WorldWideScience

Sample records for geomembranes

  1. Geomembrane special study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  3. Geomembrane selection criteria for uranium tailings ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Cuello, R.

    1986-09-01

    The selection criteria, particularly those involving chemical compatibility, of geomembranes to be used in ponds at uranium mill operations are discussed. The principal functional criteria which a geomembrane must meet for this application are: (1) a specified service life and (2) low permeability. Chemical compatibility with the waste is essential in meeting these functional criteria. In two different types of aging tests using simulated acidic uranium mill waste, degradation of chemical and physical properties were examined in geomembranes of high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and chlorosulfonated polyethylene. Compatibility tests according to the National Sanitation Foundation procedures are recommended to ascertain the stability of certain physical properties of the proposed geomembrane. Actual experience with a specific geomembrane in an identical application is probably the best method to assure compatibility; however, this experience is frequently not available. Experience with a geomembrane in similar applications is valuable in the selection process, however, small differences in either the geomembrane formulation or the waste composition may result in large differences in performance of the geomembrane. It is likely that many geomembranes have acceptable chemical stability for typical uranium mill applications, therefore, additional factors in the selection processes will include seaming characteristics, mechanical properties, site characteristics, and costs

  4. Longevity of HDPE Geomembranes in Geoenvironmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewais, Amr Mohamed Ragab Abdel Samad

    With sufficient time, a high density polyethylene geomembrane will degrade and lose its engineering properties until ruptures signal the end of its service-life. This thesis examines the longevity of nine different geomembranes; five of them were of different thickness manufactured from the same resin. The degradation of properties and time to failure are investigated for geomembranes: in immersion tests; as a part of a landfill composite liner; and, exposed to the elements. The different thermal and stress histories associated with manufacturing geomembranes of different thickness are shown to affect their morphological structure; consequently, their stress crack resistance. When immersed in synthetic leachate, it was found that: (a) thicker geomembranes have a longer antioxidants depletion time but the effect of thickness decreases with temperature and is less than expected; (b) inferences of geomembrane's longevity based on its initial properties may be misleading because a geomembrane may chemically degrade (as manifested by the change in melt index) despite the presence of a significant amount of stabilizers (as manifested by the measured high pressure oxidative induction time); and, (c) stress crack resistance may change before antioxidant depletion or chemical degradation takes place, likely, due to changes in geomembrane morphological structure with the maximum decrease being observed at 55°C. Reductions also were measured for geomembrane immersed in air and water at 55°C. The geomembrane aged in a simulated landfill liner at 85°C is shown to have service-life as little as three years with 30,000 to >2.0 million ruptures/hectare at failure. For exposed geomembranes in Alumbrera (Argentina), samples were exhumed from two mine facilities after ~16 years of exposure. The antioxidants in exposed samples depleted to residual and the stress crack resistance had dropped to as low as 70 hours. Samples were exhumed from a different exposed geomembrane in a test

  5. STRESS CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF HDPE GEOMEMBRANES AND ITS PREVENTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geomembranes made from high density polyethylene (HOPE) have a high percent crystallinity and are therefore of concern with regard to stress cracking. A review of the literature plus our field exhuming of various sites-of-opportunity gave rise to twenty-five (25) situations wh...

  6. Portsmouth On-Site Disposal Cell High Density Polyethylene Geomembrane Longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-01

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  7. PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE DISPOSAL CELL HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE GEOMEMBRANE LONGEVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.

    2012-01-31

    It is anticipated that high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembranes will be utilized within the liner and closure cap of the proposed On-Site Disposal Cell (OSDC) at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The likely longevity (i.e. service life) of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service is evaluated within the following sections of this report: (1) Section 2.0 provides an overview of HDPE geomembranes, (2) Section 3.0 outlines potential HDPE geomembranes degradation mechanisms, (3) Section 4.0 evaluates the applicability of HDPE geomembrane degradation mechanisms to the Portsmouth OSDC, (4) Section 5.0 provides a discussion of the current state of knowledge relative to the longevity (service life) of HDPE geomembranes, including the relation of this knowledge to the Portsmouth OSDC, and (5) Section 6.0 provides summary and conclusions relative to the anticipated service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service. Based upon this evaluation it is anticipated that the service life of HDPE geomembranes in OSDC service would be significantly greater than the 200 year service life assumed for the OSDC closure cap and liner HDPE geomembranes. That is, a 200 year OSDC HDPE geomembrane service life is considered a conservative assumption.

  8. Impact of landfill liner time-temperature history on the service life of HDPE geomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, R Kerry; Islam, M Z

    2009-10-01

    The observed temperatures in different landfills are used to establish a number of idealized time-temperature histories for geomembrane liners in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. These are then used for estimating the service life of different HDPE geomembranes. The predicted antioxidant depletion times (Stage I) are between 7 and 750 years with the large variation depending on the specific HDPE geomembrane product, exposure conditions, and most importantly, the magnitude and duration of the peak liner temperature. The higher end of the range corresponds to data from geomembranes aged in simulated landfill liner tests and a maximum liner temperature of 37 degrees C. The lower end of the range corresponds to a testing condition where geomembranes were immersed in a synthetic leachate and a maximum liner temperature of 60 degrees C. The total service life of the geomembranes was estimated to be between 20 and 3300 years depending on the time-temperature history examined. The range illustrates the important role that time-temperature history could play in terms of geomembrane service life. The need for long-term monitoring of landfill liner temperature and for geomembrane ageing studies that will provide improved data for assessing the likely long-term performance of geomembranes in MSW landfills are highlighted.

  9. Partitioning and diffusion of PBDEs through an HDPE geomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, R Kerry; Saheli, Pooneh T; Rutter, Allison

    2016-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been measured in MSW landfill leachate and its migration through a modern landfill liner has not been investigated previously. To assure environmental protection, it is important to evaluate the efficacy of landfill liners for controlling the release of PBDE to the environment to a negligible level. The partitioning and diffusion of a commercial mixture of PBDEs (DE-71: predominantly containing six congeners) with respect to a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane is examined. The results show that the partitioning coefficients of the six congeners in this mixture range from 700,000 to 7,500,000 and the diffusion coefficients range from 1.3 to 6.0×10(-15)m(2)/s depending on the congener. This combination of very high partitioning coefficients and very low diffusion coefficients suggest that a well constructed HDPE geomembrane liner will be an extremely effective barrier for PBDEs with respect to diffusion from a municipal solid waste landfill, as illustrated by an example. The results for pure diffusion scenario showed that the congeners investigated meet the guidelines by at least a factor of three for an effective geomembrane liner where diffusion is the controlling transport mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Shear strength behavior of geotextile/geomembrane interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén M. Bacas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the shear interaction mechanism of one of the critical geosynthetic interfaces, the geotextile/geomembrane, typically used for lined containment facilities such as landfills. A large direct shear machine is used to carry out 90 geosynthetic interface tests. The test results show a strain softening behavior with a very small dilatancy (<0.5 mm and nonlinear failure envelopes at a normal stress range of 25–450 kPa. The influences of the micro-level structure of these geosynthetics on the macro-level interface shear behavior are discussed in detail. This study has generated several practical recommendations to help professionals to choose what materials are more adequate. From the three geotextiles tested, the thermally bonded monofilament exhibits the best interface shear strength under high normal stress. For low normal stress, however, needle-punched monofilaments are recommended. For the regular textured geomembranes tested, the space between the asperities is an important factor. The closer these asperities are, the better the result achieves. For the irregular textured geomembranes tested, the nonwoven geotextiles made of monofilaments produce the largest interface shear strength.

  11. The Tension and Puncture Properties of HDPE Geomembrane under the Corrosion of Leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qiang; Zhang, Qian; Li, Zhen-Ze; Xiao, Kai

    2013-09-17

    To investigate the gradual failure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane as a result of long-term corrosion, four dynamic corrosion tests were conducted at different temperatures and durations. By combining tension and puncture tests, we systematically studied the variation law of tension and puncture properties of the HDPE geomembrane under different corrosion conditions. Results showed that tension and puncture failure of the HDPE geomembrane was progressive, and tensile strength in the longitudinal grain direction was evidently better than that in the transverse direction. Punctures appeared shortly after puncture force reached the puncture strength. The tensile strength of geomembrane was in inversely proportional to the corrosion time, and the impact of corrosion was more obvious in the longitudinal direction than transverse direction. As corrosion time increased, puncture strength decreased and corresponding deformation increased. As with corrosion time, the increase of corrosion temperature induced the decrease of geomembrane tensile strength. Tensile and puncture strength were extremely sensitive to temperature. Overall, residual strength had a negative correlation with corrosion time or temperature. Elongation variation increased initially and then decreased with the increase in temperature. However, it did not show significant law with corrosion time. The reduction in puncture strength and the increase in puncture deformation had positive correlations with corrosion time or temperature. The geomembrane softened under corrosion condition. The conclusion may be applicable to the proper designing of the HDPE geomembrane in landfill barrier system.

  12. Geomembranes with incorporated optical fiber sensors for geotechnical and environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    This research covers the development of optical-fiber sensors and the methods to incorporate the sensors within geomembranes during manufacture. Such systems are being developed to monitor the effects of strain on geomembranes including the location of tears. Other possible measurements utilize moisture and fluid-level sensors. Since the use of geomembranes in geotechnical and environmental applications is widespread and monitoring systems are generally lacking, the potential for this technology is significant. For example, a geomembrane-and-sensor system addresses the need to monitor landfill stabilization in general and specifically the behavior of geomembranes used in liner and cover designs. We have demonstrated that glass and plastic fibers can be attached to a geomembrane (1) during extrusion and lamination and (2) by hot shoe welding, glued tape runners, and welded runners. Using these methods, we have manufactured 30 m lengths of geomembrane with continuous optical Fiber across the length. Our preliminary focus has been on strain sensors to monitor landfill subsidence. We have utilized existing and newly developed strain sensors, e.g., microbend, Bragg grating, and adsorption band sensors. These sensors have been installed as arrays into several test membranes at a manufacturing scale (e.g., 3 to 4 m wide). The prototype monitoring systems were installed in laboratory test frames, and the sensors measured the strains across the membranes as they were loaded. We plan to scale these experiments up to the size of landfill cover system using a test cell under construction

  13. Laboratory testing of geomembrane for waste containment EPA Method 9090, March 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlock, R.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-15

    This report describes the work performed by TRI/Environmental, Inc. (TRI) to determine the chemical compatibility of one geomembrane and one seamed geomembrane with four synthetically generated leachates. The objective was to determine the resistance of the geomembrane to changes caused by exposure to the leachates. Changes in physical and mechanical properties were measured after exposure to the leachates at 23 C and 50 C for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Exposures were performed in accordance with the exposure regimen specified in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 9090A. Methods, results and discussion are provided. Test results are also provided in the Tables of Results which accompany this report.

  14. Efficiency of Livestock Residue Treatment in Geomembrane Digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanet Pérez González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of twelve 10 m3 geomembrane biodigesters to treat swine and cattle residuals was assessed. The study took place at the Cooperative of Credits and Services (CCS of the municipality of Cumanayagua, Cienfuegos, Cuba. Its goal was to evaluate feasibility of technology implementation in Cuba. The effluent physical and chemical indicators were determined at entry and exit from biodigesters. The biodigesters charged with pig manure were able to remove 75.88% COD, and up to 66-44% SS. Besides, 64.79% of the contaminating organic load was converted into volatile products during biofermentation. Meanwhile, the biodigesters charged with cattle manure removed 60.42% of COD, and up to 67.67% of SS; 61.51% of the organic contaminating load was converted in volatile products. It was concluded that the biodigesters had acceptable efficiency values, and that the technology can be applied in Cuba.

  15. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, M.

    2005-03-01

    Composite liners are used to limit the contamination migration from landfills. Their successful performance is closely related with the geo-membrane as it provides the primary barrier to diffusive and advective transport of contaminants. Critical issues on the performance of the geo-membranes are the seams between geo-membrane panels and the inevitable defects resulting, for instance, from inadequate installation activities. In landfills, where high density polyethylene geo-membranes are usually used, seams are typically made by the thermal-hot dual wedge method. A literature review on quality control of the seams showed that, in situ, fluid-tightness of seams is evaluated in qualitative terms (pass/failure criteria), despite their importance to ensure appropriate performance of the geo-membranes as barriers. In addition, a synthesis of studies on geo-membrane defects indicated that defects varying in density from 0.7 to 15.3 per hectare can be found in landfills. Defects represent preferential flow paths for leachate. Various authors have developed analytical solutions and empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane. The validity of these methods for composite liners comprising a geo-membrane over a geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) over a compacted clay liner (CCL) has never been studied from an experimental point of view. To address the problem of fluid migration through the geo-membrane seams, an attempt is made to provide a test method, herein termed as 'gas permeation pouch test', for assessing the quality of the thermal-hot dual wedge seams. This test consists of pressurizing the air channel formed by the double seam with a gas to a specific pressure and, then, measuring the decrease in pressure over time. From the pressure decrease, both the gas permeation coefficients, in steady state conditions, and the time constant, in unsteady state conditions, can be estimated. Experiments were carried out

  16. Geomembranes as an interim measure to control water infiltration at a low-level radioactive waste disposal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weishan, M.R.; Sonntag, T.L.; Shehane, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Using an exposed geomembrane an interim measure to cover a closed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area requires unique design and construction considerations. In response to a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Administrative Consent Order, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) used very low-density polyethylene (VLDPE) geomembrane as an interim measure to cover two soil-capped, grass-covered waste trenches to address a rapid increase in water accumulation in the trenches. Two years later, NYSERDA covered the remaining grass-covered trench caps with a reinforced ethylene interpolymer alloy (EIA-R) geomembrane to reduce water accumulation in these trenches. This paper addresses the differences in geomembrane materials and discusses the lessons learned during design, construction, and operation since installation of the covers. Discussed are the successes and obstacles regarding the use of both geomembrane materials as an exposed cover, selecting the geomembrane materials, anchoring the geomembrane from wind uplift, and mitigating the increased surface water runoff from the geomembrane covered area

  17. Influence of the geomembrane on time-lapse ERT measurements for leachate injection monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, M; Clément, R; Grossin-Debattista, J; Günther, T; Touze-Foltz, N; Moreau, S

