WorldWideScience

Sample records for geomagnetic field variations

  1. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations during solar eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hee; Chang, Heon-Young

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the geomagnetic field variations recorded by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories, which are observed while the Moon's umbra or penumbra passed over them during a solar eclipse event. Though it is generally considered that the geomagnetic field can be modulated during solar eclipses, the effect of the solar eclipse on the observed geomagnetic field has proved subtle to be detected. Instead of exploring the geomagnetic field as a case study, we analyze 207 geomagnetic manifestations acquired by 100 geomagnetic observatories during 39 solar eclipses occurring from 1991 to 2016. As a result of examining a pattern of the geomagnetic field variation on average, we confirm that the effect can be seen over an interval of 180 min centered at the time of maximum eclipse on a site of a geomagnetic observatory. That is, demonstrate an increase in the Y component of the geomagnetic field and decreases in the X component and the total strength of the geomagnetic field. We also find that the effect can be overwhelmed, depending more sensitively on the level of daily geomagnetic events than on the level of solar activity and/or the phase of solar cycle. We have demonstrated it by dividing the whole data set into subsets based on parameters of the geomagnetic field, solar activity, and solar eclipses. It is suggested, therefore, that an evidence of the solar eclipse effect can be revealed even at the solar maximum, as long as the day of the solar eclipse is magnetically quiet.

  2. Geomagnetic Field Variation during Winter Storm at Localized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that transports plasma and magnetic flux which create the geomagnetic field variation. Key words. Dst—vertical component of interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic field components. 1. Introduction. The magnetic field is one of the important properties of the earth. The main magnetic field originates from ...

  3. Geomagnetic Core Field Secular Variation Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, N.; Lesur, V.; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    highlight the difficulty of resolving the time variability of the high degree secular variation coefficients (i.e. the secular acceleration), arising for instance from the challenge to properly separate sources of internal and of external origin. In addition, the regularisation process may also result...

  4. A study of geomagnetic field variations along the 80° S geomagnetic parallel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lepidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of measurements of the geomagnetic field variations in Antarctica at three sites along the 80° S geomagnetic parallel, separated by approximately 1 h in magnetic local time, allows us to study the longitudinal dependence of the observed variations. In particular, using 1 min data from Mario Zucchelli Station, Scott Base and Talos Dome, a temporary installation during 2007–2008 Antarctic campaign, we investigated the diurnal variation and the low-frequency fluctuations (approximately in the Pc5 range, ∼ 1–7 mHz. We found that the daily variation is clearly ordered by local time, suggesting a predominant effect of the polar extension of midlatitude ionospheric currents. On the other hand, the pulsation power is dependent on magnetic local time maximizing around magnetic local noon, when the stations are closer to the polar cusp, while the highest coherence between pairs of stations is observed in the magnetic local nighttime sector. The wave propagation direction observed during selected events, one around local magnetic noon and the other around local magnetic midnight, is consistent with a solar-wind-driven source in the daytime and with substorm-associated processes in the nighttime.

  5. Analysis of Geomagnetic Field Variations during Total Solar Eclipses Using INTERMAGNET Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIM, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate variations of the geomagnetic field observed by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories over which the totality path passed during a solar eclipse. We compare results acquired by 6 geomagnetic observatories during the 4 total solar eclipses (11 August 1999, 1 August 2008, 11 July 2010, and 20 March 2015) in terms of geomagnetic and solar ecliptic parameters. These total solar eclipses are the only total solar eclipse during which the umbra of the moon swept an INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatory and simultaneously variations of the geomagnetic field are recorded. We have confirmed previous studies that increase BY and decreases of BX, BZ and F are conspicuous. Interestingly, we have noted that variations of geomagnetic field components observed during the total solar eclipse at Isla de Pascua Mataveri (Easter Island) in Chile (IPM) in the southern hemisphere show distinct decrease of BY and increases of BX and BZ on the contrary. We have found, however, that variations of BX, BY, BZ and F observed at Hornsund in Norway (HRN) seem to be dominated by other geomagnetic occurrence. In addition, we have attempted to obtain any signatures of influence on the temporal behavior of the variation in the geomagnetic field signal during the solar eclipse by employing the wavelet analysis technique. Finally, we conclude by pointing out that despite apparent success a more sophisticate and reliable algorithm is required before implementing to make quantitative comparisons.

  6. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  7. Possible relationship between the Earth's rotation variations and geomagnetic field reversals over the past 510 Myr

    OpenAIRE

    Pacca, Igor G.; Frigo, Everton; Hartmann, Gelvam A.

    2015-01-01

    The Earth's rotation can change as a result of several internal and external processes, each of which is at a different timescale. Here, we present some possible connections between the Earth's rotation variations and the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates over the past 120 Myr. In addition, we show the possible relationship between the geomagnetic field reversal frequency and the δ18O oscillations. Because the latter reflects the glacial and interglacial periods, we hypothesize that it can...

  8. Qualitative and quantitative estimations of the effect of geomagnetic field variations on human brain functional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belisheva, N.K.; Popov, A.N.; Petukhova, N.V.; Pavlova, L.P.; Osipov, K.S.; Tkachenko, S.Eh.; Baranova, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    The comparison of functional dynamics of human brain with reference to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of local geomagnetic field (GMF) variations was conducted. Steady and unsteady states of human brain can be determined: by geomagnetic disturbances before the observation period; by structure and doses of GMF variations; by different combinations of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of GMF variations. Decrease of optimal GMF activity level and the appearance of aperiodic disturbances of GMF can be a reason of unsteady brain's state. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  9. Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Mid-Latitude Geomagnetic Field During International Quiet Days: BOH Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Bohyunsan Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. In 2007, we installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we use the H, D, Z components of fluxgate magnetometer data to investigate the characteristics of mid-latitude geomagnetic field variation. To remove the temporary changes in Earth’s geomagnetic filed by space weather, we use the international quiet days’ data only. In other words, we performed a superposed epoch analysis using five days per each month during 2008-2011. We find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency compared to previous results using all days. That is, H, D, Z all three components’ quiet intervals terminate near the sunrise and shows maximum 2-3 hours after the culmination and the quiet interval start from near the sunset. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the Sun. As it becomes hot season, the geomagnetic field variation’s amplitude becomes large and the quiet interval becomes shortened. It is well-known that these variations are effects of Sq current system in the Earth’s atmosphere. We confirm that the typical mid-latitude geomagnetic field variations due to the Sq current system by excluding all possible association with the space weather.

  10. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...... model for epoch 2010.0, and a linear predictive secular variation model for 2010.0–2015.0. In this note the equations defining the IGRF model are provided along with the spherical harmonic coefficients for the eleventh generation. Maps of the magnetic declination, inclination and total intensity...

  11. Seasonal variations of the high-latitude geomagnetic field intensity in the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivin, Yu.R.; Chkhaidze, Z.Sh.

    1994-01-01

    Seasonal variation of the geomagnetic field three components is investigated using the data of the USA observatories chain separately for polar region, auroral zone and middle latitudes beginning from 1950. The variation consists of an annual and half-yearly waves. main attention is paid to time variability of the annual wave phase in the auroral zone, that is connected with superposition of waves of western and eastern jets

  12. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  13. Simulation of geomagnetic field variations during an intensive magnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fel'dshtejn, Ya.I.; Dremukhin, L.A.; Veshcherova, U.B.

    1993-01-01

    The intensity of asymmetric part of magnetic field of ring current is closely linked with energy flow entering the magnetosphere from solar wind. Quantitative description assumes usage of data on parameters of solar wind before few hours

  14. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations during the partial solar eclipse on 2011 January 4 in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ateş, Abdullah; Levent Ekinci, Yunus; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Aydemir, Attila; Demirci, Alper

    2015-01-01

    Some geophysical parameters, such as those related to gravitation and the geomagnetic field, could change during solar eclipses. In order to observe geomagnetic fluctuations, geomagnetic measurements were carried out in a limited time frame during the partial solar eclipse that occurred on 2011 January 4 and was observed in Canakkale and Ankara, Turkey. Additionally, records of the geomagnetic field spanning 24 hours, obtained from another observatory (in Iznik, Turkey), were also analyzed to check for any peculiar variations. In the data processing stage, a polynomial fit, following the application of a running average routine, was applied to the geomagnetic field data sets. Geomagnetic field data sets indicated there was a characteristic decrease at the beginning of the solar eclipse and this decrease can be well-correlated with previous geomagnetic field measurements that were taken during the total solar eclipse that was observed in Turkey on 2006 March 29. The behavior of the geomagnetic field is also consistent with previous observations in the literature. As a result of these analyses, it can be suggested that eclipses can cause a shielding effect on the geomagnetic field of the Earth. (paper)

  15. Geomagnetic field of earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Delipetrev, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is introduced the theory of geomagnetic field of the Earth. A homogenous and isotropic sphere is taken for a model of Earth with a bar magnet at its center as a magnetic potential. The understanding of the real origin of geomagnetic field produced from differential rotation of inner core with respect to the outer core of Earth is here presented. Special attention is given to the latest observed data of the established net of geomagnetic repeat stations in the Republic of Macedonia. Finally, the maps of elements of geomagnetic field and the equation for calculation of normal magnetic field of Earth are provided. (Author)

  16. Possible relationship between the Earth’s rotation variations and geomagnetic field reversals over the past 510 Myr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gil Pacca

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Earth’s rotation can change as a result of several internal and external processes, each of which is at a different timescale. Here, we present some possible connections between the Earth’s rotation variations and the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates over the past 120 Myr. In addition, we show the possible relationship between the geomagnetic field reversal frequency and the δ18O oscillations. Because the latter reflects the glacial and interglacial periods, we hypothesize that it can be used as a possible indicator to explain the length of day (LOD variations and consequently the reversal field frequency over the past 510 Myr. Therefore, our analysis suggests that the relationships between the geomagnetic reversal frequency rates and the Earth’s rotation changes during the Phanerozoic. However, more reversal data are required for periods before the KRS to strengthen the perspective of using the geomagnetic reversal data as a marker for the LOD variations through geological times.

  17. Geomagnetic field variations at the equatorial electrojet station in Sri Lanka, Peredinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the variations of the horizontal (H, vertical (Z and eastward (Y components of the geomagnetic field at Peredinia (PRD, an electrojet station in Sri Lanka, with the time of the day, season, sudden commencement (SSC and during geomagnetic storms. The daily variation of H showed a large peak around midday. The daily variation of Z appeared to be almost a time gradient curve of the daily variation of H, showing a maximum around 09:00 LT (75° EMT when the H field was increasing fastest and not at noon when Δ H was the maximum. Storm time variation of H resembled the variation of the Dst index but that of Z showed a large minimum about 2-3h before the time of minimum Dst or at the time of maximum time gradient of Dst variation. These features are compared with corresponding variations at the equatorial stations Trivandrum (TRD in India, and remarkable similarity in all observations is noticed at PRD and TRD. It is suggested that the observed abnormal features of Z variations at electrojet stations in India-Sri Lanka are due to (i direct effect of the ionospheric electrojet current (ii the induction effect of the image current by the average spatially extended conductivity region and (iii the induction current in the local subsurface conductor. It is suggested that the conductor responsible for the observed features in Z in India and Sri Lanka has to have extended spatial domain to latitudes well south of India, rather than confined to narrow Palk Strait.

  18. A Statistical Model of the Fluctuations in the Geomagnetic Field from Paleosecular Variation to Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps; Prevot

    1996-08-09

    The statistical characteristics of the local magnetic field of Earth during paleosecular variation, excursions, and reversals are described on the basis of a database that gathers the cleaned mean direction and average remanent intensity of 2741 lava flows that have erupted over the last 20 million years. A model consisting of a normally distributed axial dipole component plus an independent isotropic set of vectors with a Maxwellian distribution that simulates secular variation fits the range of geomagnetic fluctuations, in terms of both direction and intensity. This result suggests that the magnitude of secular variation vectors is independent of the magnitude of Earth's axial dipole moment and that the amplitude of secular variation is unchanged during reversals.

  19. Fast geomagnetic Field Intensity Variations between 1400 and 400 BCE: New Archaeointensity Data from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, G.; Schnepp, E.; Metzler-Nebelsick, C.; Lhuillier, F.; Gilder, S.; Genevey, A.; Fassbinder, J.; Gallet, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Thirty-five mean archaeointensity data were obtained on ceramic sherds dated between 1400 and 400 BCE from sites located near Munich, Germany. The 453 sherds were collected from 52 graves, pits and wells dated by archaeological correlation, radiocarbon and/or dendrochronology. Rock magnetic analyses indicate that the remanent magnetization was mainly carried by magnetite. Data from Thellier-Thellier experiments were corrected for anisotropy and cooling rate effects. Triaxe and multispecimen (MSP-DSC) protocols were also measured on a subset of specimens. Around 60% of the samples provide reliable results when using stringent criteria selection. The 35 average archaeointensity values based on 154 pots are consistent with previous data and triple the Western Europe database between 1400 and 400 BCE. A secular variation curve for central-western Europe, built using a Bayesian approach, shows a double oscillation in geomagnetic field strength with intensity maxima of 70 μT around 1000-900 BCE and another up to 90 μT around 600-500 BCE. The maximum rate of variation was 0.25 μT/yr circa 700 BCE. The secular variation trend in Western Europe is similar to that observed in the Middle East and the Caucasus except that we find no evidence for hyper-rapid field variations (i.e. geomagnetic spikes). Virtual Axial Dipole Moments from Western Europe, the Middle East and central Asia differ by more than 20 ZA·m2 prior to 600 BCE, which signifies a departure from an axial dipole field especially between 1000 and 600 BCE. Our observations suggest that the regional Levantine Iron Age anomaly has been accompanied by an increase of the axial dipole moment together with a tilt of the dipole.

  20. Geomagnetic field, global pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Macmillan, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is generated in the fluid outer core region of the Earth by electrical currents flowing in the slowly moving molten iron. In addition to sources in the Earth’s core, the geomagnetic field observable on the Earth’s surface has sources in the crust and in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. The signal from the core dominates, accounting for over 95% of the field at the Earth’s surface. The geomagnetic field varies on a range of scales, both temporal and spatial; the...

  1. A kinematic model of vertical geomagnetic field variation resulting from a steady convective flow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marsenić, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 2 (2014), s. 191-212 ISSN 0309-1929 Grant - others:VEGA(SK) 2/0137/12 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetohydrodynamics * induction equation * geomagnetic variation * reversed flux patches Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.924, year: 2013

  2. Correlations between the geomagnetic field variations, the fluctuations of the earth`s rotation and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greiner-Mai, H; Jochmann, H

    1995-03-01

    The amplitude spectra of global geophysical phenomena were investigated to motivate research of physical connections between them. The suggested causality was derived from comparison of the spectra, and from cross correlation functions. The following global parameters were discussed: For the earth rotation by the variations of the length of day, for the geomagnetic variation by the global field intensity, changes of the dipole axis and the westward drift, and for climate change by the atmospheric excitation function derived from air pressure variations, and temperature variations. The model of atmospheric excitation, which can be proved most exactly for the annual variations of length of day, is responsible for the 11 and 22 years periods, too. It failed for longer periods, e.g. partially for the 30 years periods and completely for the 60 to 80 years periods, which were also discovered in the mean temperature and geomagnetic field variations. Therefore, it was suggested that longer periods in climate change and in the variations of the earth`s rotation are caused independently by the same process in the earth core, provided that a physical influence of the geomagnetic field on climate will be accepted in future. The investigation was completed by comparison with the spectra of some local temperature variations in Europe. (orig.)

  3. Daily variation characteristics at polar geomagnetic observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepidi, S.; Cafarella, L.; Pietrolungo, M.; Di Mauro, D.

    2011-08-01

    This paper is based on the statistical analysis of the diurnal variation as observed at six polar geomagnetic observatories, three in the Northern and three in the Southern hemisphere. Data are for 2006, a year of low geomagnetic activity. We compared the Italian observatory Mario Zucchelli Station (TNB; corrected geomagnetic latitude: 80.0°S), the French-Italian observatory Dome C (DMC; 88.9°S), the French observatory Dumont D'Urville (DRV; 80.4°S) and the three Canadian observatories, Resolute Bay (RES; 83.0°N), Cambridge Bay (CBB; 77.0°N) and Alert (ALE, 87.2°N). The aim of this work was to highlight analogies and differences in daily variation as observed at the different observatories during low geomagnetic activity year, also considering Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions and geomagnetic indices.

  4. How does the predicted geomagnetic main field variation alter the thermosphere-ionosphere storm-time response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maute, A. I.; Lu, G.; Richmond, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's magnetic main field plays an important role in the thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) system, as well as its coupling to Earth's magnetosphere. The ionosphere consists of a weakly ionized plasma strongly influenced by the main field and embedded in the thermosphere. Therefore, ion-neutral coupling and ionospheric electrodynamics can influence the plasma distribution and neutral dynamics. There are strong longitude variations of the TI storm response. At high latitude magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is organized by the geomagnetic main field, leading in general to stronger northern middle latitude storm time response in the American sector due to the geomagnetic dipole location. In addition, the weak geomagnetic main field in the American sector leads to larger local ExB drift and can alter the plasma densities. During geomagnetic storms the intense energy input into the high latitude region is redistributed globally, leading to thermospheric heating, wind circulation changes and alterations of the ionospheric electrodynamics. The storm time changes are measurable in the plasma density, ion drift, temperature, neutral composition, and other parameters. All these changes depend, to some degree, on the geomagnetic main field which changes on decadal time scales. In this study, we employ a forecast model of the geomagnetic main field based on data assimilation and geodynamo modeling [Aubert et al., 2015]. The main field model predicts that in 50 years the South Atlantic Anomaly is further weakened by 2 mT and drifts westward by approximately 10o. The dipole axis moves northward and westward by 2o and 6o, respectively. Simulating the March 2015 geomagnetic storm with the Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) driven by the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE), we evaluate the thermosphere-ionosphere response using the geomagnetic main field of 2015, 2065, and 2115. We compare the TI response for 2015 with

  5. Time variations in geomagnetic intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre

    2003-03-01

    After many years spent by paleomagnetists studying the directional behavior of the Earth's magnetic field at all possible timescales, detailed measurements of field intensity are now needed to document the variations of the entire vector and to analyze the time evolution of the field components. A significant step has been achieved by combining intensity records derived from archeological materials and from lava flows in order to extract the global field changes over the past 12 kyr. A second significant step was due to the emergence of coherent records of relative paleointensity using the remanent magnetization of sediments to retrace the evolution of the dipole field. A third step was the juxtaposition of these signals with those derived from cosmogenic isotopes. Contemporaneous with the acquisition of records, new techniques have been developed to constrain the geomagnetic origin of the signals. Much activity has also been devoted to improving the quality of determinations of absolute paleointensity from volcanic rocks with new materials, proper selection of samples, and investigations of complex changes in magnetization during laboratory experiments. Altogether these developments brought us from a situation where the field changes were restricted to the past 40 kyr to the emergence of a coherent picture of the changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment for at least the past 1 Myr. On longer timescales the field variability and its average behavior is relatively well documented for the past 400 Myr. Section 3 gives a summary of most methods and techniques that are presently used to track the field intensity changes in the past. In each case, current limits and potential promises are discussed. The section 4 describes the field variations measured so far over various timescales covered by the archeomagnetic and the paleomagnetic records. Preference has always been given to composite records and databases in order to extract and discuss major and global geomagnetic

  6. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  7. Solar activity effects on cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.K.; Shukla, J.P.; Sharma, S.M.; Singh, R.L.; Agrawal, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis has been performed to statistically correlate the date of solar flare occurrence and its importance with the short term cosmic ray intensity decreases (observed by the high latitude neutron monitors) as well as with the geomagnetic field fluctuation indices (Asub(p) and Dsub(st)), during the period 1973-1976. This period has the particular advantage of being close to a solar minimum to avoid the ambiguity due to closely spaced solar flares. It is found that the intensity decrease starts at least 2-3 days after the date of bright solar flares of Imp 1B, 2B or 3B and the amplitude of the decrease increases with the importance of the solar flare. (author)

  8. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    the model and geomagnetic data previously processed in the same way. Our results suggest that conservation of angular momentum and heterogeneous thermochemical boundary control in the coupled inner core / outer core / mantle system are central to understanding how Earth’s magnetic field currently evolves......., westward moving, magnetic flux patches at the core surface. Despite its successes in explaining the main morphological properties of Earth’s magnetic field, self-consistent numerical modelling of the geodynamo has so far failed to reproduce this field variation pattern. Furthermore its magnetohydrodynamic...... control from either, or both, the inner-core boundary and the core-mantle boundary. In addition to presenting an Earth-like magnetic field morphology, these new numerical models also reproduce the morphology and localization of geomagnetic secular variation. In our models, the conservation of the angular...

