Advanced turbocharger rotor for variable geometry turbocharging systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stafford, R.J.; Mulloy, J.M.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Weber, H.G.; Patel, M.J. [Cummins Engine Co., Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)
1997-12-31
Turbocharging of diesel engines has enhanced fuel economy and reduced diesel engine emissions. The initial applications of turbochargers to heavy duty diesel engines during the early 1970`s reduced Bosch smoke (a measure of particulate matter used at the time) from 2.4 to 0.6 units. Current turbochargers are optimized at one set of engine conditions and by necessity, at the off-design conditions or transient conditions the fuel economy and emissions performance are penalized. A rotor was designed and a prototype fabricated which showed as much as a 10% efficiency improvement at off-design conditions. The leading edges are blunt and rounded to accept the flow from the turbine nozzles at a variety of inlet conditions with a minimum of losses. The rotor efficiency is better at all conditions and the advantage improves as it operates at conditions further from the design point. Unfortunately, the conventional materials from which this turbine rotor was constructed had inadequate strength to allow its use on engines, and had such high rotational inertia that transient response would have been severely compromised.
Engine with exhaust gas recirculation system and variable geometry turbocharger
Keating, Edward J.
2015-11-03
An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, an internal combustion engine defining a plurality of cylinders and configured to combust a fuel and produce exhaust gas, and an exhaust assembly in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders. Each of the plurality of cylinders are provided in fluid communication with the intake assembly. The exhaust assembly is provided in fluid communication with a first subset of the plurality of cylinders, and a dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system in fluid communication with both a second subset of the plurality of cylinders and with the intake assembly. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the second subset of the plurality of cylinders to the intake assembly. Finally, the engine assembly includes a turbocharger having a variable geometry turbine in fluid communication with the exhaust assembly.
Two operating modes for turbocharger system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bayomi, Nazih N.; Abd El-Maksoud, Rafea M.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► A turbocharger system that operates in power assisted mode is introduced. ► The parameters affecting performance of the turbocharger is presented. ► Different operational charts for turbocharger are presented. ► The parametric study is helpful guide to determine turbocharger dimensioning. - Abstract: The present paper introduces a turbocharger system that operates in two different modes according to turbocharging requirements. In the first mode, the turbocharger is operating with power assistance at lower engine speeds where the power of the exhaust gases is insufficient. Thereafter, the second mode is switched leading the compressor and the turbine of the turbocharger to rotate separately for best performance. Analysis is presented to find out the parameters affecting the operation of the turbocharger and their values to achieve enhanced turbocharger performance with high efficient impellers. The parameters studied are based on data of the turbocharger operating conditions and the operational requirements of the engine. The analysis considers the turbocharger system, its turbine and its compressor. The operational charts demonstrate the simulated results for two operating modes. This study is helpful as a guide to determine the turbocharger dimensioning and blade profile assignment without using any given blade dimensional value.
A new control-oriented transient model of variable geometry turbocharger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahiuddin, Irfan; Mazlan, Saiful Amri; Imaduddin, Fitrian; Ubaidillah
2017-01-01
The flow input of a variable geometry turbocharger turbine is highly unsteady due to rapid and periodic pressure dynamics in engine combustion chambers. Several VGT control methods have been developed to recover more energy from the highly pulsating exhaust gas flow. To develop a control system for the highly pulsating flow condition, an accurate and valid unsteady model is required. This study focuses on the derivation of governing the unsteady control-oriented model (COM) for a turbine of an actively controlled turbocharger (ACT). The COM has the capability to predict the turbocharger behaviour regarding the instantaneous turbine actual and isentropic powers in different effective throat areas. The COM is a modified version of a conventional mean value model (MVM) with an additional feature to calculate the turbine angular velocity and torque for determining the actual power. The simulation results were further compared with experimental data in two general scenarios. The first scenario was simulations on fixed geometry positions. The second simulation scenario considered the nozzle movement after receiving a signal from the controller in different cases. The comparison between simulation and experimental results showed similarities in the recovered power behaviours the turbine inlet area increases or vice versa. The model also has proved its reliability to replicate general behaviour as in the example of ACT cases presented in this paper. However, the model is incapable to replicate the detailed and complicated phenomena, such as choking effect and hysteresis effect. - Highlights: • A control-oriented model of a variable geometry turbocharger turbine is proposed. • Isentropic and actual power behaviour estimations on turbocharger turbine. • A simulation tool for developing active control systems of turbocharger turbines.
Variable geometry turbocharging for lower emissions and improved torque characteristics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hawley, J.G.; Wallace, F.J.; Cox, A. [Bath Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bath (United Kingdom); Horrocks, R.W.; Bird, G.L. [Ford Motor Company Ltd., Engineering Centre for Advanced Vehicle Technology (Diesels), Dunton (United Kingdom)
1999-07-01
Currently, 80 per cent of european diesel passenger cars are turbocharged and, as emission standards become more stringent, this figure is expected to approach 100 per cent in the near future. One major focus that has emerged of the high-speed diesel engine is the application of variable geometry turbocharging (VGT). An extensive steady state experimental investigation has been undertaken on a prototype 1.8 L direct injection (DI) diesel engine to compare the potential benefits of VGT relative to the standard build of the engine with a wastegated fixed geometry turbocharger (FGT). Under part load operation, where emission production is significant in the European drive cycle, independent control of both VCT vane position and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) value position was used to optimise emission levels. A reduction in the levels of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) of up to 45 per cent was observed at discrete operating points without compromising FGT levels of fuel consumption or smoke. Under limiting torque conditions a 10 per cent improvement was achieved with the VGT over and above the figures of the baseline FGT build within the limiting criteria set for maximum cylinder pressure, smoke level and pre-turbine temperature. (Author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hawley, J.G.; Wallace, F.J.; Pease, A.C.; Cox, A. [University of Bath (United Kingdom). School of Mechanical Engineering; Horrocks, R.W.; Bird, G.L. [Ford Motor Co. Ltd., Basildon (United Kingdom)
1997-07-01
This paper represents the results of an extensive testing programme conducted at the University of Bath on behalf of the Ford Motor Company on a prototype 1.8 litre direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The testing compared the effects of a standard wastegate controlled fixed geometry turbocharger (FGT) with a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) at discrete part-load operating points. The object being to evaluate the NOx reduction potential at these points due to the VGT and varying exhaust gas recirculation schedules. A reduction in NOx of up to 45 percent was observed without compromising fuel consumption or smoke levels. (author)
Serres, Nicolas
2010-11-09
A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.
Entropy generation in a diesel engine turbocharging system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakonieczny, K.
2002-01-01
The paper describes a model of entropy production in a diesel engine turbocharging system, discussing the processes occurring in the compressor, turbine, piping system, charge-air cooler and valves with the exclusion of combustion. The charging efficiency of the system is studied in two distinct engine operating states, conforming to maximum torque and nominal power conditions. Unlike in the standard approach, where the irreversibilities are derived from the balance equation for exergy and thus are addressed inexactly, the criterion function based on the notion of entropy generation, introduced in this paper, improves second law analysis of turbocharged engines by accounting for a direct description of the system internal irreversibilities. This function is used for the examination of an impact of the system design parameters on its efficiency. Computations based on the unsteady one-dimensional flow model show that, under the variations of the inlet pipe length, the timings of inlet valve opening and exhaust valve closure, and the valve overlap period, a favourable correlation can be found between the decrease of entropy production and the increase in amount of air charged into the engine cylinders. The other variables under study, including the turbine equivalent area, temperature decrease in intercooler and wastegate effective area ratio, show an opposite correlation, and thus, can be viewed as constraints in the system optimisation
Towards robust design optimization of automotive turbocharger rotor-bearing systems
Eling, R.P.T.
2018-01-01
In the competitive automotive market, the performance of turbochargers is constantly being pushed towards their theoretical optimum. One of the key components of the turbocharger is the rotor-bearing system, which determines the friction losses and noise output and furthermore affects the overall
Effect of turbocharging system on the performance of a natural gas engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesgin, Ugur
2005-01-01
The effect of the turbocharging system on the performance of the gas engine family, which is used in combined power plants, is investigated. These investigations show a clear improvement potential for the future of the engine series optimised here. To do this, a computational model in which zero dimensional phenomena within the cylinder and one dimensional phenomena in the engine inlet and exhaust system are used is verified. Using this engine model, the effects of the parameters of the exhaust and turbocharging system on the engine performance are obtained. In particular, the following parameters are chosen: diameter of the exhaust manifold, diameter of the pipe at the turbine exit, efficiency of the turbocharger, location of the turbocharger, back pressure at the turbine exit and pressure losses (resistances) before the compressor. This paper presents the results of these investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Fayez Shakil; Laghrouche, Salah; Mehmood, Adeel; El Bagdouri, Mohammed
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Estimation of aerodynamic force on variable turbine geometry vanes and actuator. • Method based on exhaust gas flow modeling. • Simulation tool for integration of aerodynamic force in automotive simulation software. - Abstract: This paper provides a reliable tool for simulating the effects of exhaust gas flow through the variable turbine geometry section of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT), on flow control mechanism. The main objective is to estimate the resistive aerodynamic force exerted by the flow upon the variable geometry vanes and the controlling actuator, in order to improve the control of vane angles. To achieve this, a 1D model of the exhaust flow is developed using Navier–Stokes equations. As the flow characteristics depend upon the volute geometry, impeller blade force and the existing viscous friction, the related source terms (losses) are also included in the model. In order to guarantee stability, an implicit numerical solver has been developed for the resolution of the Navier–Stokes problem. The resulting simulation tool has been validated through comparison with experimentally obtained values of turbine inlet pressure and the aerodynamic force as measured at the actuator shaft. The simulator shows good compliance with experimental results
Mean Value Modelling of Turbocharged SI Engines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Müller, Martin; Hendricks, Elbert; Sorenson, Spencer C.
1998-01-01
The development of a computer simulation to predict the performance of a turbocharged spark ignition engine during transient operation. New models have been developed for the turbocharged and the intercooling system. An adiabatic model for the intake manifold is presented.......The development of a computer simulation to predict the performance of a turbocharged spark ignition engine during transient operation. New models have been developed for the turbocharged and the intercooling system. An adiabatic model for the intake manifold is presented....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hualei Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recovering the boost pressure is very important in improving the dynamic performance of diesel engines at high altitudes. A regulated two-stage turbocharging system is an adequate solution for power recovery of diesel engines. In the present study, the change of boost pressure and engine power at different altitudes was investigated, and a regulated two-stage turbocharging system was constructed with an original turbocharger and a matched low pressure turbocharger. The valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery, which formed the basis of the power recovery method, are presented here. The simulation results showed that this system was effective in recovering the boost pressure at different speeds and various altitudes. The turbine bypass valve and compressor bypass valve had different modes to adapt to changes in operating conditions. The boost pressure recovery could not ensure power recovery over the entire operating range of the diesel engine, because of variation in overall turbocharger efficiency. The fuel-injection compensation method along with the valve control strategies for boost pressure recovery was able to reach the power recovery target.
Advanced diesel electronic fuel injection and turbocharging
Beck, N. J.; Barkhimer, R. L.; Steinmeyer, D. C.; Kelly, J. E.
1993-12-01
The program investigated advanced diesel air charging and fuel injection systems to improve specific power, fuel economy, noise, exhaust emissions, and cold startability. The techniques explored included variable fuel injection rate shaping, variable injection timing, full-authority electronic engine control, turbo-compound cooling, regenerative air circulation as a cold start aid, and variable geometry turbocharging. A Servojet electronic fuel injection system was designed and manufactured for the Cummins VTA-903 engine. A special Servojet twin turbocharger exhaust system was also installed. A series of high speed combustion flame photos was taken using the single cylinder optical engine at Michigan Technological University. Various fuel injection rate shapes and nozzle configurations were evaluated. Single-cylinder bench tests were performed to evaluate regenerative inlet air heating techniques as an aid to cold starting. An exhaust-driven axial cooling air fan was manufactured and tested on the VTA-903 engine.
Ji, Yunguang; Xu, Yangyang; Li, Hongtao; Oklejas, Michael; Xue, Shuqi
2018-01-01
A new type of hydraulic turbocharger energy recovery system was designed and applied in the decarbonisation process by propylene carbonate of a 100k tons ammonia synthesis system firstly in China. Compared with existing energy recovery devices, hydraulic turbocharger energy recovery system runs more smoothly, has lower failure rate, longer service life and greater comprehensive benefits due to its unique structure, simpler adjustment process and better adaptability to fluid fluctuation.
Nonlinear effects of unbalance in the rotor-floating ring bearing system of turbochargers
Tian, L.; Wang, W. J.; Peng, Z. J.
2013-01-01
Turbocharger (TC) rotor-floating ring bearing (FRB) system is characterised by high speed as well as high non-linearity. Using the run-up and run-down simulation method, this paper systematically investigates the influence of unbalance on the rotordynamic characteristics of a real TC-FRB system over the speed range from 0 Hz to 3500 Hz. The rotor is discretized by the finite element method, and the desired oil film forces at each simulation step are calculated by an efficient analytical method. The imposed unbalance amount and distribution are the variables considered in the performed non-stationary simulations. The newly obtained results evidently show the distinct phenomena brought about by the variations of the unbalance offset, which confirms that the unbalance level is a critical parameter for the system response. In the meantime, the variations of unbalance distribution, i.e. out-of-phase and in-phase unbalance, can lead to entirely different simulation results as well, which proves the distribution of unbalance is not negligible during the dynamic analysis of the rotor-FRB system. Additionally, considerable effort has been placed on the description as well as discussion of a unique phenomenon termed Critical Limit Cycle Oscillation (CLC Oscillation), which is of great importance and interest to the TC research and development.
Model-Based State Feedback Controller Design for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with an EGR System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tianpu Dong
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the control of transient exhaust gas recirculation (EGR systems. Firstly, a state space model of the air system is developed by simplifying a mean value model. The state space model is linearized by using linearization theory and validated by the GT-Power data with an operating point of the diesel engine. Secondly, a state feedback controller based on the intake oxygen mass fraction is designed for EGR control. Since direct measurement of the intake oxygen mass fraction is unavailable on the engine, the estimation method for intake oxygen mass fraction has been proposed in this paper. The control strategy is analyzed by using co-simulation with the Matlab/Simulink and GT-Powers software. Finally, the whole control system is experimentally validated against experimental data of a turbocharged diesel engine. The control effect of the state feedback controller compared with PID controller proved to be further verify the feasibility and advantages of the proposed state feedback controller.
Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.
2016-05-01
To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine
Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers
Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung
2015-01-01
Rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers is dealt with in this book encompassing the widely working field of small turbomachines under real operating conditions at the very high rotor speeds up to 300000 rpm. The broadly interdisciplinary field of turbocharger rotordynamics involves 1) Thermodynamics and Turbo-Matching of Turbochargers 2) Dynamics of Turbomachinery 3) Stability Analysis of Linear Rotordynamics with the Eigenvalue Theory 4) Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Rotordynamics with the Bifurcation Theory 5) Bearing Dynamics of the Oil Film using the Two-Phase Reynolds Equation 6) Computation of Nonlinear Responses of a Turbocharger Rotor 7) Aero and Vibroacoustics of Turbochargers 8) Shop and Trim Balancing at Two Planes of the Rotor 9) Tribology of the Bearing Surface Roughness 10) Design of Turbocharger Platforms using the Similarity Laws The rotor response of an automotive turbocharger at high rotor speeds is studied analytically, computationally, and experimentally. Due to the nonlinear character...
Assanis, D. N.; Ekchian, J. E.; Frank, R. M.; Heywood, J. B.
1985-01-01
A computer simulation of the turbocharged turbocompounded direct-injection diesel engine system was developed in order to study the performance characteristics of the total system as major design parameters and materials are varied. Quasi-steady flow models of the compressor, turbines, manifolds, intercooler, and ducting are coupled with a multicylinder reciprocator diesel model, where each cylinder undergoes the same thermodynamic cycle. The master cylinder model describes the reciprocator intake, compression, combustion and exhaust processes in sufficient detail to define the mass and energy transfers in each subsystem of the total engine system. Appropriate thermal loading models relate the heat flow through critical system components to material properties and design details. From this information, the simulation predicts the performance gains, and assesses the system design trade-offs which would result from the introduction of selected heat transfer reduction materials in key system components, over a range of operating conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sjerić, Momir; Taritaš, Ivan; Tomić, Rudolf; Blažić, Mislav; Kozarac, Darko; Lulić, Zoran
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A cylinder model was calibrated according to experimental results. • A full cycle simulation model of turbocharged spark-ignition engine was made. • Engine performance with high pressure exhaust gas recirculation was studied. • Cooled exhaust gas recirculation lowers exhaust temperature and knock occurrence. • Leaner mixtures enable fuel consumption improvement of up to 11.2%. - Abstract: The numerical analysis of performance of a four cylinder highly boosted spark-ignition engine at full load is described in this paper, with the research focused on introducing high pressure exhaust gas recirculation for control of engine limiting factors such as knock, turbine inlet temperature and cyclic variability. For this analysis the cycle-simulation model which includes modeling of the entire engine flow path, early flame kernel growth, mixture stratification, turbulent combustion, in-cylinder turbulence, knock and cyclic variability was applied. The cylinder sub-models such as ignition, turbulence and combustion were validated by using the experimental results of a naturally aspirated multi cylinder spark-ignition engine. The high load operation, which served as a benchmark value, was obtained by a standard procedure used in calibration of engines, i.e. operation with fuel enrichment and without exhaust gas recirculation. By introducing exhaust gas recirculation and by optimizing other engine operating parameters, the influence of exhaust gas recirculation on engine performance is obtained. The optimum operating parameters, such as spark advance, intake pressure, air to fuel ratio, were found to meet the imposed requirements in terms of fuel consumption, knock occurrence, exhaust gas temperature and variation of indicated mean effective pressure. By comparing the results of the base point with the results that used exhaust gas recirculation the improvement in fuel consumption of 8.7%, 11.2% and 1.5% at engine speeds of 2000 rpm, 3500 rpm and 5000
Advanced Turbo-Charging Research and Development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
2008-02-27
The objective of this project is to conduct analysis, design, procurement and test of a high pressure ratio, wide flow range, and high EGR system with two stages of turbocharging. The system needs to meet the stringent 2010MY emissions regulations at 20% + better fuel economy than its nearest gasoline competitor while allowing equivalent vehicle launch characteristics and higher torque capability than its nearest gasoline competitor. The system will also need to meet light truck/ SUV life requirements, which will require validation or development of components traditionally used only in passenger car applications. The conceived system is termed 'seriessequential turbocharger' because the turbocharger system operates in series at appropriate times and also sequentially when required. This is accomplished using intelligent design and control of flow passages and valves. Components of the seriessequential system will also be applicable to parallel-sequential systems which are also expected to be in use for future light truck/SUV applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lino Guzzella
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The availability of compressed air in combination with downsizing and turbocharging is a promising approach to improve the fuel economy and the driveability of internal combustion engines. The compressed air is used to boost and start the engine. It is generated during deceleration phases by running the engine as a piston compressor. In this paper, a camshaft-driven valve is considered for the control of the air exchange between the tank and the combustion chamber. Such a valve system is cost-effective and robust. Each pneumatic engine mode is realized by a separate cam. The air mass transfer in each mode is analyzed. Special attention is paid to the tank pressure dependence. The air demand in the boost mode is found to increase with the tank pressure. However, the dependence on the tank pressure is small in the most relevant operating region. The air demand of the pneumatic start shows a piecewise continuous dependence on the tank pressure. Finally, a tank sizing method is proposed which uses a quasi-static simulation. It is applied to a compact class vehicle, for which a tank volume of less than 10 L is sufficient. A further reduction of the tank volume is limited by the specifications imposed on the pneumatic start.
Programming system for analytic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raymond, Jacques
1970-01-01
After having outlined the characteristics of computing centres which do not comply with engineering tasks, notably the time required by all different tasks to be performed when developing a software (assembly, compilation, link edition, loading, run), and identified constraints specific to engineering, the author identifies the characteristics a programming system should have to suit engineering tasks. He discussed existing conversational systems and their programming language, and their main drawbacks. Then, he presents a system which aims at facilitating programming and addressing problems of analytic geometry and trigonometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsanos, C.O.; Hountalas, D.T.; Zannis, T.C.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • A diesel model was developed using charts for turbocharger and power turbine. • The maximum value of bsfc improvement is 4.1% at 100% engine load. • The generated electric power ranges from 23 kW to 62 kW. • Turbocharger turbine efficiency decreases slightly with the power turbine speed. • Turbocompounding increases the average pressure value in the exhaust manifold. - Abstract: In diesel engines, approximately 30–40% of the energy supplied by the fuel is rejected to the ambience through exhaust gases. Therefore, there is a potentiality for further considerable increase of diesel engine efficiency with the utilization of exhaust gas heat and its conversion to mechanical or electrical energy. In the present study, the operational behavior of a heavy-duty (HD) diesel truck engine equipped with an electric turbocompounding system is examined on a theoretical basis. The electrical turbocompounding configuration comprised of a power turbine coupled to an electric generator, which is installed downstream to the turbocharger (T/C) turbine. A diesel engine simulation model has been developed using operating charts for both turbocharger and power turbine. A method for introducing the operating charts into the engine model is described thoroughly. A parametric analysis is conducted with the developed simulation tool, where the varying parameter is the rotational speed of power turbine shaft. In this study, the interaction between the power turbine and the turbocharged diesel engine is examined in detail. The effect of power turbine speed on T/C components efficiencies, power turbine efficiency, exhaust pressure and temperature, engine boost pressure and air to fuel ratio is evaluated. In addition, theoretical results for the potential impact of electrical turbocompounding on the generated electric power, net engine power and relative improvement of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) are provided. The critical evaluation of the theoretical
Integrable systems, geometry, and topology
Terng, Chuu-Lian
2006-01-01
The articles in this volume are based on lectures from a program on integrable systems and differential geometry held at Taiwan's National Center for Theoretical Sciences. As is well-known, for many soliton equations, the solutions have interpretations as differential geometric objects, and thereby techniques of soliton equations have been successfully applied to the study of geometric problems. The article by Burstall gives a beautiful exposition on isothermic surfaces and their relations to integrable systems, and the two articles by Guest give an introduction to quantum cohomology, carry out explicit computations of the quantum cohomology of flag manifolds and Hirzebruch surfaces, and give a survey of Givental's quantum differential equations. The article by Heintze, Liu, and Olmos is on the theory of isoparametric submanifolds in an arbitrary Riemannian manifold, which is related to the n-wave equation when the ambient manifold is Euclidean. Mukai-Hidano and Ohnita present a survey on the moduli space of ...
Work Turbochargers under Reduced Pressure in the Suction Pipe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Filippov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In case consumers have a significant need in the compressed air, the use of turbochargers is a promising direction. The turbocharger operation is largely defined by its running conditions, namely parameters of the intake air and cooling conditions.The paper presents the results of experimental studies of turbochargers type 4CI 425MX4 of series "CENTAC" manufactured by INGERSOL-RAND, which were performed under industrial conditions in a mountainous area with difficult climatic conditions. There were, essentially, no researches of running turbochargers in mountainous areas. The combination of low atmospheric pressure, high temperature of intake air, and specific cooling conditions causes abnormal mode of turbocharger operation. The results of theoretical studies of such modes are found only in N.M. Barannikov’s work while there is no mentioned empirical research at all.Experimental studies were conducted under industrial conditions in the form of passive experiment. All measurements were carried out using a standard measuring system included in the system of compressor monitor and control. During the experimental studies temperature regimes at the turbocharger stage were controlled, and turbocharger pressure ratio and weight output were determined.The results of the research can be formulated as follows:- highland conditions and seasonal variations of atmospheric air have a negative impact on the operation of the turbochargers;- specific work value as an indicator of the economical efficiency exceeds that of the nameplate by 12...21 % depending on the climatic conditions.The problem of functioning normalization of the turbochargers seems to be relevant not only for the considered type of compressor, but also for that of the less power. It is proposed to consider two ways:- installation of the fifth additional stage;- mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe by means of blowers of high power.To make final decision it is necessary to conduct
Javed, A.; Kamphues, E.; Hartuc, T.; Pecnik, R.; Van Buijtenen, J.P.
2015-01-01
The compressor impellers for mass-produced turbochargers are generally die-casted and machined to their final configuration. Manufacturing uncertainties are inherently introduced as stochastic dimensional deviations in the impeller geometry. These deviations eventually propagate into the compressor
Turbocharging Normalization in Highland Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Filippov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available To ensure many production processes are used compressors of various types, including turbochargers, which produce compressed air. The actual performance values of turbochargers used in highlands are significantly different from the certified values, and parameters of compressed air do not always guarantee the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.The paper presents research results of the turbochargers of 4CI 425MX4 type, a series of "CENTAC", manufactured by INGERSOL – RAND Company. The research has been conducted in industrial highland conditions in difficult climatic environment. There were almost no investigations of turbochargers running in highland conditions. The combination of low atmospheric pressure with high temperature of the intake air causes the abnormal operating conditions of a turbocharger. Only N. M. Barannikov in his paper shows the results of theoretical studies of such operating conditions, but as to the practical research, there is no information at all.To normalize the turbocharger operation an option of the mechanical pressurization in the suction pipe is adopted. As a result of theoretical research, a TurboMAX blower MAX500 was chosen as a supercharger. The next stage of theoretical research was to construct characteristics of the turbocharger 4CI 425MX4 with a mechanical supercharger in the suction pipe. The boost reduces to the minimum the time of using additional compressors when parameters of the intake air are changed and ensures the smooth and efficient functioning for consumers.To verify the results of theoretical studies, namely, the technique for recalculation of the turbocharger characteristics under the real conditions of suction, were carried out the experimental researches. The average error between experimental and theoretical data is 2,9783 %, which confirms the validity of the technique used for reduction of the turbocharger characteristics to those under the real conditions of suction.
Geometry and dynamics of integrable systems
Matveev, Vladimir
2016-01-01
Based on lectures given at an advanced course on integrable systems at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica in Barcelona, these lecture notes address three major aspects of integrable systems: obstructions to integrability from differential Galois theory; the description of singularities of integrable systems on the basis of their relation to bi-Hamiltonian systems; and the generalization of integrable systems to the non-Hamiltonian settings. All three sections were written by top experts in their respective fields. Native to actual problem-solving challenges in mechanics, the topic of integrable systems is currently at the crossroads of several disciplines in pure and applied mathematics, and also has important interactions with physics. The study of integrable systems also actively employs methods from differential geometry. Moreover, it is extremely important in symplectic geometry and Hamiltonian dynamics, and has strong correlations with mathematical physics, Lie theory and algebraic geometry (including mir...
ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY
Enrique Gonzalo Reyes Garcia
2004-01-01
ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY Equations in partial derivatives appeared in the 18th century as essential tools for the analytic study of physical models and, later, they proved to be fundamental for the progress of mathematics. For example, fundamental results of modern differential geometry are based on deep theorems on differential equations. Reciprocally, it is possible to study differential equations through geometrical means just like it was done by o...
Semiclassical geometry of integrable systems
Reshetikhin, Nicolai
2018-04-01
The main result of this paper is a formula for the scalar product of semiclassical eigenvectors of two integrable systems on the same symplectic manifold. An important application of this formula is the Ponzano–Regge type of asymptotic of Racah–Wigner coefficients. Dedicated to the memory of P P Kulish.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katrasnik, Tomaz; Medica, Vladimir; Trenc, Ferdinand
2005-01-01
Reliability of electric supply systems is among the most required necessities of modern society. Turbocharged diesel engine driven alternating current generating sets are often used to prevent electric black outs and/or as prime electric energy suppliers. It is well known that turbocharged diesel engines suffer from an inadequate response to a sudden load increase, this being a consequence of the nature of the energy exchange between the engine and the turbocharger. The dynamic response of turbocharged diesel engines could be improved by electric assisting systems, either by direct energy supply with an integrated starter-generator-booster (ISG) mounted on the engine flywheel, or by an indirect energy supply with an electrically assisted turbocharger. An experimentally verified zero dimensional computer simulation method was used for the analysis of both types of electrical assistance. The paper offers an analysis of the interaction between a turbocharged diesel engine and different electric assisting systems, as well as the requirements for the supporting electric motors that could improve the dynamic response of a diesel engine while driving an AC generating set. When performance class compliance is a concern, it is evident that an integrated starter-generator-booster outperforms an electrically assisted turbocharger for the investigated generating set. However, the electric energy consumption and frequency recovery times are smaller when an electrically assisted turbocharger is applied
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lukas Bernhauser
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Increasing quality demands of combustion engines require, amongst others, improvements of the engine’s acoustics and all (subcomponents mounted to the latter. A significant impact to the audible tonal noise spectrum results from the vibratory motions of fast-rotating turbocharger rotor systems in multiple hydrodynamic bearings such as floating bearing rings. Particularly, the study of self-excited non-linear vibrations of the rotor-bearing systems is crucial for the understanding, prevention or reduction of the noise and, consequently, for a sustainable engine acoustics development. This work presents an efficient modeling approach for the investigation, optimization, and design improvement of complex turbocharger rotors in hydrodynamic journal bearings, including floating bearing rings with circular and non-circular bearing geometries. The capability of tonal non-synchronous vibration prevention using non-circular bearing shapes is demonstrated with dynamic run-up simulations of the presented model. These findings and the performance of our model are compared and validated with results of a classical Laval/Jeffcott rotor-bearing model and a specific turbocharger model found in the literature. It is shown that the presented simulation method yields fast and accurate results and furthermore, that non-circular bearing shapes are an effective measure to reduce or even prevent self-excited tonal noise.
Sossinsky, A B
2012-01-01
The book is an innovative modern exposition of geometry, or rather, of geometries; it is the first textbook in which Felix Klein's Erlangen Program (the action of transformation groups) is systematically used as the basis for defining various geometries. The course of study presented is dedicated to the proposition that all geometries are created equal--although some, of course, remain more equal than others. The author concentrates on several of the more distinguished and beautiful ones, which include what he terms "toy geometries", the geometries of Platonic bodies, discrete geometries, and classical continuous geometries. The text is based on first-year semester course lectures delivered at the Independent University of Moscow in 2003 and 2006. It is by no means a formal algebraic or analytic treatment of geometric topics, but rather, a highly visual exposition containing upwards of 200 illustrations. The reader is expected to possess a familiarity with elementary Euclidean geometry, albeit those lacking t...
Lectures on fractal geometry and dynamical systems
Pesin, Yakov
2009-01-01
Both fractal geometry and dynamical systems have a long history of development and have provided fertile ground for many great mathematicians and much deep and important mathematics. These two areas interact with each other and with the theory of chaos in a fundamental way: many dynamical systems (even some very simple ones) produce fractal sets, which are in turn a source of irregular "chaotic" motions in the system. This book is an introduction to these two fields, with an emphasis on the relationship between them. The first half of the book introduces some of the key ideas in fractal geometry and dimension theory--Cantor sets, Hausdorff dimension, box dimension--using dynamical notions whenever possible, particularly one-dimensional Markov maps and symbolic dynamics. Various techniques for computing Hausdorff dimension are shown, leading to a discussion of Bernoulli and Markov measures and of the relationship between dimension, entropy, and Lyapunov exponents. In the second half of the book some examples o...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. In the previous article we looked at the origins of synthetic and analytic geometry. More practical minded people, the builders and navigators, were studying two other aspects of geometry- trigonometry and integral calculus. These are actually ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari
2017-07-01
Full Text Available In this study the influence of utilization of two Waste Heat Recovery (WHR strategies, namely organic Rankine cycle (ORC and turbocompounding, have been investigated based on the performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine using 1-D simulation engine code (GT-Power in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC at various engine speeds and Brake Mean Effective Pressures (BMEP. The model of a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine (Holset HDX55V was calibrated using an experimental BSFC map to predict engine exhaust thermodynamic conditions such as exhaust mass flow rate and exhaust temperature under various operating conditions. These engine exhaust conditions were then utilized to feed the inlet conditions for both the ORC and turbocompounding models, evaluating the available exhaust energy to be recovered by each technology. Firstly the ORC system model was simulated to obtain the power that can be generated from the system. Having this additional power converted to useful work, the BSFC was observed to reduce around 2–5% depending upon engine’s speed and BMEP. The initial model of the engine was then modified by considering a second turbine representing turbocompounding heat recovery system. The BSFC was increased due to the back-pressure from the second turbine, but the energy generated from the turbine was sufficient to reduce the BSFC further. However, by application of turbocompounding no improvement in BSFC was achieved at low engine’s speeds. It is concluded that ORC heat recovery system produces a satisfactory results at low engine speeds with both low and high loads whereas at medium and high engine speeds turbocompounding heat recovery system causes higher BSFC reduction.
Prasolov, V V
2015-01-01
This book provides a systematic introduction to various geometries, including Euclidean, affine, projective, spherical, and hyperbolic geometries. Also included is a chapter on infinite-dimensional generalizations of Euclidean and affine geometries. A uniform approach to different geometries, based on Klein's Erlangen Program is suggested, and similarities of various phenomena in all geometries are traced. An important notion of duality of geometric objects is highlighted throughout the book. The authors also include a detailed presentation of the theory of conics and quadrics, including the theory of conics for non-Euclidean geometries. The book contains many beautiful geometric facts and has plenty of problems, most of them with solutions, which nicely supplement the main text. With more than 150 figures illustrating the arguments, the book can be recommended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in geometry.
Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)
2013-02-01
First book about the aeroacoustics of automotive turbochargers. Author of the book ''Rotordynamics of Automotive Turbochargers'', Springer, 2012. Written by an R and D expert in the turbocharger industry. Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation. In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions. Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill's analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehicles. The content of this book is intended for advanced undergraduates, graduates in mechanical engineering, research scientists and practicing engineers who want to better understand the interactions between these working fields and the resulting impact on the interesting topic of Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers.
Amin Mahmoudzadeh Andwari; Apostolos Pesiridis; Vahid Esfahanian; Ali Salavati-Zadeh; Apostolos Karvountzis-Kontakiotis; Vishal Muralidharan
2017-01-01
In this study the influence of utilization of two Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) strategies, namely organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and turbocompounding, have been investigated based on the performance of a heavy-duty diesel engine using 1-D simulation engine code (GT-Power) in terms of Brake Specific Fuel Consumptions (BSFC) at various engine speeds and Brake Mean Effective Pressures (BMEP). The model of a 6-cylinder turbocharged engine (Holset HDX55V) was calibrated using an experimental BSFC map to...
Absorbing CAD system geometries into GEANT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Womersley, J.; Dragovitsch, P.; Youssef, S.
1991-01-01
The simulation community has for many years discussed the possibility of direct conversion of geometrical detector models from computer- aided design and engineering systems (CAD systems) to the simulation packages (which we shall assume means GEANT). This would allow fast and simultaneous optimization of the physics performance and structural integrity of detector designs. The benefit that this would offer is the avoidance of such problems as the late discovery of the rather thick cryostats in the D-Zero detector. Recent progress in the absorption of CAD geometries into GEANT models is reviewed, including descriptions of the additions to the I-DEAS solid modeller package developed for the EMPACT SSC proposal, the COGENT CAD-to-GEANT interpreter developed by Quantum Research Services, and the OCTAGON package for representing arbitrary shapes in GEANT. Likely future directions of development are described. 2 refs., 7 figs
System Geometries and Transit/Eclipse Probabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Howard A.
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets provide access to data to study the mass-radius relation and internal structure of extrasolar planets. Long-period transiting planets allow insight into planetary environments similar to the Solar System where, in contrast to hot Jupiters, planets are not constantly exposed to the intense radiation of their parent stars. Observations of secondary eclipses additionally permit studies of exoplanet temperatures and large-scale exo-atmospheric properties. We show how transit and eclipse probabilities are related to planet-star system geometries, particularly for long-period, eccentric orbits. The resulting target selection and observational strategies represent the principal ingredients of our photometric survey of known radial-velocity planets with the aim of detecting transit signatures (TERMS.
Pedoe, Dan
1988-01-01
""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he
Turbocharging Quantum Tomography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blume-Kohout, Robin J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gamble, John King [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nielsen, Erik [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scholten, Travis L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudinger, Kenneth Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-01-01
Quantum tomography is used to characterize quantum operations implemented in quantum information processing (QIP) hardware. Traditionally, state tomography has been used to characterize the quantum state prepared in an initialization procedure, while quantum process tomography is used to characterize dynamical operations on a QIP system. As such, tomography is critical to the development of QIP hardware (since it is necessary both for debugging and validating as-built devices, and its results are used to influence the next generation of devices). But tomography suffers from several critical drawbacks. In this report, we present new research that resolves several of these flaws. We describe a new form of tomography called gate set tomography (GST), which unifies state and process tomography, avoids prior methods critical reliance on precalibrated operations that are not generally available, and can achieve unprecedented accuracies. We report on theory and experimental development of adaptive tomography protocols that achieve far higher fidelity in state reconstruction than non-adaptive methods. Finally, we present a new theoretical and experimental analysis of process tomography on multispin systems, and demonstrate how to more effectively detect and characterize quantum noise using carefully tailored ensembles of input states.
System theory as applied differential geometry. [linear system
Hermann, R.
1979-01-01
The invariants of input-output systems under the action of the feedback group was examined. The approach used the theory of Lie groups and concepts of modern differential geometry, and illustrated how the latter provides a basis for the discussion of the analytic structure of systems. Finite dimensional linear systems in a single independent variable are considered. Lessons of more general situations (e.g., distributed parameter and multidimensional systems) which are increasingly encountered as technology advances are presented.
Aero and vibroacoustics of automotive turbochargers
Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung
2013-01-01
Aero and Vibroacoustics of Automotive Turbochargers is a topic involving aspects from the working fields of thermodynamics of turbomachinery, aerodynamics, rotordynamics, and noise propagation computation. In this broadly interdisciplinary subject, thermodynamics of turbomachinery is used to design the turbocharger and to determine its operating conditions. Aerodynamics is needed to study the compressor flow dynamics and flow instabilities of rotating stall and surge, which can produce growling and whining-type noises. Rotordynamics is necessary to study rotor unbalance and self-excited oil-whirl instabilities, which lead to whistling and constant tone-type noises in rotating floating oil-film type bearings. For the special case of turbochargers using ball bearings, some high-order harmonic and wear noises also manifest in the rotor operating range. Lastly, noise propagation computation, based on Lighthill’s analogy, is required to investigate airborne noises produced by turbochargers in passenger vehi...
Geometry and experience: Einstein's 1921 paper and Hilbert's axiomatic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Gandt, Francois
2006-01-01
In his 1921 paper Geometrie und Erfahrung, Einstein decribes the new epistemological status of geometry, divorced from any intuitive or a priori content. He calls that 'axiomatics', following Hilbert's theoretical developments on axiomatic systems, which started with the stimulus given by a talk by Hermann Wiener in 1891 and progressed until the Foundations of geometry in 1899. Difficult questions arise: how is a theoretical system related to an intuitive empirical content?
Super Turbocharging the Direct Injection Diesel engine
Boretti, Albert
2018-03-01
The steady operation of a turbocharged diesel direct injection (TDI) engine featuring a variable speed ratio mechanism linking the turbocharger shaft to the crankshaft is modelled in the present study. Key parameters of the variable speed ratio mechanism are range of speed ratios, efficiency and inertia, in addition to the ability to control relative speed and flow of power. The device receives energy from, or delivers energy to, the crankshaft or the turbocharger. In addition to the pistons of the internal combustion engine (ICE), also the turbocharger thus contributes to the total mechanical power output of the engine. The energy supply from the crankshaft is mostly needed during sharp accelerations to avoid turbo-lag, and to boost torque at low speeds. At low speeds, the maximum torque is drastically improved, radically expanding the load range. Additionally, moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger, it is also possible to improve both the efficiency η, defined as the ratio of the piston crankshaft power to the fuel flow power, and the total efficiency η*, defined as the ratio of piston crankshaft power augmented of the power from the turbocharger shaft to the fuel flow power, even if of a minimal extent. The energy supply to the crankshaft is possible mostly at high speeds and high loads, where otherwise the turbine could have been waste gated, and during decelerations. The use of the energy at the turbine otherwise waste gated translates in improvements of the total fuel conversion efficiency η* more than the efficiency η. Much smaller improvements are obtained for the maximum torque, yet again moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger. Adopting a much larger turbocharger (target displacement x speed 30% larger than a conventional turbocharger), better torque outputs and fuel conversion efficiencies η* and η are possible at every speed vs. the engine with a smaller, balanced turbocharger. This result
Wang, Longkai; Bin, Guangfu; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Dingqu
2016-03-01
For the high-speed gasoline engine turbocharger rotor, due to the heterogeneity of multiple parts material, manufacturing and assembly errors, running wear in impeller and uneven carbon of turbine, the random unbalance usually can be developed which will induce excessive rotor vibration, and even lead to nonlinear vibration accidents. However, the investigation of unbalance location on the nonlinear high-speed turbocharger rotordynamic characteristics is less. In order to discuss the rotor unbalance location effects of turbocharger with nonlinear floating ring bearings(FRBs), the realistic turbocharger of gasoline engine is taken as a research object. The rotordynamic equations of motion under the condition of unbalance are derived by applied unbalance force and nonlinear oil film force of FRBs. The FE model of turbocharger rotor-bearing system is modeled which includes the unbalance excitation and nonlinear FRBs. Under the conditions of four different applied locations of unbalance, the nonlinear transient analyses are performed based on the rotor FEM. The differences of dynamic behavior are obvious to the turbocharger rotor systems for four conditions, and the bifurcation phenomena are different. From the results of waterfall and transient response analysis, the speed for the appearance of fractional frequency is not identical and the amplitude magnitude is different from the different unbalance locations, and the non-synchronous vibration does not occur in the turbocharger and the amplitude is relative stable and minimum under the condition 4. The turbocharger vibration and non-synchronous components could be reduced or suppressed by controlling the applied location of unbalance, which is helpful for the dynamic design, fault diagnosis and vibration control of the high-speed gasoline engine turbochargers.
Electronic Geometry Textbook: A Geometric Textbook Knowledge Management System
Chen, Xiaoyu
2010-01-01
Electronic Geometry Textbook is a knowledge management system that manages geometric textbook knowledge to enable users to construct and share dynamic geometry textbooks interactively and efficiently. Based on a knowledge base organizing and storing the knowledge represented in specific languages, the system implements interfaces for maintaining the data representing that knowledge as well as relations among those data, for automatically generating readable documents for viewing or printing, ...
Characterisation, control, and energy management of electrified turbocharged diesel engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Dezong; Winward, Edward; Yang, Zhijia; Stobart, Richard; Steffen, Thomas
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A real-time energy management framework for electrified engines is proposed. • A multi-variable robust controller is designed. • Characterisation on the air system of electrified diesel engines is given. • Reliable for engine downsizing because of the promising transient performance. - Abstract: The electrification of engine components offers significant opportunities for fuel efficiency improvements. The electrified turbocharger is one of the most attractive options since it recovers part of the engine exhaust gas mechanical energy to assist boosting. Therefore, the engine can be downsized through improved transient responsiveness. In the electrified turbocharger, an electric machine is mounted on the turbine shaft and changes the air system dynamics, so characterisation of the new layout is essential. A systematic control solution is required to manage energy flows in the hybrid system. In this paper, a framework for characterisation, control, and energy management for an electrified turbocharged diesel engine is proposed. The impacts of the electric machine on fuel economy and air system variables are analysed. Based on the characterisation, a two-level control structure is proposed. A real-time energy management strategy is employed as the supervisory level controller to generate the optimal values of critical variables, while a model-based multi-variable controller is designed as the low level controller to track the values. The two controllers work together in a cascade to address both fuel economy optimisation and battery state-of-charge maintenance. The proposed control strategy is validated on a high fidelity physical engine model. The tracking performance shows the proposed framework is a promising solution in regulating the behavior of electrified engines.
Concept and performance study of turbocharged solid propellant ramjet
Li, Jiang; Liu, Kai; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shichang
2018-06-01
This study proposes a turbocharged solid propellant ramjet (TSPR) propulsion system that integrates a turbocharged system consisting of a solid propellant (SP) air turbo rocket (ATR) and the fuel-rich gas generator of a solid propellant ramjet (SPR). First, a suitable propellant scheme was determined for the TSPR. A solid hydrocarbon propellant is used to generate gas for driving the turbine, and a boron-based fuel-rich propellant is used to provide fuel-rich gas to the afterburner. An appropriate TSPR structure was also determined. The TSPR's thermodynamic cycle was analysed to prove its theoretical feasibility. The results showed that the TSPR's specific cycle power was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR and thermal efficiency was slightly less than that of SP-ATR. Overall, TSPR showed optimal performance in a wide flight envelope. The specific impulses and specific thrusts of TSPR, SP-ATR, and SPR in the flight envelope were calculated and compared. TSPR's flight envelope roughly overlapped that of SP-ATR, its specific impulse was larger than that of SP-ATR, and its specific thrust was larger than those of SP-ATR and SPR. Attempts to improve the TSPR off-design performance prompted our proposal of a control plan for off-design codes in which both the turbocharger corrected speed and combustor excess gas coefficient are kept constant. An off-design performance model was established by analysing the TSPR working process. We concluded that TSPR with a constant corrected speed had wider flight envelope, higher thrust, and higher specific impulse than TSPR with a constant physical speed determined by calculating the performance of off-design TSPR codes under different control plans. The results of this study can provide a reference for further studies on TSPRs.
