WorldWideScience

Sample records for geomembranes

  1. Geomembrane special study. [UMTRA Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. Floating geomembrane cover improves biogas collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, J.

    2009-07-15

    Canadian corn products refiner, Casco Inc., recently upgraded a wastewater anaerobic digester at its automated corn wet milling facility on the St. Lawrence River, in Cardinal Ontario. The upgrade includes an improved floating and insulated geomembrane cover, designed and installed by Geomembrane Technologies Inc. The cover effectively streamlines biogas collection, improves biogas odour control and optimizes bioreactor heat retention. Casco's bulk volume fermenter (BVF) was designed and built in 1988 by ADI Systems Inc. It is limited to receiving 641,000 gallons of wastewater per day from several areas of the plant. Wastewater sludge is usually treated by anaerobic digestion. At Casco, raw solids are added directly to the BVF bioreactor, where they are digested, minimizing waste sludge handling. In essence, anaerobic digestion is a renewable energy source which converts wastewater to a methane- and carbon dioxide-rich biogas suitable for energy production, replacing fossil fuels. The insulated geomembrane cover captures and reclaims all the biogas from the treatment process that is going on inside the tank. Without a cover, the biogas would be released to the atmosphere. The new geomembrane cover collects an average of 236,000 cubic feet of biogas per day, at a 65 per cent methane concentration, from the BVF bioreactor. 2 figs.

  3. Durability of geomembrane exposed to jet fuel A-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimal, S.; Rowe, R.K.; Hansen, S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). GeoEngineering Centre]|[Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    A geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) has been installed at a former Canadian Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line) site off the southeast coast of Baffin Island, in the Canadian Arctic. The liner was installed in an area of hydrocarbon contaminated soil to limit the migration of hydrocarbons to nearby water prior to future site remediation. This study examined the antioxidant depletion and the compatibility of both untreated and fluorinated high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes with jet fuel A-1. The objective was to determine the durability and long term performance of the HDPE geomembrane. Geomembrane swatches were immersed in jet fuel and placed inside a fumehood at -23 degrees C. They were examined for changes in oxidative induction time, crystallinity, tensile properties and dimensions. Immersion in jet fuel appears to accelerate the antioxidant depletion rate compared to that observed in municipal solid waste leachate. The untreated geomembrane had a higher rate of antioxidant depletion than the fluorinated geomembrane, suggesting that fluorination is beneficial. Tensile tests show that immersion in jet fuel decreases the yield stress while increasing the strain at yield. The results indicate that there is no significant permeation by jet fuel or diffusion at lower temperatures for the short term, but additional studies are needed to confirm long term behaviour. 27 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  4. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  5. Shear strength behavior of geotextile/geomembrane interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén M. Bacas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the shear interaction mechanism of one of the critical geosynthetic interfaces, the geotextile/geomembrane, typically used for lined containment facilities such as landfills. A large direct shear machine is used to carry out 90 geosynthetic interface tests. The test results show a strain softening behavior with a very small dilatancy (<0.5 mm and nonlinear failure envelopes at a normal stress range of 25–450 kPa. The influences of the micro-level structure of these geosynthetics on the macro-level interface shear behavior are discussed in detail. This study has generated several practical recommendations to help professionals to choose what materials are more adequate. From the three geotextiles tested, the thermally bonded monofilament exhibits the best interface shear strength under high normal stress. For low normal stress, however, needle-punched monofilaments are recommended. For the regular textured geomembranes tested, the space between the asperities is an important factor. The closer these asperities are, the better the result achieves. For the irregular textured geomembranes tested, the nonwoven geotextiles made of monofilaments produce the largest interface shear strength.

  6. Shear strength behavior of geotextile/geomembrane interfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Belén M. Bacas; Jorge Cañizal; Heinz Konietzky

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to study the shear interaction mechanism of one of the critical geosynthetic interfaces, the geotextile/geomembrane, typically used for lined containment facilities such as landfills. A large direct shear machine is used to carry out 90 geosynthetic interface tests. The test results show a strain softening behavior with a very small dilatancy (<0.5 mm) and nonlinear failure envelopes at a normal stress range of 25e450 kPa. The influences of the micro-level structure of these geosynthetics on the macro-level interface shear behavior are discussed in detail. This study has generated several practical recommendations to help professionals to choose what materials are more adequate. From the three geotextiles tested, the thermally bonded monofilament exhibits the best interface shear strength under high normal stress. For low normal stress, however, needle-punched monofilaments are recommended. For the regular textured geomembranes tested, the space between the asperities is an important factor. The closer these asperities are, the better the result achieves. For the irregular textured geomembranes tested, the nonwoven geotextiles made of monofilaments produce the largest interface shear strength.

  7. Partitioning and diffusion of PBDEs through an HDPE geomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, R Kerry; Saheli, Pooneh T; Rutter, Allison

    2016-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been measured in MSW landfill leachate and its migration through a modern landfill liner has not been investigated previously. To assure environmental protection, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of landfill liners for controlling the release of PBDE to the environment to a negligible level. The partitioning and diffusion of a commercial mixture of PBDEs (DE-71: predominantly containing six congeners) with respect to a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane is examined. The results show that the partitioning coefficients of the six congeners in this mixture range from 700,000 to 7,500,000 and the diffusion coefficients range from 1.3 to 6.0×10(-15)m(2)/s depending on the congener. This combination of very high partitioning coefficients and very low diffusion coefficients suggest that a well constructed HDPE geomembrane liner will be an extremely effective barrier for PBDEs with respect to diffusion from a municipal solid waste landfill, as illustrated by an example. The results for pure diffusion scenario showed that the congeners investigated meet the guidelines by at least a factor of three for an effective geomembrane liner where diffusion is the controlling transport mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geomembrane applications for controlling diffusive migration of petroleum hydrocarbons in cold region environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWatters, Rebecca S; Rutter, Allison; Rowe, R Kerry

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory permeation tests examine the migration of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX)) at 2, 7 and 14 °C through three different types of geomembrane (high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC)). Tests on both virgin and exhumed field samples provide permeation parameters (partitioning (Sgf), diffusion (Dg), and permeation (Pg) coefficients) for the three geomembranes. These results are combined with published values for the same geomembranes at 23 °C to establish an Arrhenius relationship that can be used to estimate diffusion parameters at temperatures other than those for which tests were conducted. Tests on an HDPE geomembrane sample exhumed after 3 years from a landfill site in the Canadian Arctic showed no significant difference in diffusion characteristics compared to an otherwise similar unaged and unexposed HDPE geomembrane. Contaminant transport modeling for benzene through HDPE, LLPDE and PVC in a simulated landfill cover show that for the conditions examined the presence of any of the three geomembranes below the 2 m thick soil cover substantially reduced the contaminant flux compared to the soils alone for realistic degrees of saturation in the cover soil. For these same realistic cold climate cases, of the three geomembranes examined, the HDPE geomembrane was the most effective at controlling the contaminant flux out of the landfill. An increase in soil cover and liner temperature by 2 °C (from potential climate change effects) above those currently measured at an Arctic landfill showed an increase in contaminant transport through the cover system for all geomembranes due to the increase surface temperature (especially in the summer months). Modeling of the addition of an extra 0.5 m of soil cover, as a mitigation measure for the effects of climate change, indicates that the main benefit of adding this unsaturated soil was to reduce the

  9. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified.

  10. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner; Contribution a l'etude des transferts de masse au niveau des joints de geomembrane et a l'interface entre geomembrane et geosynthetique bentonitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, M

    2005-03-15

    Composite liners are used to limit the contamination migration from landfills. Their successful performance is closely related with the geo-membrane as it provides the primary barrier to diffusive and advective transport of contaminants. Critical issues on the performance of the geo-membranes are the seams between geo-membrane panels and the inevitable defects resulting, for instance, from inadequate installation activities. In landfills, where high density polyethylene geo-membranes are usually used, seams are typically made by the thermal-hot dual wedge method. A literature review on quality control of the seams showed that, in situ, fluid-tightness of seams is evaluated in qualitative terms (pass/failure criteria), despite their importance to ensure appropriate performance of the geo-membranes as barriers. In addition, a synthesis of studies on geo-membrane defects indicated that defects varying in density from 0.7 to 15.3 per hectare can be found in landfills. Defects represent preferential flow paths for leachate. Various authors have developed analytical solutions and empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane. The validity of these methods for composite liners comprising a geo-membrane over a geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) over a compacted clay liner (CCL) has never been studied from an experimental point of view. To address the problem of fluid migration through the geo-membrane seams, an attempt is made to provide a test method, herein termed as 'gas permeation pouch test', for assessing the quality of the thermal-hot dual wedge seams. This test consists of pressurizing the air channel formed by the double seam with a gas to a specific pressure and, then, measuring the decrease in pressure over time. From the pressure decrease, both the gas permeation coefficients, in steady state conditions, and the time constant, in unsteady state conditions, can be estimated. Experiments were

  11. Diffusion of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through a high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheli, P T; Rowe, R K; Petersen, E J; O'Carroll, D M

    2017-05-01

    The new applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various fields and consequently their greater production volume have increased their potential release to the environment. Landfills are one of the major locations where carbon nanotubes are expected to be disposed and it is important to ensure that they can limit the release of CNTs. Diffusion of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in an aqueous media through a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane (as a part of the landfill barrier system) was examined. Based on the laboratory tests, the permeation coefficient was estimated to be less than 5.1×10(-15) m(2)/s. The potential performance of a HDPE geomembrane and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) as parts of a composite liner in containing MWCNTs was modelled for six different scenarios. The results suggest that the low value of permeation coefficient of an HDPE geomembrane makes it an effective diffusive barrier for MWCNTs and by keeping the geomembrane defects to minimum during the construction (e.g., number of holes and length of wrinkles) a composite liner commonly used in municipal solid waste landfills will effectively contain MWCNTs.

  12. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner; Contribution a l'etude des transferts de masse au niveau des joints de geomembrane et a l'interface entre geomembrane et geosynthetique bentonitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, M

    2005-03-15

    Composite liners are used to limit the contamination migration from landfills. Their successful performance is closely related with the geo-membrane as it provides the primary barrier to diffusive and advective transport of contaminants. Critical issues on the performance of the geo-membranes are the seams between geo-membrane panels and the inevitable defects resulting, for instance, from inadequate installation activities. In landfills, where high density polyethylene geo-membranes are usually used, seams are typically made by the thermal-hot dual wedge method. A literature review on quality control of the seams showed that, in situ, fluid-tightness of seams is evaluated in qualitative terms (pass/failure criteria), despite their importance to ensure appropriate performance of the geo-membranes as barriers. In addition, a synthesis of studies on geo-membrane defects indicated that defects varying in density from 0.7 to 15.3 per hectare can be found in landfills. Defects represent preferential flow paths for leachate. Various authors have developed analytical solutions and empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane. The validity of these methods for composite liners comprising a geo-membrane over a geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) over a compacted clay liner (CCL) has never been studied from an experimental point of view. To address the problem of fluid migration through the geo-membrane seams, an attempt is made to provide a test method, herein termed as 'gas permeation pouch test', for assessing the quality of the thermal-hot dual wedge seams. This test consists of pressurizing the air channel formed by the double seam with a gas to a specific pressure and, then, measuring the decrease in pressure over time. From the pressure decrease, both the gas permeation coefficients, in steady state conditions, and the time constant, in unsteady state conditions, can be estimated. Experiments were

  13. Rationale for the use of protective gaskets made of geotextiles and permeability evaluation of impervious coatings made of geomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosichenko Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design rationale for the use of protective pads of geotextiles and geomembranes permeability of PD using these pads. In order to justify the use of protective pads made of geotextile for reducing the defectiveness geomembrane soil fractions, the existing formulas to determine the thickness of the film element of impervious devices were examined. The calculations according to the formulas show that HDPE geomembrane with a minimum thickness of 1,0 mm, the protective lining of the geotextile should be applied at the average diameter fractions of soil of more than 6,5 mm, and for geomembranes HDPE - at a diameter of soil fractions of over 15,5 mm. In order to estimate the permeability of the TFG geomembrane using additional protective linings of geotextile in the scientific article the basic design schemes of such coatings with one and two layers of protective linings of geotextiles were considered. The evaluation results of water permeability of impervious surfaces with geotextile and for comparison - without geotextiles are given in a table. As it is shown by the data presented for the design scheme with a single layer of geotextile geomembrane at the base (in the presence of small holes in the geomembrane the decrease the effectiveness of an anti-covering is more than 268,0 %, and for the settlement scheme covering with two layers of geotextile there will be a very large reduction in the efficiency, which almost completely reduces the effectiveness of the coating to the value of the geomembrane permeability of a soil layer without geomembrane with the filtration flow rate of 71,75 m /day, against water permeability of the geomembrane cover - 38,52 m /day. From the foregoing, it can be concluded that the application of a coating design of well filtering gaskets made of geotextile is justified in terms of protecting the geomembrane from mechanical damage, but greatly reduces the effectiveness of impervious cover in

  14. Protective effect of overlying geosynthetic on geomembrane liner observed from landfill field tests and inclined board laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Moonkyung; Seo, Min Woo; Kim, Kang Suk; Park, Jun Boum

    2006-06-01

    Geosynthetic liner systems are generally installed in landfill sites to prevent toxic leachate from escaping into the adjoining environment by utilizing their impervious characteristics. Therefore, it is important to protect the geomembrane from being damaged or destroyed during all phases of landfilling, namely landfill construction, waste tipping and landfill closure. This paper presents firstly the observed performance of a geomembrane liner from a landfill site where the geomembrane liner was installed on the slopes of a Korean landfill; and secondly the results of an inclined board laboratory test. Two types of experiments were conducted to identify the protecting effect of the overlaying geosynthetic on the geomembrane liners. At a testing landfill site, the slope consisted of three different sub-inclines and two 2-m-wide intermediate levels. The sub-inclines were each 8 m in vertical height and their angle of inclination was 1: 1.5 (vertical: horizontal). The reported observations were made for a time period of approximately 1 year, until the landfill was filled with wastes to the top of the uppermost slope. In addition, inclined board laboratory tests were carried out. During the inclined board test, a base table is inclined slowly and steadily until the block located on the base table starts to slide, when the tension and displacements of two geosynthetics, namely the geomembrane liner and protecting geotextile, are measured. In conclusion, test results showed that the down-drag force generated by waste accumulation and sliding of upper material was to a large extent dissipated through the elongation of the protecting geosynthetic overlying the geomembrane and thus was not transferred to the geomembrane. Unless the protecting geosynthetic undergoes structural failure, this stress relaxation phenomenon continues to occur so that the magnitude of tensile force to be applied on the geomembrane remains marginal.