  9. Recent geomagnetic secular variation from Swarm and ground observatories as estimated in the CHAOS-6 geomagnetic field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros

    2016-01-01

    We use more than 2 years of magnetic data from the Swarm mission, and monthly means from 160 ground observatories as available in March 2016, to update the CHAOS time-dependent geomagnetic field model. The new model, CHAOS-6, provides information on time variations of the core-generated part......, jets at low latitudes, for example close to 40 degrees W, that may be responsible for localized SA oscillations. In addition to scalar data from Orsted, CHAMP, SAC-C and Swarm, and vector data from Orsted, CHAMP and Swarm, CHAOS-6 benefits from the inclusion of along-track differences of scalar...... and vector field data from both CHAMP and the three Swarm satellites, as well as east-west differences between the lower pair of Swarm satellites, Alpha and Charlie. Moreover, ground observatory SV estimates are fit to a Huber-weighted rms level of 3.1 nT/year for the eastward components and 3.8 and 3.7 n...

  10. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.

    2002-10-01

    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  11. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Deebes

    2017-06-01

    The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF 2010 is indicated.

  12. Toward constructing a time-series of geomagnetic field variations from thermal remanence in slowly cooled igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Z.; Gee, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of paleomagnetic data can not only help us to understand the behavior of the ancient magnetic field but may also further our understanding of the current field, as well as of the mechanisms and constraints of the geodynamo and geomagnetic reversals. A question of particular interest is the possible relationship between reversal frequency and geomagnetic field intensity. Some research appears to indicate a correlation between low intensity and high reversal frequency, seeming to support the theory that low field intensity is what makes reversals possible. In order to study this correlation, we obtained several hundred samples from the 182 Ma Dufek Massif, in Antarctica. This intrusion was cooled slowly, at depth, during the high reversal frequency era of the early Jurassic, and most of our samples record multiple polarity intervals. This, combined with their particularly homogeneous magnetic characteristics, makes them ideally suited for recovering a record of geomagnetic field variations. On approximately 300 samples from the lower portion of the intrusion, we performed step-wise thermal demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM), followed by thermal demagnetization of a laboratory thermoremance (TRM), imparted as partial TRMs in three orthogonal directions to assess the reliability of the remanence. These two sets of measurements can tell us about the amount and direction of magnetization acquired at each temperature step and the sample's capacity to acquire a remanence. Corrected for anisotropy, the ratio of the NRM/TRM values at each step multiplied by the value of the lab field can give us an estimate of the paleofield intensity. When convolved with a thermal cooling model for the intrusion, this yields a model of the time-varying ancient field during the intrusion's cooling period. Initial analysis of our data shows average field values of around 20 µT and a minimum of four reversals. The average at this high-latitude site is lower

  13. A model of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation for epoch 2000 estimated from Orsted data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2002-01-01

    as measured simultaneously by globally distributed geomagnetic observatories. In addition, the observatory data are used to constrain secular variation. The model is estimated using an iteratively reweighted least-squares method with Huber weights to account for the non-Gaussian data error distribution...

  14. Variations of plasmaspheric field-aligned electron and ion densities (90-4000 km) during quiet to moderately active (Kp < 4) geomagnetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Reddy, A.

    2017-12-01

    Variation in field-aligned electron and ion densities as a function of geomagnetic activity are important parameters in the physics of the thermosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling. Using whistler mode sounding from IMAGE, we report variations in field-aligned electron density and O+/H+ transition height (HT) during two periods (16-23 Aug 2005; 24 Sep-06 Oct 2005) when geomagnetic conditions were quiet (maximum Kp in the past 24 hours, Kpmax,24 ≤ 2) to moderately active (2 quiet time, during moderate geomagnetic activity: (1) O+/H+ transition height was roughly same; (2) electron density variations below HT showed no trend; (3) electron density above HT increased ( 10-40 %). The measured electron density is in agreement with in situ measurements from CHAMP (350 km) and DMSP (850 km) and past space borne (e. g., ISIS) measurements but the F2 peak density is a factor of 2 lower relative to that measured by ground ionosondes and that predicted by IRI-2012 empirical model. The measured transition height is consistent with OGO 4, Explorer 31, and C/NOFS measurements but is lower than that from IRI-2012. The observed variations in electron density at F2 peak are consistent with past work and are attributed to solar, geomagnetic, and meteorological causes [e. g. Risibeth and Mendillo, 2001; Forbes et al., 2000]. To the best of our knowledge, variations in field-aligned electron density above transition height at mid-latitudes during quiet to moderately active periods have not been reported in the past. Further investigation using physics based models (e. g., SAMI3) is required to explain the observed variations.

  15. Geomagnetic field evolution during the Laschamp excursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Fabian, Karl; Winklhofer, Michael; Ferk, Annika; Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2009-02-01

    Since the last geomagnetic reversal, 780,000 years ago, the Earth's magnetic field repeatedly dropped dramatically in intensity. This has often been associated with large variations in local field direction, but without a persistent global polarity flip. The structure and dynamics of geomagnetic excursions, and especially the difference between excursions and polarity reversals, have remained elusive so far. For the best documented excursion, the Laschamp event at 41,000 years BP, we have reconstructed the evolution of the global field morphology by using a Bayesian inversion of several high-resolution palaeomagnetic records. We have obtained an excursion scenario in which inverse magnetic flux patches at the core-mantle boundary emerge near the equator and then move poleward. Contrary to the situation during the last reversal (Leonhardt, R., Fabian, K., 2007. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field evolution during the Matuyama/Brunhes transition: Iterative Bayesian inversion and independent verification. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 253, 172-195), these flux patches do not cross the hydrodynamic boundary of the inner-core tangent cylinder. While the last geomagnetic reversal began with a substantial increase in the strength of the non-dipolar field components, prior to the Laschamp excursion, both dipolar and non-dipolar field decay at the same rate. This result suggests that the nature of an upcoming geomagnetic field instability can be predicted several hundred years in advance. Even though during the Laschamp excursion the dipolar field at the Earth's surface was dominant, the reconstructed dynamic non-dipolar components lead to considerable deviations among predicted records at different locations. The inverse model also explains why at some locations no directional change during the Laschamp excursion is observed.

  16. A New View of Long-Term Geomagnetic Field Secular Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve P. Lund

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study carries out a statistical analysis of high-resolution PSV records for the last ~70 ka from three different regions of the Earth. We consider directional and intensity variability in each region on time scales of 103-105 years in order to evaluate long-term PSV. We then compare those results with more traditional long-term PSV statistical studies averaged over ~106 years. Three replicate PSV records from one region (subtropical North Atlantic Ocean were averaged at overlapping 3 and 9 ka intervals. Variability in both scalar inclination and declination variability and vector angular dispersion are significant and coherent among the three records. The vector dispersion is relatively low for most of the time but contains two relatively narrow intervals (~30–42 and 60–65 ka of high dispersion. (Vector dispersion in all records was calculated after removing directions with true excursional VGPs, VGPs < 45° N. We have carried out a comparable statistical analysis on two other PSV records from other parts of the Earth (Chile margin; Philippines/Indonesia. The results for these three regions are comparable in their overall style of variability. The scalar directional variability from the Philippines/Indonesia is quite different in detail from the other two regions, as might be expected, but the scalar directional variability between the Western Hemisphere regions is remarkably consistent considering their distance from one another. This may be associated with them being on the same longitude swath and having some coherent dynamo activity occurring along that path. Three magnetic field excursions occur in the study interval. All three excursions are associated with the two highest vector dispersion intervals. Paleointensity records from the three regions were subjected to the same statistical analysis as the directions. These records are all coherent in their pattern of variability. The similarity in paleointensity variability on a global

  17. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  18. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independent...... tensor elements. Furthermore, in current free regions the magnetic gradient tensor becomes symmetric, further reducing the number of independent elements to five. In that case B is a Laplacian potential field and the gradient tensor can be expressed in series of spherical harmonics. We present properties...... of the magnetic gradient tensor and provide explicit expressions of its elements in terms of spherical harmonics. Finally we discuss the benefit of using gradient measurements for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space, in particular the advantage of the various tensor elements for a better determination...

  19. Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Chulliat, A.; Mandea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of the geomagnetic field have been made for more than 400 years, beginning with individual determinations of the angle between geographic and magnetic North. This was followed by the start of continuous time series of full vector measurements at geomagnetic observatories...... and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments...... for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories....

  20. Characteristic features of the geomagnetic field of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, G.N.

    1978-01-01

    The laws of the earth magnetism permitting to make a model of the earth magnetic field are popularly investigated. The modern methods of investigations used in the development of geomagnetism and determining the quantity and direction of the earth magnetic field from the moment of rock formation are described. Considered are the characteristic peculiarities of geomagnetic field: the inclination of the magnetic axis to the rotational axis of the Earth, the western drift of the geomagnetic field, the magnetic field asymmetry, its pole exchange and secular variations. The sources of the continuous magnetic field are investigated. The theory of hydromagnatic dinamo operating in the earth core is described. According to the invariance of the geomagnetic field characteristics it is possible to assume that the core has not significantly evolved for milliard years

  1. Domino model for geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Schmitt, D; Wicht, J; Ferriz-Mas, A; Mouri, H; Nakamichi, A; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    We solve the equations of motion of a one-dimensional planar Heisenberg (or Vaks-Larkin) model consisting of a system of interacting macrospins aligned along a ring. Each spin has unit length and is described by its angle with respect to the rotational axis. The orientation of the spins can vary in time due to spin-spin interaction and random forcing. We statistically describe the behavior of the sum of all spins for different parameters. The term "domino model" in the title refers to the interaction among the spins. We compare the model results with geomagnetic field reversals and dynamo simulations and find strikingly similar behavior. The aggregate of all spins keeps the same direction for a long time and, once in a while, begins flipping to change the orientation by almost 180 degrees (mimicking a geomagnetic reversal) or to move back to the original direction (mimicking an excursion). Most of the time the spins are aligned or antialigned and deviate only slightly with respect to the rotational axis (mimicking the secular variation of the geomagnetic pole with respect to the geographic pole). Reversals are fast compared to the times in between and they occur at random times, both in the model and in the case of the Earth's magnetic field.

  2. Solar wind velocity and geomagnetic moment variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinin, Yu.D.; Rozanova, T.S.

    1982-01-01

    The mean year values of the solar wind velocity have been calculated from the mean-year values of a geomagnetic activity index am according to the Svalgard equation of regression for the pe-- riod from 1930 to 1960. For the same years the values of the geomagnetic moment M and separately of its ''inner'' (causes of which'' are inside the Earth) and ''external'' (causes of which are outside the Earth) parts have been calculated from the mean year data of 12 magnetic observatories. The proof of the presence of the 11-year variation in the moment M has been obtained. It is concluded that the 11-year variations in M result from the variations of the solar wind velocity

  3. Variations of the Geomagnetic Field During the Holocene-Pleistocene: Relative Paleointensity Records From South-Western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorza, C. S.

    2008-05-01

    I present a review of the research carried out by the Group of Geomagnetism at Universidad Nacional del Centro (Argentina) on paleointensity records from bottom sediments from three lakes: Escondido (Gogorza et al., 2004), Moreno (Gogorza et al., 2006) and El Trébol (Gogorza et al., 2007; Irurzun et al., 2008) (South-Western Argentina, 41° S, 71° 30'W). Based on these studies, we construct a first relative (RPI) stack for South-Western Argentina covering the last 21,000 14C years BP. The degree of down-core homogeneity of magnetic mineral content as well as magnetic mineral concentration and grain sizes vary between all lakes and are quantified by high-resolution rock magnetic measurements. Rock magnetic studies suggest that the main carriers of magnetization are ferrimagnetic minerals, predominantly pseudo-single domain magnetite The remanent magnetization at 20 mT (NRM20mT) was normalized using the anhysteric remanent magnetization at 20mT (ARM20mT), the saturation of the isothermal remanent at 20 mT (SIRM20mT) and the low field magnetic susceptibility {k}. Coherence function analysis indicates that the normalised records are free of environmental influences. Our paleointensity (NRM20mT/ ARM20mT) versus age curve shows a good agreement with published records from other parts of the world suggesting that, in suitable sediments, paleointensity of the geomagnetic field can give a globally coherent, dominantly dipolar signal. References Gogorza, C.S.G., Irurzun, M.A., Chaparro, M.A.E., Lirio, J.M., Nuñez, H., Bercoff, P.G., Sinito, A.M. Relative Paleointensity of the Geomagnetic Field over the last 21,000 years bp from Sediment Cores, Lake El Trébol, (Patagonia, Argentina). Earth, Planets and Space. V58(10), 1323-1332. 2006. Gogorza, C.S.G., Sinito, A.M., Lirio, J.M., Nuñez, H., Chaparro, M.A.E., Bertorello, H.R. Paleointensity Studies on Holocene-Pleistocene Sediments from Lake Escondido, Argentina. Physical of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Elsevier, ISSN

  4. Anomalous changes of vertical geomagnetic field in Kamchatka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moroz Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular variations of the vertical geomagnetic field at Paratunka (Kamchatka, Kakioka (Honshu, Mamambetsu (Hokkaido and Patrony (Irkutsk are considered from 1968 to 2014. Comparative analysis of secular variations showed that from 1968 to 2001, similar variations with the intensity of first hundreds on nT are obvious at four observatories. For the following period from 2001 to 2014, the secular variation at Paratunka observatory differs from other observatories. This disagreement of the secular geomagnetic variation at Paratunka observatory is timed to the increase of seismicity at the depth of 400-700 km in South Kamchatka region. It is suggested that in the result of increase of the seismicity in the region of transition from the upper to lower mantle, physical and chemical processes became more active. That caused formation of a large geo-electrical inhomogeneity which affected the behavior of the vertical component of geomagnetic field.

  5. How the geomagnetic field vector reverses polarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, M.; Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Coe, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A highly detailed record of both the direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as it reverses has been obtained from a Miocene volcanic sequence. The transitional field is low in intensity and is typically non-axisymmetric. Geomagnetic impulses corresponding to astonishingly high rates of change of the field sometimes occur, suggesting that liquid velocity within the Earth's core increases during geomagnetic reversals. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. The Holocene Geomagnetic Field: Spikes, Low Field Anomalies, and Asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, C.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the Holocene magnetic field is constrained by individual paleomagnetic records of variable quality and resolution, composite regional secular variation curves, and low resolution global time-varying geomagnetic field models. Although spatial and temporal data coverages have greatly improved in recent years, typical views of millennial-scale secular variation and the underlying physical processes continue to be heavily influenced by more detailed field structure and short term variability inferred from the historical record and modern observations. Recent models of gyre driven decay of the geomagnetic dipole on centennial time scales, and studies of the evolution of the South Atlantic Anomaly provide one prominent example. Since 1840 dipole decay has largely been driven by meridional flux advection, with generally smaller fairly steady contributions from magnetic diffusion. The decay is dominantly associated with geomagnetic activity in the Southern Hemisphere. In contrast to the present decay, dipole strength generally grew between 1500 and 1000 BC, sustaining high but fluctuating values around 90-100 ZAm2 until after 1500 AD. Thus high dipole moments appear to have been present shortly after 1000 AD at the time of the Levantine spikes, which represent extreme variations in regional geomagnetic field strength. It has been speculated that the growth in dipole moment originated from a strong flux patch near the equatorial region at the core-mantle boundary that migrated north and west to augment the dipole strength, suggesting the presence of a large-scale anticyclonic gyre in the northern hemisphere, not totally unlike the southern hemisphere flow that dominates present day dipole decay. The later brief episodes of high field strength in the Levant may have contributed to prolonged values of high dipole strength until the onset of dipole decay in the late second millennium AD. This could support the concept of a large-scale stable flow

  7. Interplanetary magnetic field associated changes in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field during 1973-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.L.; Shukla, J.P.; Shukla, A.K.; Sharma, S.M.; Agrawal, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B and its Bsub(z) component on cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field variations have been examined for the period 1973-75. It is observed that: (1) B >= 10γ (magnetic blobs) is pre-requisite in producing cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field variations of varying magnitudes, (2) the longer existence of magnetic blobs on successive days produces larger decreases in cosmic ray intensity and geomagnetic field and (3) the southward component (Bsub(z)) of IMF generally gives rise to large Asub(p) changes, though it is not effective in producing cosmic ray intensity decreases. (auth.)

  8. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    OpenAIRE

    Thébault , Erwan; Finlay , Christopher ,; Beggan , Ciarán ,; Alken , Patrick; Aubert , Julien ,; Barrois , Olivier; Bertrand , François; Bondar , Tatiana; Boness , Axel; Brocco , Laura; Canet , Elisabeth ,; Chambodut , Aude; Chulliat , Arnaud ,; Coïsson , Pierdavide ,; Civet , François

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2010.0, a main field model for epoch 2015.0, and a linear annual predictive secular variation model for 2015.0-2020.0. Here, we present the equations defining the IGRF model, p...

  9. Midlatitude cooling caused by geomagnetic field minimum during polarity reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L; Sato, Hiroshi

    2013-01-22

    The climatic effects of cloud formation induced by galactic cosmic rays (CRs) has recently become a topic of much discussion. The CR-cloud connection suggests that variations in geomagnetic field intensity could change climate through modulation of CR flux. This hypothesis, however, is not well-tested using robust geological evidence. Here we present paleoclimate and paleoenvironment records of five interglacial periods that include two geomagnetic polarity reversals. Marine oxygen isotope stages 19 and 31 contain both anomalous cooling intervals during the sea-level highstands and the Matuyama-Brunhes and Lower Jaramillo reversals, respectively. This contrasts strongly with the typical interglacial climate that has the temperature maximum at the sea-level peak. The cooling occurred when the field intensity dropped to 40% increase in CR flux. The climate warmed rapidly when field intensity recovered. We suggest that geomagnetic field intensity can influence global climate through the modulation of CR flux.

  10. Linkage between the Biosphere and Geomagnetic field: Knowns and Unknowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Zhu, R.

    2017-12-01

    The geomagnetic field extends from Earth's interior into space, and protects our planets habitability by shielding the planet from solar winds and cosmic rays. Recently, single zircon paleomagnetic study provides evidence of the field to ages as old as 4.2 Ga. Many great questions remain, including whether the emergence of life on Earth was a consequence of the field's protection, how organisms utilize the field, and if field variations (polarity reversal, excursion and secular variation) impact the evolution of the biosphere. In the past decade, great efforts have been made to probe these very complex and great challenging questions through the inter-disciplinary subject of biogeomagnetism. Numerous birds, fish, sea turtles, bats and many other organisms utilize the geomagnetic field during orientation and long-distance navigation. We recently found that bats, the second most abundant order of mammals, can use the direction of magnetic field with a weak strength comparable to polarity transitions/excursions, which is indicative of advanced magnetoreception developed in bats co-evolving with the geomagnetic field since the Eocene. Magnetotactic bacteria swim along the geomagnetic field lines by synthesizing intracellular nano-sized and chain-arranged magnetic minerals (magnetosomes). Recent field surveys in China, Europe, America and Australia have shown that these microbes are ubiquitous in aqueous habitats. Both their biogeography distribution and magnetotactic swimming speed are field intensity dependent. On the other hand, it is increasingly accepted that the geomagnetic field influences life through several indirect pathways. For example, it has been discovered that solar wind erosion enhanced the atmospheric oxygen escape during periods of weak magnetic field and global mean ionospheric electron density profiles can be affected by geomagnetic field strength variation. In addition, depletion of the ozone layer during a weak magnetic field could result in

  11. Modeling Geomagnetic Variations using a Machine Learning Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, C. M. M.; Handmer, C.; Kosar, B.; Gerules, G.; Poduval, B.; Mackintosh, G.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.; Bobra, M.; Hernandez, T.; McGranaghan, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a framework for data-driven modeling of Heliophysics time series data. The Solar Terrestrial Interaction Neural net Generator (STING) is an open source python module built on top of state-of-the-art statistical learning frameworks (traditional machine learning methods as well as deep learning). To showcase the capability of STING, we deploy it for the problem of predicting the temporal variation of geomagnetic fields. The data used includes solar wind measurements from the OMNI database and geomagnetic field data taken by magnetometers at US Geological Survey observatories. We examine the predictive capability of different machine learning techniques (recurrent neural networks, support vector machines) for a range of forecasting times (minutes to 12 hours). STING is designed to be extensible to other types of data. We show how STING can be used on large sets of data from different sensors/observatories and adapted to tackle other problems in Heliophysics.

  12. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    OpenAIRE

    Erwan Thébault; Christopher C. Finlay; Patrick Alken; Ciaran D. Beggan; Elisabeth Canet; Arnaud Chulliat; Benoit Langlais; V. Lesur; Frank J. Lowes; Chandrasekharan Manoj; Martin Rother; Reyko Schachtschneider

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 12th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was issued in December 2014 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html). This revision comprises new spherical harmonic main field models for epochs 2010.0 (DGRF-2010) and 2015.0 (IGRF-2015) and predictive linear secular variation for the interval 2015.0-2020.0 (SV-2010-2015). Findings: The models were deri...