Development and testing of a HD diesel engine with two-state turbocharging
Sturm, W.L.; Kruithof, J.
2000-01-01
A research project was carried out in which a DAF engine was equipped with a two-stage turbocharging system. Objectives were to investigate an engine concept with very high BMEP (25-30 bars), maintaining acceptable emissions and fuel consumption, while concentrating on the control system and
Computer simulation of a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bannikiv, M.G.; Saeed, M.
2005-01-01
Engine model described in this paper was developed to investigate the working process and overall performance of a heavy-duty turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The primary focus was made on exploring the methods of engine power boosting, study of engine behaviour after their implementation and optimization of all engine parameters. Engine model is classified as on zone, zero dimensional and phenomenological and includes submodels for in cylinder heat transfer, heat release and valve flow processes. Turbocharger model is developed using the available maps of turbine and compressor. The whole engine system is zero dimensional and the different system components are liked by means of mean values for mass flow, temperatures, pressures and gas composition. NASA polynomials are used for computing thermal properties of mixture of gasses. Model is flexible and easy to accommodate additional submodels of various physical phenomena such as emission formation, fuel injection, ignition delay period calculation etc. The software is developed in MATLAB. Software was used to analyse an evaporative cooling of boost air as a method of an increase of engine power. Results of simulation are provided in the paper. For the augmented engine, mechanical and thermal loads required for the strength analyses were obtained. (author)
Compact and Accurate Turbocharger Modelling for Engine Control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sorenson, Spencer C; Hendricks, Elbert; Magnússon, Sigurjón
2005-01-01
With the current trend towards engine downsizing, the use of turbochargers to obtain extra engine power has become common. A great díffuculty in the use of turbochargers is in the modelling of the compressor map. In general this is done by inserting the compressor map directly into the engine ECU...... turbocharges with radial compressors for either Spark Ignition (SI) or diesel engines...
THE PRINCIPLES OF METHODICAL SYSTEM OF TEACHING GEOMETRY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Svetlana Feodosevna Miteneva
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the main components of methodical system of teaching geometry, including the developing spatial thinking, the process of creating images, the conditions for the organization of students cognitive activity. The author describes the scheme of formation of spatial understanding of geometric objects, marks the conditions of students activities organization aimed at creating a spatial image of the studied object, lists research skills to address geometric problems and ways to implement these skills into practice, gives a summary of methods of teaching geometry, including the principle of holistic approach priority, the principle of an open multi-valuedness, the principle of subjective experience accounting.
Determination of Fracture System Geometry from Well Testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doe, T.W.
1994-01-01
In this paper, the research and development for the description of the hydraulic geometry of fracture networks are discussed. The studies on fracture networks have developed on the premise that the structural geological information on fracture geometries could be used to develop the realistic models of flow. It has been widely recognized that a relatively small portion of natural fracture networks controls a major portion of groundwater flow. The key to efficient network modeling is to identify that portion of networks. It is the main purpose of this paper to discuss the methods for characterizing the hydraulic geometry of fracture flow systems. The methods described in this paper cover three approaches for defining the hydraulic geometry of fracture networks, that is, the determination of conductive fracture frequency in boreholes, the use of transient pressure and flow responses in single holes, and the use of cross hole test to assess connectivity. The information which can be obtained by each test is shown. Flow logging, well test distribution and conductive fracture frequency are discussed. The transient analysis of single hole well test and the cross hole analysis of well test for fracture network geometry are reported. The data taken by various methods together can provide network characterization. (K.I.)
A Method for Turbocharging Four-Stroke Single Cylinder Engines
Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos
2014-11-01
Turbocharging is not conventionally used with single cylinder engines due to the timing mismatch between when the turbo is powered and when it can deliver air to the cylinder. The proposed solution involves a fixed, pressurized volume - which we call an air capacitor - on the intake side of the engine between the turbocharger and intake valves. The capacitor acts as a buffer and would be implemented as a new style of intake manifold with a larger volume than traditional systems. This talk will present the flow analysis used to determine the optimal size for the capacitor, which was found to be four to five times the engine capacity, as well as its anticipated contributions to engine performance. For a capacitor sized for a one-liter engine, the time to reach operating pressure was found to be approximately two seconds, which would be acceptable for slowly accelerating applications and steady state applications. The air density increase that could be achieved, compared to ambient air, was found to vary between fifty percent for adiabatic compression and no heat transfer from the capacitor, to eighty percent for perfect heat transfer. These increases in density are proportional to, to first order, the anticipated power increases that could be realized. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. 1122374.
Analogy and Dynamic Geometry System Used to Introduce Three-Dimensional Geometry
Mammana, M. F.; Micale, B.; Pennisi, M.
2012-01-01
We present a sequence of classroom activities on Euclidean geometry, both plane and space geometry, used to make three dimensional geometry more catchy and simple. The activity consists of a guided research activity that leads the students to discover unexpected properties of two apparently distant geometrical entities, quadrilaterals and…
Physics- and engineering knowledge-based geometry repair system for robust parametric CAD geometries
Li, Dong
2012-01-01
In modern multi-objective design optimisation, an effective geometry engine is becoming an essential tool and its performance has a significant impact on the entire process. Building a parametric geometry requires difficult compromises between the conflicting goals of robustness and flexibility. The work presents a solution for improving the robustness of parametric geometry models by capturing and modelling relative engineering knowledge into a surrogate model, and deploying it automatically...
An experimental procedure to determine heat transfer properties of turbochargers
Serrano, J. R.; Olmeda, P.; Páez, A.; Vidal, F.
2010-03-01
Heat transfer phenomena in turbochargers have been a subject of investigation due to their importance for the correct determination of compressor real work when modelling. The commonly stated condition of adiabaticity for turbochargers during normal operation of an engine has been revaluated because important deviations from adiabatic behaviour have been stated in many studies in this issue especially when the turbocharger is running at low rotational speeds/loads. The deviations mentioned do not permit us to assess properly the turbine and compressor efficiencies since the pure aerodynamic effects cannot be separated from the non-desired heat transfer due to the presence of both phenomena during turbocharger operation. The correction of the aforesaid facts is necessary to properly feed engine models with reliable information and in this way increase the quality of the results in any modelling process. The present work proposes a thermal characterization methodology successfully applied in a turbocharger for a passenger car which is based on the physics of the turbocharger. Its application helps to understand the thermal behaviour of the turbocharger, and the results obtained constitute vital information for future modelling efforts which involve the use of the information obtained from the proposed methodology. The conductance values obtained from the proposed methodology have been applied to correct a procedure for measuring the mechanical efficiency of the tested turbocharger.
An experimental procedure to determine heat transfer properties of turbochargers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serrano, J R; Olmeda, P; Páez, A; Vidal, F
2010-01-01
Heat transfer phenomena in turbochargers have been a subject of investigation due to their importance for the correct determination of compressor real work when modelling. The commonly stated condition of adiabaticity for turbochargers during normal operation of an engine has been revaluated because important deviations from adiabatic behaviour have been stated in many studies in this issue especially when the turbocharger is running at low rotational speeds/loads. The deviations mentioned do not permit us to assess properly the turbine and compressor efficiencies since the pure aerodynamic effects cannot be separated from the non-desired heat transfer due to the presence of both phenomena during turbocharger operation. The correction of the aforesaid facts is necessary to properly feed engine models with reliable information and in this way increase the quality of the results in any modelling process. The present work proposes a thermal characterization methodology successfully applied in a turbocharger for a passenger car which is based on the physics of the turbocharger. Its application helps to understand the thermal behaviour of the turbocharger, and the results obtained constitute vital information for future modelling efforts which involve the use of the information obtained from the proposed methodology. The conductance values obtained from the proposed methodology have been applied to correct a procedure for measuring the mechanical efficiency of the tested turbocharger
Geometry in a dynamical system without space: Hyperbolic Geometry in Kuramoto Oscillator Systems
Engelbrecht, Jan; Chen, Bolun; Mirollo, Renato
Kuramoto oscillator networks have the special property that their time evolution is constrained to lie on 3D orbits of the Möbius group acting on the N-fold torus TN which explains the N - 3 constants of motion discovered by Watanabe and Strogatz. The dynamics for phase models can be further reduced to 2D invariant sets in T N - 1 which have a natural geometry equivalent to the unit disk Δ with hyperbolic metric. We show that the classic Kuramoto model with order parameter Z1 (the first moment of the oscillator configuration) is a gradient flow in this metric with a unique fixed point on each generic 2D invariant set, corresponding to the hyperbolic barycenter of an oscillator configuration. This gradient property makes the dynamics especially easy to analyze. We exhibit several new families of Kuramoto oscillator models which reduce to gradient flows in this metric; some of these have a richer fixed point structure including non-hyperbolic fixed points associated with fixed point bifurcations. Work Supported by NSF DMS 1413020.
Acoustics development for exhaust gas turbochargers; Akustische Auslegung von Abgasturboladern
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pischinger, S.; Aymanns, R.; Atzler, M. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (VKA); Stoffels, H. [Ford-Werke GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Bereich R und D Antriebsstrang-Ottomotor; Steffens, C.; Stohr, R. [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany). Abt. Fahrzeugphysik/Akustik
2008-03-15
The increasing application of turbocharged engines shifts turbocharger acoustics more into the focus of development. Here the noise behaviour of the turbocharger provides a conflict between costs and acoustics. In the context of the FVV research project No 866 'Turbo Charger Noise' the noise behaviour of turbochargers was subjected to systematic experimental investigations and a hybrid simulation methodology was developed at the institute for combustion engines (VKA) of the RWTH Aachen. The good conformity of calculation and measurement ensures the characterization of the acoustical behaviour and implementation of acoustical measures in the layout of the turbocharger early in the development process. Thus cost-intensive rework can be avoided at the end of the development process. (orig.)
Centrifugal compressor design options for small turbochargers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego (United States)
1998-07-01
Evolutionary development of the small turbocharger centrifugal compressor over the past four decades has resulted in a finely honed turbomachinery component satisfying both thermodynamic and economic constraints. At this penultimate stage of development an appraisal was considered timely of the remaining design options that exist to enhance the performance characteristics and cost reduction features. This paper presents the results of an analytical study of various small centrifugal compressor design options, assessed in merit of both aerodynamic and manufacturing cost attributes, together with recommendations for future research avenues. (author)
Interacting particle systems in time-dependent geometries
Ali, A.; Ball, R. C.; Grosskinsky, S.; Somfai, E.
2013-09-01
Many complex structures and stochastic patterns emerge from simple kinetic rules and local interactions, and are governed by scale invariance properties in combination with effects of the global geometry. We consider systems that can be described effectively by space-time trajectories of interacting particles, such as domain boundaries in two-dimensional growth or river networks. We study trajectories embedded in time-dependent geometries, and the main focus is on uniformly expanding or decreasing domains for which we obtain an exact mapping to simple fixed domain systems while preserving the local scale invariance properties. This approach was recently introduced in Ali et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 020102(R)) and here we provide a detailed discussion on its applicability for self-affine Markovian models, and how it can be adapted to self-affine models with memory or explicit time dependence. The mapping corresponds to a nonlinear time transformation which converges to a finite value for a large class of trajectories, enabling an exact analysis of asymptotic properties in expanding domains. We further provide a detailed discussion of different particle interactions and generalized geometries. All our findings are based on exact computations and are illustrated numerically for various examples, including Lévy processes and fractional Brownian motion.
Quantum Entanglement of Matter and Geometry in Large Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig J.
2014-12-04
Standard quantum mechanics and gravity are used to estimate the mass and size of idealized gravitating systems where position states of matter and geometry become indeterminate. It is proposed that well-known inconsistencies of standard quantum field theory with general relativity on macroscopic scales can be reconciled by nonstandard, nonlocal entanglement of field states with quantum states of geometry. Wave functions of particle world lines are used to estimate scales of geometrical entanglement and emergent locality. Simple models of entanglement predict coherent fluctuations in position of massive bodies, of Planck scale origin, measurable on a laboratory scale, and may account for the fact that the information density of long lived position states in Standard Model fields, which is determined by the strong interactions, is the same as that determined holographically by the cosmological constant.
Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit 233U systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Putman, V.L.
1997-06-01
Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL 233 U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in 233 U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed 233 U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k eff calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va
Aftertreatment in a pre-turbocharger position. Size and fuel consumption advantage for Tier 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruestle, Claus [Emitec, Inc., Rochester Hills, MI (United States); Tomazic, Dean; Franke, Michael [FEV, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI (United States)
2013-05-15
As the 2014 implementation of EPA Tier 4 fast approaches in the US A, manufacturers of large bore diesel engines face a dilemma. The stringent limits set by Tier 4 legislation require large, heavy and expensive emissions control systems but severe constraints on installation space, weight and cost exist for these systems. A viable solution is to place catalysts and filters upstream of the turbocharger. (orig.)
Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines
Zhang, Bo; Sarathy, Mani
2016-01-01
This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission
Differential geometry and topology with a view to dynamical systems
Burns, Keith
2005-01-01
MANIFOLDSIntroductionReview of topological conceptsSmooth manifoldsSmooth mapsTangent vectors and the tangent bundleTangent vectors as derivationsThe derivative of a smooth mapOrientationImmersions, embeddings and submersionsRegular and critical points and valuesManifolds with boundarySard's theoremTransversalityStabilityExercisesVECTOR FIELDS AND DYNAMICAL SYSTEMSIntroductionVector fieldsSmooth dynamical systemsLie derivative, Lie bracketDiscrete dynamical systemsHyperbolic fixed points and periodic orbitsExercisesRIEMANNIAN METRICSIntroductionRiemannian metricsStandard geometries on surfacesExercisesRIEMANNIAN CONNECTIONS AND GEODESICSIntroductionAffine connectionsRiemannian connectionsGeodesicsThe exponential mapMinimizing properties of geodesicsThe Riemannian distanceExercisesCURVATUREIntroductionThe curvature tensorThe second fundamental formSectional and Ricci curvaturesJacobi fieldsManifolds of constant curvatureConjugate pointsHorizontal and vertical sub-bundlesThe geodesic flowExercisesTENSORS AND DI...
Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han-Ching Lin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system layout, operating timing, and duration of EWP are investigated for obtaining optimal performance. The primarily experimental results show that the proposed layout and control strategy have a lower temperature of 100°C than the conventional temperature 225°C.
Rubin , Jacques ,
2014-01-01
Version de travail de thèse d'habilitation à diriger des recherches; Preprint; Current positioning systems are not primary, relativistic systems. Nevertheless, genuine, relativistic and primary positioning systems have been proposed recently by Bahder, Coll et al. and Rovelli to remedy such prior defects. These new designs all have in common an equivariant conformal geometry featuring, as the most basic ingredient, the spacetime geometry. We show how this conformal aspect can be the four-dime...
Interpretation of fracture system geometry using well test data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doe, T.W.; Geier, J.E.
1990-11-01
This report presents three methods of determining fracture geometry and interconnection from well test information. Method 1 uses evidence for boundary effects in the well test to determine the distance to and type of fracture boundary. Method 2 uses the spatial dimension of the well test to infer the geometry of the fracture-conduit system. Method 3 obtains information of the spacing and transmissivity distribution of individual conductive fractures from fixed-interval-length (FIL) well tests. The three methods are applied to data from the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) at the 360 m level of the Stripa Mine. The focus of the technology development is the constant-pressure welltest, although the general approaches apply to constant-rate well test, and to a much lesser extent slug or pulse test, which are relatively insensitive to boundaries and spatial dimension. Application of the techniques to the N and W holes in the SCV area shows that there is little evidence for boundary effects in the well test results. There is, on the other hand, considerable variation in the spatial dimension of the well test data ranging from sub-linear (fractures which decrease in conductivity with distance from the hole) to spherical, for three-dimensional fracture systems. The absence of boundary effects suggest that the rock mass in the SCV area contains a well connected fracture system. Major uncertainties in the analysis of well test data limit the use of single borehole measurements. Without assuming the value of specific storage, one can reliably determine only the spatial dimension, and, for two dimensional flow only, the transmissivity. Among the uncertainties are the effective well radius, the degree to which the fracture conduits fill the n-dimensional space in which flow occurs, and the cross-sectional area of the conduits at the wellbore. This report presents a complete development of constant-pressure well test methods for cylindrical flow and flow of arbitrary
Quantitative EDXS: Influence of geometry on a four detector system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraxner, Johanna; Schäfer, Margit; Röschel, Otto; Kothleitner, Gerald; Haberfehlner, Georg; Paller, Manuel; Grogger, Werner
2017-01-01
The influence of the geometry on quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) analysis is determined for a ChemiSTEM system (Super-X) in combination with a low-background double-tilt specimen holder. For the first time a combination of experimental measurements with simulations is used to determine the positions of the individual detectors of a Super-X system. These positions allow us to calculate the detector's solid angles and estimate the amount of detector shadowing and its influence on quantitative EDXS analysis, including absorption correction using the ζ-factor method. Both shadowing by the brass portions and the beryllium specimen carrier of the holder severely affect the quantification of low to medium atomic number elements. A multi-detector system is discussed in terms of practical consequences of the described effects, and a quantitative evaluation of a Fayalit sample is demonstrated. Corrections and suggestions for minimizing systematic errors are discussed to improve quantitative methods for a multi-detector system. - Highlights: • Geometrical issues for EDXS quantification on a Super-X system. • Realistic model of a specimen holder using X-ray computed tomography. • Determination of the exact detector positions of a Super-X system. • Influence of detector shadowing and Be specimen carrier on quantitative EDXS.
Transient potentials in dendritic systems of arbitrary geometry.
Butz, E G; Cowan, J D
1974-09-01
A simple graphical calculus is developed that generates analytic solutions for membrane potential transforms at any point on the dendritic tree of neurons with arbitrary dendritic geometries, in response to synaptic "current" inputs. Such solutions permit the computation of transients in neurons with arbitrary geometry and may facilitate analysis of the role of dendrites in such cells.
Control of nonholonomic systems from sub-Riemannian geometry to motion planning
Jean, Frédéric
2014-01-01
Nonholonomic systems are control systems which depend linearly on the control. Their underlying geometry is the sub-Riemannian geometry, which plays for these systems the same role as Euclidean geometry does for linear systems. In particular the usual notions of approximations at the first order, that are essential for control purposes, have to be defined in terms of this geometry. The aim of these notes is to present these notions of approximation and their application to the motion planning problem for nonholonomic systems.
Steady and unsteady experimental analysis of a turbocharger for automotive applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bontempo, R.; Cardone, M.; Manna, M.; Vorraro, G.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Steady and unsteady characteristics of a turbocharger are analysed by experimental means. • The steady state characteristic maps are obtained for both the compressor and the turbine. • The validity of the classical adiabatic assumption is questioned. • The compressor efficiency evaluated through the adiabatic assumption may lead to a 5–10% relative error. • The mild and deep compressor surge phenomena have been experimentally investigated. - Abstract: The paper describes the steady and unsteady performance characteristics of a small size turbocharger typically employed in automotive downsized engine applications. The analysis is carried out by experimental means using an innovative hot gas generator system specifically designed for turbocharger testing which is capable of delivering a wide range of flow rates with adequate thermodynamic characteristics. More in detail, the gas generator consists of a medium size direct injection compression ignition Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) feeding the turbine of the test article. To independently set the hot gas mass flow rate and the turbine inlet temperature, the operating parameters of the aforementioned ICE are specified through an electronic control unit in a fully automated manner. Compared to previously presented data [1] (Energy Procedia, vol. 45, pp 1116-1125, 2014), those reported herein have been collected with the help of newly installed equipment and controlling software allowing for the estimation of the thermal power transferred from the turbocharger to the environment. In particular, thanks to a first law analysis, the collected measurements have shown that the algebraic sum of the thermal power transferred to the lubricating oil as well as to the environment is roughly speaking 20–30% of the compressor total enthalpy change per unit time. Moreover, it has been shown that evaluating the compressor efficiency through classical expression based on the adiabatic assumption leads to
Effect of the Miller cycle on the performance of turbocharged hydrogen internal combustion engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Qing-he; Sun, Bai-gang
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The Miller cycle can increase power density for turbocharged hydrogen engines. • The boundaries is limited by the turbocharged system and valve lift. • Broke power and BSFC of using Miller cycle is the best in three technical methods. - Abstract: Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, and the port fuel injection (PFI) is a fuel-flexible, durable, and relatively cheap method of energy conversion. However, the contradiction of increasing the power density and controlling NOx emissions limits the wide application of PFI hydrogen internal combustion engines. To address this issue, two typical thermodynamic cycles—the Miller and Otto cycles—are studied based on the calculation model proposed in this study. The thermodynamic cycle analyses of the two cycles are compared and results show that the thermal efficiency of the Miller cycle (η_M_i_l_l_e_r) is higher than η_O_t_t_o, when the multiplied result of the inlet pressure and Miller cycle coefficient (δ_Mγ_M) is larger than that of the Otto cycle (i.e., the value of the inlet pressure ratio multiplied by the Miller cycle coefficient is larger than the value of the inlet pressure ratio of the Otto cycle). The results also show that the intake valve closure (IVC) of the Miller cycle is limited by the inlet pressure and valve lift. The two factors show the boundaries of the Miller cycle in increasing the power density of the turbocharged PFI hydrogen engine. The ways of lean burn + Otto cycle (LO), stoichiometric equivalence ratio burn + EGR + Otto cycle (SEO) and Miller cycle in turbocharged hydrogen engine are compared, the results show that the Miller cycle has the highest power density and the lowest BSFC among the three methods at an engine speed of 2800 rpm and NOx emissions below 100 ppm. The brake power of the Miller cycle increases by 37.7% higher than that of the LO and 26.3% higher than that of SEO, when γ_M is 0.7. The BSFC of the Miller cycle decreases by 16% lower than that of
Design and analysis of an intelligent controller for active geometry suspension systems
Goodarzi, Avesta; Oloomi, Ehsan; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim
2011-02-01
An active geometry suspension (AGS) system is a device to optimise suspension-related factors such as toe angle and roll centre height by controlling vehicle's suspension geometry. The suspension geometry could be changed through control of suspension mounting point's position. In this paper, analysis and control of an AGS system is addressed. First, the effects of suspension geometry change on roll centre height and toe angle are studied. Then, based on an analytical approach, the improvement of the vehicle's stability and handling due to the control of suspension geometry is investigated. In the next section, an eight-degree-of-freedom handling model of a sport utility vehicle equipped with an AGS system is introduced. Finally, a self-tuning proportional-integral controller has been designed, using the fuzzy control theory, to control the actuator that changes the geometry of the suspension system. The simulation results show that an AGS system can improve the handling and stability of the vehicle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Edwards, S.; Mueller, R.; Feldhaus, G. [Behr GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Finkeldei, T. [BHTC GmbH, Lippstadt (Germany); Neubauer, M. [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)
2008-01-15
In a joint project Behr, Behr-Hella Thermocontrol (BHTC) and AVL List have investigated various thermomanagement technologies in order to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions of a turbocharged direct injection gasoline engine. Through the use of cooled EGR the fuel consumption at part load was reduced by up to 5%; at full load the consumption was reduced by up to 18% since no enrichment was needed. Under real driving conditions a saving of 6% was achieved. A further reduction of about 3% in the NEDC was possible via coolant stand still during the engine warm-up. Additionally, it was shown that a change in the engine coolant temperature of 10 K, made possible by the application of a map controlled thermostat, has the potential for savings of up to 1.4%. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mrosek M.
2011-09-01
Full Text Available An extension of the air-and exhaust-system with a low-pressure EGR has the potential to significantly reduce the NOx emissions. Besides a cooled high-pressure EGR and the turbocharger with variable geometry turbine, the low-pressure EGR introduces an additional degree of freedom to control the cylinder charge. This increasing complexity of the air system can be handled with model based control structures and a model based controller calibration. Its static and dynamic properties are investigated. Besides the static couplings in the classical air path, additional couplings appear. A decentralised gain scheduled PI(D-control approach is chosen to control the variables air mass flow rate, high-pressure EGR mass flow rate and charge air pressure. An automated controller calibration, based on a semi-physical mean value model of reduced complexity, is presented. The controller maps depend on the engine operation point and are calibrated by a local linearisation of the semi-physical model. Further, a semi-physical control is capable to almost solely control the air mass flow rate via the low-pressure EGR actuators. This control implicitly accounts for couplings between charge air pressure, high-pressure EGR and the low-pressure EGR system. Finally testbed results are shown. Une extension du système d’air et d’échappement au moyen d’EGR basse pression peut potentiellement réduire significativement les émissions de NOx. À côté de l’EGR haute pression refroidi et du turbocompresseur à turbine à géométrie variable, l’EGR basse pression introduit un degré de liberté supplémentaire pour contrôler la charge du cylindre. Cette complexité croissante du système d’air peut être traitée à l’aide de structures de contrôle et d’un étalonnage de régulateur basés sur des modèles. Ses propriétés statiques et dynamiques sont étudiées. En dehors des couplages statiques dans la boucle d’air classique, des couplages
Polymer mixtures in confined geometries: Model systems to explore ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to mean field behavior for very long chains, the critical behavior of mixtures confined into thin film geometry falls in the 2d Ising class irrespective of chain length. ..... AB interface does not approach the wall; (b) corresponds to a temperature .... Very recently, these theoretical studies have been extended to polymer mixtures.
Cartan for beginners differential geometry via moving frames and exterior differential systems
Ivey, Thomas A
2016-01-01
Two central aspects of Cartan's approach to differential geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems (EDS) and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems in geometry. It begins with the classical differential geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally, with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics. One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. As well, the book features an introduction to G-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The techniques of EDS are also applied to obtain explici...
Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger
Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.
2015-07-14
An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).
Vascular Augmentation in Renal Transplantation: Supercharging and Turbocharging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Euicheol C. Jeong
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The most common anatomic variant seen in donor kidneys for renal transplantation is the presence of multiple renal arteries, which can cause an increased risk of complications. Accessory renal arteries should be anastomosed to the proper source arteries to improve renal perfusion via the appropriate vascular reconstruction techniques. In microsurgery, 2 kinds of vascular augmentation methods, known as ‘supercharging’ and ‘turbocharging,’ have been introduced to ensure vascular perfusion in the transferred flap. Supercharging uses a distant source of the vessels, while turbocharging uses vascular sources within the same flap territory. These technical concepts can also be applied in renal transplantation, and in this report, we describe 2 patients who underwent procedures using supercharging and turbocharging. In one case, the ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric artery was transposed to the accessory renal artery (supercharging, and in the other case, the accessory renal artery was anastomosed to the corresponding main renal artery with a vascular graft (turbocharging. The transplanted kidneys showed good perfusion and proper function. No cases of renal failure, hypertension, rejection, or urologic complications were observed. These microsurgical techniques can be safely utilized for renal transplantation with donor kidneys that have multiple arteries with a lower complication rate and better outcome.
Vascular Augmentation in Renal Transplantation: Supercharging and Turbocharging.
Jeong, Euicheol C; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Eo, Su Rak
2017-05-01
The most common anatomic variant seen in donor kidneys for renal transplantation is the presence of multiple renal arteries, which can cause an increased risk of complications. Accessory renal arteries should be anastomosed to the proper source arteries to improve renal perfusion via the appropriate vascular reconstruction techniques. In microsurgery, 2 kinds of vascular augmentation methods, known as 'supercharging' and 'turbocharging,' have been introduced to ensure vascular perfusion in the transferred flap. Supercharging uses a distant source of the vessels, while turbocharging uses vascular sources within the same flap territory. These technical concepts can also be applied in renal transplantation, and in this report, we describe 2 patients who underwent procedures using supercharging and turbocharging. In one case, the ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric artery was transposed to the accessory renal artery (supercharging), and in the other case, the accessory renal artery was anastomosed to the corresponding main renal artery with a vascular graft (turbocharging). The transplanted kidneys showed good perfusion and proper function. No cases of renal failure, hypertension, rejection, or urologic complications were observed. These microsurgical techniques can be safely utilized for renal transplantation with donor kidneys that have multiple arteries with a lower complication rate and better outcome.
Wärtsilä turbocharger wash and dew point controller integration
Perälä, Antti
2013-01-01
There are two separate control cabinets used in Wärtsilä marine solutions, Turbocharger Wash Control and the Dew Point Control. The cabinets contain similar PLCs with I/O-cards needed in the system and touch screen for monitoring and controlling purposes. The purpose of the thesis was to find and implement a solution for integration of the control cabinets. The advantages of the integration are savings in material, space in the engine room and amount of work. The aim of the project was to cre...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galindo, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Climent, H.; Varnier, O.
2010-01-01
Present work presents an analytical study of two-stage turbocharging configuration performance. The aim of this work is to understand the influence of different two-stage-architecture parameters to optimize the use of exhaust manifold gases energy and to aid decision making process. An analytical model giving the relationship between global compression ratio and global expansion ratio is developed as a function of basic engine and turbocharging system parameters. Having an analytical solution, the influence of different variables, such as expansion ratio between HP and LP turbine, intercooler efficiency, turbochargers efficiency, cooling fluid temperature and exhaust temperature are studied independently. Engine simulations with proposed analytical model have been performed to analyze the influence of these different parameters on brake thermal efficiency and pumping mean effective pressure. The results obtained show the overall performance of the two-stage system for the whole operative range and characterize the optimum control of the elements for each operative condition. The model was also used to compare single-stage and two-stage architectures performance for the same engine operative conditions. Benefits and limits in terms of breathing capabilities and brake thermal efficiency of each type of system have been presented and analyzed.
Mean Value Modelling of a Turbocharged SI Engine
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Müller, Martin; Hendricks, Elbert; Sorenson, Spencer C.
1998-01-01
An important paradigm for the modelling of naturallly aspirated (NA) spark ignition (SI) engines for control purposes is the Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM). Such models have a time resolution which is just sufficient to capture the main details of the dynamic performance of NA SI engines...... but not the cycle-by-cycle behavior. In principle such models are also physically based,are very compact in a mathematical sense but nevertheless can have reasonable prediction accuracy. Presently no MVEMs have been constructed for intercooled turbocharged SI engines because their complexity confounds the simple...... physical understanding and description of such engines. This paper presents a newly constructed MVEM for a turbocharged SI engine which contains the details of the compressor and turbine characteristics in a compact way. The model has been tested against the responses of an experimental engine and has...
Exhaust pressure pulsation observation from turbocharger instantaneous speed measurement
Macián, V.; Luján, J. M.; Bermúdez, V.; Guardiola, C.
2004-06-01
In internal combustion engines, instantaneous exhaust pressure measurements are difficult to perform in a production environment. The high temperature of the exhaust manifold and its pulsating character make its application to exhaust gas recirculation control algorithms impossible. In this paper an alternative method for estimating the exhaust pressure pulsation is presented. A numerical model is built which enables the exhaust pressure pulses to be predicted from instantaneous turbocharger speed measurements. Although the model is data based, a theoretical description of the process is also provided. This combined approach makes it possible to export the model for different engine operating points. Also, compressor contribution in the turbocharger speed pulsation is discussed extensively. The compressor contribution is initially neglected, and effects of this simplified approach are analysed.
Combustion mode switching with a turbocharged/supercharged engine
Mond, Alan; Jiang, Li
2015-09-22
A method for switching between low- and high-dilution combustion modes in an internal combustion engine having an intake passage with an exhaust-driven turbocharger, a crankshaft-driven positive displacement supercharger downstream of the turbocharger and having variable boost controllable with a supercharger bypass valve, and a throttle valve downstream of the supercharger. The current combustion mode and mass air flow are determined. A switch to the target combustion mode is commanded when an operating condition falls within a range of predetermined operating conditions. A target mass air flow to achieve a target air-fuel ratio corresponding to the current operating condition and the target combustion mode is determined. The degree of opening of the supercharger bypass valve and the throttle valve are controlled to achieve the target mass air flow. The amount of residual exhaust gas is manipulated.
Determination of heat flows inside turbochargers by means of a one dimensional lumped model
Olmeda González, Pablo Cesar; Dolz Ruiz, Vicente; Arnau Martínez, Francisco José; Reyes Belmonte, Miguel Angel
2013-01-01
In the present paper, a methodology to calculate the heat fluxes inside a turbocharger from diesel passenger car is presented. The heat transfer phenomenon is solved by using a one dimensional lumped model that takes into account both the heat fluxes between the different turbocharger elements, as well as the heat fluxes between the working fluids and the turbocharger elements. This heat transfer study is supported by the high temperature differences between the working fluids passing thr...
Comparative study of oxihydrogen injection in turbocharged compression ignition engines
Barna, L.; Lelea, D.
2018-01-01
This document proposes for analysis, comparative study of the turbocharged, compression-ignition engine, equipped with EGR valve, operation in case the injection in intake manifold thereof a maximum flow rate of 1l/min oxyhydrogen resulted of water electrolysis, at two different injection pressures, namely 100 Pa and 3000 Pa, from the point of view of flue gas opacity. We found a substantial reduction of flue gas opacity in both cases compared to conventional diesel operation, but in different proportions.
Nonstationary heat flow in the piston of the turbocharged engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piotr GUSTOF
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this study the numeric computations of nonstationary heat flow in form of temperature distribution on characteristic surfaces of the piston of the turbocharged engine at the beginning phase its work was presented. The computations were performed for fragmentary load engine by means of the two-zone combustion model, the boundary conditions of III kind and the finite elements method (FEM by using of COSMOS/M program.
Heat transfer in turbocharger turbines under steady, pulsating and transient conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, R.D.; Vagg, C.R.M.; Chalet, D.; Chesse, P.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Compare turbine heat transfer correlations from different studies. • Compare heat transfer for a same turbine on-engine and on gas-stand. • Analyse heat transfer under steady and transient operating conditions. • Gas stand heat transfer correlations are transferrable to engine conditions. • Heat flows can be reversed compared to steady conditions during transients. - Abstract: Heat transfer is significant in turbochargers and a number of mathematical models have been proposed to account for the heat transfer, however these have predominantly been validated under steady flow conditions. A variable geometry turbocharger from a 2.2 L Diesel engine was studied, both on gas stand and on-engine, under steady and transient conditions. The results showed that heat transfer accounts for at least 20% of total enthalpy change in the turbine and significantly more at lower mechanical powers. A convective heat transfer correlation was derived from experimental measurements to account for heat transfer between the gases and the turbine housing and proved consistent with those published from other researchers. This relationship was subsequently shown to be consistent between engine and gas stand operation: using this correlation in a 1D gas dynamics simulation reduced the turbine outlet temperature error from 33 °C to 3 °C. Using the model under transient conditions highlighted the effect of housing thermal inertia. The peak transient heat flow was strongly linked to the dynamics of the turbine inlet temperature: for all increases, the peak heat flow was higher than under thermally stable conditions due to colder housing. For all decreases in gas temperature, the peak heat flow was lower and for temperature drops of more than 100 °C the heat flow was reversed during the transient
Modelling the Turbocharger Cut Off Application Due to Slow Steaming Operation 12RTA96C-B Engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karsten Wehner
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Out of the total operational costs of a ship, fuel costs account for by far the highest proportion. In view of the global economic situation and the rising oil prices, shipowners and charterers are looking for solutions to cut costs by reducing fuel consumption. Low load operation, also well-known as “slow steaming”, represents the currently most effective and popular measure to cut fuel costs and, in consequence, the total operational costs for increased competitiveness in the market. Low load operation is possible and there is an increasing trend to operate in these very low engine load ranges. As the engines were not designed for this operational condition, various retrofit modifications to the engine can compensate for this. By using low load operation, the reduction of the RPM gives problems when sailing at low speed. A turbocharger (TC compresses inlet air to a high pressure and after cooling this compressed air it results in higher mass of air in the cylinder. But when running at a low power load this air reaches temperatures that are too low for an optimal combustion process. One of the solution comes from the company Wärtsilä. They install so called “low steam engine kits”. When this kit is installed it allows the engine operators to cut off one turbocharger of the engine, this result’s in a higher RPM for the operating turbochargers. When the remaining TC’s have a higher RPM their efficiency improves and gives the engine more air for combustion.The goal of this Bachelor thesis is to make a calculation modelling and prove that by switching off one or more turbocharger on the system will improve the efficiency in slow steaming operation. Beside that, this thesis is aims to estimated the performance of the engine in both operation condition.
Cylinder-averaged histories of nitrogen oxide in a DI diesel with simulated turbocharging
Donahue, Ronald J.; Borman, Gary L.; Bower, Glenn R.
1994-10-01
An experimental study was conducted using the dumping technique (total cylinder sampling) to produce cylinder mass-averaged nitric oxide histories. Data were taken using a four stroke diesel research engine employing a quiescent chamber, high pressure direct injection fuel system, and simulated turbocharging. Two fuels were used to determine fuel cetane number effects. Two loads were run, one at an equivalence ratio of 0.5 and the other at a ratio of 0.3. The engine speed was held constant at 1500 rpm. Under the turbocharged and retarded timing conditions of this study, nitric oxide was produced up to the point of about 85% mass burned. Two different models were used to simulate the engine mn conditions: the phenomenological Hiroyasu spray-combustion model, and the three dimensional, U.W.-ERO modified KIVA-2 computational fluid dynamic code. Both of the models predicted the correct nitric oxide trend. Although the modified KIVA-2 combustion model using Zeldovich kinetics correctly predicted the shapes of the nitric oxide histories, it did not predict the exhaust concentrations without arbitrary adjustment based on experimental values.
Fractal reactor: An alternative nuclear fusion system based on nature's geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siler, T. L.
2007-01-01
The author presents his concept of the Fractal Reactor, which explores the possibility of building a plasma fusion power reactor based on the real geometry of nature [fractals], rather than the virtual geometry that Euclid postulated around 330 BC; nearly every architect of our plasma fusion devices has been influenced by his three-dimensional geometry. The idealized points, lines, planes, and spheres of this classical geometry continue to be used to represent the natural world and to describe the properties of all geometrical objects, even though they neither accurately nor fully convey nature's structures and processes. The Fractal Reactor concept contrasts the current containment mechanisms of both magnetic and inertial containment systems for confining and heating plasmas. All of these systems are based on Euclidean geometry and use geometrical designs that, ultimately, are inconsistent with the Non-Euclidean geometry and irregular, fractal forms of nature (3). The author explores his premise that a controlled, thermonuclear fusion energy system might be more effective if it more closely embodies the physics of a star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Rolf; Feldhaus, Georg; Pantow, Eberhard; Edwards, Simon [Behr GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Finkeldei, Thomas; Trapp, Ralph [BHTC GmbH, Lippstadt (Germany); Neubauer, Matthias; Kappus, Paul [AVL List GmbH, Graz (Austria)
2007-07-01
In a joint project between the companies Behr, BHTC and AVL List different technologies for the reduction of the fuel consumption hence the CO{sub 2} emissions were studied on a turbocharged DI gasoline engine and in a vehicle. With respect to the engine, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation was examined. The fuel consumption in typical part load engine and vehicle operation was lowered by up to 5% and within the full load region, through the prevention of fuel enrichment, by up to 18%. With respect to the thermal management coolant stand still shows a fuel consumption reduction potential during the warm-up phase of the engine of about 3% in the NEDC. In engine tests it was shown how a variation of the coolant temperature by up to 10 K, with the help of a map controlled thermostat, improves the fuel efficiency by up to 1,4%. The control aspects of the cooling system (coolant stand still, temperature adjustment and indirect charge air cooling) were implemented in the vehicle with the use of a Rapid Control Prototyping system. (orig.)
Thermodynamic optimization of geometry in engineering flow systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bejan, A.; Jones, J.A. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)
2000-07-01
This review draws attention to an emerging body of work that relies on global thermodynamic optimization in the pursuit of flow system architecture. Exergy analysis establishes the theoretical performance limit. Thermodynamic optimization (or entropy generation minimization) brings the design as closely as permissible to the theoretical limit. The design is destined to remain imperfect because of constraints (finite sizes, times, and costs). Improvements are registered by spreading the imperfection (e.g., flow resistances) through the system. Resistances compete against each other and must be optimized together. Optimal spreading means spatial distribution, geometric form, topology, and geography. System architecture springs out of constrained global optimization. The principle is illustrated by simple examples: the optimization of dimensions, spacings, and the distribution (allocation) of heat transfer surface to the two heat exchangers of a power plant. Similar opportunities for deducing flow architecture exist in more complex systems for power and refrigeration. Examples show that the complete structure of heat exchangers for environmental control systems of aircraft can be derived based on this principle. (authors)
Antenna array geometry optimization for a passive coherent localisation system
Knott, Peter; Kuschel, Heiner; O'Hagan, Daniel
2012-11-01
Passive Coherent Localisation (PCL), also known as Passive Radar, making use of RF sources of opportunity such as Radio or TV Broadcasting Stations, Cellular Phone Network Base Stations, etc. is an advancing technology for covert operation because no active radar transmitter is required. It is also an attractive addition to existing active radar stations because it has the potential to discover low-flying and low-observable targets. The CORA (Covert Radar) experimental passive radar system currently developed at Fraunhofer-FHR features a multi-channel digital radar receiver and a circular antenna array with separate elements for the VHF- and the UHF-range and is used to exploit alternatively Digital Audio (DAB) or Video Broadcasting (DVB-T) signals. For an extension of the system, a wideband antenna array is being designed for which a new discone antenna element has been developed covering the full DVB-T frequency range. The present paper describes the outline of the system and the numerical modelling and optimisation methods applied to solve the complex task of antenna array design: Electromagnetic full wave analysis is required for the parametric design of the antenna elements while combinatorial optimization methods are applied to find the best array positions and excitation coefficients for a regular omni-directional antenna performance. The different steps are combined in an iterative loop until the optimum array layout is found. Simulation and experimental results for the current system will be shown.
Pattern formation in reaction diffusion systems with finite geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borzi, C.; Wio, H.
1990-04-01
We analyze the one-component, one-dimensional, reaction-diffusion equation through a simple inverse method. We confine the system and fix the boundary conditions as to induce pattern formation. We analyze the stability of those patterns. Our goal is to get information about the reaction term out of the preknowledgment of the pattern. (author). 5 refs
Perturbed beta-gamma systems and complex geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeitlin, Anton M. [Department of Mathematics, Yale University, 442 Dunham Lab, 10 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)], E-mail: anton.zeitlin@yale.edu
2008-05-11
We consider the equations, arising as the conformal invariance conditions of the perturbed curved beta-gamma system. These equations have the physical meaning of Einstein equations with a B-field and a dilaton on a Hermitian manifold, where the B-field 2-form is imaginary and proportional to the canonical form associated with Hermitian metric. We show that they decompose into linear and bilinear equations and lead to the vanishing of the first Chern class of the manifold where the system is defined. We discuss the relation of these equations to the generalized Maurer-Cartan structures related to BRST operator. Finally we describe the relations of the generalized Maurer-Cartan bilinear operation and the Courant/Dorfman brackets.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sakima, Maurício Tatsuei; Dalstra, Michel; Loiola, Angelo Vicentini
2017-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the force systems produced by transpalatal arches (TPAs) activated according to the six classes of geometries described by Burstone and Koenig. Materials and Methods: Sixty appliances were tested for first-order activations using a mechanical force testing system. The TPAs...... were first checked for passivity in sagittal, transverse, and vertical planes at the measuring machine. Then 10 appliances per group were activated using a millimeter template to obtain the six classes of geometries, and the activated appliances were inserted into lingual tubes of the Force System...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blakeman, E.D.
2000-01-01
A software system, GRAVE (Geometry Rendering and Visual Editor), has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to perform interactive visualization and development of models used as input to the TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code. Three-dimensional and two-dimensional visualization displays are included. Display capabilities include image rotation, zoom, translation, wire-frame and translucent display, geometry cuts and slices, and display of individual component bodies and material zones. The geometry can be interactively edited and saved in TORT input file format. This system is an advancement over the current, non-interactive, two-dimensional display software. GRAVE is programmed in the Java programming language and can be implemented on a variety of computer platforms. Three- dimensional visualization is enabled through the Visualization Toolkit (VTK), a free-ware C++ software library developed for geometric and data visual display. Future plans include an extension of the system to read inputs using binary zone maps and combinatorial geometry models containing curved surfaces, such as those used for Monte Carlo code inputs. Also GRAVE will be extended to geometry visualization/editing for the DORT two-dimensional transport code and will be integrated into a single GUI-based system for all of the ORNL discrete ordinates transport codes
Buchman, Michael; Winter, Amos
2015-11-01
Turbocharging an engine increases specific power, improves fuel economy, reduces emissions, and lowers cost compared to a naturally aspirated engine of the same power output. These advantages make turbocharging commonplace for multi-cylinder engines. Single cylinder engineers are not commonly turbocharged due to the phase lag between the exhaust stroke, which powers the turbocharger, and the intake stroke, when air is pumped into the engine. Our proposed method of turbocharging single cylinder engines is to add an ``air capacitor'' to the intake manifold, an additional volume that acts as a buffer to store compressed air between the exhaust and intake strokes, and smooth out the pressure pulses from the turbocharger. This talk presents experimental results from a single cylinder, turbocharged diesel engine fit with various sized air capacitors. Power output from the engine was measured using a dynamometer made from a generator, with the electrical power dissipated with resistive heating elements. We found that intake air density increases with capacitor size as theoretically predicted, ranging from 40 to 60 percent depending on heat transfer. Our experiment was able to produce 29 percent more power compared to using natural aspiration. These results validated that an air capacitor and turbocharger may be a simple, cost effective means of increasing the power density of single cylinder engines.