  15. An analytical solution to contaminant transport through composite liners with geomembrane defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the performance of landfill composite liner system,a one-dimensional model was developed for solute transport through composite liners containing geomembrane defects.An analytical solution to the model was obtained by the method of Laplace transformation.The results obtained by the presented solution agree well with those obtained by the numerical method.Results show that leachate head and construction quality of geomembrane(GM) have significant influences on the performance of the composite liners for heavy metal ions.The breakthrough time of lead decreases from 50 a to 19 a when the leachate head increases from 0.3 m to 10 m.It is also indicated that the contaminant mass flux of volatile organic compounds(VOCs) induced by leakage can not be neglected in case of poor construction quality of the landfill barrier system.It is shown that diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient of GM have great influences on solute transport through composite liners for VOCs.The breakthrough time of heavy metal ions will be greatly overestimated if the effects of diffusion and adsorption of clay and geosynthetic clay liner(GCL) are neglected.The composite liner consisting of a geomembrane and a GCL provides a poor barrier for VOCs.The presented analytical solution is relatively simple to apply and can be used for preliminary design of composite liners,evaluating experimental results,and verifying more complex numerical models.

  16. Analytical study of the performance of a geomembrane leak detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Francesco; Mahler, Claudio Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The electrical detection of leaks in geomembranes is a method that allows identifying leakage of contaminants in lined facilities (e.g. sanitary landfills, pollutant ponds, etc.). The procedure in the field involves placing electrodes above and below the geomembrane, to generate an electrical current, which in turn engenders an electric potential distribution in the protective layer (generally a clayey soil). The electric potential will be greater in areas with higher current density, i.e. near leaks. In this study, we combined models from the literature to carry out a parametric analysis to identify the variables that most influence the amplitude of the electrical signals produced by leaks. The basic hypothesis is that the electrical conduction phenomena in a liner system could be depicted by a direct current circuit. After determining the value of the current at the leak, we calculated the electric potential distribution according to the model of Darilek and Laine. This enabled analysing the sensitivity of the parameters, which can be useful in the design of landfills and facilitate the location of leaks. This study showed that geomembranes with low electrical resistance (owing to low thickness, low resistivity, or extensive area) can hinder the leak detection process. In contrast, low thickness and high resistivity of the protection layer magnify the leak signal.

  17. Development of high temperature resistant geomembranes for oil sands secondary containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Martin, D. [Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Plastic liner materials are often adversely impacted by chemicals at elevated temperatures. Heat accelerates the oxidation of the polymeric chains, which in turn accelerates the degradation of the plastic. This paper discussed geomembrane containment systems placed under heated petroleum storage tanks at an oil sands processing plant. Various high temperature-resistant geomembrane materials were tested. Compatibility testing procedures for the various fluids contained by the systems were outlined. Installation procedures for the membranes were also discussed. The membrane systems were designed for use with heavy gas oil; light gas oil; and naphtha. Temperatures in the ground below the tanks were approximately 79 degrees C. Testing was done using sealed containers held in an oil bath at temperatures of 105 degrees C. Heat applied to the chemicals during the tests pressurized the test vessels. Liner materials used in the initial tests included an ester-based thermoplastic polyurethane liner; high density polyethylene (HDPE); linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP) olefins; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and polyvinylidene (PVDF) materials. A second set of tests was then conducted using alloy materials and PVC. Heat stability tests demonstrated that the blue 0.75 mm alloy showed a tensile strength ratio within the industry's 15 per cent pass criteria. The samples were then tested with diluted bitumen and diluents at 65, 85 and 100 degrees C. The developed liners were installed underneath petroleum tanks with leak detection chambers. It was concluded that the geomembrane liners prevented the hot liquids from leaking. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  18. Use of a geomembrane steel sheet pile verticle barrier to curtail organic seepage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti, J.L.; Butler, P.B. [DuPont Environmental Remediation Services, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    At a Superfund site in Delaware, contaminated groundwater, seeping out of a riverbank, produced a visible sheen on the river. As part of an emergency response action, a geomembrane steel sheet pile vertical barrier system was installed to contain the sheen and contaminated soil and sediments. The response action presented an engineering challenge due to the close proximity manufacturing facilities, steep riverbank slopes, tidal fluctuations, high velocity river flow, and underground and overhead interferences. A unique vertical containment barrier was developed to stabilize the riverbank slope, curtail sheens on the river, and prevent groundwater mounding behind the vertical barrier. In addition, the cost-effective vertical barrier enables natural chemical and biological processes to contain the organic seepage without requiring a groundwater extraction system.

  19. 土工膜缺陷渗漏引起气胀的研究%Air expansion caused by leakage water resulting from geomembrane defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旺林; 李志强; 魏晓燕; 李英特

    2013-01-01

    In the initial storage period of the plain reservoir using geomembrane as anti-seepage materials of reservoir basin,the leakage water resulting from geomembrane defects is easy to induce the pore-air in the unsaturated soil under geomembrane gathering and rising,and the pore-air will lead to air expansion of the geomembrane with local swelling.The mechanism of air expansion phenomenon resulting from the leakage water is analyzed.A special large-scale test instrument for the air expansion of geomembrane is developed.Air expansion tests in seepage area and anti-seepage area are conducted to simulate the air expansion phenomenon caused by the leakage water resulting from geomembrane defects.The conclusions are drawn as follows:(1) when the groundwater level is invariant,there will be no geomembrane air expansion phenomenon during the storage period; (2) in the initial storage period of plain reservoirs,water leaks from the geomembraae defects,intrudes the porous space of sand ditches under geomembrane,seals off exhaust passages,and causes water resistance phenomenon,and then affects pore-air exhaust from sand ditch exhaust system regularly;,(3) in the initial storage period of plain reservoirs,water leaks from the geomembrane defects,and after the leakage water meets the underground water,leakage water will squeeze the space of pore-air in unsaturated soil under geomembrane,induce the overall rising of groundwater level in the reservoir area and gathering and rising of pore-air in unsaturated soil,finally,it causes local expansive deformation of the geomembrane,that is,the air expansion phenomenon.%对于采用土工膜库盘防渗的平原水库,蓄水初期,土工膜缺陷渗漏,极易引起库区土工膜膜下非饱和土层中孔隙气体聚集、上升,并使土工膜产生局部隆起的气胀现象.分析了库水渗漏引起土工膜气胀变形的机理,研制了超大型专用气胀试验设备,利用渗漏区和非渗漏区气胀试验来模拟土工膜

  20. Study on Textured Surface Formation Methods and Technology of Polyethylene Geomembrane%聚乙烯土工膜糙面成型方法及工艺探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何迪春; 梅芳芳

    2013-01-01

    The molding process of polyethylene geomembrane was introduced, and the textured formation methods and technology of polyethylene geomembrane were overviewed briefly. The recent development and existing problems of polyethylene textured geomembrane were described. The application prospect of polyethylene textured geomembrane was looked forward.%介绍了聚乙烯土工膜的成型工艺,重点概述了聚乙烯土工膜糙面成型方法及工艺,阐述了糙面土工膜近期发展的趋势及所面临的一些问题,展望了聚乙烯糙面土工膜广阔的应用前景.

  1. 加肋土工膜衬垫系统稳定性分析%Stability analysis of reinforced geomembrane liner system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊丽; 张孟喜

    2013-01-01

    The weak interface of landfill liner system is easy to be instable. Based on the mechanism analysis of reinforced geomembrane and sand interface, and combined with the traditional two wedges analysis model, the bearing resistance effect on the stability of the landfill liner system is considered; and an analytic solution of the slope stability is also built. Associated with the preliminary design of practical projects, the stability of reinforced geomembrane liner system is studied. The effects of reinforcement shape, reinforcement height and reinforcement space on the slope stability are analyzed. Analysis results show that this analytic solution can better calculate the safety factor of reinforced geomembrane liner system. When the reinforcement space comes to 20 mm, the effect of reinforcement height on safety factor is bigger. When the reinforcement height reaches a certain value, the safety factor decreases with the increasing reinforcement space. But if the reinforcement space is larger than 200 mm, the shear properties of reinforced geomembrane are close to that of smooth geomembrane.%针对填埋场衬垫系统薄弱界面容易失稳,在加肋土工膜与砂土界面力学机制分析的基础上,改进了传统双楔体分析法,考虑了加肋土工膜肋块端部端承阻力对衬垫系统稳定性的影响,建立了加肋土工膜衬垫系统稳定性分析解析解。结合某实际工程初步设计,对加肋土工膜衬垫系统进行了稳定性分析,探讨了肋块形状、肋块高度和加肋间距对衬垫系统安全系数的影响。分析结果表明,该解析解能更好地计算加肋土工膜衬垫系统的安全系数。当加肋间距为20 mm时,肋块高度对安全系数的影响较大;当肋块高度一定时,安全系数随着加肋间距增加而逐渐减小;在加肋间距大于200 mm之后,加肋土工膜已接近光面土工膜的剪切特性。

  2. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, S. [IGB - Ingenieurbuero fuer Grundbau, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m{sup 2} to 500 m{sup 2}. Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} to 4 x 10{sup -8} m{sup 3} m{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates.

  3. An analytical model for volatile organic compound transport through a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane, a GCL, and a soil liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Haijian; Jiang, Yuansheng; Zhang, Chunhua; Feng, Shijin

    2015-02-01

    An analytical model for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) transport through a composite liner consisting of a geomembrane (GM), a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and a soil liner (SL) was developed for the assessment of the performance of this triple liner system. Both advection through the defects of GM and diffusion in the intact GM were considered in the model, and dimensionless analytical solution was obtained. The soil concentration profiles obtained by the proposed analytical solution have a good agreement with those obtained by the finite-layer-based software POLLUTE v7. The effects of leachate head, length of the connected wrinkles, and the interface transmissivity of GM/GCL on the breakthrough curves of the liner system were then investigated. Results show that the 30-year base flux of the liner system for the case with leachate head = 10 m and length of the connected wrinkles = 1,000 m can be over 60 times greater than that of the pure diffusion case. The length of the connected wrinkles of the GM has greater influence on the base flux of the liner system than on the base concentration. The interface transmissivity has negligible effect on the solute breakthrough curves of the liner system for relatively low values of the length of the connected wrinkles (e.g., liners.

  4. Interface shear strength of textured geomembrane with nonwoven geotextile and change pattern of surface asperity%糙面土工膜与无纺土工织物界面剪切强度及表面粗糙度变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施建勇; 李砚

    2016-01-01

    为了量化糙面土工膜表面粗糙度变化规律,研制了表面粗糙度测量仪,并进行了不同法向应力下糙面土工膜和无纺土工织物界面剪切和对应的糙面土工膜表面粗糙度试验。研究表明,糙面土工膜和无纺土工织物界面剪切强度是由糙面土工膜粗糙凸起和无纺土工织物纤维相互嵌入和拉拽作用产生的,界面的剪切峰值摩擦系数主要受到法向应力的影响,界面强度发展到残余强度,糙面土工膜粗糙凸起磨损趋于稳定,无纺土工织物纤维定向排列完成。%In order to quantitatively investigate the pattern of change of the surface asperity of textured geomembrane, a new apparatus for measuring surface asperity was developed. Interface shear tests of textured geomembrane with nonwoven geotextile under different normal stresses and corresponding tests on the surface asperity of textured geomembrane were conducted. The results show that the interface shear strength of textured geomembrane with nonwoven geotextile is caused by the embedding and pulling actions between textured points of geomembrane and geotextile fabric. The peak interface shear friction coefficient is mainly influenced by normal stress. When the interface shear strength tends to be residual strength, the damage to textured points of geomembrane tends to be stable and the fabric orientation of geotextile is fully achieved.

  5. Research on Mechanism of Geomembrane/Geotextile Interface Strength%土工膜/无纺土工织物界面强度形成机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李砚; 宋晓光; 栾金龙

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the interface contact status on the geomembrane/geotextile interface strength in landfill site ,and taking the interface contact status as the only variable ,the direct shear tests were carried out by exclud-ing the effects of other factors so as to obtain the changes of the geomembrane/geotextile interface contact status with nor-mal stress .Through comparing with the results of preloading direct-shear test and normal shear test ,the effects of the changes of the geomembrane/geotextile interface contact status on the interface strength were identified .It is found that the wrapping fiber ratio and wrapping fiber density are the major influencing factors on the interface strength peak ,and based on this ,the connection formula between the increment of the interface strength peak before and after preloading and the wrapping fiber ratio together with the wrapping fiber density is established .The research results show that with the constant normal stress ,the changes of the geomembrane/geotextile interface contact status could result in the changes of the interface streugth peak .%为研究填埋场衬垫系统中土工膜/无纺土工织物界面强度受界面接触状态的影响,将界面接触状态作为单一变量进行直剪试验,排除法向应力等其他因素对界面强度的影响,得到土工膜/无纺土工织物界面接触状态随法向应力的变化。通过对预压直剪试验和常规直剪试验结果的比较找出土工膜/无纺土工织物界面接触状态的变化对界面强度的影响。发现界面接触状态中裹覆纤维比和裹覆纤维密度这两个参数是影响界面峰值强度的主要因素,并建立界面峰值强度预压前后的增量与裹覆纤维比和裹覆纤维密度的关系式。即使法向应力不变,土工膜/无纺土工织物界面接触状态改变也能使界面峰值强度发生变化。

  6. 复合土工膜防渗施工接缝加固方法%Seam-reinforcing Method for Composite Geomembrane in Seepage Control Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋学行; 李翠玲; 李娟; 李晓红

    2012-01-01

    Currently, seams of PE membrane are fused and seams of non-woven geo-fabric are sewed for joining of membrane and non-woven geo-fabrics. The test results indicate that tensile failure strength of the bonded seams is only 20 %~40 % of the tensile strength of parent materials. On the basis of a series of experimental study, a new method is proposed for strengthening the seams of geomembrane and geo-fabrics. With the new method, KS hot melt adhesive is used for binding seams of PE membrane and non-woven geofabric and seams of non-woven geofabric following welding of PE membrane. Being strengthened with KS hot melt adhesive the tensile failure strength of the bonded seams could be similar to the tensile strength of parent materials, which satisfies technical requirement that tensile strength of seams should not be lower than 80 % of the tensile strength of parent materials as specified in Standard for Application of Geosynthetics in Hydraulic and Hydro-power Engineering.%目前两布一膜型PE复合土工膜施工中多采用膜焊接、非织造土工布缝合的接缝方法,测得接缝拉伸断裂强度仅为母材强度的20%~40%.在试验研究基础上提出了膜焊接后,膜与非织造土工布、非织造土工布与非织造土工布之间采用KS热熔胶粘剂粘合的接缝加固方法.加固后的接缝强度接近母材强度,满足SL/T 225-98《水利水电工程土工合成材料应用技术规范》中,接缝强度不低于母材强度80%的技术要求.