  13. Surface electric fields for North America during historical geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lisa H.; Homeier, Nichole; Gannon, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of geomagnetic disturbances on the electric grid, we recreate surface electric fields from two historical geomagnetic storms—the 1989 “Quebec” storm and the 2003 “Halloween” storms. Using the Spherical Elementary Current Systems method, we interpolate sparsely distributed magnetometer data across North America. We find good agreement between the measured and interpolated data, with larger RMS deviations at higher latitudes corresponding to larger magnetic field variations. The interpolated magnetic field data are combined with surface impedances for 25 unique physiographic regions from the United States Geological Survey and literature to estimate the horizontal, orthogonal surface electric fields in 1 min time steps. The induced horizontal electric field strongly depends on the local surface impedance, resulting in surprisingly strong electric field amplitudes along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast. The relative peak electric field amplitude of each physiographic region, normalized to the value in the Interior Plains region, varies by a factor of 2 for different input magnetic field time series. The order of peak electric field amplitudes (largest to smallest), however, does not depend much on the input. These results suggest that regions at lower magnetic latitudes with high ground resistivities are also at risk from the effect of geomagnetically induced currents. The historical electric field time series are useful for estimating the flow of the induced currents through long transmission lines to study power flow and grid stability during geomagnetic disturbances.

  14. Dynamical similarity of geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, Jean-Pierre; Fournier, Alexandre; Courtillot, Vincent; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

    2012-10-04

    No consensus has been reached so far on the properties of the geomagnetic field during reversals or on the main features that might reveal its dynamics. A main characteristic of the reversing field is a large decrease in the axial dipole and the dominant role of non-dipole components. Other features strongly depend on whether they are derived from sedimentary or volcanic records. Only thermal remanent magnetization of lava flows can capture faithful records of a rapidly varying non-dipole field, but, because of episodic volcanic activity, sequences of overlying flows yield incomplete records. Here we show that the ten most detailed volcanic records of reversals can be matched in a very satisfactory way, under the assumption of a common duration, revealing common dynamical characteristics. We infer that the reversal process has remained unchanged, with the same time constants and durations, at least since 180 million years ago. We propose that the reversing field is characterized by three successive phases: a precursory event, a 180° polarity switch and a rebound. The first and third phases reflect the emergence of the non-dipole field with large-amplitude secular variation. They are rarely both recorded at the same site owing to the rapidly changing field geometry and last for less than 2,500 years. The actual transit between the two polarities does not last longer than 1,000 years and might therefore result from mechanisms other than those governing normal secular variation. Such changes are too brief to be accurately recorded by most sediments.

  15. Rapid geomagnetic field intensity variations in the Near East during the 6th millennium BC: New archeointensity data from Halafian site Yarim Tepe II (Northern Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutsis-Akimova, Stanislava; Gallet, Yves; Amirov, Shahmardan

    2018-01-01

    We present new archeointensity results from a series of groups of pottery fragments that were collected from the multi-layered archeological site Yarim Tepe II in Northern Iraq (Northern Mesopotamia) dated to the 6th millennium BC. This site comprises a 7-m-thick sequence of archeological deposits encompassing the Middle Halaf, Late Halaf and the Halaf-Ubaid Transitional (HUT), between ∼5750 and ∼5000 BC according to the chronology currently considered for the Halafian archeological period. Three new radiocarbon dates obtained from bone fragments confirm that Yarim Tepe II was likely not occupied before the Middle Halaf, as was independently established from archeological constraints. Archeointensity determinations were carried out using the protocol developed for the Triaxe magnetometer. This procedure takes into account thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate effects. 114 fragments fulfilled our set of archeointensity selection criteria, with intensity data obtained from at least two but most often three specimens per fragment. Mean archeointensity values were estimated for 23 groups of fragments well distributed across the entire stratigraphic sequence from the averaging of the data obtained from a minimum of three fragments per group. These values were dated using a bootstrap procedure relying on the stratigraphic position of the different groups of fragments and on the different age constraints available inside the Yarim Tepe II sequence. The new data show a significant decrease in geomagnetic field intensity by ∼12 μT between the Middle Halaf and the Late Halaf-HUT time interval. This decrease was accompanied by a short intensity peak, which may have lasted only a few decades, around the Middle Halaf-Late Halaf boundary, at ∼5500 BC. This evolution is quite similar to that observed from Syrian and Bulgarian archeointensity data, even though the precise duration of the intensity peak is presently questionable. The Bulgarian data set

  16. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available With the help of four years (2002–2005 of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmin<−100 nT are chosen for a statistical study. In order to achieve a good correlation Em is preconditioned. Contrary to general opinion, Em has to be applied without saturation effect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  17. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R.; Lühr, H.; Doornbos, E.; Ma, S.-Y.

    2010-09-01

    With the help of four years (2002-2005) of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmineffect in order to obtain good results for magnetic storms of all activity levels. The memory effect of the thermosphere is accounted for by a weighted integration of Em over the past 3 h. In addition, a lag time of the mass density response to solar wind input of 0 to 4.5 h depending on latitude and local time is considered. A linear model using the preconditioned color: #000;">Em as main controlling parameter for predicting mass density changes during magnetic storms is developed: ρ=0.5 color: #000;">Em + ρamb, where ρamb is based on the mean density during the quiet day before the storm. We show that this simple relation predicts all storm-induced mass density variations at CHAMP altitude fairly well especially if orbital averages are considered.

  18. Gravitational dynamos and the low-frequency geomagnetic secular variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P

    2007-12-18

    Self-sustaining numerical dynamos are used to infer the sources of low-frequency secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Gravitational dynamo models powered by compositional convection in an electrically conducting, rotating fluid shell exhibit several regimes of magnetic field behavior with an increasing Rayleigh number of the convection, including nearly steady dipoles, chaotic nonreversing dipoles, and chaotic reversing dipoles. The time average dipole strength and dipolarity of the magnetic field decrease, whereas the dipole variability, average dipole tilt angle, and frequency of polarity reversals increase with Rayleigh number. Chaotic gravitational dynamos have large-amplitude dipole secular variation with maximum power at frequencies corresponding to a few cycles per million years on Earth. Their external magnetic field structure, dipole statistics, low-frequency power spectra, and polarity reversal frequency are comparable to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic variability is driven by the Lorentz force and is characterized by an inverse correlation between dynamo magnetic and kinetic energy fluctuations. A constant energy dissipation theory accounts for this inverse energy correlation, which is shown to produce conditions favorable for dipole drift, polarity reversals, and excursions.

  19. Spatial power spectrum of the geomagnetic field since 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senanayake, W.E.

    1987-04-01

    The Geomagnetic field for the period 1945-1990 has been analyzed in terms of Spatial Power Spectra of the Main Field and its Secular Variation. It is observed that for the above interval, the magnetic energy density at the core-mantle boundary is almost conserved. This supports the idea that an exchange of energy between different spherical harmonic constituents could occur. The distinctive behaviour of the first two terms (Dipole and Quadrupole), as seen from the spectra of the main field and secular variation, probably indicates somewhat different feature associated with the field origin. (author). 28 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  20. Uncertainty Quantification in Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulliat, A.; Nair, M. C.; Alken, P.; Meyer, B.; Saltus, R.; Woods, A.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field models are mathematical descriptions of the various sources of the Earth's magnetic field, and are generally obtained by solving an inverse problem. They are widely used in research to separate and characterize field sources, but also in many practical applications such as aircraft and ship navigation, smartphone orientation, satellite attitude control, and directional drilling. In recent years, more sophisticated models have been developed, thanks to the continuous availability of high quality satellite data and to progress in modeling techniques. Uncertainty quantification has become an integral part of model development, both to assess the progress made and to address specific users' needs. Here we report on recent advances made by our group in quantifying the uncertainty of geomagnetic field models. We first focus on NOAA's World Magnetic Model (WMM) and the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF), two reference models of the main (core) magnetic field produced every five years. We describe the methods used in quantifying the model commission error as well as the omission error attributed to various un-modeled sources such as magnetized rocks in the crust and electric current systems in the atmosphere and near-Earth environment. A simple error model was derived from this analysis, to facilitate usage in practical applications. We next report on improvements brought by combining a main field model with a high resolution crustal field model and a time-varying, real-time external field model, like in NOAA's High Definition Geomagnetic Model (HDGM). The obtained uncertainties are used by the directional drilling industry to mitigate health, safety and environment risks.

  1. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  2. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  3. Thermospheric mass density variations during geomagnetic storms and a prediction model based on the merging electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Lühr, H.; Doornbos, E.; Ma, S.Y.

    2010-01-01

    With the help of four years (2002–2005) of CHAMP accelerometer data we have investigated the dependence of low and mid latitude thermospheric density on the merging electric field, Em, during major magnetic storms. Altogether 30 intensive storm events (Dstmin

  4. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deebes, H. A.; Abd Elaal, E. M.; Arafa, T.; Lethy, A.; El Emam, A.; Ghamry, E.; Odah, H.

    2017-06-01

    The present work is a compilation of two tasks within the frame of the project ;Geomagnetic Survey & Detailed Geomagnetic Measurements within the Egyptian Territory; funded by the ;Science and Technology Development Fund agency (STDF);. The National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics (NRIAG), has conducted a new extensive land geomagnetic survey that covers the whole Egyptian territory. The field measurements have been done at 3212 points along all the asphalted roads, defined tracks, and ill-defined tracks in Egypt; with total length of 11,586 km. In the present work, the measurements cover for the first time new areas as: the southern eastern borders of Egypt including Halayeb and Shlatin, the Quattara depresion in the western desert, and the new roads between Farafra and Baharia oasis. Also marine geomagnetic survey have been applied for the first time in Naser lake. Misallat and Abu-Simble geomagnetic observatories have been used to reduce the field data to the Epoch 2010. During the field measurements, whenever possible, the old stations occupied by the previous observers have been re-occupied to determine the secular variations at these points. The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF) and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF) 2010 is indicated.

  5. New directional archeomagnetic data of burned cave sediments from Switzerland and geomagnetic field variations in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapper, K. L.; Donadini, F.; Mauvilly, M.; Panovska, S.; Hirt, A. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents new directional archeomagnetic data from nine Meso-/Neolithic fireplaces, sampled in a cave shelter, at Arconciel, in western Switzerland. Rock magnetic measurements indicate a homogenous magnetic mineralogy in all fireplaces, with magnetite as the main magnetic carrier. The remanent magnetization is stable and generally shows one characteristic directional component. Nine new directions, which were obtained from Arconciel, are combined with 356 other archeomagnetic data from a circular area with a radius of 700 km around this site, to obtain a penalized least square spline fit for the past 9000 yr. We found in general good agreement with other local compilations, such as the Balkan curve, the regional SCHA.DIF.8k model and with lake sediments from UK, Fennoscandia and Switzerland. Nevertheless, a time lag of several centuries is observed for a declination maximum between the archeomagnetic spline fit and the other European data records around 5900 BC. This time lag is also observed in the Swiss lake sediment record; therefore we interpret this shift as a local feature of the Earth's magnetic field.

  6. Forecasting intense geomagnetic activity using interplanetary magnetic field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, E.; Cid, C.; Cerrato, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Southward interplanetary magnetic fields are considered traces of geoeffectiveness since they are a main agent of magnetic reconnection of solar wind and magnetosphere. The first part of this work revises the ability to forecast intense geomagnetic activity using different procedures available in the literature. The study shows that current methods do not succeed in making confident predictions. This fact led us to develop a new forecasting procedure, which provides trustworthy results in predicting large variations of Dst index over a sample of 10 years of observations and is based on the value Bz only. The proposed forecasting method appears as a worthy tool for space weather purposes because it is not affected by the lack of solar wind plasma data, which usually occurs during severe geomagnetic activity. Moreover, the results obtained guide us to provide a new interpretation of the physical mechanisms involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere using Faraday's law.

  7. Long-Term Seafloor Electromagnetic Observation in the Northwest Pacific May Detect the Vector Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Toh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sea Floor ElectroMagnetic Stations (SFEMSs are now operating at two deep seafloor sites called the 'WPB' and the 'NWP' in the West Philippine Basin and the Northwest Pacific Basin, respectively. One of the main objectives of the SFEMSs is to detect the geomagnetic secular variations on the deep seafloor where long-term geomagnetic observations have not so far been achieved. SFEMSs can measure the absolute geomagnetic total force as well as the geomagnetic vector field with precise attitude monitoring systems. The vector geomagnetic time-series that was observed for more than 5 years revealed that the westward drift of the equatorial dipole dominates in the geomagnetic secular variation at the NWP.

  8. Archaeomagnetic Dating in Europe Using a Global Geomagnetic Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Holme, R.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    Using up-to-date archaeomagnetic data from Europe and CALS7K.2 as an apriori model, we produce a global geomagnetic field model to be used for archaeomagnetic dating in Europe. More details on the modelling process will be presented elsewhere (in session GP12, abstract: Geophysical insights from archaeomagnetic dating). Here we apply the global geomagnetic field model to a series of test cases from both recently published data and unpublished data to demonstrate its application to archaeomagnetic dating. We compare the results produced using our model with those from the spherical cap harmonic model, SCHA.DIF.3K (Pavón-Carrasco et al., 2009), the global geomagnetic field model, ARCH3K.1 (Korte et al., 2009) and those produced using the palaeosecular variation curves generated using Bayesian statistics (Lanos, 2004). We include examples which emphasise the importance of using three component data (declination, inclination and intensity) to produce an improved archaeomagnetic date. In addition to the careful selection of an appropriate model for archaeomagnetic dating, the choice of errors on the model curves is vital for providing archaeologists with an age range of possible dates. We discuss how best to constrain the errors on the model curves and alternative ways to the mathematical method of Lanos (2004) for producing an archaeomagnetic date for archaeologists.

  9. Modeling of Thermospheric Neutral Density Variations in Response to Geomagnetic Forcing using GRACE Accelerometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabia, A.; Matsuo, T.; Jin, S.

    2017-12-01

    The upper atmospheric expansion refers to an increase in the temperature and density of Earth's thermosphere due to increased geomagnetic and space weather activities, producing anomalous atmospheric drag on LEO spacecraft. Increased drag decelerates satellites, moving their orbit closer to Earth, decreasing the lifespan of satellites, and making satellite orbit determination difficult. In this study, thermospheric neutral density variations due to geomagnetic forcing are investigated from 10 years (2003-2013) of GRACE's accelerometer-based estimates. In order to isolate the variations produced by geomagnetic forcing, 99.8% of the total variability has been modeled and removed through the parameterization of annual, LST, and solar-flux variations included in the primary Empirical Orthogonal Functions. The residual disturbances of neutral density variations have been investigated further in order to unravel their relationship to several geomagnetic indices and space weather activity indicators. Stronger fluctuations have been found in the southern polar cap, following the dipole-tilt angle variations. While the parameterization of the residual disturbances in terms of Dst index results in the best fit to training data, the use of merging electric field as a predictor leads to the best forecasting performance. An important finding is that modeling of neutral density variations in response geomagnetic forcing can be improved by accounting for the latitude-dependent delay. Our data-driven modeling results are further compared to modeling with TIEGCM.

  10. Fourteen years of geomagnetic daily variation at Mario Zucchelli Station (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During the 1986-87 austral summer a geomagnetic observatory was installed at the Italian Antarctic Base Mario Zucchelli Station. In the first three years continuous time variation monitoring and absolute measurements of the geomagnetic field were carried out only during summer expeditions. Starting 1991 an automatic acquisition system, operating through all the year, was put in operation. We present here some peculiarities of the daily variation as observed for fourteen years (1987-2000. The availability of a long series of data has allowed the definition of seasonal, as well as solar cycle effects, on short time variations as observed at a cusp-cap observatory. In particular, contrary to mid latitude behaviour, a clear dependence of the daily variation amplitude on the global geomagnetic K index was well defined.

  11. Atmospheric helium and geomagnetic field reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, W. R.; Kern, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The problem of the earth's helium budget is examined in the light of recent work on the interaction of the solar wind with nonmagnetic planets. It is proposed that the dominant mode of helium (He4) loss is ion pumping by the solar wind during geomagnetic field reversals, when the earth's magnetic field is very small. The interaction of the solar wind with the earth's upper atmosphere during such a period is found to involve the formation of a bow shock. The penetration altitude of the shock-heated solar plasma is calculated to be about 700 km, and ionization rates above this level are estimated for a cascade ionization (electron avalanche) process to average 10 to the 9th power ions/sq cm/sec. The calculated ionization rates and the capacity of the solar wind to remove ionized helium (He4) from the upper atmosphere during geomagnetic dipole reversals are sufficient to yield a secular equilibrium over geologic time scales. The upward transport of helium from the lower atmosphere under these conditions is found to be adequate to sustain the proposed loss rate.

  12. Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the geomagnetic solar quiet daily variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinbori, A.; Koyama, Y.; Nose, M.; Hori, T.

    2017-12-01

    Characteristics of seasonal variation and solar activity dependence of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation at Memanbetsu in mid-latitudes and Guam near the equator have been investigated using long-term geomagnetic field data with 1-h time resolution from 1957 to 2016. In this analysis, we defined the quiet day when the maximum value of the Kp index is less than 3 for that day. In this analysis, we used the monthly average of the adjusted daily F10.7 corresponding to geomagnetically quiet days. For identification of the monthly mean Sq variation in the X and Y components (Sq-X and Sq-Y), we first determined the baseline of the X and Y components from the average value from 22 to 2 h (LT: local time) for each quiet day. Next, we calculated a deviation from the baseline of the X- and Y-components of the geomagnetic field for each quiet day, and computed the monthly mean value of the deviation for each local time. As a result, Sq-X and Sq-Y shows a clear seasonal variation and solar activity dependence. The amplitude of seasonal variation increases significantly during high solar activities, and is proportional to the solar F10.7 index. The pattern of the seasonal variation is quite different between Sq-X and Sq-Y. The result of the correlation analysis between the solar F10.7 index and Sq-X and Sq-Y shows almost the linear relationship, but the slope and intercept of the linear fitted line varies as function of local time and month. This implies that the sensitivity of Sq-X and Sq-Y to the solar activity is different for different local times and seasons. The local time dependence of the offset value of Sq-Y at Guam and its seasonal variation suggest a magnetic field produced by inter-hemispheric field-aligned currents (FACs). From the sign of the offset value of Sq-Y, it is infer that the inter-hemispheric FACs flow from the summer to winter hemispheres in the dawn and dusk sectors and from the winter to summer hemispheres in

  13. Variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment during the Holocene and the past 50 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Riisager, Peter; Donadini, Fabio; Snowball, Ian; Muscheler, Raimund; Korhonen, Kimmo; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2008-07-01

    All absolute paleointensity data published in peer-reviewed journals were recently compiled in the GEOMAGIA50 database. Based on the information in GEOMAGIA50, we reconstruct variations in the geomagnetic dipole moment over the past 50 kyr, with a focus on the Holocene period. A running-window approach is used to determine the axial dipole moment that provides the optimal least-squares fit to the paleointensity data, whereas associated error estimates are constrained using a bootstrap procedure. We subsequently compare the reconstruction from this study with previous reconstructions of the geomagnetic dipole moment, including those based on cosmogenic radionuclides ( 10Be and 14C). This comparison generally lends support to the axial dipole moments obtained in this study. Our reconstruction shows that the evolution of the dipole moment was highly dynamic, and the recently observed rates of change (5% per century) do not appear unique. We observe no apparent link between the occurrence of archeomagnetic jerks and changes in the geomagnetic dipole moment, suggesting that archeomagnetic jerks most likely represent drastic changes in the orientation of the geomagnetic dipole axis or periods characterized by large secular variation of the non-dipole field. This study also shows that the Holocene geomagnetic dipole moment was high compared to that of the preceding ˜ 40 kyr, and that ˜ 4 · 10 22 Am 2 appears to represent a critical threshold below which geomagnetic excursions and reversals occur.

  14. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the 12th generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Beggan, Ciarán D.

    2015-01-01

    The 12th generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014 by the Working Group V-MOD appointed by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch ...

  15. Archeomagnetic Intensity Spikes: Global or Regional Geomagnetic Field Features?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Korte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the geomagnetic field prior to direct observations are inferred from archeo- and paleomagnetic experiments. Seemingly unusual variations not seen in the present-day and historical field are of particular interest to constrain the full range of core dynamics. Recently, archeomagnetic intensity spikes, characterized by very high field values that appear to be associated with rapid secular variation rates, have been reported from several parts of the world. They were first noted in data from the Levant at around 900 BCE. A recent re-assessment of previous and new Levantine data, involving a rigorous quality assessment, interprets the observations as an extreme local geomagnetic high with at least two intensity spikes between the 11th and 8th centuries BCE. Subsequent reports of similar features from Asia, the Canary Islands and Texas raise the question of whether such features might be common occurrences, or whether they might even be part of a global magnetic field feature. Here we use spherical harmonic modeling to test two hypotheses: firstly, whether the Levantine and other potential spikes might be associated with higher dipole field intensity than shown by existing global field models around 1,000 BCE, and secondly, whether the observations from different parts of the world are compatible with a westward drifting intense flux patch. Our results suggest that the spikes originate from intense flux patches growing and decaying mostly in situ, combined with stronger and more variable dipole moment than shown by previous global field models. Axial dipole variations no more than 60% higher than observed in the present field, probably within the range of normal geodynamo behavior, seem sufficient to explain the observations.