DMG-α--a computational geometry library for multimolecular systems.
Szczelina, Robert; Murzyn, Krzysztof
2014-11-24
The DMG-α library grants researchers in the field of computational biology, chemistry, and biophysics access to an open-sourced, easy to use, and intuitive software for performing fine-grained geometric analysis of molecular systems. The library is capable of computing power diagrams (weighted Voronoi diagrams) in three dimensions with 3D periodic boundary conditions, computing approximate projective 2D Voronoi diagrams on arbitrarily defined surfaces, performing shape properties recognition using α-shape theory and can do exact Solvent Accessible Surface Area (SASA) computation. The software is written mainly as a template-based C++ library for greater performance, but a rich Python interface (pydmga) is provided as a convenient way to manipulate the DMG-α routines. To illustrate possible applications of the DMG-α library, we present results of sample analyses which allowed to determine nontrivial geometric properties of two Escherichia coli-specific lipids as emerging from molecular dynamics simulations of relevant model bilayers.
The effect of disorder geometry on the critical force in disordered elastic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Démery, Vincent; Lecomte, Vivien; Rosso, Alberto
2014-01-01
We address the effect of disorder geometry on the critical force in disordered elastic systems. We focus on the model system of a long-range elastic line driven in a random landscape. In the collective pinning regime, we compute the critical force perturbatively. Not only does our expression for the critical force confirm previous results on its scaling with respect to the microscopic disorder parameters, but it also provides its precise dependence on the disorder geometry (represented by the disorder two-point correlation function). Our results are successfully compared with the results of numerical simulations for random field and random bond disorders. (paper)
FURNACE; a toroidal geometry neutronic program system method description and users manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verschuur, K.A.
1984-12-01
The FURNACE program system performs neutronic and photonic calculations in 3D toroidal geometry for application to fusion reactors. The geometry description is quite general, allowing any torus cross section and any neutron source density distribution for the plasma, as well as simple parametric representations of circular, elliptic and D-shaped tori and plasmas. The numerical method is based on an approximate transport model that produces results with sufficient accuracy for reactor-design purposes, at acceptable calculational costs. A short description is given of the numerical method, and a user manual for the programs of the system: FURNACE, ANISN-PT, LIBRA, TAPEMA and DRAWER is presented
Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan
2014-01-01
It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)
Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines
Zhang, Bo
2016-08-16
This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michos, Constantine N.; Lion, Simone; Vlaskos, Ioannis; Taccani, Rodolfo
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Waste heat recovery on internal combustion engines is studied. • The backpressure effect of the Organic Rankine Cycle boiler has been evaluated. • Three different state-of-the art turbocharging technologies have been assessed. • Six different fluids for medium-high temperature recovery have been considered. • A reduction up to 10% in fuel consumption can be achieved. - Abstract: In marine and power generation sectors, waste heat recovery technologies are attracting growing attention in order to increase heavy duty diesel engines efficiency and decrease fuel consumption, with the purpose of respecting stringent emissions legislations. In this work, the backpressure effect of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) evaporator on the exhaust line of a turbocharged, V12 heavy duty diesel engine, for typical marine and power generation applications has been investigated using the commercial software Ricardo WAVE. Three different state-of-the art turbocharging strategies are assessed in order to counterbalance the increased pumping losses of the engine due to the boiler installation: fixed turbine, Waste-Gate (WG) and Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT). At the same time, the steady-state thermodynamic performance of two different ORC configurations, simple tail-pipe evaporator and recuperated simple tail-pipe evaporator layouts, are assessed, with the scope of further increasing the engine power output, recovering unutilized exhaust gas heat. Several different working fluids, suitable for medium-high temperature waste heat recovery, are evaluated and screened, considering, as well, health and safety issues. Thermodynamic cycle parameters such as, for example, evaporation and condensing pressures, working fluid mass flow and cycle temperatures, are optimized in order to obtain the maximum improvement in Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (bsfc). From the engine side point of view, a VGT turbocharger is the most favorable solution to withstand increased
Progress of conversion system from CAD data to MCNP geometry data in Japan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, S.; Nashif, H.; Masuda, F.; Morota, H.; Iida, H.; Konno, C.
2010-01-01
Automatic conversion systems from CAD data to MCNP geometry input data have been developed to convert the CAD data of the fusion reactor with very complicated structure. So far, two conversion systems (GEOMIT-1 and ARCMCP) have been developed and the third system (GEOMIT-2) is under developing. The void data can be created in these systems. GEOMIT-1 was developed in 2007, but a lot of manual shape splitting work for the CAD data was required to convert the complicated geometry. ARCMCP was developed in 2008. The algorithm has been drastically improved on automatic creation of ambiguous surface in ARCMCP, but it still required a little manual shape splitting work. The latest system, GEOMIT-2, does not require additional commercial software packages, though the previous systems require them. It also has functions of the CAD data healing and the automatic shape splitting. Geometrical errors of CAD data can be automatically revised by the healing function, and complicated geometries can be automatically split into simple geometries by the shape splitting function. Any manual works for CAD data are not required in GEOMIT-2. GEOMIT-2 is very useful for nuclear analyses of fusion reactors.
Acoustic Characterization of Turbochargers and Pipe Terminations
Tiikoja, Heiki
2012-01-01
In search for quieter engines there is a need for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of engine intake and exhaust system components. Besides mufflers which have the purpose of reducing pressure pulses originating from the internal combustion (IC) engine, there are many components in a modern car exhaust and intake system, e.g., air-filters, coolers, catalytic converters, particulate filters - all having an effect on the pressure pulses or sound field in the system. In this work...
Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes
2014-01-01
Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.
Pottmann, Helmut
2014-11-26
Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.
RENAULT Energy TCe 90. The first RENAULT gasoline 3 cylinder turbocharged engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ser, Antoine; Covin, Bruno; Levasseur, Denis [Renault SAS, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Boiarciuc, Andrei [Renault SAS, Lardy (France)
2013-08-01
This paper describes the characteristics of a new 0.9 l, 3 cylinder gasoline turbocharged engine. This new 'downsized' engine will be the core of the B and entry segment for Renault. As part of the Energy TCe family, this engine will offer a power level of 66kW close to a naturally aspirated 1.4 l, with very low CO{sub 2} emissions and reduced costs of ownership. The Energy TCe 90 is both segment leader for real life fuel consumption on Clio 4, and among the best gasoline engines regarding CO{sub 2} emissions with only 99 g CO{sub 2}/km. Based on Renault's experience in turbocharged gasoline engines, this engine features optimized combustion in order to obtain a significantly reduced fuel consumption combined with good driveability. This new product in Renault's powertrain line up offers an attractive Total Cost of Ownership for many customers. It is an intermediate offer between diesel and traditional gasoline, a clever solution for mid distance drivers. To meet all customer requirements, the main improvement features are: - Global design for consumption reduction with optimized combustion system based on high tumble motion and intake VTC. Friction reduction, introducing DLC and a new generation of controlled oil pump has been developed. - A compact exhaust system, introducing convergent exhaust ports, an integrated turbo-manifold system and a closed coupled catalyst converter for thermodynamic optimisation, providing benefits for fast warm up and high dynamic response. - Stop and Start by reinforced starter system and regenerative breaking controlled by ESM. Cost competitiveness, a constant preoccupation for Renault, is ensured by the carry-over of industrial facilities and efficient use of the Renault-Nissan Alliance's worldwide supplier base. (orig.)
Proof and Proving in the Classroom: Dynamic Geometry Systems as Tools of Semiotic Mediation
Mariotti, Maria Alessandra
2012-01-01
The objective of this paper is to discuss the didactic potential offered by the use of a Dynamic Geometry System (DGS) in introducing students to theoretical thinking and specifically to the practice of proof. Starting from a discussion about what constitutes the general objective in developing students' sense of proof, the notion of Theorem is…
Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering
2003-09-01
A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)
Geometry system used in the General Monte Carlo transport code SPARTAN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bending, R.C.; Easter, P.G.
1974-01-01
The geometry routines used in the general-purpose, three-dimensional particle transport code SPARTAN are described. The code is designed to deal with the very complex geometries encountered in lattice cell and fuel handling calculations, health physics, and shielding problems. Regions of the system being studied may be represented by simple shapes (spheres, cylinders, and so on) or by multinomial surfaces of any order, and many simple shapes may be combined to make up a complex layout. The geometry routines are designed to allow the program to carry out a number of tasks (such as sampling for a random point or tracking a path through several regions) in any order, so that the use of the routines is not restricted to a particular tracking or scoring method. Routines for reading, checking, and printing the data are included. (U.S.)
Impact of Turbocharger Non-Adiabatic Operation on Engine Volumetric Efficiency and Turbo Lag
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Shaaban
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Turbocharger performance significantly affects the thermodynamic properties of the working fluid at engine boundaries and hence engine performance. Heat transfer takes place under all circumstances during turbocharger operation. This heat transfer affects the power produced by the turbine, the power consumed by the compressor, and the engine volumetric efficiency. Therefore, non-adiabatic turbocharger performance can restrict the engine charging process and hence engine performance. The present research work investigates the effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the engine charging process and turbo lag. Two passenger car turbochargers are experimentally and theoretically investigated. The effect of turbine casing insulation is also explored. The present investigation shows that thermal energy is transferred to the compressor under all circumstances. At high rotational speeds, thermal energy is first transferred to the compressor and latter from the compressor to the ambient. Therefore, the compressor appears to be “adiabatic” at high rotational speeds despite the complex heat transfer processes inside the compressor. A tangible effect of turbocharger non-adiabatic performance on the charging process is identified at turbocharger part load operation. The turbine power is the most affected operating parameter, followed by the engine volumetric efficiency. Insulating the turbine is recommended for reducing the turbine size and the turbo lag.
Ziegler, Ronny; Brendel, Bernhard; Rinneberg, Herbert; Nielsen, Tim
2009-01-21
Using a statistical (chi-square) test on simulated data and a realistic noise model derived from the system's hardware we study the performance of diffuse optical tomography systems for fluorescence imaging. We compare the predicted smallest size of detectable lesions at various positions in slab and cup geometry and model how detection sensitivity depends on breast compression and lesion fluorescence contrast. Our investigation shows that lesion detection is limited by relative noise in slab geometry and by absolute noise in cup geometry.
SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining
Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.
2013-01-01
SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dellacherie, St
2004-07-01
This work deals with the derivation of a diphasic low Mach number model obtained through a Mach number asymptotic expansion applied to the compressible diphasic Navier Stokes system, expansion which filters out the acoustic waves. This approach is inspired from the work of Andrew Majda giving the equations of low Mach number combustion for thin flame and for perfect gases. When the equations of state verify some thermodynamic hypothesis, we show that the low Mach number diphasic system predicts in a good way the dilatation or the compression of a bubble and has equilibrium convergence properties. Then, we propose an entropic and convergent Lagrangian scheme in mono-dimensional geometry when the fluids are perfect gases and we propose a first approach in Eulerian variables where the interface between the two fluids is captured with a level set technique. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heiduk, Thomas; Kuhn, Michael; Stichlmeir, Maximilian; Unselt, Florian [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)
2011-07-15
The launch of the new 1.8 l TFSI engine marks the third generation of the successful four-cylinder gasoline engine family from Audi. With consistently reduced frictional losses, the advanced combustion process and new mono-scroll turbocharger and electric wastegate technology, the engine represents a new benchmark in terms of performance and fuel-efficiency. The power plant has already been configured to meet even the strictest future emissions standards worldwide. The mixture formation, the combustion process and the turbocharger of the new engine are described below. The base engine and the thermomanagement system were described in the first part of this article in MTZ 6. (orig.)
Turbocharger with variable nozzle having vane sealing surfaces
Arnold, Philippe [Hennecourt, FR; Petitjean, Dominique [Julienrupt, FR; Ruquart, Anthony [Thaon les Vosges, FR; Dupont, Guillaume [Thaon les Vosges, FR; Jeckel, Denis [Thaon les Vosges, FR
2011-11-15
A variable nozzle for a turbocharger includes a plurality of vanes rotatably mounted on a nozzle ring and disposed in a nozzle flow path defined between the nozzle ring and an opposite nozzle wall. Either or both of the faces of the nozzle ring and nozzle wall include(s) at least one step that defines sealing surfaces positioned to be substantially abutted by airfoil surfaces of the vanes in the closed position of the vanes and to be spaced from the airfoil surfaces in positions other than the closed position. This substantial abutment between the airfoil surfaces and the sealing surfaces serves to substantially prevent exhaust gas from leaking past the ends of the airfoil portions. At the same time, clearances between the nozzle ring face and the end faces of the airfoil portions can be sufficiently large to prevent binding of the vanes under all operating conditions.
Exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behnert, R.; Dommes, W.; Gerwig, W.
1982-01-21
The invention aimes at the heat protection of a turbocharger for internal combustion engines. The turbine is feeded with exhaust gas and drives the shaft of a compressor. For resolving this problem a thermal shield has been installed on the backside of the turbine. The shaft is sealed with an elastic gasket ring. This gasket avoids the deposition of dust and dirt. As a consequence of this constructive measure a growth of tinder and oxides can be avoided as well as the deposition of dirt. A constant reflection factor is ensured. The thermal shield can be manufactured of thin sheet with a nickel surface and can fastened with distance pieces on the backside of the turbine case. Furthermore it is possible to use a ceramic heat shield.
Jet Riemann-Lagrange Geometry Applied to Evolution DEs Systems from Economy
Neagu, Mircea
2007-01-01
The aim of this paper is to construct a natural Riemann-Lagrange differential geometry on 1-jet spaces, in the sense of nonlinear connections, generalized Cartan connections, d-torsions, d-curvatures, jet electromagnetic fields and jet Yang-Mills energies, starting from some given non-linear evolution DEs systems modelling economic phenomena, like the Kaldor model of the bussines cycle or the Tobin-Benhabib-Miyao model regarding the role of money on economic growth.
Mixing and combustion enhancement of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet
Liu, Shichang; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Gen; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yang
2018-02-01
Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet is a new concept engine that combines the advantages of both solid rocket ramjet and Air Turbo Rocket, with a wide operation envelope and high performance. There are three streams of the air, turbine-driving gas and augment gas to mix and combust in the afterburner, and the coaxial intake mode of the afterburner is disadvantageous to the mixing and combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out mixing and combustion enhancement research. In this study, the numerical model of Turbocharged Solid Propellant Ramjet three-dimensional combustion flow field is established, and the numerical simulation of the mixing and combustion enhancement scheme is conducted from the aspects of head region intake mode to injection method in afterburner. The results show that by driving the compressed air to deflect inward and the turbine-driving gas to maintain strong rotation, radial and tangential momentum exchange of the two streams can be enhanced, thereby improving the efficiency of mixing and combustion in the afterburner. The method of injecting augment gas in the transverse direction and making sure the injection location is as close as possible to the head region is beneficial to improve the combustion efficiency. The outer combustion flow field of the afterburner is an oxidizer-rich environment, while the inner is a fuel-rich environment. To improve the efficiency of mixing and combustion, it is necessary to control the injection velocity of the augment gas to keep it in the oxygen-rich zone of the outer region. The numerical simulation for different flight conditions shows that the optimal mixing and combustion enhancement scheme can obtain high combustion efficiency and have excellent applicability in a wide working range.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen-Schaefer, Hung [Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)
2012-11-01
Describes the rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers. Requires only a minimum of mathematical background. Written by an R and D expert from industry. This book deals with rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers while encompassing the analysis of the dynamics of rotating machines at very high rotor speeds of 300,000 rpm and above. This interdisciplinary field involves 1. thermodynamics and turbo-matching knowledge to compute working conditions of turbochargers, 2. fluid and bearing dynamics to calculate various operating thrust loads and to design the rotating floating ring bearings (two-oil-film bearings), and 3. tribology to improve the rotor stability and to reduce the bearing friction. Mathematical background in modeling and simulation methods is necessary; however, the prerequisites have been kept to a minimum. The book addresses both practitioners working in the field of rotordynamics of automotive turbochargers and graduate students in mechanical engineering.
A.F. Sherwani
2016-01-01
In this paper, the effect of various advancements in turbocharging technology on diesel engine power, fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, volumetric efficiency and emissions are reviewed and analyzed.Turbochargers are used throughout the automotive industry to enhance the output of an internal combustion engine without increasing the cylinder capacity. The emphasis today is to provide a feasible engineering solution to manufacturing economics and greener road vehicles. It is because of thes...
Exhaust gas turbo-charger for internal combustion engines. Abgasturbolader fuer Brennkraftmaschinen
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behnert, R.
1982-01-07
The invention is concerned with a exhaust gas turbocharger for internal combustion engines. A turbine driving a compressor, is feeded with the exhaust gas. Intended is the over-temperature protection of the exhaust gas turbocharger. For this reason a ring shaped sheet with a well polished nickel surface, serves as thermal shield. A sealing avoids soiling of the turbine shaft. Due to the heat shielding effect no tinder, oxide or dirt deposition is possible. The heat reflection factor is constant.
Induced Unbalance as a Method for Improving the Dynamic Stability of High-Speed Turbochargers
Gordon Kirk, R.; Alsaeed, Ali A.
2011-01-01
The high-speed diesel engine turbocharger is known to have subsynchronous vibrations for a wide speed range. The bearing fluid-film instability is the main source of the vibration. The nonlinear forces inside the bearings are causing the rotor to whirl in a limit cycle. This study presents a new method for improving the dynamic stability by inducing the turbocharger rotor unbalance in order to suppress the subsynchronous vibration. The finite-element model of the turbocharger with floating-ring bearings is numerically solved for the nonlinear time-transient response. Both compressor and turbine added unbalance are induced and the dynamic stability is computed. The turbocharger model with linearized floating-ring bearings is also solved for eigenvalues to predict the modes of instability. The linear analysis demonstrates that the forward whirling mode of the floating-ring at the compressor end also becomes unstable at the higher turbocharger speeds, in addition to the unstable forward conical and cylindrical modes. The numerical predictions are also compared to the former experimental results of a similar turbocharger. The results of the study show that the subsynchronous frequency amplitude of the dominant first mode is reduced when inducing either the compressor or the turbine unbalance at a certain level. © 2011 R. Gordon Kirk and Ali A. Alsaeed.
Micro Injection Molding of Thin Walled Geometries with Induction Heating System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano
2014-01-01
To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness...... and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated. An experimental investigation was performed based on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios...... of small structures. ABS was used as material and different combinations of injection velocity, pressure and mold temperature were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical CMM machine. On the basis of the experimental investigation the efficacy of the embedded induction...
Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Putman, V.L.
1997-06-01
Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.
McCloud, Peter L.
2010-01-01
Thermal Protection System (TPS) Cavity Heating is predicted using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) on unstructured grids for both simplified cavities and actual cavity geometries. Validation was performed using comparisons to wind tunnel experimental results and CFD predictions using structured grids. Full-scale predictions were made for simplified and actual geometry configurations on the Space Shuttle Orbiter in a mission support timeframe.
Development of high-resolution x-ray CT system using parallel beam geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoneyama, Akio, E-mail: akio.yoneyama.bu@hitachi.com; Baba, Rika [Central Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, Saitama (Japan); Hyodo, Kazuyuki [Institute of Materials Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Takeda, Tohoru [School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakano, Haruhisa; Maki, Koutaro [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry Showa University, Ota-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Sumitani, Kazushi; Hirai, Yasuharu [Kyushu Synchrotron Light Research Center, Tosu, Saga (Japan)
2016-01-28
For fine three-dimensional observations of large biomedical and organic material samples, we developed a high-resolution X-ray CT system. The system consists of a sample positioner, a 5-μm scintillator, microscopy lenses, and a water-cooled sCMOS detector. Parallel beam geometry was adopted to attain a field of view of a few mm square. A fine three-dimensional image of birch branch was obtained using a 9-keV X-ray at BL16XU of SPring-8 in Japan. The spatial resolution estimated from the line profile of a sectional image was about 3 μm.
van Roosmalen, Jarno; Beekman, Freek J.; Goorden, Marlies C.
2018-01-01
Imaging of 99mTc-labelled tracers is gaining popularity for detecting breast tumours. Recently, we proposed a novel design for molecular breast tomosynthesis (MBT) based on two sliding focusing multi-pinhole collimators that scan a modestly compressed breast. Simulation studies indicate that MBT has the potential to improve the tumour-to-background contrast-to-noise ratio significantly over state-of-the-art planar molecular breast imaging. The aim of the present paper is to optimize the collimator-detector geometry of MBT. Using analytical models, we first optimized sensitivity at different fixed system resolutions (ranging from 5 to 12 mm) by tuning the pinhole diameters and the distance between breast and detector for a whole series of automatically generated multi-pinhole designs. We evaluated both MBT with a conventional continuous crystal detector with 3.2 mm intrinsic resolution and with a pixelated detector with 1.6 mm pixels. Subsequently, full system simulations of a breast phantom containing several lesions were performed for the optimized geometry at each system resolution for both types of detector. From these simulations, we found that tumour-to-background contrast-to-noise ratio was highest for systems in the 7 mm-10 mm system resolution range over which it hardly varied. No significant differences between the two detector types were found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giakoumis, Evangelos G.; Dimaratos, Athanasios M.; Rakopoulos, Constantine D.
2011-01-01
Diesel engine noise radiation has drawn increased attention in recent years since it is associated with the passengers' and pedestrians' discomfort, a fact that has been acknowledged by the manufacturers and the legislation in many countries. In the current study, experimental tests were conducted on a truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the mechanism of combustion noise emission under various transient schedules experienced during daily driving conditions, namely acceleration and load increase. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up in order to capture the development of key engine and turbocharger variables during the transient events. Analytical diagrams are provided to explain the behavior of combustion noise radiation in conjunction with cylinder pressure (spectrum), turbocharger and governor/fuel pump response. Turbocharger lag was found to be the main cause for the noise spikes during all test cases examined, with the engine injection timing calibration and the slow adjustment of cylinder wall temperature to the new fueling conditions playing a vital role. The analysis was extended with a quasi-steady approximation of transient combustion noise using steady-state maps, in order to better highlight the effect of dynamic engine operation on combustion noise emissions. -- Highlights: → Studying the effects of acceleration and load increase on the combustion noise radiation from a turbocharged diesel engine. → Turbocharger lag was the most notable contributor for the behavior of combustion noise radiation. → Turbocharged diesel engine behaves noisier at acceleration compared with the steady-state operation. → Fuel limiter, governing and engine injection timing calibration play a decisive role on the emission of combustion noise. → Transient noise radiation was smoothed the slower the acceleration and the smaller the demanded speed increase.
Integrability and chaos in quantum systems (as viewed from geometry and dynamical symmetry)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Wei-Min.
1989-01-01
It is known that the development and deep understanding of modern interaction theory and classical mechanics are made through geometry and symmetry. Yet, quantum mechanics which was regarded to be the microscopic theory of classical mechanics and achieved the crowning success in interpreting the entire microscopic world was developed purely from algebraic methods. In this thesis, the author will study the geometry and dynamical symmetry in quantum systems, from which the question of integrability and chaos are explicitly addressed. First of all, the quantum dynamical degrees of freedom and quantum integrability are precisely defined and the inherent geometrical structure of quantum systems is explored from the fundamental structure of quantum theory. Such a geometrical structure can provide a framework to simultaneously build quantum and classical mechanics. The quantum-classical correspondence is then explicitly deduced. The dynamics of quantum system before it reaches the classical limit is formulated. Thus, the classical chaos is proven to be a special limiting phenomena of quantum systems and the dynamics before the system reaches its classical chaos is explored. The latter is the first step to seek the quantum manifestation of chaos. The relationship between integrability and dynamical symmetry are studied and some universal properties are discovered: a dynamical system (both quantum and classical) in integrable if it possesses a dynamical symmetry. Chaos will occur if the system undergoes a dynamical symmetry breaking and is accompanied by a structural phase transition. Thus, the concept of dynamical symmetry can be used to predict the general behaviors of a system. The theoretical underpinnings developed in this thesis are verified by many basic quantum mechanical examples
Investigation of turbocharger compressor surge inception by means of an acoustic two-port model
Kabral, R.; Åbom, M.
2018-01-01
The use of centrifugal compressors have increased tremendously in the last decade being implemented in the modern IC engine design as a key component. However, an efficient implementation is restricted by the compression system surge phenomenon. The focus in the investigation of surge inception have mainly been on the aerodynamic field while neglecting the acoustic field. In the present work a new method based on the full acoustic 2-port model is proposed for investigation of centrifugal compressor stall and surge inception. Essentially, the compressor is acoustically decoupled from the compression system, hence enabling the determination of sound generation and the quantification of internal aero-acoustic coupling effects, both independently of the connected pipe system. These frequency dependent quantities are indicating if the compressor is prone to self-sustained oscillations in case of positive feedback when installed in a system. The method is demonstrated on experimentally determined 2-port data of an automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressor under a variety of realistic operating conditions.
Thermal compatibility of dental ceramic systems using cylindrical and spherical geometries
DeHoff, Paul H.; Barrett, Allyson A.; Lee, Robert B.; Anusavice, Kenneth J.
2009-01-01
Objective To test the hypothesis that bilayer ceramic cylinders and spheres can provide valid confirmation of thermal incompatibility stresses predicted by finite element analyses. Methods A commercial core ceramic and an experimental core ceramic were used to fabricate open-ended cylinders and core ceramic spheres. The core cylinders and spheres were veneered with one of four commercial dental ceramics representing four thermally compatible groups and four thermally incompatible groups. Axisymmetric thermal and viscoelastic elements in the ANSYS finite element program were used to calculate temperatures and stresses for each geometry and ceramic combination. This process required a transient heat transfer analysis for each combination to determine input temperatures for the structural model. Results After fabrication, each specimen was examined visually using fiberoptic transillumination for evidence of cracking. There were 100% failures of the thermally incompatible cylinders while none of the thermally compatible combinations failed. Among the spheres, 100% of the thermally incompatible systems failed, 16% of one of the thermally compatible systems failed, and none of the remaining compatible combinations failed. The calculated stress values were in general agreement with the experimental observations, i.e., low residual stresses for the specimens that did not fail and high residual stresses for the specimens that did fail. Significance Simple screening geometries can be used to identify highly incompatible ceramic combinations, but they do not identify marginally incompatible systems. PMID:17949805
Digital Tomosynthesis System Geometry Analysis Using Convolution-Based Blur-and-Add (BAA) Model.
Wu, Meng; Yoon, Sungwon; Solomon, Edward G; Star-Lack, Josh; Pelc, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca
2016-01-01
Digital tomosynthesis is a three-dimensional imaging technique with a lower radiation dose than computed tomography (CT). Due to the missing data in tomosynthesis systems, out-of-plane structures in the depth direction cannot be completely removed by the reconstruction algorithms. In this work, we analyzed the impulse responses of common tomosynthesis systems on a plane-to-plane basis and proposed a fast and accurate convolution-based blur-and-add (BAA) model to simulate the backprojected images. In addition, the analysis formalism describing the impulse response of out-of-plane structures can be generalized to both rotating and parallel gantries. We implemented a ray tracing forward projection and backprojection (ray-based model) algorithm and the convolution-based BAA model to simulate the shift-and-add (backproject) tomosynthesis reconstructions. The convolution-based BAA model with proper geometry distortion correction provides reasonably accurate estimates of the tomosynthesis reconstruction. A numerical comparison indicates that the simulated images using the two models differ by less than 6% in terms of the root-mean-squared error. This convolution-based BAA model can be used in efficient system geometry analysis, reconstruction algorithm design, out-of-plane artifacts suppression, and CT-tomosynthesis registration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerhardt, Juergen; Leonhard, Rolf; Krueger, Michael; Naber, Dirk; Pitt, J. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)
2008-07-01
In order to comply with continuously rising requirements from emission legislation and fuel economy enhancement, modern Diesel engines for passenger cars still offer a variety of measures. Focus of this paper is the importance of a highly flexible fuel-injection system and an optimized injection strategy as direct measures to improve both, tail-pipe emission as well as vehicle fuel economy. An integrated system approach of high pressure pump, injector and nozzle provides the latest injection patterns combined with an increased rail pressure level with a best-in-class hydraulic efficiency. The resulting improvement in the injection system and thus in the combustion also enables the introduction of additional indirect, very effective measures for fuel consumption reduction, such as downsizing and downspeeding. In order to fully utilize the potent of the mentioned approaches, the application of advanced boosting technology is an additional key factor. Bosch Diesel injection technology and optimized combustion systems pave the way to achieve the goal of efficient emission reduction. (orig.)
Numerical simulation investigation on centrifugal compressor performance of turbocharger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Jie; Yin, Yuting; Li, Shuqi; Zhang, Jizhong
2013-01-01
In this paper, the mathematical model of the flow filed in centrifugal compressor of turbocharger was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using CFX. Meanwhile, the influences of grid number and distribution on compressor performance were investigated, and numerical calculation method was analyzed and validated, through combining with test data. The results obtained show the increase of the grid number has little influence on compressor performance while the grid number of single-passage is above 300,000. The results also show that the numerical calculation mass flow rate of compressor choke situation has a good consistent with test results, and the maximum difference of the diffuser exit pressure between simulation and experiment decrease to 3.5% with the assumption of 6 kPa additional total pressure loss at compressor inlet. The numerical simulation method in this paper can be used to predict compressor performance, and the difference of total pressure ratio between calculation and test is less than 7%, and the total-to-total efficiency also have a good consistent with test.
Numerical simulation investigation on centrifugal compressor performance of turbocharger
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jie [China Iron and Steel Research Institute Group, Beijing (China); Yin, Yuting [China North Engine Research Institute, Datong (China); Li, Shuqi; Zhang, Jizhong [Science and Technology Diesel Engine Turbocharging Laboratory, Datong (China)
2013-06-15
In this paper, the mathematical model of the flow filed in centrifugal compressor of turbocharger was studied. Based on the theory of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), performance curves and parameter distributions of the compressor were obtained from the 3-D numerical simulation by using CFX. Meanwhile, the influences of grid number and distribution on compressor performance were investigated, and numerical calculation method was analyzed and validated, through combining with test data. The results obtained show the increase of the grid number has little influence on compressor performance while the grid number of single-passage is above 300,000. The results also show that the numerical calculation mass flow rate of compressor choke situation has a good consistent with test results, and the maximum difference of the diffuser exit pressure between simulation and experiment decrease to 3.5% with the assumption of 6 kPa additional total pressure loss at compressor inlet. The numerical simulation method in this paper can be used to predict compressor performance, and the difference of total pressure ratio between calculation and test is less than 7%, and the total-to-total efficiency also have a good consistent with test.
Teddy, Livian; Hardiman, Gagoek; Nuroji; Tudjono, Sri
2017-12-01
Indonesia is an area prone to earthquake that may cause casualties and damage to buildings. The fatalities or the injured are not largely caused by the earthquake, but by building collapse. The collapse of the building is resulted from the building behaviour against the earthquake, and it depends on many factors, such as architectural design, geometry configuration of structural elements in horizontal and vertical plans, earthquake zone, geographical location (distance to earthquake center), soil type, material quality, and construction quality. One of the geometry configurations that may lead to the collapse of the building is irregular configuration of non-parallel system. In accordance with FEMA-451B, irregular configuration in non-parallel system is defined to have existed if the vertical lateral force-retaining elements are neither parallel nor symmetric with main orthogonal axes of the earthquake-retaining axis system. Such configuration may lead to torque, diagonal translation and local damage to buildings. It does not mean that non-parallel irregular configuration should not be formed on architectural design; however the designer must know the consequence of earthquake behaviour against buildings with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research has the objective to identify earthquake behaviour in architectural geometry with irregular configuration of non-parallel system. The present research was quantitative with simulation experimental method. It consisted of 5 models, where architectural data and model structure data were inputted and analyzed using the software SAP2000 in order to find out its performance, and ETAB2015 to determine the eccentricity occurred. The output of the software analysis was tabulated, graphed, compared and analyzed with relevant theories. For areas of strong earthquake zones, avoid designing buildings which wholly form irregular configuration of non-parallel system. If it is inevitable to design a
Lundh, Torbjörn; Suh, Ga-Young; DiGiacomo, Phillip; Cheng, Christopher
2018-03-03
Vascular morphology characterization is useful for disease diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment planning, and prediction of treatment durability. To quantify the dynamic surface geometry of tubular-shaped anatomic structures, we propose a simple, rigorous Lagrangian cylindrical coordinate system to monitor well-defined surface points. Specifically, the proposed system enables quantification of surface curvature and cross-sectional eccentricity. Using idealized software phantom examples, we validate the method's ability to accurately quantify longitudinal and circumferential surface curvature, as well as eccentricity and orientation of eccentricity. We then apply the method to several medical imaging data sets of human vascular structures to exemplify the utility of this coordinate system for analyzing morphology and dynamic geometric changes in blood vessels throughout the body. Graphical abstract Pointwise longitudinal curvature of a thoracic aortic endograft surface for systole and diastole, with their absolute difference.
Information Geometry of Non-Equilibrium Processes in a Bistable System with a Cubic Damping
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rainer Hollerbach
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A probabilistic description is essential for understanding the dynamics of stochastic systems far from equilibrium, given uncertainty inherent in the systems. To compare different Probability Density Functions (PDFs, it is extremely useful to quantify the difference among different PDFs by assigning an appropriate metric to probability such that the distance increases with the difference between the two PDFs. This metric structure then provides a key link between stochastic systems and information geometry. For a non-equilibrium process, we define an infinitesimal distance at any time by comparing two PDFs at times infinitesimally apart and sum these distances in time. The total distance along the trajectory of the system quantifies the total number of different states that the system undergoes in time and is called the information length. By using this concept, we investigate the information geometry of non-equilibrium processes involved in disorder-order transitions between the critical and subcritical states in a bistable system. Specifically, we compute time-dependent PDFs, information length, the rate of change in information length, entropy change and Fisher information in disorder-to-order and order-to-disorder transitions and discuss similarities and disparities between the two transitions. In particular, we show that the total information length in order-to-disorder transition is much larger than that in disorder-to-order transition and elucidate the link to the drastically different evolution of entropy in both transitions. We also provide the comparison of the results with those in the case of the transition between the subcritical and supercritical states and discuss implications for fitness.
Effect of geometry on concentration polarization in realistic heterogeneous permselective systems
Green, Yoav; Shloush, Shahar; Yossifon, Gilad
2014-04-01
This study extends previous analytical solutions of concentration polarization occurring solely in the depleted region, to the more realistic geometry consisting of a three-dimensional (3D) heterogeneous ion-permselective medium connecting two opposite microchambers (i.e., a three-layer system). Under the local electroneutrality approximation, the separation of variable methods is used to derive an analytical solution of the electrodiffusive problem for the two opposing asymmetric microchambers. The assumption of an ideal permselective medium allows for the analytic calculation of the 3D concentration and electric potential distributions as well as a current-voltage relation. It is shown that any asymmetry in the microchamber geometries will result in current rectification. Moreover, it is demonstrated that for non-negligible microchamber resistances, the conductance does not exhibit the expected saturation at low concentrations but instead shows a continuous decrease. The results are intended to facilitate a more direct comparison between theory and experiments, as now the voltage drop is across a realistic 3D and three-layer system.
Simulating the effects of turbocharging on the emission levels of a gasoline engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Reza Mahmoudi
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to respond to the global concern for the rise of the emissions and the necessity of preventing them to form rather than dealing with their after-effects. Therefore, the production levels of four main emissions, namely NOx, CO2, CO and UHC in gasoline engine of Nissan Maxima 1994 is assessed via 1-D simulation with the GT-Power code. Then, a proper matching of turbine-compressor is carried out to propose a turbocharger for the engine, and the resultant emissions are compared to the naturally aspirated engine. It is found that the emission levels of NOx, CO, and CO2 are higher in terms of their concentration in the exhaust fume of the turbocharged engine, in comparison with the naturally aspirated engine. However, at the same time, the brake power and the brake specific emissions produced by the turbocharged engine are respectively higher and lower than those of the naturally aspirated engine. Therefore, it is concluded that, for a specific application, turbocharging provides the chance to achieve the performance of a potential naturally aspirated engine while producing lower emissions. Keywords: Emission, Gasoline SI engine, Turbocharging, GT-Power, 1-D simulation, Brake specific
Karamanis, N.; Palfreyman, D.; Arcoumanis, C.; Martinez-Botas, R. F.
2006-07-01
The detailed flow characteristics of three high-pressure-ratio mixed-flow turbines were investigated under both steady and pulsating flow conditions. Two rotors featured a constant inlet blade angle, one with 12 blades and the second with 10. The third rotor was shorter and had a nominally constant incidence angle. The rotors find application on an automotive high-speed large commercial diesel turbocharger. The steady flow entering and exiting the blades has been quantified by a laser Doppler velocimetry system. The measurements were performed at a plane 3.0-mm ahead of the rotor leading edge and 9.5-mm downstream the rotor trailing edge. The turbine test conditions corresponded to the peak efficiency point at two rotational speeds, 29,400 and 41,300-rpm. The results were resolved in a blade-to-blade sense to examine fully the nature of the flow at turbocharger representative conditions. A correlation between the combined effects of incidence and exit flow angle with the isentropic efficiency has been verified. Regarding pulsating flow, the velocity data and their corresponding instantaneous velocity triangles were resolved in a blade-to-blade sense to understand better the complex phenomenon. The results highlighted the potential of a nominally constant incidence design to absorb better the inadequacy of the volute to discharge the exhaust gas uniformly along the blade leading edge. A double vortex rotating in a clockwise sense propagated on the plane normal to the meridional direction. This should be attributed to the effect of the passing blade that was acting as a blockage to the flow. The phenomenon was more pronounced near the suction and pressure surfaces of the blade, but diminished at the mid-passage region where the flow exhibited its best level of guidance. The full mixed flow turbine stage under transient conditions was modelled firstly with a 'steady' inlet and secondly with a 'pulsating' inlet boundary condition. In both cases comparison was made to
A three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm for an inverse-geometry volumetric CT system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pelc, Norbert J.
2005-01-01
An inverse-geometry volumetric computed tomography (IGCT) system has been proposed capable of rapidly acquiring sufficient data to reconstruct a thick volume in one circular scan. The system uses a large-area scanned source opposite a smaller detector. The source and detector have the same extent in the axial, or slice, direction, thus providing sufficient volumetric sampling and avoiding cone-beam artifacts. This paper describes a reconstruction algorithm for the IGCT system. The algorithm first rebins the acquired data into two-dimensional (2D) parallel-ray projections at multiple tilt and azimuthal angles, followed by a 3D filtered backprojection. The rebinning step is performed by gridding the data onto a Cartesian grid in a 4D projection space. We present a new method for correcting the gridding error caused by the finite and asymmetric sampling in the neighborhood of each output grid point in the projection space. The reconstruction algorithm was implemented and tested on simulated IGCT data. Results show that the gridding correction reduces the gridding errors to below one Hounsfield unit. With this correction, the reconstruction algorithm does not introduce significant artifacts or blurring when compared to images reconstructed from simulated 2D parallel-ray projections. We also present an investigation of the noise behavior of the method which verifies that the proposed reconstruction algorithm utilizes cross-plane rays as efficiently as in-plane rays and can provide noise comparable to an in-plane parallel-ray geometry for the same number of photons. Simulations of a resolution test pattern and the modulation transfer function demonstrate that the IGCT system, using the proposed algorithm, is capable of 0.4 mm isotropic resolution. The successful implementation of the reconstruction algorithm is an important step in establishing feasibility of the IGCT system
Zheng, Zhaoliang; Chang, Zhuo; Xu, Guang-Kui; McBride, Fiona; Ho, Alexandra; Zhuola, Zhuola; Michailidis, Marios; Li, Wei; Raval, Rasmita; Akhtar, Riaz; Shchukin, Dmitry
2017-01-24
The performance of solar-thermal conversion systems can be improved by incorporation of nanocarbon-stabilized microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). The geometry of MPCMs in the microcapsules plays an important role for improving their heating efficiency and reliability. Yet few efforts have been made to critically examine the formation mechanism of different geometries and their effect on MPCMs-shell interaction. Herein, through changing the cooling rate of original emulsions, we acquire MPCMs within the nanocarbon microcapsules with a hollow structure of MPCMs (h-MPCMs) or solid PCM core particles (s-MPCMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals that the capsule shell of the h-MPCMs is enriched with nanocarbons and has a greater MPCMs-shell interaction compared to s-MPCMs. This results in the h-MPCMs being more stable and having greater heat diffusivity within and above the phase transition range than the s-MPCMs do. The geometry-dependent heating efficiency and system stability may have important and general implications for the fundamental understanding of microencapsulation and wider breadth of heating generating systems.
Study on the Combustion Process and Emissions of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with EGR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mei Deqing
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A high pressure EGR system was adopted to a turbocharged inter-cooled diesel engine, to analyze its combustion and emission characteristics under the condition of different loads and constant speed. Under the same steady operating mode, with the increase of EGR rate, the temperature of compressed gas ascended, the ignition delay was shortened, the pressure and temperature of the burned gas descended, and the combustion process was prolonged. According to the experimental data, it was found that, at the same EGR rate, lower the load of engine was, lower the temperature in cylinder, and higher the increase rate of CO was. However, the increase rate of HC present a falling trend. The decrease rate of the specific emission of NOx linearly varied with EGR rate with a slope of 1.651. The increase rate of smoke opacity behaved a second-order polynomial uprising trend, and the higher the load was, the sharpener the smoke opacity deteriorated, with the increase of EGR rate. From the point of emission view, the engine with EGR system can achieve the lesser exhaust emissions in some operations by adjusting the engine parameters.
Derivation of the low Mach number diphasic system. Numerical simulation in mono-dimensional geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dellacherie, St.
2004-01-01
This work deals with the derivation of a diphasic low Mach number model obtained through a Mach number asymptotic expansion applied to the compressible diphasic Navier Stokes system, expansion which filters out the acoustic waves. This approach is inspired from the work of Andrew Majda giving the equations of low Mach number combustion for thin flame and for perfect gases. When the equations of state verify some thermodynamic hypothesis, we show that the low Mach number diphasic system predicts in a good way the dilatation or the compression of a bubble and has equilibrium convergence properties. Then, we propose an entropic and convergent Lagrangian scheme in mono-dimensional geometry when the fluids are perfect gases and we propose a first approach in Eulerian variables where the interface between the two fluids is captured with a level set technique. (author)
A prototype table-top inverse-geometry volumetric CT system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Star-Lack, Josh; Bennett, N. Robert; Mazin, Samuel R.; Solomon, Edward G.; Fahrig, Rebecca; Pelc, Norbert J.