    2014-04-01

    Leachate recirculation is a key process in the operation of municipal waste landfills as bioreactors. To quantify the water content and to evaluate the leachate injection system, in situ methods are required to obtain spatially distributed information, usually electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). However, this method can present false variations in the observations due to several parameters. This study investigates the impact of the geomembrane on ERT measurements. Indeed, the geomembrane tends to be ignored in the inversion process in most previously conducted studies. The presence of the geomembrane can change the boundary conditions of the inversion models, which have classically infinite boundary conditions. Using a numerical modelling approach, the authors demonstrate that a minimum distance is required between the electrode line and the geomembrane to satisfy the good conditions of use of the classical inversion tools. This distance is a function of the electrode line length (i.e. of the unit electrode spacing) used, the array type and the orientation of the electrode line. Moreover, this study shows that if this criterion on the minimum distance is not satisfied, it is possible to significantly improve the inversion process by introducing the complex geometry and the geomembrane location into the inversion tools. These results are finally validated on a field data set gathered on a small municipal solid waste landfill cell where this minimum distance criterion cannot be satisfied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies of the Solar Radiations' Influence About Geomembranes Used in Ecological Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiluta, Petre; Cofaru, Ileana Ioana; Cofaru, Nicolae Florin; Popa, Dragos Laurentiu

    2017-12-01

    The study shown in this paper presents the behavior of geomembranes used at the ecological landfills. The influences of the solar radiations has a great importance regarding the correct mounting of the geomembranes. The mathematical model developed for the determination anytime and anywhere in the world for the next values and parameters: apparent solar time, solar declination, solar altitude, solar azimuth and incidence angle, zone angle, angle of sun elevation, solar declination, solar constant, solar flux density, diffuse solar radiation, global radiation, soil albedo, total radiant flux density and relational links of these values. The results of this model was used for creations an AutoCAD subroutines useful for choosing the correct time for correct mounting anywhere of the geomembranes

  19. Application of tire chips to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes in municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoor, Azadeh; Rowe, R Kerry

    2012-05-01

    Heat generated by the biodegradation of waste and other chemical processes in a landfill can potentially affect the long-term performance of landfill liner system, in particular that of a high-density polyethylene geomembrane. In a double liner system, the difference in leachate exposure and temperature might improve the long-term performance of the secondary geomembrane compared to that of the primary geomembrane. However, in some cases, the temperature is likely to be high enough to substantially reduce the service-life of the secondary geomembrane. This study explores the possible effectiveness of using tire chips as thermal insulation between primary and secondary liners to reduce the temperature of secondary geomembranes as compared to traditional soil materials. Heat and contaminant migration analyses are performed for cases with no insulation and for cases in which a layer of soil or tire chips has been used as thermal insulation between the primary and secondary liners. The effect of insulation on prolonging the service-life of a secondary geomembrane and, consequently, on contaminant transport through a liner system is examined for the case of a volatile organic compound (dichloromethane) found in landfill leachate. The study suggests that the use of tire chips warrants consideration, however there are other practical issues that require consideration in the detailed design and construction of landfill liners. Issues such as finite service-life, low working temperature, excessive settlement, ability to generate internal heat, leaching of tire chips and limitations in performing electrical resistivity leak detection tests are identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diffusion and solubility coefficients determined by permeation and immersion experiments for organic solvents in HDPE geomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Wang, Ping; Wang, Ya-Ting

    2007-04-02

    The chemical resistance of eight organic solvents in high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane has been investigated using the ASTM F739 permeation method and the immersion test at different temperatures. The diffusion of the experimental organic solvents in HDPE geomembrane was non-Fickian kinetic, and the solubility coefficients can be consistent with the solubility parameter theory. The diffusion coefficients and solubility coefficients determined by the ASTM F739 method were significantly correlated to the immersion tests (pHDPE as barriers in the field.

  1. Fluid migration through geo-membrane seams and through the interface between geo-membrane and geo-synthetic clay liner; Contribution a l'etude des transferts de masse au niveau des joints de geomembrane et a l'interface entre geomembrane et geosynthetique bentonitique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, M

    2005-03-15

    Composite liners are used to limit the contamination migration from landfills. Their successful performance is closely related with the geo-membrane as it provides the primary barrier to diffusive and advective transport of contaminants. Critical issues on the performance of the geo-membranes are the seams between geo-membrane panels and the inevitable defects resulting, for instance, from inadequate installation activities. In landfills, where high density polyethylene geo-membranes are usually used, seams are typically made by the thermal-hot dual wedge method. A literature review on quality control of the seams showed that, in situ, fluid-tightness of seams is evaluated in qualitative terms (pass/failure criteria), despite their importance to ensure appropriate performance of the geo-membranes as barriers. In addition, a synthesis of studies on geo-membrane defects indicated that defects varying in density from 0.7 to 15.3 per hectare can be found in landfills. Defects represent preferential flow paths for leachate. Various authors have developed analytical solutions and empirical equations for predicting the flow rate through composite liners due to defects in the geo-membrane. The validity of these methods for composite liners comprising a geo-membrane over a geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) over a compacted clay liner (CCL) has never been studied from an experimental point of view. To address the problem of fluid migration through the geo-membrane seams, an attempt is made to provide a test method, herein termed as 'gas permeation pouch test', for assessing the quality of the thermal-hot dual wedge seams. This test consists of pressurizing the air channel formed by the double seam with a gas to a specific pressure and, then, measuring the decrease in pressure over time. From the pressure decrease, both the gas permeation coefficients, in steady state conditions, and the time constant, in unsteady state conditions, can be estimated. Experiments were

  2. Quality monitoring of salt produced in Indonesia through seawater evaporation on HDPE geomembrane lined ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaeri; Sulistyaningsih, T.; Alighiri, D.

    2018-03-01

    Salt is one of the primary ingredients that humans always need for various purposes, both for consumption and industry. The need for high-quality salt continues to increase, as long as industry growth. It must improve product quality through the development of salt production process technology. In this research, the quality monitoring of salt produced in Indonesia by evaporation of seawater on ponds lined using high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane has been studied. The manufacturing of salt carried out through the gradual precipitation principle on prepared ponds. HDPE geomembrane is used to coat evaporation ponds with viscosity 12-22°Be and crystallization ponds with a viscosity of 23°Be. The monitoring of the product is carried out in the particular periods during the salt production period. The result of control shows that the quality of salt produced in HDPE geomembrane coated salt ponds has an average NaCl content of 95.75%, so it has fulfilled with Indonesia National Standard (SNI), that is NaCl> 94.70%. The production of salt with HDPE geomembrane can improve the quality of salt product from NaCl 85.4% (conventional system) to 95.75%.

  3. Diffusion of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) through a high density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheli, P T; Rowe, R K; Petersen, E J; O'Carroll, D M

    2017-05-01

    The new applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various fields and consequently their greater production volume have increased their potential release to the environment. Landfills are one of the major locations where carbon nanotubes are expected to be disposed and it is important to ensure that they can limit the release of CNTs. Diffusion of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) dispersed in an aqueous media through a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane (as a part of the landfill barrier system) was examined. Based on the laboratory tests, the permeation coefficient was estimated to be less than 5.1×10 -15 m 2 /s. The potential performance of a HDPE geomembrane and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) as parts of a composite liner in containing MWCNTs was modelled for six different scenarios. The results suggest that the low value of permeation coefficient of an HDPE geomembrane makes it an effective diffusive barrier for MWCNTs and by keeping the geomembrane defects to minimum during the construction (e.g., number of holes and length of wrinkles) a composite liner commonly used in municipal solid waste landfills will effectively contain MWCNTs.

  4. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Flow rates through earthen, geomembrane ampersand composite cut-off walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachavises, C.; Benson, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Flow rates through soil-bentonite (SIB), geomembrane (GM), and composite geomembrane-soil (CGS) cut-off walls were determined using a numerical model of ground water flow. Various geological and wall conditions were simulated. Results of the simulations show that flow rates past all wall types are affected by hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer and underlying confining layer. Flow rates past GM walls with perfect joints are very low, provided the confining layer has low hydraulic conductivity. However, if a small fraction of the joints are defective, GM walls can be ineffective in blocking flow. CGS walls with a low hydraulic conductivity shell are less sensitive to joint defects. CGS walls with good shells typically have lower flow rates than SB and GM walls, even if the CGS wall contains defective joints

  6. Development of high temperature resistant geomembranes for oil sands secondary containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A. [Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Martin, D. [Layfield Geosynthetics and Industrial Fabrics Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Plastic liner materials are often adversely impacted by chemicals at elevated temperatures. Heat accelerates the oxidation of the polymeric chains, which in turn accelerates the degradation of the plastic. This paper discussed geomembrane containment systems placed under heated petroleum storage tanks at an oil sands processing plant. Various high temperature-resistant geomembrane materials were tested. Compatibility testing procedures for the various fluids contained by the systems were outlined. Installation procedures for the membranes were also discussed. The membrane systems were designed for use with heavy gas oil; light gas oil; and naphtha. Temperatures in the ground below the tanks were approximately 79 degrees C. Testing was done using sealed containers held in an oil bath at temperatures of 105 degrees C. Heat applied to the chemicals during the tests pressurized the test vessels. Liner materials used in the initial tests included an ester-based thermoplastic polyurethane liner; high density polyethylene (HDPE); linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polypropylene (PP) olefins; polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and polyvinylidene (PVDF) materials. A second set of tests was then conducted using alloy materials and PVC. Heat stability tests demonstrated that the blue 0.75 mm alloy showed a tensile strength ratio within the industry's 15 per cent pass criteria. The samples were then tested with diluted bitumen and diluents at 65, 85 and 100 degrees C. The developed liners were installed underneath petroleum tanks with leak detection chambers. It was concluded that the geomembrane liners prevented the hot liquids from leaking. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  7. The underwater installation of a drained geomembrane system on Lost Creek Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onken, S.; Harlan, R.C.; Wilkes, J.; Vaschetti, G.

    1998-01-01

    Lost Creek Dam was constructed in California around 1923. It is a 122 foot high concrete arch dam with a crest elevation of 3,287 feet and a crest length of 490 feet. Over the years, the dam and the condition of the concrete face have deteriorated. The concrete is porous and seeps water along the entire downstream face. In winter, the seeping water freezes, penetrates the concrete and causes expansion and spalling of the concrete surface. In some places, the concrete has very low strength to a depth of a foot or more, rendering the dam only marginally safe. Seven mitigative measures were identified as possible solutions to the problem. It was determined that the seepage of the water through the concrete dam could be stopped with the installation of a geomembrane to the upstream face. This paper describes the unique underwater installation of a drained geomembrane system on the concrete face of the dam. This was the first ever installation of a drained geomembrane system on an entire dam using divers. Monitoring will determine the success of the project, and whether the seepage of the water through the porous concrete had been reduced sufficiently to stop the deterioration of the concrete on the downstream face. 2 refs., 12 figs

  8. Comparative study of three different kinds of geomembranes (PVC-P, HDPE, EPDM) used in the waterproofing of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Castillo Rubi, F.; Soriano Carrillo, J.; Noval Arango, A. M.; Touze-Foltz, N.; Pargada Iglesias, L.; Rico Arnaiz, G.; Aguilar gonzalez, E.

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the long-term behaviour of three kinds of geomembranes which are constituted by plasticized poly vinyl chloride (PVC-P), high density polyethylene (HDPE) and terpolymer rubber of ethylene-propylene-dienic monomer (EPDM) used as the waterproofing system of the reservoirs Los Llanos de Mesa, San Isidro and El Golfo, respectively. Characteristics of the three original geomembranes and their behaviour along time are presented. Thicknesses, content and nature of the plasticizers ( in PVC-P), tensile properties dynamic and static puncture, foldability at low temperature, shore hardeness, tear resistance and carbon black ( in HDPE), joint strength (shear and peeling test) and microscopy, both optical and electronic scanning tests were carried out. Results obtained conclude with a long-term durability of geomembranes, independently of their macromolecular nature. These characteristics were determined by advanced analytical techniques in PVC-P samples, such as fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Gas Chromatography (GC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Spectrometry (MS). (Author)

  9. Field and laboratory test methods for geomembranes during waste management facility construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.R.; McCutchan, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Hazardous waste management facilities are required to use approved lining and leak detection systems to prevent the migration of waste into the environment. Synthetic flexible membrane liners (FMLs) have effectively served as the critical barrier for waste containment and fluid migration. The U.S. EPA has established minimum technology requirements for the construction of lined facilities that include detailed and documented Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) plans. The U.S. EPA (EPA) recognizes that CQA during field construction is imperative for successful completion of project work and long-term facility operation. This paper discusses the importance of CQA during FML installation and the practical aspects of implementing a successful CQA program. Standard methods used for FML evaluation, in both the field and laboratory, are discussed and specific aspects of seam testing and data evaluation are addressed. The general importance of comprehensive definition of geomembrane seam field failures is strongly emphasized so that an appropriate response to test failures can be recommended

  10. In-situ studies on the performance of landfill caps (compacted soil liners, geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, capillary barriers)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchior, S.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1986 different types of landfill covers have been studied in-situ on the Georgswerder landfill in Hamburg, Germany. Water balance data are available for eight years. The performance of different carriers has been measured by collecting the leakage on areas ranging from 100 m 2 to 500 m 2 . Composite liners with geomembranes performed best, showing no leakage. An extended capillary barrier also performed well. The performance of compacted soil liners, however, decreased severely within five years due to desiccation, shrinkage and plant root penetration (liner leakage now ranging from 150 mm/a to 200 mm/a). About 50 % of the water that reaches the surface of the liner is leaking through it. The maximum leakage rates have increased from 2 x 10 -10 m 3 m -2 s -1 to 4 x 10 -8 m 3 m -2 s -1 . Two types of geosynthetic clay liners (GCL) have been tested for two years now with disappointing results. The GCL desiccated during the first dry summer of the study. High percolation rates through the GCL were measured during the following winter (45 mm resp. 63 mm in four months). Wetting of the GCL did not significantly reduce the percolation rates

  11. Durability test of geomembrane liners presumed to avail near surface disposal facilities for low-level waste generated from research, industrial and medical facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Hisakazu; Amazawa, Hiroya; Sakai, Akihiro; Kurosawa, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Kanno, Naohiro; Kashima, Takahiro

    2014-02-01

    The Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Project Center will construct near surface disposal facilities for radioactive wastes from research, industrial and medical facilities. The disposal facilities consist of “concrete pit type” for low-level radioactive wastes and “trench type” for very low level radioactive wastes. As for the trench type disposal facility, two kinds of facility designs are on projects – one for a normal trench type disposal facility without any of engineered barriers and the other for a trench type disposal facility with geomembrane liners that could prevent from causing environmental effects of non radioactive toxic materials contained in the waste packages. The disposal facility should be designed taking basic properties of durability on geomembrane liners into account, for it is exposed to natural environment on a long-term basis. This study examined mechanical strength and permeability properties to assess the durability on the basis of an indoor accelerated exposure experiment targeting the liner materials presumed to avail the conceptual design so far. Its results will be used for the basic and detailed design henceforth by confirming the empirical degradation characteristic with the progress of the exposure time. (author)