  7. HDPE膜与土工布界面摩擦特性的斜板仪试验%Experiment of frictional properties of HDPE geomembrane against and geotextile using tilt table device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 唐延东; 李辉山

    2012-01-01

    斜板仪试验可以为HDPE膜与土工布接触面剪切特性、摩擦性能的研究提供试验参考,也可以为陡峭边坡HDPE膜拉伸与锚固技术提供技术指导.使用不同粗糙程度的HDPE膜、不同干湿状态的土工布进行3种接触面积下的斜板仪试验.试验结果表明:斜板仪试验存在明显的尺寸效应,只有两者接触面积大于200 mm×200 mm,两种材料界面的粘聚力和摩擦角才不会受到接触面积的影响;土工布与HDPE膜接触面的摩擦角和粘聚力一般在潮湿状态下大于干燥状态下;在卫生填埋场运行过程中,垃圾产生的渗沥液对库区边坡土工布的抗滑移是有利的;光面和毛面HDPE膜与潮湿状态下土工布界面间粘聚力差异不明显,但是两种膜的摩擦角却有明显差异.%Experiment with tilt table device could provide a reference for investigation of shear characteristics and frictional parameters of HDPE-geotextile interface, and also provide technical guidance for stretching and anchoring HEPE geomembrane on steep slope. Different roughness of HDPE geomembrane and geotextile with various moisture states were tested with three contact areas on the tilt table device. Test result indicated that there was an obvious size effect during the test. The contact area would not affect the friction angle and cohesion only when the contact area was bigger than 200 mm X 200 mm. The friction angle and cohesion force between wetted geotextile and HDPE geomembrane were generally larger than that between them. In the process of sanitary landfill, the leach produced by the rubbish was helpful for anti-slide and there would be no significant difference in cohesion between smooth HDPE-wet geotextile and rough HDPE-wet geotextile, but their friction angle would be obviously different.

  8. Wear resistance of geosynthetic interfaces constituted by geomembranes and geospacers Resistência ao desgaste de interfaces geossintéticas constituídas por geomembranas e geoespaçadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Nunes Pitanga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an experimental study which aimed to evaluate the effect of surface wear on the friction properties of geosynthetic interfaces constituted of geomembranes and geospacers. The tests were performed in ramp test device, and the results showed the different sensitivities of the interfaces to the wear process. For the particular types of interfaces considered in the experiment, the surface wear can increase, decrease or maintain the original friction properties of the geosynthetic interface, with direct effects on the stability under service condition.Esse artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo experimental que visa a avaliar o efeito do desgaste superficial sobre as propriedades de atrito de interfaces geossintéticas constituídas por geomembranas. Os ensaios foram realizados em equipamento de plano inclinado e os resultados demonstram as diferentes sensibilidades das interfaces, testadas ao processo de desgaste. Para os tipos particulares de interfaces consideradas no programa experimental, constatou-se que o desgaste superficial pode aumentar, diminuir ou manter as propriedades originais de atrito da interface geossintética, repercutindo, diretamente, sobre a estabilidade desta sob condição de serviço.

  9. Study on Seaming of Compound Geomembrane in Seepage Control Construction of Trunk Canal of SNWDP Mid-Route Scheme%南水北调中线干渠复合土工膜防渗施工接缝问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋学行; 李翠玲; 李晓红; 吕军

    2011-01-01

    According to the design of South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) Mid-Route Scheme, one layer of PE membrane and two layers of PE composite geomembrane formed of filament non-woven fabric (The thickness of PE membrane is 0. 3 mm, and the weight of the upper and lower layers of the filament non-woven geofabric is 150 g/m2. Respectively) are selected for the overall seepage control of the trunk canal. In the current constructions, seams of PE membrane are welded and seams of non-woven geofabric are sewed up. The results indicate that the tensile failure strength of the bonded seams is only 27% of the tensile strength of the parent materials. On the basis of a series of experimental studies, a new method is proposed for strengthening the seams of geomembrane. The new method uses the KS hot melt adhesive for binding the seams of PE membrane and non-woven geofabric and binding the seams of two layers of non-woven geofabric based on the welding of PE membrane. The tensile failure strength of the bonded seams could be up to 97% of tensile strength of parent materials according to the new method, which satisfies the technical requirement that the tensile strength of seams cannot be lower than 80% of the tensile strength of the parent materials as specified in the Standard for Application of Geosynthetics in Hydraulic and Hydro-power Engineering.%南水北调中线干渠设计选用两布一膜型PE复合土工膜(PE膜厚0.30 mm,上下层长丝非织造土工布各重150 g/m2)整体防渗.施工中采用膜焊接、非织造土工布缝合的接缝方法,测得接缝拉伸断裂强度仅为母材强度的27%.在试验研究基础上提出了膜焊接后,膜与非织造土工布、非织造土工布与非织造土工布之间采用KS热熔胶黏剂黏合的接缝加固方法.加固后的接缝强度达到母材强度的97%,满足《水利水电工程土工合成材料应用技术规范》SL/T 225-98中接缝强度不低于母材强度80%的技术要求.

  10. 智能型土工膜水力性能测试仪%Aptitude Test Instrument of Waterpower about Geomembrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟锋; 范福玲

    2005-01-01

    智能型土工膜水力性能测试仪以MCS-51单片机为核心构成了土工膜水力性能智能测试仪的微机测控系统,实现了自动加压和对压力、水量、时间的自动测定,还能与上位机进行通讯.上位机对采集的数据进行整理、造册制表、CRT显示图表,还可以将数据随机存盘.

  11. HFT-Ⅲ型土工膜水力性能智能测试仪%Aptitude Test Instrument of Waterpower for Geomembrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范福玲; 魏平俊; 李伟锋; 薛立; 刘丽萍

    2002-01-01

    复合土工膜主要应用于防渗工程中,其渗透系数和耐静水压是渗透性能的主要指标.本文介绍HFT-Ⅲ型土工膜水力性能智能测试仪的微机测控系统、仪器的组成及主要技术特点,给出了该仪器的外型示意图与控制系统原理图,分析了该仪器的主要技术参数的测试原理与测试工艺.

  12. 基于RS-485总线的土工膜水力性能测试系统%Aptitude test instrument of waterpower about geomembrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟锋

    2004-01-01

    介绍了一种土工膜水力性能测试系统的设计原理和方法.该系统通过RS-485总线连接上位机与89C52单片机(下位机),实现了土工膜水力性能测试系统.下位机可完成自动加压和对压力、水量、时间的自动测定;上位机与多个下位机通讯,对其采集的数据进行整理、制表打印、显示存储,提高了测量精度,减少了测试时间.

  13. 智能型土工膜水力性能测试仪%Aptitude test instrument of waterpower about geomembrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛立; 刘丽萍; 魏平俊

    2003-01-01

    智能型土工膜水力性能测试仪以MCS-51单片机为核心构成了土工膜水力性能智能测试仪的微机测控系统,实现了自动加压和对压力、水量、时间的自动测定,还能与上位机进行通讯.上位机对采集的数据进行整理、造册制表、CRT显示图表,还可以将数据随机存盘.

  14. 78 FR 52762 - Notice of Intent To Prepare A Draft Environment Impact Statement for the Proposed Ray Mine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... seepage collection trench will be constructed with a geomembrane liner anchored to bedrock and granular.... socioeconomic effects, 10. soils and geotechnical stability issues, 11. transportation network impacts, and...

  15. Optical and Scanning electron Microscopy as advanced analysis methods to determine the condition of synthetic geo membranes; Las microscopias optica de reflexion y electronica de barrido como metodos avanzados de analisis para conocer el estado de las geomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano Carrillo, J.; Blanco Fernandez, M.; Garcia Calleja, M. A.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rubin de Celix, M.

    2014-02-01

    Microscopic techniques have been widely used for years in the study of inorganic materials however their use in organic materials and specifically, in synthetic geo membranes, is very limited. In this study, this innovative technology has been used with the different geo synthetic polymeric barriers with which this research team is experienced: plasticized polyvinyl chloride, polyethylenes, rubbers such as ethenyltriphenyl-diene monomer terpolymer and butyl, polyolefins, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, chlorosulfonated polyethylene and polypropylene. the influence of the extraction area and the time since their application is tested. (Author)

  16. Application of Anti-seepage Technology with Rubble-masonry and Geomembrane in Canal Anti-seepage%浆砌石土工膜防渗技术在渠道防渗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟丽萍

    2006-01-01

    水利工程建设中渠道防渗失修是普遍存在的问题,在滹沱河灌区大型重点续建配套与节水改造工程中,针对以往浆砌石护坡防渗和混凝土预制板防渗存在的问题,采用浆砌石土工膜防渗新形式,并在施工工艺上进行了改革,取得良好效果.

  17. Scoping study. High density polyethylene (HDPE) in salstone service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2005-02-18

    An evaluation of the use of high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes in Saltstone service has been conducted due to the potential benefits that could be derived from such usage. HDPE is one of the simplest hydrocarbon polymers and one of the most common polymers utilized in the production of geomembranes, which means that its costs are relatively low. Additionally, HDPE geomembranes have an extremely low permeability and an extremely low water vapor diffusional flux, which means that it is a good barrier to contaminant transport. The primary consideration in association with HDPE geomembranes in Saltstone service is the potential impact of Saltstone on the degradation of the HDPE geomembranes. Therefore, the evaluation documented herein has primarily focused upon the potential HDPE degradation in Saltstone service.

  18. Rational design approach for landfill liner protective soil cover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruetten, M.G. [STS Consultants Ltd., Green Bay, WI (United States); Bandi, S.R. [Rust Environment & Infrastructure, Livonia, MI (United States); Reddy, K.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a rational approach for designing protective soil cover for landfill geomembrane liners in order to prevent damage to the liners. The present practice involves using a combination of geotextile and soil layer as protective cover. The geotextile is placed directly over the geomembrane and then a protective soil is placed on the geotextile. The protective soil layer generally consists of a free-draining granular soil which also serves as a drainage layer for the leachate collection and removal system. The degree of protection offered to the geomembrane depends on the type of geotextile, and the composition and thickness of the protective soil used.

  19. The Installation Plans of Impervious Cover Plates in the Joint Parts of Composite Geomembrane and Concrete Structure%复合土工膜与混凝土结构接头部位防渗盖片安装方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎逢先

    2014-01-01

    近年来,土工合成材料得到了大量应用,它的应用成效引起了工程技术人员的高度重视。笔者结合具体的实例工程,对混凝土结构接头部位的防渗盖片安装进行了分析。%In recent years, geosynthetics get a lot of applicati-ons, and the effect of application has caused great at ention of the engineering and technical personnel. The author combines with the specific project examples to analysis the instal ation of impervious cover plates in the concrete structure joint part.

  20. Development of reactive artificial liner using recycled materials. 2. Chemical transport properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Johnnie Y; Asavanich, Pitch; Moon, Kyong-Whan; Park, Jae K

    2013-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have so far been found to permeate through geomembranes within days and potentially pollute the surrounding groundwater if no sufficient depth of underlain soil barrier existed In order to cope with the fast breakthrough of VOCs through high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane in the composite liner system, a composite material made of recycled materials was proposed and its mechanical properties were analyzed in a previous study. This artificial liner was composed of crumb rubber, organo-clay, silica fume and epoxy binder together with an environmentally-friendly solvent recycled from paper pulping, and dimethyl sulfoxide as a plasticizer. In this study, the new artificial liner and a typical HDPE geomembrane were tested to compare their abilities to mitigate the movement of VOCs, specifically partition coefficient, diffusion coefficient and mass fluxes. It was found that this new artificial liner had 2-3 orders of magnitude less VOC mass flux than the HDPE geomembrane. The new artificial liner is thought to have a great potential for containing VOCs, even with a thickness of 2.5 cm, and as a substitute for the clay liner. The cost of installing the artificial liner was estimated to be $13.78/m(2). This is lower than the current geomembrane-related price of $19.70-26.91/m(2). The new liner might give a new perspective in future liner design and alleviate the concerning issue of groundwater pollution caused by landfill leachate, which might contain highly mobile VOCs.

  1. Transmissivity evolution through interface of composite liners under applied constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagne, M

    2011-08-01

    In landfill liners, geomembranes have defects that constitute preferential passages of leachate from rainwater percolation. Non-woven geotextiles are widely used in wastelandfills as materials having the functions of protection, separation, filtration and drainage. This study seeks to select geotextiles through an investigation conducted among landfill operators who commonly arise a geotextile in the geomembrane-clay interface to facilitate geomembrane welding and to prevent its puncture by angular materials. It also attempts to find out the influence of geotextile in a decimetric transmissivity cell size under 50 kPa stress and smooth ground surface. The results show that the transmissivity in composite liner interface is almost the same as the one calculated with the European standard EN ISO 12958. Transmissivity depends on the mechanical stress applied to the bottom liner, on the geotextile type in the interface and on the ground surface.

  2. Modelling of the flow in the interface of a composite liner at the bottom of a municipal waste landfill; Modelisation des ecoulements dans les interfaces des barrieres d'etancheite composites des installations de stockage de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaud, F

    2004-11-15

    Composite liner at the bottom of waste landfill is based, in France, on a geo-membrane overlapping a compacted clay liner. Defects exist in geo-membranes and leachates, provided by water percolation through the waste, then flow in the interface between the two components of the lining system. The present work consisted in analysis, quantification and modelling of the leakage process in the interface. The experimental study has been carried out on a one-meter scale device in laboratory and allowed to assess the role of normal stress on the flow rate in interface. The case where a geo-textile is present beneath the geo-membrane has been also studied. The modelling allows to take into account more accurately the geometry of the interface and ensures a better quantification of leachate flow rates than using existing methods. (author)

  3. Field evaluation of the effectiveness of engineered soil covers for reactive tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanful, E.K.; Woyshner, M.R.; Aube, B.C.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose is to design, construct, and evaluate the effectiveness of soil covers and a geomembrane, or plastic cover, to reduce acid generation in reactive mine tailings. The evaluation involves performance monitoring of field test plots at the decommissioned Waite Amulet tailings site and laboratory experiments. Gaseous oxygen concentrations, water content, suction, temperature, and pore water quality at various depths were measured at plots set up to test two soil covers, the geomembrane cover, and as a control. The results from the four tests are reported and evaluated. 43 refs., 98 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. Poly-urea spray elastomer for waste containment applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C.J. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Cheng, S.C.J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tanis, R. [Foamseal, Lapeer, MI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Geomembrane usage in environmental applications has increased dramatically following the promulgation of federal regulations resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Subtitle D rules, formulated under the authority of RCRA, call for minimum performance standards to limit adverse effects of a solid waste disposal facility on human health or the environment (40 CFR 257,258, August 30, 1988). These rules set minimum standards requiring new landfill designs to include liner systems and final cover systems. Each state has the responsibility to develop rules that are at least as stringent as the Subtitle D rules. There are several types of geomembranes currently available for landfill applications, each offering particular advantages and disadvantages. For example, PVC does not show the yield point (point of instability) that HDPE shows, HDPE has a higher puncture resistance than PVC, and PVC will deform much more than HDPE before barrier properties of the geomembrane are lost. Because each geomembrane material exhibits its own particular characteristics the material selected should be chosen based on the individual project requirements. It is preferable to select a design that uses the least expensive material and meets the performance specifications of the project.