2006-01-01
A table-top volumetric CT system has been implemented that is able to image a 5-cm-thick volume in one circular scan with no cone-beam artifacts. The prototype inverse-geometry CT (IGCT) scanner consists of a large-area, scanned x-ray source and a detector array that is smaller in the transverse direction. The IGCT geometry provides sufficient volumetric sampling because the source and detector have the same axial, or slice direction, extent. This paper describes the implementation of the table-top IGCT scanner, which is based on the NexRay Scanning-Beam Digital X-ray system (NexRay, Inc., Los Gatos, CA) and an investigation of the system performance. The alignment and flat-field calibration procedures are described, along with a summary of the reconstruction algorithm. The resolution and noise performance of the prototype IGCT system are studied through experiments and further supported by analytical predictions and simulations. To study the presence of cone-beam artifacts, a ''Defrise'' phantom was scanned on both the prototype IGCT scanner and a micro CT system with a ±5 deg.cone angle for a 4.5-cm volume thickness. Images of inner ear specimens are presented and compared to those from clinical CT systems. Results showed that the prototype IGCT system has a 0.25-mm isotropic resolution and that noise comparable to that from a clinical scanner with equivalent spatial resolution is achievable. The measured MTF and noise values agreed reasonably well with theoretical predictions and computer simulations. The IGCT system was able to faithfully reconstruct the laminated pattern of the Defrise phantom while the micro CT system suffered severe cone-beam artifacts for the same object. The inner ear acquisition verified that the IGCT system can image a complex anatomical object, and the resulting images exhibited more high-resolution details than the clinical CT acquisition. Overall, the successful implementation of the prototype system supports the IGCT concept for
Multisource inverse-geometry CT. Part I. System concept and development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Man, Bruno, E-mail: deman@ge.com; Harrison, Dan; Yin, Zhye [CT Systems and Applications Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Uribe, Jorge [Functional Imaging Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Baek, Jongduk [School of Integrated Technology, Yonsei University, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Longtin, Randy; Roy, Jaydeep; Frutschy, Kristopher [Mechanical Systems Technologies, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Waters, Bill [Design and Development Shops, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Wilson, Colin; Inzinna, Lou; Neculaes, V. Bogdan [High Energy Physics Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Short, Jonathan [Detector Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Reynolds, Joseph [High Frequency Power Electronics Laboratory, GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); Senzig, Bob [Molecular Imaging and Computed Tomography, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Pelc, Norbert [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2016-08-15
Purpose: This paper presents an overview of multisource inverse-geometry computed tomography (IGCT) as well as the development of a gantry-based research prototype system. The development of the distributed x-ray source is covered in a companion paper [V. B. Neculaes et al., “Multisource inverse-geometry CT. Part II. X-ray source design and prototype,” Med. Phys. 43, 4617–4627 (2016)]. While progress updates of this development have been presented at conferences and in journal papers, this paper is the first comprehensive overview of the multisource inverse-geometry CT concept and prototype. The authors also provide a review of all previous IGCT related publications. Methods: The authors designed and implemented a gantry-based 32-source IGCT scanner with 22 cm field-of-view, 16 cm z-coverage, 1 s rotation time, 1.09 × 1.024 mm detector cell size, as low as 0.4 × 0.8 mm focal spot size and 80–140 kVp x-ray source voltage. The system is built using commercially available CT components and a custom made distributed x-ray source. The authors developed dedicated controls, calibrations, and reconstruction algorithms and evaluated the system performance using phantoms and small animals. Results: The authors performed IGCT system experiments and demonstrated tube current up to 125 mA with up to 32 focal spots. The authors measured a spatial resolution of 13 lp/cm at 5% cutoff. The scatter-to-primary ratio is estimated 62% for a 32 cm water phantom at 140 kVp. The authors scanned several phantoms and small animals. The initial images have relatively high noise due to the low x-ray flux levels but minimal artifacts. Conclusions: IGCT has unique benefits in terms of dose-efficiency and cone-beam artifacts, but comes with challenges in terms of scattered radiation and x-ray flux limits. To the authors’ knowledge, their prototype is the first gantry-based IGCT scanner. The authors summarized the design and implementation of the scanner and the authors presented
Salmingo, Remel Alingalan; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu
2016-05-12
Treatment for severe scoliosis is usually attained when the scoliotic spine is deformed and fixed by implant rods. Investigation of the intraoperative changes of implant rod shape in three-dimensions is necessary to understand the biomechanics of scoliosis correction, establish consensus of the treatment, and achieve the optimal outcome. The objective of this study was to measure the intraoperative three-dimensional geometry and deformation of implant rod during scoliosis corrective surgery.A pair of images was obtained intraoperatively by the dual camera system before rotation and after rotation of rods during scoliosis surgery. The three-dimensional implant rod geometry before implantation was measured directly by the surgeon and after surgery using a CT scanner. The images of rods were reconstructed in three-dimensions using quintic polynomial functions. The implant rod deformation was evaluated using the angle between the two three-dimensional tangent vectors measured at the ends of the implant rod.The implant rods at the concave side were significantly deformed during surgery. The highest rod deformation was found after the rotation of rods. The implant curvature regained after the surgical treatment.Careful intraoperative rod maneuver is important to achieve a safe clinical outcome because the intraoperative forces could be higher than the postoperative forces. Continuous scoliosis correction was observed as indicated by the regain of the implant rod curvature after surgery.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korczewski Zbigniew
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of diagnostic informativeness of exhaust gas temperature measurements in turbocharged marine internal combustion engines. Theoretical principles of the process of exhaust gas flow in turbocharger inlet channels are analysed in its dynamic and energetic aspects. Diagnostic parameters are defined which enable to formulate general evaluation of technical condition of the engine based on standard online measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. A proposal is made to extend the parametric methods of diagnosing workspaces in turbocharged marine engines by analysing time-histories of enthalpy changes of the exhaust gas flowing to the turbocompressor turbine. Such a time-history can be worked out based on dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature, performed using a specially designed sheathed thermocouple.
Preliminary results on performance testing of a turbocharged rotary combustion engine
Meng, P. R.; Rice, W. J.; Schock, H. J.; Pringle, D. P.
1982-01-01
The performance of a turbocharged rotary engine at power levels above 75 kW (100 hp) was studied. A twin rotor turbocharged Mazda engine was tested at speeds of 3000 to 6000 rpm and boost pressures to 7 psi. The NASA developed combustion diagnostic instrumentation was used to quantify indicated and pumping mean effect pressures, peak pressure, and face to face variability on a cycle by cycle basis. Results of this testing showed that a 5900 rpm a 36 percent increase in power was obtained by operating the engine in the turbocharged configuration. When operating with lean carburetor jets at 105 hp (78.3 kW) and 4000 rpm, a brake specific fuel consumption of 0.45 lbm/lb-hr was measured.
Murphy, M. A.; Taylor, M. H.
2006-12-01
We present geologic mapping and structural data from the Lopukangri fault system in south-central Tibet that sheds light on the geometry, kinematics and spatial characteristics of deformation in western Tibet and the western Himalaya. The Lopukangri fault system strikes N09E and extends 150 km from the Lhasa terrane into the Tethyan fold-thrust belt at 84.5° N. Geologic mapping shows that the deformation is accommodated by a northwest dipping oblique fault system, which accommodates both right-lateral and normal dip-slip movement, consistent with right-lateral separations of Quaternary surficial deposits. The fault system juxtaposes amphibolite-grade rocks in its footwall against greenschist-grade rocks in its hanging wall. Deformation is distributed over a 4 km wide zone that predominately records right-lateral normal slip in ductile and brittle shear fabrics. The fault system right-laterally separates the Gangdese batholith, Kailas conglomerate, Great Counter thrust, and the Tethyan fold-thrust belt for 15 km. Age estimates of the Kailas conglomerate in the Kailas region implies that the Lopukangri fault system initiated after the Early Miocene( 23Ma). The observation that the Lopukangri fault system cuts the Indus-Yaly suture zone, rules out active strike-slip faulting along it at this locality. To assess the role of the Lopukangri fault system in accommodating strain within western Tibet, we compare our results with fault-slip data and structural geometries from the Karakoram and Dangardzong (Thakkhola graben) fault systems. The Dangardzong fault shares similar kinematics with the Lopukangri fault system, both display a significant component of right-slip. Although the two faults do not strike into one another, they may be linked via a transfer zone. The Karakoram fault accommodates right-lateral slip in which a portion of the total slip extends from the Tibetan plateau into the Himalayan thrust belt via right-stepover structures. Fault slip data from the
Research on Control-Oriented Modeling for Turbocharged SI and DI Gasoline Engines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Feitie Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to analyze system performance and develop model-based control algorithms for turbocharged spark ignition and direct injection (SIDI gasoline engines, a control oriented mean value model is developed and validated. The model is constructed based on theoretical analysis for the different components, including the compressor, turbine, air filter, intercooler, throttle, manifold, and combustion chamber. Compressor mass flow and efficiency are modeled as parameterized functions. A standard nozzle model is used to approximate the mass flow through the turbine, and the turbine efficiency is modeled as a function of blade speed ratio (BSR. The air filter is modeled as a tube for capturing its pressure drop feature. The effectiveness number of transfer units (NTU modeling method is utilized for the intercooler. The throttle model consists of the standard nozzle model with an effective area regressed to throttle position. Manifolds are modeled for their dynamically varying pressure state. For the cylinder, the air mass flow into cylinders, fuel mass, torque, and exhaust temperature are modeled. Compared to the conventional lookup table approach, transient dynamics error can be improved significantly through using the model from this work.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danyluk, P.; Gutoski, G. [Coltec Industries Inc., Fairbanks Morse Engine Division (United States); Chen, S.K. [PEI Consultants (United States)
1998-12-31
This paper describes the benefits of sequential turbocharging in improving the operating envelope of a medium speed diesel engine. In particular, the high torque, low speed performance envelope can be greatly extended over that of a standard medium speed engine and, in addition, can offer improved operating range over what has been achieved with compressor air bypass/waste gate systems. This paper compares the three approaches on the basis of possible operating envelopes for a specific application, the new U.S. Navy LPD-17 amphibious assault ship, which has a very demanding requirement for high torque at low engine speed and low ambient temperatures. Comparison is made to the earlier approach to extend the operating envelope on the U.S. Navy LSD-41 class engines. The LSD-41 fleet has been in service since 1985 running with a compressor air bypass system developed jointly by Lockheed Shipyard and Coltec Industries for the U.S. Navy. (au)
A co-ordinate system for reactor physics calculations in hexagonal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burte, D.P.
1990-01-01
A method for generating all the geometric information concerning typical reactor physics calculations for a basically hexagonal reactor core or its sector involving any of the possible symmetries is presented. The geometrically allowed symmetries for regular hexagons are discussed. The approach is based on the choice of a suitable co-ordinate system, viz. one using three coplanar (including one redundant) axes, each at 120 0 with its cyclically preceding one. A code named KEKULE' is developed for a 2-D, finite difference, one-group diffusion analysis of a hexagonal core using the approach. It can cater to a full hexagonal core as well as to any symmetric sectorial part of it. The main feature of the code is that the input concerning geometry is a bare minimum. It is hoped that the approach presented will be useful even for the calculations for hexagonal fuel assemblies. (author)
FURNACE 2. Toroidal geometry neutronic program system method. Description and users manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verschuur, K.A.
1995-10-01
FURNACE2 is a 3-dimensional neutron/photon-transport program system for toroidal geometries. It uses ray-tracing and double-differential reflection-and transmission-coefficients and flux-kernels to calculate the angular-flux spectra inside the torus of a fusion-reactor. FURNACE2 is an extended version of FURNACE, developed for application to the neutron-diagnostics at JET, which was supported financially by JET. It is used at JET to calculate the foil-activation for the KN2 diagnostics, the angular-fluxes on the lines of sight of the KN3 profile monitors, and general background fluxes and activation of the vessel. The program is used along with MCNP, combining the advantages of each of the programs and for mutual checks. (orig.).
FURNACE 2. Toroidal geometry neutronic program system method. Description and users manual
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verschuur, K.A.
1995-10-01
FURNACE2 is a 3-dimensional neutron/photon-transport program system for toroidal geometries. It uses ray-tracing and double-differential reflection-and transmission-coefficients and flux-kernels to calculate the angular-flux spectra inside the torus of a fusion-reactor. FURNACE2 is an extended version of FURNACE, developed for application to the neutron-diagnostics at JET, which was supported financially by JET. It is used at JET to calculate the foil-activation for the KN2 diagnostics, the angular-fluxes on the lines of sight of the KN3 profile monitors, and general background fluxes and activation of the vessel. The program is used along with MCNP, combining the advantages of each of the programs and for mutual checks. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoogenboom, J.E.
1980-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: FOCUS enables the calculation of any quantity related to neutron transport in reactor or shielding problems, but was especially designed to calculate differential quantities, such as point values at one or more of the space, energy, direction and time variables of quantities like neutron flux, detector response, reaction rate, etc. or averages of such quantities over a small volume of the phase space. Different types of problems can be treated: systems with a fixed neutron source which may be a mono-directional source located out- side the system, and Eigen function problems in which the neutron source distribution is given by the (unknown) fundamental mode Eigen function distribution. Using Monte Carlo methods complex 3- dimensional geometries and detailed cross section information can be treated. Cross section data are derived from ENDF/B, with anisotropic scattering and discrete or continuous inelastic scattering taken into account. Energy is treated as a continuous variable and time dependence may also be included. 2 - Method of solution: A transformed form of the adjoint Boltzmann equation in integral representation is solved for the space, energy, direction and time variables by Monte Carlo methods. Adjoint particles are defined with properties in some respects contrary to those of neutrons. Adjoint particle histories are constructed from which estimates are obtained of the desired quantity. Adjoint cross sections are defined with which the nuclide and reaction type are selected in a collision. The energy after a collision is selected from adjoint energy distributions calculated together with the adjoint cross sections in advance of the actual Monte Carlo calculation. For multiplying systems successive generations of adjoint particles are obtained which will die out for subcritical systems with a fixed neutron source and will be kept approximately stationary for Eigen function problems. Completely arbitrary problems can
Zakaria, Zakaria; Surbakti, Muhammad Syukri; Syahreza, Saumi; Mat Jafri, Mohd. Zubir; Tan, Kok Chooi
2017-10-01
It has been already made, calibrated and tested a geometry normalized electromagnetic system (GNES) for metal defect examination. The GNES has an automatic data acquisition system which supporting the efficiency and accuracy of the measurement. The data will be displayed on the computer monitor as a graphic display then saved automatically in the Microsoft Excel format. The transmitter will transmit the frequency pair (FP) signals i.e. 112.5 Hz and 337.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 112.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 1012.5 Hz; 337.5 Hz and 3037.5 Hz. Simultaneous transmissions of two electromagnetic waves without distortions by the transmitter will induce an eddy current in the metal. This current, in turn, will produce secondary electromagnetic fields which are measured by the receiver together with the primary fields. Measurement of percent change of a vertical component of the fields will give the percent response caused by the metal or the defect. The response examinations were performed by the models with various type of defect for the master curves. The materials of samples as a plate were using Aluminum, Brass, and Copper. The more of the defects is the more reduction of the eddy current response. The defect contrasts were tended to decrease when the more depth of the defect position. The magnitude and phase of the eddy currents will affect the loading on the coil thus its impedance. The defect must interrupt the surface eddy current flow to be detected. Defect lying parallel to the current path will not cause any significant interruption and may not be detected. The main factors which affect the eddy current response are metal conductivity, permeability, frequency, and geometry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Burinskii
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The 4D Kerr geometry displays many wonderful relations with quantum world and, in particular, with superstring theory. The lightlike structure of fields near the Kerr singular ring is similar to the structure of Sen solution for a closed heterotic string. Another string, open and complex, appears in the complex representation of the Kerr geometry initiated by Newman. Combination of these strings forms a membrane source of the Kerr geometry which is parallel to the structure of M-theory. In this paper we give one more evidence of this relationship, emergence of the Calabi-Yau twofold (K3 surface in twistorial structure of the Kerr geometry as a consequence of the Kerr theorem. Finally, we indicate that the Kerr stringy system may correspond to a complex embedding of the critical N = 2 superstring.
Three-dimensional tracking of cardiac catheters using an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speidel, Michael A.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.
2010-01-01
Purpose: Scanning beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis at multiple planes. This study describes a tomosynthesis-based method for 3D tracking of high-contrast objects and present the first experimental investigation of cardiac catheter tracking using a prototype SBDX system. Methods: The 3D tracking algorithm utilizes the stack of regularly spaced tomosynthetic planes that are generated by SBDX after each frame period (15 frames/s). Gradient-filtered versions of the image planes are generated, the filtered images are segmented into object regions, and then a 3D coordinate is calculated for each object region. Two phantom studies of tracking performance were conducted. In the first study, an ablation catheter in a chest phantom was imaged as it was pulled along a 3D trajectory defined by a catheter sheath (10, 25, and 50 mm/s pullback speeds). SBDX tip tracking coordinates were compared to the 3D trajectory of the sheath as determined from a CT scan of the phantom after the registration of the SBDX and CT coordinate systems. In the second study, frame-to-frame tracking precision was measured for six different catheter configurations as a function of image noise level (662-7625 photons/mm 2 mean detected x-ray fluence at isocenter). Results: During catheter pullbacks, the 3D distance between the tracked catheter tip and the sheath centerline was 1.0±0.8 mm (mean ±one standard deviation). The electrode to centerline distances were comparable to the diameter of the catheter tip (2.3 mm), the confining sheath (4 mm outside diameter), and the estimated SBDX-to-CT registration error (±0.7 mm). The tip position was localized for all 332 image frames analyzed and 83% of tracked positions were inside the 3D sheath volume derived from CT. The pullback speeds derived from the catheter trajectories were within 5% of the programed pullback speeds. The
Iversen, Birger
1992-01-01
Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dias, M.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: msdias@ipen.br; Piuvezam-Filho, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baccarelli, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica-PUC/SP-Rua Marques de Paranagua 111, 01303-050 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takeda, M.N. [Universidade Santo Amaro, UNISA-Rua Prof. Eneas da Siqueira Neto 340, 04829-300 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Koskinas, M.F. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares: IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2007-09-21
A modified version of a Monte Carlo code called Esquema, developed at the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory in IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been applied for simulating a 4{pi}{beta}(PS)-{gamma} coincidence system designed for primary radionuclide standardisation. This system consists of a plastic scintillator in 4{pi} geometry, for alpha or electron detection, coupled to a NaI(Tl) counter for gamma-ray detection. The response curves for monoenergetic electrons and photons have been calculated previously by Penelope code and applied as input data to code Esquema. The latter code simulates all the disintegration processes, from the precursor nucleus to the ground state of the daughter radionuclide. As a result, the curve between the observed disintegration rate as a function of the beta efficiency parameter can be simulated. A least-squares fit between the experimental activity values and the Monte Carlo calculation provided the actual radioactive source activity, without need of conventional extrapolation procedures. Application of this methodology to {sup 60}Co and {sup 133}Ba radioactive sources is presented and showed results in good agreement with a conventional proportional counter 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma} coincidence system.
Monte Carlo simulation of β-γ coincidence system using plastic scintillators in 4π geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, M.S.; Piuvezam-Filho, H.; Baccarelli, A.M.; Takeda, M.N.; Koskinas, M.F.
2007-01-01
A modified version of a Monte Carlo code called Esquema, developed at the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory in IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, has been applied for simulating a 4πβ(PS)-γ coincidence system designed for primary radionuclide standardisation. This system consists of a plastic scintillator in 4π geometry, for alpha or electron detection, coupled to a NaI(Tl) counter for gamma-ray detection. The response curves for monoenergetic electrons and photons have been calculated previously by Penelope code and applied as input data to code Esquema. The latter code simulates all the disintegration processes, from the precursor nucleus to the ground state of the daughter radionuclide. As a result, the curve between the observed disintegration rate as a function of the beta efficiency parameter can be simulated. A least-squares fit between the experimental activity values and the Monte Carlo calculation provided the actual radioactive source activity, without need of conventional extrapolation procedures. Application of this methodology to 60 Co and 133 Ba radioactive sources is presented and showed results in good agreement with a conventional proportional counter 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ulloa, S.E.
1984-01-01
The dielectric response function of electronic systems in restricted geometries is studied as well as some of the consequences, using the self-consistent field method. These consequences include: 1) existence of multiple branches of longitudinal slender acoustic plasma oscillations (SAP) in thin wires; 2) a new superconductivity mechanism in thin wires via the exchange of SAPs by the electrons forming the Cooper pairs, and 3) reduction of the static screening offered by the valence electrons in a thin semiconductor film with respect to the bulk case. The SAP modes are collective modes shown to exist only in thin wires and neither in a bulk system nor in a thin film. They have linear dispersion relations with phase velocities smaller than the Fermi velocity of the system and are not Landau-damped. Numerical examples of these SAP modes in metallic and semiconductor wires are presented, showing that they sould be more easily observable in semiconductor structures. The SAP-induced mechanism of superconductivity is shown to possibly give higher critical temperature T/sub c/ than the phonon mechanism in thin wires. The author presents a semi-rigorous calculation of T/sub c/ and shows that by increasing the frequency of the SAP modes and having a small effective electron mass one would be able to increase T/sub c/. He also shows that the dielectric function of a thin semiconductor slab is wavenumber dependent even at long wavelengths and is not a constant as in the bulk case
A 3D microtomographic system with stacked fan-beam geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kohlbrenner, Adrian; Haemmerle, Stefan; Laib, Andres; Rueegsegger, Peter
2000-01-01
The move from 2D to 3D analysis, and the increase in spatial resolution characterize recent improvements in CT-based structure assessment. A new desktop micro-CT system with high scanning speed has been developed. The instrument makes use of a novel multiple fan-beam technique: radiation from a line-focus X-ray tube is divided into a stack of fan-beams by a foil collimator with a 30 μm pitch. The stacked fan-beam geometry allows to design compact CT scanners with a source-to-detector distance of only 18 cm. The complete system fits into a standard 19 in. rack. Image reconstruction is based on standard fan-beam algorithms, which eliminates the difficulties and limitations associated with cone-beam reconstruction. The detector comprises a low-noise area CCD sensor, a fiber-optic light guide and a scintillator screen. A complete examination requires 2 min only. The new micro-CT system has a voxel size of 20x20x26 μm 3 . Each 3D image contains a quarter of a billion voxels or a multiple of it. Samples up to 20 mm in diameter and up to 40 mm in length can be imaged. The instrument can be operated in a normal lab environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ali, S A; Kim, D-H; Cafaro, C; Giffin, A
2012-01-01
Information geometric techniques and inductive inference methods hold great promise for solving computational problems of interest in classical and quantum physics, especially with regard to complexity characterization of dynamical systems in terms of their probabilistic description on curved statistical manifolds. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of describing the macroscopic behavior of complex systems in terms of the underlying statistical structure of their microscopic degrees of freedom by the use of statistical inductive inference and information geometry. We review the maximum relative entropy formalism and the theoretical structure of the information geometrodynamical approach to chaos on statistical manifolds M S . Special focus is devoted to a description of the roles played by the sectional curvature K M S , the Jacobi field intensity J M S and the information geometrodynamical entropy S M S . These quantities serve as powerful information-geometric complexity measures of information-constrained dynamics associated with arbitrary chaotic and regular systems defined on M S . Finally, the application of such information-geometric techniques to several theoretical models is presented.
Wantha, Channarong
2018-02-01
This paper reports on the experimental and simulation studies of the influence of stack geometries and different mean pressures on the cold end temperature of the stack in the thermoacoustic refrigeration system. The stack geometry was tested, including spiral stack, circular pore stack and pin array stack. The results of this study show that the mean pressure of the gas in the system has a significant impact on the cold end temperature of the stack. The mean pressure of the gas in the system corresponds to thermal penetration depth, which results in a better cold end temperature of the stack. The results also show that the cold end temperature of the pin array stack decreases more than that of the spiral stack and circular pore stack geometry by approximately 63% and 70%, respectively. In addition, the thermal area and viscous area of the stack are analyzed to explain the results of such temperatures of thermoacoustic stacks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbab, M.I.; Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Imtenan, S.; Sajjad, H.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Properties limitation of biodiesel has been overcome using multiple biodiesel blends. • New biodiesel was developed using biodiesel–biodiesel optimum blend. • Engine performance and emission was tested with the newly developed biodiesels. • New biodiesels showed better engine performance than other tested fuels. - Abstract: Fossil fuel depletion, global warming with rapid changes in climate, and increases in oil prices have motivated scientists to search for alternative fuel. Biodiesel can be an effective solution despite some limitations, such as poor fuel properties and engine performance. From this perspective, experiments were carried out to improve fuel properties and engine performance by using a binary blend of palm and coconut biodiesel at an optimized ratio. MATLAB optimization tool was used to determine this blend ratio. A new biodiesel was developed and represented by PC (optimum blend of palm and coconut biodiesel). Engine performance and emission were tested under a full load at variable speed condition by using a 20% blend of each biodiesel with petroleum diesel, and the results were compared with petroleum diesel under both turbocharged and non-turbocharged conditions. PC20 (blend of 20% PC biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel) showed the highest engine power with lower brake-specific fuel consumption than the other tested fuels in the presence of a turbocharger. The emissions of PC20 were lower than those of all other tested fuels. The experimental analysis reveals that PC showed superior performance and emission over palm biodiesel blend
van den Broek, P.M.
1984-01-01
The aim of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of the relation between the geometry of twistor space and the geometry of Minkowski space. The paper has a didactical purpose; no use has been made of differential geometry and cohomology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Cervello, C. [Conselleria de Cultura, Educacion y Deporte, Generalitat Valenciana (Spain)
2008-12-15
The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serrano, J.R.; Arnau, F.J.; Dolz, V.; Tiseira, A.; Cervello, C.
2008-01-01
The paper presents a model of fixed and variable geometry turbines. The aim of this model is to provide an efficient boundary condition to model turbocharged internal combustion engines with zero- and one-dimensional gas dynamic codes. The model is based from its very conception on the measured characteristics of the turbine. Nevertheless, it is capable of extrapolating operating conditions that differ from those included in the turbine maps, since the engines usually work within these zones. The presented model has been implemented in a one-dimensional gas dynamic code and has been used to calculate unsteady operating conditions for several turbines. The results obtained have been compared with success against pressure-time histories measured upstream and downstream of the turbine during on-engine operation
Meyer, Carsten H; Kaymak, Hakan; Liu, Zengping; Saxena, Sandeep; Rodrigues, Eduardo B
2014-11-01
To investigate the geometry, penetration force, and cutting profile of 23-gauge trocar systems for pars plana vitrectomy based on their grinding methods in a standardized laboratory setting. In this experimental study, Eleven different commercially available 23-gauge sclerotomy trocar systems were divided into 4 groups according to their needle grinding and deburring: "back" bevel, "spear" bevel, "lancet" bevel, and "spatula" bevel. The normative geometrical data of the trocar systems were systematically analyzed according to nomenclature ISO 7864 and ISO 9626. Force to penetrate a 0.4-mm thick polyurethane foil was measured by a Penetrometer, when the trocar needle was piercing, cutting, and sliding through the foil at different defined loading phases and plotted as a load-displacement diagram. Magnified images of the consecutive cut were taken under a microscope after the entire penetration through the foil. Three physicians used all trocar systems in a masked fashion on human sclera to evaluate the manual penetration force in 30° and 90°. The mean outer diameter of the trocar systems was 0.630 ± 0.009 mm, and the mean outer diameter of the trocars was 0.750 ± 0.013 mm. The mean point length was 3.11 ± 0.49 mm, and the mean length of the bevel was 1.46 ± 0.23 mm. The primary bevel angle was 10.75 ± 0.41°, and the secondary bevel angle was 65.9 ± 42.56°. The piercing forces of the back bevel and spear-pointed trocars/needles were at the same level (0.087 ± 0.028 N). The lancet-pointed needle had remarkable low piercing and cutting forces with 0.41 N (range, 0.35-0.47 N). The spatula bevel tip showed the highest penetration piercing force with 1.6 N (range, 1.59-1.73 N). The back bevel systems induced frequently triangular-shaped incisions, with two nearly rectangular cuts of short length. The spear bevels produced a regular characteristic linear cut. Especially, the lancet blade created straight cut with a linear wound apposition. Spatula trocar systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Deng, Banglin; Feng, Renhua; Yang, Jing; Zhou, Feng; Zhao, Xiaohuan
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The calculation method for SAT engine was developed and introduced. • SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine. • At 1500 r/min, intake pressure reaches target value and torque is increased by 25%. • The thermal efficiency of SAT engine only has a slight increase. - Abstract: An approach for IC engine exhaust gas energy recovery, named as steam-assisted turbocharging (SAT), is developed to assist the exhaust turbocharger. A steam generating plant is coupled to the exhaust turbocharged engine’s exhaust pipe, which uses the high-temperature exhaust gas to generate steam. The steam is injected into turbine inlet and used as the supplementary working medium for turbine. By this means, turbine output power and then boosting pressure can be promoted due to the increase of turbine working medium. To reveal the advantages and energy saving potentials of SAT, this concept was applied to an exhaust turbocharging engine, and a parameter analysis was carried out. Research results show that, SAT can effectively promote the low-speed performances of IC engine, and make the peak torque shift to low-speed area. At 1500 r/min, the intake gas pressure can reach the desired value and the torque can be increased by 25.0% over the exhaust turbocharging engine, while the pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP) and thermal efficiency only have a slight increase. At 1000 r/min, the improvement of IC engine performances is very limited due to the low exhaust gas energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Zadorozhnaya
2017-12-01
Full Text Available One of the most urgent issues of the modern world and domestic automobile and tractor production is the problem of the production of efficient and reliable turbochargers. The rotor bearings largely determine the reliable operation of the turbocharger. By increasing the degree of the forcing of the engine the turbocharger rotor speed and the load increases significantly. Working conditions of bearings also complicated because of the temperature rise. In this case the bearing of the turbine and the compressor bearing works in different thermal conditions. The definition of the thermal state of the bearings can be performed experimentally. However, to perform these studies the sophisticated experimental equipment must be used. Researchers can't perform experiments for each type of turbocharger. Therefore, the applying of the theoretical approaches becomes more relevant. The peculiarity of the considered problem is the design of the bearings, which are made in the form of multilayer bearings with floating rings. Such designs increase the number of the parameters that affect the behaviour of the rotor. For the calculation of the multilayer bearings and turbocharger rotor dynamics a method and calculation algorithm was developed. A plan of the experiment based on the orthogonal central composite plan was drawn up. The regression equations for rotor amplitude and bearing temperature were obtained. As variable parameters the clearances (external and internal, rotor speed, pressure and lubricant temperature were used. The results of the calculation were compared with experimental results obtained at the plant. Non-Newtonian properties of the lubricants were taken into account in the calculations. Comparative results showed good agreement. In this way the resulting function can be applied to studies of the similarly multilayer bearings without complicated experimental studies.
The Role of Tribology in the Development of an Oil-Free Turbocharger
Dellacorte, Christopher
1997-01-01
Gas-turbine-based aeropropulsion engines are technologically mature. Thus, as with any mature technology, revolutionary approaches will be needed to achieve the significant performance gains that will keep the U.S. propulsion manufacturers well ahead of foreign competition. One such approach is the development of oil-free turbomachinery utilizing advanced foil air bearings, seals, and solid lubricants. By eliminating oil-lubricated bearings and seals and supporting an engine rotor on an air film, significant improvements can be realized. For example, the entire oil system including pipes, lines, filters, cooler, and tanks could be removed, thereby saving considerable weight. Since air has no thermal decomposition temperature, engine systems could operate without excessive cooling. Also, since air bearings have no diameter-rpm fatigue limits (D-N limits), engines could be designed to operate at much higher speeds and higher density, which would result in a smaller aeropropulsion package. Because of recent advances in compliant foil air bearings and high temperature solid lubricants, these technologies can be applied to oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to develop these technologies and to demonstrate a project along the path to an oil-free gas turbine engine, NASA has undertaken the development of an oil-free turbocharger for a heavy duty diesel engine. This turbomachine can reach 120000 rpm at a bearing temperature of 540 C (1000 F) and, in comparison to oil-lubricated bearings, can increase efficiency by 10 to 15 percent because of reduced friction. In addition, because there are no oil lubricants, there are no seal-leakage-induced emissions.
SU-F-J-183: Interior Region-Of-Interest Tomography by Using Inverse Geometry System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, K; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, T; Shin, D; Cho, M; Noh, Y; Suh, T [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
Purpose: The inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) composed of multiple source and small size detector has several merits such as reduction of scatter effect and large volumetric imaging within one rotation without cone-beam artifact, compared to conventional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). By using this multi-source characteristics, we intend to present a selective and multiple interior region-of-interest (ROI) imaging method by using a designed source on-off sequence of IGCT. Methods: All of the IGCT sources are operated one by one sequentially, and each projection in the shape of narrow cone-beam covers its own partial volume of full field of view (FOV) determined from system geometry. Thus, through controlling multi source operation, limited irradiation within ROI is possible and selective radon space data for ROI imaging can be acquired without additional X-ray filtration. With this feature, we designed a source on-off sequence for multi ROI-IGCT imaging, and projections of ROI-IGCT were generated by using the on-off sequence. Multi ROI-IGCT images were reconstructed by using filtered back-projection algorithm. All these imaging process of our study has been performed by utilizing digital phantom and patient CT data. ROI-IGCT images of the phantom were compared to CBCT image and the phantom data for the image quality evaluation. Results: Image quality of ROI-IGCT was comparable to that of CBCT. However, the distal axial-plane from the FOV center, large cone-angle region, ROI-IGCT showed uniform image quality without significant cone-beam artifact contrary to CBCT. Conclusion: ROI-IGCT showed comparable image quality and has the capability to provide multi ROI image within a rotation. Projection of ROI-IGCT is performed by selective irradiation, hence unnecessary imaging dose to non-interest region can be reduced. In this regard, it seems to be useful for diagnostic or image guidance purpose in radiotherapy such as low dose target localization and
SU-F-J-183: Interior Region-Of-Interest Tomography by Using Inverse Geometry System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, K; Kim, D; Kang, S; Kim, T; Shin, D; Cho, M; Noh, Y; Suh, T
2016-01-01
Purpose: The inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) composed of multiple source and small size detector has several merits such as reduction of scatter effect and large volumetric imaging within one rotation without cone-beam artifact, compared to conventional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). By using this multi-source characteristics, we intend to present a selective and multiple interior region-of-interest (ROI) imaging method by using a designed source on-off sequence of IGCT. Methods: All of the IGCT sources are operated one by one sequentially, and each projection in the shape of narrow cone-beam covers its own partial volume of full field of view (FOV) determined from system geometry. Thus, through controlling multi source operation, limited irradiation within ROI is possible and selective radon space data for ROI imaging can be acquired without additional X-ray filtration. With this feature, we designed a source on-off sequence for multi ROI-IGCT imaging, and projections of ROI-IGCT were generated by using the on-off sequence. Multi ROI-IGCT images were reconstructed by using filtered back-projection algorithm. All these imaging process of our study has been performed by utilizing digital phantom and patient CT data. ROI-IGCT images of the phantom were compared to CBCT image and the phantom data for the image quality evaluation. Results: Image quality of ROI-IGCT was comparable to that of CBCT. However, the distal axial-plane from the FOV center, large cone-angle region, ROI-IGCT showed uniform image quality without significant cone-beam artifact contrary to CBCT. Conclusion: ROI-IGCT showed comparable image quality and has the capability to provide multi ROI image within a rotation. Projection of ROI-IGCT is performed by selective irradiation, hence unnecessary imaging dose to non-interest region can be reduced. In this regard, it seems to be useful for diagnostic or image guidance purpose in radiotherapy such as low dose target localization and
Generation of initial geometries for the simulation of the physical system in the DualPHYsics code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segura Q, E.
2013-01-01
In the diverse research areas of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) are different activities related to science and technology, one of great interest is the study and treatment of the collection and storage of radioactive waste. Therefore at ININ the draft on the simulation of the pollutants diffusion in the soil through a porous medium (third stage) has this problem inherent aspects, hence a need for such a situation is to generate the initial geometry of the physical system For the realization of the simulation method is implemented smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). This method runs in DualSPHysics code, which has great versatility and ability to simulate phenomena of any physical system where hydrodynamic aspects combine. In order to simulate a physical system DualSPHysics code, you need to preset the initial geometry of the system of interest, then this is included in the input file of the code. The simulation sets the initial geometry through regular geometric bodies positioned at different points in space. This was done through a programming language (Fortran, C + +, Java, etc..). This methodology will provide the basis to simulate more complex geometries future positions and form. (Author)
Rodger, Alison
1995-01-01
Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans
F1 style MGU-H applied to the turbocharger of a gasoline hybrid electric passenger car
Boretti, Albert
2017-12-01
We consider a turbocharged gasoline direct injection (DI) engine featuring a motor-generator-unit (MGU-H) fitted on the turbocharger shaft. The MGU-H receives or delivers energy to the same energy storage (ES) of the hybrid power unit that comprises a motor-generator unit on the driveline (MGU-K) in addition to the internal combustion engine (ICE). The energy supply from the ES is mostly needed during sharp accelerations to avoid turbo-lag, and to boost torque at low speeds. At low speeds, it also improves the ratio of engine crankshaft power to fuel flow power, as well as the ratio of engine crankshaft plus turbocharger shaft power to fuel flow power. The energy supply to the ES is possible at high speeds and loads, where otherwise the turbine could have been waste gated, and during decelerations. This improves the ratio of engine crankshaft plus turbocharger shaft power to fuel flow power.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harley, P; Spence, S; Early, J; Filsinger, D; Dietrich, M
2013-01-01
Single-zone modelling is used to assess different collections of impeller 1D loss models. Three collections of loss models have been identified in literature, and the background to each of these collections is discussed. Each collection is evaluated using three modern automotive turbocharger style centrifugal compressors; comparisons of performance for each of the collections are made. An empirical data set taken from standard hot gas stand tests for each turbocharger is used as a baseline for comparison. Compressor range is predicted in this study; impeller diffusion ratio is shown to be a useful method of predicting compressor surge in 1D, and choke is predicted using basic compressible flow theory. The compressor designer can use this as a guide to identify the most compatible collection of losses for turbocharger compressor design applications. The analysis indicates the most appropriate collection for the design of automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tinschmann, Georg; Holand, Peter; Benetschik, Hannes [MAN Diesel SE, Augsburg (Germany); Eilts, Peter [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen
2008-10-15
Under the auspices of the European Hercules research programme development work was undertaken on a large, type 6L 32/44 CR diesel engine from MAN Diesel SE to equip it with a flexible two-stage turbocharging system and variable valve timing. The purpose of the investigations was to achieve a drastic reduction in emissions of oxides of nitrogen without incurring fuel consumption penalties and while also attaining a significant increase in power output. (orig.)
Gancedo, Matthieu
Increase in emission regulations in the transport industry brings the need to have more efficient engines. A path followed by the automobile industry is to downsize the size of the internal combustion engine and increase the air density at the intake to keep the engine power when needed. Typically a centrifugal compressor is used to force the air into the engine, it can be powered from the engine shaft (superchargers) or extracting energy contained into the hot exhaust gases with a turbine (turbochargers). The flow range of the compressor needs to match the one of the engine. However compressors mass flow operating range is limited by choke on the high end and surge on the low end. In order to extend the operation at low mass flow rates, the use of passive devices for turbocharger centrifugal compressors was explored since the late 80's. Hence, casing treatments including flow recirculation from the inducer part of the compressor have been shown to move the surge limit to lower flows. Yet, the working mechanisms are still not well understood and thus, to optimize the design of this by-pass system, it is necessary to determine the nature of the changes induced by the device both on the dynamic stability of the pressure delivery and on the flow at the inlet. The compressor studied here features a self-recirculating casing treatment at the inlet. The recirculation passage could be blocked to carry a direct comparison between the cases with and without the flow feature. To grasp the effect on compressor stability, pressure measurements were taken in the different constituting elements of the compressor. The study of the mean pressure variations across the operating map showed that the tongue region is a limiting element. Dynamic pressure measurements revealed that the instabilities generated near the inducer when the recirculation is blocked increase the overall instability levels at the compressor outlet and propagating pressure waves starting at the tongue occurred
A free geometry model-independent neural eye-gaze tracking system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gneo Massimo
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eye Gaze Tracking Systems (EGTSs estimate the Point Of Gaze (POG of a user. In diagnostic applications EGTSs are used to study oculomotor characteristics and abnormalities, whereas in interactive applications EGTSs are proposed as input devices for human computer interfaces (HCI, e.g. to move a cursor on the screen when mouse control is not possible, such as in the case of assistive devices for people suffering from locked-in syndrome. If the user’s head remains still and the cornea rotates around its fixed centre, the pupil follows the eye in the images captured from one or more cameras, whereas the outer corneal reflection generated by an IR light source, i.e. glint, can be assumed as a fixed reference point. According to the so-called pupil centre corneal reflection method (PCCR, the POG can be thus estimated from the pupil-glint vector. Methods A new model-independent EGTS based on the PCCR is proposed. The mapping function based on artificial neural networks allows to avoid any specific model assumption and approximation either for the user’s eye physiology or for the system initial setup admitting a free geometry positioning for the user and the system components. The robustness of the proposed EGTS is proven by assessing its accuracy when tested on real data coming from: i different healthy users; ii different geometric settings of the camera and the light sources; iii different protocols based on the observation of points on a calibration grid and halfway points of a test grid. Results The achieved accuracy is approximately 0.49°, 0.41°, and 0.62° for respectively the horizontal, vertical and radial error of the POG. Conclusions The results prove the validity of the proposed approach as the proposed system performs better than EGTSs designed for HCI which, even if equipped with superior hardware, show accuracy values in the range 0.6°-1°.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grotz, Andreas
2011-10-07
In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotz, Andreas
2011-01-01
In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.
1988-01-01
The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem
SU-G-TeP1-08: LINAC Head Geometry Modeling for Cyber Knife System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang, B; Li, Y; Liu, B; Guo, B; Xu, X; Wei, R; Zhou, F [Beihang University, Beijing, Beijing (China); Xu, S [PLA General Hospital, Beijing, Beijing (China); Wu, Q [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: Knowledge of the LINAC head information is critical for model based dose calculation algorithms. However, the geometries are difficult to measure precisely. The purpose of this study is to develop linac head models for Cyber Knife system (CKS). Methods: For CKS, the commissioning data were measured in water at 800mm SAD. The measured full width at half maximum (FWHM) for each cone was found greater than the nominal value, this was further confirmed by additional film measurement in air. Diameter correction, cone shift and source shift models (DCM, CSM and SSM) are proposed to account for the differences. In DCM, a cone-specific correction is applied. For CSM and SSM, a single shift is applied to the cone or source physical position. All three models were validated with an in-house developed pencil beam dose calculation algorithm, and further evaluated by the collimator scatter factor (Sc) correction. Results: The mean square error (MSE) between nominal diameter and the FWHM derived from commissioning data and in-air measurement are 0.54mm and 0.44mm, with the discrepancy increasing with cone size. Optimal shift for CSM and SSM is found to be 9mm upward and 18mm downward, respectively. The MSE in FWHM is reduced to 0.04mm and 0.14mm for DCM and CSM (SSM). Both DCM and CSM result in the same set of Sc values. Combining all cones at SAD 600–1000mm, the average deviation from 1 in Sc of DCM (CSM) and SSM is 2.6% and 2.2%, and reduced to 0.9% and 0.7% for the cones with diameter greater than 15mm. Conclusion: We developed three geometrical models for CKS. All models can handle the discrepancy between vendor specifications and commissioning data. And SSM has the best performance for Sc correction. The study also validated that a point source can be used in CKS dose calculation algorithms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padzillah, M.H.; Rajoo, S.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • 3D CFD modeling of a turbocharger turbine with pulsating flow. • Characterization based on turbine speed and frequency. • Speed has higher influence on turbine performance compared to frequency. • Detailed localized flow behavior are shown for better understanding. - Abstract: The ever-increasing demand for low carbon applications in automotive industry has intensified the development of highly efficient engines and energy recovery devices. Even though there are significant developments in the alternative powertrains such as full electric, their full deployment is hindered by high costing and unattractive life-cycle energy and emission balance. Thus powertrain based on highly efficient internal combustion engines are still considered to be the mainstream for years to come. Traditionally, turbocharger has been an essential tool to boost the engine power, however in recent years it is seen as an enabling technology for engine downsizing. It is a well-known fact that a turbocharger turbine in an internal combustion engine operates in a highly pulsating exhaust flow. There are numerous studies looking into the complex interaction of the pulsating exhaust gas within the turbocharger turbine, however the phenomena is still not fully integrated into the design stage. Industry practice is still to design and match the turbine to an engine based on steady performance maps. The current work is undertaken with the mind to move one step closer towards fully integrating the pulsating flow performance into the turbocharger turbine design. This paper presents the development efforts and results from a full 3-D CFD model of a turbocharger turbine stage. The simulations were conducted at 30,000 rpm and 48,000 rpm (50% and 80% design speed respectively) for both 20 Hz and 80 Hz pulsating flow inlet conditions. Complete validation procedure using cold-flow experimental data is also described. The temporal and spatial resolutions of the incidence angle at the
Capstone: A Geometry-Centric Platform to Enable Physics-Based Simulation and Design of Systems
2015-10-05
computational fluid dynamics, electromagnetic as well as ship/submarine shock-damage analyses modeling. It is being used and evaluated by several DoD...analysis. Manufacturing details of the geometry such as rivet holes are often not relevant for many engineering analyses and may in fact lead to poor
Using Dynamic Geometry and Computer Algebra Systems in Problem Based Courses for Future Engineers
Tomiczková, Svetlana; Lávicka, Miroslav
2015-01-01
It is a modern trend today when formulating the curriculum of a geometric course at the technical universities to start from a real-life problem originated in technical praxis and subsequently to define which geometric theories and which skills are necessary for its solving. Nowadays, interactive and dynamic geometry software plays a more and more…
Some simulation aspects, from molecular systems to stochastic geometries of pebble bed reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzolo, A.
2009-06-01
After a brief presentation of his teaching and supervising activities, the author gives an overview of his research activities: investigation of atoms under high intensity magnetic field (investigation of the electronic structure under these fields), studies of theoretical and numerical electrochemistry (simulation coupling molecular dynamics and quantum calculations, comprehensive simulations of molecular dynamics), and studies relating stochastic geometry and neutron science
Evers, W.J.; Besselink, I.G.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Nijmeijer, H.
2011-01-01
There is a need to further improve driver comfort in commercial vehicles. The variable geometry active suspension offers an interesting option to achieve this in an energy efficient way. However, the optimal control strategy and the overal performance potential remains unclear. The aim of this paper
Maor, Eli
2014-01-01
If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur
Effects of Pulsating Flow on Mass Flow Balance and Surge Margin in Parallel Turbocharged Engines
Thomasson, Andreas; Eriksson, Lars
2015-01-01
The paper extends a mean value model of a parallel turbocharged internal combustion engine with a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The result is a 0D engine model that includes the pulsating flow from the intake and exhaust valves. The model captures variations in turbo speed and pressure, and therefore variations in the compressor operating point, during an engine cycle. The model is used to study the effect of the pulsating flow on mass flow balance and surge margin in parallel turbocha...