  12. Seasonal variations and the influence of geomembrane liners on the levels of PBDEs in landfill leachates, sediment and groundwater in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Sibiya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seasonal concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs in leachate and sediment samples, and the influence of geomembrane liners on PBDE levels and the extent of their infiltration into groundwater on selected landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa were determined. Leachate and sediment samples were collected from seven operational landfill sites namely: Goudkoppies, Robinson Deep, Marie Louis, Soshanguve, Onderstepoort, Hatherly and Garankuwa from Johannesburg and Pretoria, in winter and summer. Groundwater samples were collected from monitoring boreholes from two landfill sites. Liquid-liquid and Soxhlet extraction techniques were employed for the extraction of leachate and groundwater, and sediment respectively using dichloromethane. The extracted samples were subjected to column clean up and, thereafter, analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. PBDEs selected for the study were: BDE-17, -28, -47, -100, -99, -153, -154, -183 and -209. The ∑9PBDE concentrations in leachate samples for winter and summer ranged from 0.316–1.36 ng L−1 and 0.560–1.08 ng L−1 respectively. The ∑9 PBDE concentrations obtained for sediment in winter and summer were 3.00–4.91 ng g−1 and 2.50–3.71 ng g−1 respectively. Winter samples exhibited higher (p < 0.05 concentrations for both leachate and sediment samples compared to summer samples. This trend was attributed to high precipitation rate in summer which may have infiltrated into the landfills, subsequently diluting the leachate and sediment samples. In contrast, the winter period is generally dry and PBDEs are, therefore, more likely to be concentrated. The concentrations of PBDEs in leachate and sediment samples were higher in landfill sites with geomembrane liners compared to those without liners. Groundwater samples taken from the vicinity of selected landfill sites without geomembrane liners exhibited high

  13. Focus : Évaluation de la protection contre l'endommagement des géomembranes en polyéthylène haute densité Evaluation of HDPE geomembranes protection against puncturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CROISSANT, Didier ; TOUZE-FOLTZ, Nathalie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En fond d'installation de stockage des déchets, les géomembranes constituant la barrière d'étanchéité sont soumises à des sollicitations pouvant endommager leur fonctionnement. Pour éviter le risque de perforation et de fuite, un géotextile de protection est généralement mis en place. Focus sur les tests de performance de plusieurs types de géotextiles et premières recommandations quant aux caractéristiques minimales à respecter pour éviter l'endommagement.Geotextiles are used in the constitution of landfill lining systems in order to protect the geomembrane against puncturing effects during installation of the granular drainage layer, then during the life of the landfill site, in relation with the weight of waste. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of nonwoven needlepunched geotextiles having an average mass per unit area equal to 1000 g/m² in protecting geomembrane, bases on static puncture tests performed in 1m diameter cells. Those tests were previously developed by Aufrère et al. (2009. Recommendations are given in the following as regards the length of fibers, the elasticity modulus, the masse per unit area and the thickness of the geotextile depending on the nature of granular material used.

  14. Liquid effluent retention facility dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This appendix to the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application contains pumps, piping, leak detection systems, geomembranes, leachate collection systems, earthworks and floating cover systems

  15. Optical and Scanning electron Microscopy as advanced analysis methods to determine the condition of synthetic geo membranes; Las microscopias optica de reflexion y electronica de barrido como metodos avanzados de analisis para conocer el estado de las geomembranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano Carrillo, J.; Blanco Fernandez, M.; Garcia Calleja, M. A.; Leiro Lopez, A.; Mateo Sanz, B.; Aguilar Gonzalez, E.; Rubin de Celix, M.

    2014-02-01

    Microscopic techniques have been widely used for years in the study of inorganic materials however their use in organic materials and specifically, in synthetic geo membranes, is very limited. In this study, this innovative technology has been used with the different geo synthetic polymeric barriers with which this research team is experienced: plasticized polyvinyl chloride, polyethylenes, rubbers such as ethenyltriphenyl-diene monomer terpolymer and butyl, polyolefins, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, chlorosulfonated polyethylene and polypropylene. the influence of the extraction area and the time since their application is tested. (Author)

  16. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  17. Interfacial stability of soil covers on lined surface impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Gates, T.E.

    1986-04-01

    The factors affecting the interfacial stability of soil covers on geomembranes were examined to determine the maximum stable slopes for soil cover/geomembrane systems. Several instances of instability of soil covers on geomembranes have occurred at tailings ponds, leaving exposed geomembranes with the potential for physical ddamage and possibly chemical and ultraviolet degradation. From an operator's viewpoint, it is desirable to maximize the slope of lined facilities in order to maximize the volume-to-area ratio; however, the likelihood for instability also increases with increasing slope. Frictional data obtained from direct shear tests are compared with stability data obtained using a nine-square-meter (m 2 ) engineering-scale test stand to verify that direct shear test data are valid in slope design calculations. Interfacial frictional data from direct shear tests using high-density polyethylene and a poorly graded sand cover agree within several degrees with the engineering-scale tests. Additional tests with other soils and geomembranes are planned. The instability of soil covers is not always an interfacial problem; soil erosion and limited drainage capacity are additional factors that must be considered in the design of covered slopes. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Modelling of the flow in the interface of a composite liner at the bottom of a municipal waste landfill; Modelisation des ecoulements dans les interfaces des barrieres d'etancheite composites des installations de stockage de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartaud, F

    2004-11-15

    Composite liner at the bottom of waste landfill is based, in France, on a geo-membrane overlapping a compacted clay liner. Defects exist in geo-membranes and leachates, provided by water percolation through the waste, then flow in the interface between the two components of the lining system. The present work consisted in analysis, quantification and modelling of the leakage process in the interface. The experimental study has been carried out on a one-meter scale device in laboratory and allowed to assess the role of normal stress on the flow rate in interface. The case where a geo-textile is present beneath the geo-membrane has been also studied. The modelling allows to take into account more accurately the geometry of the interface and ensures a better quantification of leachate flow rates than using existing methods. (author)

  19. Modelling of the flow in the interface of a composite liner at the bottom of a municipal waste landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartaud, F.

    2004-11-01

    Composite liner at the bottom of waste landfill is based, in France, on a geo-membrane overlapping a compacted clay liner. Defects exist in geo-membranes and leachates, provided by water percolation through the waste, then flow in the interface between the two components of the lining system. The present work consisted in analysis, quantification and modelling of the leakage process in the interface. The experimental study has been carried out on a one-meter scale device in laboratory and allowed to assess the role of normal stress on the flow rate in interface. The case where a geo-textile is present beneath the geo-membrane has been also studied. The modelling allows to take into account more accurately the geometry of the interface and ensures a better quantification of leachate flow rates than using existing methods. (author)

  20. Evaluation of robustness of fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) as liner - Durability, percolation and drainage water quality; Bedoemning av laangtidsegenskaper hos taetskikt bestaaende av flygaskastabiliserat avloppsslam, FSA - Bestaendighet, taethet och ytutlakning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macsik, Josef; Laendell, Maerta; Haakansson, Karsten

    2012-02-15

    This project shows that fly ash stabilized sewage sludge (FSS) is watertight and resistant as liner in landfills. The presented results can lead to that more landfills will use FSS as liner, and landfills already using FSS together with geomembrane, can leave out the latter without risking contamination of the drainage water collected by the closure construction

  1. Poly-urea spray elastomer for waste containment applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.J.; Cheng, S.C.J.; Tanis, R.

    1997-01-01

    Geomembrane usage in environmental applications has increased dramatically following the promulgation of federal regulations resulting from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA). Subtitle D rules, formulated under the authority of RCRA, call for minimum performance standards to limit adverse effects of a solid waste disposal facility on human health or the environment (40 CFR 257,258, August 30, 1988). These rules set minimum standards requiring new landfill designs to include liner systems and final cover systems. Each state has the responsibility to develop rules that are at least as stringent as the Subtitle D rules. There are several types of geomembranes currently available for landfill applications, each offering particular advantages and disadvantages. For example, PVC does not show the yield point (point of instability) that HDPE shows, HDPE has a higher puncture resistance than PVC, and PVC will deform much more than HDPE before barrier properties of the geomembrane are lost. Because each geomembrane material exhibits its own particular characteristics the material selected should be chosen based on the individual project requirements. It is preferable to select a design that uses the least expensive material and meets the performance specifications of the project

  2. Folosirea pământului armat la fundaţii pe terenuri slabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Enache Niculescu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The geosynthetics term is generally regarded to encompass eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets, geomembranes, geocomposites, geocells and combinations of materiales. These synthetic polymeric can be fabricated from hight resistences, deformation needetand a good adherence with earth confinement.

  3. Spanish experience in the use of synthetic geo membranes for hydraulic works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish institution Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX) has studied for decades the behaviour of geosynthetic products, specially the polymeric geosynthetic barriers used as waterprofing systems of different hydraulic works, mainly in reservoirs. Both in geotextiles or related products and in geomembranes, initial characteristics are determined; besides of that, periodic controls along the service life are performers in geomembranes. The monitoring of more than two hundred hydraulic structure hydraulic structures requires technical inspection, taking samples and replacing them, experimental tests and recommendations, with the purpose of increasing security and durability in hydraulic structures. Because of that, the Spanish experience in this field of technology is presented along this paper. (Author)

  4. Spanish experience in the use of synthetic geo membranes for hydraulic works; Experiencia espanola en el uso de geomembranas sinteticas en obras hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Fernandez, M.; Leiro Lopez, A.

    2014-02-01

    The Spanish institution Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX) has studied for decades the behaviour of geosynthetic products, specially the polymeric geo synthetic barriers used as waterproofing systems of different hydraulic works, mainly in reservoirs. Both in geotextiles or related products and in geomembranes, initial characteristics are determined; besides of that, periodic controls along the service life are performers in geomembranes. The monitoring of more than two hundred hydraulic structure hydraulic structures requires technical inspection, taking samples and replacing them, experimental tests and recommendations, with the purpose of increasing security and durability in hydraulic structures. Because of that, the Spanish experience in this field of technology is presented along this paper. (Author)

  5. Banyule unlocks local water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Banyule Council, Victoria has launched one of Melbourne's biggest stormwater harvesting schemes. After the Millenium Drought in the early 2000s, ratepayers and the community alike prompted the council to undertake a detailed water management study to improve water options for the many reserves and parklands. They launched three projects, with differing technical site issues, using such designs as gross pollutant traps, sediment ponds, bio-filtration, wetlands, and underground storage using waterproof geomembrane liners.

  6. Utilization of Waste Clay from Boron Production in Bituminous Geosynthetic Barrier (GBR-B Production as Landfill Liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müfide Banar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous geomembranes, one type of geosynthetics, include a hot bituminous mixture with mineral filler and reinforcement. In this study, boron production waste clay (CW was used as filler to produce a geosynthetic barrier with bentonite, waste tire, and bitumen. Bentonite and waste tires were used as auxiliary fillers and bitumen as the binder. CW/bitumen, CW/bentonite/bitumen, and CW/waste tire/bitumen mixtures were prepared by using a laboratory mixer at 100°C. Hot mixtures were extruded into strips by using a lab-scale corotating twin screw extruder (L/D: 40 followed by die casting (2 mm × 100 mm. Glass fleece or nonwoven polyester was used as reinforcement material and while die casting, both sides of the reinforcement materials were covered with bituminous mixture. Thickness, mass per unit area, tensile strength, elongation at yield, and hydraulic conductivity were used to characterize the geomembranes. Among all geomembranes, nonwoven polyester covered with 30% bitumen-70% boron waste clay mixture (PK-BTM30CW70 was found to be the most promising in terms of structure and mechanical behaviour. After that, consequences of its exposure to distilled water (DW, municipal solid waste landfill leachate (L-MSW, and hazardous waste landfill leachate (L-HW were examined to use for an innovative impermeable liner on solid waste landfills.

  7. 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap help modeling- Microdrain® liner option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-03

    At the request of Area Completion Engineering and in support of the 488-1D Ash Basin closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed hydrologic simulations of the revised 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap design using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The revised design substitutes a MicroDrain Liner®—60-mil low-density polyethylene geomembrane structurally integrated with 130-mil drainage layer—for the previously planned drainage/barrier system—300-mil geosynthetic drainage layer (GDL), 300-mil geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and 6-inch common fill soil layer. For a 25-year, 24-hour storm event, HELP model v3.07 was employed to (1) predict the peak maximum daily hydraulic head for the geomembrane layer, and (2) ensure that South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) requirements for the barrier layer (i.e., ≤ 12 inches hydraulic head on top of a barrier having a saturated hydraulic conductivity ≤ 1.0E-05 cm/s) will not be exceeded. A 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches rainfall (Weber 1998). HELP model v3.07 results based upon the new planned cap design suggest that the peak maximum daily hydraulic head on the geomembrane barrier layer will be 0.15 inches for a minimum slope equal to 3%, which is two orders of magnitude below the SCDHEC upper limit of 12 inches.

  8. Methane mass balance at three landfill sites: What is the efficiency of capture by gas collection systems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, K.; Bogner, J.; Chanton, J.P.; Morcet, M.; Aran, C.; Graff, C.; Golvan, Y. Moreau-Le; Hebe, I.