  5. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THREE GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydraulic conductivity of three 2.9 m2 (32 sq ft) geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) was measured. Tests were performed on individual sheets of the GCLs, on overlapped pieces of GCLs, and on composite liners consisting of a punctured geomembrane overlying a GCL. Hyd...

  6. Folosirea pământului armat la fundaţii pe terenuri slabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Enache Niculescu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The geosynthetics term is generally regarded to encompass eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, geomembranes, geocomposites, geocells and combinations of materiales. These synthetic polymeric can be fabricated from hight resistences, deformation needetand a good adherence with earth confinement.

  7. Evaluation of robustness of fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) as liner - Durability, percolation and drainage water quality; Bedoemning av laangtidsegenskaper hos taetskikt bestaaende av flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam, FSA - Bestaendighet, taethet och ytutlakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Laendell, Maerta; Haakansson, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    This project shows that fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) is watertight and resistant as liner in landfills. The presented results can lead to that more landfills will use FSS as liner, and landfills already using FSS together with geomembrane, can leave out the latter without risking contamination of the drainage water collected by the closure construction

  8. 垃圾填埋场衬垫系统穿刺性能评价%Evaluation of puncture performance of liner system for solid waste landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许四法; 张勇; 王哲

    2011-01-01

    垃圾中含有铁、玻璃和陶瓷等尖锐物,在荷载作用下极有可能使衬垫系统发生破坏,导致渗滤液流入地下污染周边环境,如何正确评价衬垫系统的穿刺性能很重要.考虑材料的抗拉强度、厚度以及穿刺棒的直径提出了衬垫系统穿刺力的评价公式,并与试验结果进行了比较.结果表明,单层土工膜的抗穿刺力试验结果与评价值比较吻合,但由土工膜与无纺布组成的衬垫系统抗穿刺力的试验值与评价结果有一定偏差;土工膜与无纺布一起使用能大幅度提高衬垫系统的抗穿刺能力,因此土工膜上应铺设无纺布有利于保护衬垫系统;土工膜的抗拉强度越大,抗穿刺能力越强;基础的存在能在一定程度上提高衬垫系统的抗穿刺性能.所得结果对垃圾填埋场衬垫系统的设计具有一定的指导意义.%Because of the containing iron, glass and ceramics in solid waste, the geomembrane may be easily damaged and results in infiltrating into the surrounding ground and water; so it is very important how to evaluate the puncture performance of liner system.Taking into account the tensile strength.the thickness of geomembrane and the diameter of puncture probe, an evaluation formula of puncture resistance is presented based on the thin-walled structural mechanics theory; and the calculated values are compared with the experimental values.The results show that the calculation results of geomembrane are consistent with the puncture test results; but the calculation results of liner system composed of geomembrane and geotextiles are only about 70 percent of the test results.Geotextile used together with geomembrane could significantly improve puncture performance of liner system; so the geotextile should be spread on geomembrane for protection geomembrane.With an increase of tensile strength of geomembrane.puncture resistance becomes larger.Puncture resistance of geomembrans placed on compacted soil

  9. Spanish experience in the use of synthetic geo membranes for hydraulic works; Experiencia espanola en el uso de geomembranas sinteticas en obras hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.

    2014-02-01

    The Spanish institution Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX) has studied for decades the behaviour of geosynthetic products, specially the polymeric geo synthetic barriers used as waterproofing systems of different hydraulic works, mainly in reservoirs. Both in geotextiles or related products and in geomembranes, initial characteristics are determined; besides of that, periodic controls along the service life are performers in geomembranes. The monitoring of more than two hundred hydraulic structure hydraulic structures requires technical inspection, taking samples and replacing them, experimental tests and recommendations, with the purpose of increasing security and durability in hydraulic structures. Because of that, the Spanish experience in this field of technology is presented along this paper. (Author)

  10. 3D contaminant migration model with consolidation dependent transport coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huang; Cheng-Gang Zhao; Yan Liu; Guo-Qing Cai

    2012-01-01

    Soil consolidation would induce variations of its transport coefficients such as hydraulic conductivity and diffusion coefficient. This paper presents a study of the influence of barrier consolidation on transport coefficients,and a 3D transport model based on mixture theory is proposed for describing the liners that involve circular defects in the geomembrane.The elastoplastic ALPHA model is revised by using the spatially mobilized plane (SMP) criterion for simulating the deformation of the soils.Then,the 3D model coupling the nonlinear consolidation and contaminant advection-diffusion is solved using the finite element software ABAQUS.The results show that the importance of reducing the defect size in the geomembrane and the liner porosity to control the contaminant concentration increase.

  11. Contain contaminated groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States); Ash, R.E. IV [Eckenfelder Inc., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Despite recent progress in innovative treatment technologies, many problems with contaminated groundwater still require the use of barrier walls, typically in combination with extraction and treatment systems. New technologies for subsurface barrier walls, mostly based on geomembranes, advancements in self-hardening slurries and permeation grouts with materials such as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions, are being developed at an unprecedented pace. The paper discusses deep soil mixing, jet grouting, slurry trenches, and permeation grouting.

  12. Geotextile Tube Structures Guidelines for Contract Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Method ASTM D 4354 (1999) Sampling of Geosynthetics for Testing ASTM D 4355 (1999) Deterioration of Geotextiles from Exposure to Ultraviolet Light... Geosynthetics ASTM D 4833 (2000) Index Puncture Resistance of Geotextiles, Geomembranes and Related Products ASTM D 4873 (2001) Guide for...Identification, Storage, and Handling of Geosynthetic Rolls ASTM D 4884 (1996) Strength of Sewn or Thermally Bonded Seams of Geotextiles ASTM D 5261 (1992

  13. 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap help modeling- Microdrain® liner option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-03

    At the request of Area Completion Engineering and in support of the 488-1D Ash Basin closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed hydrologic simulations of the revised 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap design using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The revised design substitutes a MicroDrain Liner®—60-mil low-density polyethylene geomembrane structurally integrated with 130-mil drainage layer—for the previously planned drainage/barrier system—300-mil geosynthetic drainage layer (GDL), 300-mil geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and 6-inch common fill soil layer. For a 25-year, 24-hour storm event, HELP model v3.07 was employed to (1) predict the peak maximum daily hydraulic head for the geomembrane layer, and (2) ensure that South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) requirements for the barrier layer (i.e., ≤ 12 inches hydraulic head on top of a barrier having a saturated hydraulic conductivity ≤ 1.0E-05 cm/s) will not be exceeded. A 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches rainfall (Weber 1998). HELP model v3.07 results based upon the new planned cap design suggest that the peak maximum daily hydraulic head on the geomembrane barrier layer will be 0.15 inches for a minimum slope equal to 3%, which is two orders of magnitude below the SCDHEC upper limit of 12 inches.

  14. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  15. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, B.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Austin, TX (United States); Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper.

  16. 浅谈土工合成材料的室内试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢鑫昕

    2011-01-01

    土工合成材料是20世纪出现的一种新型的岩土工程材料,在早期主要为“土工织物”(geotextile)和“土工膜”(geomembrane)。1994年在新加坡召开的第五届国际土工合成材料学术会议上,正式确定这类材料的名称为“土工合成材料”(geosynthetics)。

  17. Biological systems combined for the treatment of coffee processing wastewater: II - Removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.13628

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Three treatment systems consisting of anaerobic filters with upward flow followed by constructed wetland systems (CW) were evaluated for the removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds, in the treatment of coffee processing wastewater (WCP) in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State. Filters were made of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter) filled with gravel # 2 and CW were made of wooden boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide) sealed by HDPE geomembrane and filled with gravel ‘zero’. The WCP ...

  18. Geoelectrical characterization of the internal structure and biodegradation of an old Municipal Solid Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Naudet, Véronique; Gourry, Jean-Christophe; Girard, Jean-François; Deparis, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    This study presents results from geoelectrical methods performed on an old French Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill located in South of France. This site has been exploited from 1980 to 2001 during which 15 cells of around 15 m thick have been sequentially filled with 50% of municipal waste and 50% of industrial waste. The site was covered by a rather non homogeneous a 2 m clayey material. The most recent cells present a geomembrane at its base or at its borders. The objective of this stud...

  19. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  20. Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessom, W.H. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ``As-Built`` survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover.

  1. Case study of a novel geocomposite barrier system for hydrocarbon containment on Brevoort Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathurst, R.J.; Zeeb, B.; Reimer, K. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Rowe, R.K. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    North Warning System Office has undertaken a program focused on the cleanup of Canadian District Early Warning Line and Pole Vault sites located on the Canadian sub-Arctic and Arctic coastline. The implementation plan emphasizes cost-effective methods of preventing the movement of chemical contaminants into the ecosystem. This paper describes remediation steps that were taken to restrict the migration of a hydrocarbon plume before the excavation of contaminated ground at a Pole Vault site on Brevoort Island. This is the first published field application of a fluorinated geomembrane. A composite liner consisting of fluorine surface-treated polyethylene geomembrane and a geosynthetic clay liner was chosen as a barrier against hydrocarbon migration until full remediation measures could be applied. Design details, selection criteria and various challenges in the installation procedure were presented. Due to the remoteness of the location and the extremes of temperature, a site monitoring program was also initiated. Details of the programs were also presented, along with details of a parallel program of laboratory testing, initiated to investigate the long-term effects of contact with jet fuel on specimens of the barrier components as well as freeze-thaw and general lower temperatures. Results indicated that the barrier system was performing as planned. Laboratory tests indicated that the geosynthetic materials selected for the Brevoort site were expected to maintain low rates of hydrocarbon diffusion and advection beyond the original design life of the barrier system. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Environmental impact of phosphogypsum stockpile in remediated Schistos waste site (Piraeus, Greece) using a combination of γ-ray spectrometry with geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, F; Godelitsas, A; Mertzimekis, T J; Xanthos, S; Voulgaris, N; Katsantonis, G

    2016-03-01

    From 1979 to 1989, ten million tons of phosphogypsum, a waste by-product of the Greek phosphate fertilizer industry, was disposed into an abandoned limestone quarry in Schistos former waste site, Piraeus (Greece). The quarry has been recently closed and remediated using geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation. A part of the deposited phosphogypsum has been exposed due to intense rainfall episodes leading to concerns about how could potentially released radioactivity affect the surrounding environment. This study seeks to assess the environmental impact of the phosphogypsum deposited in the Schistos quarry, using laboratory-based γ-ray spectrometry measurements and geographical information systems. Radioactivity concentrations were mapped onto spatial-data to yield a spatial-distribution of radioactivity in the area. The data indicate elevated (226)Ra concentrations in a specific area on the steep south-eastern cliff of the remediated waste site that comprises uncovered phosphogypsum and is known to be affected by local weather conditions. (226)Ra concentrations range from 162 to 629 Bq/kg, with an average activity being on the low side, compared to the global averages for phosphogypsum. Nevertheless, the low environmental risk may be minimized by remediating this area with geomembranes and thick soil cover with vegetation, a technique, which has worked successfully over the remainder of the remediated quarry.

  3. Mineralogical and chemical-physical effects of hydrocarbon permeation in composite liners and cut-off walls. Final report; Mineralogische und chemisch-physikalische Auswirkungen der Permeation von Kohlenwasserstoffen in Kombinationsdichtungen und -dichtwaenden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbe, U.; Berger, W.; Mueller, W.; Brune, M.; Eckardt, J.; Tatzky-Gerth, R.; Ache, W.; Goebbels, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Breu, J.; Kerzdoerfer, H. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2000-05-31

    Composite liner systems (HDPE geomembrane and compacted mineral liner) are used in Germany in landfills and for the lining of contaminated sites according to the technical regulations. It is expected that these lining systems provide a highly efficient and reliable technical barrier for the long-term groundwater protection. To support these expectations and assess the performance of the liner system even under extreme conditions, various composite liner systems were exposed to a mixture of 9 liquid hydrocarbons and their permeation behaviour was studied in permeation cells over 12 years. The cells were now dismantled and changes in the liner materials were carefully measured and controlled. The following issues were pursued in the research project: - effect of long-term hydrocarbon permeation and immersion on the properties of the geomembrane, - determination of the vertical distribution of organic contaminants in the mineral liner, - changes in the mineralogical, micromorphological and soil mechanical properties of the mineral liner brought about by the contaminant mixture, - investigation of the influence of microbial activity on the mineral layer, - modelling of the pollutant transport in the composite liner system. Neither geomembrane nor most of the tested mineral liners exhibited significant changes. Hydrocarbon permeation was proved to have been substantially suppressed by the composite liner. (orig.) [German] Zur Sicherung von Deponien und Altlasten mit dem Ziel eines langfristig wirksamen Grundwasserschutzes werden seit Mitte der 80er Jahre Kombinationsdichtungen (Verbund aus Kunststoffdichtungsbahn und mineralischer Dichtschichten) eingesetzt. Um deren Langzeitbestaendigkeit auch unter extremen Bedingungen bewerten zu koennen, wurden Permeationsmesszellen, welche die Verhaeltnisse in der Deponie nachstellen und ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Jahren mit einem Mehrkomponentengemisch konzentrierter organischer Verbindungen beaufschlagt worden waren, zerlegt und

  4. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  5. Construction quality assurance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-09-08

    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project.

  6. 沈阳浑北灌区节水配套改造工程二期项目施工总结%Shenyang Hunbei irrigation water saving Reconstruct Project Phase II construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浩

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on Shenyang Hunbei irrigation water saving Reconstruct Project Phase II ,from foundation excavation,masonry mortar rubble masonry retaining wall construction,embankment foundation treatment and reclamation,geomembrane laying,pressure beam,concrete slope,retaining five feet,the con-struction methods,processes and key issues requiring attention are analyzed and discussed.%本文围绕沈阳浑北灌区节水配套改造工程二期项目,从基础开挖、浆砌石挡土墙砌筑施工、堤防基础处理与填筑、土工膜铺设、压梁、混凝土护坡、护脚五个方面,对施工方法、工艺及需要注意的重点问题进行了分析和讨论。

  7. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  8. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities.