Calibration-free device sizing using an inverse geometry x-ray system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Speidel, Michael A.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.
2011-01-01
Purpose: Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) can be used to support device size selection for cardiovascular interventions. The accuracy of QCA measurements using conventional x-ray fluoroscopy depends on proper calibration using a reference object and avoiding vessel foreshortening. The authors have developed a novel interventional device sizing method using the inverse geometry scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) fluoroscopy system. The proposed method can measure the diameter and length of vessel segments without imaging a reference object and when vessels appear foreshortened. Methods: SBDX creates multiple tomosynthetic x-ray images corresponding to planes through the patient volume. The structures that lie in the plane are in focus and the features above and below the plane are blurred. Three-dimensional localization of the vessel edges was performed by examining the degree of blurring at each image plane. A 3D vessel centerline was created and used to determine vessel magnification and angulation relative to the image planes. Diameter measurements were performed using a model-based method and length measurements were calculated from the 3D centerline. Phantom validation was performed by measuring the diameter and length of vessel segments with nominal diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2.8 mm and nominal lengths of 42 mm. The phantoms were imaged at a range of positions between the source and the detector (±16 cm relative to isocenter) and with a range of foreshortening angles (0 deg. - 75 deg.). Results: Changes in vessel phantom position created magnifications ranging from 87% to 118% relative to isocenter magnification. Average diameter errors were less than 0.15 mm. Average length measurements were within 1% (0.3 mm) of the true length. No trends were observed between measurement accuracy and magnification. Changes in vessel phantom orientation resulted in decreased apparent length down to 28% of the original nonforeshortened length. Average diameter
Kemnitz, Arnfried
Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht.
Lefschetz, Solomon
2005-01-01
An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.
Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz
2017-01-01
The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...
Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry
Gondin, William R
1967-01-01
Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system
CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number NFE-08-01671 Materials for Advanced Turbocharger Designs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maziasz, P. J. [ORNL; Wilson, M. [Honeywell
2014-11-28
Results were obtained on residual stresses in the weld of the steel shaft to the Ni-based superalloy turbine wheel for turbochargers. Neutron diffraction studies at the HFIR Residual Stress Facility showed asymmetric tensile stresses after electron-beam welding of the wheel and shaft. A post-weld heat-treatment was found to relieve and reduce the residual stresses. Results were also obtained on cast CF8C-Plus steel as an upgrade alternative to cast irons (SiMo, Ni-resist) for higher temperature capability and performance for the turbocharger housing. CF8C-Plus steel has demonstrated creep-rupture resistance at 600-950oC, and is more creep-resistant than HK30Nb, but lacks oxidation-resistance at 800oC and above in 10% water vapor. New modified CF8C-Plus Cu/W steels with Cr and Ni additions show better oxidation resistance at 800oC in 10% water vapor, and have capability to higher temperatures. For automotive gasoline engine turbocharger applications, higher temperatures are required, so at the end of this project, testing began at 1000oC and above.
An Investigation on the Efficiency Correction Method of the Turbocharger at Low Speed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jin Eun Chung
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The heat transfer in the turbocharger occurs due to the temperature difference between the exhaust gas and intake air, coolant, and oil. This heat transfer causes the efficiency of the compressor and turbine to be distorted, which is known to be exacerbated during low rotational speeds. Thus, this study proposes a method to mitigate the distortion of the test result data caused by heat transfer in the turbocharger. With this method, the representative compressor temperature is defined and the heat transfer rate of the compressor is calculated by considering the effect of the oil and turbine inlet temperatures at low rotation speeds, when the cold and the hot gas test are simultaneously performed. The correction of compressor efficiency, depending on the turbine inlet temperature, was performed through both hot and cold gas tests and the results showed a maximum of 16% error prior to correction and a maximum of 3% error after the correction. In addition, it shows that it is possible to correct the efficiency distortion of the turbocharger by heat transfer by correcting to the combined turbine efficiency based on the corrected compressor efficiency.
Availability analysis of a turbocharged diesel engine operating under transient load conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rakopoulos, C.D.; Giakoumis, E.G.
2004-01-01
A computer analysis is developed for studying the energy and availability performance of a turbocharged diesel engine, operating under transient load conditions. The model incorporates many novel features for the simulation of transient operation, such as detailed analysis of mechanical friction, separate consideration for the processes of each cylinder during a cycle ('multi-cylinder' model) and mathematical modeling of the fuel pump. This model has been validated against experimental data taken from a turbocharged diesel engine, located at the authors' laboratory and operated under transient conditions. The availability terms for the diesel engine and its subsystems are analyzed, i.e. cylinder for both the open and closed parts of the cycle, inlet and exhaust manifolds, turbocharger and aftercooler. The present analysis reveals, via multiple diagrams, how the availability properties of the diesel engine and its subsystems develop during the evolution of the engine cycles, assessing the importance of each property. In particular the irreversibilities term, which is absent from any analysis based solely on the first-law of thermodynamics, is given in detail as regards transient response as well as the rate and cumulative terms during a cycle, revealing the magnitude of contribution of all the subsystems to the total availability destruction
Hawke, Veronica; Gage, Peter; Manning, Ted
2007-01-01
ComGeom2, a tool developed to generate Common Geometry representation for multidisciplinary analysis, has been used to create a large set of geometries for use in a design study requiring analysis by two computational codes. This paper describes the process used to generate the large number of configurations and suggests ways to further automate the process and make it more efficient for future studies. The design geometry for this study is the launch abort system of the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Garcia-Lorenzo
2010-11-01
Full Text Available This paper shows the combined use of remotely sensed data and hydraulic geometry methods as an alternative to rainfall-runoff models. Hydraulic geometric data and boolean images of water sheets obtained from satellite images after storm events were integrated in a Geographical Information System. Channel cross-sections were extracted from a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM and superimposed on the image cover to estimate the peak flow using HEC-RAS. The proposed methodology has been tested in ephemeral channels (ramblas on the coastal zone in south-eastern Spain. These fluvial systems constitute an important natural hazard due to their high discharges and sediment loads. In particular, different areas affected by floods during the period 1997 to 2009 were delimited through HEC-GeoRAs from hydraulic geometry data and Landsat images of these floods (Landsat‑TM5 and Landsat-ETM+7. Such an approach has been validated against rainfall-surface runoff models (SCS Dimensionless Unit Hydrograph, SCSD, Témez gamma HU Tγ and the Modified Rational method, MRM comparing their results with flood hydrographs of the Automatic Hydrologic Information System (AHIS in several ephemeral channels in the Murcia Region. The results obtained from the method providing a better fit were used to calculate different hydraulic geometry parameters, especially in residual flood areas.
Entanglement and quantum state geometry of a spin system with all-range Ising-type interaction
Kuzmak, A. R.
2018-04-01
The evolution of an N spin-1/2 system with all-range Ising-type interaction is considered. For this system we study the entanglement of one spin with the rest spins. It is shown that the entanglement depends on the number of spins and the initial state. Also, the geometry of the manifold, which contains entangled states, is obtained. For this case we find the dependence of entanglement on the scalar curvature of the manifold and examine it for different numbers of spins in the system. Finally we show that the transverse magnetic field leads to a change in the manifold topology.
Supercharging system behavior for high altitude operation of an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlucci, Antonio Paolo; Ficarella, Antonio; Laforgia, Domenico; Renna, Alessandro
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Different supercharging architectures have been compared for an aircraft 2T engine. • The supercharging architectures are compared to minimize the fuel consumption. • The architecture with the highest conversion efficiency was determined. - Abstract: Different studies on both 2- and 4-stroke engines have shown how the choice of different supercharging architectures can influence engine performance. Among them, architectures coupling one turbocharger with a mechanical compressor or two turbochargers are found to be the most performing in terms of engine output power and efficiency. However, defining the best supercharging architecture for aircraft 2-stroke engines is a quite complex task because the supercharging system as well as the ambient conditions influence the engine performance/efficiency. This is due to the close interaction between supercharging, trapping, scavenging and combustion processes. The aim of the present work is the comparison between different architectures (single turbocharger, double turbocharger, single turbocharger combined with a mechanical compressor, single turbocharger with an electrically-assisted turbocharger, with intercooler or aftercooler) designed to supercharge an aircraft 2-stroke Diesel engine for general aviation and unmanned aerial vehicles characterized by a very high altitude operation and long fuel distance. A 1D model of the engine purposely designed has been used to compare the performance of the different supercharging systems in terms of power, fuel consumption, and their effect on trapping and scavenging efficiency at different altitudes. The analysis shows that the engine target power is reached by a 2 turbochargers architecture; in this way, in fact, the cylinder filling, and consequently the engine performance, are maximized. Moreover, it is shown that the performance of a 2 turbochargers architecture performance can be further improved connecting electrically and not mechanically the low
Habte, F.; Foudray, A. M. K.; Olcott, P. D.; Levin, C. S.
2007-07-01
We are studying two new detector technologies that directly measure the three-dimensional coordinates of 511 keV photon interactions for high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) systems designed for small animal and breast imaging. These detectors are based on (1) lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystal arrays coupled to position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD) and (2) cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). The detectors have excellent measured 511 keV photon energy resolutions (oriented 'edge-on' with respect to incoming 511 keV annihilation photons and arranged to form a compact FOV with detectors very close to, or in contact with, the subject tissues. In this paper, we used Monte Carlo simulation to study various factors that limit the photon sensitivity of a high-resolution PET system dedicated to small animal imaging. To optimize the photon sensitivity, we studied several possible system geometries for a fixed 8 cm transaxial and 8 cm axial FOV. We found that using rectangular-shaped detectors arranged into a cylindrical geometry does not yield the best photon sensitivity. This is due to the fact that forming rectangular-shaped detectors into a ring produces significant wedge-shaped inter-module gaps, through which Compton-scattered photons in the detector can escape. This effect limits the center point source photon sensitivity to 8% photon sensitivity for the LSO-PSAPD box configuration and >15% for CZT box geometry, using a 350-650 keV energy window setting. These simulation results compare well with analytical estimations. The trend is different for a clinical whole-body PET system that uses conventional LSO-PMT block detectors with larger crystal elements. Simulations predict roughly the same sensitivity for both box and cylindrical detector configurations. This results from the fact that a large system diameter (>80 cm) results in relatively small inter-module gaps in clinical whole-body PET. In addition, the relatively large block
Introduction to combinatorial geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabriel, T.A.; Emmett, M.B.
1985-01-01
The combinatorial geometry package as used in many three-dimensional multimedia Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, such as HETC, MORSE, and EGS, is becoming the preferred way to describe simple and complicated systems. Just about any system can be modeled using the package with relatively few input statements. This can be contrasted against the older style geometry packages in which the required input statements could be large even for relatively simple systems. However, with advancements come some difficulties. The users of combinatorial geometry must be able to visualize more, and, in some instances, all of the system at a time. Errors can be introduced into the modeling which, though slight, and at times hard to detect, can have devastating effects on the calculated results. As with all modeling packages, the best way to learn the combinatorial geometry is to use it, first on a simple system then on more complicated systems. The basic technique for the description of the geometry consists of defining the location and shape of the various zones in terms of the intersections and unions of geometric bodies. The geometric bodies which are generally included in most combinatorial geometry packages are: (1) box, (2) right parallelepiped, (3) sphere, (4) right circular cylinder, (5) right elliptic cylinder, (6) ellipsoid, (7) truncated right cone, (8) right angle wedge, and (9) arbitrary polyhedron. The data necessary to describe each of these bodies are given. As can be easily noted, there are some subsets included for simplicity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aramburu, José Antonio; García-Fernández, Pablo; García Lastra, Juan Maria
2016-01-01
that the anomalous positive g∥ shift (g∥−g0=0.065) measured at T=20 K obeys the superposition of the |3 z2−r2⟩ and |x2−y2⟩ states driven by quantum effects associated with the zero-point motion, a mechanism first put forward by O'Brien for static Jahn–Teller systems and later extended by Ham to the dynamic Jahn...... of the calculated energy barriers for different Jahn–Teller systems allowed us to explain the origin of the compressed geometry observed for CaO:Ni+....
Burdette, A C
1971-01-01
Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st
Berger, Marcel
2010-01-01
Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,
Robinson, Gilbert de B
2011-01-01
This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom
Connes, Alain
1994-01-01
This English version of the path-breaking French book on this subject gives the definitive treatment of the revolutionary approach to measure theory, geometry, and mathematical physics developed by Alain Connes. Profusely illustrated and invitingly written, this book is ideal for anyone who wants to know what noncommutative geometry is, what it can do, or how it can be used in various areas of mathematics, quantization, and elementary particles and fields.Key Features* First full treatment of the subject and its applications* Written by the pioneer of this field* Broad applications in mathemat
Lauzurica, Sara; Márquez, Andrés.; Molpeceres, Carlos; Notario, Laura; Gómez-Fontela, Miguel; Lauzurica, Pilar
2017-02-01
The immune system is a very complex system that comprises a network of genetic and signaling pathways subtending a network of interacting cells. The location of the cells in a network, along with the gene products they interact with, rules the behavior of the immune system. Therefore, there is a great interest in understanding properly the role of a cell in such networks to increase our knowledge of the immune system response. In order to acquire a better understanding of these processes, cell printing with high spatial resolution emerges as one of the promising approaches to organize cells in two and three-dimensional patterns to enable the study the geometry influence in these interactions. In particular, laser assisted bio-printing techniques using sub-nanosecond laser sources have better characteristics for application in this field, mainly due to its higher spatial resolution, cell viability percentage and process automation. This work presents laser assisted bio-printing of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in two-dimensional geometries, placing cellular components on a matrix previously generated on demand, permitting to test the molecular interactions between APCs and lymphocytes; as well as the generation of two-dimensional structures designed ad hoc in order to study the mechanisms of mobilization of immune system cells. The use of laser assisted bio-printing, along with APCs and lymphocytes emulate the structure of different niches of the immune system so that we can analyse functional requirement of these interaction.
Yang, Mingyang; Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki; Huenteler, Joern; Li, Zhigang
2013-03-01
This is Part I of a two-part paper documenting the development of a novel asymmetric flow control method to improve the stability of a high-pressure-ratio turbocharger centrifugal compressor. Part I focuses on the nonaxisymmetrical flow in a centrifugal compressor induced by the nonaxisymmetrical geometry of the volute while Part II describes the development of an asymmetric flow control method to avoid the stall on the basis of the characteristic of nonaxisymmetrical flow. To understand the asymmetries, experimental measurements and corresponding numerical simulation were carried out. The static pressure was measured by probes at different circumferential and stream-wise positions to gain insights about the asymmetries. The experimental results show that there is an evident nonaxisymmetrical flow pattern throughout the compressor due to the asymmetric geometry of the overhung volute. The static pressure field in the diffuser is distorted at approximately 90 deg in the rotational direction of the volute tongue throughout the diffuser. The magnitude of this distortion slightly varies with the rotational speed. The magnitude of the static pressure distortion in the impeller is a function of the rotational speed. There is a significant phase shift between the static pressure distributions at the leading edge of the splitter blades and the impeller outlet. The numerical steady state simulation neglects the aforementioned unsteady effects found in the experiments and cannot predict the phase shift, however, a detailed asymmetric flow field structure is obviously obtained.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
mathematicians are trained to use very precise language, and so find it hard to simplify and state .... thing. If you take a plane on which there are two such triangles which enjoy the above ... within this geometry to simplify things if needed.
Geometry -----------~--------------RESONANCE
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Parallel: A pair of lines in a plane is said to be parallel if they do not meet. Mathematicians were at war ... Subsequently, Poincare, Klein, Beltrami and others refined non-. Euclidean geometry. ... plane divides the plane into two half planes and.
Cluster geometry and survival probability in systems driven by reaction-diffusion dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Windus, Alastair; Jensen, Henrik J
2008-01-01
We consider a reaction-diffusion model incorporating the reactions A→φ, A→2A and 2A→3A. Depending on the relative rates for sexual and asexual reproduction of the quantity A, the model exhibits either a continuous or first-order absorbing phase transition to an extinct state. A tricritical point separates the two phase lines. While we comment on this critical behaviour, the main focus of the paper is on the geometry of the population clusters that form. We observe the different cluster structures that arise at criticality for the three different types of critical behaviour and show that there exists a linear relationship for the survival probability against initial cluster size at the tricritical point only.
Cluster geometry and survival probability in systems driven by reaction-diffusion dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Windus, Alastair; Jensen, Henrik J [The Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 53 Prince' s Gate, South Kensington, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: h.jensen@imperial.ac.uk
2008-11-15
We consider a reaction-diffusion model incorporating the reactions A{yields}{phi}, A{yields}2A and 2A{yields}3A. Depending on the relative rates for sexual and asexual reproduction of the quantity A, the model exhibits either a continuous or first-order absorbing phase transition to an extinct state. A tricritical point separates the two phase lines. While we comment on this critical behaviour, the main focus of the paper is on the geometry of the population clusters that form. We observe the different cluster structures that arise at criticality for the three different types of critical behaviour and show that there exists a linear relationship for the survival probability against initial cluster size at the tricritical point only.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, Juan Matias
2005-01-01
Perturbation Methods represent a powerful tool to do sensitivity analysis, and they found many aplications in nuclear engineering.As an introduction to this kind of analysis, we develope a program that apply the Generalized Perturbation Theory or GPT Method to bidimensional system of rectangular geometry.We first consider an homogeneous system of non-multiplying material and then an heterogeneous system with region of multiplying material, with the intention of make concret aplications of perturbation method to nuclear engineering problems.The program, that we called Pert, determines neutron fluxes and importance functions applying the Multigroup Diffusion Theory; and also solves the integrals required to calculate sensitivity coefficients.Using this perturbation methods we could verify the low computational cost required to make this kind of analysis and the simplicity of the equations systems involved, allowing us to make elaborates sensitivity analysis for the responses of our interest
Petersen, Peter
2016-01-01
Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strominger, A.
1990-01-01
A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)
Air mass flow estimation in turbocharged diesel engines from in-cylinder pressure measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Desantes, J.M.; Galindo, J.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V. [CMT - Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)
2010-01-15
Air mass flow determination is needed for the control of current internal combustion engines. Current methods are based on specific sensors (as hot wire anemometers) or indirect estimation through manifold pressure. With the availability of cylinder pressure sensors for engine control, methods based on them can be used for replacing or complementing standard methods. Present paper uses in cylinder pressure increase during the intake stroke for inferring the trapped air mass. The method is validated on two different turbocharged diesel engines and compared with the standard methods. (author)
General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism
Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.
2002-01-01
It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...
Thermodynamic monitoring and misfunction detection in turbocharged diesel engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milazzo, A.N.; Bidini, G.
1992-01-01
Many kinds of fault detection systems for reciprocating engines have been proposed. Mostly these systems rely on dynamic analysis of engine behavior or chemical analysis of exhaust. Very few systems achieve a real on line diagnosis. On the other hand, land based and aeronautic turbine power plants are mostly equipped with thermodynamic fault detection systems (gas path analysis). The authors are trying to design a simple, cheap and reliable diesel engine monitoring system, performing a real time, continuous service. State of the art dynamics, gas path analysis and some new ideas will be used. Here we present the first part of this project, dealing with thermodynamic engine analysis. Soon we hope to present also a different approach, relying on engine dynamic analysis. This paper is mainly concerned with diesel engines. It seems reasonable to concentrate ourselves on large and based engines, whose size and cost justify the implementation of a fault detection system. Anyway many results are fairly general, and could be used for smaller engines, like vehicle engines, and other cases in which large number of units can lower costs
Ciarlet, Philippe G
2007-01-01
This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chong, K.K.; Lim, C.Y.; Hiew, C.W. [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Off Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, Kuala Lumpur 53300 (Malaysia)
2011-05-15
A novel cost-effective solar furnace system is proposed to be consisted of a Non-Imaging Focusing Heliostat (NIFH) and a much smaller parabolic concentrator. In order to simplify the design and hence leading to the cost reduction, a fixed geometry of the NIFH heliostat is adopted in the novel solar furnace system by omitting the requirement of continuous astigmatic correction throughout the year with the use of local controllers. The performance of this novel solar furnace configuration can be optimized when the heliostat's spinning-axis is orientated in such a way that the annual variations of incident angle and therefore the annual variations of aberrant image size are the least. To verify the new configuration, a prototype solar furnace has been constructed at Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaiser, R.; Olesen, M. [Zeuna Staerker GmbH und Co. KG (Germany)
2002-06-01
Under the pressure of ever shorter development times and high demands on exhaust systems in terms of exhaust counterpressure, acoustic and sensory aspects and exhaust purification, Zeuna Staerker started at an early stage to use advanced CFD methods in their product development process. The contribution investigates the effects of simplified assumptions of boundary conditions, using laser optical flow measurements on a turbocharger with a catalyst near the engine. [German] Immer kuerzer werdende Entwicklungszeiten und die hohen Anforderungen an Abgasanlagen hinsichtlich Abgasgegendruck, Akustik, Sensorik und Abgasreinigung fuehrten bei Zeuna Staerker schon fruehzeitig zur Etablierung ausgereifter CFD-Methoden im Produktentwicklungsprozess. Doch wie stark werden CFD-Berechnungen durch die aufgepraegten Randbedingungen beeinflusst, wenn diese nach Abgasturbolader oft vereinfacht angenommen werden muessen? Mit Hilfe laseroptischer Stroemungsmessungen an einem Abgasturbolader mit motornahem Katalysator wird dieser Frage nachgegangen. (orig.)
Auto-ignition control in turbocharged internal combustion engines operating with gaseous fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duarte, Jorge; Amador, Germán; Garcia, Jesus; Fontalvo, Armando; Vasquez Padilla, Ricardo; Sanjuan, Marco; Gonzalez Quiroga, Arturo
2014-01-01
Control strategies for auto-ignition control in turbocharged internal combustion engines operating with gaseous fuels are presented. Ambient temperature and ambient pressure are considered as the disturbing variables. A thermodynamic model for predicting temperature at the ignition point is developed, adjusted and validated with a large experimental data-set from high power turbocharged engines. Based on this model, the performance of feedback and feedforward auto-ignition control strategies is explored. A robustness and fragility analysis for the Feedback control strategies is presented. The feedforward control strategy showed the best performance however its implementation entails adding a sensor and new control logic. The proposed control strategies and the proposed thermodynamic model are useful tools for increasing the range of application of gaseous fuels with low methane number while ensuring a safe running in internal combustion engines. - Highlights: • A model for predicting temperature at the ignition point. • Robust PID, modified PID, and feedforward strategies for auto-ignition control. • λ′ were the best set of tuning equations for calculating controller parameters. • Robust PID showed significant improvements in auto-ignition control. • Feedforward control showed the best performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chehhat A.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Low solidity diffuser in centrifugal compressors can achieve both high efficiency and wide operating ranges which is of great importance for turbocharger compressor. Low solidity is achieved by using a low chord to pitch ratio. In this work, a CFD simulation is carried out to examine the effect of solidity on airflow field of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor which consists of a simple-splitter impeller and a vaned diffuser. By changing the number of diffuser vanes while keeping the number of impeller blades constant, the solidity value of the diffuser is varied. The characteristics of the compressor are evaluated for 6, 8, 10 and 12 stator vanes which correspond to solidity of: 0.78, 1.04, 1.29 and 1.55, respectively. The spatial distribution of the pressure, velocity and turbulent kinetic energy show that the diffuser solidity has significant effect on flow field and compressor performance map. The compressor with a 6 vanes diffuser has higher efficiency and operates at a wider range of flow rate relative to that obtained with larger vans number. However a non-uniform flow at the compressor exit was observed with relatively high turbulent kinetic energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakellaridis, Nikolaos F.; Raptotasios, Spyridon I.; Antonopoulos, Antonis K.; Mavropoulos, Georgios C.; Hountalas, Dimitrios T.
2015-01-01
Engine cycle simulation models are increasingly used in diesel engine simulation and diagnostic applications, reducing experimental effort. Turbocharger simulation plays an important role in model's ability to accurately predict engine performance and emissions. The present work describes the development of a complete engine simulation model for marine Diesel engines based on a new methodology for turbocharger modelling utilizing physically based meanline models for compressor and turbine. Simulation accuracy is evaluated against engine bench measurements. The methodology was developed to overcome the problem of limited experimental maps availability for compressor and turbine, often encountered in large marine diesel engine simulation and diagnostic studies. Data from the engine bench are used to calibrate the models, as well as to estimate turbocharger shaft mechanical efficiency. Closed cycle and gas exchange are modelled using an existing multizone thermodynamic model. The proposed methodology is applied on a 2-stroke marine diesel engine and its evaluation is based on the comparison of predictions against measured engine data. It is demonstrated model's ability to predict engine response with load variation regarding both turbocharger performance and closed cycle parameters, as well as NOx emission trends, making it an effective tool for both engine diagnostic and optimization studies. - Highlights: • Marine two stroke diesel engine simulation model. • Turbine and compressor simulation using physical meanline models. • Methodology to derive T/C component efficiency and T/C shaft mechanical efficiency. • Extensive validation of predictions against experimental data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Zhang
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the performance of centrifugal compressors for vehicle turbochargers operating at high altitude. The reasons for turbocharged diesel engine power loss increases and bad economy performance caused by exhaust gas energy utilization are investigated. The atmosphere’s impact on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor’s energy distribution characteristics under the plateau is discussed. The key parameters that affect compressor characteristics are concluded in a theoretical method. A simulation calculation model is established to accurately predict compressor performance at high altitude. By comparing the experimental results, the calculation results are validated. The details of the internal flow fields analysis, including critical parameters of a compressor operating at high altitude, are analyzed. The results show that with the increase of altitude from 0 m to 4500 m, the peak efficiency of the compressor is reduced by 2.4%, while the peak pressure ratio is increased by 7%. The main influence characters of the plateau environment on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor performance, such as blade loads, exergy utilization and entropy distribution are concluded. The key factors for compressor performance and compressor energy flow control design method operated at high altitude are obtained.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marques Gomes, Andre; Schmidt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jens [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)
2011-07-01
The simulation fo the thermodynamical properties of turbochargers in IC engines is mostly done with 1D gas exchange simulation tools, in which the turbocharger is represented by maps, or with 3D-CFD tools, in which a more precise geometrical detail of the charger can be considered. The present work aims for a modeling depth which lies between these 2 variants. This approach (''1D gas exchange simulation with 1D modeling of the turbocharger'') is not only motivated by enabling a better interaction, when compared to the map-based approach, between an IC engine and the turbocharger, but by distinctly reducing the modeling efforts and computing time when compared to the 3D-CFD approach. Within the study, a coarsely discretized model of a centrifugal compressor is built using only the model library of the commercial software GT-Power. For the validation regarding total pressure ratio and isentropic efficiency, the results of the stationary simulations of two different compressors are compared to CFD and measurement results. Differences can be seen only close to the choking limit of the compressor. The model was further used to demonstrate its applicability in extrapolated regions of the compressor map and in the instable operating range near the surge limit. (orig.)
SPICE-Based Python Packages for ESA Solar System Exploration Mission's Geometry Exploitation
Costa, M.; Grass, M.
2018-04-01
This contribution outlines three Python packages to provide an enhanced and extended usage of SPICE Toolkit APIS providing higher-level functions and data quick-look capabilities focused on European Space Agency solar system exploration missions.
Investigation of fluid flow in various geometries related to nuclear reactor using PIV system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kansal, A.K.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Singh, R.K.; Vijayan, P.K.; Saha, D.; Singh, R.K.; Joshi, V.M.
2011-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive technique for simultaneously measuring the velocities at many points in a fluid flow. The PIV system used is comprised of Nd:YAG laser source, CCD (Charged Coupled Device) camera, timing controller (to control the laser and camera) and software used for analyzing the flow velocities. Several case studies related to nuclear reactor were performed with the PIV system. Some of the cases like flow in circular tube, submerged jet, natural convection in a water pool, flow field of moderator inlet diffuser of 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) and fluidic flow control device (FFCD) used in advanced accumulator of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) have been studied using PIV system. Theoretical studies have been performed and comparisons with PIV results are also given in the present studies. (author)
Advanced Gasoline Turbocharged Direction Injection (GTDI) Engine Development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wagner, Terrance [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)
2015-12-31
This program was undertaken in response to US Department of Energy Solicitation DE-FOA-0000079, resulting in a cooperative agreement with Ford and MTU to demonstrate improvement of fuel efficiency in a vehicle equipped with an advanced GTDI engine. Ford Motor Company has invested significantly in GTDI engine technology as a cost effective, high volume, fuel economy solution, marketed globally as EcoBoost technology. Ford envisions additional fuel economy improvement in the medium and long term by further advancing EcoBoost technology. The approach for the project was to engineer a comprehensive suite of gasoline engine systems technologies to achieve the project objectives, and to progressively demonstrate the objectives via concept analysis / computer modeling, single-cylinder and multi-cylinder engine testing on engine dynamometer, and vehicle level testing on chassis rolls.
Zheng, Xinqian; Zhang, Yangjun; Yang, Mingyang; Bamba, Takahiro; Tamaki, Hideaki
2013-03-01
This is part II of a two-part paper involving the development of an asymmetrical flow control method to widen the operating range of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor with high-pressure ratio. A nonaxisymmetrical self-recirculation casing treatment (SRCT) as an instance of asymmetrical flow control method is presented. Experimental and numerical methods were used to investigate the impact of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the surge point of the centrifugal compressor. First, the influence of the geometry of a symmetric SRCT on the compressor performance was studied by means of numerical simulation. The key parameter of the SRCT was found to be the distance from the main blade leading edge to the rear groove (S r ). Next, several arrangements of a nonaxisymmetrical SRCT were designed, based on flow analysis presented in part I. Then, a series of experiments were carried out to analyze the influence of nonaxisymmetrical SRCT on the compressor performance. Results show that the nonaxisymmetrical SRCT has a certain influence on the performance and has a larger potential for stability improvement than the traditional symmetric SRCT. For the investigated SRCT, the surge flow rate of the compressor with the nonaxisymmetrical SRCTs is about 10% lower than that of the compressor with symmetric SRCT. The largest surge margin (smallest surge flow rate) can be obtained when the phase of the largest S r is coincident with the phase of the minimum static pressure in the vicinity of the leading edge of the splitter blades.
Massiot, Cécile; Nicol, Andrew; McNamara, David D.; Townend, John
2017-08-01
Analysis of fracture orientation, spacing, and thickness from acoustic borehole televiewer (BHTV) logs and cores in the andesite-hosted Rotokawa geothermal reservoir (New Zealand) highlights potential controls on the geometry of the fracture system. Cluster analysis of fracture orientations indicates four fracture sets. Probability distributions of fracture spacing and thickness measured on BHTV logs are estimated for each fracture set, using maximum likelihood estimations applied to truncated size distributions to account for sampling bias. Fracture spacing is dominantly lognormal, though two subordinate fracture sets have a power law spacing. This difference in spacing distributions may reflect the influence of the andesitic sequence stratification (lognormal) and tectonic faults (power law). Fracture thicknesses of 9-30 mm observed in BHTV logs, and 1-3 mm in cores, are interpreted to follow a power law. Fractures in thin sections (˜5 μm thick) do not fit this power law distribution, which, together with their orientation, reflect a change of controls on fracture thickness from uniform (such as thermal) controls at thin section scale to anisotropic (tectonic) at core and BHTV scales of observation. However, the ˜5% volumetric percentage of fractures within the rock at all three scales suggests a self-similar behavior in 3-D. Power law thickness distributions potentially associated with power law fluid flow rates, and increased connectivity where fracture sets intersect, may cause the large permeability variations that occur at hundred meter scales in the reservoir. The described fracture geometries can be incorporated into fracture and flow models to explore the roles of fracture connectivity, stress, and mineral precipitation/dissolution on permeability in such andesite-hosted geothermal systems.
Jatana, Gurneesh S; Magee, Mark; Fain, David; Naik, Sameer V; Shaver, Gregory M; Lucht, Robert P
2015-02-10
A diode-laser-absorption-spectroscopy-based sensor system was used to perform high-speed (100 Hz to 5 kHz) measurements of gas properties (temperature, pressure, and H(2)O vapor concentration) at the turbocharger inlet and at the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler exit of a diesel engine. An earlier version of this system was previously used for high-speed measurements of gas temperature and H(2)O vapor concentration in the intake manifold of the diesel engine. A 1387.2 N m tunable distributed feedback diode laser was used to scan across multiple H(2)O absorption transitions, and the direct absorption signal was recorded using a high-speed data acquisition system. Compact optical connectors were designed to conduct simultaneous measurements in the intake manifold, the EGR cooler exit, and the turbocharger inlet of the engine. For measurements at the turbocharger inlet, these custom optical connectors survived gas temperatures as high as 800 K using a simple and passive arrangement in which the temperature-sensitive components were protected from high temperatures using ceramic insulators. This arrangement reduced system cost and complexity by eliminating the need for any active water or oil cooling. Diode-laser measurements performed during steady-state engine operation were within 5% of the thermocouple and pressure sensor measurements, and within 10% of the H(2)O concentration values derived from the CO(2) gas analyzer measurements. Measurements were also performed in the engine during transient events. In one such transient event, where a step change in fueling was introduced, the diode-laser sensor was able to capture the 30 ms change in the gas properties; the thermocouple, on the other hand, required 7.4 s to accurately reflect the change in gas conditions, while the gas analyzer required nearly 600 ms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of such a simple and passive arrangement of high-temperature optical connectors as well
Optimizing of solar chimney performance using electrohydrodynamic system based on array geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghalamchi, Mehrdad; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Ghalamchi, Mehran; Fadaei, Niloufar; Daneshazarian, Reza
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Three different electrohydrodynamic layouts are applied in the solar chimney pilot. • Effective parameters of electrohydrodynamic is represented in every layout. • The air velocity and heat transfer were increased outstandingly. • The temperature distribution in the absorber surface and the fluid is investigated. • The performance and the efficiency of the solar chimney pilot are increased. - Abstract: The effect of the electrohydrodynamic system with various electrode layouts on a solar chimney pilot is investigated experimentally. A pilot setup was constructed which consisted of a chimney with 3 m height and 3 m collector diameter. The purpose of this research was to enhance the solar chimney performance with the electrohydrodynamic system for the parallel, radial, and symmetric layouts. By using of corona wind, the outlet fluid temperature is increased, and the outlet absorber is decreased. For the three layouts, the most growth in the outlet fluid temperature is 14 °C, which is observed in the parallel layout. Also, in the parallel array, the most outlet absorber temperature drop is 7 °C. The results show that parallel layout with six electrodes and 3 cm spacing between the electrodes has the best performance. Also, various hours of the day are studied and the best time for turning on the electrohydrodynamic system is 1:00 p.m. The electrohydrodynamic system makes an increase in the fluid velocity from 1.7 to 2.3 m s −1 , and this growth improves the performance about 28%.
Geometry of tidal inlet systems : A key factor for the net sediment transport in tidal inlets
Ridderinkhof, W.; de Swart, H. E.; van der Vegt, M.; Alebregtse, N. C.; Hoekstra, P.
2014-01-01
The net transport of sediment between the back-barrier basin and the sea is an important process for determining the stability of tidal inlet systems. Earlier studies showed that in a short basin, tidal flats favor peak ebb-currents stronger than peak flood currents, implying export of coarse
Li, Yatao; Zhao, Ke; Xu, Wei
2015-01-01
Intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs), which provide step-by-step guidance to students in problem-solving activities, have been shown to enhance student learning in a range of domains. However, they tend to be pre-established and cannot supply the tutoring function immediately from the diverse mathematical questions. The MITSAS (multiagent…
Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie
2009-01-01
A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....
Kaehler geometry and SUSY mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bellucci, Stefano; Nersessian, Armen
2001-01-01
We present two examples of SUSY mechanics related with Kaehler geometry. The first system is the N = 4 supersymmetric one-dimensional sigma-model proposed in hep-th/0101065. Another system is the N = 2 SUSY mechanics whose phase space is the external algebra of an arbitrary Kaehler manifold. The relation of these models with antisymplectic geometry is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nielsen, Tim; Brendel, Bernhard; Ziegler, Ronny; Beek, Michiel van; Uhlemann, Falk; Bontus, Claas; Koehler, Thomas
2009-01-01
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a potential new imaging modality to detect or monitor breast lesions. Recently, Philips developed a new DOT system capable of transmission and fluorescence imaging, where the investigated breast is hanging freely into the measurement cup containing scattering fluid. We present a fast and robust image reconstruction algorithm that is used for the transmission measurements. The algorithm is based on the Rytov approximation. We show that this algorithm can be used over a wide range of tissue optical properties if the reconstruction is adapted to each patient. We use estimates of the breast shape and average tissue optical properties to initialize the reconstruction, which improves the image quality significantly. We demonstrate the capability of the measurement system and reconstruction to image breast lesions by clinical examples
Geometry of carrying simplices of 3-species competitive Lotka–Volterra systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baigent, Stephen
2013-01-01
We investigate the existence, uniqueness and Gaussian curvature of the invariant carrying simplices of 3 species autonomous totally competitive Lotka–Volterra systems. Explicit examples are given where the carrying simplex is convex or concave, but also where the curvature is not single-signed. Our method monitors the curvature of an evolving surface that converges uniformly to the carrying simplex, and generally relies on establishing that the Gaussian image of the evolving surface is confined to an invariant cone. We also discuss the relationship between the curvature of the carrying simplex near an interior fixed point and its Split Lyapunov stability. Finally we comment on extensions to general Lotka–Volterra systems that are not competitive. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keun Ryu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The current work introduces a new semi-floating ring bearing (SFRB system developed for improving the rotordynamic and vibration performance of automotive turbochargers (TCs at extreme operation conditions, such as high temperature, severe external force excitation, and large rotor imbalance. The new bearing design replaces outer oil films, i.e., squeeze film dampers (SFDs, in TC SFRBs with wire mesh dampers (WMDs. This SFRB configuration integrating WMDs aims to implement reliable mechanical components, as an inexpensive and simple alternative to SFDs, with consistent and superior damping capability, as well as predictable forced performance. Since WMDs are in series with the inner oil films of SFRBs, experimentally determined force coefficients of WMDs are of great importance in the design process of TC rotor-bearing systems (RBSs. Presently, the measurements of applied static load and ensuing deflection determine the structural stiffnesses of the WMDs. The WMD damping parameters, including dissipated energy, loss factor, and dry friction coefficient, are estimated from the area of the distinctive local hysteresis loop of the load versus WMD displacement data recorded during consecutive loading-unloading cycles as a function of applied preload with a constant amplitude of motion. The changes in WMD loss factor and dry friction coefficient due to increases in preload are more significant for the WMDs with lower density. The present work shows, to date, the most comprehensive measurements of static load characteristics on the WMDs for application into small automotive TCs. More importantly, the extensive test measurements of WMD deflection versus increasing static loads will aid to anchor predictions of future computation model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moazami, Hamid Reza [School of Physics and Accelerators, NSTRI, P. O. Box, 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed, E-mail: ss-hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Jamil; Nojavan, Saeed [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abrari, Masoud [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-09-03
The distribution of electric field vectors was first calculated for electromembrane extraction (EME) systems in classical and cylindrical electrode geometries. The results showed that supported liquid membrane (SLM) has a general field amplifying effect due to its lower dielectric constant in comparison with aqueous donor/acceptor solutions. The calculated norms of the electric field vector showed that a DC voltage of 50 V can create huge electric field strengths up to 64 kV m{sup −1} and 111 kV m{sup −1} in classical and cylindrical geometries respectively. In both cases, the electric field strength reached its peak value on the inner wall of the SLM. In the case of classical geometry, the field strength was a function of the polar position of the SLM whereas the field strength in cylindrical geometry was angularly uniform. In order to investigate the effect of the electrode geometry on the performance of real EME systems, the analysis was carried out in three different geometries including classical, helical and cylindrical arrangements using naproxen and sodium diclofenac as the model analytes. Despite higher field strength and extended cross sectional area, the helical and cylindrical geometries gave lower recoveries with respect to the classical EME. The observed decline of the signal was proved to be against the relations governing migration and diffusion processes, which means that a third driving force is involved in EME. The third driving force is the interaction between the radially inhomogeneous electric field and the analyte in its neutral form. - Highlights: • Electric field vectors have been calculated in EME systems. • A new driving force has been proposed in EME systems. • EME can be theoretically applied to nonionic polarizable analytes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moazami, Hamid Reza; Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed; Mohammadi, Jamil; Nojavan, Saeed; Abrari, Masoud
2015-01-01
The distribution of electric field vectors was first calculated for electromembrane extraction (EME) systems in classical and cylindrical electrode geometries. The results showed that supported liquid membrane (SLM) has a general field amplifying effect due to its lower dielectric constant in comparison with aqueous donor/acceptor solutions. The calculated norms of the electric field vector showed that a DC voltage of 50 V can create huge electric field strengths up to 64 kV m −1 and 111 kV m −1 in classical and cylindrical geometries respectively. In both cases, the electric field strength reached its peak value on the inner wall of the SLM. In the case of classical geometry, the field strength was a function of the polar position of the SLM whereas the field strength in cylindrical geometry was angularly uniform. In order to investigate the effect of the electrode geometry on the performance of real EME systems, the analysis was carried out in three different geometries including classical, helical and cylindrical arrangements using naproxen and sodium diclofenac as the model analytes. Despite higher field strength and extended cross sectional area, the helical and cylindrical geometries gave lower recoveries with respect to the classical EME. The observed decline of the signal was proved to be against the relations governing migration and diffusion processes, which means that a third driving force is involved in EME. The third driving force is the interaction between the radially inhomogeneous electric field and the analyte in its neutral form. - Highlights: • Electric field vectors have been calculated in EME systems. • A new driving force has been proposed in EME systems. • EME can be theoretically applied to nonionic polarizable analytes.
Sliding vane geometry turbines
Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R
2014-12-30
Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.
Determination of the gamma radiation scattering with geometry changes in the system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albuquerque, M. da P.P.; Xavier, M.; Caldas, L.V.E.
1988-07-01
Three different experimental systems were used for the determination of the radiation scattering due to the walls, ceiling and floor of the Calibration Laboratory. The radiation detection was made with a portable ionization chamber Victoreen model Panoramic 470. The measurements were taken with and without the use of a lead shield block between the detector and the radioactive source. The results showed that the scattering contribution increased about 80%, as the distance between detector and source was varied from 1,0 to 2,0 m. Therefore the scattering contribution determination is very important for the establishment of the standard radiation fields for instruments calibration. (author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Piña-Martínez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Current trends in Robotics aim to close the gap that separates technology and humans, bringing novel robotic devices in order to improve human performance. Although robotic exoskeletons represent a breakthrough in mobility enhancement, there are design challenges related to the forces exerted to the users’ joints that result in severe injuries. This occurs due to the fact that most of the current developments consider the joints as noninvariant rotational axes. This paper proposes the use of commercial vision systems in order to perform biomimetic joint design for robotic exoskeletons. This work proposes a kinematic model based on irregular shaped cams as the joint mechanism that emulates the bone-to-bone joints in the human body. The paper follows a geometric approach for determining the location of the instantaneous center of rotation in order to design the cam contours. Furthermore, the use of a commercial vision system is proposed as the main measurement tool due to its noninvasive feature and for allowing subjects under measurement to move freely. The application of this method resulted in relevant information about the displacements of the instantaneous center of rotation at the human knee joint.
Riemannian geometry of thermodynamics and systems with repulsive power-law interactions.
Ruppeiner, George
2005-07-01
A Riemannian geometric theory of thermodynamics based on the postulate that the curvature scalar R is proportional to the inverse free energy density is used to investigate three-dimensional fluid systems of identical classical point particles interacting with each other via a power-law potential energy gamma r(-alpha) . Such systems are useful in modeling melting transitions. The limit alpha-->infinity corresponds to the hard sphere gas. A thermodynamic limit exists only for short-range (alpha>3) and repulsive (gamma>0) interactions. The geometric theory solutions for given alpha>3 , gamma>0 , and any constant temperature T have the following properties: (1) the thermodynamics follows from a single function b (rho T(-3/alpha) ) , where rho is the density; (2) all solutions are equivalent up to a single scaling constant for rho T(-3/alpha) , related to gamma via the virial theorem; (3) at low density, solutions correspond to the ideal gas; (4) at high density there are solutions with pressure and energy depending on density as expected from solid state physics, though not with a Dulong-Petit heat capacity limit; (5) for 33.7913 a phase transition is required to go between these regimes; (7) for any alpha>3 we may include a first-order phase transition, which is expected from computer simulations; and (8) if alpha-->infinity, the density approaches a finite value as the pressure increases to infinity, with the pressure diverging logarithmically in the density difference.
Geometry through history Euclidean, hyperbolic, and projective geometries
Dillon, Meighan I
2018-01-01
Presented as an engaging discourse, this textbook invites readers to delve into the historical origins and uses of geometry. The narrative traces the influence of Euclid’s system of geometry, as developed in his classic text The Elements, through the Arabic period, the modern era in the West, and up to twentieth century mathematics. Axioms and proof methods used by mathematicians from those periods are explored alongside the problems in Euclidean geometry that lead to their work. Students cultivate skills applicable to much of modern mathematics through sections that integrate concepts like projective and hyperbolic geometry with representative proof-based exercises. For its sophisticated account of ancient to modern geometries, this text assumes only a year of college mathematics as it builds towards its conclusion with algebraic curves and quaternions. Euclid’s work has affected geometry for thousands of years, so this text has something to offer to anyone who wants to broaden their appreciation for the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. N. Chichko
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The system parameterization of castings, allowing to formalize spatial geometry of casting, is offered. The algorithm of taxonomy, which can be used for solving of problems of castings classification in the systems of computeraided design of foundry technologies, is described. The method is approved on castings of type ''cover”.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, A.N.; Baluch, A.H.; Chao, H.