    2006-01-01

    Many developed countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings and the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. This paper presents the results of extensive field campaigns at three landfill sites to elucidate the total methane balance and provide field measurements to quantify these pathways. We assessed the overall methane mass balance in field cells with a variety of designs, cover materials, and gas management strategies. Sites included different cell configurations, including temporary clay cover, final clay cover, geosynthetic clay liners, and geomembrane composite covers, and cells with and without gas collection systems. Methane emission rates ranged from -2.2 to >10,000 mg CH 4 m -2 d -1 . Total methane oxidation rates ranged from 4% to 50% of the methane flux through the cover at sites with positive emissions. Oxidation of atmospheric methane was occurring in vegetated soils above a geomembrane. The results of these studies were used as the basis for guidelines by the French environment agency (ADEME) for default values for percent recovery: 35% for an operating cell with an active landfill gas (LFG) recovery system, 65% for a temporary covered cell with an active LFG recovery system, 85% for a cell with clay final cover and active LFG recovery, and 90% for a cell with a geomembrane final cover and active LFG recovery

  9. Inferred performance of surface hydraulic barriers from landfill operational data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.A.; Bonaparte, R.; Othman, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    There are few published data on the field performance of surface hydraulic barriers (SHBs) used in waste containment or remediation applications. In contrast, operational data for liner systems used beneath landfills are widely available. These data are frequently collected and reported as a facility permit condition. This paper uses leachate collection system (LCS) and leak detection system (LDS) liquid flow rate and chemical quality data collected from modem landfill double-liner systems to infer the likely hydraulic performance of SHBs. Operational data for over 200 waste management unit liner systems are currently being collected and evaluated by the authors as part of an ongoing research investigation for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The top liner of the double-liner system for the units is either a geomembrane (GMB) alone, geomembrane overlying a geosynthetic clay liner (GMB/GCL), or geomembrane overlying a compacted clay liner (GMB/CCL). In this paper, select data from the USEPA study are used to: (i) infer the likely efficiencies of SHBs incorporating GMBs and overlain by drainage layers; and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of SHBs in reducing water infiltration into, and drainage from, the underlying waste (i.e., source control). SHB efficiencies are inferred from calculated landfill liner efficiencies and then used to estimate average water percolation rates through SHBs as a function of site average annual rainfall. The effectiveness of SHBs for source control is investigated by comparing LCS liquid flow rates for open and closed landfill cells. The LCS flow rates for closed cells are also compared to the estimated average water percolation rates through SHBs presented in the paper

  10. 488-1D Ash basin closure cap help modeling-Microdrain® liner option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-06

    At the request of Area Completion Engineering and in support of the 488-1D Ash Basin closure, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed hydrologic simulations of the revised 488-1D Ash Basin closure cap design using the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model. The revised design substitutes a MicroDrain Liner®—50-mil linear low-density polyethylene geomembrane structurally integrated with 130-mil drainage layer—for the previously planned drainage/barrier system—300-mil geosynthetic drainage layer (GDL), 300-mil geosynthetic clay liner (GCL), and 6-inch common fill soil layer. For a 25-year, 24-hour storm event, HELP model v3.07 was employed to (1) predict the peak maximum daily hydraulic head for the geomembrane layer, and (2) ensure that South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) requirements for the barrier layer (i.e., ≤ 12 inches hydraulic head on top of a barrier having a saturated hydraulic conductivity ≤ 1.0E-05 cm/s) will not be exceeded. A 25-year, 24-hour storm event at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is 6.1 inches rainfall (Weber 1998). HELP model v3.07 results based upon the new planned cap design suggest that the peak maximum daily hydraulic head on the geomembrane barrier layer will be 0.179 inches for a minimum slope equal to 3%, which is approximately two orders of magnitude below the SCDHEC upper limit of 12 inches.

  11. Evaluation of flexible membrane liners as long-term barriers for uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The National Uranium Tailings Program has commissioned a study to evaluate flexible membrane liners (geomembranes) as long-term barriers for Canadian uranium mill tailings. This study reviews the common liner type and addresses flexible liners (polymeric membranes and asphalt) in detail. Liner fabrication, design, installation, and performance are reviewed. Conceptual designs are presented for basins to accommodate 20 years accumulation of uranium tailings from mills in Elliot Lake and southeastern Athabasca. Nine polymeric and three asphalt liner types have been considered with respect to the physical and chemical environment in the uranium producing areas of Canada. All materials indicate good chemical resistance to uranium wastes but are subject to installation problems

  12. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  13. Migration of inorganic ions from the leachate of the Rio das Ostras landfill: a comparison of three different configurations of protective barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Cláudia Virgínia; Ritter, Elisabeth; Pires, João Antônio da Costa; de Castro, José Adilson

    2014-11-01

    Batch tests and diffusion tests were performed to analyze the efficiency of a protective barrier in a landfill consisting of compacted soil with 10% bentonite compared to the results obtained for only compacted soil and for compacted soil covered with a 1-mm-thick HDPE geomembrane; the soil and leachate were collected from the Rio das Ostras Landfill in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The diffusion tests were performed for periods of 3, 10 and 60 days. After the test period, the soil pore water was analyzed and the profiles for chloride, potassium and ammonium were determined along a 6-cm soil depth. The results of the batch tests performed to define sorption parameters were used to adjust the profiles obtained in the diffusion cell experiment by applying an ion transfer model between the interstitial solution and the soil particles. The MPHMTP model (Multi Phase Heat and Mass Transfer Program), which is based upon the solution of the transport equations of the ionic contaminants, was used to solve the inverse problem of simultaneously determining the effective diffusion coefficients. The results of the experimental tests and of the model simulation confirmed that the compacted soil with 10% bentonite was moderately efficient in the retention of chloride, potassium and ammonium ions compared to the configurations of compacted soil with a geomembrane and compacted soil alone, representing a solution that is technically feasible and requires potentially lower costs for implementation in landfills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Final construction quality assurance report for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V, Area 2, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessom, W.H.

    1996-11-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) has finished construction of Area 2 of the Y-12 Plant Industrial Landfill (ILF-V), classified as a Class 2 Landfill. This final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report provides documentation that Area 2 was constructed in substantial compliance with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) approved design, as indicated and specified in the permit drawings, approved changes, and specifications. This report applies specifically to the Area 2 excavation, compacted clay soil liner, geomembrane liner, granular leachate collection layer, protective soil cover, and the leachate collection system. An ''As-Built'' survey was performed and is included. The drawings provide horizontal and vertical information for Area 2, the anchor trench, the leachate collection pipe, the temporary access road, and cross-sections of Area 2. This report provides documentation of the following items: the excavation activities of Area 2; the maximum recompacted coefficient of hydraulic conductivity or permeability of the soil is less than 1 x 10 -7 centimeters per second (cm/sec); the total thickness of the compacted clay soil liner equals a minimum of 2 feet; a 40 mil impermeable geomembrane (polypropylene) flexible membrane liner (FML) and 16 oz. geotextile fabric was placed in direct contact with the compacted clay soil liner; a 12 inch granular leachate collection layer was installed and covered with a 8 oz. geotextile separation fabric; the installation of the leachate collection piping; and the two foot protective clay soil cover

  15. Restraint effect of water infiltration by soil cover types of LLW disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. M.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, C. K.; Kim, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    Since soil cover for LLW disposal vault shows quite different restraint effect of water infiltration depending on its type, four different types of soil cover were studied and simulated using HELP code. Simulation result showed that Profile B1 is the most effective type in restraint of water infiltration to the disposal vault. Profile B1 is totally 6m thick and composed of silt, gravelly sand, pea gravel, sand and clayey soil mixed with bentonite 20%. Profile B1 also includes artificial layers, such as asphalt and geomembrane layers. This profile is designed conceptually by NETEC for the soil cover of the near surface disposal facility of the low-level radioactive waste. For comparison, 3 types of different profile were tested. One profile includes bentonite mixed layer only as water barrier layer, or one as same as profile B1 but without geomembrane layer or one without asphalt layer respectively. The simulation using HELP code showed that the water balance in profile B1 was effectively controlled

  16. Mineralogical and chemical-physical effects of hydrocarbon permeation in composite liners and cut-off walls. Final report; Mineralogische und chemisch-physikalische Auswirkungen der Permeation von Kohlenwasserstoffen in Kombinationsdichtungen und -dichtwaenden. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Mueller, W; Brune, M; Eckardt, J; Tatzky-Gerth, R; Ache, W; Goebbels, J [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Breu, J; Kerzdoerfer, H [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    2000-05-31

    Composite liner systems (HDPE geomembrane and compacted mineral liner) are used in Germany in landfills and for the lining of contaminated sites according to the technical regulations. It is expected that these lining systems provide a highly efficient and reliable technical barrier for the long-term groundwater protection. To support these expectations and assess the performance of the liner system even under extreme conditions, various composite liner systems were exposed to a mixture of 9 liquid hydrocarbons and their permeation behaviour was studied in permeation cells over 12 years. The cells were now dismantled and changes in the liner materials were carefully measured and controlled. The following issues were pursued in the research project: - effect of long-term hydrocarbon permeation and immersion on the properties of the geomembrane, - determination of the vertical distribution of organic contaminants in the mineral liner, - changes in the mineralogical, micromorphological and soil mechanical properties of the mineral liner brought about by the contaminant mixture, - investigation of the influence of microbial activity on the mineral layer, - modelling of the pollutant transport in the composite liner system. Neither geomembrane nor most of the tested mineral liners exhibited significant changes. Hydrocarbon permeation was proved to have been substantially suppressed by the composite liner. (orig.) [German] Zur Sicherung von Deponien und Altlasten mit dem Ziel eines langfristig wirksamen Grundwasserschutzes werden seit Mitte der 80er Jahre Kombinationsdichtungen (Verbund aus Kunststoffdichtungsbahn und mineralischer Dichtschichten) eingesetzt. Um deren Langzeitbestaendigkeit auch unter extremen Bedingungen bewerten zu koennen, wurden Permeationsmesszellen, welche die Verhaeltnisse in der Deponie nachstellen und ueber einen Zeitraum von 12 Jahren mit einem Mehrkomponentengemisch konzentrierter organischer Verbindungen beaufschlagt worden waren, zerlegt und

  17. Migration behavior of landfill leachate contaminants through alternative composite liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varank, Gamze, E-mail: gvarank@yildiz.edu.tr; Demir, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetd@yildiz.edu.tr; Top, Selin, E-mail: stop@yildiz.edu.tr; Sekman, Elif, E-mail: esekman@yildiz.edu.tr; Akkaya, Ebru, E-mail: ekoca@yildiz.edu.tr; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan, E-mail: yetilmez@yildiz.edu.tr; Bilgili, M. Sinan, E-mail: mbilgili@yildiz.edu.tr

    2011-08-01

    Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors with different alternative composite liners were simultaneously operated for a period of about 540 days to investigate and to simulate the migration behaviors of phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni) from landfill leachate to the groundwater. Alternative landfill liners of four reactors consist of R1: Compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R2: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm + 10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), R3: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + bentonite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn), and R4: Geomembrane (2 mm HDPE) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn) + zeolite liner (2 cm) + compacted clay liner (10 cm, k = 10{sup -8} m/sn). Wastes representing Istanbul municipal solid wastes were disposed in the reactors. To represent bioreactor landfills, reactors were operated by leachate recirculation. To monitor and control anaerobic degradation in the reactors, variations of conventional parameters (pH, alkalinity, chloride, conductivity, COD, TOC, TKN, ammonia and alcaly metals) were also investigated in landfill leachate samples. The results of this study showed that about 35-50% of migration of organic contaminants (phenolic compounds) and 55-100% of migration of inorganic contaminants (heavy metals) to the model groundwater could be effectively reduced with the use of bentonite and zeolite materials in landfill liner systems. Although leachate contaminants can reach to the groundwater in trace concentrations, findings of this study concluded that the release of these compounds from landfill leachate to the groundwater may potentially be of an important environmental concern based on the experimental findings. - Research highlights: {yields} Migration of

  18. A study for the environmental impact assessment of the leachate migration in landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y. S.

    1999-12-01

    In Korea there are hundreds of landfill sites all over the peninsula and the leachate problem is one of the national concern. Heavy precipitation especially during hot summers creates the fast degradation of waste products in the site which accelerates the migration of the leachate. To assess the source term, in the second year study, the computational modeling to predict the potential infiltration rate of groundwater into the landfill were developed and tested for different geomembrane sets. These results shall be used to assess the total risk of the landfill site if combined with the results in the first year R and D and potential future R and D on the biosphere. In addition the generation, migration of LFG were studied and then approaches for the monitoring and controlling of LFG were discussed. (author)

  19. TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS TO CREATE ESTHETICAL CIVIL ENGINEERING STRUCTURES USING THE GEOSYNTHETICS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geosynthetics is the term used to describe a range of generally polymeric products used to solve some civil engineeringproblems. The term is generally regarded to encompass eight main product categories: geotextiles, geogrids, geonets,geomembranes, geosynthetic clay liners, geofoam, geocells (cellular confinement and geocomposites. The syntheticpolymeric nature of these products makes them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability arerequired. Not only because, properly formulated, they can also be used in exposed applications. Geosynthetics areavailable in a wide range of forms and materials, each to suit a slightly different end use. These products have a widerange of applications and are currently used in many civil, geotechnical, transportation, geoenvironmental, hydraulic,and private development applications including roads, airfields, railroads, embankments, retaining structures,reservoirs, canals, dams, erosion control, sediment control, landfill liners, landfill covers, mining, aquaculture andagriculture. The paper presents basic aspects of geotextiles, drainage, geocomposite designissues and technicalsolutions of their use.

  20. Study for reclamation of land occupied by solar evaporation pond at UCIL, Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Patil, M R; Swaminathan, R

    2001-12-01

    Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP) were used by Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL), Bhopal for storage of wastewater containing high concentrations of inorganic chemicals especially chlorides. Area occupied by the SEPs had to be recovered due to closure of the plant. A prerequisite to the reclamation of the SEP area is a study of adjoining soil and groundwater, which may be contaminated due to possible leakage in the pond. Surface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater samples were collected and analysed. The electrical conductivity method was employed inside the pond to test for leak in the geo-membrane liner. This was further confirmed by physically checking the liners. Based on the wet period, total rainfall and evaporation rate of the region, drying of remaining wastewater by spreading in dry ponds followed by pond dismantling was scheduled.

  1. Engineering Performance of Polyurethane Bonded Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin WU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the engineering performance of polyurethane (PUR bonded aggregate were studied. The engineering performance, including compressive and flexural mechanical properties, void ratio, and coefficient of permeability were determined through laboratory tests. Moreover, the effects of two different curing conditions on the compressive strength properties of a PUR bonded aggregate were also evaluated. The compressive strengths of PUR bonded aggregates were found to be lower than that of conventional porous concrete, which is a commonly used cushion material. However, experimental results indicated a higher void ratio and coefficient of permeability, lower elasticity modulus, better toughness, and stronger adaptability to flexural deformation compared to porous concrete. Consequently, PUR bonded aggregate is a better solution than porous concrete when used as the cushion material of a geomembrane surface barrier for a high rock-fill dam.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15798

  2. Construction quality assurance report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and test results, including: The results of the geosynthetic and soil materials conformance testing. The observation and testing results associates with the installation of the soil liners. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the HDPE geomembrane liner systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the leachate collection and removal systems. The observation and testing results associated with the installation of the working surfaces. The observation and testing results associated with in-plant manufacturing process. Summary of submittal reviews by Golder Construction Services, Inc. The submittal and certification of the piping material specifications. The observation and verification associated of the Acceptance Test Procedure results of the operational equipment functions. Summary of the ECNs which are incorporated into the project

  3. Enviro-geotechnical considerations in waste containment system design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, H.Y.; Daniels, J.L.; Inyang, H.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of waste control facilities hinges on careful evaluation of the overall planning, analysis and design of the entire system prior to construction. At present, most work is focused on the waste controlling system itself, with little attention given to the local environmental factors surrounding the facility sites. Containment materials including geomembranes, geotextiles and clay amended soils have received intense scrutiny. This paper, however, focuses on three relatively important issues relating to the characterization of the surrounding geomedia. Leakage through naturally occurring low-permeability soil layers, shrinkages swelling, cracking and effects of dynamic loads on system components are often responsible for a waste containment breach. In this paper, these mechanisms and their synergistic effects are explained in terms of the particle energy field theory. It is hoped that this additional information may assist the designer to be aware or take precaution to design safer future waste control facilities

  4. Electrical Resistance Tomography to Monitor Mitigation of Metal-Toxic Acid-Leachates Ruby Gulch Waste Rock Repository Gilt Edge Mine Superfund Site, South Dakota USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, R.; Heath, G.; Richardson, A.; Paul, D.; Wangerud, K.