  9. A study for the environmental impact assessment of the leachate migration in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Y. S

    1999-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsula and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. To assess the source term, in the second year study,the computational modeling to predict the potential infiltration rate of groundwater into the landfill were developed and tested for different geomembrane sets. These results shall be used to assess the total risk of the landfill site if combined with the results in the first year R and D and potential future R and D on the biosphere. In addition the generation, migration of LFG were studied and then approaches for the monitoring and controlling of LFG were discussed. (author)

  10. 填埋场渗漏检测高压直流电法两种模型的比较%Comparison of two theoretical models for electric leak location at landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 能昌信; 杨公训; 董路; 王琪; 王彦文

    2007-01-01

    To solve the disability of conventional model used in electrical leak location when measurement electrodes were buried under the liner,a new model of high voltage DC leak detection is developed.For single-liner landfill,the waste material layer,the geomembrane liner and the soil under the liner are simulated with infinite horizontal layers.The leak is regarded as two parts,one being negative current source at the entrance,and the other positive current source of the same size at the exit.Comparisons between the new theoretical model and conventional model show that conventional model is efficient in locating leaks in geomembane liner associating the dipole scanning above the liner but is ineffective when the measurement electrodes were buried under the liner.The new theoretical model data are in excellent agreement with experimental data not only above the liner but also under the finer.

  11. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  12. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS TO CREATE ESTHETICAL CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES USING THE GEOSYNTHETICS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally polymeric products used to solve some civil engineeringproblems. The term is generally regarded to encompass eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets,geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, geofoam, geocells (cellular confinement and geocomposites. The syntheticpolymeric nature of these products makes them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability arerequired. Not only because, properly formulated, they can also be used in exposed applications. Geosynthetics areavailable in a wide range of forms and materials, each to suit a slightly different end use. These products have a widerange of applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transportation, geoenvironmental, hydraulic,and private development applications including roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures,reservoirs, canals, dams, erosion control, sediment control, landfill liners, landfill covers, mining, aquaculture andagriculture. The paper presents basic aspects of geotextiles, drainage, geocomposite designissues and technicalsolutions of their use.

  13. Quantification of regional leachate variance from municipal solid waste landfills in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Kjeldsen, Peter; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2015-12-01

    The quantity of leachate is crucial when assessing pollution emanating from municipal landfills. In most cases, existing leachate quantification measures only take into account one source - precipitation, which resulted in serious underestimation in China due to its waste properties: high moisture contents. To overcome this problem, a new estimation method was established considering two sources: (1) precipitation infiltrated throughout waste layers, which was simulated with the HELP model, (2) water squeezed out of the waste itself, which was theoretically calculated using actual data of Chinese waste. The two sources depended on climate conditions and waste characteristics, respectively, which both varied in different regions. In this study, 31 Chinese cities were investigated and classified into three geographic regions according to landfill leachate generation performance: northwestern China (China-NW) with semi-arid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 46.0%, northern China (China-N) with semi-humid and temperate climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%, and southern China (China-S) with humid and sub-tropical/tropical climate and waste moisture content of about 58.2%. In China-NW, accumulated leachate amounts were very low and mainly the result of waste degradation, implying on-site spraying/irrigation or recirculation may be an economic approach to treatment. In China-N, water squeezed out of waste by compaction totaled 22-45% of overall leachate amounts in the first 40 years, so decreasing the initial moisture content of waste arriving at landfills could reduce leachate generation. In China-S, the leachate generated by infiltrated precipitation after HDPE geomembranes in top cover started failing, contributed more than 60% of the overall amounts over 100 years of landfilling. Therefore, the quality and placing of HDPE geomembranes in the top cover should be controlled strictly for the purpose of mitigation leachate generation.

  14. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  15. 季节冻土区刚柔混合衬砌梯形渠道冻胀机理试验%Test for frost heaving damage mechanism of rigid-soften composite trapezoidal canal in seasonally frozen ground region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜海波; 田艳

    2015-01-01

    输水渠道冻胀破坏是寒冷地区渠道破坏的主要表现。为了探明刚柔混合衬砌渠道的冻胀机理,分析复合衬砌渠道的冻胀变形规律和冻胀过程中的水分变化规律,以及柔性复合土工膜的变形特征,该研究借助季节冻融条件下刚柔混合衬砌梯形渠道的原型观测成果,分析了刚柔混合衬砌渠道的最低地温变化规律、冻深变化规律和冻胀量与冻胀力的变化规律,重点研究了冻融条件下渠基土壤的水分迁移规律,以及复合土工膜的变形特征和强度变化。结果显示:刚柔混合衬砌渠道的冻胀变形最大值位于渠底和阴坡1/3处,最大冻胀量为11.2和13.1 cm,衬砌结构向上隆起。冻结期,渠基土壤0~60 cm深度范围内含水率随深度增加而增大,>60~120 cm深度范围内的含水率随深度增大而逐渐减小。水分迁移最大值发生在渠道底部,迁移率为13.2%。经过一个冻融周期的循环,复合土工膜的强度和变形量仍然保持在90%以上,强度和变形损失值较小,可充分发挥复合土工膜防渗抗冻胀和适应变形的特性。该研究为刚柔混合衬砌渠道的设计、推广应用提供了理论依据。%In the area of seasonal frozen soil in North China and Northwest, there exists massive and serious frost-heave damage of concrete lining canal. Frost-heave damage is the main reason for the channels. In this paper, the prototype experiments were conducted in order to explore the frost-heave mechanism of rigid-soften composite canal in the irrigation area of high-cold region. The frost deformation the soil moisture variation of the trapezoidal canal lined with concrete and composite geo-membrane, and especially the rules of frost-heave deformation and the deformation features of composite geo-membrane were further systematically studied. The experiment followed the leading thought of suiting and reducing the frost-heave destruction

  16. STUDY ON INTERFACE CONSTITUTIVE MODEL IN LANDFILL LINER SYSTEM%填埋场衬垫系统界面本构模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张素珍; 郑七振; 孙锦剑

    2013-01-01

    In the landfill,liner systems typically contain a large number of material interfaces(soil/geomembrane or geomembrane/geosynthetics).These interfaces become potential slip surfaces because of the low shear strength, which results in the instability of landfill.Based on many direct shear tests,the deformation mechanism and strain softening property of soil/geomembrane interface,the interface thickness,tangential strain and normal strain are determined.The deformation of the interface is divided into three stages:elastic stage,plastic stage and residual stage.Above all,the elastic-plastic interface constitutive model is put forward.There are only a few parameters with clear physical meanings in the model.At last,the results using this model are compared with those of the interface direct shear tests and ring simple shear tests.The comparison results show that this model is reasonable and feasi-ble,and can be used for practical engineering.%典型垃圾填埋场衬垫系统由土/土工膜、土工膜/土工织物等多个界面组成,这些界面抗剪强度低,成为潜在的滑裂面,容易使填埋场发生沿界面的失稳破坏。本文根据大量土/土工膜界面直剪试验的研究,针对该界面的变形机理和应变软化特性,在前人研究的基础上确定了接触面的厚度,定义了接触面的切向应变和法向应变,将界面的变形分为3个阶段:弹性阶段,塑性阶段和残余阶段。同时提出了适合于土与土工膜界面的弹塑性本构模型。该本构模型参数较少,物理意义明确,运用简单方便。最后,结合Filz接触面直剪试验和钱学德单剪试验的结果,将通过该模型得到的拟合结果与之进行了对比验证分析。研究结果表明:本文提出的土与土工膜界面弹塑性本构模型是合理可行的,且建模方便,适用于工程实践。

  17. Modeling the Use of Mine Waste Rock as a Porous Medium Reservoir for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelick, R. A.; Donelick, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    We are studying the engineering and economic feasibilities of constructing Big Mass Battery (BiMBy) compressed air energy storage devices using some of the giga-tonnes of annually generated and historically produced mine waste rock/overburden/tailings (waste rock). This beneficial use of waste rock is based on the large mass (Big Mass), large pore volume, and wide range of waste rock permeabilities available at some large open pit metal mines and coal strip mines. Porous Big Mass is encapsulated and overlain by additional Big Mass; compressed air is pumped into the encapsulated pore space when renewable energy is abundant; compressed air is released from the encapsulated pore space to run turbines to generate electricity at the grid scale when consumers demand electricity. Energy storage capacity modeling: 1) Yerington Pit, Anaconda Copper Mine, Yerington, NV (inactive metal mine): 340 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 390k-710k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 2) Berkeley Pit, Butte Copper Mine, Butte, MT (inactive metal mine): 870 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 1.4M-2.9M home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 3) Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, MT (active coal strip mine): 87 Mt over 2 years, energy storage capacity equivalent to 45k-67k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 30% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. Encapsulating impermeable layer modeling: Inactive mine pits like Yerington Pit and Berkeley Pit, and similar active pits, have associated with them low permeability earthen material (silt and clay in Big Mass) at sufficient quantities to manufacture an encapsulating structure with minimal loss of efficiency due to leakage, a lifetime of decades or even centuries, and minimal need for the use of geomembranes. Active coal strip mines like Rosebud mine have associated with them low permeability earthen material such as

  18. Avaliação de recomendações normativas sobre o uso de ensaios no controle de qualidade de fabricação de geossintéticos Evaluation of standard recommendations on the use of tests for manufacturing quality control of geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina M. L. Costa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de materiais poliméricos designados por geossintéticos tem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos na Engenharia Civil. Para desempenhar adequadamente a função para a qual foram projetados, os geossintéticos devem ser submetidos a um rigoroso processo de controle de qualidade durante a fabricação. Discussões sobre a freqüência e os principais tipos de ensaios de laboratório utilizados nesse processo de controle para dois tipos de geossintéticos, os geotêxteis e as geomembranas, os materiais mais utilizados da famíla dos geossintéticos, são abordados no presente trabalho. As análises efetuadas com base em normas disponíveis no Brasil, nos EUA e na Europa mostram que no cenário nacional não há recomendações normativas sobre o controle de qualidade para a maioria das aplicações de geotêxteis e geomembranas, sendo o assunto pouco discutido na literatura técnica. No cenário internacional, as normas Européias se destacam como o conjunto de práticas mais completo para ensaios de controle de qualidade de fabricação, considerando os diversos tipos de aplicação dos geossintéticos na Engenharia Civil.The use of polymeric materials known as geosynthetics in Civil Engineering applications has increased significantly in the last few years. In order to perform adequately, geosynthetics need to be manufactured according to rigorous quality control procedures. This paper addresses the frequency and the main types of laboratory tests used for quality control of geotextiles and geomembranes, which are the most largely used materials within the geosynthetic family. Analyses based on technical standards from Brazil, USA and Europe show the need of quality control recommendations for a large number of applications of geotextiles and geomembranes in Brazil. Also, very limited information on this topic is available in Brazilian literature. Conversely, European standards on the subject take into consideration a

  19. Benefits and Risks of using Linear Anionic Polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) for Seepage Reduction in Unlined Water Delivery Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susfalk, R. B.; Martin, C.; Sada, D.; Young, M.; Gates, T.; Shanafield, M.; Fitzgerald, B.; Smith, D.

    2008-12-01

    As water resources continue to be constrained in the arid western United States, there is a need to improve the efficiency in how water is transported from its sources to end-users. In particular, there is a growing need for cost-effective technologies capable of reducing undesirable seepage from water delivery canals where traditional canal sealing methods, such as concrete and geomembranes, are not suitable or cost-prohibitive. One alternative is the use of a linear, anionic polyacrylamide (LA-PAM) applied as granular solid to a flowing canal. The benefits and risks of LA-PAM use in unlined water delivery canals will be discussed in context of a diverse set of experiments that were conducted in the laboratory, at the furrow-scale, and in working water delivery canals. When properly used, the application of LA-PAM reduced seepage rates between 28 and 87 percent at a cost of 78 to 213 km-1. LA-PAM provided a cost-effective tool for canal operators to better manage the volume, timing, and extent of water losses from their canals. However, these benefits must be weighed against potential risks associated with LA-PAM use. Potential risks included the release of small concentrations of residual acrylamide (AMD) monomer, a cumulative neurotoxin and a suspected human carcinogen, and potential impacts on aquatic communities and downstream users.

  20. Conceptual design of a cover system for the degmay uranium tailings site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsidin, Saidov; David, S. Kessel; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The Republic of Tajikistan has ten former uranium mining sites. The total volume of all tailings is approximately 55 million tonnes, and the covered area is more than 200 hectares. The safe management of legacy uranium mining and tailing sites has become an issue of concern. Depending on the performance requirements and site-specific conditions (location in an arid, semiarid or humid region), a cover system for uranium tailings sites could be constructed using several material layers using both natural and man-made materials. The purpose of this study is to find a feasible cost-effective cover system design for the Degmay uranium tailings site which could provide a long period (100 years) of protection. The HELP computer code was used in the evaluation of potential Degmay cover system designs. As a result of this study, a cover system with 70 cm thick percolation layer, 30 cm thick drainage layer, geomembrane liner and 60 cm thick barrier soil layer is recommended because it minimizes cover thickness and would be the most cost-effective design.

  1. Biodegradable films and spray coatings as eco-friendly alternative to petro-chemical derived mulching films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vox

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic mulching films in horticulture causes the serious drawback of huge amount of wastes to be disposed of at the end of their lifetime. Several pre-competitive research products based on raw materials coming from renewable sources were recently developed to be used as biodegradable materials for soil mulching. Biodegradable materials are designed in order both to retain their mechanical and physical properties during their using time and to degrade at the end of their lifetime. These materials can be integrated directly in the soil in order to biodegrade because the bacterial flora transforms them in carbon dioxide or methane, water and biomass. The innovative materials can be obtained using natural polymers, such as starch, cellulose, chitosan, alginate and glucomannan. Biodegradable extruded mulching films were performed by means of thermo-plasticizing process. Spray mulch coatings were realized directly in field, by spraying water solutions based on natural polysaccharides, thus covering the cultivated soil with a protective thin geo-membrane. In this paper an overview on the formulation development, processing understanding, field performance, mechanical and radiometric properties of these innovative materials for soil mulching is presented. In field the biodegradable mulching films showed suitable mechanical properties if compared to the low density polyethylene films. The radiometric properties and their effect on the temperature condition and on weed control in the mulched soil were evaluated too. At the end of their lifetime the biodegradable materials were shattered and buried into the soil together with plants.

  2. 488-4D ASH LANDFILL CLOSURE CAP HELP MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.

    2014-11-17

    At the request of Area Completion Projects (ACP) in support of the 488-4D Landfill closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) modeling of the planned 488-4D Ash Landfill closure cap to ensure that the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) limit of no more than 12 inches of head on top of the barrier layer (saturated hydraulic conductivity of no more than 1.0E-05 cm/s) in association with a 25-year, 24-hour storm event is not projected to be exceeded. Based upon Weber 1998 a 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches. The results of the HELP modeling indicate that the greatest peak daily head on top of the barrier layer (i.e. geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) or high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane) for any of the runs made was 0.079 inches associated with a peak daily precipitation of 6.16 inches. This is well below the SCDHEC limit of 12 inches.