2009-01-01
Direct injection compression ignition engines have proved to be the best option in heavy duty applications like transportation and power generation ,but rapid depleting sources of conventional fossil fuels, their rising prices and ever increasing environmental issues are the major concerns. Alternative fuels, particularly bio fuels are receiving increasing attention during the last few years. Biodiesel has already been commercialized in the transport sector. In the present work, a turbocharged intercooled and DI diesel engine has been alternatively fuelled with biodiesel and its 20% blend with commercial diesel. The experimental results show that BSFC, maximum combustion pressure and start of injection angle increase; on the other hand BSEC, maximum rate of pressure rise, ignition lag and premixed combustion amount decrease however HRR duration remains almost unaffected in the case of biodiesel as compared to commercial diesel. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shenghua, L.; Longbao, Z.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering
2003-09-01
The combustion characteristics of a turbocharged natural gas and diesel dual-fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine are investigated. With the measured cylinder pressures of the engine operated on pure diesel and dual fuel, the ignition delay, effects of pilot diesel and engine load on combustion characteristics are analysed. Emissions of HC, CO, NO{sub x} and smoke are measured and studied too. The results show that the quantity of pilot diesel has important effects on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine at low-load operating conditions. Ignition delay varies with the concentration of natural gas. Smoke is much lower for the developed dual-fuel engine under all the operating conditions. (Author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Cebulski
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a possible application of the state-of-the-art alloys based on the FeAl intermetallic phases as materials for the manufacture of heat-proof turbine components in an automobile turbocharger. The research was aimed at determining the resistance to corrosion of Fe40Al5CrTiB alloy in a gaseous environment containing 9 % O2 + 0,2 % HCl + 0,08 % SO2 + N2. First the kinetics of corrosion processes for the considered alloy were determined at the temperatures of 900 °C, 1 000 °C and 1 100 °C, which was followed by validation under operating conditions. To do so, the tests were carried out over a distance of 20 000 km. The last stage involved examination of the surfaces after the test drive. The obtained results are the basis for further research in this field.
An evaluation of a manganese bath system having a new geometry through MCNP modelling.
Khabaz, Rahim
2012-12-01
In this study, an approximate symmetric cylindrical manganese bath system with equal diameter and height was appraised using a Monte Carlo simulation. For nine sizes of the tank filled with MnSO(4).H(2)O solution of three different concentrations, the necessary correction factors involved in the absolute measurement of neutron emission rate were determined by a detailed modelling of the MCNP4C code with the ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron cross section data library. The results obtained were also used to determine the optimum dimensions of the bath for each concentration of solution in the calibration of (241)Am-Be and (252)Cf sources. Also, the amount of gamma radiation produced as a result of (n,γ) the reaction with the nuclei of the manganese sulphate solution that escaped from the boundary of each tank was evaluated. This gamma can be important for the background in NaI(Tl) detectors and issues concerned with radiation protection.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kjemtrup, N; Grone, O S
1994-03-03
A large two-stroke turbocharged internal combusted engine has a reactor for reduction of the NO[sub x]-content in the exhaust gas connected upstream of the turbocharger. At least one sensor measures at least one engine parameter and in a control unit it is determined whether the reactor is heated by the exhaust gas, which heating may cause reduced energy supply to the turbocharger. When this is the case the control unit opens for supply of supplementary air or gas to the engine which may be effected by starting an auxiliary blower and/or by actuating a control means in a bypass conduit so that a large amount of exhaust gas with a corresponding increase in the power is delivered to the turbocharger turbine. (author) figs.
D1/D5 system with B-field, noncommutative geometry and the CFT of the higgs branch
Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Yogendran, K P; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.
2000-01-01
The D1/D5 system is considered in the presence of the NS B field. An explicit supergravity solution in the asymptotically flat and near horizon limits is presented. Explicit mass formulae are presented in both cases. This solution has no D3 source branes and represents a true bound state of the D1/D5 system. We study the motion of a separated D1-brane in the background geometry described above and reproduce the Liouville potential that binds the D1 brane. A gauge theory analysis is also presented in the presence of Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) parameters which can be identified with the self-dual part of the NS B field. In the case of a single D5-brane and an arbitrary number of D1 branes we can demonstrate the existence of a bound state in the Higgs branch. We also point out the connection of the SCFT on the resolved Sym$_{Q_1Q_5}(\\tilde T^4)$ with recent developments in non-commutative Yang-Mills theory.
Geometry modeling for SAM-CE Monte Carlo calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinberg, H.A.; Troubetzkoy, E.S.
1980-01-01
Three geometry packages have been developed and incorporated into SAM-CE, for representing in three dimensions the transport medium. These are combinatorial geometry - a general (non-lattice) system, complex combinatorial geometry - a very general system with lattice capability, and special reactor geometry - a special purpose system for light water reactor geometries. Their different attributes are described
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatt, Charles R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Slagowski, Jordan M. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Funk, Tobias [Triple Ring Technologies, Inc., Newark, California 94560 (United States); Raval, Amish N. [Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Speidel, Michael A., E-mail: speidel@wisc.edu [Departments of Medical Physics and Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)
2015-12-15
Purpose: Image registration between standard x-ray fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has recently been proposed. Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system designed for cardiac procedures. This study presents a method for 3D registration of SBDX and TEE images based on the tomosynthesis and 3D tracking capabilities of SBDX. Methods: The registration algorithm utilizes the stack of tomosynthetic planes produced by the SBDX system to estimate the physical 3D coordinates of salient key-points on the TEE probe. The key-points are used to arrive at an initial estimate of the probe pose, which is then refined using a 2D/3D registration method adapted for inverse geometry fluoroscopy. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate probe pose estimation accuracy relative to the ground truth, as defined by a set of coregistered fiducial markers. This experiment was conducted with varying probe poses and levels of signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Additional phantom and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the correspondence of catheter tip positions in TEE and x-ray images following registration of the two modalities. Results: Target registration error (TRE) was used to characterize both pose estimation and registration accuracy. In the study of pose estimation accuracy, successful pose estimates (3D TRE < 5.0 mm) were obtained in 97% of cases when the SDNR was 5.9 or higher in seven out of eight poses. Under these conditions, 3D TRE was 2.32 ± 1.88 mm, and 2D (projection) TRE was 1.61 ± 1.36 mm. Probe localization error along the source-detector axis was 0.87 ± 1.31 mm. For the in vivo experiments, mean 3D TRE ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 mm and mean 2D TRE ranged from 1.1 to 1.6 mm. Anatomy extracted from the echo images appeared well aligned when projected onto the SBDX images. Conclusions: Full 6 DOF image registration between SBDX and TEE is feasible and accurate to within 5 mm. Future studies will focus on
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatt, Charles R.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Slagowski, Jordan M.; Funk, Tobias; Raval, Amish N.; Speidel, Michael A.
2015-01-01
Purpose: Image registration between standard x-ray fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has recently been proposed. Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system designed for cardiac procedures. This study presents a method for 3D registration of SBDX and TEE images based on the tomosynthesis and 3D tracking capabilities of SBDX. Methods: The registration algorithm utilizes the stack of tomosynthetic planes produced by the SBDX system to estimate the physical 3D coordinates of salient key-points on the TEE probe. The key-points are used to arrive at an initial estimate of the probe pose, which is then refined using a 2D/3D registration method adapted for inverse geometry fluoroscopy. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate probe pose estimation accuracy relative to the ground truth, as defined by a set of coregistered fiducial markers. This experiment was conducted with varying probe poses and levels of signal difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Additional phantom and in vivo studies were performed to evaluate the correspondence of catheter tip positions in TEE and x-ray images following registration of the two modalities. Results: Target registration error (TRE) was used to characterize both pose estimation and registration accuracy. In the study of pose estimation accuracy, successful pose estimates (3D TRE < 5.0 mm) were obtained in 97% of cases when the SDNR was 5.9 or higher in seven out of eight poses. Under these conditions, 3D TRE was 2.32 ± 1.88 mm, and 2D (projection) TRE was 1.61 ± 1.36 mm. Probe localization error along the source-detector axis was 0.87 ± 1.31 mm. For the in vivo experiments, mean 3D TRE ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 mm and mean 2D TRE ranged from 1.1 to 1.6 mm. Anatomy extracted from the echo images appeared well aligned when projected onto the SBDX images. Conclusions: Full 6 DOF image registration between SBDX and TEE is feasible and accurate to within 5 mm. Future studies will focus on
Molecular motion in restricted geometries
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...
Nakonieczna, Anna; Yeom, Dong-han
2016-05-01
Investigating the dynamics of gravitational systems, especially in the regime of quantum gravity, poses a problem of measuring time during the evolution. One of the approaches to this issue is using one of the internal degrees of freedom as a time variable. The objective of our research was to check whether a scalar field or any other dynamical quantity being a part of a coupled multi-component matter-geometry system can be treated as a `clock' during its evolution. We investigated a collapse of a self-gravitating electrically charged scalar field in the Einstein and Brans-Dicke theories using the 2+2 formalism. Our findings concentrated on the spacetime region of high curvature existing in the vicinity of the emerging singularity, which is essential for the quantum gravity applications. We investigated several values of the Brans-Dicke coupling constant and the coupling between the Brans-Dicke and the electrically charged scalar fields. It turned out that both evolving scalar fields and a function which measures the amount of electric charge within a sphere of a given radius can be used to quantify time nearby the singularity in the dynamical spacetime part, in which the apparent horizon surrounding the singularity is spacelike. Using them in this respect in the asymptotic spacetime region is possible only when both fields are present in the system and, moreover, they are coupled to each other. The only nonzero component of the Maxwell field four-potential cannot be used to quantify time during the considered process in the neighborhood of the whole central singularity. None of the investigated dynamical quantities is a good candidate for measuring time nearby the Cauchy horizon, which is also singular due to the mass inflation phenomenon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delferriere, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)
2012-02-15
One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Aguiar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Positron emission mammography (PEM cameras are novel-dedicated PET systems optimized to image the breast. For these cameras it is essential to achieve an optimum trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution and therefore the main challenge for the novel cameras is to improve the sensitivity without degrading the spatial resolution. We carry out an analytical study of the effect of the different detector geometries on the photon sensitivity and the angle of incidence of the detected photons which is related to the DOI effect and therefore to the intrinsic spatial resolution. To this end, dual head detectors were compared to box and different polygon-detector configurations. Our results showed that higher sensitivity and uniformity were found for box and polygon-detector configurations compared to dual-head cameras. Thus, the optimal configuration in terms of sensitivity is a PEM scanner based on a polygon of twelve (dodecagon or more detectors. We have shown that this configuration is clearly superior to dual-head detectors and slightly higher than box, octagon, and hexagon detectors. Nevertheless, DOI effects are increased for this configuration compared to dual head and box scanners and therefore an accurate compensation for this effect is required.
Zhongbo Zhang; Lifu Li
2018-01-01
In this study, an in-cylinder steam injection method is introduced and applied to a turbocharged diesel engine for waste heat recovery and NOx emission reduction. In the method, cool water was first heated into superheated steam by exhaust. Then the superheated steam was directly injected into the cylinder during the compression stroke. The potential for fuel savings and NOx emission reduction obtained by this method was investigated. First, a two-zone combustion model for the baseline engine...
Silva, Alessandro
1993-01-01
The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.
Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler
2005-01-01
This concise text by a prominent mathematician deals chiefly with manifolds dominated by the geometry of paths. Topics include asymmetric and symmetric connections, the projective geometry of paths, and the geometry of sub-spaces. 1927 edition.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.
1978-01-01
Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding
Advances in discrete differential geometry
2016-01-01
This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Mingyang; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo; Rajoo, Srithar; Yokoyama, Takao; Ibaraki, Seiichi
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Cycle averaged efficiency is higher for the volute A (low aspect ratio). • More distorted flow in volute B is the reason for performance deterioration. • Flow in volute B (high aspect ratio) is more sensitive to pulsating flow. - Abstract: Engine downsizing is a proven method for CO_2 reduction in Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). A turbocharger, which reclaims the energy from the exhaust gas to boost the intake air, can effectively improve the power density of the engine thus is one of the key enablers to achieve the engine downsizing. Acknowledging its importance, many research efforts have gone into improving a turbocharger performance, which includes turbine volute. The cross-section design of a turbine volute in a turbocharger is usually a compromise between the engine level packaging and desired performance. Thus, it is beneficial to evaluate the effects of cross-sectional shape on a turbine performance. This paper presents experimental and computational investigation of the influence of volute cross-sectional shape on the performance of a radial turbocharger turbine under pulsating conditions. The cross-sectional shape of the baseline volute (denoted as Volute B) was optimized (Volute A) while the annulus distribution of area-to-radius ratio (A/R) for the two volute configurations are kept the same. Experimental results show that the turbine with the optimized volute A has better cycle averaged efficiency under pulsating flow conditions, for different loadings and frequencies. The advantage of performance is influenced by the operational conditions. After the experiment, a validated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was employed to investigate the mechanism by which performance differs between the baseline volute and the optimized version. Computational results show a stronger flow distortion in spanwise direction at the rotor inlet with the baseline volute. Furthermore, compared with the optimized volute, the flow
Advanced Boost System Developing for High EGR Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Harold
2012-09-30
To support industry efforts of clean and efficient internal combustion engine development for passenger and commercial applications • This program focuses on turbocharger improvement for medium and light duty diesel applications, from complete system optimization percepective to enable commercialization of advanced diesel combustion technologies, such as HCCI/LTC. • Improve combined turbocharger efficiency up to 10% or fuel economy by 3% on FTP cycle at Tier II Bin 5 emission level.
Non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary condition for modelling turbocharger turbine pulsating flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiong, M.S.; Rajoo, S.; Romagnoli, A.; Costall, A.W.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary for pulse flow turbine modelling. • Predictions show convincing results against experimental and literature data. • Predicted pulse pressure propagation is in good agreement with literature data. • New methodology is time efficient and requires minimal geometrical inputs. - Abstract: This paper presents a simplified methodology of pulse flow turbine modelling, as an alternative over the meanline integrated methodology outlined in previous work, in order to make its application to engine cycle simulation codes much more straight forward. This is enabled through the development of a bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary to represent the turbine rotor. In this paper, turbocharger turbine pulse flow performance predictions are presented along with a comparison of computation duration against the previously established integrated meanline method. Plots of prediction deviation indicate that the mass flow rate and actual power predictions from both methods are highly comparable and are reasonably close to experimental data. However, the new boundary condition required significantly lower computational time and rotor geometrical inputs. In addition, the pressure wave propagation in this simplified unsteady turbine model at different pulse frequencies has also been found to be in agreement with data from the literature, thereby supporting the confidence in its ability to simulate the wave action encountered in turbine pulse flow operation
Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usta, N.
2005-01-01
Vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters are alternative renewable fuels for compression ignition engines. Different kinds of vegetable oils and their methyl/ethyl esters have been tested in diesel engines. However, tobacco seed oil and tobacco seed oil methyl ester have not been tested in diesel engines, yet. Tobacco seed oil is a non-edible vegetable oil and a by-product of tobacco leaves production. To the author's best knowledge, this is the first study on tobacco seed oil methyl ester as a fuel in diesel engines. In this study, potential tobacco seed production throughout the world, the oil extraction process from tobacco seed and the transesterification process for biodiesel production were examined. The produced tobacco seed oil methyl ester was characterized by exposing its major properties. The effects of tobacco seed oil methyl ester addition to diesel No. 2 on the performance and emissions of a four cycle, four cylinder turbocharged indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine were examined at both full and partial loads. Experimental results showed that tobacco seed oil methyl ester can be partially substituted for the diesel fuel at most operating conditions in terms of performance parameters and emissions without any engine modification and preheating of the blends. (Author)
Modelling of Outer and Inner Film Oil Pressure for Floating Ring Bearing Clearance in Turbochargers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hao; Shi Zhanqun; Gu Fengshou; Ball, Andrew
2011-01-01
Floating ring bearing is widely used in turbochargers to undertake the extreme condition of high rotating speed and high operating temperature. It is also the most concerned by the designers and users alike due to its high failure rate and high maintenance cost. Any little clearance change may result in oil leakage, which in turn cause blue smoke or black smoke according to leakage types. However, there is no condition monitoring of this bearing because it is almost impossible to measure the clearance especially the inner clearance, in which the inner oil film directly bears the high speed rotation. In stead of measuring clearance directly, this paper has proposed a method that uses film pressure as a measure to monitor the bearing clearance and its variation. A non-linear mathematical model is developed by using Reynolds equations with non-linear oil film pressure. A full description of the outer and inner film is provided along both axial and radial directions. A numerical simulation is immediately carried out. Variable clearance changes are investigated using the mathematical model. Results show the relationship between clearance and film pressure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Canakci, M. [Kocaeli University, Izmit (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Education
2007-04-15
In this study, the combustion characteristics and emissions of two different petroleum diesel fuels (No. 1 and No. 2) and biodiesel from soybean oil were compared. The tests were performed at steady state conditions in a four-cylinder turbocharged DI diesel engine at full load at 1400-rpm engine speed. The experimental results compared with No. 2 diesel fuel showed that biodiesel provided significant reductions in PM, CO, and unburned HC, the NO{sub x} increased by 11.2%. Biodiesel had a 13.8% increase in brake-specific fuel consumption due to its lower heating value. However, using No. 1 diesel fuel gave better emission results, NO{sub x} and brake-specific fuel consumption reduced by 16.1% and 1.2%, respectively. The values of the principal combustion characteristics of the biodiesel were obtained between two petroleum diesel fuels. The results indicated that biodiesel may be blended with No. 1 diesel fuel to be used without any modification on the engine. (author)
Geometric Optimization of Turbocharger Compressor and Its Influence on Engine Performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Fangming
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper consists of two parts: aerodynamic and mechanical multi-objective optimization for centrifugal compressor impeller through combining the three dimensional fluid dynamic simulation module CFX 16.1, the static structure in the ANSYS Workbench and the optimization software optiSLang; and a comparison and analysis of the effects of the optimized compressor on the engine performance by the one dimensional simulation tool GT-Power. In the process of optimization, the compressor design point is regarded as the optimizing point, while impeller blades and hub line were parameterized through the Bezier curve. Pressure ratio, isentropic efficiency, quality and maximum deformation and maximum internal stress of the impeller were defined as the output conditions. MOP module was then adopted in optiSLang for the parameters sensitivity analysis and mapping relationship modeling between the impeller parameters and the objective functions. The genetic algorithm is applied to find out and validate the optimal design. Through 1D simulation tool GT-Power, the influence of the optimized compressor on rotational speed of the turbocharger, backpressure and pumping loss under different engine operating conditions is analyzed and compared.
Numerical simulation of air flow through turbocharger compressors with dual volute design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiao, Kui; Li, Xianguo; Wu, Hao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Sun, Harold; Schram, Tim [Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48126 (United States); Krivitzky, Eric; Larosiliere, Louis M. [Concepts NREC, White River Junction, VT 05001 (United States)
2009-11-15
In this paper, turbocharger centrifugal compressors with dual volute design were investigated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method. The numerical simulation focused on the air flow from compressor impeller inlet to volute exit, and the overall performance level and range are predicted. The numerical investigation revealed that the dual volute design could separate the compressor into two operating regions: ''high efficiency'' and ''low efficiency'' regions with different air flow characteristics, and treating these two regions separately with dual diffuser design showed extended stable operating range and improved efficiency by comparing with conventional single volute design. The ''dual sequential volute'' concept also showed the potential to further extend the stable operating range by closing one of the volutes at low air flow rates. Furthermore, by comparing with other alternate designs such as variable diffuser vanes and variable inlet guide vanes, the operation of the dual sequential volute also features relatively simple control and calibration. (author)
"WGL," a Web Laboratory for Geometry
Quaresma, Pedro; Santos, Vanda; Maric, Milena
2018-01-01
The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education is nowadays well recognised. The "Web Geometry Laboratory," is an e-learning, collaborative and adaptive, Web environment for geometry, integrating a well known dynamic geometry system. In a collaborative session, teachers and students, engaged in solving…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paolo Clini
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The subject of the military architecture was widely studied and analyzed by the architect Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1501, who created important defensive works in the duchy of Montefeltro. A defensive line connects a series of medieval villages of the Marches: b Between the Martini’s fortifications, Cagli has still a fortified tower perfectly preserved and some traces of the fortress. The analysis conducted on them involves the information inferable by the essay, by historical surveys and the recent laser scanner survey. The aim of the research was to identify the generating geometry of the architecture: taking the precepts of Vitruvius, in the Renaissance period geometry was synonymous with proportion, order and symmetry. Two are subjects: the first one is the in-depth knowledge of the tower through the digital data obtained from the point cloud, the other one is the reconstruction of a global image of the complex tower-fortress.
Complex analysis and CR geometry
Zampieri, Giuseppe
2008-01-01
Cauchy-Riemann (CR) geometry is the study of manifolds equipped with a system of CR-type equations. Compared to the early days when the purpose of CR geometry was to supply tools for the analysis of the existence and regularity of solutions to the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problem, it has rapidly acquired a life of its own and has became an important topic in differential geometry and the study of non-linear partial differential equations. A full understanding of modern CR geometry requires knowledge of various topics such as real/complex differential and symplectic geometry, foliation theory, the geometric theory of PDE's, and microlocal analysis. Nowadays, the subject of CR geometry is very rich in results, and the amount of material required to reach competence is daunting to graduate students who wish to learn it. However, the present book does not aim at introducing all the topics of current interest in CR geometry. Instead, an attempt is made to be friendly to the novice by moving, in a fairly relaxed way, f...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mori, Kazuteru; Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Nakai, Katsuhiko
1998-01-01
The measurement system for Doppler broadening profiles with the coincidence technique using a NaI detector in colinear geometry with a Ge detector was developed. The principle of measurement system with the coincidence technique between the NaI detector and the Ge detector was described. Application of the system for the detection of vacancy-type defects introduced by electron irradiation in Czochralski-(Cz) grown Si was shown. Detail in the difference between the Doppler broadening profiles for Cz-Si and Si grown by the floating-zone method was also obtained. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mori, Kazuteru; Uedono, Akira; Tanigawa, Shoichiro [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Materials Science; Nakai, Katsuhiko
1998-08-01
The measurement system for Doppler broadening profiles with the coincidence technique using a NaI detector in colinear geometry with a Ge detector was developed. The principle of measurement system with the coincidence technique between the NaI detector and the Ge detector was described. Application of the system for the detection of vacancy-type defects introduced by electron irradiation in Czochralski-(Cz) grown Si was shown. Detail in the difference between the Doppler broadening profiles for Cz-Si and Si grown by the floating-zone method was also obtained. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thivaharan Albin
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Increasingly complex air path concepts are investigated to achieve a substantial reduction in fuel consumption while improving the vehicle dynamics. One promising technology is the two-stage turbocharging for gasoline engines, where a high pressure and a low pressure turbocharger are placed in series. For exploiting the high potential, a control concept has to be developed that allows for coordinated management of the two turbocharger stages. In this paper, the control strategy is investigated. Therefore, the effect of the actuated values on transient response and pumping losses is analyzed. Based on these findings, an optimization-based control algorithm is developed that allows taking both requirements into account. The developed new controller allows achieving a fast transient response, while at the same time reducing pumping losses in stationary operation.
Douvartzides, S.; Karmalis, I.
2016-11-01
A detailed method is presented on the thermal design of a natural gas - diesel dual fuel internal combustion engine. An 18 cylinder four stroke turbocharged engine is considered to operate at a maximum speed of 500 rpm for marine and power plant applications. Thermodynamic, heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena are mathematically analyzed to provide a real cycle analysis together with a complete set of calculated operation conditions, power characteristics and engine efficiencies. The method is found to provide results in close agreement to published data for the actual performance of similar engines such as V18 MAN 51/60DF.
Meyer, Walter J
2006-01-01
Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
algebraic geometry but also in related fields like number theory. ... every vector bundle on the affine space is trivial. (equivalently ... les on a compact Riemann surface to unitary rep- ... tial geometry and topology and was generalised in.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sloane, Peter
2007-01-01
We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sloane, Peter [Department of Mathematics, King' s College, University of London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2007-09-15
We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)
Watson, Brett; Yeo, Leslie; Friend, James
2010-06-01
Making use of mechanical resonance has many benefits for the design of microscale devices. A key to successfully incorporating this phenomenon in the design of a device is to understand how the resonant frequencies of interest are affected by changes to the geometric parameters of the design. For simple geometric shapes, this is quite easy, but for complex nonlinear designs, it becomes significantly more complex. In this paper, two novel modeling techniques are demonstrated to extract the axial and torsional resonant frequencies of a complex nonlinear geometry. The first decomposes the complex geometry into easy to model components, while the second uses scaling techniques combined with the finite element method. Both models overcome problems associated with using current analytical methods as design tools, and enable a full investigation of how changes in the geometric parameters affect the resonant frequencies of interest. The benefit of such models is then demonstrated through their use in the design of a prototype piezoelectric ultrasonic resonant micromotor which has improved performance characteristics over previous prototypes.
Geometry essentials for dummies
Ryan, Mark
2011-01-01
Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque
Gustof, P.; Hornik, A.
2016-09-01
In the paper, numeric calculations of thermal stresses of the piston in a turbocharged Diesel engine in the initial phase of its work were carried out based on experimental studies and the data resulting from them. The calculations were made using a geometrical model of the piston in a five-cylinder turbocharged Diesel engine with a capacity of about 2300 cm3, with a direct fuel injection to the combustion chamber and a power rating of 85 kW. In order to determine the thermal stress, application of own mathematical models of the heat flow in characteristic surfaces of the piston was required to show real processes occurring on the surface of the analysed component. The calculations were performed using a Geostar COSMOS/M program module. A three-dimensional geometric model of the piston was created in this program based on a real component, in order to enable the calculations and analysis of thermal stresses during non-stationary heat flow. Modelling of the thermal stresses of the piston for the engine speed n=4250 min-1 and engine load λ=1.69 was carried out.
Arithmetic noncommutative geometry
Marcolli, Matilde
2005-01-01
Arithmetic noncommutative geometry denotes the use of ideas and tools from the field of noncommutative geometry, to address questions and reinterpret in a new perspective results and constructions from number theory and arithmetic algebraic geometry. This general philosophy is applied to the geometry and arithmetic of modular curves and to the fibers at archimedean places of arithmetic surfaces and varieties. The main reason why noncommutative geometry can be expected to say something about topics of arithmetic interest lies in the fact that it provides the right framework in which the tools of geometry continue to make sense on spaces that are very singular and apparently very far from the world of algebraic varieties. This provides a way of refining the boundary structure of certain classes of spaces that arise in the context of arithmetic geometry, such as moduli spaces (of which modular curves are the simplest case) or arithmetic varieties (completed by suitable "fibers at infinity"), by adding boundaries...
Geometry The Language of Space and Form (Revised Edition)
Tabak, John
2011-01-01
Geometry, Revised Edition describes geometry in antiquity. Beginning with a brief description of some of the geometry that preceded the geometry of the Greeks, it takes up the story of geometry during the European Renaissance as well as the significant mathematical progress in other areas of the world. It also discusses the analytic geometry of Ren Descartes and Pierre Fermat, the alternative coordinate systems invented by Isaac Newton, and the solid geometry of Leonhard Euler. Also included is an overview of the geometry of one of the most successful mathematicians of the 19th century, Bernha
Jelínek, Michal; Kubecek, Vaclav; Cech, Miroslav; Hirsl, Petr
2010-02-01
We report on oscillator-amplifier system based on two highly doped 2.4 at. % crystalline Czochralski grown Nd:YAG crystals in a diode pumped bounce geometry configuration under quasi-continuous pumping. The oscillator was passively mode-locked by the semiconductor saturable absorber in transmission mode. The output pulse train consisted of 5 pulses with total energy of 270 μJ and pulse duration of 75 ps. The output train from the oscillator was amplified to the energy of 1 mJ by single pass amplifier.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galindo, J.; Serrano, J.R.; Margot, X.; Tiseira, A.; Schorn, N.; Kindl, H.
2007-01-01
Due to the packaging constraints to which turbocharged engines are submitted in passenger cars, the inlet duct of the centrifugal compressor often requires a 90 o bend. The compressor inlet perpendicular to its axis disturbs the flow and reduces the compressor performance. This paper presents an interesting solution based on a specifically designed inlet swirl-generator device (SGD) that palliates these negative effects. In addition, the SGD can be used to extend the surge margin of the compressor if the position of the SGD blades is modified in function of the reciprocating engine operation conditions. The paper describes how the swirl level and the pressure losses generated by the device have been characterized in a continuous flow test rig. After this the SGD plus a centrifugal compressor from a turbocharger unit have been tested in a specific turbocharger test bench. The results obtained show the influence of the SGD blades position on the compressor performance. In order to better understand the influence of the SGD on the turbocharger behaviour, the flow velocity triangles near the inducer have been reconstructed using an approach based on CFD calculations
Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin
2016-01-01
This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siewert, E; Schein, J; Forster, G
2013-01-01
The metal transfer is a fundamental process in gas metal arc welding, which substantially determines the shape of the weld seam and strongly influences arc formation and stability. In this investigation the material transfer from the wire electrode (anode) to the workpiece (cathode) is analysed experimentally with high accuracy using various innovative diagnostic techniques for a pulsed gas metal arc welding (PGMAW) process. A high-speed two-colour pyrometer, a calorimeter, thermocouples, a stereo optical setup and a droplet oscillation technique are used to analyse a precisely defined PGMAW process. Thus, results obtained are verified by different measurement techniques and enable a comprehensive description of the material transfer procedure. The surface temperature of both electrodes as well as the droplet temperature, enthalpy and surface tension were determined. Furthermore, the geometry of the arc, wire, droplets and weld pool were extracted in three dimensions in order to describe the interaction between the material transfer and the formation of the weld seam. The experiments are performed using argon as shielding gas and pure iron as filler and base material to reduce complex chemical processes. It turned out that the wire feed rate has the biggest influence on droplet temperature and detachment. A correlation between weld pool formation and weld pool surface temperature gradient was observed, which is mainly a function of welding speed and wire feed rate. The experimental results obtained provide a detailed data pool for use in modelling. (paper)
Second International workshop Geometry and Symbolic Computation
Walczak, Paweł; Geometry and its Applications
2014-01-01
This volume has been divided into two parts: Geometry and Applications. The geometry portion of the book relates primarily to geometric flows, laminations, integral formulae, geometry of vector fields on Lie groups, and osculation; the articles in the applications portion concern some particular problems of the theory of dynamical systems, including mathematical problems of liquid flows and a study of cycles for non-dynamical systems. This Work is based on the second international workshop entitled "Geometry and Symbolic Computations," held on May 15-18, 2013 at the University of Haifa and is dedicated to modeling (using symbolic calculations) in differential geometry and its applications in fields such as computer science, tomography, and mechanics. It is intended to create a forum for students and researchers in pure and applied geometry to promote discussion of modern state-of-the-art in geometric modeling using symbolic programs such as Maple™ and Mathematica®, as well as presentation of new results. ...
Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry
Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J
2008-01-01
In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its
O'Leary, Michael
2010-01-01
Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull
Fundamental concepts of geometry
Meserve, Bruce E
1983-01-01
Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.
Developments in special geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen
2012-01-01
We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.
Learners engaging with transformation geometry
African Journals Online (AJOL)
participants engaged in investigative semi-structured interviews with the resear- chers. ... Keywords: analysis; conversions; transformation geometry; transformations; treatments .... semiotic systems of representation is not only to designate mathematical objects or to com- municate but also to ... Research design. We believe ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiong, M.S.; Rajoo, S.; Romagnoli, A.; Costall, A.W.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Unsteady turbine performance prediction by integrating the 1-D and meanline models. • The optimum discretization length/diameter ratio is identified. • No improvement is gained by increasing the number of rotor entries. • The predicted instantaneous mass flow and output power are analysed in detail. - Abstract: Stringent emission regulations are driving engine manufacturers to increase investment into enabling technologies to achieve better specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and most importantly carbon reduction. Engine downsizing is seen as a key enabler to successfully achieve all of these requirements. Boosting through turbocharging is widely regarded as one of the most promising technologies for engine downsizing. However, the wide range of engine speeds and loads requires enhanced quality of engine-turbocharger matching, compared to the conventional approach which considers only the full load condition. Thus, development of computational models capable of predicting the unsteady behaviour of a turbocharger turbine is crucial to the overall matching process. A purely one-dimensional (1D) turbine model is capable of good unsteady swallowing capacity predictions, however it has not been fully exploited to predict instantaneous turbine power. On the contrary, meanline models (zero-dimensional) are regarded as a good tool to determine turbine efficiency in steady state but they do not include any information about the pressure wave action occurring within the turbine. This paper explores an alternative methodology to predict instantaneous turbine power and swallowing capacity by integrating one-dimensional and meanline models. A single entry mixed-flow turbine is modelled using a 1D gas dynamic code to solve the unsteady flow state in the volute, consequently used as the input for a meanline model to evaluate the instantaneous turbine power. The key in the effectiveness of this methodology relies on the synchronisation of the flow
Gancedo, Matthieu; Gutmark, Ephraim; Guillou, Erwann
2016-02-01
Turbocharging reciprocating engines is a viable solution in order to meet the new regulations for emissions and fuel efficiency in part because turbochargers allow to use smaller, more efficient engines (downsizing) while maintaining power. A major challenge is to match the flow range of a dynamic turbomachine (the centrifugal compressor in the turbocharger) with a positive displacement pump (the engine) as the flow range of the latter is typically higher. The operating range of the compressor is thus of prime interest. At low mass flow rate (MFR), the compressor range is limited by the occurrence of surge. To control and improve it, numerous and varied methods have been used. Yet, an automotive application requires that the solution remains relatively simple and preferably passive. A common feature that has been demonstrated to improve the surge line is the use of flow recirculation in the inducer region through a circumferential bleed slot around the shroud, also called "ported shroud", similar to what has been developed for axial compressors in the past. The compressor studied here features such a device. In order to better understand the effect of the recirculation slot on the compressor functioning, flow measurements were performed at the inlet using particle image velocimetry and the results were correlated with pressure measurements nearby. Measurements were taken on a compressor with and without recirculation and across the full range of normal operation and during surge using a phase-locking method to obtain average flow fields throughout the entire surge cycle. When the recirculation is blocked, it was found that strong backflow develops at low MFR perturbing the incoming flow and inducing significant preswirl. The slot eliminated most of the backflow in front of the inducer making the compressor operation more stable. The measurements performed during surge showed strong backflow occurring periodically during the outlet pressure drop and when the
Su, Chung-Ho
2017-01-01
Since recommendation systems possess the advantage of adaptive recommendation, they have gradually been applied to e-learning systems to recommend subsequent learning content for learners. However, problems exist in current learning recommender systems available to students in that they are often general learning content and unable to offer…
Geometry of multihadron production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bjorken, J.D.
1994-10-01
This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.
1996-01-01
Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.
Geometry of multihadron production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bjorken, J.D.
1994-10-01
This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions
Morris, Barbara H.
2004-01-01
This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…
Methods of information geometry
Amari, Shun-Ichi
2000-01-01
Information geometry provides the mathematical sciences with a new framework of analysis. It has emerged from the investigation of the natural differential geometric structure on manifolds of probability distributions, which consists of a Riemannian metric defined by the Fisher information and a one-parameter family of affine connections called the \\alpha-connections. The duality between the \\alpha-connection and the (-\\alpha)-connection together with the metric play an essential role in this geometry. This kind of duality, having emerged from manifolds of probability distributions, is ubiquitous, appearing in a variety of problems which might have no explicit relation to probability theory. Through the duality, it is possible to analyze various fundamental problems in a unified perspective. The first half of this book is devoted to a comprehensive introduction to the mathematical foundation of information geometry, including preliminaries from differential geometry, the geometry of manifolds or probability d...
Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Peng [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Department of Information, Hangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Fang-Fang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)
2016-08-15
Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of the non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can easily be rephrased in terms of Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to arrive at the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained transformation, we use it to induce a geometric structure which may be seen as a particular non-relativistic version of the Weyl integrable geometry. (orig.)
Differential geometry and mathematical physics
Rudolph, Gerd
Starting from an undergraduate level, this book systematically develops the basics of • Calculus on manifolds, vector bundles, vector fields and differential forms, • Lie groups and Lie group actions, • Linear symplectic algebra and symplectic geometry, • Hamiltonian systems, symmetries and reduction, integrable systems and Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The topics listed under the first item are relevant for virtually all areas of mathematical physics. The second and third items constitute the link between abstract calculus and the theory of Hamiltonian systems. The last item provides an introduction to various aspects of this theory, including Morse families, the Maslov class and caustics. The book guides the reader from elementary differential geometry to advanced topics in the theory of Hamiltonian systems with the aim of making current research literature accessible. The style is that of a mathematical textbook,with full proofs given in the text or as exercises. The material is illustrated by numerous d...
Steady state performance evaluation of variable geometry twin-entry turbine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romagnoli, A.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.; Rajoo, S.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation conducted on different turbine designs for an automotive turbocharger. The design progression was based on a commercial nozzleless unit that was modified into a variable geometry single and twin-entry turbine. The main geometrical parameters were kept constant for all the configurations and the turbine was tested under steady flow conditions. A significant depreciation in efficiency was measured between the single and twin-entry configuration due to the mixing effects. The nozzleless unit provides the best compromise in terms of performance at different speeds. The twin-entry turbine was also tested under partial and unequal admissions. Based on the test results a method to determine the swallowing capacity under partial admission given the full admission map is presented. The test results also showed that the turbine swallowing capacity under unequal admission is linked to the full admission case.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tosun Erdi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This study was aimed at estimating the variation of several engine control parameters within the rotational speed-load map, using regression analysis and artificial neural network techniques. Duration of injection, specific fuel consumption, exhaust gas at turbine inlet, and within the catalytic converter brick were chosen as the output parameters for the models, while engine speed and brake mean effective pressure were selected as independent variables for prediction. Measurements were performed on a turbocharged direct injection spark ignition engine fueled with gasoline. A three-layer feed-forward structure and back-propagation algorithm was used for training the artificial neural network. It was concluded that this technique is capable of predicting engine parameters with better accuracy than linear and non-linear regression techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksander HORNIK
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This article presented the numeric computations of non-stationary heat flow in the form of distribution of temperature fields on characteristic surfaces of the piston for two different rotational speeds for the same engine load during 60 seconds during in which the engine worked. The object of research was a turbocharged Diesel engine with a direct fuel injection to the combustion chamber and the engine cubic capacity that is 2390 [cm3] and power rating, which is 85 [kW]. The numeric computations were carried out by the use of the finite element method (FEM with the help of COSMOS/M software and the use of the two – zone combustion model.
An experimental study of passive regenerator geometries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini
2011-01-01
Active magnetic regenerative (AMR) systems are being investigated because they represent a potentially attractive alternative to vapor compression technology. The performance of these systems is dependent on the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of the regenerator geometry. Therefore th...
Planetary Image Geometry Library
Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg
2010-01-01
The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A
Effect of DMDF on the PM emission from a turbo-charged diesel engine with DDOC and DPOC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geng, Peng; Yao, Chunde; Wang, Quangang; Wei, Lijiang; Liu, Junheng; Pan, Wang; Han, Guopeng
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A new technical route on the reductions of smoke emissions and PM was introduced. • Smoke emissions and PM from turbo-charged diesel engine with DMDF were measured. • Interior relation on dry-soot, smoke opacity and PM was analyzed. • Effects of DMDF, DDOC and DPOC on smoke emissions and PM were investigated. • Particle number and mass concentrations and size contribution with DMDF were realized. - Abstract: This study is aimed to investigate the combined application of diesel methanol dual fuel (DMDF) and a simple after-treatment for reducing particulate matter (PM) emissions of a diesel engine. The effects of DMDF, a double diesel oxidation catalyst (DDOC) and a DOC closely coupled with a particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) in series (DPOC) on smoke emissions, particulate mass and number concentrations and size distributions were analyzed. Tests were conducted on a 4-cylinder turbo-charged, inter-cooling, mechanical in-line fuel injection pump diesel engine modified to DMDF combustion mode. Testing results showed that, before the DDOC and the DPOC, the dry-soot and smoke opacity efficiency decreases with the increase of substitution ratio of methanol at high engine load. There is a significant decrease of smoke opacity in DMDF mode after the DDOC, while the DPOC has a significant effect on the reduction in dry-soot emission. There is an average reduction in dry-soot by 25% in pure diesel fuel mode after the DDOC, while in DMDF mode, the average reduction is more than 60%, and the maximum reduction in dry-soot is up to 96%. There is a slightly reduction in PM emissions at low substitution ratio of methanol, while the high substitution ratio of methanol leads to more reduction in PM emissions. After the DDOC and the DPOC, particulate number and mass concentrations, especially nuclear particles, can be significantly reduced when the exhaust gas temperature is enough high
Geometry on the space of geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christodoulakis, T.; Zanelli, J.
1988-06-01
We discuss the geometric structure of the configuration space of pure gravity. This is an infinite dimensional manifold, M, where each point represents one spatial geometry g ij (x). The metric on M is dictated by geometrodynamics, and from it, the Christoffel symbols and Riemann tensor can be found. A ''free geometry'' tracing a geodesic on the manifold describes the time evolution of space in the strong gravity limit. In a regularization previously introduced by the authors, it is found that M does not have the same dimensionality, D, everywhere, and that D is not a scalar, although it is covariantly constant. In this regularization, it is seen that the path integral measure can be absorbed in a renormalization of the cosmological constant. (author). 19 refs
Fractal geometry of high temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosolov, A.B.
1989-01-01
Microstructural geometry of superconducting structural composites of Ag-Yba 2 Cu 3 O x system with a volumetric shave of silver from 0 to 60% is investigated by light and electron microscopy methods. It is ascertained that the structure of cermets investigated is characterized by fractal geometry which is sufficient for describing the electrical and mechanical properties of these materials
MO-DE-207A-06: ECG-Gated CT Reconstruction for a C-Arm Inverse Geometry X-Ray System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slagowski, JM; Dunkerley, DAP [MA Speidel, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To obtain ECG-gated CT images from truncated projection data acquired with a C-arm based inverse geometry fluoroscopy system, for the purpose of cardiac chamber mapping in interventional procedures. Methods: Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system with a scanned multisource x-ray tube and a photon-counting detector mounted to a C-arm. In the proposed method, SBDX short-scan rotational acquisition is performed followed by inverse geometry CT (IGCT) reconstruction and segmentation of contrast-enhanced objects. The prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) framework was adapted for IGCT reconstruction to mitigate artifacts arising from data truncation and angular undersampling due to cardiac gating. The performance of the reconstruction algorithm was evaluated in numerical simulations of truncated and non-truncated thorax phantoms containing a dynamic ellipsoid to represent a moving cardiac chamber. The eccentricity of the ellipsoid was varied at frequencies from 1–1.5 Hz. Projection data were retrospectively sorted into 13 cardiac phases. Each phase was reconstructed using IGCT-PICCS, with a nongated gridded FBP (gFBP) prior image. Surface accuracy was determined using Dice similarity coefficient and a histogram of the point distances between the segmented surface and ground truth surface. Results: The gated IGCT-PICCS algorithm improved surface accuracy and reduced streaking and truncation artifacts when compared to nongated gFBP. For the non-truncated thorax with 1.25 Hz motion, 99% of segmented surface points were within 0.3 mm of the 15 mm diameter ground truth ellipse, versus 1.0 mm for gFBP. For the truncated thorax phantom with a 40 mm diameter ellipse, IGCT-PICCS surface accuracy measured 0.3 mm versus 7.8 mm for gFBP. Dice similarity coefficient was 0.99–1.00 (IGCT-PICCS) versus 0.63–0.75 (gFBP) for intensity-based segmentation thresholds ranging from 25–75% maximum contrast. Conclusions: The
Complex and symplectic geometry
Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano
2017-01-01
This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.