    2003-12-01

    At a cyanide heap-leach open-pit mine, 15-million cubic yards of acid-generating sulfides were dumped at the head of a steep-walled mountain valley, with 30 inches/year precipitation generating 60- gallons/minute ARD leachate. Remediation has reshaped the dump to a 70-acre, 3.5:1-sloped geometry, installed drainage benches and runoff diversions, and capped the repository and lined diversions with a polyethylene geomembrane and cover system. Monitoring was needed to evaluate (a) long-term geomembrane integrity, (b) diversion liner integrity and long-term effectiveness, (c) ARD geochemistry, kinetics and pore-gas dynamics within the repository mass, and (d) groundwater interactions. Observation wells were paired with a 600-electrode resistivity survey system. Using near-surface and down-hole electrodes and automated data collection and post-processing, periodic two- and three-dimensional resistivity images are developed to reflect current and changed-conditions in moisture, temperature, geochemical components, and flow-direction analysis. Examination of total resistivity values and time variances between images allows direct observation of liner and cap integrity with precise identification and location of leaks; likewise, if runoff migrates from degraded diversion ditches into the repository zone, there is an accompanying and noticeable change in resistivity values. Used in combination with monitoring wells containing borehole resistivity electrodes (calibrated with direct sampling of dump water/moisture, temperature and pore-gas composition), the resistivity arrays allow at-depth imaging of geochemical conditions within the repository mass. The information provides early indications of progress or deficiencies in de-watering and ARD- mitigation that is the remedy intent. If emerging technologies present opportunities for secondary treatment, deep resistivity images may assist in developing application methods and evaluating the effectiveness of any reagents

  5. Behaviour of a clay layer submitted to bending: application to a landfill for storing very low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp Devernay, S.

    2008-12-01

    The sealing cover system of landfills for storing non bio-degradable and dangerous waste is most of the time made up of a layer of clay and/or a geo-membrane. The question of the optimization of the conditions of storage of the radioactive waste envisage a surface storage for very low level radioactive waste (VLLW) and low and intermediate short-lived radioactive waste. This study is applied to a VLLW disposal facility of which the cover is made up of a clay layer over a geo-membrane but can be transposed to landfill for dangerous waste. The cover clay barrier of a landfill must preserve its properties; in particular its permeability must remain inferior to ten to the minus nine meters per second, during the life of the landfill in spite of the various solicitations which can generate cracking. Among these solicitations, the relative settlements of subjacent waste, generating bending solicitation, are one of the most critical solicitations. The current regulation concerning the implementation as a cover of a clay layer presents gaps, in particular with regard to the deformability of clay. This study presents the interest to couple laboratory tests (four points bending tests, splitting test and punching test) with field bending tests carried out at scale one and with their modeling with centrifugal tests. These tests were also numerically modeled by finite elements. A good compatibility of the results, in particular with regard to the definition of the conditions of initiation of the crack by bending, is shown. Numerical modeling and centrifugal tests made it possible to extend the study to unperformed in situ cases (settlement tests, reinforcement of the clay). (author)

  6. Estimation of transport parameters of phenolic compounds and inorganic contaminants through composite landfill liners using one-dimensional mass transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varank, Gamze; Demir, Ahmet; Yetilmezsoy, Kaan; Bilgili, M. Sinan; Top, Selin; Sekman, Elif

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We conduct 1D advection-dispersion modeling to estimate transport parameters. → We examine fourteen phenolic compounds and three inorganic contaminants. → 2-MP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP have the highest coefficients. → Dispersion coefficients of Cu are determined to be higher than Zn and Fe. → Transport of phenolics can be prevented by zeolite and bentonite in landfill liners. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) advection-dispersion transport modeling was conducted as a conceptual approach for the estimation of the transport parameters of fourteen different phenolic compounds (phenol, 2-CP, 2-MP, 3-MP, 4-MP, 2-NP, 4-NP, 2,4-DNP, 2,4-DCP, 2,6-DCP, 2,4,5-TCP, 2,4,6-TCP, 2,3,4,6-TeCP, PCP) and three different inorganic contaminants (Cu, Zn, Fe) migrating downward through the several liner systems. Four identical pilot-scale landfill reactors (0.25 m 3 ) with different composite liners (R1: 0.10 + 0.10 m of compacted clay liner (CCL), L e = 0.20 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R2: 0.002-m-thick damaged high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geomembrane overlying 0.10 + 0.10 m of CCL, L e = 0.20 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R3: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick bentonite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, L e = 0.22 m, k e = 1 x 10 -8 m/s, R4: 0.002-m-thick damaged HDPE geomembrane overlying a 0.02-m-thick zeolite layer encapsulated between 0.10 + 0.10 m CCL, L e = 0.22 m, k e = 4.24 x 10 -7 m/s) were simultaneously run for a period of about 540 days to investigate the nature of diffusive and advective transport of the selected organic and inorganic contaminants. The results of 1D transport model showed that the highest molecular diffusion coefficients, ranging from 4.77 x 10 -10 to 10.67 x 10 -10 m 2 /s, were estimated for phenol (R4), 2-MP (R1), 2,4-DNP (R2), 2,4-DCP (R1), 2,6-DCP (R2), 2,4,5-TCP (R2) and 2,3,4,6-TeCP (R1). For all reactors, dispersion coefficients of Cu, ranging from 3.47 x 10 -6 m 2 /s to 5

  7. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    offers 25 000 m 3 in a 26 m wide by 174 m long and up to 8.5 m deep structure. Cells are filled up in successive waste packages layers (about 10 on average), while void spaces between waste packages are gradually backfilled with sand. a 2-mm-thick high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geo-membrane is first fitted at the bottom and on the sides of the cell before emplacing the waste. Once each individual cell is filled up, an identical membrane is laid over it and thermo-welded to the first, in order to form a continuous and water-tight barrier around the waste. The geo-membrane is fully waterproof and is designed to prevent any dispersion of radioactivity and any seepage of external waters (rain, infiltrations) over several decades; a containment envelope made up of natural clay-based materials. The lower part of the envelope corresponds to the first 5 m of the clay layer located immediately under the geo-membrane and characterized by a very low permeability (at least 10 -9 m/s). The upper part is made of clay-based materials that were removed during cell excavation and consists of a layer measuring 1 to 5 m in thickness, shaped and compacted mechanically in order to restore its initial low permeability (at least 10 -9 m/s). Ultimately, a clay backfill, approximately 2.5-m in thickness, will isolate the clay-based containment layer from: - weathering (frost, draught); - burrowing animals, and - erosion. Lastly, a permanent 30-cm-thick layer of grass-covered topsoil will be laid over the entire structure. To provide its wide-ranging competences in the field of waste management and disposal, ANDRA offers multiple solutions, from consultancy and documents reviewing, to technology transfer and turnkey projects

  8. The surface disposal concept for VLL waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    offers 25 000 m{sup 3} in a 26 m wide by 174 m long and up to 8.5 m deep structure. Cells are filled up in successive waste packages layers (about 10 on average), while void spaces between waste packages are gradually backfilled with sand. a 2-mm-thick high-density polyethylene (HDPE) geo-membrane is first fitted at the bottom and on the sides of the cell before emplacing the waste. Once each individual cell is filled up, an identical membrane is laid over it and thermo-welded to the first, in order to form a continuous and water-tight barrier around the waste. The geo-membrane is fully waterproof and is designed to prevent any dispersion of radioactivity and any seepage of external waters (rain, infiltrations) over several decades; a containment envelope made up of natural clay-based materials. The lower part of the envelope corresponds to the first 5 m of the clay layer located immediately under the geo-membrane and characterized by a very low permeability (at least 10{sup -9} m/s). The upper part is made of clay-based materials that were removed during cell excavation and consists of a layer measuring 1 to 5 m in thickness, shaped and compacted mechanically in order to restore its initial low permeability (at least 10{sup -9} m/s). Ultimately, a clay backfill, approximately 2.5-m in thickness, will isolate the clay-based containment layer from: - weathering (frost, draught); - burrowing animals, and - erosion. Lastly, a permanent 30-cm-thick layer of grass-covered topsoil will be laid over the entire structure. To provide its wide-ranging competences in the field of waste management and disposal, ANDRA offers multiple solutions, from consultancy and documents reviewing, to technology transfer and turnkey projects

  9. Avaliação de recomendações normativas sobre o uso de ensaios no controle de qualidade de fabricação de geossintéticos Evaluation of standard recommendations on the use of tests for manufacturing quality control of geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina M. L. Costa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de materiais poliméricos designados por geossintéticos tem aumentando significativamente nos últimos anos na Engenharia Civil. Para desempenhar adequadamente a função para a qual foram projetados, os geossintéticos devem ser submetidos a um rigoroso processo de controle de qualidade durante a fabricação. Discussões sobre a freqüência e os principais tipos de ensaios de laboratório utilizados nesse processo de controle para dois tipos de geossintéticos, os geotêxteis e as geomembranas, os materiais mais utilizados da famíla dos geossintéticos, são abordados no presente trabalho. As análises efetuadas com base em normas disponíveis no Brasil, nos EUA e na Europa mostram que no cenário nacional não há recomendações normativas sobre o controle de qualidade para a maioria das aplicações de geotêxteis e geomembranas, sendo o assunto pouco discutido na literatura técnica. No cenário internacional, as normas Européias se destacam como o conjunto de práticas mais completo para ensaios de controle de qualidade de fabricação, considerando os diversos tipos de aplicação dos geossintéticos na Engenharia Civil.The use of polymeric materials known as geosynthetics in Civil Engineering applications has increased significantly in the last few years. In order to perform adequately, geosynthetics need to be manufactured according to rigorous quality control procedures. This paper addresses the frequency and the main types of laboratory tests used for quality control of geotextiles and geomembranes, which are the most largely used materials within the geosynthetic family. Analyses based on technical standards from Brazil, USA and Europe show the need of quality control recommendations for a large number of applications of geotextiles and geomembranes in Brazil. Also, very limited information on this topic is available in Brazilian literature. Conversely, European standards on the subject take into consideration a

  10. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill. PMID:28044139

  11. Occurrence, characteristics and leakage of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in leachate from municipal solid waste landfills in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Deng, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Raw leachate samples were collected from various municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in a densely populated city in North China to measure the levels and compositional patterns of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in leachate. The total concentration of PBDEs ranged from 4.0 to 351.2 ng/L, with an average of 73.0 ng/L. BDE-209 dominated the congeners in most of the samples, followed by BDE-47 and -99. Higher PBDEs concentrations were found in leachate from younger landfill facilities in the urban area. Pearson correlation analysis implied a potential dependence of the PBDEs level on landfill age, suspended solids and dissolved organic carbon, while the results of principal component analysis (PCA) suggested potential origins and transportation of PBDEs in leachate. The Monte Carlo method was adopted to estimate the annual leakage of PBDEs into the underground environment nationwide, based on two main scenarios: simple landfills with inadequate liner systems and composite-lined landfills with defective geomembranes. -- Highlights: • Levels and congener patterns of PBDEs in landfill leachate from China are measured. • Pollution loading of PBDEs in leachate is identified through comparative analysis. • Leachate properties perform moderate impact on the occurrence of PBDEs. • Both commercial and decomposition origins contribute to lower brominated congeners. • Leakage rate of PBDEs due to inadequate liner is estimated nationwide. -- This paper determined the levels and distribution of PBDEs in MSW landfill leachate and predicted the leakage of PBDEs from sanitary landfills into the underground environment across China

  12. HYDROPONIC AND AQUAPONIC PRODUCTION OF SWEET BASIL (Ocimum basilicum AND GIANT RIVER PRAWN (Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Ronzón Ortega

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to promote sustainable aquaculture in production units and to take care of the water resource is needed to integrate biotechnology tools to the activity, as is the aquaponics. In the present study we evaluated the production efficiency of a crop of basil (Ocimum basilicum in a hydroponic system (SH vs. acuaponic system (SA associated with the semi-intensive culture of Malaysian prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The production of basil was conducted in two geomembrane plastic rectangular tanks (4.0 m long x 0.80 m wide and 0.30 m high, divided into two sections: in the first section setting of the seedlings were done in a substrate of silica sand and volcanic rock , whereas in the second were seeded into plastic containers using the same substrate. SH plants got their nutrients from the metabolites derived from the cultivation of 800 postlarval shrimp in two circular tanks of 25 m3 (16 organisms m-2 (Pond 1: initial weight 0.13 g, Pond 2: 2.19 g; while in the SH was used a commercial nutrient solution (1.5 g L. The results indicate that SH plants initially had higher survival (90%, height and number of leaves per plant (p

  13. Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to the Municipality of Montreal-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, G.; Joly, R.; Guay, T.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explored the environmental impacts associated with Petro-Canada's project to add petroleum product storage tanks to its refinery in the east-end of Montreal. The project plan is based on a 6 year horizon from 2006-2012. The additional reservoirs would store new products destined for the petrochemical industry and for consumers, thus improving the flexibility and reliability of the refinery. The products would include low sulfur diesel and ethanol gasoline. The project does not involve any increase in refining capacity, and is estimated to cost $15 million. The main issues associated with this project are ambient air quality, the protection of groundwater and soil, as well as the security of areas inhabited by neighbouring areas in risk of a major accident. Emissions of organic compounds, including benzene, are considered minimal considering the use of sealed floating roofs. Geomembranes will be installed under the storage tanks to ensure the protection of groundwater and soil. Any consequences to the population of neighbouring areas resulting from accidents inside the industrial park will be limited since the reservoirs will be located more than 1 km away from a populated area. Quebec's Ministry of Sustainable Development, Environment and Parks recommended that this project be approved as long as the terms and measures of environmental regulations are respected, and that an emergency plan is submitted before the operation of the first reservoir. 1 tab

  14. Geosynthetic clay liners shrinkage under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabadani, Hamid; Rayhani, Mohammad T