  16. Polar cap geomagnetic field responses to solar sector changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    I made a computerized analysis of digitized magnetograms from Alert, Thule, Resolute Bay, Mould Bay, and Godhavn for 1965 and from Thule and Vostok for 1967 to determine the characteristic features of the day-to-day geomagnetic field variations related to the interplanetary solar sector field direction. Higher invariant latitude stations showed the sector effects most clearly. A sector-related phase shift in the characteristic diurnal variation of the field occurred principally for the dayside vertical geomagnetic component. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was related to Ap and could not be used to identify the sector direction. The quiet nighttime level of field Z component rose and fell on days when the interplanetary magnetic field was directed toward or away from the sun, respectively. When a station's base level field was determined from quiet magnetospheric conditions by using days with low values of Dst and AE indices, the mean field level of the Z component for the whole day increased or decreased (often over 100 γ) from this level as the solar sector direction was toward or away, respectively. With respect to the earth's main field direction the souther polar station field level changes were opposite those at the northern stations. This level shift corresponded with the two solar field directions during the summer months at polar stations for about 70% of the days in 1965 and 88% of the days in 1967. In 1967 the standoff locations of the magnetopause and magnetoshock boundaries were abotu 1 R/sub E/ more distant from the earth for the average toward sector days than for the away sector days

  17. Mid-latitude Geomagnetic Field Analysis Using BOH Magnetometer: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute researchers have installed and operated magnetometers at Mt. Bohyun Observatory to measure the Earth's magnetic field variations in South Korea. We, in 2007, installed a fluxgate magnetometer (RFP-523C to measure H, D, and Z components of the geomagnetic field. In addition, in 2009, we installed a Overhauser proton sensor to measure the absolute total magnetic field F and a three-axis magneto-impedance sensor for spectrum analysis. Currently three types of magnetometer data have been accumulated. In this paper, we provide the preliminary and the first statistical analysis using the BOH magnetometer installed at Mt. Bohyun Observatory. By superposed analysis, we find that daily variations of H, D, and Z shows similar tendency, that is, about 30 minutes before the meridian (11:28 a minimum appears and the time after about 3 hours and 30 minutes (15:28 a maximum appears. Also, a quiet interval start time (19:06 is near the sunset time, and a quiet interval end time (06:40 is near the sunrise time. From the sunset to the sunrise, the value of H has a nearly constant interval, that is, the sun affects the changes in H values. Seasonal variations show similar dependences to the sun. Local time variations show that noon region has the biggest variations and midnight region has the smallest variations. We compare the correlations between geomagnetic variations and activity indices as we expect the geomagnetic variation would contain the effects of geomagnetic activity variations. As a result, the correlation coefficient between H and Dst is the highest (r = 0.947, and other AL, AE, AU index and showed a high correlation. Therefore, the effects of geomagnetic storms and geomagnetic substorms might contribute to the geomagnetic changes significantly.

  18. Study about geomagnetic variations from data recorded at Surlari Geomagnetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Sandulescu, Agata Monica; Niculici, Eugen

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents statistical and spectral analysis of data from Surlari Geomagnetic Observatory that contributing to study of geomagnetic variations. Thus were highlighted, for long series of records over several solar cycles, periodicities of 22 years and 11 years. Following the same procedures for medium recording series (multi-annual) have highlighted annual, seasonal and monthly periodicities. For shorter data series, we highlighted diurnal, semidiurnal, 8 hours and even lower periodicities. For very short series with a high sample rate and for few magnetotellurics records, we highlight different types of pulsations (Pc2 - Pc5 and Pi 2). Geomagnetic signals are the convolution product of the atomic stationary signals mono-frequential of different amplitudes associated to phenomena with a very broad band of periodicities and nondeterministic signals associated with geomagnetic disturbances and non-periodic phenomena. Among analysis processes used for discrete series of geomagnetic data with different lengths and sampling rates, can conclude the following: Moving average works as a low pass filter in frequency or high pass in time. By eliminating high frequency components (depending on mobile window size used) can be studied preferential periodicities greater than a given value. Signal linearization (using least squares) provides information on linear trend of the entire series analyzed. Thus, for the very long data series (several decades) we extracted the secular variation slope for each geomagnetic component, separately. The numeric derivative of signal versus time proved to be a very reliable indicator for geomagnetic disturbed periods. Thus, the derivative value may be increased by several orders of magnitude during periods of agitation in comparisons to calm periods. The correlation factor shows significant increases when between two time series a causal relationship exists. Variation of the correlation factor, calculated for a mobile window containing k

  19. Stochastic forecasting of the geomagnetic field from the COV-OBS.x1 geomagnetic field model, and candidate models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Barrois, Olivier; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    the ‘observations’ uncertainties in data assimilation schemes for the study of the outer core dynamics.We also present and illustrate a stochastic algorithm designed to forecast the geomagnetic field. The radial field at the outer core surface is advected by core motions governed by an auto-regressive process...... filter algorithm. We show that the envelope of forecasts includes the observed secular variation of the geomagnetic field over 5-year intervals, even in the case of rapid changes. In a purpose of testing hypotheses about the core dynamics, this prototype method could be implemented to build the ‘state...

  20. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Jenkins, Erica S; Michielsens, Catherine G J; Noakes, David L G

    2014-10-06

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Geomagnetic imprinting predicts spatio-temporal variation in homing migration of pink and sockeye salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F.; Jenkins, Erica S.; Michielsens, Catherine G. J.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Animals navigate using a variety of sensory cues, but how each is weighted during different phases of movement (e.g. dispersal, foraging, homing) is controversial. Here, we examine the geomagnetic and olfactory imprinting hypotheses of natal homing with datasets that recorded variation in the migratory routes of sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean to the Fraser River, British Columbia. Drift of the magnetic field (i.e. geomagnetic imprinting) uniquely accounted for 23.2% and 44.0% of the variation in migration routes for sockeye and pink salmon, respectively. Ocean circulation (i.e. olfactory imprinting) predicted 6.1% and 0.1% of the variation in sockeye and pink migration routes, respectively. Sea surface temperature (a variable influencing salmon distribution but not navigation, directly) accounted for 13.0% of the variation in sockeye migration but was unrelated to pink migration. These findings suggest that geomagnetic navigation plays an important role in long-distance homing in salmon and that consideration of navigation mechanisms can aid in the management of migratory fishes by better predicting movement patterns. Finally, given the diversity of animals that use the Earth's magnetic field for navigation, geomagnetic drift may provide a unifying explanation for spatio-temporal variation in the movement patterns of many species. PMID:25056214

  2. Time-causal decomposition of geomagnetic time series into secular variation, solar quiet, and disturbance signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, E. Joshua

    2017-04-26

    A theoretical basis and prototype numerical algorithm are provided that decompose regular time series of geomagnetic observations into three components: secular variation; solar quiet, and disturbance. Respectively, these three components correspond roughly to slow changes in the Earth’s internal magnetic field, periodic daily variations caused by quasi-stationary (with respect to the sun) electrical current systems in the Earth’s magnetosphere, and episodic perturbations to the geomagnetic baseline that are typically driven by fluctuations in a solar wind that interacts electromagnetically with the Earth’s magnetosphere. In contrast to similar algorithms applied to geomagnetic data in the past, this one addresses the issue of real time data acquisition directly by applying a time-causal, exponential smoother with “seasonal corrections” to the data as soon as they become available.

  3. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.

    Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  4. Effects of geomagnetic activity on the mesospheric electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Zadorozhny

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three series of rocket measurements of mesospheric electric fields carried out under different geomagnetic conditions at polar and high middle latitudes are analysed. The measurements show a clear dependence of the vertical electric fields on geomagnetic activity at polar and high middle latitudes. The vertical electric fields in the lower mesosphere increase with the increase of geomagnetic indexes Kp and ∑Kp. The simultaneous increase of the vertical electric field strength and ion conductivity was observed in the mesosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. This striking phenomenon was displayed most clearly during the solar proton events of October, 1989 accompanied by very strong geomagnetic storm (Kp=8+. A possible mechanism of generation of the vertical electric fields in the mesosphere caused by gravitational sedimentation of charged aerosol particles is discussed. Simultaneous existence in the mesosphere of both the negative and positive multiply charged aerosol particles of different sizes is assumed for explanation of the observed V/m vertical electric fields and their behaviour under geomagnetically disturbed conditions.Keywords. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles · Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (atmospheric electricity

  5. Fast directional changes in the geomagnetic field recovered from archaeomagnetism of ancient Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaar, R.; Hassul, E.; Raphael, K.; Ebert, Y.; Marco, S.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Ben-Yosef, E.; Agnon, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent archaeomagnetic intensity data from the Levant revealed short-term sub-centennial changes in the geomagnetic field such as `archaeomagnetic jerks' and `geomagnetic spikes'. To fully understand the nature of these fast variations a complementary high-precision time-series of geomagnetic field direction is required. To this end we investigated 35 heat impacted archaeological objects from Israel, including cooking ovens, furnaces, and burnt walls. We combine the new dataset with previously unpublished data and construct the first archaeomagnetic compilation of Israel which, at the moment, consists of a total of 57 directions. Screening out poor quality data leaves 30 acceptable archaeomagnetic directions, 25 of which spanning the period between 1700 BCE to 400 BCE. The most striking result of this dataset is a large directional anomaly with deviation of 20°-25° from geocentric axial dipole direction during the 9th century BCE. This anomaly in field direction is contemporaneous with the Levantine Iron Age Anomaly (LIAA) - a local geomagnetic anomaly over the Levant that was characterized by a high averaged geomagnetic field (nearly twice of today's field) and short decadal-scale geomagnetic spikes.

  6. Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Variations Correlated to Italian M6+ Earthquakes Occurred in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2017-04-01

    Between August 2016 and October 2016 in Italy were recorded three strong earthquakes: M6.2 on August 2016 at 01:36:32 UTC; M6.1 on October 26, 2016 at 19:18:08 UTC and M6,6 on October 30, 2016 at 06:40:18 UTC. The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between these earthquakes and solar/geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the three earthquakes. The data relating to the three earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark; Dikson Geomagnetic Observatory (DIK), Russia and by Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already ascertained by authors from 2012, have confirmed that the three strong Italian earthquakes were preceded by a clear increase of the solar wind proton density which

  7. Change of the radiocarbon natural level in the Earth atmosphere and geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, S.S.; Dergachev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Harmonic spectral analysis of change of radiocarbon concentration on the Earth atmosphere during the last 7000 years, including time intervals of both high and low intensity of the Earth magnetic field, was conducted. The effect of geomagnetic field on a harmonic amplitudes and frequencies in variations of radiocarbon concentration, conditioned by solar activity, was shown

  8. Geomagnetic secular variation at Addis Ababa over the last four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addis Ababa Observatory (aae) geomagnetic data analysed over the time-span 1958—1998 show that the annual mean values of the intensity have decreased since 1965 from 36186 nT to 35950 nT at a non-linear regression rate of 8—9 nT per year. Directional changes in the Earth's magnetic field that could be ...

  9. Solar cycle 22 control on daily geomagnetic variation at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Nine summer geomagnetic observatory data (1986-1995 from Terra Nova Bay Base, Antarctica (Lat.74.690S, Long. 164.120E, 80.040S magnetic latitude are used to investigate the behaviour of the daily variation of the geomagnetic field at polar latitude. The instrumentation includes a proton precession magnetometer for total intensity |F| digital recordings; DI magnetometers for absolute measuring of the angular elements D and I and a three axis flux-gate system for acquiring H,D Z time variation data. We find that the magnetic time variation amplitude follows the solar cycle evolution and that the ratio between minimum solar median and maximum solar median is between 2-3 for intensive elements (H and Z and 1.7 for declination(D. The solar cycle effect on geomagnetic daily variation elements amplitude in Antarctica, in comparison with previous studies, is then probably larger than expected. As a consequence, the electric current system that causes the daily magnetic field variation reveals a quite large solar cycle effect at Terra Nova Bay.

  10. Geomagnetic field models for satellite angular motion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Penkov, V. I.; Roldugin, D. S.; Pichuzhkina, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    Four geomagnetic field models are discussed: IGRF, inclined, direct and simplified dipoles. Geomagnetic induction vector expressions are provided in different reference frames. Induction vector behavior is compared for different models. Models applicability for the analysis of satellite motion is studied from theoretical and engineering perspectives. Relevant satellite dynamics analysis cases using analytical and numerical techniques are provided. These cases demonstrate the benefit of a certain model for a specific dynamics study. Recommendations for models usage are summarized in the end.

  11. Bottom-up control of geomagnetic secular variation by the Earth's inner core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Fournier, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    of geomagnetic secular variation. Here we show that it can be reproduced provided that two mechanisms relying on the inner core are jointly considered. First, gravitational coupling5 aligns the inner core with the mantle, forcing the flow of liquid metal in the outer core into a giant, westward drifting, sheet...... release in the outer core which in turn distorts the gyre, forcing it to become eccentric, in agreement with recent core flow inversions6, 10, 11. This bottom-up heterogeneous driving of core convection dominates top-down driving from mantle thermal heterogeneities, and localizes magnetic variations......Temporal changes in the Earth’s magnetic field, known as geomagnetic secular variation, occur most prominently at low latitudes in the Atlantic hemisphere1, 2 (that is, from −90 degrees east to 90 degrees east), whereas in the Pacific hemisphere there is comparatively little activity...

  12. Dynamic Responses of the Earth's Outer Core to Assimilation of Observed Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Assimilation of surface geomagnetic observations and geodynamo models has advanced very quickly in recent years. However, compared to advanced data assimilation systems in meteorology, geomagnetic data assimilation (GDAS) is still in an early stage. Among many challenges ranging from data to models is the disparity between the short observation records and the long time scales of the core dynamics. To better utilize available observational information, we have made an effort in this study to directly assimilate the Gauss coefficients of both the core field and its secular variation (SV) obtained via global geomagnetic field modeling, aiming at understanding the dynamical responses of the core fluid to these additional observational constraints. Our studies show that the SV assimilation helps significantly to shorten the dynamo model spin-up process. The flow beneath the core-mantle boundary (CMB) responds significantly to the observed field and its SV. The strongest responses occur in the relatively small scale flow (of the degrees L is approx. 30 in spherical harmonic expansions). This part of the flow includes the axisymmetric toroidal flow (of order m = 0) and non-axisymmetric poloidal flow with m (is) greater than 5. These responses can be used to better understand the core flow and, in particular, to improve accuracies of predicting geomagnetic variability in future.

  13. Day-to-Day Variability of H and Z Components of the Geomagnetic Field at the African Longitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, T. N.; Obiadazie, S. C.; Agbo, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    The Day-to-day variability of the geomagnetic field elements at the African longitudes has been studied for the year 1987 using geomagnetic data obtained from four different African observatories. The analysis was carried out on solar quiet days using hourly values of the Horizontal, , and vertical, , geomagnetic field values. The results of this study confirm that Sq is a very changeable phenomenon, with a strong day-to-day variation. This day-to-day variation is seen to be superimposed on m...

  14. On the scaling features of high-latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations during a large geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Federica Marcucci, Maria; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Recently we have investigated the spatial distribution of the scaling features of short-time scale magnetic field fluctuations using measurements from several ground-based geomagnetic observatories distributed in the northern hemisphere. We have found that the scaling features of fluctuations of the horizontal magnetic field component at time scales below 100 minutes are correlated with the geomagnetic activity level and with changes in the currents flowing in the ionosphere. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the dynamical changes of the magnetic field scaling features as a function of the geomagnetic activity level during the well-known large geomagnetic storm occurred on July, 15, 2000 (the Bastille event). The observed dynamical changes are discussed in relationship with the changes of the overall ionospheric polar convection and potential structure as reconstructed using SuperDARN data. This work is supported by the Italian National Program for Antarctic Research (PNRA) - Research Project 2013/AC3.08 and by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme ([FP7/2007-2013]) under Grant no. 313038/STORM and

  15. The effect of the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse on the geomagnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 1 (2001), s. 331-334 ISSN 1335-2806. [IAGA Workshop /9./. Hurbanovo, 12.06.2000-18.06.2000] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : solar eclipse * diurnal variation * geomagnetic field Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  16. Turbulent Diffusion of the Geomagnetic Field and Dynamo Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The thesis deals with the Dynamo Theories of the Earth’s Magnetic Field and mainly deepens the turbulence phenomena in the fluid Earth’s core. Indeed, we think that these phenomena are very important to understand the recent decay of the geomagnetic field. The thesis concerns also the dynamics of the outer core and some very rapid changes of the geomagnetic field observed in the Earth’s surface and some aspects regarding the (likely) isotropic turbulence in the Magnetohydrodynamics. These top...

  17. The Ranges Of Subauroral Geomagnetic Field Elements | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics ... An anomaly in seasonal response of range at high solar activity is observed on disturbed condition. ... apart from the anomaly - maintain the order e>j>d of seasonal variation which is in agreement with the popular equinoctial maximum observed in geomagnetic activity.

  18. Geomagnetic storms and electric fields in the equatorial ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    Using direct measurements of equatorial electric field during a geomagnetic storm it is shown that the large decrease in the field observed near the dip equator is due to the reversal of the equatorial electrojet current. This is caused by the imposition of an additional westward electric field on the equatorial ionosphere which was originated by the interaction of solar wind with the interplanetary magnetic field. (author)

  19. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thébault, Erwan; Finlay, Chris; Alken, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: The 12th revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was issued in December 2014 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) Division V Working Group V-MOD (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/IAGA/vmod/igrf.html). This revision comprises new spherical...... by the British Geological Survey (UK), DTU Space (Denmark), ISTerre (France), IZMIRAN (Russia), NOAA/NGDC (USA), GFZ Potsdam (Germany), NASA/GSFC (USA), IPGP (France), LPG Nantes (France), and ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Each candidate model was carefully evaluated and compared to all other models and a mean model...

  20. The geomagnetic jerk of 2003.5-characterisation with regional observatory secular variation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Holme, Richard; Cox, Grace Alexandra; Jiang, Yi

    2018-05-01

    The 2003.5 geomagnetic jerk was identified in geomagnetic records from satellite data, and a matching feature reported in variations in length-of-day (ΔLOD), but detailed study has been hampered by lack of geomagnetic observatory data where it appears strongest. Here we examine secular variation (annual differences of monthly means) based on a new resource of 43 Chinese observatory records for 1998 until the present, focusing on 10 series of particularly high quality and consistency. To obtain a clean series, we calculate the covariance matrix of residuals between measurements and a state-of-the-art field model, CHAOS-6, and use eigenvalue analysis to remove noisy contributions from the uncorrected data. The magnitude of the most significant eigenvector correlates well with Dcx (corrected, extended Dst), suggesting the noise originates from unmodelled external magnetic field. Removal of this noise eliminates much coherent misfit around 2003-2005; nevertheless, the 2003.5 jerk is seen clearly in the first time derivative of the East component in Chinese data, and is also seen in the first time derivative of the vertical component in European data. Estimates of the jerk time are centred on 2003.5, but with some spatial variation; this variation can be eliminated if we allow a discontinuity in the secular variation as well as its temporal gradient. Both regions also provide evidence for a jerk around 2014, although less clearly than 2003.5. We create a new field model based on new data and CHAOS-6 to further examine the regional signals. The new model is close to CHAOS-6, but better fits Chinese data, although modelling also identifies some data features as unphysical.

  1. Geomagnetic core field models in the satellite era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesur, Vincent; Olsen, Nils; Thomson, Alan W. P.

    2011-01-01

    After a brief review of the theoretical basis and difficulties that modelers are facing, we present three recent models of the geomagnetic field originating in the Earth’s core. All three modeling approaches are using recent observatory and near-Earth orbiting survey satellite data. In each case...

  2. Solar and lunar daily geomagnetic variations at Dourbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Meyer, F.

    1980-01-01

    Spectral analysis of the Dourbes H component hourly data from the period 1960-1978 revealed the existence of a number of minor terms, in addition to the main solar and lunar peaks. The relative amplitudes of oscillations in the geomagnetic spectrum are unrelated with those predicted through lunar tide theory. The minor terms agree more closely with the 27-day amplitude modulation mechanism. A high frequency resolution power spectrum clearly shows the splitting of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal line, and even of the lunar semi-diurnal line by the annual variation and its harmonics. The correlation between the amplitude of the M 2 wave and the mean sunspot number is of no significance. (author)

  3. Applying inversion techniques to derive source currents and geoelectric fields for geomagnetically induced current calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. de Villiers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the inversion of geomagnetic variation field measurement to obtain source currents in the ionosphere. During a geomagnetic disturbance, the ionospheric currents create magnetic field variations that induce geoelectric fields, which drive geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in power systems. These GIC may disturb the operation of power systems and cause damage to grounded power transformers. The geoelectric fields at any location of interest can be determined from the source currents in the ionosphere through a solution of the forward problem. Line currents running east–west along given surface position are postulated to exist at a certain height above the Earth's surface. This physical arrangement results in the fields on the ground having the magnetic north and down components, and the electric east component. Ionospheric currents are modelled by inverting Fourier integrals (over the wavenumber of elementary geomagnetic fields using the Levenberg–Marquardt technique. The output parameters of the inversion model are the current strength, height and surface position of the ionospheric current system. A ground conductivity structure with five layers from Quebec, Canada, based on the Layered-Earth model is used to obtain the complex skin depth at a given angular frequency. This paper presents preliminary and inversion results based on these structures and simulated geomagnetic fields. The results show some interesting features in the frequency domain. Model parameters obtained through inversion are within 2% of simulated values. This technique has applications for modelling the currents of electrojets at the equator and auroral regions, as well as currents in the magnetosphere.