  3. Bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in cold regions: Development of a pre-optimized biostimulation biopile-scale field assay in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Álvarez, L M; Ruberto, Lam; Lo Balbo, A; Mac Cormack, W P

    2017-03-02

    Bioremediation proved to be an effective approach to deal with soil contamination, especially in isolated, cold environments such as Antarctica. Biostimulation, involving the addition of macronutrients -mainly nitrogen and phosphorous- is considered the simplest and cheapest bioremediation process. Optimizing the levels of these nutrients is a key step prior to the application of a biostimulation strategy. In this work, N and P levels, optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) at lab-scale, were applied to an Antarctic hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The process was performed on-site, using high density polyethylene geomembranes (800μm) to isolate treated soil from the surroundings and under environmental conditions at Carlini station (Antarctica) during 50days. Two 0.5ton biopiles were used as experimental units; a control biopile (CC), and a biostimulated system (BS), amended with N and P. At the end of the assay, hydrocarbon removal was significantly higher in BS system compared to CC (75.79% and 49.54% respectively), showing that the applied strategy was effective enough to perform a field-assay in Antarctica that significantly reduce soil contamination levels; and proving that RSM represents a fundamental tool for the optimization of nutrient levels to apply during bioremediation of fuel contaminated cold soils.

  4. Performance characteristics of a self-sealing/self-healing barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, R.G. [Water Technology International Corp., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)]|[Canadian Clean Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario (Canada); Stegemann, J.A. [Canadian Clean Technology Centre, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Environment Canada and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation are co-developers of a patented Self-Sealing/Self-Healing (SS/SH) Barrier system for containment of wastes which is licensed to Water Technology International Corporation. The SS/SH Barrier is intended for use as either a liner or cover for landfills, contaminated sites, secondary containment areas, etc., in the industrial, chemical, mining and municipal sectors, and also as a barrier to hydraulic flow for the transportation and construction industry. The SS/SH Barrier`s most significant feature is its capability for self-repair in the event of a breach. By contrast, conventional barrier systems, such as clay, geomembrane, or geosynthetic clay liners can not be repaired without laborious excavation and reconstruction. Laboratory investigations have shown that the SS/SH Barrier concept will function with a variety of reactive materials. Self-Sealing/Self-Healing Barriers are cost competitive and consistently exhibit hydraulic conductivities ranging from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -13} m/s, which decrease with time. These measurements meet or exceed the recommended hydraulic conductivity required by EPA for clay liners (<1x10{sup -9} m/s) used in landfills and hazardous waste sites. Results of mineralogical examination of the seal, diffusion testing, hydraulic conductivity measurement, and durability testing, including wet/dry, freeze/thaw cycling and leachate compatibility are also presented.

  5. Biological systems combined for the treatment of coffee processing wastewater: II - Removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.13628

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of anaerobic filters with upward flow followed by constructed wetland systems (CW were evaluated for the removal of nutrients and phenolic compounds, in the treatment of coffee processing wastewater (WCP in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State. Filters were made of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and CW were made of wooden boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed by HDPE geomembrane and filled with gravel ‘zero’. The WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio of 100/5/1. As a result, hydraulic retention times longer than 160 h in all treatment systems during phase III had not promoted greater efficiencies for removal compared with the phase I, because the recovery time of the systems was inadequate. The F1+CW1 system that received the lowest organic load, showed a satisfactory performance with regard to the removal of nutrients (above 50%.  

  6. Final Clean Closure Report Site 300 Surface Impoundments Closure Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskell, K

    2006-02-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory operated two Class II surface impoundments that stored wastewater that was discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater was the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners were nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project was to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks were installed and put into service prior to closure of the impoundments. This Clean Closure Report (Closure Report) complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR section 21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Closure Report provides the following information: (1) a brief site description; (2) the regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) the closure procedures; and (4) the findings and documentation of clean closure.

  7. New technologies for subsurface barrier wall construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutch, R.D. Jr.; Ash, R.E. IV; Caputi, J.R. [Eckenfelder Inc., Mahwah, NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    New technologies for subsurface barrier wall construction are entering the marketplace at an unprecedented pace. Much of this innovation centers around construction of geomembrane barrier walls but also includes advancements in self-hardening slurries and in permeation grouts, involving such diverse materials as colloidal silica gel and montan wax emulsions. These advancements come at a time when subsurface barrier walls are cautiously emerging out of the technological closet. During much of the 1980s, barrier walls of any type were regarded in some quarters as crude and antiquated. It was correspondingly predicted that remediation would be dominated by emerging treatment technologies such as bioremediation, air sparging, and surfactant flushing. Notwithstanding the considerable successes of these emerging technologies, particularly bioremediation, the fact remains that a significant percentage of Superfund, RCRA-corrective action and other waste disposal sites present hydrogeologic, chemical, and waste matrix complexities that far exceed the capabilities of current treatment-based remedial technologies. Consequently, containment-based technologies such as subsurface barrier walls and caps are being recognized once again as irreplaceable components of practical remediation programs at many complex sites.

  8. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  9. Membrane finite element method for simulating fluid flow in porous medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-li ZHAN; Wen-jie ZHANG; Jin-chang SHENG; Jian-hui LI; Shu-yuan HE

    2009-01-01

    A new membrane finite element method for modeling fluid flow in a porous medium is presented in order to quickly and accurately simulate the geo-membrane fabric used in civil engineering. It is based on discontinuous finite element theory, and can be easily coupled with the normal Galerkin finite element method. Based on the saturated seepage equation, the element coefficient matrix of the membrane element method is derived, and a geometric transform relation for the membrane element between a global coordinate system and a local coordinate system is obtained. A method for the determination of the fluid flux conductivity of the membrane element is presented. This method provides a basis for determining discontinuous parameters in discontinuous finite element theory. An anti-seepage problem regarding the foundation of a building is analyzed by coupling the membrane finite element method with the normal Galerkin finite element method. The analysis results demonstrate the utility and superiority of the membrane finite element method in fluid flow analysis of a porous medium.

  10. Microbial leaching of toxic metals and arsenic from a heap consisting of heavily polluted soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groudev, Stoyan; Georgiev, Plamen; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Soil heavily polluted with toxic heavy metals (mainly Cu, Zn, Cd) and arsenic was subjected to microbial cleanup in a heap specially constructed for this purpose. The heap was located on an impermeable geomembrane, had the shape of a truncated pyramid and contained about 240 tons of soil collected mainly from the horizon A. The soil was highly acidic (with an initial pH of about 3.2) and was preliminarily crushed to minus 2.5 cm particle size. The pollutants were present mainly as the relevant sulphide minerals and the soil was inhabited by different microorganisms, including some acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria able to oxidize sulphides and to solubilize the relevant toxic elements. The heap possessed systems for irrigation and aeration and was surrounded by ditches to collect the drainage heap effluents containing the dissolved pollutants. The treatment of the soil was carried out by means of interrupted irrigation with leach solutions containing diluted sulphuric acid (to maintain pH in the heap within the range of about 2.5 - 2.8) and ammonium and phosphate ions to maintain the microbial growth. The treatment was carried out for a period of about two years during different climatic seasons. After the end of leaching the soil was subjected to some conventional melioration procedures such as liming, grassing, moulching, addition of fertilizers and animal manure and periodic ploughing and irrigation to increase its quality to levels suitable for agricultural utilization.

  11. Biological systems coupled for treating wastewater from processing coffee cherries: I – Removal of organic matter - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of upflow anaerobic filters followed by constructed wetlands (CW were evaluated in the treatment of wastewater from processing coffee cherries (WCP. The filters (F were made up of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and SACs were made of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed with HDPE geomembranes and filled with gravel ‘zero’. WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio equal to 100/5/1. As a result, the values of influent and effluent pH remained within the range appropriate to the biological degradation of organic material. The system could not bear the shock of the organic load, which reduced the organic matter removal efficiency. Based on the analysis of performance and operating conditions employed, only the system that received the lowest organic load (F1+CW1 on the third phase, was effective in removing organic matter.  

  12. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer.

  13. Using geosynthetics for oil containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, S. [Albarrie Canada Ltd., Barrie, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Geosynthetics are a group of manmade synthetic polymeric materials that can be modified and combined with other geosynthetic materials for a variety of applications. Geosynthetics are used in municipal solid waste landfills to prevent the seepage of leachates, as their half-life when buried underground is approximately 400 years. This article discussed a geosynthetics system designed to allow precipitation to pass through a containment system while still containing the hydrocarbons. The Sorweb Plus solution used a modified sodium bentonite-based copolymer capable of absorbing hydrocarbons spread over the surface of water to absorb oils floating on the surface. A geosynthetic clay liner design was used without the addition of sodium bentonite. Tests were then conducted to determine the optimal amount of copolymer needed. A geosynthetic oil mat was placed over porous soil to allow for the drainage of precipitation. The sidewalls around the system's perimeter were lined with an impervious geomembrane to direct the flow of any liquids to the bottom of the system. A number of drainage layers were placed above the oil mat to provide lateral flow. A case study demonstrated that the system was able to contain a 4000 litre spill after an accident at the Don River in Toronto. The containment system was designed to contain 3,600,000 litres of transformer oil. It was concluded that the Sorweb Plus solution provides continuous protection against oil spills, while allowing water to drain through a containment area. 3 figs.

  14. Laboratory Performance Testing of Two Types of Geotextiles used in Danube Hydrotechnical Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, F. D.; Moncea, M. A.; Panait, A. M.; Olteanu, M.; Laslo, L.

    2017-06-01

    The products included in the geosynthetic category (geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, geofoam, geocells (cellular confinement) and geocomposites) have multiple civil engineering uses, being effectively used as drains and filters in civil and environmental works. The paper aims to test the performance of the geotextiles used for the ecological restoration of riverbank defences on the Danube River, between Calarasi and Braila. For this purpose, the analysed geosynthetics were subjected to hydrolysis and oxidation degradation in laboratory conditions. To evaluate the effect of the two degradation mechanisms, the specimens were subjected to tensile tests at room temperature. The three analysed parameters were tensile strength, elongation and failure mode. The results showed that the tensile strength values for the samples subjected to oxidation and hydrolysis are lower than the ones corresponding to the reference samples, while the elongation values determined after mechanical testing showed that hydrolysis influences the fibre flexibility. The failure mode of the analysed geotextiles highlighted the tendency of the samples to fail either in the calibrated area or at the grip, indicating that in use the geotextile will break in the strained region.

  15. 南水北调中线干线工程渠道逆止阀的施工工艺和质量控制%Construction Technique and Quality Control of Channel Check Valve in the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高大勇; 朱云飞

    2013-01-01

    以南水北调鹤壁段第二施工标段为例,介绍了渠道逆止阀的安装工艺,如遵循“基础开挖→回填第一层粗砂→埋置集水暗管→回填暗管周边粗砂→铺设保温板→铺设复合土工膜→安装逆止阀”的施工流程;质量控制方法,如控制逆止阀安装位置、高程、数量等。%The installation technique of channel check valve is introduced by taking the example of Hebi section , the second construction section of South-to-North Water Diversion Project .The technique are in accordance with following orders:foundation excavation , backfilling the first layer of coarse sand , burying water collecting pipe , backfilling coarse sand surrounding pipes , laying warm keeping board , laying composite geomembrane and installing check valve .Mean-while , the quality control methods , such as control check valve installation position , elevation and quantity are also covered .

  16. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  17. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingna Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  18. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner.

  19. FINAL CLOSURE PLAN SURFACE IMPOUNDMENTS CLOSURE, SITE 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, J E; Scott, J E; Mathews, S E

    2004-09-29

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory of the University of California (LLNL) operates two Class II surface impoundments that store wastewater that is discharged from a number of buildings located on the Site 300 Facility (Site 300). The wastewater is the by-product of explosives processing. Reduction in the volume of water discharged from these buildings over the past several years has significantly reduced the wastewater storage needs. In addition, the impoundments were constructed in 1984, and the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane liners are nearing the end of their service life. The purpose of this project is to clean close the surface impoundments and provide new wastewater storage using portable, above ground storage tanks at six locations. The tanks will be installed prior to closure of the impoundments and will include heaters for allowing evaporation during relatively cool weather. Golder Associates (Golder) has prepared this Final Closure Plan (Closure Plan) on behalf of LLNL to address construction associated with the clean closure of the impoundments. This Closure Plan complies with State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Section 21400 of the California Code of Regulations Title 27 (27 CCR {section}21400). As required by these regulations and guidance, this Plan provides the following information: (1) A site characterization, including the site location, history, current operations, and geology and hydrogeology; (2) The regulatory requirements relevant to clean closure of the impoundments; (3) The closure procedures; and, (4) The procedures for validation and documentation of clean closure.

  20. Bentonite mat demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.

    1994-12-30

    The Bentonite Mat Demonstration was developed to provide the Environmental Restoration Department with field performance characteristics and engineering data for an alternative closure cover system configuration. The demonstration was initiated in response to regulatory concerns regarding the use of an alternative cover system for future design configurations. These design considerations are in lieu of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Recommended Design for Closure Cover Systems and specifically a single compacted kaolin clay layer with a hydraulic conductivity of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/sec. This alternative configuration is a composite geosynthetic material hydraulic barrier consisting from bottom to top: 2 ft compacted sandy clay layer (typical local Savannah River Site soil type) that is covered by a bentonite mat--geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) and is overlaid by a 40 mil High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane--flexible membrane liner. This effort was undertaken to obtain and document the necessary field performance/engineering data for future designs and meet regulatory technical requirements for an alternative cover system configuration. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is the recommended alternative cover system configuration for containment of hazardous and low level radiological waste layers that have a high potential of subsidence to be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This alternative configuration mitigates subsidence effects in providing a flexible, lightweight cover system to maintain the integrity of the closure. The composite geosynthetic materials hydraulic barrier is recommended for the Sanitary Landfill and Low Level Radiological Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) Closures.