    2014-06-01

    Geosynthetic clay liners are used as part of composite liner systems in municipal solid waste landfills and other applications to restrict the escape of contaminants into the surrounding environment. This is attainable provided that the geosynthetic clay liner panels continuously cover the subsoil. Previous case histories, however, have shown that some geosynthetic clay liner panels are prone to significant shrinkage and separation when an overlying geomembrane is exposed to solar radiation. Experimental models were initiated to evaluate the potential shrinkage of different geosynthetic clay liner products placed over sand and clay subsoils, subjected to simulated daily thermal cycles (60°C for 8 hours and 22°C for 16 hours) modelling field conditions in which the liner is exposed to solar radiation. The variation of geosynthetic clay liner shrinkage was evaluated at specified times by a photogrammetry technique. The manufacturing techniques, the initial moisture content, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to width) of the geosynthetic clay liner were found to considerably affect the shrinkage of geosynthetic clay liners. The particle size distribution of the subsoil and the associated suction at the geosynthetic clay liner-subsoil interface was also found to have significant effects on the shrinkage of the geosynthetic clay liner. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Performance characteristics of a self-sealing/self-healing barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Stegemann, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Environment Canada and the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation are co-developers of a patented Self-Sealing/Self-Healing (SS/SH) Barrier system for containment of wastes which is licensed to Water Technology International Corporation. The SS/SH Barrier is intended for use as either a liner or cover for landfills, contaminated sites, secondary containment areas, etc., in the industrial, chemical, mining and municipal sectors, and also as a barrier to hydraulic flow for the transportation and construction industry. The SS/SH Barrier's most significant feature is its capability for self-repair in the event of a breach. By contrast, conventional barrier systems, such as clay, geomembrane, or geosynthetic clay liners can not be repaired without laborious excavation and reconstruction. Laboratory investigations have shown that the SS/SH Barrier concept will function with a variety of reactive materials. Self-Sealing/Self-Healing Barriers are cost competitive and consistently exhibit hydraulic conductivities ranging from 10 -9 to 10 -13 m/s, which decrease with time. These measurements meet or exceed the recommended hydraulic conductivity required by EPA for clay liners ( -9 m/s) used in landfills and hazardous waste sites. Results of mineralogical examination of the seal, diffusion testing, hydraulic conductivity measurement, and durability testing, including wet/dry, freeze/thaw cycling and leachate compatibility are also presented

  16. Biological systems coupled for treating wastewater from processing coffee cherries: I – Removal of organic matter - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.13627

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Fia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Three treatment systems consisting of upflow anaerobic filters followed by constructed wetlands (CW were evaluated in the treatment of wastewater from processing coffee cherries (WCP. The filters (F were made up of PVC (1.5 m high and 0.35 m diameter filled with gravel # 2 and SACs were made of wood boxes (1.5 m long, 0.4 m high and 0.5 m wide sealed with HDPE geomembranes and filled with gravel ‘zero’. WCP had the pH adjusted with lime to values close to 7.0 and the nutrient concentration changed to obtain a BOD/N/P ratio equal to 100/5/1. As a result, the values of influent and effluent pH remained within the range appropriate to the biological degradation of organic material. The system could not bear the shock of the organic load, which reduced the organic matter removal efficiency. Based on the analysis of performance and operating conditions employed, only the system that received the lowest organic load (F1+CW1 on the third phase, was effective in removing organic matter.  

  17. La durabilité des géosynthétiques dans les installations de stockage de déchets : le projet Durageos DURAGEOS. Durability of geosynthetics used in landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARCAS, Fabienne ; PONS, Carlos ; BOUCHEZ, Théodore ; MAZÉAS, Laurent ; MÉRY, Jacques ; TOUZE-FOLTZ, Nathalie ; DURRIEU, Claude ; FAYOLLE, Bruno ; RICHAUD, Emmanuel ; LANOË, Marie ; MARTINS, Jean ; PIERSON, Patrick ; SALDI, Fethi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Les géosynthétiques sont de plus en plus utilisés pour renforcer les barrières d'étanchéité des installations de stockage des déchets non dangereux. Afin de réduire l'impact environnemental des installations, les utilisateurs de ces matériaux ont donc besoin de guides et de recommandations sur leur mise en œuvre délicate, mais également d'estimations sur leur durée de vie. Cet article nous présente les moyens mis en œuvre par le projet Durageos pour mieux connaître et prédire les processus de vieillissement des géomembranes en polyéthylène haute densité et des géosynthétiques bentonitiques.The DURAGEOS project studies geosynthetics (HDPE geomembranes and GCLs ageing mechanisms under combined action of mechanical stresses, microorganisms and/or oxygen in connection with mass transfer. Physico-chemical and mechanical features of model and commercial geosynthetics aged in laboratory allow the development of a kinetic model of prediction of the lifetime coupled to a model of mass transfer. The models will be validated by geosynthetics sampled on landfill sites. Ecotoxicological risks and environmental external costs of transfers are to be assessed.

  18. Hydraulic performance of compacted clay liners under simulated daily thermal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaeef, A A; Rayhani, M T

    2015-10-01

    Compacted clay liners (CCLs) are commonly used as hydraulic barriers in several landfill applications to isolate contaminants from the surrounding environment and minimize the escape of leachate from the landfill. Prior to waste placement in landfills, CCLs are often exposed to temperature fluctuations which can affect the hydraulic performance of the liner. Experimental research was carried out to evaluate the effects of daily thermal cycles on the hydraulic performance of CCLs under simulated landfill conditions. Hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on different soil specimens after being exposed to various thermal and dehydration cycles. An increase in the CCL hydraulic conductivity of up to one order of magnitude was recorded after 30 thermal cycles for soils with low plasticity index (PI = 9.5%). However, medium (PI = 25%) and high (PI = 37.2%) plasticity soils did not show significant hydraulic deviation due to their self-healing potential. Overlaying the CCL with a cover layer minimized the effects of daily thermal cycles, and maintained stable hydraulic performance in the CCLs even after exposure to 60 thermal cycles. Wet-dry cycles had a significant impact on the hydraulic aspect of low plasticity CCLs. However, medium and high plasticity CCLs maintained constant hydraulic performance throughout the test intervals. The study underscores the importance of protecting the CCL from exposure to atmosphere through covering it by a layer of geomembrane or an interim soil layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of Electrical Resistivity Data Sets for the Evaluation of the Pollution Concentration Level within Landfill Subsoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Koda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents complex analyses of geophysical site investigation results. The electrical resistivity method was used to investigate the potential pollutant migration pathways within areas of existing and former landfill sites. For the purpose of the present study, there were four municipal waste landfills and one industrial landfill chosen for further comprehensive analyses. The landfill bottom was isolated using geomembrane liner. However, ground water monitoring results revealed that the base was not leakage-free. Another two landfills were established in the past, when no containment systems were legally required. The geoelectrical investigation was the final part of an overall analytical assessment of the contaminated sites. The study was aimed at pollution spatial migration analyses and the interpretation of results, for further design of the reclamation and restoration plans. A clear correlation between pollution indicators such as salt compounds and electrical resistivity, allow aerial analyses and the precise determination of contaminated zones. The research results presented in the paper have been recently obtained and concern a period from 2010 to 2015.

  20. A framework for a decision support system for municipal solid waste landfill design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verge, Ashley; Rowe, R Kerry

    2013-12-01

    A decision support system (Landfill Advisor or LFAdvisor) was developed to integrate current knowledge of barrier systems into a computer application to assist in landfill design. The program was developed in Visual Basic and includes an integrated database to store information. LFAdvisor presents the choices available for each liner component (e.g. leachate collection system, geomembrane liner, clay liners) and provides advice on their suitability for different situations related to municipal solid waste landfills (e.g. final cover, base liner, lagoon liner). Unique to LFAdvisor, the service life of each engineered component is estimated based on results from the latest research. LFAdvisor considers the interactions between liner components, operating conditions, and the existing site environment. LFAdvisor can be used in the initial stage of design to give designers a good idea of what liner components will likely be required, while alerting them to issues that are likely to arise. A systems approach is taken to landfill design with the ultimate goal of maximising long-term performance and service life.

  1. Effect of Mass Proportion of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash Layer to Municipal Solid Waste Layer on the Cu and Zn Discharge from Landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingna; Yao, Jun; Qiu, Zhanhong; Shen, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) bottom ash is often used as the protection layer for the geomembrane and intermediate layer in the landfill. In this study, three sets of simulated landfills with different mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to municipal solid waste (MSW) layer were operated. Cu and Zn concentrations in the leachates and MSW were monitored to investigate the effect of MSWI bottom ash layer on the Cu and Zn discharge from the landfill. The results showed that the Zn discharge was dependent on the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer. The pH of landfill was not notably increased when the mass proportion of MSWI bottom ash layer to MSW layer was 1 : 9, resulting in the enhancement of the Zn discharge. However, Zn discharge was mitigated when the mass proportion was 2 : 8, as the pH of landfill was notably promoted. The discharge of Cu was not dependent on the mass proportion, due to the great affinity of Cu to organic matter. Moreover, Cu and Zn contents of the sub-MSW layer increased due to the MSWI bottom ash layer. Therefore, the MSWI bottom ash layer can increase the potential environmental threat of the landfill.

  2. Preliminary design of a low-cost greenhouse for salt production in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaziri, A. A.; Guntur; Setiawan, W.; Prihanto, A. A.; Kurniawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Salt is an assential material of industry, not only in food industry point of view but also in various industries such as chemical, oil drilling, and animal feed industries, even less than half of salt needs used to household consumption. It is crucial to ensure salt production in Indonesia reaches the national target (3.7 million tons) due to relatively low technology and production level. Thus salt production technology is developed to facilitate farmers consisted of geomembrane and filtering-threaded technology. However, the use of those technologies in producing salt was proved less effective due to unpredictable weather conditions. Therefore, greenhouse technology is proposed to be used for salt production for several good reasons. This paper describes the preliminary design of a low-cost greenhouse designed as a pyramid model that uses bamboo, mono-layer and high density polyethylene plastics. The results confirmed that the yield of salt produced by greenhouse significantly incresed compared with prior technology and the NaCl content increased as well. The cost of greenhouse was IDR 5,688,000 and easy to assembly.

  3. Biodegradable films and spray coatings as eco-friendly alternative to petro-chemical derived mulching films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vox

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic mulching films in horticulture causes the serious drawback of huge amount of wastes to be disposed of at the end of their lifetime. Several pre-competitive research products based on raw materials coming from renewable sources were recently developed to be used as biodegradable materials for soil mulching. Biodegradable materials are designed in order both to retain their mechanical and physical properties during their using time and to degrade at the end of their lifetime. These materials can be integrated directly in the soil in order to biodegrade because the bacterial flora transforms them in carbon dioxide or methane, water and biomass. The innovative materials can be obtained using natural polymers, such as starch, cellulose, chitosan, alginate and glucomannan. Biodegradable extruded mulching films were performed by means of thermo-plasticizing process. Spray mulch coatings were realized directly in field, by spraying water solutions based on natural polysaccharides, thus covering the cultivated soil with a protective thin geo-membrane. In this paper an overview on the formulation development, processing understanding, field performance, mechanical and radiometric properties of these innovative materials for soil mulching is presented. In field the biodegradable mulching films showed suitable mechanical properties if compared to the low density polyethylene films. The radiometric properties and their effect on the temperature condition and on weed control in the mulched soil were evaluated too. At the end of their lifetime the biodegradable materials were shattered and buried into the soil together with plants.

  4. Conceptual design of a cover system for the degmay uranium tailings site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsidin, Saidov; David, S. Kessel; Kim, Chang Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The Republic of Tajikistan has ten former uranium mining sites. The total volume of all tailings is approximately 55 million tonnes, and the covered area is more than 200 hectares. The safe management of legacy uranium mining and tailing sites has become an issue of concern. Depending on the performance requirements and site-specific conditions (location in an arid, semiarid or humid region), a cover system for uranium tailings sites could be constructed using several material layers using both natural and man-made materials. The purpose of this study is to find a feasible cost-effective cover system design for the Degmay uranium tailings site which could provide a long period (100 years) of protection. The HELP computer code was used in the evaluation of potential Degmay cover system designs. As a result of this study, a cover system with 70 cm thick percolation layer, 30 cm thick drainage layer, geomembrane liner and 60 cm thick barrier soil layer is recommended because it minimizes cover thickness and would be the most cost-effective design.

  5. DEMONSTRATiON OF A SUBSURFACE CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR INSTALLATION AT DOE WASTE SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas J. Crocker; Verna M. Carpenter

    2003-05-21

    Between 1952 and 1970, DOE buried mixed waste in pits and trenches that now have special cleanup needs. The disposal practices used decades ago left these landfills and other trenches, pits, and disposal sites filled with three million cubic meters of buried waste. This waste is becoming harmful to human safety and health. Today's cleanup and waste removal is time-consuming and expensive with some sites scheduled to complete cleanup by 2006 or later. An interim solution to the DOE buried waste problem is to encapsulate and hydraulically isolate the waste with a geomembrane barrier and monitor the performance of the barrier over its 50-yr lifetime. The installed containment barriers would isolate the buried waste and protect groundwater from pollutants until final remediations are completed. The DOE has awarded a contract to RAHCO International, Inc.; of Spokane, Washington; to design, develop, and test a novel subsurface barrier installation system, referred to as a Subsurface Containment System (SCS). The installed containment barrier consists of commercially available geomembrane materials that isolates the underground waste, similar to the way a swimming pools hold water, without disrupting hazardous material that was buried decades ago. The barrier protects soil and groundwater from contamination and effectively meets environmental cleanup standards while reducing risks, schedules, and costs. Constructing the subsurface containment barrier uses a combination of conventional and specialized equipment and a unique continuous construction process. This innovative equipment and construction method can construct a 1000-ft-long X 34-ft-wide X 30-ft-deep barrier at construction rates to 12 Wday (8 hr/day operation). Life cycle costs including RCRA cover and long-term monitoring range from approximately $380 to $590/cu yd of waste contained or $100 to $160/sq ft of placed barrier based upon the subsurface geology surrounding the waste. Project objectives for Phase