  4. Latitudinal variation of the polar cusp during a geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.

    1982-01-01

    Large amplitude latitudinal variation of the polar cusp position was observed during the intense geomagnetic storm of 15--16 February 1980. The observation of the polar cusp, identified as the region of intense but extremely soft electron precipitation, was made by two nearly noon-midnight orbit DMSP satellites over both northern and southern hemispheres. The latitudinal shift of the polar cusp is observed to be related to the intensity variation of the ring current indicated by the hourly Dst values. The polar cusp region moved from its normal location at approx.76 0 gm lat down to approx.62 0 gm lat at the peak of this storm. This movement took about 5 hours and was detected over both hemispheres. A drastic variation in the width of the cusp region was also observed; it is very narrow (approx.1 0 ) during the equatorial shift and expands to > or approx. =5 0 during the poleward recovery. Variation of the polar cusp latitude with that of the Dst index was also seen during the period before the intense storm

  5. A case for variational geomagnetic data assimilation: insights from a one-dimensional, nonlinear, and sparsely observed MHD system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular variations of the geomagnetic field have been measured with a continuously improving accuracy during the last few hundred years, culminating nowadays with satellite data. It is however well known that the dynamics of the magnetic field is linked to that of the velocity field in the core and any attempt to model secular variations will involve a coupled dynamical system for magnetic field and core velocity. Unfortunately, there is no direct observation of the velocity. Independently of the exact nature of the above-mentioned coupled system – some version being currently under construction – the question is debated in this paper whether good knowledge of the magnetic field can be translated into good knowledge of core dynamics. Furthermore, what will be the impact of the most recent and precise geomagnetic data on our knowledge of the geomagnetic field of the past and future? These questions are cast into the language of variational data assimilation, while the dynamical system considered in this paper consists in a set of two oversimplified one-dimensional equations for magnetic and velocity fields. This toy model retains important features inherited from the induction and Navier-Stokes equations: non-linear magnetic and momentum terms are present and its linear response to small disturbances contains Alfvén waves. It is concluded that variational data assimilation is indeed appropriate in principle, even though the velocity field remains hidden at all times; it allows us to recover the entire evolution of both fields from partial and irregularly distributed information on the magnetic field. This work constitutes a first step on the way toward the reassimilation of historical geomagnetic data and geomagnetic forecast.

  6. Interaction of the geomagnetic field with northward interplanetary magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Shree Krishna

    The interaction of the solar wind with Earth's magnetic field causes the transfer of momentum and energy from the solar wind to geospace. The study of this interaction is gaining significance as our society is becoming more and more space based, due to which, predicting space weather has become more important. The solar wind interacts with the geomagnetic field primarily via two processes: viscous interaction and the magnetic reconnection. Both of these interactions result in the generation of an electric field in Earth's ionosphere. The overall topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere, as well as the electric field imposed on the ionosphere, vary with speed, density, and magnetic field orientation of the solar wind as well as the conductivity of the ionosphere. In this dissertation, I will examine the role of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and discuss the global topology of the magnetosphere and the interaction with the ionosphere using results obtained from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) simulation. The electric potentials imposed on the ionosphere due to viscous interaction and magnetic reconnection are called the viscous and the reconnection potentials, respectively. A proxy to measure the overall effect of these potentials is to measure the cross polar potential (CPP). The CPP is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum of the potential in a given polar ionosphere. I will show results from the LFM simulation showing saturation of the CPP during periods with purely northward IMF of sufficiently large magnitude. I will further show that the viscous potential, which was assumed to be independent of IMF orientation until this work, is reduced during periods of northward IMF. Furthermore, I will also discuss the implications of these results for a simulation of an entire solar rotation.

  7. Origins of the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity in 1954 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Svalgaard

    Full Text Available We investigate the cause of the unusually strong semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity observed in the solar minimum years of 1954 and 1996. For 1996 we separate the contributions of the three classical modulation mechanisms (axial, equinoctial, and Russell-McPherron to the six-month wave in the aam index and find that all three contribute about equally. This is in contrast to the longer run of geomagnetic activity (1868-1998 over which the equinoctial effect accounts for ∼70% of the semiannual variation. For both 1954 and 1996, we show that the Russell-McPherron effect was enhanced by the Rosenberg-Coleman effect (an axial polarity effect which increased the amount of the negative (toward Sun [positive (away from Sun] polarity field observed during the first [second] half of the year; such fields yield a southward component in GSM coordinates. Because this favourable condition occurs only for alternate solar cycles, the marked semiannual variation in 1954 and 1996 is a manifestation of the 22-year cycle of geomagnetic activity. The 11-year evolution of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS also contributes to the strong six-month wave during these years. At solar minimum, the streamer belt at the base of the HCS is located near the solar equator, permitting easier access to high speed streams from polar coronal holes when the Earth is at its highest heliographic latitudes in March and September. Such an axial variation in solar wind speed was observed for 1996 and is inferred for 1954. Key words. Magnetosphere (solar wind – magnetosphere interactions; storms and substorms

  8. Origins of the semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity in 1954 and 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Cliver

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the cause of the unusually strong semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity observed in the solar minimum years of 1954 and 1996. For 1996 we separate the contributions of the three classical modulation mechanisms (axial, equinoctial, and Russell-McPherron to the six-month wave in the aam index and find that all three contribute about equally. This is in contrast to the longer run of geomagnetic activity (1868-1998 over which the equinoctial effect accounts for ∼70% of the semiannual variation. For both 1954 and 1996, we show that the Russell-McPherron effect was enhanced by the Rosenberg-Coleman effect (an axial polarity effect which increased the amount of the negative (toward Sun [positive (away from Sun] polarity field observed during the first [second] half of the year; such fields yield a southward component in GSM coordinates. Because this favourable condition occurs only for alternate solar cycles, the marked semiannual variation in 1954 and 1996 is a manifestation of the 22-year cycle of geomagnetic activity. The 11-year evolution of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS also contributes to the strong six-month wave during these years. At solar minimum, the streamer belt at the base of the HCS is located near the solar equator, permitting easier access to high speed streams from polar coronal holes when the Earth is at its highest heliographic latitudes in March and September. Such an axial variation in solar wind speed was observed for 1996 and is inferred for 1954. Key words. Magnetosphere (solar wind – magnetosphere interactions; storms and substorms

  9. Prospects of hydrocarbon deposits exploration using the method of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    К. М. Ермохин

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally it is believed that the effect of induced polarization is an interfering factor for the measurement of electromagnetic fields and their interpretation during conducting works using magnetotelluric sounding and geomag-netic-variation profiling methods. A new method is proposed for isolating the effects of induced polarization during geomagnetic-variation profiling aimed at searching for hydrocarbon deposits on the basis of phase measurements during the conduct of geomagnetic-variation profiling. The phenomenon of induced polarization is proposed to be used as a special exploration mark for deep-lying hydrocarbon deposits. The traditional method of induced polarization uses artificial field sources, the powers of which are principally insufficient to reach depths of 3-5 km, which leads to the need to search for alternative - natural sources in the form of telluric and magnetotelluric fields. The proposed method makes it possible to detect and interpret the effects of induced polarization from deep-seated oil and gas reservoirs directly, without relying on indirect signs.

  10. Geomagnetic secular variation in India-regional and local features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, B.J.; Abbas, H.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the secular variation in the geomagnetic elements H, Z, F and D at Colaba (Bombay)-Alibag for the period 1848-1973, has been made. Fifth degree polynomials are fitted to the data of annual mean values of H, Z and F, and third degree to D, and the residuals discussed. The trends are also examined at the six Indian observatories using the data for 1960-1974. The increasing trend of Z at Alibag is found to decrease from about 1937, while that of H and F from 1965 at 20-30 nT/year, it being of the same order at Sabhawala and Hyderabad but smaller at the equatorial stations, particularly for Z component. The westward annual change in D swings eastward again around 1965 at all the Indian stations. This reversal of the secular variation trend in India after 1965 emerges as an important regional feature connected with a southward migration of the dip equator in India from 1968. The secular change in D at Alibag (+0.4'/year) is somewhat anomalous in the sense that it is reduced as compared to Hyderabad and other stations (+1.6'/year), probably due to the local magnetic anomaly of the Deccan lavas, and calls for detailed investigations. (auth.)

  11. Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Brkić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available After more than half a century, scientific book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch describes the recent geomagnetic field on Croatian territory. A review of research in the past decade as well as the original solutions makes the book a document of contribution to geodesy and geomagnetism in Croatia.The book’s introduction gives an overview of two centuries of history and the strategic, security, economic and scientific significance of knowing the geomagnetic field on the Croatian territory. All the activities related to the updating of the geomagnetic information, which took place in the last decade, signified a big step toward the countries where geomagnetic survey is a mature scientific and technical discipline, and a scientific contribution to understanding of the nature of the Earth's magnetism.The declination, inclination and total intensity maps (along with the normal annual changes for the epoch 2009.5 are given in the Appendix. The book Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia 2004 – 2012, with Geomagnetic Field Maps for 2009.5 epoch (ISBN 978-953-293-521-9 is published by the State Geodetic Administration of the Republic of Croatia. Beside editor in chief, M. Brkić, the authors are: E. Vujić, D. Šugar, E. Jungwirth, D. Markovinović, M. Rezo, M. Pavasović, O. Bjelotomić, M. Šljivarić, M. Varga and V. Poslončec-Petrić. The book contains 48 pages and 3 maps, and is published in 200 copies. CIP record is available in digital catalogue of the National and University Library in Zagreb under number 861937.

  12. The Swarm Initial Field Model for the 2014 geomagnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    agreement (up to at least degree 60) with recent field models derived from CHAMP data, providing an initial validation of the quality of the Swarm magnetic measurements. Use of gradient data improves the determination of both the static field and its secular variation, with the mean misfit for East...

  13. The CHAOS-4 geomagnetic field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Lühr, H.; Finlay, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We present CHAOS-4, a new version in the CHAOS model series, which aims to describe the Earth's magnetic field with high spatial and temporal resolution. Terms up to spherical degree of at least n = 85 for the lithospheric field, and up to n = 16 for the time-varying core field are robustly...... to the core field, but the high-degree lithospheric field is regularized for n > 85. CHAOS-4 model is derived by merging two submodels: its low-degree part has been derived using similar model parametrization and data sets as used for previous CHAOS models (but of course including more recent data), while its...

  14. Towards a fully self-consistent inversion combining historical and paleomagnetic data for geomagnetic field reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneitz, P.; Leonhardt, R.; Fabian, K.; Egli, R.

    2017-12-01

    Historical and paleomagnetic data are the two main sources of information about the long-term geomagnetic field evolution. Historical observations extend to the late Middle Ages, and prior to the 19th century, they consisted mainly of pure declination measurements from navigation and orientation logs. Field reconstructions going back further in time rely solely on magnetization acquired by rocks, sediments, and archaeological artefacts. The combined dataset is characterized by a strongly inhomogeneous spatio-temporal distribution and highly variable data reliability and quality. Therefore, an adequate weighting of the data that correctly accounts for data density, type, and realistic error estimates represents the major challenge for an inversion approach. Until now, there has not been a fully self-consistent geomagnetic model that correctly recovers the variation of the geomagnetic dipole together with the higher-order spherical harmonics. Here we present a new geomagnetic field model for the last 4 kyrs based on historical, archeomagnetic and volcanic records. The iterative Bayesian inversion approach targets the implementation of reliable error treatment, which allows different record types to be combined in a fully self-consistent way. Modelling results will be presented along with a thorough analysis of model limitations, validity and sensitivity.

  15. The Swarm Initial Field Model for the 2014 Geomagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Lesur, Vincent; Finlay, Christopher C.; Beggan, Ciaran; Chulliat, Arnaud; Sabaka, Terence J.; Floberghagen, Rune; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Data from the first year of ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive the Swarm Initial Field Model (SIFM), a new model of the Earth's magnetic field and its time variation. In addition to the conventional magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect by including east-west magnetic intensity gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences in magnetic intensity provide further information concerning the north-south gradient. The SIFM static field shows excellent agreement (up to at least degree 60) with recent field models derived from CHAMP data, providing an initial validation of the quality of the Swarm magnetic measurements. Use of gradient data improves the determination of both the static field and its secular variation, with the mean misfit for east-west intensity differences between the lower satellite pair being only 0.12 nT.

  16. Latitudinal variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity in the active Chilean convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaro, Enrique G.; Venegas, Patricio; Laroze, David

    2018-03-01

    We present a different view of secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field, through the variations in the threshold rigidity known as the variation rate of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (VRc). As the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity (Rc) lets us differentiate between charged particle trajectories arriving at the Earth and the Earth's magnetic field, we used the VRc to look for internal variations in the latter, close to the 70° south meridian. Due to the fact that the empirical data of total magnetic field BF and vertical magnetic field Bz obtained at Putre (OP) and Los Cerrillos (OLC) stations are consistent with the displacement of the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly (SAMA), we detected that the VRc does not fully correlate to SAMA in central Chile. Besides, the lower section of VRc seems to correlate perfectly with important geological features, like the flat slab in the active Chilean convergent margin. Based on this, we next focused our attention on the empirical variations of the vertical component of the magnetic field Bz, recorded in OP prior to the Maule earthquake in 2010, which occurred in the middle of the Chilean flat slab. We found a jump in Bz values and main frequencies from 3.510 to 5.860 µHz, in the second derivative of Bz, which corresponds to similar magnetic behavior found by other research groups, but at lower frequency ranges. Then, we extended this analysis to other relevant subduction seismic events, like Sumatra in 2004 and Tohoku in 2011, using data from the Guam station. Similar records and the main frequencies before each event were found. Thus, these results seem to show that magnetic anomalies recorded on different timescales, as VRc (decades) and Bz (days), may correlate with some geological events, as the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC).

  17. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the twelfth generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Erwan; Finlay, Christopher; The IGRF Working Group

    2015-04-01

    The IGRF is an internationally-agreed reference model of the Earth's magnetic field produced under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy. The IGRF-12 is the latest update of this well-known model which is used each year by many thousands of users for both industrial and scientific purposes. In October 2014, ten institutions worldwide have made contributions to the IGRF. These models were evaluated and the twelfth generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2014. In this presentation, we will report on the IGRF activities, briefly describe the candidate models, summarize the evaluation of models performed by different independent teams, show how the IGRF-12 models were calculated and finally discuss some of the main magnetic features of this new model.

  18. Role of the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory in geomagnetic-field research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sutcliffe, PR

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available supplemented by induction magnetometer data from the low latitude Hermanus Magnetic Obser- vatory and fluxgate magnetometer data from the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross (Liihr et al., 1984) which is located below the STARE field... the removal of the Sq variation when processing satel~te magnetometer data over Southern Africa and be usefully incorporated into a navigation system based on magnetometer technology. 2.1 GEOMAGNETIC Pi 2 PULSATIONS Pi 2...

  19. No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found

    OpenAIRE

    Hert, J.; Jelinek, L.; Pekarek, L.; Pavlicek, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the body orientation of domestic cattle on free pastures in several European states, based on Google satellite photographs. In sum, 232 herds with 3412 individuals were evaluated. Two independent groups participated in our study and came to the same conclusion that, in contradiction to the recent findings of other researchers, no alignment of the animals and of their herds along geomagnetic field lines could be found. Several possible reasons for this discrepanc...

  20. The CHAOS-4 Geomagnetic Field Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Lühr, H.

    We present CHAOS-4, a new version in the CHAOS model series, which aims at describing the Earth's magnetic field with high spatial resolution (terms up to spherical degree n=90 for the crustal field, and up to n=16 for the time-varying core field are robustly determined) and high temporal...... between the coordinate systems of the vector magnetometer and of the star sensor providing attitude information). The final CHAOS-4 model is derived by merging two sub-models: its low-degree part has been obtained using similar model parameterization and data sets as used for previous CHAOS models (but...

  1. Editorial: Topical Volume on Earth's Magnetic Field - Understanding Geomagnetic Sources from the Earth's Interior and its Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Olsen, Nils; Richmond, Arthur D.

    2017-01-01

    (seconds to days) magnetic field variations that are caused by currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere when solar activity, and correspondingly the electric currents in Earth’s environment, are enhanced. However, for studying the internal sources of the geomagnetic field, originating in the core...

  2. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) generation 12: BGS candidates and final models

    OpenAIRE

    Beggan, Ciaran D.; Hamilton, Brian; Taylor, Victoria; Macmillan, Susan; Thomson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model is a reference main field magnetic model updated on a quinquennial basis. The latest revision (generation 12) was released in January 2015. The IGRF-12 consists of a definitive model (DGRF2010) of the main field for 2010.0, a model for the field at 2015.0 (IGRF2015) and a prediction of secular variation (IGRF-12 SV) for the forthcoming five years until 2020.0. The remaining coefficients of IGRF-12 are unchanged from IGRF-11. Nin...

  3. Re-Evaluation of Geomagnetic Field Observation Data at Syowa Station, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Takahashi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition has conducted geomagnetic observations at Syowa Station, Antarctica, since 1966. Geomagnetic variation data measured with a fluxgate magnetometer are not absolute but are relative to a baseline and show drift. To enhance the importance of the geomagnetic data at Syowa Station, therefore, it is necessary to correct the continuous variation data by using absolute baseline values acquired by a magnetic theodolite and proton magnetometer. However, the database of baseline values contains outliers. We detected outliers in the database and then converted the geomagnetic variation data to absolute values by using the reliable baseline values.

  4. Chandler wobbles and the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flodmark, Stig; Davstad, K.

    1986-11-01

    Paleomagnetic motion of the magnetic pole is explained by angular momentum balance between the magnetic field, inner core, outer core, and mantle. The Chandler wobbles are explained as a nutation of the mantle and crust, caused by transfer of angular momentum between the core and mantle. Evidence is found for the atmosphere not to be fully responsible for the annual oscillation period of the Chandler wobbles. The main reasons for the principal periods of 12 and 14 months are found to be the flattenings of mantle and core, respectively. The fluid core rotates collectively, as a consequence of globally coworking long-distance electromagnetic coupling. Short-distance forces may locally displace fluid core material without essentially deforming its ellipsoid of inertia. The longitudinal polar drifts of the mantle and outer core are also explained by core-mantle interaction. The core is found to force the Chandler period on the mantle, and it has high wobbling energy in comparison with the mantle.

  5. Large short-term deviations from dipolar field during the Levantine Iron Age Geomagnetic Anomaly ca. 1050-700 BCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.; Ebert, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous decadal-resolution paleomagnetic data from archaeological and sedimentary sources in the Levant revealed the existence a local high-field anomaly, which spanned the first 350 years of the first millennium BCE. This so-called "the Levantine Iron Age geomagnetic Anomaly" (LIAA) was characterized by a high averaged geomagnetic field (virtual axial dipole moments, VADM > 140 Z Am2, nearly twice of today's field), short decadal-scale geomagnetic spikes (VADM of 160-185 Z Am2), fast directional and intensity variations, and substantial deviation (20°-25°) from dipole field direction. Similar high field values in the time frame of LIAA have been observed north, and northeast to the Levant: Eastern Anatolia, Turkmenistan, and Georgia. West of the Levant, in the Balkans, field values in the same time are moderate to low. The overall data suggest that the LIAA is a manifestation of a local positive geomagnetic field anomaly similar in magnitude and scale to the presently active negative South Atlantic Anomaly. In this presentation we review the overall archaeomagnetic and sedimentary evidences supporting the local anomaly hypothesis, and compare these observations with today's IGRF field. We analyze the global data during the first two millennia BCE, which suggest some unexpected large deviations from a simple dipolar geomagnetic structure.