  1. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  2. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  3. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase

  4. Evaluation of multidimensional transport through a field-scale compacted soil liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, T.W.; Werth, C.J.; Valocchi, A.J.; Krapac, I.G.; Toupiol, C.; Stark, T.D.; Daniel, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    A field-scale compacted soil liner was constructed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and Illinois State Geological Survey in 1988 to investigate chemical transport rates through low permeability compacted clay liners (CCLs). Four tracers (bromide and three benzoic acid tracers) were each added to one of four large ring infiltrometers (LRIs) while tritium was added to the pond water (excluding the infiltrometers). Results from the long-term transport of Br- from the localized source zone of LRI are presented in this paper. Core samples were taken radially outward from the center of the Br- LRI and concentration depth profiles were obtained. Transport properties were evaluated using an axially symmetric transport model. Results indicate that (1) transport was diffusion controlled; (2) transport due to advection was negligible and well within the regulatory limits of ksat???1 ?? 10-7 cm/s; (3) diffusion rates in the horizontal and vertical directions were the same; and (4) small positioning errors due to compression during soil sampling did not affect the best fit advection and diffusion values. The best-fit diffusion coefficient for bromide was equal to the molecular diffusion coefficient multiplied by a tortuosity factor of 0.27, which is within 8% of the tortuosity factor (0.25) found in a related study where tritium transport through the same liner was evaluated. This suggests that the governing mechanisms for the transport of tritium and bromide through the CCL were similar. These results are significant because they address transport through a composite liner from a localized source zone which occurs when defects or punctures in the geomembrane of a composite system are present. ?? ASCE.

  5. Long-term performance of landfill covers - results of lysimeter test fields in Bavaria (Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henken-Mellies, Wolf-Ulrich; Schweizer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to examine the performance and possible changes in the effectiveness of landfill surface covers. Three different profiles of mineral landfill caps were examined. The results of precipitation and flow measurements show distinct seasonal differences which are typical for middle-European climatic conditions. In the case of the simple landfill cap design consisting of a thick layer of loamy sand, approximately 100-200 L m(-2) of annual seepage into the landfill body occurs during winter season. The three-layer systems of the two other test fields performed much better. Most of the water which percolated through the top soil profile drained sideways in the drainage layer. Only 1-3% of precipitation percolated through the sealing layer. The long-term effectiveness of the mineral sealing layer depended on the ability of the top soil layer to protect it from critical loss of soil water/critical increase of suction. In dry summers there was even a loss in soil water content at the base of the 2.0 m thick soil cover. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of the long-term aspect when assessing the effectiveness of landfill covers: The hydraulic conductivity at the time of construction gives only an initial (minimum) value. The hydraulic conductivity of the compacted clay layer or of the geosynthetic clay liner may increase substantially, if there is no long-lasting protection against desiccation (by a thick soil cover or by a geomembrane). This has to be taken into account in landfill cover design.

  6. Designing systems for landfill gas migration control in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, J. [Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Camp, Dresser & McKee (CDM) has designed or is in the process of designing several landfill gas migration control systems in Minnesota. The systems are for both active and closed municipal solid waste landfills. The sites have a variety of covers, including geomembranes, clay caps, and non-engineered soil covers. The control system types include small perimeter systems, full-site systems and phased systems for active sites. Figure 1 shows the locations of the systems CDM is working on in Minnesota. This paper focuses on four sites: Oak Grove Landfill, Hopkins Landfill, Washington County Landfill, and Elk River Landfill. Table 1 provides an outline of the individual site characteristics. The first three sites are closed landfills. The Oak Grove Landfill system was designed and constructed for a group of industries responsible for closure and remedial action. The Hopkins and Washington County landfills are under the control of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The MPCA enacted a remedial action program at closed landfills, taking over responsibility for long-term liability under the terms of legally binding agreements negotiated with the site owners. The Elk River Landfill is an active, privately-owned facility. The migration problems and solutions developed for these four landfills are generally descriptive of all the landfills CDM is working on in Minnesota. All landfills have unique characteristics requiring site-specific solutions. CDM, after designing a number of migration control systems in Minnesota, is able to provide a generalized description of design options for specific types of sites. This paper discussions design options used to address different cover types, aesthetic needs, and waste depths, and includes a discussion of design needs for cold climates. A brief case history of the Oak Grove Landfill is included.

  7. Integrated approaches to restore gullies in land prone to soil piping: innovations from the drylands of northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, Amaury; Deckers, Jozef; Moulaert, Lys; Van Damme, Alexander; Haile, Mitiku; Poesen, Jean; Nyssen, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Multiple on-site and off-site effects of gully erosion threaten sustainable development, which is especially evident in dryland environments. To control soil erosion by gullying, various soil and water conservation measures have been developed, of which check dams are the most common. Where soil piping occurs, soil and water conservation measures have limited effect on gully stabilization, and check dams easily collapse. Therefore, new integrated approaches are needed to control gully erosion induced by soil piping. Here, a subsurface geomembrane dam is proposed as an innovative measure to reduce subsurface flow in soil pipes near gullies. Application of such a dam in Northern Ethiopia, resulted in a decrease of gully erosion rates in Vertisols, and a rising water table in the intergully areas near the gully channel. The consequence of this effect for agriculture near gully channels is the reduction of soil desiccation and hence, increased crop yields in the intergully areas near the gully channels. With the gully filling and stabilizing, runoff water could be diverted into adjacent land, offering additional benefits to the local communities. Here, the runoff diversion was done into a vegetation protection site, in order to enhances biomass production, especially tree growth. Moreover, a water collection pound was created to make water available in the prolonged dry season. These interventions support additional economical activities such as beekeeping and the establishment of a tree nursery. With the multiple on-site and off-site benefits of the integrated approach, local communities have a better guarantee of investment return and livelihood improvement, increasing their support to gully rehabilitation schemes. Keywords: Crop, Subsurface dam, Soil and water conservation, Tree growth, Vertisol, Dryland.

  8. Ecolotree{sup {trademark}} cap at the Barje Landfill, Ljubljana, Slovenia, prototype demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, L.; Schnoor, J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer uses strategically planted Populus spp. (poplar) trees and forbs to prevent water pollution while growing fiber for biomass fuels, paper pulps, and construction materials. The concept, developed at the University of Iowa, uses root systems that act as a pump to predictable depths greater than 1.5 m (5 ft). The plant uptakes water, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.), and adsorbable organics (such as herbicides) from soil. When the plant survival, growth rate, rooted soil depth, and water uptake are predictable, the site`s hydrology can be managed, and regulatory agencies are more willing to issue operating permits that include this vegetated barrier. Poplars transpire 600 to 1000 kilograms of water for every kilogram of stem dry matter (DM) growth. Measured poplar growth rates for 4-year old trees was 16,600 kg DM/hectare/yr. Conservatively, the water uptake calculated using the 600:1 water/stem growth ratio is 10,000,000 liters/hectare/yr. When transpiration exceeds rainfall, plants remove stored water from rooted soils. This dehydrating action effectively gives the soil a water storage capacity during winter dormancy. This Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer technology develops the ability to greatly reduce water leakage without the need for membrane or clay layers in landfill cover soils. This concept is now being used to manage water at American and Slovenian landfills. In contrast with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved clay or geomembrane covers designed with slight regard for plant growth, this cover focuses on reestablishing a vigorous ecosystem. While accomplishing the primary goal of protecting groundwater purity, the Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer grows a productive cover that stabilizes soil slopes, produces marketable crops, develops wildlife habitat, and provides a more pleasing ambiance.

  9. Analysis of behavior of polymer screens of high earthfill cofferdamson the basis of the stress-strain state calculations АНАЛИЗ РАБОТЫ ПОЛИМЕРНОГО ЭКРАНА ВЫСОКОЙ ГРУНТОВОЙ ПЕРЕМЫЧКИ НА ОСНОВЕ РАСЧЕТОВ НАПРЯЖЕННО-ДЕФОРМИРОВАННОГО СОСТОЯНИЯ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of a 50 m high earthfill cofferdam. A geocomposite membrane (geo-membrane and geotextile layers in its upper part (20 m serves as a seepage control element. The grout curtain is installed in the lower part of the cofferdam and in the foundation. The cofferdam design implements the idea of using riprap to reduce the weight of the geocomposite membrane.The analysis proves that the high weight of the membrane considerably worsens the stress state of both the membrane and the whole dam. First of all, the load causes additional deflection of the membrane and consequently increases tensile stresses inside it. Second, due to the low value of the friction coefficient (approximately 0.3 0.4 in the point of contact between the geocomposite membrane and soil the dam upstream shell may slide down along the geocomposite membrane. Additional dam displacements may cause considerable tensile forces in the geomembrane. Their maximum values are comparable to the strength of the polymer material used for the manufacturing of the membrane. Any rupture of the membrane and geotextile layers may be expected. The analysis proves that it is necessary to get compensators in the polymer membrane allowing for the extension of the membrane absent of any tensile forces.The analysis proves that the geocomposite membrane does not affect the stressstrain state of the earth fill due to its small thickness. Non-linear effects of “earth – geomembrane” contacts are to be taken into account, because tensile forces appear inside geo-membranes due to the presence of friction forces.Рассмотрены результаты численного исследования напряженно-деформированного состояния конструкции грунтовой перемычки высотой 50 м, в которой противофильтрационным

  10. Hydraulic permeability of bentonite-polymer composites for application in landfill technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehn, Hanna; Haase, Hanna; Schanz, Tom

    2015-04-01

    with Aggressive Inorganic Solutions', Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering 140(3). Shackelford, C. D., Benson, C. H., Katsumi, T., Edil, T. B. & Lin, L. (2000), 'Evaluating the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs permeated with non-standard liquids', Geotextiles and Geomembranes 18, 133-161.

  11. Analysis of the stress-strain state of New Exchequer combined damat static loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mikhail Petrovich

    in the perimeter joint of combined dams. The sealing should be made of geo-membrane with placement of an asphalt pad under the face. Due to bending deformations in the lower part of the reinforced concrete face considerable tensile forces may occur. It is recommended to arrange a transverse joint in this part of the face.

  12. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  13. Application of high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology in steel sheet pile construction%高压旋喷灌浆技术在钢板桩工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志明; 李汉桥

    2001-01-01

    In the construction of steel sheet pile works in the Honghu floodcontrol dyke,high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology was used to build a close seepage control system's pile wall at the joint of steel sheet pile with vertical composite geomembrane.In order to guarantee project quality,strengthen the controlling and examination of intermediate key construction links,some measures were timely taken for solving problems arising in construction.Inspection by excavation and boring showed good project guality with 100% projects being up to standard and 80% projects being excellent.The seepage control body constructed by using high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology at the joint of steel sheet piles with vertical composite geomembane is successful,and is characterized by good results,high-speed construction,reliable quality and reasonable cost,etc.This construction method has remarkable superiority compared with other ones.%洪湖钢板桩工程中在垂直铺塑与钢板桩两种工法联接处,采用高压旋喷桩墙形成封闭防渗体系。施工过程中,为保证质量,加强对中间关键环节的控制、检查,对出现的问题及时采取处理措施,有效地保证了工程质量。经开挖自检和钻孔检查,合格率100%,优良率75%,工程质量优良。施工结果表明,钢板桩和垂直铺塑接头处采用高压旋喷灌浆技术构筑防渗体是成功的。它具有效果好、速度快、质量有保证、经济适宜等特点,与其它工法相比具有明显的优势。者

  14. PROOF OF CONCEPT TEST OF A UNIQUE GASEOUS PERFLUROCARBON TRACER SYSTEM FOR VERIFICATION AND LONG TERM MONITORING OF CAPS AND COVER SYSTEMS CONDUCTED AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE BENTONITE MAT TEST FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEISER,J.; SULLIVAN,T.; SERRATO,M.

    2002-02-24

    be used as a non-invasive method (if injection ports are emplaced prior to cover emplacement) on new covers or a minimally invasive method on existing covers. PFT verification will be useful at all buried waste sites using a cover system (e.g., treated or untreated chemical waste landfills) including DOE, commercial, and private sector sites. This paper discusses the initial field trial of the PFT cover monitoring system performed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in FY01. The experiments provided a successful proof-of-principle test of the PFT technology in monitoring caps and covers. An injection and sampling array was installed in the Bentomat test cap at the SRS Caps Test Facility. This system contained 6 feet of sandy soil beneath a 1/2 inch geosynthetic clay liner covered by an HDPE liner which was covered by 2 feet of clayey top soil. PFTs were injected into the sandy soil though a pre-existing system of access pipes below the cap and soil gas samples were taken on top of the cap. Mid-way into the injection period a series of 1 1/2 inch holes were punched into the cap (through the geomembrane) to provide a positive breach in the cap. Data will be presented that shows the initial cap was fairly tight and leak free and that the artificially induced leaks were detectable within two hours of occurrence.

  15. Study on local subsidence resistance of strain-hardening municipal solid wastes%应变硬化垃圾堆体抗局部沉陷研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连宝琴; 朱斌; 高登; 陈云敏

    2012-01-01

    traditional Mohr-Coulomb model are much larger. As a result, the application of the trapdoor soil arching theory of Giroud ( 1990 ) to analyses of local subsidence problems of MSW would be limited. Some different factors influencing both soil pressures on the liner system and deflection of the liner system were further investigated, it shows that both maximum vertical deflection and maximum strain of the liner system increase with the increase of MSW height, while decrease with the increase of MSW modulus and reinforcement tensile stiffness. Finally, a method for strain calculation of the geomembrane and reinforcement design resisting local subsidence in landfills was proposed, which may be applicable for design of landfill liner systems resisting local subsidence.