  6. Production of biogas and biofertilizers from biodigester effluents; Producción de biogás y bioabonos a partir de efluentes de biodigestores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepero, L.; Blanco, D.; Suárez, J., E-mail: luis.cepero@indio.atenas.inf.cu [Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes ‘Indio Hatuey’, Central España Republicana,CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Savran, Valentina [Dirección de Planificación Física, Sancti Spíritus (Cuba); Piñón, M. R. Díaz [Delegación CITMA, Las Tunas (Cuba); Palacios, A. [UEB Construcción Civil, Organización Base (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    One of the research and technological innovation processes which are developed within the project «Biomass as renewable energy source for rural areas» (BIOMAS-CUBA) is related to biogas and biofertilizer production from biodigester effluents, in agroenergy farms, where food and energy are produced, in an integrated way. The technologies selected for constructing anaerobic biodigesters have been: fixed dome (Chinese model), plastic tube or polyethylene with continuous flow (Taiwan type) and anaerobic lagoon covered with a high density polyethylene geomembrane. From these technologies 69 biodigesters were constructed or repaired to a lesser extent-, in farms from the provinces Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Las Tunas, at the Experimental Station {sup I}ndio Hatuey{sup ,} in the mountain community Magueyal (Santiago de Cuba), in a pig production facility from Las Tunas and a livestock production farm belonging to the Ministry of Interior, in Jovellanos (Matanzas province). These 69 biodigesters comprised a total digestion capacity of 1 665 m³ and generated productions of 600 060 m³ of biogas, which were used for cooking food and feed stuffs, electricity generation and brick firing; as well as 2 601 t of biofertilizers, used for improving the fertility of 1 830 ha of soils; in addition, they allow eliminating the contamination produced by cattle and pig dung in the productive scenarios, which generates a positive environmental impact. The installation was carried out of 52 bioproduct production plants from biodigester effluents, enriched with native microorganisms, which are used in animal and plant health, crop nutrition, elimination of bad odors in livestock production facilities, bioremediation of lagoons contaminated with organic residues and in bioceramic filters. (author)

  7. Analysis of Factors that Influence Infiltration Rates using the HELP Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, J.; Shipmon, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is used by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in conjunction with PORFLOW groundwater flow simulation software to make longterm predictions of the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment at radiological waste sites. The work summarized in this report supports preparation of the planned 2018 Performance Assessment for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). More specifically, this project focused on conducting a sensitivity analysis of infiltration (i.e., the rate at which water travels vertically in soil) through the proposed E-Area LLWF closure cap. A sensitivity analysis was completed using HELP v3.95D to identify the cap design and material property parameters that most impact infiltration rates through the proposed closure cap for a 10,000-year simulation period. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) for select cap layers, precipitation rate, surface vegetation type, and geomembrane layer defect density are dominant factors limiting infiltration rate. Interestingly, calculated infiltration rates were substantially influenced by changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Foundation and Lateral Drainage layers. For example, an order-of-magnitude decrease in Ksat for the Upper Foundation layer lowered the maximum infiltration rate from a base-case 11 inches per year to only two inches per year. Conversely, an order-of-magnitude increase in Ksat led to an increase in infiltration rate from 11 to 15 inches per year. This work and its results provide a framework for quantifying uncertainty in the radionuclide transport and dose models for the planned 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment. Future work will focus on the development of a nonlinear regression model for infiltration rate using Minitab 17® to facilitate execution of probabilistic simulations in the GoldSim® overall

  8. Use of a risk-based hydrogeologic model to set remedial goals in a Puget Sound basin watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, G.; Gould, L.; Martin, J.; Riley, M.; Floyd, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Port of Seattle is redeveloping industrial land for a container terminal along the southwest Seattle waterfront. Concrete, asphalt, ballast, and a landfill geomembrane will cover the site and prevent direct contact with surface soils, so remedial goals focused on groundwater contamination from subsurface soils. Groundwater at the site flows along an old stormwater drain, in a filled estuary of a small creek, to Elliott Bay. Remedial goals for a variety of organic chemicals, metals, and TPH in subsurface soils were identified to protect marine receptors in the bay and their consumers. Washington State and federal marine water quality criteria were the starting points in the risk-based model, and corresponding concentrations of chemicals in groundwater were back-calculated through a hydrogeologic model. The hydrogeologic model included a mixing zone component in the bay and dilution/attenuation factors along the groundwater transport pathway that were determined from onsite groundwater and surface water chemical concentrations. A rearranged Summers equation was then applied in a second back-calculation to determine subsurface soil concentrations corresponding to the back calculated groundwater concentrations. The equation was based on calculated aquifer flow rates for the small creek watershed and rates of infiltration through surface materials calculated for each redevelopment soil cover type by the HELP model. Results of the risk-based hydrogeologic back-calculation model indicate that, depending on soil cover type at the site, concentrations in subsurface soils of PCBs from 2 to 1,000 mg/kg and of TPH up to free phase concentration would not result in risks to marine organisms or their consumers in Elliott Bay

  9. Production of biogas and biofertilizers from biodigester effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepero, L.; Blanco, D.; Suárez, J.; Savran, Valentina; Piñón, M. R. Díaz; Palacios, A.

    2012-01-01

    One of the research and technological innovation processes which are developed within the project «Biomass as renewable energy source for rural areas» (BIOMAS-CUBA) is related to biogas and biofertilizer production from biodigester effluents, in agroenergy farms, where food and energy are produced, in an integrated way. The technologies selected for constructing anaerobic biodigesters have been: fixed dome (Chinese model), plastic tube or polyethylene with continuous flow (Taiwan type) and anaerobic lagoon covered with a high density polyethylene geomembrane. From these technologies 69 biodigesters were constructed or repaired to a lesser extent-, in farms from the provinces Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Las Tunas, at the Experimental Station "Indio Hatuey", in the mountain community Magueyal (Santiago de Cuba), in a pig production facility from Las Tunas and a livestock production farm belonging to the Ministry of Interior, in Jovellanos (Matanzas province). These 69 biodigesters comprised a total digestion capacity of 1 665 m³ and generated productions of 600 060 m³ of biogas, which were used for cooking food and feed stuffs, electricity generation and brick firing; as well as 2 601 t of biofertilizers, used for improving the fertility of 1 830 ha of soils; in addition, they allow eliminating the contamination produced by cattle and pig dung in the productive scenarios, which generates a positive environmental impact. The installation was carried out of 52 bioproduct production plants from biodigester effluents, enriched with native microorganisms, which are used in animal and plant health, crop nutrition, elimination of bad odors in livestock production facilities, bioremediation of lagoons contaminated with organic residues and in bioceramic filters. (author)

  10. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Five-year performance monitoring of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) cover system at a reclaimed mine waste rock pile in the Sydney Coalfield (Nova Scotia, Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Christopher; Ramasamy, Murugan; MacAskill, Devin; Shea, Joseph; MacPhee, Joseph; Mayich, David; Baechler, Fred; Mkandawire, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Cover systems are commonly placed over waste rock piles (WRPs) to limit atmospheric water and oxygen ingress and control the generation and release of acid mine drainage (AMD) to the receiving environment. Although covers containing geomembranes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) exhibit the attributes to be highly effective, there are few, if any, published studies monitoring their performance at full-scale WRPs. In 2011, a HDPE cover was installed over the Scotchtown Summit WRP in Nova Scotia, Canada, and extensive field performance monitoring was conducted over the next five years. A range of parameters within the atmosphere, cover, waste rock, groundwater and surface water, were monitored and integrated into a comprehensive hydrogeochemical conceptual model to assess (i) atmospheric ingress to the waste rock, (ii) waste rock acidity and depletion and (iii) evolution of groundwater and surface water quality. Results demonstrate that the cover is effective and meeting site closure objectives. Depletion in oxygen influx resulted in slower sulphide oxidation and AMD generation, while a significant reduction in water influx (i.e. 512 to 50 mm/year) resulted in diminished AMD release. Consistent improvements in groundwater quality (decrease in sulphate and metals; increase in pH) beneath and downgradient of the WRP were observed. Protection and/or significant improvement in surface water quality was evident in all surrounding watercourses due to the improved groundwater plume and elimination of contaminated runoff over previously exposed waste rock. A variably saturated flow and contaminant transport model is currently being developed to predict long-term cover system performance.

  12. Ecolotree{sup {trademark}} cap at the Barje Landfill, Ljubljana, Slovenia, prototype demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, L.; Schnoor, J. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer uses strategically planted Populus spp. (poplar) trees and forbs to prevent water pollution while growing fiber for biomass fuels, paper pulps, and construction materials. The concept, developed at the University of Iowa, uses root systems that act as a pump to predictable depths greater than 1.5 m (5 ft). The plant uptakes water, nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, etc.), and adsorbable organics (such as herbicides) from soil. When the plant survival, growth rate, rooted soil depth, and water uptake are predictable, the site`s hydrology can be managed, and regulatory agencies are more willing to issue operating permits that include this vegetated barrier. Poplars transpire 600 to 1000 kilograms of water for every kilogram of stem dry matter (DM) growth. Measured poplar growth rates for 4-year old trees was 16,600 kg DM/hectare/yr. Conservatively, the water uptake calculated using the 600:1 water/stem growth ratio is 10,000,000 liters/hectare/yr. When transpiration exceeds rainfall, plants remove stored water from rooted soils. This dehydrating action effectively gives the soil a water storage capacity during winter dormancy. This Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer technology develops the ability to greatly reduce water leakage without the need for membrane or clay layers in landfill cover soils. This concept is now being used to manage water at American and Slovenian landfills. In contrast with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved clay or geomembrane covers designed with slight regard for plant growth, this cover focuses on reestablishing a vigorous ecosystem. While accomplishing the primary goal of protecting groundwater purity, the Ecolotree{reg_sign} Buffer grows a productive cover that stabilizes soil slopes, produces marketable crops, develops wildlife habitat, and provides a more pleasing ambiance.

  13. Analysis of Factors that Influence Infiltration Rates using the HELP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shipmon, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-28

    The Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is used by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in conjunction with PORFLOW groundwater flow simulation software to make longterm predictions of the fate and transport of radionuclides in the environment at radiological waste sites. The work summarized in this report supports preparation of the planned 2018 Performance Assessment for the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (LLWF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). More specifically, this project focused on conducting a sensitivity analysis of infiltration (i.e., the rate at which water travels vertically in soil) through the proposed E-Area LLWF closure cap. A sensitivity analysis was completed using HELP v3.95D to identify the cap design and material property parameters that most impact infiltration rates through the proposed closure cap for a 10,000-year simulation period. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) for select cap layers, precipitation rate, surface vegetation type, and geomembrane layer defect density are dominant factors limiting infiltration rate. Interestingly, calculated infiltration rates were substantially influenced by changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the Upper Foundation and Lateral Drainage layers. For example, an order-of-magnitude decrease in Ksat for the Upper Foundation layer lowered the maximum infiltration rate from a base-case 11 inches per year to only two inches per year. Conversely, an order-of-magnitude increase in Ksat led to an increase in infiltration rate from 11 to 15 inches per year. This work and its results provide a framework for quantifying uncertainty in the radionuclide transport and dose models for the planned 2018 E-Area Performance Assessment. Future work will focus on the development of a nonlinear regression model for infiltration rate using Minitab 17® to facilitate execution of probabilistic simulations in the GoldSim® overall

  14. Microbial kinetic for In-Storage-Psychrophilic Anaerobic Digestion (ISPAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani-Hosseini, Mahsa; Mulligan, Catherine N; Barrington, Suzelle

    2014-12-15

    In-Storage-Psychrophilic-Anaerobic-Digestion (ISPAD) is a wastewater storage tank converted into an anaerobic digestion (AD) system by means of an airtight floating geo-membrane. For process optimization, ISPAD requires modelling with well-established microbial kinetics coefficients. The present objectives were to: obtain kinetics coefficients for the modelling of ISPAD; compare the prediction of the conventional and decomposition fitting approach, an innovative fitting technique used in other fields of science, and; obtain equations to predict the maximum growth rate (μmax) of microbial communities as a function of temperature. The method consisted in conducting specific Substrate Activity Tests (SAT) using ISPAD inoculum to monitor the rate of degradation of specific substrates at 8, 18 and 35 °C. Microbial kinetics coefficients were obtained by fitting the Monod equations to SAT. The statistical procedure of Least Square Error analysis was used to minimize the Sum of Squared Errors (SSE) between the measured ISPAD experimental data and the Monod equation values. Comparing both fitting methods, the decomposition approach gave higher correlation coefficient (R) for most kinetics values, as compared to the conventional approach. Tested to predict μmax with temperature, the Square Root equation better predicted temperature dependency of both acidogens and propionate degrading acetogens, while the Arrhenius equation better predicted that of methanogens and butyrate degrading acetogens. Increasing temperature from 18 to 35 °C did not affect butyrate degrading acetogens, likely because of their dominance, as demonstrated by microbial population estimation. The estimated ISPAD kinetics coefficients suggest a robust psychrophilic and mesophilic coexisting microbial community demonstrating acclimation to ambient temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Migration of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, U and Th from phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da; Cipriani, Moacir; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2002-01-01

    The physico-chemical availability of radioactive elements ( 210 Pb, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, Th and U) in Brazilian phosphogypsum was investigated in a large scale leaching experiment carried out in lysimeters, using phosphogypsum samples (approximately 1.2 tons) from two phosphoric acid industries. Lysimeters were built using cylindrical concrete containers with 0.9 m inner diameter and 2 m depth. The bottom of the lysimeter was filled with a 10 cm layer of gravel covered with geomembrane sheet. Under this layer a pipe was designed to drain the percolated water. Three lysimeters were filled with phosphogypsum from each industry and a mixture of both. As percolated water comes exclusively from the rain, sample was collected daily when available. Samples were then pooled weekly, carefully prepared and submitted to radiochemical analysis. Radiochemical characterization of phosphogypsum and percolated water was performed by radiochemical separation followed by gross alpha and beta counting ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb) and UV-Vis spectrophotometry with Arsenazo III (U and Th). This experiment was carried out from 12/01/1999 to 01/22/2001, with a precipitation of 2,732 mm. It was observed that approximately 40% (534 L) of the rain fall percolated through the lysimeter 1. The analysis of 22 samples of percolated water from lysimeter 1 showed mean radionuclides activities of 70±30 mBqL -1 , 70±50 mBqL -1 , 100±60 mBqL -1 and 110±55 mBqL -1 for U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, respectively. Thorium activities were below detection limit. (author)

  16. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David [Conestoga-Rovers and Associates, 651 Colby Drive, Waterloo, Ontario N2V 1C2 (Canada); Case, Glenn [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 115 Toronto Road, Port Hope, Ontario L1A 3S4 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities

  17. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  18. Design of the Long-term Waste Management Facility for Historic LLRW Port Hope Project - 13322