  6. Marine sediments and Beryllium-10 record of the geomagnetic moment variations during the Brunhes period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménabréaz, Lucie; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier; Demory, François

    2010-05-01

    Over millennial time scales, the atmospheric production of the cosmonuclid 10Be (half-life 1.387 ± 0.012 Ma [Shmeleff et al., 2009; Korschinek et al., 2009]) is modulated by the geomagnetic field strength, following a negative power law (e.g. Lal, 1988; Masarik and Beer, 2009). With respect to paleomagnetic reconstructions, 10Be-derived paleointensity records can therefore constitute an alternative, global and independent reading of the dipole moment variations. During the last years, efforts have been made to extract a geomagnetic signal from single and stacked 10Be records in natural archives such as ice and marine sediments (e.g. Carcaillet et al., 2004; Christl et al., 2007; Muscheler et al., 2005). In marine sediments, the 10Be concentration results from complex interplay of several processes: cosmogenic production, adsorption on sediment particles, redistribution by fluviatile and oceanic transport, and deposition. Therefore, a correction procedure is required to consider both sediment redistribution and enhanced scavenging, which can alter the primary signatures. To reconstruct the succession of field intensity lows accompanying excursions during the Brunhes chron, we investigated authigenic 10Be/9Be record of marine sequences also studied for paleomagnetism and oxygen isotopes. Mid and low latitude sites were preferred in order to benefit from the most efficient modulation by the magnetospheric shielding. We present a high resolution authigenic 10Be/9Be record of the last 50 ka recovered from the Portuguese Margin, that deciphers the cosmonuclide 10Be overproduction created by the geomagnetic dipole low associated with the Laschamp excursion. This record is compared to other proxy records of the geomagnetic field variations for the same time interval: (1) the relative paleointensity (RPI) reconstructed from the same sediments and the GLOPIS-75 record (Laj et al., 2004), (2) the absolute VDM record based on absolute paleointensities measured on lava flows

  7. Constraints on geomagnetic secular variation modeling from electromagnetism and fluid dynamics of the Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    A spherical harmonic representation of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation for epoch 1980, designated GSFC(9/84), is derived and evaluated. At three epochs (1977.5, 1980.0, 1982.5) this model incorporates conservation of magnetic flux through five selected patches of area on the core/mantle boundary bounded by the zero contours of vertical magnetic field. These fifteen nonlinear constraints are included like data in an iterative least squares parameter estimation procedure that starts with the recently derived unconstrained field model GSFC (12/83). Convergence is approached within three iterations. The constrained model is evaluated by comparing its predictive capability outside the time span of its data, in terms of residuals at magnetic observatories, with that for the unconstrained model.

  8. Cosmogenic 10Be signature of geomagnetic dipole moment variations over the last 2 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Q.; Thouveny, N.; Bourlès, D. L.; Valet, J. P.; Bassinot, F. C.; Savranskaia, T.; Duvivier, A.; Choy, S.; Gacem, L.; Villedieu, A.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term variations of the geomagnetic dipole moment (GDM) during periods of stable polarity and in transitional states (reversals and excursions) provide key information for understanding the geodynamo regime. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratios (Be-ratio, proxy of atmospheric 10Be production) from marine sedimentary cores give independent and additional insights on the evolution of the geomagnetic intensity, completing information from absolute and relative paleointensity (RPI) records. Here we present new Be-ratio results obtained on several marine cores from the North Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans which permit to extent into the Matuyama chron our previous 10Be-derived GDM reconstructions (Simon et al., 2016 JGR 121). Stratigraphic offsets measured between Be-ratio peaks and the corresponding RPI minima in each studied cores are assigned to (post-) detrital remanent magnetization (pDRM) effects leading to magnetization locking-in delays varying from 0 to 16 cm (up to 12 ka). All these results were compiled in order to obtain a continuous Be-ratio record covering the last 2 Ma. 10Be overproduction episodes triggered by geomagnetic dipole moment lows (GDL) linked to polarity reversals and excursions confirm the global control exerted by the GDM on cosmogenic radionuclides production. A dipole moment reconstruction derived from the Be-ratio stack (BeDiMo2Ma) was calibrated using absolute paleointensity data. This independent record completes the available paleomagnetic RPI records and permits: 1) to confront and increase the robustness and precision of GDM reconstructions; and, 2) to better constrain geomagnetic field instabilities during the mid- to late- Matuyama chron. Our new 10Be derived inventory is fully compatible with the GDL series linked to polarity reversals (Matuyama-Brunhes transition, Jaramillo and Olduvai boundaries), geomagnetic events (Cobb Mountain, Réunion) and Brunhes' excursions (e.g. Laschamp, Blake, Iceland-Basin, Big Lost). It further

  9. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frigo, Everton; Savian, Jairo Francisco; Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal; Schuch, Nelson Jorge

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  10. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  11. Anomalous short period geomagnetic variations at two stations in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunaratnam, K.

    1986-08-01

    An analysis of the rates of change in the geomagnetic field components in the period range 20-600 sec recorded at Kondavil and Hikkaduwa, two stations in the equatorial electrojet belt near the northern and south western coasts respectively of Sri Lanka, shows anomalous variations. The results confirm induced current concentration in the Palk Strait and deflection of induced currents around the southerncoast of Sri Lanka postulated by earlier workers from observations of SSC and Bay events at Indian stations and from analogue and numerical model studies. At Kondavil, which is situated close to the geomagnetic equator, no appreciable difference in the night-time and day-time values of ΔZ/ΔH and ΔD/ΔH ratios was noticed while at Hikkaduwa, a station situated under the edge of the equatorial electrojet belt, a day-time enhancement of ΔZ/ΔH ratios was found at all periods in the observed range. An enhancement of the H component at Colombo over that at Hikkaduwa was also found at short periods, the enhancement being greater at day-time. The day-time enhancement in the ΔZ/ΔH ratios at Hikkaduwa and in the ratio of the H components at Colombo and Hikkaduwa could be due to the effect of the equatorial electrojet on the short period variations. (author)

  12. Surface electric fields and geomagnetically induced currents in the Scottish Power grid during the 30 October 2003 geomagnetic storm

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Alan W.P.; McKay, Allan J.; Clarke, Ellen; Reay, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    A surface electric field model is used to estimate the UK surface E field during the 30 October 2003 severe geomagnetic storm. This model is coupled with a power grid model to determine the flow of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) through the Scottish part of the UK grid. Model data are compared with GIC measurements at four sites in the power network. During this storm, measured and modeled GIC levels exceeded 40 A, and the surface electric field reached 5 V/km at sites in ...

  13. Long-term trends of foE and geomagnetic activity variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between foE trends and geomagnetic activity long-term variations has been revealed for the first time. By analogy with earlier obtained results on the foF2 trends it is possible to speak about the geomagnetic control of the foE long-term trends as well. Periods of increasing geomagnetic activity correspond to negative foE trends, while these trends are positive for the decreasing phase of geomagnetic activity. This "natural" relationship breaks down around 1970 (on some stations later when pronounced positive foE trends have appeared on most of the stations considered. The dependence of foE trends on geomagnetic activity can be related with nitric oxide variations at the E-layer heights. The positive foE trends that appeared after the "break down" effect may also be explained by the [NO] decrease which is not related to geomagnetic activity variations. But negative trends or irregular foE variations on some stations for the same time period require some different mechanism. Chemical pollution of the lower thermosphere due to the anthropogenic activity may be responsible for such abnormal foE behavior after the end of the 1960s.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  14. Geophysical variables and behavior: XXI. Geomagnetic variation as possible enhancement stimuli for UFO reports preceding earthtremors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persinger, M A

    1985-02-01

    The contribution of geomagnetic variation to the occurrence of UFORs (reports of UFOs) within the New Madrid States during the 6-mo. increments before increases in the numbers of IV-V or less intensity earthquakes within the central USA was determined. Although statistically significant zero-order correlations existed between measures of earthquakes, UFORs and geomagnetic variability, the association between the latter two deteriorated markedly when their shared variance with earthquakes was held constant. These outcomes are compatible with the hypothesis that geomagnetic variability (or phenomena associated with it) may enhance UFORs but only if tectonic stress and strain are increasing within the region.

  15. Shannon information of the geomagnetic field for the past 7000 years

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.; Qamili, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present behaviour of the geomagnetic field as expressed by the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) deserves special attention when compared with that shown over the past few thousands of years by two paleomagnetic/archeomagnetic models, CALS3K and CALS7K. The application of the Information theory in terms of Shannon Information and K-entropy to these models shows characteristics of an instable geomagnetic field. Although the result is mitigated when we correct the CALS7K mode...

  16. Exploration of geomagnetic field anomaly with balloon for geophysical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-Kui

    The use of a balloon to explore the geomagnetic field anomaly in the area east of Beijing is demonstrated. The present results are compared with those of aerial surveys. Descriptions are given of the fluxgate magnetometer, the sensor's attitude control and measurement, and data transmission and processing. At an altitude of about 30 km, a positive anomaly of the vertical component of about 100 nanoteslas was measured. The results suggest that, for this particular area, the shallow layer of a small-scale geological structure differs from the deep layer of a large-scale geological structure.

  17. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanjargal, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t) entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991...

  18. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bayanjargal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991 to 2006. These drifts are similar to results of other studies.

  19. geomagnetic secular variation and the 1969–1970 secular jerk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. Key words/phrases: Magnetic observatories, polynomial fitting, residuals, secular variation, secular jerk. INTRODUCTION. The magnetic field of the Earth has been observed to exhibit changes of remarkably wide spectral.

  20. Anomaly of the geomagnetic Sq variation in Japan: effect from 3-D subterranean structure or the ocean effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Utada, Hisashi

    2017-01-01

    Many years ago Rikitake et al. described the anomalous behaviour of the vertical component Z of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation field at observatories in central and northern Japan - namely about 2 hr shift of the local noontime peak towards morning hours. They suggested that this anomaly is associated with the anomalous distribution of electrical conductivity in the mantle beneath central Japan. Although a few works have been done to confirm or argue this explanation, no cle...

  1. The geomagnetic field - An explanation for the microturbulence in coaxial gun plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. W.; Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The complexity introduced by the geomagnetic field in several regions of a coaxial gun plasma device is described. It is shown that the annihilation of the swept-up geomagnetic flux, trapped within the highly compressed turbulent plasma, provides an explanation for varied performance and experimental results. The results indicate that the device should be aligned along the direction of the local geomagnetic field or enclosed in a mu-metal shield.

  2. The signature of the 2011 Tohoku mega earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Takla

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available On 11 March 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, a mega earthquake (EQ with magnitude (Mw 9.0 [The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake] occurred at a depth of about 24 km near the East coast of Honshu Island, Japan as a result of a thrust faulting on or near the subduction plate boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Geomagnetic data from MAGDAS and Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI networks have been analyzed to examine the signature of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on the geomagnetic field measurements in Japan. Results of data analysis indicate about 5 nT increase in the total geomagnetic field intensity in the vicinity of the epicenter of 2011Tohoku EQ compared with other reference stations. Moreover, the annual range of the Z-component daily variations tends to decrease near the epicenter before the occurrence of the Tohoku EQ. Concerning the ULF emissions; the Pc 3 amplitude ratio (ZPc3/HPc3 near the epicenter at the Onagawa [ONW] station showed a good correlation with other remote reference stations before the Tohoku EQ but it started to decrease with no correlation to other stations a few weeks before the 2011 Tohoku EQ. On the other hand, the Pc 3 amplitude ratio at ONW station showed a clear anti-correlation compared with reference stations after the 2011 Tohoku EQ.

  3. Last three millennia Earth's Magnetic field strength in Mesoamerica and southern United States: Implications in geomagnetism and archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Ruiz, Rafael García; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Contreras, Juan Julio Morales; Arechalde, Ana María Soler; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2018-06-01

    Earth's Magnetic Field variation strength may provide crucial information to understand the geodynamo mechanism and elucidate the conditions on the physics of the Earth's deep interiors. Aimed to reveal the fine characteristics of the geomagnetic field during the last three millennia in Mesoamerica, we analyzed the available absolute geomagnetic intensities associated to absolute radiometric dating as well some ages provided by historical documents. This analysis is achieved using thermoremanent magnetization carried by volcanic lava flows and burned archaeological artefacts. A total of 106 selected intensities from Mesoamerica and other 100 from the southern part of the United States represent the main core of the dataset to construct the variation curve using both combined bootstrap method and temporal penalized B-spline methods. The obtained intensity paleosecular variation curve for Mesoamerica generally disagrees with the values predicted by the global geomagnetic field models. There is rather firm evidence of eastward drift when compared to similar reference curves in Western Europe, Asia and Pacific Ocean. The recent hypothesis about the relationship between the geomagnetic field strength and paleoclimate is also critically analyzed in the light of this new data compilation.

  4. Can the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini survive in the absence of the geomagnetic field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Erdmann

    Full Text Available Earth's geomagnetic field has undergone critical changes in the past. Studies on the influence of the magnetic field on Earth's organisms are crucial for the understanding of evolution of life on Earth and astrobiological considerations. Numerous studies conducted both on plants and animals confirmed the significant influence of the geomagnetic field on the metabolism of living organisms. Water bears (Tardigrada, which are a mong the most resistant animals due to their cryptobiotic abilities, show significant resistance to a number of environmental stressors, but the influence of the geomagnetic field on their fitness has not been addressed before. In our studies, we used eutardigrade Hypsibius dujardini to analyse whether isolation from the geomagnetic field had an effect on mortality. We found that Hypsibius dujardini specimens demonstrated relatively high mortality during anhydrobiosis, also in control groups exposed to the normal geomagnetic field. Moreover, similar mortality was observed in anhydrobiotic specimens isolated from the geomagnetic field. However, a significant difference was noted between tardigrade survival and the moment of their isolation from the geomagnetic field. In particular, tardigrade mortality substantially increased in absence of a magnetic field during the process of entering anhydrobiosis and returning to active life. Our results suggest that these processes rely on complex metabolic processes that are critically influenced by the geomagnetic field.

  5. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998. This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth’s magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999. In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth’s lithosphere and the regional Earth’s magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989, where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  6. Thermal interaction of the core and the mantle and long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature changes at the earth's core-mantle boundary on the velocity field of the core are analyzed. It is assumed that the geomagnetic field is maintained by thermal convection in the outer core. A model for the thermal interaction of the core and the mantle is presented which is consistent with current views on the presence of heat sources in the core and the properties of the lower mantle. Significant long-term variations in the frequency of geomagnetic reversals may be the result of fluctuating temperatures at the core-mantle boundary, caused by intermittent convection in the lower mantle. The thermal structure of the lower mantle region D double prime, extending from 2700 to 2900 km in depth, constitutes an important test of this hypothesis and offers a means of deciding whether the geomagnetic dynamo is thermally driven.

  7. The response of the 11 August 1999 total solar eclipse in the geomagnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Střeštík, Jaroslav

    85-86, 1/3 (2001), s. 561-566 ISSN 0167-9295 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : geomagnetic pulsations * geomagnetic variations * total solar eclipse Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.457, year: 2001

  8. Motility of magnetotactic bacteria/MTB to Geomagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Fatahillah

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria with motility directed by a local geomagnetic fields have been observed in marine sediments'' discussed by R. Blakemore, 1975. Magnetotactic bacteria/MTB discovered in 1963 by Salvatore Bellini. For ``off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope was used to correlates the physical & magnetic microstructure of magnetite nanocrystals in magnetotactic bacteria'' sought ``single-domain magnetite in hemopelagic sediments'' from JF Stolz. Otherwise, for potential source of bioproducts- product meant from result to multiplier -of magnetotactic bacteria[ACV Araujo, et.al, 2014 ] of marine drugs retrieved the `measurement of cellular chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis, from KM Pietrosimone, 2012, whereas after ``earth magnetic field role on small living models'' are other interpretation of ``taxis'' as a movement of a cell instead usual ``tax'' for yew's taxus cuspidate, hired car & taxes in financial realms. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  9. ANOMALOUS CHANGES OF THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD VERTICAL COMPONENT IN KAMCHATKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov, S.E.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Statistical estimates of the effect in the electric field of the surface layer of the atmosphere parameters, such as time of the beginning, time of a maximum, its intensity and duration, were obtained. It was shown experimentally that the diurnal variation maximum of atmospheric electric field intensity is associated with air temperature height distribution. Power spectra of time variations of electric field intensity in the near ground atmosphere and of the horizontal component of geomagnetic field were under study. It was shown that there are oscillations with the periods of T _ 2, 0–2,5 hours in the power spectra of these parameters during a day. A possible mechanism of generation of these oscillations was proposed. It is associated with vortex motion of convective cells arising during the sunrise in the atmosphere exchange layer.

  10. Combining virtual observatory and equivalent source dipole approaches to describe the geomagnetic field with Swarm measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Diana; Langlais, Benoit; Amit, Hagay; Civet, François; Mandea, Mioara; Beucler, Éric

    2018-03-01

    A detailed description of the main geomagnetic field and of its temporal variations (i.e., the secular variation or SV) is crucial to understanding the geodynamo. Although the SV is known with high accuracy at ground magnetic observatory locations, the globally uneven distribution of the observatories hampers the determination of a detailed global pattern of the SV. Over the past two decades, satellites have provided global surveys of the geomagnetic field which have been used to derive global spherical harmonic (SH) models through some strict data selection schemes to minimise external field contributions. However, discrepancies remain between ground measurements and field predictions by these models; indeed the global models do not reproduce small spatial scales of the field temporal variations. To overcome this problem we propose to directly extract time series of the field and its temporal variation from satellite measurements as it is done at observatory locations. We follow a Virtual Observatory (VO) approach and define a global mesh of VOs at satellite altitude. For each VO and each given time interval we apply an Equivalent Source Dipole (ESD) technique to reduce all measurements to a unique location. Synthetic data are first used to validate the new VO-ESD approach. Then, we apply our scheme to data from the first two years of the Swarm mission. For the first time, a 2.5° resolution global mesh of VO time series is built. The VO-ESD derived time series are locally compared to ground observations as well as to satellite-based model predictions. Our approach is able to describe detailed temporal variations of the field at local scales. The VO-ESD time series are then used to derive global spherical harmonic models. For a simple SH parametrization the model describes well the secular trend of the magnetic field both at satellite altitude and at the surface. As more data will be made available, longer VO-ESD time series can be derived and consequently used to

  11. Geomagnetism 4

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, John A

    2013-01-01

    Geomagnetism, Volume 4 focuses on the processes, methodologies, technologies, and approaches involved in geomagnetism, including electric fields, solar wind plasma, pulsations, and gravity waves.The selection first offers information on solar wind, magnetosphere, and the magnetopause of the Earth. Discussions focus on magnetopause structure and transfer processes, magnetosphere electric fields, geomagnetically trapped radiation, microstructure of the solar wind plasma, and hydro magnetic fluctuations and discontinuities. The text then examines geomagnetic tail, neutral upper atmosphere, and ge

  12. Geomagnetic Secular Variation and Its Applications to the Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Andrew; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    the mathematical models of the field’s evolution that can be derived from them. We discussthe prominent features of the field’s evolution, both at the Earth’s surface and at the surface of theliquid core. The final section concerns itself with a discussion of the interpretation of the field’sevolution, in terms......We review the observational constraints on the morphology and evolution of the magnetic field of the Earth over the last few centuries; these changes are referred to as the secular variation.Starting with a description of the available sources of original observations of the field, we thendiscuss...... of physical core processes. These divide themselves into processes associatedwith movement of core fluid, which is capable of advecting the field, and processes associated withthe finite resistivity of the core, commonly termed diffusive processes. We lay the foundations for some of the more theoretical...

  13. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Finlay, Chris; Hesse, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagneticmain field. Observations from...... the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine...

  14. Identification of the different magnetic field contributions during a geomagnetic storm in magnetospheric and ground observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Alberti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the empirical mode decomposition (EMD to investigate the time variation of the magnetospheric and ground-based observations of the Earth's magnetic field during both quiet and disturbed periods. We found two timescale variations in magnetospheric data which are associated with different magnetospheric current systems and the characteristic diurnal orbital variation, respectively. On the ground we identified three timescale variations related to the solar-wind–magnetosphere high-frequency interactions, the ionospheric processes, and the internal dynamics of the magnetosphere. This approach is able to identify the different physical processes involved in solar-wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere coupling. In addition, the large-timescale contribution can be used as a local index for the identification of the intensity of a geomagnetic storm on the ground.

  15. Effect of local perturbations of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray cutoff rigidities at Jungfraujoch and Kiel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueckiger, E.O.; Smart, D.F.; Shea, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of local perturbations of the geomagnetic field on the vertical cosmic ray cutoff rigidities at Jungfraujoch and Kiel as representative mid-latitude neutron monitor stations. The main, effective, and Stoermer vertical cutoff rigidities and their changes were determined by utilizing the trajectory-tracing technique in a magnetic field which is modeled as a simple dipole field to which the disturbance field is superposed. It was found that the cosmic ray cutoff rigidities are most sensitive to variations of the z component of the geomagnetic field at geomagnetic latitudes -20 0 0 and at longitudes within 90 0 to the east of these northern hemisphere stations. Furthermore, cutoff rigidity variations at Kiel are predominantly due to changes of the geomagnetic field within geocentric distances 2.5R/sub E/< r<6R/sub E/, whereas at Jungfraujoch changes in cutoff rigidities are caused almost exclusively by magnetic disturbances within 1R/sub E/< r<4.5R/sub E/. For both locations the dependence of the main, effective, and Stoermer vertical cutoff rigidities on the radial, latitudinal and longitudinal structure of the magnetic perturbations is given explicitly. The results are discussed with respect to the theory by Treiman (1953) describing the effect of a ring current on cosmic ray cutoff rigidities. It is also shown that for the analysis of the characteristic properties of the correlation between cutoff rigidity variations and specific geomagnetic perturbations the rigidity corresponding to the first ''discontinuity band'' of the rigidity spectrum is an extremely useful parameter

  16. Regional 3-D Modeling of Ground Geoelectric Field for the Northeast United States due to Realistic Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikova, E.; Kruglyakov, M.; Kuvshinov, A. V.; Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Ngwira, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    During extreme space weather events electric currents in the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere experience large variations, which leads to dramatic intensification of the fluctuating magnetic field at the surface of the Earth. According to Faraday's law of induction, the fluctuating geomagnetic field in turn induces electric field that generates harmful currents (so-called "geomagnetically induced currents"; GICs) in grounded technological systems. Understanding (via modeling) of the spatio-temporal evolution of the geoelectric field during enhanced geomagnetic activity is a key consideration in estimating the hazard to technological systems from space weather. We present the results of ground geoelectric field modeling for the Northeast United States, which is performed with the use of our novel numerical tool based on integral equation approach. The tool exploits realistic regional three-dimensional (3-D) models of the Earth's electrical conductivity and realistic global models of the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems responsible for geomagnetic disturbances. We also explore in detail the manifestation of the coastal effect (anomalous intensification of the geoelectric field near the coasts) in this region.