Kulczycki, Stefan
2008-01-01
This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miccoli, I; Edler, F; Pfnür, H; Tegenkamp, C
2015-01-01
The electrical conductivity of solid-state matter is a fundamental physical property and can be precisely derived from the resistance measured via the four-point probe technique excluding contributions from parasitic contact resistances. Over time, this method has become an interdisciplinary characterization tool in materials science, semiconductor industries, geology, physics, etc, and is employed for both fundamental and application-driven research. However, the correct derivation of the conductivity is a demanding task which faces several difficulties, e.g. the homogeneity of the sample or the isotropy of the phases. In addition, these sample-specific characteristics are intimately related to technical constraints such as the probe geometry and size of the sample. In particular, the latter is of importance for nanostructures which can now be probed technically on very small length scales. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the four-point probe technique, introduced by Frank Wenner, in this review we revisit and discuss various correction factors which are mandatory for an accurate derivation of the resistivity from the measured resistance. Among others, sample thickness, dimensionality, anisotropy, and the relative size and geometry of the sample with respect to the contact assembly are considered. We are also able to derive the correction factors for 2D anisotropic systems on circular finite areas with variable probe spacings. All these aspects are illustrated by state-of-the-art experiments carried out using a four-tip STM/SEM system. We are aware that this review article can only cover some of the most important topics. Regarding further aspects, e.g. technical realizations, the influence of inhomogeneities or different transport regimes, etc, we refer to other review articles in this field. (topical review)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis Carlos Ruiloba
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to show how numerical modelling based on 2D SWE can be used to analyze the cleaning effectiveness of flushing waves in storm tanks. The case study under consideration is an existing storm tank located in Badalona, a municipality of Barcelona, Spain. Storm tank cleaning systems are critical features that must be carefully addressed. If not appropriately addressed, operation and maintenance work costs can drastically increase. There are numerous currently available technologies for cleaning storage tanks. However, no specific guide on this field has been identified. References are provided by the manufacturers through their commercial catalogues. Generally, this information is not based on experimental or numerical experiences or results have not been published in the literature of scientific papers. In this study, a public domain software (IBER was used to develop 2D hydraulic analysis of the selected tank. The results obtained show how the phenomenon of recirculation is acting in some areas of the lane. This implies a dissipation of energy, thus causing difficulties in terms of cleaning procedures. Furthermore, two new scenarios have been tested to determine how a different lane width might affect hydrodynamic behavior. A newly suggested geometry for the existing lane of the tank is proposed by using the numerical modeling software. The proposed geometry in the current pilot tank achieves higher velocities and avoids recirculation areas. The results demonstrate that numerical modelling of these types of processes is possible with the computer models available (commercial codes and can be used to optimize cleaning system design.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mazzucco, Andrea; Dornheim, Martin; Sloth, Michael
2014-01-01
This review presents recent developments for effective heat management systems to be integrated in metal hydride storage tanks, and investigates the performance improvements and limitations of each particular solution. High pressures and high temperatures metal hydrides can lead to different design...... given to metal hydride storage tanks for light duty vehicles, since this application is the most promising one for such storage materials and has been widely studied in the literature. Enhancing cooling/heating during hydrogen uptake and discharge has found to be essential to improve storage systems...
Seslija, Marko; van der Schaft, Arjan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.
This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce a simplicial Dirac structure as a discrete analogue of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Capone
2015-02-01
benefits and the troubles. From a methodological point of view this is our workflow: - theoretical study about geometrical configuration of rib vault systems; - 3D model based on theoretical hypothesis about geometric definition of the vaults' form; - 3D model based on image matching 3D reconstruction methods; - comparison between 3D theoretical model and 3D model based on image matching;
Machine learning spatial geometry from entanglement features
You, Yi-Zhuang; Yang, Zhao; Qi, Xiao-Liang
2018-02-01
Motivated by the close relations of the renormalization group with both the holography duality and the deep learning, we propose that the holographic geometry can emerge from deep learning the entanglement feature of a quantum many-body state. We develop a concrete algorithm, call the entanglement feature learning (EFL), based on the random tensor network (RTN) model for the tensor network holography. We show that each RTN can be mapped to a Boltzmann machine, trained by the entanglement entropies over all subregions of a given quantum many-body state. The goal is to construct the optimal RTN that best reproduce the entanglement feature. The RTN geometry can then be interpreted as the emergent holographic geometry. We demonstrate the EFL algorithm on a 1D free fermion system and observe the emergence of the hyperbolic geometry (AdS3 spatial geometry) as we tune the fermion system towards the gapless critical point (CFT2 point).
Roe, John
2003-01-01
Coarse geometry is the study of spaces (particularly metric spaces) from a 'large scale' point of view, so that two spaces that look the same from a great distance are actually equivalent. This point of view is effective because it is often true that the relevant geometric properties of metric spaces are determined by their coarse geometry. Two examples of important uses of coarse geometry are Gromov's beautiful notion of a hyperbolic group and Mostow's proof of his famous rigidity theorem. The first few chapters of the book provide a general perspective on coarse structures. Even when only metric coarse structures are in view, the abstract framework brings the same simplification as does the passage from epsilons and deltas to open sets when speaking of continuity. The middle section reviews notions of negative curvature and rigidity. Modern interest in large scale geometry derives in large part from Mostow's rigidity theorem and from Gromov's subsequent 'large scale' rendition of the crucial properties of n...
Lectures on Symplectic Geometry
Silva, Ana Cannas
2001-01-01
The goal of these notes is to provide a fast introduction to symplectic geometry for graduate students with some knowledge of differential geometry, de Rham theory and classical Lie groups. This text addresses symplectomorphisms, local forms, contact manifolds, compatible almost complex structures, Kaehler manifolds, hamiltonian mechanics, moment maps, symplectic reduction and symplectic toric manifolds. It contains guided problems, called homework, designed to complement the exposition or extend the reader's understanding. There are by now excellent references on symplectic geometry, a subset of which is in the bibliography of this book. However, the most efficient introduction to a subject is often a short elementary treatment, and these notes attempt to serve that purpose. This text provides a taste of areas of current research and will prepare the reader to explore recent papers and extensive books on symplectic geometry where the pace is much faster. For this reprint numerous corrections and cl...
Kollár, János
1997-01-01
This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby
2002-01-01
The subject of this Ph.D.-thesis is somewhere in between continuous and discrete geometry. Chapter 2 treats the geometry of finite point sets in semi-Riemannian hyperquadrics,using a matrix whose entries are a trigonometric function of relative distances in a given point set. The distance...... to the geometry of a simplex in a semi-Riemannian hyperquadric. In chapter 3 we study which finite metric spaces that are realizable in a hyperbolic space in the limit where curvature goes to -∞. We show that such spaces are the so called leaf spaces, the set of degree 1 vertices of weighted trees. We also...... establish results on the limiting geometry of such an isometrically realized leaf space simplex in hyperbolic space, when curvature goes to -∞. Chapter 4 discusses negative type of metric spaces. We give a measure theoretic treatment of this concept and related invariants. The theory developed...
Busemann, Herbert
2005-01-01
A comprehensive approach to qualitative problems in intrinsic differential geometry, this text examines Desarguesian spaces, perpendiculars and parallels, covering spaces, the influence of the sign of the curvature on geodesics, more. 1955 edition. Includes 66 figures.
Tabachnikov, Serge
2005-01-01
Mathematical billiards describe the motion of a mass point in a domain with elastic reflections off the boundary or, equivalently, the behavior of rays of light in a domain with ideally reflecting boundary. From the point of view of differential geometry, the billiard flow is the geodesic flow on a manifold with boundary. This book is devoted to billiards in their relation with differential geometry, classical mechanics, and geometrical optics. The topics covered include variational principles of billiard motion, symplectic geometry of rays of light and integral geometry, existence and nonexistence of caustics, optical properties of conics and quadrics and completely integrable billiards, periodic billiard trajectories, polygonal billiards, mechanisms of chaos in billiard dynamics, and the lesser-known subject of dual (or outer) billiards. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate topics course (but contains more material than can be realistically taught in one semester). Although the minimum prerequisit...
Introduction to tropical geometry
Maclagan, Diane
2015-01-01
Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...
Rudiments of algebraic geometry
Jenner, WE
2017-01-01
Aimed at advanced undergraduate students of mathematics, this concise text covers the basics of algebraic geometry. Topics include affine spaces, projective spaces, rational curves, algebraic sets with group structure, more. 1963 edition.
Bhatia, Rajendra
2013-01-01
This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR). During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.
Implosions and hypertoric geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dancer, A.; Kirwan, F.; Swann, A.
2013-01-01
The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion.......The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion....
Ceresole, Anna; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio
2013-01-01
We analyze some properties of the four dimensional supergravity theories which originate from five dimensions upon reduction. They generalize to N>2 extended supersymmetries the d-geometries with cubic prepotentials, familiar from N=2 special K\\"ahler geometry. We emphasize the role of a suitable parametrization of the scalar fields and the corresponding triangular symplectic basis. We also consider applications to the first order flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalligiannaki, Evangelia; Harmandaris, Vagelis; Katsoulakis, Markos A.; Plecháč, Petr
2015-01-01
Using the probabilistic language of conditional expectations, we reformulate the force matching method for coarse-graining of molecular systems as a projection onto spaces of coarse observables. A practical outcome of this probabilistic description is the link of the force matching method with thermodynamic integration. This connection provides a way to systematically construct a local mean force and to optimally approximate the potential of mean force through force matching. We introduce a generalized force matching condition for the local mean force in the sense that allows the approximation of the potential of mean force under both linear and non-linear coarse graining mappings (e.g., reaction coordinates, end-to-end length of chains). Furthermore, we study the equivalence of force matching with relative entropy minimization which we derive for general non-linear coarse graining maps. We present in detail the generalized force matching condition through applications to specific examples in molecular systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalligiannaki, Evangelia, E-mail: ekalligian@tem.uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Harmandaris, Vagelis, E-mail: harman@uoc.gr [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Crete, 70013 Heraklion (Greece); Institute of Applied and Computational Mathematics (IACM), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), IACM/FORTH, GR-71110 Heraklion (Greece); Katsoulakis, Markos A., E-mail: markos@math.umass.edu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Plecháč, Petr, E-mail: plechac@math.udel.edu [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)
2015-08-28
Using the probabilistic language of conditional expectations, we reformulate the force matching method for coarse-graining of molecular systems as a projection onto spaces of coarse observables. A practical outcome of this probabilistic description is the link of the force matching method with thermodynamic integration. This connection provides a way to systematically construct a local mean force and to optimally approximate the potential of mean force through force matching. We introduce a generalized force matching condition for the local mean force in the sense that allows the approximation of the potential of mean force under both linear and non-linear coarse graining mappings (e.g., reaction coordinates, end-to-end length of chains). Furthermore, we study the equivalence of force matching with relative entropy minimization which we derive for general non-linear coarse graining maps. We present in detail the generalized force matching condition through applications to specific examples in molecular systems.
Cu2+ in layered compounds: origin of the compressed geometry in the model system K2ZnF4:Cu2+.
Aramburu, J A; García-Lastra, J M; García-Fernández, P; Barriuso, M T; Moreno, M
2013-06-17
Many relevant properties (including superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance) of layered materials containing Cu(2+), Ag(2+), or Mn(3+) ions are commonly related to the Jahn-Teller instability. Along this line, the properties of the CuF6(4-) complex in the K2ZnF4 layered perovskite have recently been analyzed using a parametrized Jahn-Teller model with an imposed strain [Reinen, D. Inorg. Chem.2012, 51, 4458]. Here, we present results of ab initio periodic supercell and cluster calculations on K2ZnF4:Cu(2+), showing unequivocally that the actual origin of the unusual compressed geometry of the CuF6(4-) complex along the crystal c axis in that tetragonal lattice is due to the presence of an electric field due to the crystal surrounding the impurity. Our calculations closely reproduce the experimental optical spectrum. The calculated values of the equilibrium equatorial and axial Cu(2+)-F(-) distances are, respectively, R(ax) = 193 pm and R(eq) = 204 pm, and so the calculated distortion R(ax) - R(eq) = 11 pm is three times smaller than the estimated through the parametrized Jahn-Teller model. As a salient feature, we find that if the CuF6(4-) complex would assume a perfect octahedral geometry (R(ax) = R(eq) = 203 pm) the antibonding a(1g)*(∼3z(2) - r(2)) orbital is placed above b(1g)*(∼x(2) - y(2)) with a transition energy E((2)A(1g) → (2)B(1g)) = 0.34 eV. This surprising fact stresses that about half the experimental value E((2)A(1g) → (2)B(1g)) = 0.70 eV is not due to the small shortening of the axial Cu(2+)-F(-) distance, but it comes from the electric field, E(R)(r), created by the rest of the lattice ions on the CuF6(4-) complex. This internal field, displaying tetragonal symmetry, is thus responsible for the compressed geometry in K2ZnF4:Cu(2+) and the lack of symmetry breaking behind the ligand relaxation. Moreover, we show that the electronic energy gain in this process comes from bonding orbitals and not from antibonding ones. The present
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborne, I; Brownson, E; Eulisse, G; Jones, C D; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Lange, D J
2014-01-01
CMS faces real challenges with upgrade of the CMS detector through 2020 and beyond. One of the challenges, from the software point of view, is managing upgrade simulations with the same software release as the 2013 scenario. We present the CMS geometry description software model, its integration with the CMS event setup and core software. The CMS geometry configuration and selection is implemented in Python. The tools collect the Python configuration fragments into a script used in CMS workflow. This flexible and automated geometry configuration allows choosing either transient or persistent version of the same scenario and specific version of the same scenario. We describe how the geometries are integrated and validated, and how we define and handle different geometry scenarios in simulation and reconstruction. We discuss how to transparently manage multiple incompatible geometries in the same software release. Several examples are shown based on current implementation assuring consistent choice of scenario conditions. The consequences and implications for multiple/different code algorithms are discussed.
Software Geometry in Simulations
Alion, Tyler; Viren, Brett; Junk, Tom
2015-04-01
The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) involves many detectors. The experiment's near detector (ND) facility, may ultimately involve several detectors. The far detector (FD) will be significantly larger than any other Liquid Argon (LAr) detector yet constructed; many prototype detectors are being constructed and studied to motivate a plethora of proposed FD designs. Whether it be a constructed prototype or a proposed ND/FD design, every design must be simulated and analyzed. This presents a considerable challenge to LBNE software experts; each detector geometry must be described to the simulation software in an efficient way which allows for multiple authors to easily collaborate. Furthermore, different geometry versions must be tracked throughout their use. We present a framework called General Geometry Description (GGD), written and developed by LBNE software collaborators for managing software to generate geometries. Though GGD is flexible enough to be used by any experiment working with detectors, we present it's first use in generating Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) files to interface with LArSoft, a framework of detector simulations, event reconstruction, and data analyses written for all LAr technology users at Fermilab. Brett is the other of the framework discussed here, the General Geometry Description (GGD).
An approach for management of geometry data
Dube, R. P.; Herron, G. J.; Schweitzer, J. E.; Warkentine, E. R.
1980-01-01
The strategies for managing Integrated Programs for Aerospace Design (IPAD) computer-based geometry are described. The computer model of geometry is the basis for communication, manipulation, and analysis of shape information. IPAD's data base system makes this information available to all authorized departments in a company. A discussion of the data structures and algorithms required to support geometry in IPIP (IPAD's data base management system) is presented. Through the use of IPIP's data definition language, the structure of the geometry components is defined. The data manipulation language is the vehicle by which a user defines an instance of the geometry. The manipulation language also allows a user to edit, query, and manage the geometry. The selection of canonical forms is a very important part of the IPAD geometry. IPAD has a canonical form for each entity and provides transformations to alternate forms; in particular, IPAD will provide a transformation to the ANSI standard. The DBMS schemas required to support IPAD geometry are explained.
Systematics of IIB spinorial geometry
Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.
2005-01-01
We reduce the classification of all supersymmetric backgrounds of IIB supergravity to the evaluation of the Killing spinor equations and their integrability conditions, which contain the field equations, on five types of spinors. This extends the work of [hep-th/0503046] to IIB supergravity. We give the expressions of the Killing spinor equations on all five types of spinors. In this way, the Killing spinor equations become a linear system for the fluxes, geometry and spacetime derivatives of...
Global aspects of complex geometry
Catanese, Fabrizio; Huckleberry, Alan T
2006-01-01
Present an overview of developments in Complex Geometry. This book covers topics that range from curve and surface theory through special varieties in higher dimensions, moduli theory, Kahler geometry, and group actions to Hodge theory and characteristic p-geometry.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maruyama, R., E-mail: ryuji.maruyama@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Bigault, T.; Wildes, A.R.; Dewhurst, C.D. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Soyama, K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Courtois, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)
2016-05-21
The in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system with a polycrystalline grain size less than the ferromagnetic exchange length was investigated using polarized neutron off-specular scattering and grazing incidence small angle scattering measurements to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the magnetic properties which are different from the bulk. These complementary measurements with different length scales and the data analysis based on the distorted wave Born approximation revealed the lateral correlation on a length scale of sub- μm due to the fluctuating orientation of the magnetization in the layer. The obtained in-plane magnetic structure is consistent with the random anisotropy model, i.e. competition between the exchange interactions between neighboring spins and the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.
Monte Carlo simulation of ÃÂ² ÃÂ³ coincidence system using plastic scintillators in 4ÃÂ geometry
Dias, M. S.; Piuvezam-Filho, H.; Baccarelli, A. M.; Takeda, M. N.; Koskinas, M. F.
2007-09-01
A modified version of a Monte Carlo code called Esquema, developed at the Nuclear Metrology Laboratory in IPEN, São Paulo, Brazil, has been applied for simulating a 4 πβ(PS)-γ coincidence system designed for primary radionuclide standardisation. This system consists of a plastic scintillator in 4 π geometry, for alpha or electron detection, coupled to a NaI(Tl) counter for gamma-ray detection. The response curves for monoenergetic electrons and photons have been calculated previously by Penelope code and applied as input data to code Esquema. The latter code simulates all the disintegration processes, from the precursor nucleus to the ground state of the daughter radionuclide. As a result, the curve between the observed disintegration rate as a function of the beta efficiency parameter can be simulated. A least-squares fit between the experimental activity values and the Monte Carlo calculation provided the actual radioactive source activity, without need of conventional extrapolation procedures. Application of this methodology to 60Co and 133Ba radioactive sources is presented and showed results in good agreement with a conventional proportional counter 4 πβ(PC)-γ coincidence system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brahmia, A.; Hani, A.; Lamouroux, C.
2009-01-01
The goal of the present survey is the determination of the shape of Terraguelt graben aquifer system. The gravimetric survey brings a satisfactory answer in this sense that the residual anomaly map made appear a negative anomaly of - 20 m Gals and that the gradient delimits the Graben enough well. The electric survey on the basis of the geologic information and the few mechanical boring achieved in the plain permits to retail the facies of the replenishment better. Indeed some either the length of the current electrode AB line, the center of the plain makes appear of weak values of apparent resistivity, the shalky limestone substratum of age superior Maestrichien is not reached in spite of a length of AB line = 3000 m. Whereas the borders appear with resistivities more important, in the center of the plain these last become more and more weak with the increase of the AB length. The shape of the Graben is illustrated well in the electric cross sections and is confirmed by the interrelationship of the lithostratigraphique columns of the mechanical boring. The interpretation of mechanical boring data shows two principals aquifers : the first one is included in the karstified limestone of upper Maestrichien and the second one is in the replenishment constituted by sand, and gravel, pebble. This replenishment is estimated at 1200 m thickness. The piezo metric maps shows that the aquifers are feeded from the the East and South mountains borders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khaneja, Navin; Brockett, Roger; Glaser, Steffen J.
2002-01-01
Radio-frequency pulses are used in nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy to produce unitary transfer of states. Pulse sequences that accomplish a desired transfer should be as short as possible in order to minimize the effects of relaxation, and to optimize the sensitivity of the experiments. Many coherence-transfer experiments in NMR, involving a network of coupled spins, use temporary spin decoupling to produce desired effective Hamiltonians. In this paper, we demonstrate that significant time can be saved in producing an effective Hamiltonian if spin decoupling is avoided. We provide time-optimal pulse sequences for producing an important class of effective Hamiltonians in three-spin networks. These effective Hamiltonians are useful for coherence-transfer experiments in three-spin systems and implementation of indirect swap and Λ 2 (U) gates in the context of NMR quantum computing. It is shown that computing these time-optimal pulses can be reduced to geometric problems that involve computing sub-Riemannian geodesics. Using these geometric ideas, explicit expressions for the minimum time required for producing these effective Hamiltonians, transfer of coherence, and implementation of indirect swap gates, in a three-spin network are derived (Theorems 1 and 2). It is demonstrated that geometric control techniques provide a systematic way of finding time-optimal pulse sequences for transferring coherence and synthesizing unitary transformations in quantum networks, with considerable time savings (e.g., 42.3% for constructing indirect swap gates)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne M. Hofmeister
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Galactic mass consistent with luminous mass is obtained by fitting rotation curves (RC = tangential velocities vs. equatorial radius r using Newtonian force models, or can be unambiguously calculated from RC data using a model based on spin. In contrast, mass exceeding luminous mass is obtained from multi-parameter fits using potentials associated with test particles orbiting in a disk around a central mass. To understand this disparity, we explore the premises of these mainstream disk potential models utilizing the theorem of Gauss, thermodynamic concepts of Gibbs, the findings of Newton and Maclaurin, and well-established techniques and results from analytical mathematics. Mainstream models assume that galactic density in the axial (z and r directions varies independently: we show that this is untrue for self-gravitating objects. Mathematics and thermodynamic principles each show that modifying Poisson’s equation by summing densities is in error. Neither do mainstream models differentiate between interior and exterior potentials, which is required by potential theory and has been recognized in seminal astronomical literature. The theorem of Gauss shows that: (1 density in Poisson’s equation must be averaged over the interior volume; (2 logarithmic gravitational potentials implicitly assume that mass forms a long, line source along the z axis, unlike any astronomical object; and (3 gravitational stability for three-dimensional shapes is limited to oblate spheroids or extremely tall cylinders, whereas other shapes are prone to collapse. Our findings suggest a mechanism for the formation of the flattened Solar System and of spiral galaxies from gas clouds. The theorem of Gauss offers many advantages over Poisson’s equation in analyzing astronomical problems because mass, not density, is the key parameter.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lacaze, Guilhem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Oefelein, Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-03-01
Large-eddy-simulation (LES) is quickly becoming a method of choice for studying complex thermo-physics in a wide range of propulsion and power systems. It provides a means to study coupled turbulent combustion and flow processes in parameter spaces that are unattainable using direct-numerical-simulation (DNS), with a degree of fidelity that can be far more accurate than conventional engineering methods such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approx- imation. However, development of predictive LES is complicated by the complex interdependence of different type of errors coming from numerical methods, algorithms, models and boundary con- ditions. On the other hand, control of accuracy has become a critical aspect in the development of predictive LES for design. The objective of this project is to create a framework of metrics aimed at quantifying the quality and accuracy of state-of-the-art LES in a manner that addresses the myriad of competing interdependencies. In a typical simulation cycle, only 20% of the computational time is actually usable. The rest is spent in case preparation, assessment, and validation, because of the lack of guidelines. This work increases confidence in the accuracy of a given solution while min- imizing the time obtaining the solution. The approach facilitates control of the tradeoffs between cost, accuracy, and uncertainties as a function of fidelity and methods employed. The analysis is coupled with advanced Uncertainty Quantification techniques employed to estimate confidence in model predictions and calibrate model's parameters. This work has provided positive conse- quences on the accuracy of the results delivered by LES and will soon have a broad impact on research supported both by the DOE and elsewhere.
Special metrics and group actions in geometry
Fino, Anna; Musso, Emilio; Podestà, Fabio; Vezzoni, Luigi
2017-01-01
The volume is a follow-up to the INdAM meeting “Special metrics and quaternionic geometry” held in Rome in November 2015. It offers a panoramic view of a selection of cutting-edge topics in differential geometry, including 4-manifolds, quaternionic and octonionic geometry, twistor spaces, harmonic maps, spinors, complex and conformal geometry, homogeneous spaces and nilmanifolds, special geometries in dimensions 5–8, gauge theory, symplectic and toric manifolds, exceptional holonomy and integrable systems. The workshop was held in honor of Simon Salamon, a leading international scholar at the forefront of academic research who has made significant contributions to all these subjects. The articles published here represent a compelling testimony to Salamon’s profound and longstanding impact on the mathematical community. Target readership includes graduate students and researchers working in Riemannian and complex geometry, Lie theory and mathematical physics.
Grimes, T. F.; Hagen, A. R.; Archambault, B. C.; Taleyarkhan, R. P.
2018-03-01
This paper describes the development of a SNM detection system for interrogating 1m3 cargos via the combination of a D-D neutron interrogation source (with and without reflectors) and tensioned metastable fluid detectors (TMFDs). TMFDs have been previously shown (Taleyarkhan et al., 2008; Grimes et al., 2015; Grimes and Taleyarkhan, 2016; Archambault et al., 2017; Hagen et al., 2016) to be capable of using Threshold Energy Neutron Analysis (TENA) techniques to reject the ∼2.45 MeV D-D interrogating neutrons while still remaining sensitive to >2.45 MeV neutrons resulting from fission in the target (HEU) material. In order to enhance the performance, a paraffin reflector was included around the accelerator head. This reflector was used to direct neutrons into the package to increase the fission signal, lower the energy of the interrogating neutrons to increase the fission cross-section with HEU, and, also to direct interrogating neutrons away from the detectors in order to enhance the required discrimination between interrogating and fission neutrons. Experiments performed with a 239 Pu-Be neutron source and MnO2 indicated that impressive performance gains could be made by placing a parabolic paraffin moderator between the interrogation source and an air-filled cargo container with HEU placed at the center. However, experiments with other cargo fillers (as specified in the well-known ANSI N42.41-2007 report), and with HEU placed in locations other than the center of the package indicated that other reflector geometries might be superior due to over-"focusing" and the increased solid angle effects due to the accommodation of the moderator geometry. The best performance for the worst case of source location and box fill was obtained by placing the reflector only behind the D-D neutron source rather than in front of it. Finally, it was shown that there could be significant gains in the ability to detect concealed SNM by operating the system in multiple geometric
Sources of hyperbolic geometry
Stillwell, John
1996-01-01
This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincaré that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue-not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincaré brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Po...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans
2006-01-01
We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23-30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity
Fractal geometry and computer graphics
Sakas, Georgios; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Englert, Gabriele
1992-01-01
Fractal geometry has become popular in the last 15 years, its applications can be found in technology, science, or even arts. Fractal methods and formalism are seen today as a general, abstract, but nevertheless practical instrument for the description of nature in a wide sense. But it was Computer Graphics which made possible the increasing popularity of fractals several years ago, and long after their mathematical formulation. The two disciplines are tightly linked. The book contains the scientificcontributions presented in an international workshop in the "Computer Graphics Center" in Darmstadt, Germany. The target of the workshop was to present the wide spectrum of interrelationships and interactions between Fractal Geometry and Computer Graphics. The topics vary from fundamentals and new theoretical results to various applications and systems development. All contributions are original, unpublished papers.The presentations have been discussed in two working groups; the discussion results, together with a...
Computational synthetic geometry
Bokowski, Jürgen
1989-01-01
Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...
Discrete and computational geometry
Devadoss, Satyan L
2011-01-01
Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...
Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.
2011-09-01
Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.
2002-01-01
Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...
Zheng, Fangyang
2002-01-01
The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...
Yale, Paul B
2012-01-01
This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi
A geometry calibration method for rotation translation trajectory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jun; Yan Bin; Li Lei; Lu Lizhong; Zhang Feng
2013-01-01
In cone-beam CT imaging system, it is difficult to directly measure the geometry parameters. In this paper, a geometry calibration method for rotation translation trajectory is proposed. Intrinsic parameters are solved from the relationship built on geometry parameter of the system and projection trajectory of calibration object. Parameters of rotation axis are extrapolated from the unified intrinsic parameter, and geometry parameters of the idle trajectory are acquired too. The calibration geometry can be analytically determined using explicit formulae, it can avoid getting into local optimum in iterative way. Simulation experiments are carried out on misaligned geometry, experiment results indicate that geometry artifacts due to misaligned geometry are effectively depressed by the proposed method, and the image quality is enhanced. (authors)
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Multiplicity in difference geometry
Tomasic, Ivan
2011-01-01
We prove a first principle of preservation of multiplicity in difference geometry, paving the way for the development of a more general intersection theory. In particular, the fibres of a \\sigma-finite morphism between difference curves are all of the same size, when counted with correct multiplicities.
Spacetime and Euclidean geometry
Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted
2006-04-01
Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopleva, N.P.
2009-01-01
The basic ideas of description methods of physical fields and elementary particle interactions are discussed. One of such ideas is the conception of space-time geometry. In this connection experimental measurement methods are analyzed. It is shown that measure procedures are the origin of geometrical axioms. The connection between space symmetry properties and the conservation laws is considered
Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan
2017-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…
MacKeown, P. K.
1984-01-01
Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm
2011-01-01
This paper applies I.M. Gelfand's distinction between adequate and non-adequate use of mathematical language in different contexts to the newly opened window of model-based measurements of intracellular dynamics. The specifics of geometry and dynamics on the mesoscale of cell physiology are elabo...
Diophantine geometry an introduction
Hindry, Marc
2000-01-01
This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.
Boyer, Carl B
2012-01-01
Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.
Coxeter, HSM
1965-01-01
This textbook introduces non-Euclidean geometry, and the third edition adds a new chapter, including a description of the two families of 'mid-lines' between two given lines and an elementary derivation of the basic formulae of spherical trigonometry and hyperbolic trigonometry, and other new material.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezin, J.P.
1988-08-01
The lectures given at the ''5th Symposium of Mathematics in Abidjan: Differential Geometry and Mechanics'' are presented. They are divided into four chapters: Riemannian metric on a differential manifold, curvature tensor fields on a Riemannian manifold, some classical functionals on Riemannian manifolds and questions. 11 refs
Hartshorne, Robin
2000-01-01
In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maulana Arifin
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is one of the most promising technology for small electric power generations. The geometry analysis and the effect of turbulence model on the radial turbo-expanders design for small ORC power generation systems were discussed in this paper. The rotor blades and performance were calculated using several working fluids such as R134a, R143a, R245fa, n-Pentane, and R123. Subsequently, a numerical study was carried out in the fluid flow area with R134a and R123 as the working fluids. Analyses were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD ANSYS Multiphysics on two real gas models, with the k-epsilon and SST (shear stress transport turbulence models. The result shows the distribution of Mach number, pressure, velocity and temperature along the rotor blade of the radial turbo-expanders and estimation of performance at various operating conditions. The operating conditions are as follow: 250,000 grid mesh flow area, real gas model SST at steady state condition, 0.4 kg/s of mass flow rate, 15,000 rpm rotor speed, 5 bar inlet pressure, and 373K inlet temperature. By using those conditions, CFD analysis shows that the turbo-expander able to produce 6.7 kW and 5.5 kW of power when using R134a and R123, respectively.
SABRINA, Geometry Plot Program for MCNP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SEIDL, Marcus
2003-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: SABRINA is an interactive, three-dimensional, geometry-modeling code system, primarily for use with CCC-200/MCNP. SABRINA's capabilities include creation, visualization, and verification of three-dimensional geometries specified by either surface- or body-base combinatorial geometry; display of particle tracks are calculated by MCNP; and volume fraction generation. 2 - Method of solution: Rendering is performed by ray tracing or an edge and intersection algorithm. Volume fraction calculations are made by ray tracing. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with X Window capability is required
Donaldson invariants in algebraic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goettsche, L.
2000-01-01
In these lectures I want to give an introduction to the relation of Donaldson invariants with algebraic geometry: Donaldson invariants are differentiable invariants of smooth compact 4-manifolds X, defined via moduli spaces of anti-self-dual connections. If X is an algebraic surface, then these moduli spaces can for a suitable choice of the metric be identified with moduli spaces of stable vector bundles on X. This can be used to compute Donaldson invariants via methods of algebraic geometry and has led to a lot of activity on moduli spaces of vector bundles and coherent sheaves on algebraic surfaces. We will first recall the definition of the Donaldson invariants via gauge theory. Then we will show the relation between moduli spaces of anti-self-dual connections and moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic surfaces, and how this makes it possible to compute Donaldson invariants via algebraic geometry methods. Finally we concentrate on the case that the number b + of positive eigenvalues of the intersection form on the second homology of the 4-manifold is 1. In this case the Donaldson invariants depend on the metric (or in the algebraic geometric case on the polarization) via a system of walls and chambers. We will study the change of the invariants under wall-crossing, and use this in particular to compute the Donaldson invariants of rational algebraic surfaces. (author)
MIFT: GIFT Combinatorial Geometry Input to VCS Code
1977-03-01
r-w w-^ H ^ß0318is CQ BRL °RCUMr REPORT NO. 1967 —-S: ... MIFT: GIFT COMBINATORIAL GEOMETRY INPUT TO VCS CODE Albert E...TITLE (and Subtitle) MIFT: GIFT Combinatorial Geometry Input to VCS Code S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED FINAL 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...Vehicle Code System (VCS) called MORSE was modified to accept the GIFT combinatorial geometry package. GIFT , as opposed to the geometry package
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Segura Q, E.
2013-07-01
In the diverse research areas of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) are different activities related to science and technology, one of great interest is the study and treatment of the collection and storage of radioactive waste. Therefore at ININ the draft on the simulation of the pollutants diffusion in the soil through a porous medium (third stage) has this problem inherent aspects, hence a need for such a situation is to generate the initial geometry of the physical system For the realization of the simulation method is implemented smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). This method runs in DualSPHysics code, which has great versatility and ability to simulate phenomena of any physical system where hydrodynamic aspects combine. In order to simulate a physical system DualSPHysics code, you need to preset the initial geometry of the system of interest, then this is included in the input file of the code. The simulation sets the initial geometry through regular geometric bodies positioned at different points in space. This was done through a programming language (Fortran, C + +, Java, etc..). This methodology will provide the basis to simulate more complex geometries future positions and form. (Author)
Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits.
Li, Bin; Yu, Zu-Huan; Fei, Shao-Ming
2013-01-01
Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is an important problem in quantum computation. By using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry, we investigate the efficient quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuits are essentially equivalent to the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry of SU(3(n)). As an example, three-qutrit systems are investigated in detail.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velo, A.F.; Alvarez, A.G.; Carvalho, D.V.S.; Fernandez, V.; Somessari, S.; Sprenger, F.F.; Hamada, M.M.; Mesquita, C.H., E-mail: chmesqui@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2017-07-01
This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP4C, of a multichannel third generation tomography system containing a two radioactive sources, {sup 192}Ir (316.5 - 468 KeV) and {sup 137}Cs (662 KeV), and a set of fifteen NaI(Tl) detectors, with dimensions of 1 inch diameter and 2 inches thick, in fan beam geometry, positioned diametrically opposite. Each detector moves 10 steps of 0,24 deg , totalizing 150 virtual detectors per projection, and then the system rotate 2 degrees. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the viability of this configuration. For this, a multiphase phantom containing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA ((ρ ≅ 1.19 g/cm{sup 3})), iron (ρ ≅ 7.874 g/cm{sup 3}), aluminum (ρ ≅ 2.6989 g/cm{sup 3}) and air (ρ ≅ 1.20479E-03 g/cm{sup 3}) was simulated. The simulated number of histories was 1.1E+09 per projection and the tally used were the F8, which gives the pulse height of each detector. The data obtained by the simulation was used to reconstruct the simulated phantom using the statistical iterative Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method Technique (ML-EM) algorithm. Each detector provides a gamma spectrum of the sources, and a pulse height analyzer (PHA) of 10% on the 316.5 KeV and 662 KeV photopeaks was performed. This technique provides two reconstructed images of the simulated phantom. The reconstructed images provided high spatial resolution, and it is supposed that the temporal resolution (spending time for one complete revolution) is about 2.5 hours. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velo, A.F.; Alvarez, A.G.; Carvalho, D.V.S.; Fernandez, V.; Somessari, S.; Sprenger, F.F.; Hamada, M.M.; Mesquita, C.H.
2017-01-01
This paper describes the Monte Carlo simulation, using MCNP4C, of a multichannel third generation tomography system containing a two radioactive sources, 192 Ir (316.5 - 468 KeV) and 137 Cs (662 KeV), and a set of fifteen NaI(Tl) detectors, with dimensions of 1 inch diameter and 2 inches thick, in fan beam geometry, positioned diametrically opposite. Each detector moves 10 steps of 0,24 deg , totalizing 150 virtual detectors per projection, and then the system rotate 2 degrees. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the viability of this configuration. For this, a multiphase phantom containing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA ((ρ ≅ 1.19 g/cm 3 )), iron (ρ ≅ 7.874 g/cm 3 ), aluminum (ρ ≅ 2.6989 g/cm 3 ) and air (ρ ≅ 1.20479E-03 g/cm 3 ) was simulated. The simulated number of histories was 1.1E+09 per projection and the tally used were the F8, which gives the pulse height of each detector. The data obtained by the simulation was used to reconstruct the simulated phantom using the statistical iterative Maximum Likelihood Estimation Method Technique (ML-EM) algorithm. Each detector provides a gamma spectrum of the sources, and a pulse height analyzer (PHA) of 10% on the 316.5 KeV and 662 KeV photopeaks was performed. This technique provides two reconstructed images of the simulated phantom. The reconstructed images provided high spatial resolution, and it is supposed that the temporal resolution (spending time for one complete revolution) is about 2.5 hours. (author)
Multivariate calculus and geometry
Dineen, Seán
2014-01-01
Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.
Transformational plane geometry
Umble, Ronald N
2014-01-01
Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...
Multilevel geometry optimization
Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.
2000-02-01
Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.
Multilevel geometry optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)
2000-02-15
Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.
Krauss, Lawrence M.; Turner, Michael S.
1999-01-01
The recognition that the cosmological constant may be non-zero forces us to re-evaluate standard notions about the connection between geometry and the fate of our Universe. An open Universe can recollapse, and a closed Universe can expand forever. As a corollary, we point out that there is no set of cosmological observations we can perform that will unambiguously allow us to determine what the ultimate destiny of the Universe will be.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob
2009-01-01
The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lepora, N.; Kibble, T.
1999-01-01
We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hull, C.M.
1993-01-01
The geometric structure of theories with gauge fields of spins two and higher should involve a higher spin generalisation of Riemannian geometry. Such geometries are discussed and the case of W ∝ -gravity is analysed in detail. While the gauge group for gravity in d dimensions is the diffeomorphism group of the space-time, the gauge group for a certain W-gravity theory (which is W ∝ -gravity in the case d=2) is the group of symplectic diffeomorphisms of the cotangent bundle of the space-time. Gauge transformations for W-gravity gauge fields are given by requiring the invariance of a generalised line element. Densities exist and can be constructed from the line element (generalising √detg μν ) only if d=1 or d=2, so that only for d=1,2 can actions be constructed. These two cases and the corresponding W-gravity actions are considered in detail. In d=2, the gauge group is effectively only a subgroup of the symplectic diffeomorphisms group. Some of the constraints that arise for d=2 are similar to equations arising in the study of self-dual four-dimensional geometries and can be analysed using twistor methods, allowing contact to be made with other formulations of W-gravity. While the twistor transform for self-dual spaces with one Killing vector reduces to a Legendre transform, that for two Killing vectors gives a generalisation of the Legendre transform. (orig.)
Integral geometry and valuations
Solanes, Gil
2014-01-01
Valuations are finitely additive functionals on the space of convex bodies. Their study has become a central subject in convexity theory, with fundamental applications to integral geometry. In the last years there has been significant progress in the theory of valuations, which in turn has led to important achievements in integral geometry. This book originated from two courses delivered by the authors at the CRM and provides a self-contained introduction to these topics, covering most of the recent advances. The first part, by Semyon Alesker, is devoted to the theory of convex valuations, with emphasis on the latest developments. A special focus is put on the new fundamental structures of the space of valuations discovered after Alesker's irreducibility theorem. Moreover, the author describes the newly developed theory of valuations on manifolds. In the second part, Joseph H. G. Fu gives a modern introduction to integral geometry in the sense of Blaschke and Santaló, based on the notions and tools presented...
CBM RICH geometry optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration
2016-07-01
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.
Introducing geometry concept based on history of Islamic geometry
Maarif, S.; Wahyudin; Raditya, A.; Perbowo, K. S.
2018-01-01
Geometry is one of the areas of mathematics interesting to discuss. Geometry also has a long history in mathematical developments. Therefore, it is important integrated historical development of geometry in the classroom to increase’ knowledge of how mathematicians earlier finding and constructing a geometric concept. Introduction geometrical concept can be started by introducing the Muslim mathematician who invented these concepts so that students can understand in detail how a concept of geometry can be found. However, the history of mathematics development, especially history of Islamic geometry today is less popular in the world of education in Indonesia. There are several concepts discovered by Muslim mathematicians that should be appreciated by the students in learning geometry. Great ideas of mathematicians Muslim can be used as study materials to supplement religious character values taught by Muslim mathematicians. Additionally, by integrating the history of geometry in teaching geometry are expected to improve motivation and geometrical understanding concept.
Algebra, Geometry and Mathematical Physics Conference
Paal, Eugen; Silvestrov, Sergei; Stolin, Alexander
2014-01-01
This book collects the proceedings of the Algebra, Geometry and Mathematical Physics Conference, held at the University of Haute Alsace, France, October 2011. Organized in the four areas of algebra, geometry, dynamical symmetries and conservation laws and mathematical physics and applications, the book covers deformation theory and quantization; Hom-algebras and n-ary algebraic structures; Hopf algebra, integrable systems and related math structures; jet theory and Weil bundles; Lie theory and applications; non-commutative and Lie algebra and more. The papers explore the interplay between research in contemporary mathematics and physics concerned with generalizations of the main structures of Lie theory aimed at quantization, and discrete and non-commutative extensions of differential calculus and geometry, non-associative structures, actions of groups and semi-groups, non-commutative dynamics, non-commutative geometry and applications in physics and beyond. The book benefits a broad audience of researchers a...
Two lectures on D-geometry and noncommutative geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, M.R.
1999-01-01
This is a write-up of lectures given at the 1998 Spring School at the Abdus Salam ICTP. We give a conceptual introduction to D-geometry, the study of geometry as seen by D-branes in string theory, and to noncommutative geometry as it has appeared in D-brane and Matrix theory physics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masood, M.I.
2015-01-01
in this work it is attempted to optimize the combustion parameters such as instantaneous heal release (IR), cylinder Pressure (P) and rate of change oj pressure per degree crank angle (dP/do)) and the emissions characteristics such as NOx and Smoke of 2 turbocharged direct injection (DI) compression ignition (Cl) engine alternatively run on pure biodiesel (Bl 00), diesel and biodiesel-diesel blend (B20: applying Grey Taguchi method (GTM), GTM is used to convert multi variables into a single objective function The process environment comprising three input parameters (speed of the engine, load and type of fuel:, were used in this case, The design of experiment (DOE: was selected on an orthogonal array based on L9 (33) The Optimum Parameters were found on the basis ol Grey Relational Grade (GRG) and signal to noise (SN: ratio using GTM, The resulted optimum combination of the input parameters was used to get maximum possible values of IR, P and least possible values ol NOx, smoke and dP/do, The higher values of IH and I measure the better performance of the engine, while lower values of NO x' smoke and dP/do are the ultimate objectives of the study, According to the results It was revealed that B 1 00 fuel, 1800 rpm speed and 10% load offer the optimum combination for the desired performance of the engine along with reduced pollutants, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) based on, software Minitab 16 was used to get the mos: significant input parameter keeping in view responses Fuel type and engine load were found to be the dominant factors with 48,16% and 43.18% impact or the output parameters, respectively, Finally the results were validated using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) through Mat lab. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hook, D W
2008-01-01
A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schroedinger's equation from a Hilbert space into the space of pure spaces is a set of Hamilton's equations. Over the intervening years considerable work has been carried out by a variety of authors and a mature description of quantum mechanics in geometric terms has emerged with many applications. This current offering would seem ideally placed to review the last thirty years of progress and relate this to the most recent work in quantum entanglement. Bengtsson and Zyczkowski's beautifully illustrated volume, Geometry of Quantum States (referred to as GQS from now on) attempts to cover considerable ground in its 466 pages. Its topics range from colour theory in Chapter 1 to quantum entanglement in Chapter 15-to say that this is a whirlwind tour is, perhaps, no understatement. The use of the work 'introduction' in the subtitle of GQS, might suggest to the reader that this work be viewed as a textbook and I think that this interpretation would be incorrect. The authors have chosen to present a survey of different topics with the specific aim to introduce entanglement in geometric terms-the book is not intended as a pedagogical introduction to the geometric approach to quantum mechanics. Each of the fifteen chapters is a short, and mostly self-contained, essay on a particular aspect or application of geometry in the context of quantum mechanics with entanglement being addressed specifically in the final chapter. The chapters fall into three classifications: those concerned with the mathematical background, those which discuss quantum theory and the foundational aspects of the geometric framework, and
Functional integration over geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mottola, E.
1995-01-01
The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces M/G is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber G, the functional measure on the coset space M/G is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev--Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where G is the group of coordinate reparameterizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, i.e. metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the metric in two and four dimensional spacetime. In two dimensions this approach generates the Polyakov--Liouville action of closed bosonic non-critical string theory. In four dimensions the corresponding effective action leads to novel conclusions on the importance of quantum effects in gravity in the far infrared, and in particular, a dramatic modification of the classical Einstein theory at cosmological distance scales, signaled first by the quantum instability of classical de Sitter spacetime. Finite volume scaling relations for the functional integral of quantum gravity in two and four dimensions are derived, and comparison with the discretized dynamical triangulation approach to the integration over geometries are discussed. Outstanding unsolved problems in both the continuum definition and the simplicial approach to the functional integral over geometries are highlighted
Dooner, David B
2012-01-01
Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat
Flegg, H Graham
2001-01-01
This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.