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Don; Barton, David; Case, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    The Municipality of Port Hope is located on the northern shores of Lake Ontario approximately 100 km east of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Starting in the 1930's, radium and later uranium processing by Eldorado Gold Mines Limited (subsequently Eldorado Nuclear Limited) (Eldorado) at their refinery in Port Hope resulted in the generation of process residues and wastes that were disposed of indiscriminately throughout the Municipality until about the mid-1950's. These process residues contained radium (Ra- 226), uranium, arsenic and other contaminants. Between 1944 and 1988, Eldorado was a Federal Crown Corporation, and as such, the Canadian Federal Government has assumed responsibility for the clean-up and long-term management of the historic waste produced by Eldorado during this period. The Port Hope Project involves the construction and development of a new long-term waste management facility (LTWMF), and the remediation and transfer of the historic wastes located within the Municipality of Port Hope to the new LTWMF. The new LTWMF will consist of an engineered above-ground containment mound designed to contain and isolate the wastes from the surrounding environment for the next several hundred years. The design of the engineered containment mound consists of a primary and secondary composite base liner system and composite final cover system, made up of both natural materials (e.g., compacted clay, granular materials) and synthetic materials (e.g., geo-synthetic clay liner, geo-membrane, geo-textiles). The engineered containment mound will cover an area of approximately 13 hectares and will contain the estimated 1.2 million cubic metres of waste that will be generated from the remedial activities within Port Hope. The LTWMF will also include infrastructure and support facilities such as access roads, administrative offices, laboratory, equipment and personnel decontamination facilities, waste water treatment plant and other ancillary facilities. Preliminary

  19. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  20. Controlled Landfill Project in Yolo County, California for Environmental Benefits of Waste Stabilization and Minimization of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Augenstein, D.; Kieffer, J.; Cohen, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Department of Public Works of Yolo County, California, USA has been testing an advanced approach to landfill bioreactors, controlled (or "enhanced") landfilling, at its Yolo County Central Landfill site near Davis, CA, since 1994. Overall objectives have been the management of waste landfilling for: (1) rapid completion of total gas generation; (2) maximum, high-efficiency gas capture; (3) waste volume reduction; and (4) maximum greenhouse gas and carbon sequestration benefits. Methane generation is controlled and enhanced through carefully managed moisture additions, and by taking advantage of landfill temperature elevation. The generated landfill methane, an important greenhouse gas, is recovered with high efficiency through extraction from a porous recovery layer beneath a surface geomembrane cover. Instrumentation included a total of 56 moisture and 15 temperature sensors in the two cells, gas flow monitoring by positive displacement gas meters, and accurate quantification of liquid inputs and outputs. Gas composition, waste volume reduction, base hydrostatic head, and a range of environmental compliance parameters has been monitored since 1995. Partitioning gas tracer tests using the injection of two gases at dilute concentrations in the landfill have also been initiated to compute the fraction of pore space occupied by water between the points of tracer injection and tracer measurement. There has been rapid waste volume reduction in the enhanced cell that corresponds to the solids' reduction to gas. Monitoring is planned for the next several years, until stabilization parameters are determined complete. Encouraging performance is indicated by: (1) sensor data; (2) gas generation results; (3) data from landfill cores; and (4) decomposition-related indicators including rapid volume reduction. When data are synthesized, project results have attractive implications for new approaches to landfill management. Over seven-years, methane recoveries have averaged

  1. An application of baseflow isolation and passive wetland treatment to watershed restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, K.L.; Rightnour, T.A.; Zug, F.R. III

    1999-01-01

    The project site, located in West Virginia, is a reclaimed wood waste disposal area situated on Pennsylvanian coal strata. Following reclamation of the disposal area, flow in the adjacent stream was observed to have elevated iron and manganese concentrations. The source of the groundwater baseflow entering this portion of the stream appeared to be hydrologically related to the landfill by its close proximity. The source of the metals contamination was not determined, but may be related to percolation from the disposal area into the underlying coal strata. The observable contamination was typical of alkaline coal mine drainage and met the criteria for passive wetland treatment. However, the contaminated baseflow entered the stream along the sides and bottom of the channel at several locations over a 100-meter section and could not be collected for accurate characterization of pollutant loading. Treatment of the entire contaminated stream flow to comply with NPDES permit requirements would have been prohibitively expensive, and insufficient space was available for a treatment facility of adequate size within the narrow stream valley. Given these constraints, it was decided to isolate the contaminated baseflow from the surface flow by construction of a lined stream relocation on top of a gravity-drained collection zone in the existing stream channel. The collection zone consists of a bed of coarse aggregate with a central collection pipe discharging to a submerged outlet, which prevents air from entering the collection zone and minimizes the formation of iron precipitates. The relocated stream channel was formed in place on top of the collection zone with compacted earth, and lined with one layer of polypropylene geomembrane covered by two layers of geotextile. Gabion baskets were then placed on top of the liner for stream stabilization and shaping of the final channel. Accurate discharge characterization at the end of the collection pipe allowed the design of a

  2. Physical Hydraulic Model of Side-Channel Spillway of Lambuk DAM, Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harifa, A. C.; Sholichin, M.; Othman, F. B.

    2013-12-01

    The spillway is among the most important structures of a dam project. A spillway is designed to prevent overtopping of a dam at a place that is not designed for overtopping. Side-channel spillways are commonly used to release water flow from a reservoir in places where the sides are steep and have a considerable height above the dam. Experimental results were collected with a hydraulic model of the side-channel spillway for releasing the peak overflow of Lambuk Dam. This dam is, located on the Lambuk River, which is a tributary of the Yeh Hoo River ~ 34.6 km north of Denpasar on the island of Bali. The bituminous geomembrane faced dam is 24 m in height, with a 35-m wide spillway. The length of the side channel is 35 m long, with 58 m of transition channel, 67.37 m of chuteway channel and 22.71 m of stilling basin. The capacity of the spillway is 231.91 m3/s and the outlet works capacity is 165.28 m3/s. The reservoir is designed for irrigation and water supply. The purpose of this study was to optimize the designed of the structure and to ensure its safe operation. In hydraulic model may help the decision-makers to visualize the flow field before selecting a ';suitable' design. The hydraulic model study was performed to ensure passage of the maximum discharge at maximum reservoir capacity; to study the spillway approach conditions, water surface profiles, and flow patterns in the chuteway; and to reveal potential demerits of the proposed hydraulic design of various structures and explore solutions. The model was constructed at 1 : 40 scale, Reservoir topography was modeled using concrete, the river bed using sand and some gravel, the river berm using concrete, and the spillway and channel using Plexiglas. Water was measured using Rectangular contracted weir. Design floods (with return period in year) were Q2 = 111.40 m3/s, Q5 = 136.84 m3/s, Q10 = 159.32 m3/s, Q25 = 174.61 m3/s, Q50 = 185.13 m3/s, Q100 = 198.08 m3/s, Q200 = 210.55 m3/s, Q1000 = 231.91 m3/s and the

  3. The Biomantle-Critical Zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Lin, H.

    2006-12-01

    three agents. Earth's biomantle is where most biota live, reproduce, metabolize, use and expend energy, generate heat and waste, and/or where their remains accumulate upon death. The biomantle is the epidermis of soil and dominantly a product of bioturbation and organic accumulations, impacted by subordinate processes (leaching, eluviation, illuviation, rainwash, throughflow, mass transfer, weathering, biochemical transformations, etc.). Biomantles are either one layered, those without basal stonelayers, or two layered, those with basal stonelayers, depending on presence or absence of gravels and the style of bioturbation. Earth's critical zone integrates the studies of water with soil, biota, air, and rock in the terrestrial surface and near surface environment. Its upper limit is the tops of trees and its lower is the base of the aquifer. Water is the plasma that drives Earth's environmental systems and circulates through the critical zone. The critical zone encompasses the soil, which acts as a geomembrane through which water and solutes, energy, gases, solids, and living organisms biodynamically exchange with the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere, thus creating a life sustaining environment. Soil also functions as a central link in hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles. The biomantle-critical zone approach provides an appealing way forward in pedology, soil geomorphology, soil ecology, soil science, and near surface geophysical studies. It fosters fresh process and results understandings, and offers Earth science practitioners an array of new interpretive options.

  4. Strengthening Carbon Sinks in Urban Soils to Mitigate and Adapt to Climate Change (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, K.

    2010-12-01

    Urban lands comprise the most intensively transformed lands on earth. Urban land cover changed from 0.01% of the global ice-free land area in 1700 to 0.5% in 2002. Globally, urbanization is now the primary process of land cover transformation. Urbanization accentuates conversion of natural or agricultural lands to urban soils with altered biological, chemical and physical properties. Soil functions particularly important in urban ecosystems are the protection against damages by intense precipitation and flooding, retention and immobilization of contaminants, production of clean water, and buffering of climate extremes, mainly through evaporative cooling. Because of their disturbance by human activities, urban soils have distinct properties. In contrast to natural soils, human-made materials dominate or strongly influence urban soils as human activities constitute important soil-forming factors in urban ecosystems. Soils whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by their technical origin are classified as Technosols in the World Reference Base (WRB) for Soil Resources. They contain large proportions of artifacts, or are sealed by technic hard rock. Technosols include soils from wastes (e.g., landfills, sludge, cinders, mine spoils and ashes), pavements with their underlying unconsolidated materials, soils with geomembranes and constructed soils in human-made materials. However, Technosols and their properties have not yet been studied extensively. Yet, a greater understanding of urban soil properties is urgently needed to assess their biogeochemical cycles and role in the global carbon (C) cycle, and to manage their ecosystem services for the well-being of the urban population. Studies of biogeochemical cycles in urban soils of Stuttgart, Germany, have shown that soils from as deep as 1.9-m depth contain significant amounts of microbial biomass and are metabolically active. Buried organic matter (OM) rich artifacts where frequently observed originating from a

  5. Producción de biogás y bioabonos a partir de efluentes de biodigestores Production of biogas and biofertilizers from biodigester effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Cepero

    2012-06-01

    ámicasOne of the research and technological innovation processes which are developed within the project «Biomass as renewable energy source for rural areas» (BIOMAS-CUBA is related to biogas and biofertilizer production from biodigester effluents, in agroenergy farms, where food and energy are produced, in an integrated way. The technologies selected for constructing anaerobic biodigesters have been: fixed dome (Chinese model, plastic tube or polyethylene with continuous flow (Taiwan type and anaerobic lagoon covered with a high density polyethylene geomembrane. From these technologies 69 biodigesters were constructed or repaired to a lesser extent-, in farms from the provinces Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Las Tunas, at the Experimental Station «Indio Hatuey», in the mountain community Magueyal (Santiago de Cuba, in a pig production facility from Las Tunas and a livestock production farm belonging to the Ministry of Interior, in Jovellanos (Matanzas province. These 69 biodigesters comprised a total digestion capacity of 1 665 m3 and generated productions of 600 060 m3 of biogas, which were used for cooking food and feedstuffs, electricity generation and brick firing; as well as 2 601 t of biofertilizers, used for improving the fertility of 1 830 ha of soils; in addition, they allow eliminating the contamination produced by cattle and pig dung in the productive scenarios, which generates a positive environmental impact. The installation was carried out of 52 bioproduct production plants from biodigester effluents, enriched with native microorganisms, which are used in animal and plant health, crop nutrition, elimination of bad odors in livestock production facilities, bioremediation of lagoons contaminated with organic residues and in bioceramic filters

  6. Diffusion, sorption, and retardation processes of anions in bentonite and organo-bentonites for multibarrier systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schampera, Birgit; Dultz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    experiments with NO3- will support the understanding of sorption behavior of the anions. All hydrophilic samples have a higher retardation capacity, indicated by diffusion coefficients of 2.44 x 10-11 m/s2 for original bentonite and ˜2.1 x 10-11m/s2 for hydrophilic organo-clays. For hydrophobic organo-clays the H2O diffusion can be higher and is increased at high bulk density (1-1.5 g/m3) up to 2.76 x 10-10m2/s. Experiments with NO3- at bulk density of 1.5 g/m3 reveal that the apparent diffusion coefficients of nitrate are with results up to 5.61 x 1012 m2/s distinctively lower than free diffusion of nitrate in pure water (6.46 x 1010 m2/s at experimental conditions) and nitrate diffusion in natural bentonite (2.63 x 1011 m2/s). The measurements allow the interpretation of the different sorption mechanisms, retardation capacity and diffusion behavior of the analyzed clays at different anion concentrations. Ongoing molecular dynamic simulations will contribute understanding of diffusion processes in organo-clays including the conditions at the interface of the clay minerals and in solution. References: [1] Shackelford, C.D., Moore S.M. (2013) Fickian diffusion of radionuclides for engineered containment barriers: Diffusion coefficients, porosities, and complicating issues. Engineering Geology, 152, 133-147. [2] Rytwo, G., Nir, S., Shuali, U. (2012) Clay and water treatment. Applied Clay Science, 67-68, 117-118. [3] Lorenzetti, R.L., Bartelt-Hunt, S.L., Burns, S.E., Smith, J.A. (2005) Hydraulic conductivities and effective diffusion coefficients of geosynthetic clay liners with organobentonite amendments. Geotextiles and Geomembranes, 23, 385-400. [4] Schampera, B., Dultz, S. (2011) H2O self-diffusion in compacted clays as influenced by surface charge and wettability - obstruction effects of bound H2O layers. Clay and Clay Minerals,59, 42-57.

  7. Impact of Waste Materials Resulting from the Refining of Crude Oil on Some Soil Physico-Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pari asadi alasvand

    2017-02-01

    unpolluted soils were mostly gypseous and/or calcareous especially in the middle parts. Considering the surface and subsurface diagnostic horizons and the aridic-thermic soil moisture and temperature regimes, the studied soils were classified as Gypsids, Calcids or Cambids (Soil Survey Staff, 2014. However, due to the added oil waste compounds and presence of impermeable geomembrane in some of the polluted pedons, they were classified as Technosols in the WRB system (FAO, 2014. Noticeable effects of Pollutants in the soil were decreasing pH and increasing OM and EC. The surface horizons of the unpolluted soils contained less than 2 percent organic matter which regularly decreased by depth. However, In some horizons of the polluted soils, soil organic matter exceeded 12 percent. pH decreased by increasing organic matter (oil waste compounds possibly due to H+ dissociation from the oil compounds (Laurent et al., 2012. Electrical conductivity throughout the polluted soil horizons showed more limited variability than the unpolluted ones, probably due to their higher capability in water and liquid dynamics. Liquid limit and plasticity limit in polluted soils are higher than unpolluted soils . Plasticity index in polluted soils decreased with increasing the amount of pollutants. The results of mineralogical studies corroborated that dominant clay mineral in this soils is Smectite. Smectites have high swelling and shrinking capacity.So, the pollutants can intercalate between soil mineral layers and then increase d-spacing of clay minerals. The micromorphology of the polluted soils showed that low dielectric constant of petroleum caused flocculation and formation granular aggregates in soil. Studied soils are inactive in terms of activity of clay. Conclusion: As observed in the studied soils, their physico-chemical properties such as pH and electrical conductivity (EC of saturated paste extract, organic matter content, mineralogical and micro-morphological properties were severely