  17. Initial geomagnetic field model from Magsat vector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Mead, G. D.; Lancaster, E. R.; Estes, R. H.; Fabiano, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    Magsat data from the magnetically quiet days of November 5-6, 1979, were used to derive a thirteenth degree and order spherical harmonic geomagnetic field model, MGST(6/80). The model utilized both scalar and high-accuracy vector data and fit that data with root-mean-square deviations of 8.2, 6.9, 7.6 and 7.4 nT for the scalar magnitude, B(r), B(theta), and B(phi), respectively. The model includes the three first-order coefficients of the external field. Comparison with averaged Dst indicates that zero Dst corresponds with 25 nT of horizontal field from external sources. When compared with earlier models, the earth's dipole moment continues to decrease at a rate of about 26 nT/yr. Evaluation of earlier models with Magsat data shows that the scalar field at the Magsat epoch is best predicted by the POGO(2/72) model but that the WC80, AWC/75 and IGS/75 are better for predicting vector fields.

  18. Geomagnetic and strong static magnetic field effects on growth and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Luka; Fefer, Dušan; Košmelj, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka; Jerman, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) varies over Earth's surface and changes over time, but it is generally not considered as a factor that could influence plant growth. The effects of reduced and enhanced GMFs and a strong static magnetic field on growth and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence of Lemna minor plants were investigated under controlled conditions. A standard 7 day test was conducted in extreme geomagnetic environments of 4 µT and 100 µT as well as in a strong static magnetic field environment of 150 mT. Specific growth rates as well as slow and fast Chl a fluorescence kinetics were measured after 7 days incubation. The results, compared to those of controls, showed that the reduced GMF significantly stimulated growth rate of the total frond area in the magnetically treated plants. However, the enhanced GMF pointed towards inhibition of growth rate in exposed plants in comparison to control, but the difference was not statistically significant. This trend was not observed in the case of treatments with strong static magnetic fields. Our measurements suggest that the efficiency of photosystem II is not affected by variations in GMF. In contrast, the strong static magnetic field seems to have the potential to increase initial Chl a fluorescence and energy dissipation in Lemna minor plants. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Geomagnetic Paleointensity Variations as a Cheap, High-Resolution Geochronometer for Recent Mid-Ocean Ridge Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYMENT, J.; HEMOND, C.

    2001-12-01

    The sequence of geomagnetic field reversals is widely used to date events younger than 160 Ma, with a resolution of a million years. In oceanic domains, Vine and Matthews (1963) magnetic anomalies have been successfully used for more than 35 years. The major limitation of this chronometer is its low temporal resolution, especially for the recent times: the youngest polarity reversal, between Brunhes normal and Matuyama reversed periods, is dated ~800 ka. Studies of pelagic sedimentary cores have shown the existence of consistent variations of the geomagnetic field intensity within this period. If accurately dated, these variations may refine the magnetic geochronometer to a much higher resolution of 10-100 ka. Recent studies have demonstrated that the "tiny wiggles" of lower amplitude and shorter wavelength superimposed to the Vine and Matthews anomalies are of geomagnetic origin and correspond to the paleointensity variations identified on sediment cores. Using a large set of magnetic data acquired in 1996 on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 21° N (surface and submersible magnetic anomalies, natural remanent magnetization and absolute paleointensities measured on samples), we have shown that the oceanic crust confidently records the geomagnetic intensity variations. It was unfortunately impossible to date the samples, made of basalt too depleted in K2O and in trace elements required by the various methods of radiochronology. In 2000 we have collected a similar data set at the Central Indian Ridge axis at 19° S (surface, deep-tow, and submersible magnetic anomalies, natural remanent magnetization and absolute paleointensities measured on samples). This area offers the advantages of 1) a faster spreading rate, and therefore a higher temporal resolution of the geomagnetic signal, and 2) the presence of moderately enriched basalt as a consequence of the interaction of the ridge with the nearby Reunion hotspot, making possible radiochronologic dating. Our first evaluation

  20. Evaluation of candidate geomagnetic field models for IGRF-11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    variations between candidates originate. A retrospective analysis of IGRF-10 main field candidates for epoch 2005.0 and predictive secular variation candidates for 2005.0–2010.0 using the new IGRF-11 models as a reference is also reported. The high quality and consistency of main field models derived using...

  1. The geomagnetic field - An explanation for the microturbulence in coaxial gun plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.W.; Ahluwalia, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity introduced by the geomagnetic field in several regions of a coaxial gun plasma device. It is shown that the annihilation of the swept-up geomagnetic flux, trapped within the highly compressed turbulent plasma, provides an explanation for varied performance and experimental results

  2. Study of the solar wind coupling to the time difference horizontal geomagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wintoft

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The local ground geomagnetic field fluctuations (Δ B are dominated by high frequencies and 83% of the power is located at periods of 32 min or less. By forming 10-min root-mean-square (RMS of Δ B a major part of this variation is captured. Using measured geomagnetic induced currents (GIC, from a power grid transformer in Southern Sweden, it is shown that the 10-min standard deviation GIC may be computed from a linear model using the RMS Δ X and Δ Y at Brorfelde (BFE: 11.67° E, 55.63° N, Denmark, and Uppsala (UPS: 17.35° E, 59.90° N, Sweden, with a correlation of 0.926±0.015. From recurrent neural network models, that are driven by solar wind data, it is shown that the log RMS Δ X and Δ Y at the two locations may be predicted up to 30 min in advance with a correlation close to 0.8: 0.78±0.02 for both directions at BFE; 0.81±0.02 and 0.80±0.02 in the X- and Y-directions, respectively, at UPS. The most important inputs to the models are the 10-min averages of the solar wind magnetic field component Bz and velocity V, and the 10-min standard deviation of the proton number density σn. The average proton number density n has no influence.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Solar wind - magnetosphere interactions – Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (Rapid time variations

  3. Geomagnetic secular variation from recent lake sediments, ancient fireplaces and historical measurements in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.; Barbetti, Mike

    1982-07-01

    Compilations of historical observations, archaeomagnetic data from ancient fireplaces and palaemagetic results from short cores of sediment from lakes in southeastern Australia, particularly Lake Keilambete, provide a detailed record of the geomagnetic secular variation during the last 3000 years. The independent sets of data are in good agreement if the radiocarbon time scale for the lacustrine record is about 450 years too old. The error is attributed to systematic incorporation of ancient carbon into the lake floor sediments, mainly through erosion of sediment on the crater walls at times of low water level. A significant lag between deposition and the acquisition of stable magnetic remanence is ruled out. Inclination has been abnormally steep during the last 500 years but remained fairly close to the axial dipole field value prior to that. During the last 1000 years the predominant sense of looping of the magnetic vector corresponds to westward drift of the nondipole field. Secular variations on a time scale of ˜ 100 years can be resolved by the lacustrine record.

  4. Quasi-biennial oscillations in the geomagnetic field: Their global characteristics and origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Finlay, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs), with periods in the range 1–3 years, have been persistently observed in the geomagnetic field. They provide unique information on the mechanisms by which magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems are modulated on interannual timescales and are also of cruc...... primarily originates from the current systems due to the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling process....... postmidnight sectors, and the results from spherical harmonic analysis, verify that the majority of geomagnetic QBO is of external origin. We furthermore find a very high correlation between the geomagnetic QBO and the QBOs in solar wind speed and solar wind dynamic pressure. This suggests the geomagnetic QBO......Quasi-biennial oscillations (QBOs), with periods in the range 1–3 years, have been persistently observed in the geomagnetic field. They provide unique information on the mechanisms by which magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems are modulated on interannual timescales and are also...

  5. Modelling the quiet-time geomagnetic daily variations using observatory data

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Brian; Macmillan, Susan

    2008-01-01

    We present on-going work towards building a global model of the quiet-time geomagnetic daily variation using bservatory data. We select hourly mean data during June 2006 (solar minimum). We fit Fourier series in time, with a fundamental period of 24 hours, to the data at each observatory. We then use global spherical harmonic expansions to separate the daily variation signal, as characterised by the Fourier coefficients in time, into external and induced internal contributions. The mode...

  6. Shannon information of the geomagnetic field for the past 7000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Santis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The present behaviour of the geomagnetic field as expressed by the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF deserves special attention when compared with that shown over the past few thousands of years by two paleomagnetic/archeomagnetic models, CALS3K and CALS7K. The application of the Information theory in terms of Shannon Information and K-entropy to these models shows characteristics of an instable geomagnetic field. Although the result is mitigated when we correct the CALS7K model for its typical spectral damping, the present geomagnetic field as represented by IGRF is still rather distinct, at least for the past 4000 years, a result that is further confirmed by the CALS3K model. This is consistent with a significant global critical state started at around 1750, and still present, characterised by significant decays of the geomagnetic dipole, energy and Shannon information and high K-entropy. The details of how these characteristics may develop are not clear, since the present state could move toward an excursion or a geomagnetic polarity reversal, but we cannot exclude the possibility that the "critical" behaviour will become again more "normal", stopping the apparent trend of the recent geomagnetic field decay.

  7. The response of European Daphnia magna Straus and Australian Daphnia carinata King to changes in geomagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Viacheslav V; Bolotovskaya, Irina V; Osipova, Elena A

    2013-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of lifelong exposure to reversed geomagnetic and zero geomagnetic fields (the latter means absence of geomagnetic field) on the life history of Daphnia carinata King from Australia and Daphnia magna Straus from Europe. Considerable deviation in the geomagnetic field from the usual strength, leads to a decrease in daphnia size and life span. Reduced brood sizes and increased body length of neonates are observed in D. magna exposed to unusual magnetic background. The most apparent effects are induced by zero geomagnetic field in both species of Daphnia. A delay in the first reproduction in zero geomagnetic field is observed only in D. magna. No adaptive maternal effects to reversed geomagnetic field are found in a line of D. magna maintained in these magnetic conditions for eight generations. Integrally, the responses of D. magna to unusual geomagnetic conditions are more extensive than that in D. carinata. We suggest that the mechanism of the effects of geomagnetic field reversal on Daphnia may be related to differences in the pattern of distribution of the particles that have a magnetic moment, or to moving charged organic molecules owing to a change in combined outcome and orientation of the geomagnetic field and Earth's gravitational field. The possibility of modulation of self-oscillating processes with changes in geomagnetic field is also discussed.

  8. High resolution geomagnetic field observations at Terra Nova bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available he preliminary results obtained from the analysis in the micropulsation frequency range of high time resolution magnetic field data recorded at the Antarctic Italian geomagnetic observatory at Terra Nova Bay for 11 consecutive days in February 1994 are reported. The spectral index over the whole Pcl-Pc5 frequency range is of the order of 3.5 and its value significantly increases beyond about 50 mHz. Spectral peaks in the Pc3 frequency range are common, especially during the daytime hours, and are probably due to the direct penetration of upstream waves in the cusp region. From the local time distribution of the micro pulsation power, a signifi - cant activity enhancement around the local magnetic noon emerges, in agreement with previous observations. The analysis of the signal polarisation characteristics in the horizontal plane shows a predominant CW polarisation in the Pcl-Pc3 frequency ranges with the major axis of the polarisation ellipse in the first quadrant.

  9. Characteristics of the variability of a geomagnetic field for studying the impact of the magnetic storms and substorms on electrical energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Sakharov, Ya. A.; Selivanov, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    There are numerous models of geomagnetically induced currents in which the role of the main sources is allotted to the variations in the intensity of the auroral electrojet inducing the currents flowing along the latitude. Based on this it is believed that magnetic disturbances mainly threaten technological systems that are elongated in the longitudinal (W-E) direction. In this work, we make an attempt to employ new characteristics to describe the variability of the geomagnetic field during the geomagnetic storm of March 17, 2013. These characteristics, calculated from the data of the IMAGE magnetometer network stations, are compared to the records of the induced currents in the power lines on the Kola Peninsula and in Karelia. The vector technique revealed a considerably lower variability of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field compared to its derivative. Quantitative estimates of the variability supported the fact that the variations of the field occur on a commensurate scale both in magnitude and direction. These results cannot be accounted for by the simple model of the extended ionospheric current and demonstrate the importance of allowing for small-scale current structures (with the spatial scales of a few hundred km) in the calculations of the geomagnetically induced currents. Our analysis shows that the geomagnetically induced currents are not only hazardous for the technological objects oriented in the longitudinal (W-E) direction but also for those elongated meridionally.

  10. Power spectrum of the geomagnetic field by the maximum entropy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, I.J.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1980-01-01

    Monthly mean values of Vassouras (state of Rio de Janeiro) geomagnetic field are analyzed us the maximum entropy method. The method is described and compared with other methods of spectral analysis, and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. (Author) [pt

  11. Statistical study of interplanetary condition effect on geomagnetic storms: 2. Variations of parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Yu. I.; Lodkina, I. G.; Nikolaeva, N. S.; Yermolaev, M. Yu.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of mean values of the solar wind’s and interplanetary magnetic field’s (IMF) parameters and their absolute and relative variations during the magnetic storms generated by various types of the solar wind. In this paper, which is a continuation of paper [1], we, on the basis of the OMNI data archive for the period of 1976-2000, have analyzed 798 geomagnetic storms with D st ≤ -50 nT and their interplanetary sources: corotating interaction regions CIR, compression regions Sheath before the interplanetary CMEs; magnetic clouds MC; “Pistons” Ejecta, and an uncertain type of a source. For the analysis the double superposed epoch analysis method was used, in which the instants of the magnetic storm onset and the minimum of the D st index were taken as reference times. It is shown that the set of interplanetary sources of magnetic storms can be sub-divided into two basic groups according to their slowly and fast varying characteristics: (1) ICME (MC and Ejecta) and (2) CIR and Sheath. The mean values, the absolute and relative variations in MC and Ejecta for all parameters appeared to be either mean or lower than the mean value (the mean values of the electric field E y and of the B z component of IMF are higher in absolute value), while in CIR and Sheath they are higher than the mean value. High values of the relative density variation sN/ are observed in MC. At the same time, the high values for relative variations of the velocity, B z component, and IMF magnitude are observed in Sheath and CIR. No noticeable distinctions in the relationships between considered parameters for moderate and strong magnetic storms were observed.

  12. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity.

    The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours.

    We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  13. Propagation of low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations in Antarctica: comparison between two polar cap stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Santarelli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We conduct a statistical analysis of the coherence and phase difference of low frequency geomagnetic fluctuations between two Antarctic stations, Mario Zucchelli Station (geographic coordinates: 74.7° S, 164.1° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S, 307.7° E and Scott Base (geographic coordinates: 77.8° S 166.8° E; corrected geomagnetic coordinates: 80.0° S 326.5° E, both located in the polar cap. Due to the relative position of the stations, whose displacement is essentially along a geomagnetic parallel, the phase difference analysis allows to determine the direction of azimuthal propagation of geomagnetic fluctuations. The results show that coherent fluctuations are essentially detectable around local geomagnetic midnight and, in a minor extent, around noon; moreover, the phase difference reverses in the night time hours, indicating a propagation direction away from midnight, and also around local geomagnetic noon, indicating a propagation direction away from the subsolar point. The nigh time phase reversal is more clear for southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, suggesting a relation with substorm activity. The introduction, in this analysis, of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field conditions, gave interesting results, indicating a relation with substorm activity during nighttime hours. We also conducted a study of three individual pulsation events in order to find a correspondence with the statistical behaviour. In particular, a peculiar event, characterized by quiet magnetospheric and northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, shows a clear example of waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic noon; two more events, occurring during southward interplanetary magnetic field conditions, in one case even during a moderate storm, show waves propagating away from the local geomagnetic midnight.

  14. Simulation of the cosmic ray Moon shadow in the geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sciascio, Giuseppe; Iuppa, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    An accurate Monte Carlo simulation of the deficit of primary cosmic rays in the direction of the Moon has been developed to interpret the observations reported in the TeV energy region until now. Primary particles are propagated through the geomagnetic field in the Earth-Moon system. The algorithm is described and the contributions of the detector resolution and of the geomagnetic field are disentangled.

  15. Natural variations in the geomagnetically trapped electron population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampola, A. L.

    1972-01-01

    Temporal variations in the trapped natural electron flux intensities and energy spectra are discussed and demonstrated using recent satellite data. These data are intended to acquaint the space systems engineer with the types of natural variations that may be encountered during a mission and to augment the models of the electron environment currently being used in space system design and orbit selection. An understanding of the temporal variations which may be encountered should prove helpful. Some of the variations demonstrated here which are not widely known include: (1) addition of very energetic electrons to the outer zone during moderate magnetic storms: (2) addition of energetic electrons to the inner zone during major magnetic storms; (3) inversions in the outer zone electron energy spectrum during the decay phase of a storm injection event and (4) occasional formation of multiple maxima in the flux vs altitude profile of moderately energetic electrons.

  16. Multiscale empirical modeling of the geomagnetic field: From storms to substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Korth, H.; Gkioulidou, M.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Merkin, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    An advanced version of the TS07D empirical geomagnetic field model, herein called SST17, is used to model the global picture of the geomagnetic field and its characteristic variations on both storm and substorm scales. The new SST17 model uses two regular expansions describing the equatorial currents with each having distinctly different scales, one corresponding to a thick and one to a thin current sheet relative to the thermal ion gyroradius. These expansions have an arbitrary distribution of currents in the equatorial plane that is constrained only by magnetometer data. This multi-scale description allows one to reproduce the current sheet thinning during the growth phase. Additionaly, the model uses a flexible description of field-aligned currents that reproduces their spiral structure at low altitudes and provides a continuous transition from region 1 to region 2 current systems. The empirical picture of substorms is obtained by combining magnetometer data from Geotail, THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, Cluster II, Polar, IMP-8, GOES 8, 9, 10 and 12 and then binning this data based on similar values of the auroral index AL, its time derivative and the integral of the solar wind electric field parameter (from ACE, Wind, and IMP-8) in time over substorm scales. The performance of the model is demonstrated for several events, including the 3 July 2012 substorm, which had multi-probe coverage and a series of substorms during the March 2008 storm. It is shown that the AL binning helps reproduce dipolarization signatures in the northward magnetic field Bz, while the solar wind electric field integral allows one to capture the current sheet thinning during the growth phase. The model allows one to trace the substorm dipolarization from the tail to the inner magnetosphere where the dipolarization of strongly stretched tail field lines causes a redistribution of the tail current resulting in an enhancement of the partial ring current in the premidnight sector.

  17. Electromagnetic core-mantle coupling associated with changes in the geomagnetic dipole field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hidehumi; Yukutake, Takesi.

    1975-01-01

    On a shelluar earth model electromagnetic coupling between the mantle and the core is investigated when the geomagnetic dipole field changes its intensity. Besides electromagnetic interaction between the dipole change and the relative slip of the mantle to the core, coupling of the dipole change with shear motions within the core is considered. If, in the core, the dipole change is limited within a surface layer shallower than a few hundred kilometers, the electromagnetic interaction gives the same order of magnitudes and phases of mantle oscillation as suggested from observation for three different periods, 8000, 400 and 65 years, provided that the electrical conductivity of the bottom part of the mantle is 10 -9 to 10 -8 emu. It is shown that mean motion of the surface shells of the core thus calculated is compatible with the observed variations in the drift velocity of the geomagnetic secular change. Except for surface shells, those in the deep interior is confirmed to oscillate almost with the same angular velocity, like a rigid rotation, for all the periods. (auth.)

  18. Characterization and demonstration results of a SQUID magnetometer system developed for geomagnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, J.; Miyamoto, M.; Kawabata, M.; Nosé, M.; Haruta, Y.; Uehara, G.