  16. 冻融循环作用下宽级配砾质土的渗透特性%HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF COMPACTED WIDE GRADING GRAVEL SOILS UNDER FREEZE-THAW CYCLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红雨; 唐少容; 邢毓航; 张学科

    2015-01-01

    针对西北地区特殊的气候条件和砾质土料源丰富的实际情况,提出采用宽级配砾质土代替黏土作为土工合成材料膨润土垫(GCls)的保护层共同构成垃圾填埋场复合防渗系统的构想。文中选取宁夏银川地区冲-洪积作用形成的天然砾质土料,经人工掺和制配成满足规范对 GCls 防渗垫保护层渗透系数要求的宽级配砾质土样,在实验室对该土样进行了冻融循环作用下的渗透性能试验研究。结果显示,随着冻融次数的逐渐增加,土样的冻胀率逐渐变大,渗透系数也相应增大,经过12次冻融循环后,渗透系数约增大1~2个数量级;冻融循环初期,冻融作用对土样的影响最为剧烈,随着冻融循环次数的增加以及时间的延续,土样性状逐渐趋于稳定。由于宽级配砾质土对冻融循环作用的敏感性小于粉质黏性土,故采用宽级配砾质土作为 Cls/GM的保护层共同组成填埋场复合防渗系统是值得期待的。%The design conception of composite liners is consisted of a geomembrane(GM),geosynthetic clay liners (GCls) and compacted gravel soils in landfills.This conception is presented on the basis of the climate characteristics,gravel soils material rich in nature,and GCls that have been exported all over the world for various applications.The artificially graded gravel soils are taken from natural sediment zone for flood alluvial at Yinchuan suburb in Ningxia.The gravel soil is figured out to meet the requirement of permeability coefficient through the compaction and penetration experiment.The frost-heaving ratio and hydraulic conductivity of gravel soil samples are tested under freeze-thaw cycling in this paper.The test results indicate that the frost-heaving ratio increases as the number of freeze-thaw increases.As the number of freeze-thaw increases,the permeability coefficient also increases. The permeability coefficient is increased by one to

  17. Probability Design of Thickness of Composite Liners Based on Organic Pollutant Diffusion%基于有机污染物扩散的复合衬垫厚度的概率设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何俊; 冶雪艳

    2013-01-01

    有机污染物在复合衬垫中的运移以扩散方式为主.目前关于运移参数不确定性及其对衬垫性能影响的研究还不多,复合衬垫厚度的设计也没有考虑不确定性的影响.总结了运移参数已有的成果,采用蒙特卡罗法研究了半无限条件下运移参数的变异性对衬垫底部污染物质量浓度和通量的影响,并对衬垫厚度进行了设计.研究表明:土工膜中有机污染物的分配系数和扩散系数的变异性对质量浓度和通量的影响可以忽略,而土中有机污染物的扩散系数和阻滞系数的变异性对其影响则非常显著.确定性方法计算的结果偏于危险,有必要加强对土中有机污染物的扩散系数和阻滞系数概率特性的研究.以甲苯为例进行黏土衬垫厚度设计,结果表明:概率计算方法得到的黏土衬垫厚度约为确定性方法的1.71~1.81倍,采用概率方法进行衬垫设计更合理.%Diffusion is the main mode for organic pollutant transporting through composite liners. At present, research about the uncertainty of transport parameters and its effect on performance of liners are lack. The design method of liner thickness is mostly deterministic. Based on the existing research on the transport parameters, the effect of variability of transport parameters on concentration and flux at the base of liner using Monte Carlo method have been studied in the paper. The variability of partition coefficient and diffusion coefficient of organic pollutant through geomembrane can be neglected, while the variability of diffusion coefficient and retardation factor has very significant effect. The result of deterministic method is pronounced dangerous. So it is necessary to study the probability characteristics of diffusion and retardation of organic pollution through soils. Taking toluene as an example, the thickness of the liner is designed, which is 1. 71 - 1. 81 times of that based on certainty method. It is more

  18. Physical Hydraulic Model of Side-Channel Spillway of Lambuk DAM, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harifa, A. C.; Sholichin, M.; Othman, F. B.

    2013-12-01

    The spillway is among the most important structures of a dam project. A spillway is designed to prevent overtopping of a dam at a place that is not designed for overtopping. Side-channel spillways are commonly used to release water flow from a reservoir in places where the sides are steep and have a considerable height above the dam. Experimental results were collected with a hydraulic model of the side-channel spillway for releasing the peak overflow of Lambuk Dam. This dam is, located on the Lambuk River, which is a tributary of the Yeh Hoo River ~ 34.6 km north of Denpasar on the island of Bali. The bituminous geomembrane faced dam is 24 m in height, with a 35-m wide spillway. The length of the side channel is 35 m long, with 58 m of transition channel, 67.37 m of chuteway channel and 22.71 m of stilling basin. The capacity of the spillway is 231.91 m3/s and the outlet works capacity is 165.28 m3/s. The reservoir is designed for irrigation and water supply. The purpose of this study was to optimize the designed of the structure and to ensure its safe operation. In hydraulic model may help the decision-makers to visualize the flow field before selecting a ';suitable' design. The hydraulic model study was performed to ensure passage of the maximum discharge at maximum reservoir capacity; to study the spillway approach conditions, water surface profiles, and flow patterns in the chuteway; and to reveal potential demerits of the proposed hydraulic design of various structures and explore solutions. The model was constructed at 1 : 40 scale, Reservoir topography was modeled using concrete, the river bed using sand and some gravel, the river berm using concrete, and the spillway and channel using Plexiglas. Water was measured using Rectangular contracted weir. Design floods (with return period in year) were Q2 = 111.40 m3/s, Q5 = 136.84 m3/s, Q10 = 159.32 m3/s, Q25 = 174.61 m3/s, Q50 = 185.13 m3/s, Q100 = 198.08 m3/s, Q200 = 210.55 m3/s, Q1000 = 231.91 m3/s and the

  19. Strengthening Carbon Sinks in Urban Soils to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K.

    2010-12-01

    Urban lands comprise the most intensively transformed lands on earth. Urban land cover changed from 0.01% of the global ice-free land area in 1700 to 0.5% in 2002. Globally, urbanization is now the primary process of land cover transformation. Urbanization accentuates conversion of natural or agricultural lands to urban soils with altered biological, chemical and physical properties. Soil functions particularly important in urban ecosystems are the protection against damages by intense precipitation and flooding, retention and immobilization of contaminants, production of clean water, and buffering of climate extremes, mainly through evaporative cooling. Because of their disturbance by human activities, urban soils have distinct properties. In contrast to natural soils, human-made materials dominate or strongly influence urban soils as human activities constitute important soil-forming factors in urban ecosystems. Soils whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by their technical origin are classified as Technosols in the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources. They contain large proportions of artifacts, or are sealed by technic hard rock. Technosols include soils from wastes (e.g., landfills, sludge, cinders, mine spoils and ashes), pavements with their underlying unconsolidated materials, soils with geomembranes and constructed soils in human-made materials. However, Technosols and their properties have not yet been studied extensively. Yet, a greater understanding of urban soil properties is urgently needed to assess their biogeochemical cycles and role in the global carbon (C) cycle, and to manage their ecosystem services for the well-being of the urban population. Studies of biogeochemical cycles in urban soils of Stuttgart, Germany, have shown that soils from as deep as 1.9-m depth contain significant amounts of microbial biomass and are metabolically active. Buried organic matter (OM) rich artifacts where frequently observed originating from a

  20. Review on penetration of barriers by contaminants and technologies for groundwater and soil contamination control%污染物击穿防污屏障与地下水土污染防控研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云敏; 谢海建; 张春华

    2016-01-01

    Barrier systems are the most important structures for landfills in terms of groundwater pollution control. Analytical solutions to one-dimensional models of transport of heavy metals and organic contaminants in clay barriers and composite barriers were summarized in order to evaluate the service life of the barrier systems. The analytical solutions include the solution to a one-dimensional model of diffusion of contaminants in clay barriers under piecewise linear adsorption conditions, the solution to a one-dimensional model of transport of contaminants in composite barriers with geomembrane defects, and the solution to a coupled model of transport of pollutants in clay barriers under thermal effects. The reliability of high-gravity centrifuge tests of long-term transport of contaminants through barriers was assessed. Field investigation was carried out in a 17-year old landfill in Anhui Province. The results showed that the maximum migration depth of chloride ion reached 9 m, and the maximum migration depth of sodium ions and COD reached 3 to 4 m. The technologies of vertical barriers for control of groundwater and soil contamination were summarized and assessed. It was found that the application of soil-bentonite cutoff walls in China generates prosperity, and further research areas were discussed.%鉴于防污屏障是控制固废填埋场地下水土污染的重要结构,为评价防污屏障的服役寿命,分别针对重金属和有机污染物,总结了污染物在黏土屏障和复合屏障中的一维运移解析解,包括非线性吸附条件下污染物在黏土屏障中的一维扩散解、污染物在有缺陷膜复合屏障中的一维运移解和温度场作用下污染物在黏土屏障中的耦合运移解析解等。评价了污染物击穿防污屏障长历时过程超重力离心模型试验的可靠性。对运行了17 a的安徽某填埋场进行现场调查,发现氯离子运移最大深度达9 m,钠离子和COD的运移深度在3~4 m。总

  1. Producción de biogás y bioabonos a partir de efluentes de biodigestores Production of biogas and biofertilizers from biodigester effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cepero

    2012-06-01

    ámicasOne of the research and technological innovation processes which are developed within the project «Biomass as renewable energy source for rural areas» (BIOMAS-CUBA is related to biogas and biofertilizer production from biodigester effluents, in agroenergy farms, where food and energy are produced, in an integrated way. The technologies selected for constructing anaerobic biodigesters have been: fixed dome (Chinese model, plastic tube or polyethylene with continuous flow (Taiwan type and anaerobic lagoon covered with a high density polyethylene geomembrane. From these technologies 69 biodigesters were constructed or repaired to a lesser extent-, in farms from the provinces Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Las Tunas, at the Experimental Station «Indio Hatuey», in the mountain community Magueyal (Santiago de Cuba, in a pig production facility from Las Tunas and a livestock production farm belonging to the Ministry of Interior, in Jovellanos (Matanzas province. These 69 biodigesters comprised a total digestion capacity of 1 665 m3 and generated productions of 600 060 m3 of biogas, which were used for cooking food and feedstuffs, electricity generation and brick firing; as well as 2 601 t of biofertilizers, used for improving the fertility of 1 830 ha of soils; in addition, they allow eliminating the contamination produced by cattle and pig dung in the productive scenarios, which generates a positive environmental impact. The installation was carried out of 52 bioproduct production plants from biodigester effluents, enriched with native microorganisms, which are used in animal and plant health, crop nutrition, elimination of bad odors in livestock production facilities, bioremediation of lagoons contaminated with organic residues and in bioceramic filters

  2. Risk-based method to assess the safe life of hazardous waste landfill%基于环境风险的危险废物填埋场安全寿命周期评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亚; 能昌信; 刘玉强; 杨金忠; 刘景财; 董路

    2016-01-01

    通过系统分析危险填埋场的设计功能,结合安全寿命周期的定义,对危险废物填埋场的安全寿命周期进行了定义.在此基础上,通过文献查阅和理论推导确定了描述危险废物填埋场主要单元性能衰减的老化模型,并结合课题组开发的渗漏环境风险分析模型,建立了危险废物填埋场的安全寿命评估模型,并选择中部某危险废物填埋场进行了案例研究.结果表明:随着防渗材料老化以及导排层淤堵,渗滤液渗漏量将逐渐增加,其安全贮存功能将逐渐丧失,并逐渐达到其安全寿命周期.仅就本案例而言,该填埋场的安全寿命周期为385a;对安全寿命周期相关参数的敏感性分析表明,浸出浓度与填埋场安全寿命周期呈负相关,包气带厚度和含水层厚度与安全寿命周期呈正相关,相关系数分别为-0.79、0.99和0.72,这说明包气带厚度对安全寿命周期影响更大,其次为浸出浓度,最后为含水层厚度;应加强填埋场相关单元老化模型研究,开展其他因素对填埋场安全寿命周期的影响,进一步完善危险废物填埋场安全寿命周期评价理论和方法.%Through systematic analysis on hazardous waste landfill’s (HWL) design function, the definition of Safety Life Cycle (SLC) of HWL was given with reference on the traditional definition of SLC. Base on this, the models describing the degradation process of HWL’s main functional units were determined by literature reviewing and theoretical analyzing. This models were then coupled with the ERAMLL (Environmental risk assessment model for the leachate leakage) to assess the SLC for HWL. A HWL in central area in China was selected as a case study, and the result reveals that: with the aging of geomembrane and clogging of drainage system, the leakage rate of leachate in HWL will increase with time. Its environment risk will increase, and the HWL will reach to its SLC. As far as this case is

  3. Diffusion, sorption, and retardation processes of anions in bentonite and organo-bentonites for multibarrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schampera, Birgit; Dultz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    experiments with NO3- will support the understanding of sorption behavior of the anions. All hydrophilic samples have a higher retardation capacity, indicated by diffusion coefficients of 2.44 x 10-11 m/s2 for original bentonite and ˜2.1 x 10-11m/s2 for hydrophilic organo-clays. For hydrophobic organo-clays the H2O diffusion can be higher and is increased at high bulk density (1-1.5 g/m3) up to 2.76 x 10-10m2/s. Experiments with NO3- at bulk density of 1.5 g/m3 reveal that the apparent diffusion coefficients of nitrate are with results up to 5.61 x 1012 m2/s distinctively lower than free diffusion of nitrate in pure water (6.46 x 1010 m2/s at experimental conditions) and nitrate diffusion in natural bentonite (2.63 x 1011 m2/s). The measurements allow the interpretation of the different sorption mechanisms, retardation capacity and diffusion behavior of the analyzed clays at different anion concentrations. Ongoing molecular dynamic simulations will contribute understanding of diffusion processes in organo-clays including the conditions at the interface of the clay minerals and in solution. References: [1] Shackelford, C.D., Moore S.M. (2013) Fickian diffusion of radionuclides for engineered containment barriers: Diffusion coefficients, porosities, and complicating issues. Engineering Geology, 152, 133-147. [2] Rytwo, G., Nir, S., Shuali, U. (2012) Clay and water treatment. Applied Clay Science, 67-68, 117-118. [3] Lorenzetti, R.L., Bartelt-Hunt, S.L., Burns, S.E., Smith, J.A. (2005) Hydraulic conductivities and effective diffusion coefficients of geosynthetic clay liners with organobentonite amendments. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 23, 385-400. [4] Schampera, B., Dultz, S. (2011) H2O self-diffusion in compacted clays as influenced by surface charge and wettability - obstruction effects of bound H2O layers. Clay and Clay Minerals,59, 42-57.

  4. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    unpolluted soils were mostly gypseous and/or calcareous especially in the middle parts. Considering the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons and the aridic-thermic soil moisture and temperature regimes, the studied soils were classified as Gypsids, Calcids or Cambids (Soil Survey Staff, 2014. However, due to the added oil waste compounds and presence of impermeable geomembrane in some of the polluted pedons, they were classified as Technosols in the WRB system (FAO, 2014. Noticeable effects of Pollutants in the soil were decreasing pH and increasing OM and EC. The surface horizons of the unpolluted soils contained less than 2 percent organic matter which regularly decreased by depth. However, In some horizons of the polluted soils, soil organic matter exceeded 12 percent. pH decreased by increasing organic matter (oil waste compounds possibly due to H+ dissociation from the oil compounds (Laurent et al., 2012. Electrical conductivity throughout the polluted soil horizons showed more limited variability than the unpolluted ones, probably due to their higher capability in water and liquid dynamics. Liquid limit and plasticity limit in polluted soils are higher than unpolluted soils . Plasticity index in polluted soils decreased with increasing the amount of pollutants. The results of mineralogical studies corroborated that dominant clay mineral in this soils is Smectite. Smectites have high swelling and shrinking capacity.So, the pollutants can intercalate between soil mineral layers and then increase d-spacing of clay minerals. The micromorphology of the polluted soils showed that low dielectric constant of petroleum caused flocculation and formation granular aggregates in soil. Studied soils are inactive in terms of activity of clay. Conclusion: As observed in the studied soils, their physico-chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC of saturated paste extract, organic matter content, mineralogical and micro-morphological properties were severely