Torsional heterotic geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Sethi, Savdeep
2009-01-01
We construct new examples of torsional heterotic backgrounds using duality with orientifold flux compactifications. We explain how duality provides a perturbative solution to the type I/heterotic string Bianchi identity. The choice of connection used in the Bianchi identity plays an important role in the construction. We propose the existence of a much larger landscape of compact torsional geometries using string duality. Finally, we present some quantum exact metrics that correspond to NS5-branes placed on an elliptic space. These metrics describe how torus isometries are broken by NS flux.
Geometrie verstehen: statisch - kinematisch
Kroll, Ekkehard
Dem Allgemeinen steht begrifflich das Besondere gegenüber. In diesem Sinne sind allgemeine Überlegungen zum Verstehen von Mathematik zu ergänzen durch Untersuchungen hinsichtlich des Verstehens der einzelnen mathematischen Disziplinen, insbesondere der Geometrie. Hier haben viele Schülerinnen und Schüler Probleme. Diese rühren hauptsächlich daher, dass eine fertige geometrische Konstruktion in ihrer statischen Präsentation auf Papier nicht mehr die einzelnen Konstruktionsschritte erkennen lässt; zum Nachvollzug müssen sie daher ergänzend in einer Konstruktionsbeschreibung festgehalten werden.
Kendig, Keith
2015-01-01
Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th
Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar
1964-01-01
This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from
Akopyan, A V
2007-01-01
The book is devoted to the properties of conics (plane curves of second degree) that can be formulated and proved using only elementary geometry. Starting with the well-known optical properties of conics, the authors move to less trivial results, both classical and contemporary. In particular, the chapter on projective properties of conics contains a detailed analysis of the polar correspondence, pencils of conics, and the Poncelet theorem. In the chapter on metric properties of conics the authors discuss, in particular, inscribed conics, normals to conics, and the Poncelet theorem for confoca
2015-01-01
This stimulating volume offers a broad collection of the principles of geometry and trigonometry and contains colorful diagrams to bring mathematical principles to life. Subjects are enriched by references to famous mathematicians and their ideas, and the stories are presented in a very comprehensible way. Readers investigate the relationships of points, lines, surfaces, and solids. They study construction methods for drawing figures, a wealth of facts about these figures, and above all, methods to prove the facts. They learn about triangle measure for circular motion, sine and cosine, tangent
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric
Almansa, Julio; Salvat-Pujol, Francesc; Díaz-Londoño, Gloria; Carnicer, Artur; Lallena, Antonio M.; Salvat, Francesc
2016-02-01
The Fortran subroutine package PENGEOM provides a complete set of tools to handle quadric geometries in Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport. The material structure where radiation propagates is assumed to consist of homogeneous bodies limited by quadric surfaces. The PENGEOM subroutines (a subset of the PENELOPE code) track particles through the material structure, independently of the details of the physics models adopted to describe the interactions. Although these subroutines are designed for detailed simulations of photon and electron transport, where all individual interactions are simulated sequentially, they can also be used in mixed (class II) schemes for simulating the transport of high-energy charged particles, where the effect of soft interactions is described by the random-hinge method. The definition of the geometry and the details of the tracking algorithm are tailored to optimize simulation speed. The use of fuzzy quadric surfaces minimizes the impact of round-off errors. The provided software includes a Java graphical user interface for editing and debugging the geometry definition file and for visualizing the material structure. Images of the structure are generated by using the tracking subroutines and, hence, they describe the geometry actually passed to the simulation code.
Graded geometry and Poisson reduction
Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M
2009-01-01
The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chatillon, S
2000-07-01
This work is devoted to the enhancement of the ultrasonic non destructive testing in contact of nuclear components with complex geometry. In service inspections of such components performed with conventional probes present limited performances: variations in sensitivity, due to unmatched contact, incorrect characterization of the defect, because of the disorientations of the transducer during its displacement, and uncovered scan area when the geometry of the components disturbs the displacement of the transducer. We propose a new concept of smart transducer to improve the performances of such inspections. The radiating surface is flexible to optimize the sensitivity of the testing. Using the measure of the radiating surface distortion, performed by a specific instrumentation, phased array techniques allow the control of the transmitted beam to optimize the defect localization and characterization. Thus, this system is self-contained. We present the different steps involved to develop this system and its experimental validation. A computing model is extended to predict the field transmitted by a flexible contact transducer. This model is used to optimize the radiating surface of a jointed transducer. A delay law optimizing algorithm is developed to ensure the control of the transmitted beam. At last, a method and the associated instrumentation designed to measure the radiating surface distortion are proposed. Experimental Measures in the through-transmission mode validate the ability of this system to control the field transmitted through complex interfaces. At last, inspections in the pulse-echo mode are performed on a specimen with an irregular profile, representative of a real component inspected on site, and artificial embedded reflectors. Two control configurations are used. In the first one, the transducer is displaced along the surface, in the second one, the transducer is fixed and the region of interest is scanned using beam steering. The results show that
Kim, Y.; Konecke, B.; Fiege, A.; Simon, A. C.; Becker, U.
2017-12-01
We use ab-initio calculations to investigate the energetics and geometry of incorporation of S with its oxidation states S6+, S4+, and S2- into the apatite end-members fluor-, chlor-, and hydroxylapatite, [Ca10(PO4)6(F,Cl,OH)2]. The reaction energy of the balanced equation indicates the stability of the modeled S-incorporated apatite relative to the host apatite, the source, and sink phases. One possible coupled substitution mechanism involves the replacement of La3+ + PO43- ↔ Ca2+ + SO42-. Our results show that the incorporation of SO42- into La- and Na-bearing apatite, Ca8NaLa(PO4)6(F,Cl,OH)2, is energetically favored over the incorporation into La- and Si-bearing apatite, Ca9La(PO4)5(SiO4)(F,Cl,OH)2. Co-incorporation of SO42- and SO32- is energetically favored when the lone pair electrons of SO32- face towards the anion column site, compared to facing away from it. Full or partial incorporation of S2- is favored on the column anion site in the form of [Ca10(PO4)6S] and [Ca20(PO4)12SX2)], where X = F, Cl, or OH. Upon full incorporation (i.e., replacing all column ions by sulfide ions), S2- is positioned in the anion column at z = 0.5 (half way between the mirror planes at z = 1/4 and z = 3/4) in the energy-optimized structure. The calculated energies for partial incorporation of S2- demonstrate that in an energy-optimized structure, S2- is displaced from the mirror plane at z = 1/4 or 3/4, by 1.0 to 1.6 Å, depending on the surrounding species (F-, Cl- or OH-); however, the probability for S2- to be incorporated into the apatite structure is highest for chlorapatite end-members. Our results describe energetically feasible incorporation mechanisms for all three oxidations states of S (S6+, S4+, S2-) in apatite, along with structural distortion and concurring electronic structure changes. These observations are consistent with recently published experimental results (Konecke et al. 2017) that demonstrate S6+, S4+ and S2- incorporation into apatite, where the
Computational geometry algorithms and applications
de Berg, Mark; Overmars, Mark; Schwarzkopf, Otfried
1997-01-01
Computational geometry emerged from the field of algorithms design and anal ysis in the late 1970s. It has grown into a recognized discipline with its own journals, conferences, and a large community of active researchers. The suc cess of the field as a research discipline can on the one hand be explained from the beauty of the problems studied and the solutions obtained, and, on the other hand, by the many application domains--computer graphics, geographic in formation systems (GIS), robotics, and others-in which geometric algorithms play a fundamental role. For many geometric problems the early algorithmic solutions were either slow or difficult to understand and implement. In recent years a number of new algorithmic techniques have been developed that improved and simplified many of the previous approaches. In this textbook we have tried to make these modem algorithmic solutions accessible to a large audience. The book has been written as a textbook for a course in computational geometry, but it can ...
AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.
Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.
THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…
Differential Geometry Based Multiscale Models
Wei, Guo-Wei
2010-01-01
Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atom-istic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier–Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson–Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations that
Differential geometry based multiscale models.
Wei, Guo-Wei
2010-08-01
Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atomistic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations that are
Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise
1998-01-01
This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.
Critique of information geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skilling, John
2014-01-01
As applied to probability, information geometry fails because probability distributions do not form a metric space. Probability theory rests on a compelling foundation of elementary symmetries, which also support information (aka minus entropy, Kullback-Leibler) H(p;q) as the unique measure of divergence from source probability distribution q to destination p. Because the only compatible connective H is from≠to asymmetric, H(p;q)≠H(q;p), there can be no compatible geometrical distance (which would necessarily be from=to symmetric). Hence there is no distance relationship compatible with the structure of probability theory. Metrics g and densities sqrt(det(g)) interpreted as prior probabilities follow from the definition of distance, and must fail likewise. Various metrics and corresponding priors have been proposed, Fisher's being the most popular, but all must behave unacceptably. This is illustrated with simple counter-examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.
2008-01-01
We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents
Emergent geometry of membranes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badyn, Mathias Hudoba de; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)
2015-11-13
In work http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.086001, a surface embedded in flat ℝ{sup 3} is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ{sup 3}. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galindo, J.; Lujan, J.M.; Serrano, J.R.; Dolz, V. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Guilain, S. [Renault s.a.s., Lardy (France)
2006-01-15
This paper describes a heat transfer model to be implemented in a global engine 1-D gas-dynamic code to calculate reciprocating internal combustion engine performance in steady and transient operations. A trade off between simplicity and accuracy has been looked for, in order to fit with the stated objective. To validate the model, the temperature of the exhaust manifold wall in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) turbocharged diesel engine has been measured during a full load transient. In addition, an indirect assessment of the exhaust gas temperature during this transient process has been carried out. The results show good agreement between the measured and modelled data with good accuracy to predict the engine performance. A dual-walled air gap exhaust manifold has been tested in order to quantify the potential of exhaust gas thermal energy saving on engine transient performance. The experimental results together with the heat transfer model have been used to analyse the influence of thermal energy saving on dynamic performance during the load transient of an HSDI turbocharged diesel engine. (author)
Latent geometry of bipartite networks
Kitsak, Maksim; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri
2017-03-01
Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its applicability to bipartite systems. Here, we fully analyze a simple latent-geometric model of bipartite networks and show that this model explains the peculiar structural properties of many real bipartite systems, including the distributions of common neighbors and bipartite clustering. We also analyze the geometric information loss in one-mode projections in this model and propose an efficient method to infer the latent pairwise distances between nodes. Uncovering the latent geometry underlying real bipartite networks can find applications in diverse domains, ranging from constructing efficient recommender systems to understanding cell metabolism.
On organizing principles of discrete differential geometry. Geometry of spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobenko, Alexander I; Suris, Yury B
2007-01-01
Discrete differential geometry aims to develop discrete equivalents of the geometric notions and methods of classical differential geometry. This survey contains a discussion of the following two fundamental discretization principles: the transformation group principle (smooth geometric objects and their discretizations are invariant with respect to the same transformation group) and the consistency principle (discretizations of smooth parametrized geometries can be extended to multidimensional consistent nets). The main concrete geometric problem treated here is discretization of curvature-line parametrized surfaces in Lie geometry. Systematic use of the discretization principles leads to a discretization of curvature-line parametrization which unifies circular and conical nets.
Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry
Woods, Frederick S
2005-01-01
For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, John F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Brian H [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huff, Shean P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2015-03-01
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is supporting engine and vehicle research to investigate the potential of high-octane fuels to improve fuel economy. Ethanol has very high research octane number (RON) and heat of vaporization (HoV), properties that make it an excellent spark ignition engine fuel. The prospects of increasing both the ethanol content and the octane number of the gasoline pool has the potential to enable improved fuel economy in future vehicles with downsized, downsped engines. This report describes a small study to explore the potential performance benefits of high octane ethanol blends in the legacy fleet. There are over 17 million flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) on the road today in the United States, vehicles capable of using any fuel from E0 to E85. If a future high-octane blend for dedicated vehicles is on the horizon, the nation is faced with the classic chicken-and-egg dilemma. If today’s FFVs can see a performance advantage with a high octane ethanol blend such as E25 or E30, then perhaps consumer demand for this fuel can serve as a bridge to future dedicated vehicles. Experiments were performed with four FFVs using a 10% ethanol fuel (E10) with 88 pump octane, and a market gasoline blended with ethanol to make a 30% by volume ethanol fuel (E30) with 94 pump octane. The research octane numbers were 92.4 for the E10 fuel and 100.7 for the E30 fuel. Two vehicles had gasoline direct injected (GDI) engines, and two featured port fuel injection (PFI). Significant wide open throttle (WOT) performance improvements were measured for three of the four FFVs, with one vehicle showing no change. Additionally, a conventional (non-FFV) vehicle with a small turbocharged direct-injected engine was tested with a regular grade of gasoline with no ethanol (E0) and a splash blend of this same fuel with 15% ethanol by volume (E15). RON was increased from 90.7 for the E0 to 97.8 for the E15 blend. Significant wide open throttle and thermal efficiency performance
Study on the design of inlet and exhaust system of a stationary internal combustion engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kesgin, Ugur
2005-01-01
The design and operational variables of inlet and exhaust systems are decisive to determine overall engine performance. The best engine overall performance can be obtained by proper design of the engine inlet and exhaust systems and by matching the correct turbocharger to the engine. This paper presents the results of investigations to design the inlet and exhaust systems of a stationary natural gas engine family. To do this, a computational model is verified in which zero dimensional phenomena within the cylinder and one dimensional phenomena in the engine inlet and exhaust systems are used. Using this engine model, the effects of the parameters of the inlet and exhaust systems on the engine performance are obtained. In particular, the following parameters are chosen: valve timing, valve diameter, valve lift profiles, diameter of the exhaust manifold, inlet and exhaust pipe lengths, and geometry of pipe junctions. Proper sizing of the inlet and exhaust pipe systems is achieved very precisely by these investigations. Also, valve timing is tuned by using the results obtained in this study. In general, a very high improvement potential for the engines studied here is presented
An introduction to incidence geometry
De Bruyn, Bart
2016-01-01
This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korczewski Zbigniew
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The second part of the article describes the technology of marine engine diagnostics making use of dynamic measurements of the exhaust gas temperature. Little-known achievements of Prof. S. Rutkowski of the Naval College in Gdynia (now: Polish Naval Academy in this area are presented. A novel approach is proposed which consists in the use of the measured exhaust gas temperature dynamics for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the enthalpy flux of successive pressure pulses of the exhaust gas supplying the marine engine turbocompressor. General design assumptions are presented for the measuring and diagnostic system which makes use of a sheathed thermocouple installed in the engine exhaust gas manifold. The corrected thermal inertia of the thermocouple enables to reproduce a real time-history of exhaust gas temperature changes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buescher, R.
2005-01-01
Casimir interactions are interactions induced by quantum vacuum fluctuations and thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Using a path integral quantization for the gauge field, an effective Gaussian action will be derived which is the starting point to compute Casimir forces between macroscopic objects analytically and numerically. No assumptions about the independence of the material and shape dependent contributions to the interaction are made. We study the limit of flat surfaces in further detail and obtain a concise derivation of Lifshitz' theory of molecular forces. For the case of ideally conducting boundaries, the Gaussian action will be calculated explicitly. Both limiting cases are also discussed within the framework of a scalar field quantization approach, which is applicable for translationally invariant geometries. We develop a non-perturbative approach to calculate the Casimir interaction from the Gaussian action for periodically deformed and ideally conducting objects numerically. The obtained results reveal two different scaling regimes for the Casimir force as a function of the distance between the objects, their deformation wavelength and -amplitude. The results confirm that the interaction is non-additive, especially in the presence of strong geometric deformations. Furthermore, the numerical approach is extended to calculate lateral Casimir forces. The results are consistent with the results of the proximity-force approximation for large deformation wavelengths. A qualitatively different behaviour between the normal and lateral force is revealed. We also establish a relation between the boundary induced change of the of the density of states for the scalar Helmholtz equation and the Casimir interaction using the path integral method. For statically deformed boundaries, this relation can be expressed as a novel trace formula, which is formally similar to the so-called Krein-Friedel-Lloyd formula. While the latter formula describes the
Initiation to global Finslerian geometry
Akbar-Zadeh, Hassan
2006-01-01
After a brief description of the evolution of thinking on Finslerian geometry starting from Riemann, Finsler, Berwald and Elie Cartan, the book gives a clear and precise treatment of this geometry. The first three chapters develop the basic notions and methods, introduced by the author, to reach the global problems in Finslerian Geometry. The next five chapters are independent of each other, and deal with among others the geometry of generalized Einstein manifolds, the classification of Finslerian manifolds of constant sectional curvatures. They also give a treatment of isometric, affine, p
Methods of algebraic geometry in control theory
Falb, Peter
1999-01-01
"Control theory represents an attempt to codify, in mathematical terms, the principles and techniques used in the analysis and design of control systems. Algebraic geometry may, in an elementary way, be viewed as the study of the structure and properties of the solutions of systems of algebraic equations. The aim of this book is to provide access to the methods of algebraic geometry for engineers and applied scientists through the motivated context of control theory" .* The development which culminated with this volume began over twenty-five years ago with a series of lectures at the control group of the Lund Institute of Technology in Sweden. I have sought throughout to strive for clarity, often using constructive methods and giving several proofs of a particular result as well as many examples. The first volume dealt with the simplest control systems (i.e., single input, single output linear time-invariant systems) and with the simplest algebraic geometry (i.e., affine algebraic geometry). While this is qui...
Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem
de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco
2009-01-01
The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Šárka Nedomová
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.
Nonperturbative quantum geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobson, T.; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Smolin, L.; California Univ., Santa Barbara
1988-01-01
Using the self-dual representation of quantum general relativity, based on Ashtekar's new phase space variables, we present an infinite dimensional family of quantum states of the gravitational field which are exactly annihilated by the hamiltonian constraint. These states are constructed from Wilson loops for Ashtekar's connection (which is the spatial part of the left handed spin connection). We propose a new regularization procedure which allows us to evaluate the action of the hamiltonian constraint on these states. Infinite linear combinations of these states which are formally annihilated by the diffeomorphism constraints as well are also described. These are explicit examples of physical states of the gravitational field - and for the compact case are exact zero eigenstates of the hamiltonian of quantum general relativity. Several different approaches to constructing diffeomorphism invariant states in the self dual representation are also described. The physical interpretation of the states described here is discussed. However, as we do not yet know the physical inner product, any interpretation is at this stage speculative. Nevertheless, this work suggests that quantum geometry at Planck scales might be much simpler when explored in terms of the parallel transport of left-handed spinors than when explored in terms of the three metric. (orig.)
Capillary condensation in a square geometry with surface fields.
Zubaszewska, M; Gendiar, A; Drzewiński, A
2012-12-01
We study the influence of wetting on capillary condensation for a simple fluid in a square geometry with surface fields, where the reference system is an infinitely long slit. The corner transfer matrix renormalization group method has been extended to study a two-dimensional Ising model confined in an L × L geometry with equal surface fields. Our results have confirmed that in both geometries the coexistence line shift is governed by the same scaling powers, but their prefactors are different.
Li, Xu; Yang, Chuanlei; Wang, Yinyan; Wang, Hechun
2018-01-01
To achieve a much more extensive intake air flow range of the diesel engine, a variable-geometry compressor (VGC) is introduced into a turbocharged diesel engine. However, due to the variable diffuser vane angle (DVA), the prediction for the performance of the VGC becomes more difficult than for a normal compressor. In the present study, a prediction model comprising an elliptical equation and a PLS (partial least-squares) model was proposed to predict the performance of the VGC. The speed lines of the pressure ratio map and the efficiency map were fitted with the elliptical equation, and the coefficients of the elliptical equation were introduced into the PLS model to build the polynomial relationship between the coefficients and the relative speed, the DVA. Further, the maximal order of the polynomial was investigated in detail to reduce the number of sub-coefficients and achieve acceptable fit accuracy simultaneously. The prediction model was validated with sample data and in order to present the superiority of compressor performance prediction, the prediction results of this model were compared with those of the look-up table and back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). The validation and comparison results show that the prediction accuracy of the new developed model is acceptable, and this model is much more suitable than the look-up table and the BPNN methods under the same condition in VGC performance prediction. Moreover, the new developed prediction model provides a novel and effective prediction solution for the VGC and can be used to improve the accuracy of the thermodynamic model for turbocharged diesel engines in the future.
Classification of radar echoes using fractal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azzaz, Nafissa; Haddad, Boualem
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Implementation of two concepts of fractal geometry to classify two types of meteorological radar echoes. • A new approach, called a multi-scale fractal dimension is used for classification between fixed echoes and rain echoes. • An Automatic identification system of meteorological radar echoes was proposed using fractal geometry. - Abstract: This paper deals with the discrimination between the precipitation echoes and the ground echoes in meteorological radar images using fractal geometry. This study aims to improve the measurement of precipitations by weather radars. For this, we considered three radar sites: Bordeaux (France), Dakar (Senegal) and Me lbourne (USA). We showed that the fractal dimension based on contourlet and the fractal lacunarity are pertinent to discriminate between ground and precipitation echoes. We also demonstrated that the ground echoes have a multifractal structure but the precipitations are more homogeneous than ground echoes whatever the prevailing climate. Thereby, we developed an automatic classification system of radar using a graphic interface. This interface, based on the fractal geometry makes possible the identification of radar echoes type in real time. This system can be inserted in weather radar for the improvement of precipitation estimations.
GPS: Geometry, Probability, and Statistics
Field, Mike
2012-01-01
It might be said that for most occupations there is now less of a need for mathematics than there was say fifty years ago. But, the author argues, geometry, probability, and statistics constitute essential knowledge for everyone. Maybe not the geometry of Euclid, but certainly geometrical ways of thinking that might enable us to describe the world…
A prediction for bubbling geometries
Okuda, Takuya
2007-01-01
We study the supersymmetric circular Wilson loops in N=4 Yang-Mills theory. Their vacuum expectation values are computed in the parameter region that admits smooth bubbling geometry duals. The results are a prediction for the supergravity action evaluated on the bubbling geometries for Wilson loops.
Definition of treatment geometry in radiation therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaltonen, P.
1996-01-01
When accurate systems for quality assurance and treatment optimization are employed, a precise system for fixation and dosimetric and portal verification are as important as a continued and standardized code of practice for dosimetry and patient follow-up, including registration of tumour responses and acute and late normal tissue reactions. To improve the accuracy of existing dose response relations in order to improve future therapy the treatment geometry and dose delivery concepts have to be accurately defined and uniformly employed. A Nordic working group was set up in 1991 (by Nordic Association of Clinica Physics) to standardize the concepts and quantities used during the whole radiotherapy process in the Nordic countries. Now the group is finalizing its report ''Specification of Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy''. The report emphasizes that the treatment geometry shall be consistent with the geometry used during the diagnostic work up. The patient fixation is of importance early in the diagnostic phase to ensure that the same reference points and patients position will be used both during the diagnostic work up, simulation and treatment execution. Reference Coordinate System of the patient is a concept based on defined anatomic reference points. This Patient Reference System is a local system which has validity for the tissues, organs and volumes defined during radiotherapy. The reference points of the Patient Reference System should in turn be used for beam set-up. The treatment geometry is then defined by using different concepts describing tissues which are mobile in the Patient Reference System, and finally, volumes which are fixed in this coordinate system. A Set-up Margin has to be considered for movements of the volumes defined in the Reference Coordinate System of the Patient in relation to the radiation beam. The Set-up Margin is dependent on the treatment technique and it is needed in the treatment planning procedure to ensure that the prescribed
Definition of treatment geometry in radiation therapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aaltonen, P [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland)
1996-08-01
When accurate systems for quality assurance and treatment optimization are employed, a precise system for fixation and dosimetric and portal verification are as important as a continued and standardized code of practice for dosimetry and patient follow-up, including registration of tumour responses and acute and late normal tissue reactions. To improve the accuracy of existing dose response relations in order to improve future therapy the treatment geometry and dose delivery concepts have to be accurately defined and uniformly employed. A Nordic working group was set up in 1991 to standardize the concepts and quantities used during the whole radiotherapy process in the Nordic countries. Now the group is finalizing its report ``Specification of Dose Delivery in Radiation Therapy``. The report emphasizes that the treatment geometry shall be consistent with the geometry used during the diagnostic work up. The patient fixation is of importance early in the diagnostic phase to ensure that the same reference points and patients position will be used both during the diagnostic work up, simulation and treatment execution. Reference Coordinate System of the patient is a concept based on defined anatomic reference points. This Patient Reference System is a local system which has validity for the tissues, organs and volumes defined during radiotherapy. The reference points of the Patient Reference System should in turn be used for beam set-up. The treatment geometry is then defined by using different concepts describing tissues which are mobile in the Patient Reference System, and finally, volumes which are fixed in this coordinate system. A Set-up Margin has to be considered for movements of the volumes defined in the Reference Coordinate System of the Patient in relation to the radiation beam. The Set-up Margin is dependent on the treatment technique and it is needed in the treatment planning procedure to ensure that the prescribed dose to the Target Volume is delivered.
Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich
1994-01-01
Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...
Optical geometry across the horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, Rickard
2006-01-01
In a recent paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to (a finite four-volume) of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework
Development and application of CATIA-GDML geometry builder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belogurov, S; Chernogorov, A; Ovcharenko, E; Schetinin, V; Berchun, Yu; Malzacher, P
2014-01-01
Due to conceptual difference between geometry descriptions in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems and particle transport Monte Carlo (MC) codes direct conversion of detector geometry in either direction is not feasible. The paper presents an update on functionality and application practice of the CATIA-GDML geometry builder first introduced at CHEP2010. This set of CATIAv5 tools has been developed for building a MC optimized GEANT4/ROOT compatible geometry based on the existing CAD model. The model can be exported via Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML). The builder allows also import and visualization of GEANT4/ROOT geometries in CATIA. The structure of a GDML file, including replicated volumes, volume assemblies and variables, is mapped into a part specification tree. A dedicated file template, a wide range of primitives, tools for measurement and implicit calculation of parameters, different types of multiple volume instantiation, mirroring, positioning and quality check have been implemented. Several use cases are discussed.
Real solutions to equations from geometry
Sottile, Frank
2011-01-01
Understanding, finding, or even deciding on the existence of real solutions to a system of equations is a difficult problem with many applications outside of mathematics. While it is hopeless to expect much in general, we know a surprising amount about these questions for systems which possess additional structure often coming from geometry. This book focuses on equations from toric varieties and Grassmannians. Not only is much known about these, but such equations are common in applications. There are three main themes: upper bounds on the number of real solutions, lower bounds on the number of real solutions, and geometric problems that can have all solutions be real. The book begins with an overview, giving background on real solutions to univariate polynomials and the geometry of sparse polynomial systems. The first half of the book concludes with fewnomial upper bounds and with lower bounds to sparse polynomial systems. The second half of the book begins by sampling some geometric problems for which all ...
Probability of stochastic processes and spacetime geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canessa, E.
2007-01-01
We made a first attempt to associate a probabilistic description of stochastic processes like birth-death processes with spacetime geometry in the Schwarzschild metrics on distance scales from the macro- to the micro-domains. We idealize an ergodic system in which system states communicate through a curved path composed of transition arrows where each arrow corresponds to a positive, analogous birth or death rate. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pentreath, R.J.; Woodhead, D.S.
2001-01-01
In order to demonstrate, explicitly, that the environment can be protected with respect to controlled sources of ionising radiation, it is essential to have a systematic framework within which dosimetry models for fauna and flora can be used. And because of the practical limitations on what could reasonably be modelled and the amount of information that could reasonably be obtained, it is also necessary to limit the application of such models to a 'set' of fauna and flora within a 'reference' context. This paper, therefore, outlines the factors that will need to be considered to select such 'reference' fauna and flora, and describes some of the factors and constraints necessary to develop the associated dosimetry models. It also describes some of the most basic environmental geometries within which the dose models could be set in order to make comparisons amongst different radiation sources
Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talasila, V; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Schaft, A J van der
2004-01-01
Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to provide a discrete analogue of differential geometry, and to define on these discrete models a formal discrete Hamiltonian structure-in doing so we try to bring together various fundamental concepts from numerical analysis, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, simplicial homology and classical Hamiltonian mechanics. For example, the concept of a twisted derivation is borrowed from algebraic geometry for developing a discrete calculus. The theory is applied to a nonlinear pendulum and we compare the dynamics obtained through a discrete modelling approach with the dynamics obtained via the usual discretization procedures. Also an example of an energy-conserving algorithm on a simple harmonic oscillator is presented, and its effect on the Poisson structure is discussed
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuang Qian
2016-12-01
Full Text Available As the field of high-precision applications based on carriers continues to expand, the development of low-cost, small, modular receivers and their application in diverse scenarios and situations with complex data quality has increased the requirements of carrier-phase data preprocessing. A new geometry-based cycle slip detection and repair method based on Global Position System (GPS + BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS is proposed. The method uses a Time-differenced Carrier Phase (TDCP model, which eliminates the Inner-System Bias (ISB between GPS and BDS, and it is conducive to the effective combination of GPS and BDS. It avoids the interference of the noise of the pseudo-range with cycle slip detection, while the cycle slips are preserved as integers. This method does not limit the receiver frequency number, and it is applicable to single-frequency data. The process is divided into two steps to detect and repair cycle slip. The first step is cycle slip detection, using the Improved Local Analysis Method (ILAM to find satellites that have cycle slips; The second step is to repair the cycle slips, including estimating the float solution of changes in ambiguities at the satellites that have cycle slips with the least squares method and the integer solution of the cycle slips by rounding. In the process of rounding, in addition to the success probability, a decimal test is carried out to validate the result. Finally, experiments with filed test data are carried out to prove the effectiveness of this method. The results show that the detectable cycle slips number with GPS + BDS is much greater than that with GPS. The method can also detect the non-integer outliers while fixing the cycle slip. The maximum decimal bias in repair is less than that with GPS. It implies that this method takes full advantages of multi-system.
Quantum algebras and Poisson geometry in mathematical physics
Karasev, M V
2005-01-01
This collection presents new and interesting applications of Poisson geometry to some fundamental well-known problems in mathematical physics. The methods used by the authors include, in addition to advanced Poisson geometry, unexpected algebras with non-Lie commutation relations, nontrivial (quantum) Kählerian structures of hypergeometric type, dynamical systems theory, semiclassical asymptotics, etc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Fanhua; Wang, Mingyue; Jiang, Long; Chen, Renzhe; Deng, Jiao; Naeve, Nashay; Zhao, Shuli [State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2010-06-15
This paper investigates the effect of high hydrogen volumetric ratio of 55% on performance and emission characteristics in a turbocharged lean burn natural gas engine. The experimental data was conducted under various operating conditions including different spark timing, excess air ratio (lambda), and manifold pressure. It is found that the addition of hydrogen at a high volumetric ratio could significantly extend the lean burn limit, improve the engine lean burn ability, decrease burn duration, and yield higher thermal efficiency. The CO, CH{sub 4} emissions were reduced and NO{sub x} emission could be kept an acceptable low level with high hydrogen content under lean burn conditions when ignition timing were optimized. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schopp, Johann; Duengen, Rainer; Fach, Heiko [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany); Schuenemann, Erik
2013-01-15
In July 2012, BMW has launched its new V8 gasoline engine with so-called TwinPower Turbo technology, including turbocharging, direct injection and fully variable valve gear Valvetronic. The main objectives were to achieve a significant reduction in fuel consumption and a moderate increase in power output, to derive a 4.0-l engine-capacity version, as well as to ensure high process commonality with the new BMW M5 engine simultaneously developed by BMW M GmbH which uses a virtually identical basic engine. It was first deployed simultaneously in the new 6 Series Gran Coupe, the 5 Series Gran Turismo, the 6 Series and the revised 7 Series. (orig.)
Dillon, Moira R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.
2015-01-01
Research on animals, infants, children, and adults provides evidence that distinct cognitive systems underlie navigation and object recognition. Here we examine whether and how these systems interact when children interpret 2D edge-based perspectival line drawings of scenes and objects. Such drawings serve as symbols early in development, and they…
The geometry description markup language
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chytracek, R.
2001-01-01
Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chesse P.
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Usually, turbochargers used within internal combustion engine simulation software are modelled in an adiabatic manner. However, during our experimental tests we found that this is not necessarily the case. The direct use of the manufacturer’s map is not possible anymore. A simple method which considers the heat transfers is proposed. It is based on experimental tests made on hot air supplied turbocharger test bench. The difference with the adiabatic model is considerable mainly for low compressor power. This corresponds to internal combustion engine low loads. En général, les turbocompresseurs pris en compte dans les logiciels de simulation moteur sont modélisés de façon adiabatique. Cependant, les tests expérimentaux effectués au laboratoire montrent que ce n’est pas toujours le cas. L’utilisation directe des champs de fonctionnement fournis par les constructeurs de turbomachines n’est alors plus possible. Une évaluation quantitative de ces transferts, basée sur des tests réalisés sur un banc d’essais turbo à air chaud, est présentée. Puis ils sont pris en compte afin de calculer les caractéristiques réelles de fonctionnement d’un compresseur. La différence avec le modèle adiabatique apparaît très importante pour les faibles puissances compresseur. Ceci correspond aux faibles charges moteur.
Fallow), Stray
2009-01-01
Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and
Walsh, Edward T
2014-01-01
This introductory text is designed to help undergraduate students develop a solid foundation in geometry. Early chapters progress slowly, cultivating the necessary understanding and self-confidence for the more rapid development that follows. The extensive treatment can be easily adapted to accommodate shorter courses. Starting with the language of mathematics as expressed in the algebra of logic and sets, the text covers geometric sets of points, separation and angles, triangles, parallel lines, similarity, polygons and area, circles, space geometry, and coordinate geometry. Each chapter incl
Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds
Kohnel, Wolfgang
2002-01-01
This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.
Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Complex Geometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei
2016-01-01
We investigate new geometries of hyperbolic metamaterialssuch as highly corrugated structures, nanoparticle monolayer assemblies, super-structured or vertically arranged multilayersand nanopillars. All structures retain basic propertiesof hyperbolic metamaterials, but have functionality improved...
An introduction to differential geometry
Willmore, T J
2012-01-01
This text employs vector methods to explore the classical theory of curves and surfaces. Topics include basic theory of tensor algebra, tensor calculus, calculus of differential forms, and elements of Riemannian geometry. 1959 edition.
Symplectic geometry and Fourier analysis
Wallach, Nolan R
2018-01-01
Suitable for graduate students in mathematics, this monograph covers differential and symplectic geometry, homogeneous symplectic manifolds, Fourier analysis, metaplectic representation, quantization, Kirillov theory. Includes Appendix on Quantum Mechanics by Robert Hermann. 1977 edition.
Non-holonomic dynamics and Poisson geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisov, A V; Mamaev, I S; Tsiganov, A V
2014-01-01
This is a survey of basic facts presently known about non-linear Poisson structures in the analysis of integrable systems in non-holonomic mechanics. It is shown that by using the theory of Poisson deformations it is possible to reduce various non-holonomic systems to dynamical systems on well-understood phase spaces equipped with linear Lie-Poisson brackets. As a result, not only can different non-holonomic systems be compared, but also fairly advanced methods of Poisson geometry and topology can be used for investigating them. Bibliography: 95 titles
Topology and geometry for physicists
Nash, Charles
1983-01-01
Differential geometry and topology are essential tools for many theoretical physicists, particularly in the study of condensed matter physics, gravity, and particle physics. Written by physicists for physics students, this text introduces geometrical and topological methods in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. It assumes no detailed background in topology or geometry, and it emphasizes physical motivations, enabling students to apply the techniques to their physics formulas and research. ""Thoroughly recommended"" by The Physics Bulletin, this volume's physics applications range fr
Resonance and Fractal Geometry
Broer, Henk W.
The phenomenon of resonance will be dealt with from the viewpoint of dynamical systems depending on parameters and their bifurcations. Resonance phenomena are associated to open subsets in the parameter space, while their complement corresponds to quasi-periodicity and chaos. The latter phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Horwitz, Lawrence; Zion, Yossi Ben; Lewkowicz, Meir
2007-01-01
The characterization of chaotic Hamiltonian systems in terms of the curvature associated with a Riemannian metric tensor in the structure of the Hamiltonian is extended to a wide class of potential models of standard form through definition of a conformal metric. The geodesic equations reproduce ...
Spectral dimension of quantum geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes
2014-01-01
The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)
Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-10
We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.
Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham
2016-01-01
We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.
Arbitrariness of geometry and the aether
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Browne, P.F.
1976-01-01
As emphasized by Milne, an observer ultimately depends on the transmission and reception of light signals for the measurement of natural lengths and periods remote from his world point. The laws of geometry which are obeyed when these lengths and periods are plotted on a space--time depend, inevitably, on assumptions concerning the dependence of light velocity on the spatial and temporal coordinates. A convention regarding light velocity fixes the geometry, and conversely. However, the convention of flat space--time implies nonintegrable ''radar distances'' unless the concept of coordinate-dependent units of measure is employed. Einstein's space--time has the advantage of admitting a special reference system R with respect to which the aether fluid is at rest and the total gravitational field vanishes. A holonomic transformation from R to another reference system R belonging to the same space--time introduces a nonpermanent gravitational field and holonomic aether motion. A nonholonomic transformation from R to a reference system R* which belongs to a different space--time introduces a permanent gravitational field and nonholonomic aether motion. The arbitrariness of geometry is expressed by extending covariance to include the latter transformation. By means of a nonholonomic (or units) transformation it is possible, with the aid of the principle of equivalence, to obtain the Schwarzschild and de Sitter metrics from the Newtonian fields that would arise in a flat space--time description. Some light is thrown on the interpretation of cosmological models
Automatic Deduction in Dynamic Geometry using Sage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Botana
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We present a symbolic tool that provides robust algebraic methods to handle automatic deduction tasks for a dynamic geometry construction. The main prototype has been developed as two different worksheets for the open source computer algebra system Sage, corresponding to two different ways of coding a geometric construction. In one worksheet, diagrams constructed with the open source dynamic geometry system GeoGebra are accepted. In this worksheet, Groebner bases are used to either compute the equation of a geometric locus in the case of a locus construction or to determine the truth of a general geometric statement included in the GeoGebra construction as a boolean variable. In the second worksheet, locus constructions coded using the common file format for dynamic geometry developed by the Intergeo project are accepted for computation. The prototype and several examples are provided for testing. Moreover, a third Sage worksheet is presented in which a novel algorithm to eliminate extraneous parts in symbolically computed loci has been implemented. The algorithm, based on a recent work on the Groebner cover of parametric systems, identifies degenerate components and extraneous adherence points in loci, both natural byproducts of general polynomial algebraic methods. Detailed examples are discussed.
Geometry in the large and hyperbolic chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasslacher, B.; Mainieri, R.
1998-11-01
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors calculated observables in strongly chaotic systems. This is difficult to do because of a lack of a workable orbit classification for such systems. This is due to global geometrical information from the original dynamical system being entangled in an unknown way throughout the orbit sequence. They used geometrical methods from modern mathematics and recent connections between global geometry and modern quantum field theory to study the natural geometrical objects belonging to hard chaos-hyperbolic manifolds.
Geometric control theory and sub-Riemannian geometry
Boscain, Ugo; Gauthier, Jean-Paul; Sarychev, Andrey; Sigalotti, Mario
2014-01-01
This volume presents recent advances in the interaction between Geometric Control Theory and sub-Riemannian geometry. On the one hand, Geometric Control Theory used the differential geometric and Lie algebraic language for studying controllability, motion planning, stabilizability and optimality for control systems. The geometric approach turned out to be fruitful in applications to robotics, vision modeling, mathematical physics etc. On the other hand, Riemannian geometry and its generalizations, such as sub-Riemannian, Finslerian geometry etc., have been actively adopting methods developed in the scope of geometric control. Application of these methods has led to important results regarding geometry of sub-Riemannian spaces, regularity of sub-Riemannian distances, properties of the group of diffeomorphisms of sub-Riemannian manifolds, local geometry and equivalence of distributions and sub-Riemannian structures, regularity of the Hausdorff volume.
Appliance of high EGR rates with a short and long route EGR system on a heavy duty diesel engine
Aken, van M.; Willems, F.P.T.; Jong, de D.J.
2007-01-01
The goal of this work was to investigate the possibilities of applying high EGR rates with low NOx and PM emission levels on a two-stage turbocharged 12 liter heavy duty diesel engine. The EGR is applied by using a long and short route EGR system. For the ESC operating points A25 and C100 EGR is
The Finsler spacetime framework. Backgrounds for physics beyond metric geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfeifer, Christian
2013-11-15
The fundamental structure on which physics is described is the geometric spacetime background provided by a four dimensional manifold equipped with a Lorentzian metric. Most importantly the spacetime manifold does not only provide the stage for physical field theories but its geometry encodes causality, observers and their measurements and gravity simultaneously. This threefold role of the Lorentzian metric geometry of spacetime is one of the key insides of general relativity. During this thesis we extend the background geometry for physics from the metric framework of general relativity to our Finsler spacetime framework and ensure that the threefold role of the geometry of spacetime in physics is not changed. The geometry of Finsler spacetimes is determined by a function on the tangent bundle and includes metric geometry. In contrast to the standard formulation of Finsler geometry our Finsler spacetime framework overcomes the differentiability and existence problems of the geometric objects in earlier attempts to use Finsler geometry as an extension of Lorentzian metric geometry. The development of our nonmetric geometric framework which encodes causality is one central achievement of this thesis. On the basis of our well-defined Finsler spacetime geometry we are able to derive dynamics for the non-metric Finslerian geometry of spacetime from an action principle, obtained from the Einstein-Hilbert action, for the first time. We can complete the dynamics to a non-metric description of gravity by coupling matter fields, also formulated via an action principle, to the geometry of our Finsler spacetimes. We prove that the combined dynamics of the fields and the geometry are consistent with general relativity. Furthermore we demonstrate how to define observers and their measurements solely through the non-metric spacetime geometry. Physical consequence derived on the basis of our Finsler spacetime are: a possible solution to the fly-by anomaly in the solar system; the
The Finsler spacetime framework. Backgrounds for physics beyond metric geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeifer, Christian
2013-11-01
The fundamental structure on which physics is described is the geometric spacetime background provided by a four dimensional manifold equipped with a Lorentzian metric. Most importantly the spacetime manifold does not only provide the stage for physical field theories but its geometry encodes causality, observers and their measurements and gravity simultaneously. This threefold role of the Lorentzian metric geometry of spacetime is one of the key insides of general relativity. During this thesis we extend the background geometry for physics from the metric framework of general relativity to our Finsler spacetime framework and ensure that the threefold role of the geometry of spacetime in physics is not changed. The geometry of Finsler spacetimes is determined by a function on the tangent bundle and includes metric geometry. In contrast to the standard formulation of Finsler geometry our Finsler spacetime framework overcomes the differentiability and existence problems of the geometric objects in earlier attempts to use Finsler geometry as an extension of Lorentzian metric geometry. The development of our nonmetric geometric framework which encodes causality is one central achievement of this thesis. On the basis of our well-defined Finsler spacetime geometry we are able to derive dynamics for the non-metric Finslerian geometry of spacetime from an action principle, obtained from the Einstein-Hilbert action, for the first time. We can complete the dynamics to a non-metric description of gravity by coupling matter fields, also formulated via an action principle, to the geometry of our Finsler spacetimes. We prove that the combined dynamics of the fields and the geometry are consistent with general relativity. Furthermore we demonstrate how to define observers and their measurements solely through the non-metric spacetime geometry. Physical consequence derived on the basis of our Finsler spacetime are: a possible solution to the fly-by anomaly in the solar system; the
KENO-IV/CG, the combinatorial geometry version of the KENO Monte Carlo criticality safety program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
West, J.T.; Petrie, L.M.; Fraley, S.K.
1979-09-01
KENO-IV/CG was developed to merge the simple geometry input description utilized by combinatorial geometry with the repeating lattice feature of the original KENO geometry package. The result is a criticality code with the ability to model a complex system of repeating rectangular lattices inside a complicated three-dimensional geometry system. Furthermore, combinatorial geometry was modified to differentiate between combinatorial zones describing a particular KENO BOX to be repeated in a KENO array and those combinatorial zones describing geometry external to an array. This allows the user to maintain a simple coordinate system without any geometric conflict due to spatial overlap. Several difficult criticality design problems have been solved with the new geometry package in KENO-IV/CG, thus illustrating the power of the code to model difficult geometries with a minimum of effort
Variable geometry Darrieus wind machine
Pytlinski, J. T.; Serrano, D.
1983-08-01
A variable geometry Darrieus wind machine is proposed. The lower attachment of the blades to the rotor can move freely up and down the axle allowing the blades of change shape during rotation. Experimental data for a 17 m. diameter Darrieus rotor and a theoretical model for multiple streamtube performance prediction were used to develop a computer simulation program for studying parameters that affect the machine's performance. This new variable geometry concept is described and interrelated with multiple streamtube theory through aerodynamic parameters. The computer simulation study shows that governor behavior of a Darrieus turbine can not be attained by a standard turbine operating within normally occurring rotational velocity limits. A second generation variable geometry Darrieus wind turbine which uses a telescopic blade is proposed as a potential improvement on the studied concept.