerous courses and seminars they have presented As a result, educators, psychometricians, professionals in measurement, statisticians, and students coming to the subject for...

20. Fully Coupled Three-Dimensional Dynamic Response of a Tension-Leg Platform Floating Wind Turbine in Waves and Wind

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kumari Ramachandran, Gireesh Kumar Vasanta; Bredmose, Henrik; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

2014-01-01

, which is a consequence of the wave-induced rotor dynamics. Loads and coupled responses are predicted for a set of load cases with different wave headings. Further, an advanced aero-elastic code, Flex5, is extended for the TLP wind turbine configuration and the response comparison with the simpler model......A dynamic model for a tension-leg platform (TLP) floating offshore wind turbine is proposed. The model includes three-dimensional wind and wave loads and the associated structural response. The total system is formulated using 17 degrees of freedom (DOF), 6 for the platform motions and 11...... for the wind turbine. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic loads have been formulated using a frequency-and direction-dependent spectrum. While wave loads are computed from the wave kinematics using Morison's equation, the aerodynamic loads are modeled by means of unsteady blade-element-momentum (BEM) theory...