    2017-08-01

    We characterized a low temperature superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer system developed for high-sensitivity geomagnetic field measurement, and demonstrated the detection of weak geomagnetic signals. The SQUID magnetometer system is comprised of three-axis SQUID magnetometers housed in a glass fiber reinforced plastic cryostat, readout electronics with flux locked loop (FLL), a 24-bit data logger with a global positioning system and batteries. The system noise was approximately 0.2 pT √Hz- 1/2 in the 1-50 Hz frequency range. This performance was determined by including the thermal noise and the shielding effect of the copper shield, which covered the SQUID magnetometers to eliminate high-frequency interference. The temperature drift of the system was ˜0.8 pT °C- 1 in an FLL operation. The system operated for a month using 33 l liquid helium. Using this system, we performed the measurements of geomagnetic field in the open-air, far away from the city. The system could detect weak geomagnetic signals such as the Schumann resonance with sixth harmonics, and the ionospheric Alfvén resonance appearing at night, for the north-south and east-west components of the geomagnetic field. We confirm that the system was capable of high-sensitivity measurement of the weak geomagnetic activities.

  19. Geomagnetic, ionospheric and cosmic ray variations around the passages of different magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maercz, F.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-four interplanetary magnetic clouds have been divided into two groups on the basis of Wilson's (J.geophys. Res. 95, 215, 1990) classification: NS clouds (whose B z near cloud onset at Earth is directed northward, and soon after B z is turning southward) and SN clouds (those with an opposite behaviour with respect to B z ). Using the days of cloud onsets as key days, geomagnetic, ionospheric and cosmic ray data have been analysed by the superposed epoch analysis method for passages of both NS and SN clouds. On the basis of the daily ΣK p values, geomagnetic activity is found to suddenly increase in the vicinity of both types of cloud passages. Afterwards, the variation shown by the geomagnetic indices is found to differ for NS clouds in comparison with SN clouds. Namely, on average the recovery to a normal activity level is much slower for NS clouds. Similarly, the enhancements in the ionospheric absorption of radio waves (the so-called ''after-effects'') are found to show different signatures according to cloud type, an interpretation also valid for variations in cosmic ray intensity. The latter results are based on analyses of neutron monitor counts observed at two stations (Apatity: 67 N; and Moscow: 55 o N). (author)

  20. ULF fluctuations of the geomagnetic field and ionospheric sounding measurements at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ULF geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign (29 March-3 April 2004. During the whole campaign, mainly in the prenoon sector, a moderate Pc3-4 pulsation activity is observed, clearly related to interplanetary upstream waves. On 3 April, in correspondence to the Earth's arrival of a coronal mass ejection, two SIs are observed whose waveforms are indicative of a contribution of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to the low-latitude ground field. During the following geomagnetic storm, low frequency (Pc5 waves are observed at discrete frequencies. Their correspondence with the same frequencies detected in the radial components of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed suggests that Alfvénic solar wind fluctuations may act as direct drivers of magnetospheric fluctuations. A cross-phase analysis, using different pairs of stations, is also presented for identifying field line resonant frequencies and monitoring changes in plasmaspheric mass density. Lastly, an analysis of ionospheric vertical soundings, measured at the Rome ionosonde station (41.8° N, 12.5° E, and vertical TEC measurements deduced from GPS signals within an European network shows the relation between the ULF resonances in the inner magnetosphere and thermal plasma density variations during geomagnetically quiet conditions, in contrast to various storm phases at the end of the CAWSES campaign.

  1. The impact of coronal mass ejection on the horizontal geomagnetic fields and the induced geoelectric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falayi, E. O.; Adebesin, B. O.; Bolaji, O. S.

    2018-02-01

    This work investigates the influence of coronal mass ejection (CME) on the time derivatives of horizontal geomagnetic and geoelectric fields, proxy parameters for identifying GICs. 16 events were identified for the year 2003 from the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft. Five of the events (May 29, June 9, October 28, October 29, and November 4) were extensively discussed over four magnetic observatories, were analyzed using the time derivatives of the horizontal geomagnetic (dH/dt) and geoelectric (EH) fields obtained from data of the INTERMAGNET network. It was observed that energy distributions of the wavelet power spectrum of the horizontal geoelectric field are noticed at the nighttime on both 29 May and 9 June 2003 across the stations. Daytime and nighttime intensification of energy distribution of the wavelet power spectrum of the horizontal geoelectric field are observed on both 28 and 29 October 2003 due to strong westward electrojet. The 4 November 2003 event depicts daytime amplification of energy distributions of the wavelet power spectrum across the stations. The highest correlation magnitude is obtained in the event of 4 November 2003 between dH/dt and EH relationships during the intense solar flare of class X 17.4. We observed that the correlation magnitude between dH/dt and EH increases with increase in CME activity. We concluded that the response of the surface impedance model for different stations plays a key role in determining the surface electric field strength, due to large electric field changes at different stations.

  2. Solar causes of the excitation of earth electric currents and of geomagnetic field disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivsky, L.

    1977-01-01

    A survey is given of the effects of solar activity on geomagnetic and geoelectric disturbances. Indexes are given showing changes in the magnetic field, the occurrence of calm geomagnetic days related to solar activity, proton solar flares and electrical currents in the high layers of the atmosphere in the polar region, powerfull solar activity and electric currents in the polar region, the time rise of shock waves in the development of proton flares and the boundaries of sector structures of the interplanetary magnetic field and its effect on the Earth. It is stated that the geoelectric and geomagnetic fields are affected by the discrete phenomena of solar activity and by the transition of the quasimagnetic sectors of interplanetary fields. (J.P.)

  3. Geomagnetic field and length-of-day fluctuations at decadal and subdecadal time scales. A plea for looking beyond the atmosphere for partners in Earth's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrescu, C.; Dobrica, V.; Stefan, C.

    2017-12-01

    A rich scientific literature is linking length-of-day (LOD) fluctuations to geomagnetic field and flow oscillations in the fluid outer core. We demostrate that the temporal evolution of the geomagnetic field shows the existence of several oscillations at decadal, inter-decadal, and sub-centennial time scales that superimpose on a so-called inter-centennial constituent. We show that while the subcentennial oscillations of the geomagnetic field, produced by torsional oscillations in the core, could be linked to oscillations of LOD at a similar time scale, the oscillations at decadal and sub-decadal time scales, of external origin, can be found in LOD too. We discuss these issues from the perspective of long time-span main field models (gufm1 - Jackson et al., 2000; COV-OBS - Gillet et al., 2013) that are used to retrieve time series of geomagnetic elements in a 2.5x2.5° network. The decadal and sub-decadal constituents of the time series of annual values in LOD and geomagnetic field were separated in the cyclic component of a Hodrick-Prescott filtering applied to data, and shown to highly correlate to variations of external sources such as the magnetospheric ring current.

  4. Relation of geomagnetic activity index variations with parameters of interplanetary scintillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.I.; Shishov, V.I.; Shishova, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    A correlation between the Asub(p)-index of geomagnetic activity, index of interplanetary scintillations and solar wind velocity, has been considered depending on the spatial position of the interplanetary plasma (IPP) regions under study. It is shown, that the scintillation index can be used to forecast the geomagnetic activity, whereas the solar wind velocity can not be used for the purpose. Heliolongitudinal dependence of geoeffectiveness of IPP sreading perturbations agrees well with their structure in the heliolongitudinal cross section (and, on the whole, with the angular structure and direction of IPP perturbation spread). To use interplanetary scintillations in forecasting the geomagnetic activity (on the level of correlation not below 0.5), the angular distance of the investigated IPP regions relative to the Sun-Earth line on the average should not exceed 30-40 deg. The time of delay between the moments of observation of variations in the scintillation index the time of passage of the corresponding heliocentric distances at an average rate of the interplanetary perturbation spread approximately 500 km/s

  5. The Earth's passage of the April 11, 1997 coronal ejecta: geomagnetic field fluctuations at high and low latitude during northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lepidi

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at an Antarctic (Terra Nova Bay and a low latitude (L'Aquila, Italy station during the Earth's passage of a coronal ejecta on April 11, 1997 shows that major solar wind pressure variations were followed at both stations by a high fluctuation level. During northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions and when Terra Nova Bay is close to the local geomagnetic noon, coherent fluctuations, at the same frequency (3.6 mHz and with polarization characteristics indicating an antisunward propagation, were observed simultaneously at the two stations. An analysis of simultaneous measurements from geosynchronous satellites shows evidence for pulsations at approximately the same frequencies also in the magnetospheric field. The observed waves might then be interpreted as oscillation modes, triggered by an external stimulation, extending to a major portion of the Earth's magnetosphere. Key words. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; solar wind-magnetosphere interactions

  6. Palaeomagnetic evidence for the persistence or recurrence of geomagnetic main field anomalies in the South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Jay; Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Leitner, Marko; Leonhardt, Roman; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Heunemann, Christoph; Bachtadse, Valerian; Ashley, Jack A. D.; Matzka, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    We present a dataset of a full-vector palaeomagnetic study of Late Pleistocene lavas from the island Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean. The current day geomagnetic field intensity in this region is approximately 25 μT, compared to an expected value of ∼43 μT; this phenomenon is known as the South Atlantic geomagnetic Anomaly (SAA). Geomagnetic field models extending back to the last 10 ka find no evidence for this being a persistent feature of the geomagnetic field, albeit, all models are constructed from data which is particularly sparse in the southern hemisphere. New 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating dating indicates the studied lavas from Tristan da Cunha extruded between 90 and 46 ka. Palaeointensity estimations of eight lava flows made using the Thellier method yield an average palaeointensity of 18 ± 6 μT and virtual axial dipole moment (VADM) of 3.1 ± 1.2 ×1022 Am2. The lava flows demonstrate four time intervals comparable to the present day SAA, where the average VADM of the Tristan da Cunha lavas is weaker than the global VADM average. This suggests a persistent or recurring low intensity anomaly to the main geomagnetic field similar to the SAA existed in the South Atlantic between 46 and 90 ka.

  7. Paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal from late miocene mafic intrusions, southern nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, C D; Geissman, J W; Perry, F V; Crowe, B M; Zeitler, P K

    1994-10-21

    Late Miocene (about 8.65 million years ago) mafic intrusions and lava flows along with remagnetized host rocks from Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, provide a high-quality paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal. These rocks yield thermoremanent magnetizations with declinations of 227 degrees to 310 degrees and inclinations of -7 degrees to 49 degrees , defining a reasonably continuous virtual geomagnetic pole path over west-central Pacific longitudes. Conductive cooling estimates for the intrusions suggest that this field transition, and mafic magmatism, lasted only a few hundred years. Because this record comes principally from intrusive rocks, rather than sediments or lavas, it is important in demonstrating the longitudinal confinement of the geomagnetic field during a reversal.

  8. Feasibility of artificial geomagnetic field generation by a superconducting ring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motojima, Osamu; Yanagi, Nagato

    2008-05-01

    The geomagnetic field shields the Earth from a large proportion of incoming radiation, and has thus played a key role in sustaining life on Earth. Paleomagnetic measurements have shown that the geomagnetic field undergoes many reversals of polarity. Continuous observations of the field intensity have revealed a weakening of approximately 10% over the last 150 years. If we assume that this trend indicates the onset of polarity reversal, the geomagnetic field, particularly the dipole component, may weaken sufficiently over the next thousand years to expose the atmosphere and nearby space to significantly increased levels of cosmic and solar radiation. This may have a serious impact on vital infrastructure such as satellites, air traffic, and electricity networks, as well as on global climate changes, indicating that measures should better be taken in an attempt to support the limited protection provided by the remaining higher-order multipole fields and atmosphere. Here we show that a series of planet-encircling superconducting rings can provide an artificial geomagnetic field equivalent to 10% of the present-day field necessary to prevent adverse effects. A feasible system consists of 12 latitudinal high-temperature superconducting rings, each carrying 6.4 MA current with a modest 1 GW of power requirement. (author)

  9. A Study on the Model of Detecting the Variation of Geomagnetic Intensity Based on an Adapted Motion Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By simulating the geomagnetic fields and analyzing thevariation of intensities, this paper presents a model for calculating the objective function ofan Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUVgeomagnetic navigation task. By investigating the biologically inspired strategies, the AUV successfullyreachesthe destination duringgeomagnetic navigation without using the priori geomagnetic map. Similar to the pattern of a flatworm, the proposed algorithm relies on a motion pattern to trigger a local searching strategy by detecting the real-time geomagnetic intensity. An adapted strategy is then implemented, which is biased on the specific target. The results show thereliabilityandeffectivenessofthe proposed algorithm.

  10. Evaluating secular acceleration in geomagnetic field model GRIMM-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, V.; Wardinski, I.

    2012-12-01

    Secular acceleration of the magnetic field is the rate of change of its secular variation. One of the main results of studying magnetic data collected by the German survey satellite CHAMP was the mapping of field acceleration and its evolution in time. Questions remain about the accuracy of the modeled acceleration and the effect of the applied regularization processes. We have evaluated to what extent the regularization affects the temporal variability of the Gauss coefficients. We also obtained results of temporal variability of the Gauss coefficients where alternative approaches to the usual smoothing norms have been applied for regularization. Except for the dipole term, the secular acceleration of the Gauss coefficients is fairly well described up to spherical harmonic degree 5 or 6. There is no clear evidence from observatory data that the spectrum of this acceleration is underestimated at the Earth surface. Assuming a resistive mantle, the observed acceleration supports a characteristic time scale for the secular variation of the order of 11 years.

  11. Authigenic 10Be/9Be ratio signatures of the cosmogenic nuclide production linked to geomagnetic dipole moment variation since the Brunhes/Matuyama boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Quentin; Thouveny, Nicolas; Bourlès, Didier L; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Bassinot, Franck; Ménabréaz, Lucie; Guillou, Valéry; Choy, Sandrine; Beaufort, Luc

    2016-11-01

    Geomagnetic dipole moment variations associated with polarity reversals and excursions are expressed by large changes of the cosmogenic nuclide beryllium-10 ( 10 Be) production rates. Authigenic 10 Be/ 9 Be ratios (proxy of atmospheric 10 Be production) from oceanic cores therefore complete the classical information derived from relative paleointensity (RPI) records. This study presents new authigenic 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio results obtained from cores MD05-2920 and MD05-2930 collected in the west equatorial Pacific Ocean. Be ratios from cores MD05-2920, MD05-2930 and MD90-0961 have been stacked and averaged. Variations of the authigenic 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio are analyzed and compared with the geomagnetic dipole low series reported from global RPI stacks. The largest 10 Be overproduction episodes are related to dipole field collapses (below a threshold of 2 × 10 22  Am 2 ) associated with the Brunhes/Matuyama reversal, the Laschamp (41 ka) excursion, and the Iceland Basin event (190 ka). Other significant 10 Be production peaks are correlated to geomagnetic excursions reported in literature. The record was then calibrated by using absolute dipole moment values drawn from the Geomagia and Pint paleointensity value databases. The 10 Be-derived geomagnetic dipole moment record, independent from sedimentary paleomagnetic data, covers the Brunhes-Matuyama transition and the whole Brunhes Chron. It provides new and complementary data on the amplitude and timing of millennial-scale geomagnetic dipole moment variations and particularly on dipole moment collapses triggering polarity instabilities.

  12. Orbital Noise of the Earth Causes Intensity Fluctuation in the Geomagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han-Shou; Kolenkiewicz, R.; Wade, C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Orbital noise of Earth's obliquity can provide an insight into the core of the Earth that causes intensity fluctuations in the geomagnetic field. Here we show that noise spectrum of the obliquity frequency have revealed a series of frequency periods centered at 250-, 1OO-, 50-, 41-, 30-, and 26-kyr which are almost identical with the observed spectral peaks from the composite curve of 33 records of relative paleointensity spanning the past 800 kyr (Sint-800 data). A continuous record for the past two million years also reveals the presence of the major 100 kyr periodicity in obliquity noise and geomagnetic intensity fluctuations. These results of correlation suggest that obliquity noise may power the dynamo, located in the liquid outer core of the Earth, which generates the geomagnetic field.

  13. Modeling Geoelectric Fields and Geomagnetically Induced Currents Around New Zealand to Explore GIC in the South Island's Electrical Transmission Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divett, T.; Ingham, M.; Beggan, C. D.; Richardson, G. S.; Rodger, C. J.; Thomson, A. W. P.; Dalzell, M.

    2017-10-01

    Transformers in New Zealand's South Island electrical transmission network have been impacted by geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) during geomagnetic storms. We explore the impact of GIC on this network by developing a thin-sheet conductance (TSC) model for the region, a geoelectric field model, and a GIC network model. (The TSC is composed of a thin-sheet conductance map with underlying layered resistivity structure.) Using modeling approaches that have been successfully used in the United Kingdom and Ireland, we applied a thin-sheet model to calculate the electric field as a function of magnetic field and ground conductance. We developed a TSC model based on magnetotelluric surveys, geology, and bathymetry, modified to account for offshore sediments. Using this representation, the thin sheet model gave good agreement with measured impedance vectors. Driven by a spatially uniform magnetic field variation, the thin-sheet model results in electric fields dominated by the ocean-land boundary with effects due to the deep ocean and steep terrain. There is a strong tendency for the electric field to align northwest-southeast, irrespective of the direction of the magnetic field. Applying this electric field to a GIC network model, we show that modeled GIC are dominated by northwest-southeast transmission lines rather than east-west lines usually assumed to dominate.

  14. Mechanism of the relations between the changes of the geomagnetic field, solar corpuscular radiation, atmospheric circulation, and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucha, Vaclav

    1980-01-01

    The correlations between geomagnetic, climatic, and meteorological phenomena were investigated with the object of demonstrating the function of the geomagnetic pole and changes of its position in controlling the climate and weather. A tentative model has been proposed to enable one to understand the causes of the generation of glacial and interglacial periods, as well as the causes which effect changes of climate (Bucha, 1976a). The analyses of various types of geomagnetic and atmospheric manifestations have disclosed certain associations. The coincidence in the occurrence of increased spectral densities with regard to geomagnetic activity and the variations of atmospheric pressure over the geomagnetic pole shows the relation between their periodicities. The results imply that the changes in the intensity of corpuscular radiation, indicated by geomagnetic activity, affect the temperature and pressure patterns over the geomagnetic pole and polar region significantly, so that a pronounced modification of the general circulation may take place, as shown schematically (Bucha, 1976b). As a result of investigating the relations between the variations of geomagnetic activity and meteorological factors a mechanism of solar-terrestrial relationships and a model of the changes of atmospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere are proposed; this provides a probable explanation of the causes of the fluctuation of the climate, of dry and cold periods and of differing vegetation conditions in various years in dependence on the intensity of geomagnetic activity (Bucha, 1976b, 1977a). (author)

  15. The Distribution of Geomagnetic Field Components on the Southern Part of the Korean Peninsula for Epoch 2010.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutaek Lim

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available NGII(National Geography Information Institute of Korea consigned KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience & Mineral Resources to do absolute geomagnetic measurements on 32 geomagnetic repeat stations evenly distributed on the southern part of Korean Peninsula in the year 2010 and to produce geomagnetic field components' distribution maps for the year 2010.0. The result of the processing of the measured data, i. e., the geomagnetic field components' distribution, shows a near similarity with that calculated from IGRF-11 although the latter was processed without any real geomagnetic data measured on the Korean Peninsula as an input. This implies that we installed the repeat stations on sites with good geomagnetic conditions and that our result in accordance with the IGRF represents well the regional distribution trend, i. e., it is dominated by relatively long wavelength components.

  16. Geomagnetic effects caused by rocket exhaust jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipko Yu.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the space experiment Radar–Progress, we have made 33 series of measurements of geomagnetic variations during ignitions of engines of Progress cargo spacecraft in low Earth orbit. We used magneto-measuring complexes, installed at observatories of the Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and magnetotelluric equipment of a mobile complex. We assumed that engine running can cause geomagnetic disturbances in field tubes crossed by the spacecraft. When analyzing experimental data, we took into account the following space weather factors: solar wind parameters, total daily mid-latitude geomagnetic activity index Kр, geomagnetic auroral electrojet index AE, global geomagnetic activity. The empirical data we obtained indicate that 18 of the 33 series showed geomagnetic variations with various periods.

  17. Field-aligned currents observed by CHAMP during the intense 2003 geomagnetic storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on the characteristics of field-aligned currents (FACs in both hemispheres during the extreme storms in October and November 2003. High-resolution CHAMP magnetic data reflect the dynamics of FACs during these geomagnetic storms, which are different from normal periods. The peak intensity and most equatorward location of FACs in response to the storm phases are examined separately for both hemispheres, as well as for the dayside and nightside. The corresponding large-scale FAC peak densities are, on average, enhanced by about a factor of 5 compared to the quiet-time FACs' strengths. And the FAC densities on the dayside are, on average, 2.5 times larger in the Southern (summer than in the Northern (winter Hemisphere, while the observed intensities on the nightside are comparable between the two hemispheres. Solar wind dynamic pressure is correlated with the FACs strength on the dayside. However, the latitudinal variations of the FACs are compared with the variations in Dst and the interplanetary magnetic field component Bz, in order to determine how these parameters control the large-scale FACs' configuration in the polar region. We have determined that (1 the equatorward shift of FACs on the dayside is directly controlled by the southward IMF Bz and there is a saturation of the latitudinal displacement for large value of negative Bz. In the winter hemisphere this saturation occurs at higher latitudes than in the summer hemisphere. (2 The equatorward expansion of the nightside FACs is delayed with respect to the solar wind input. The poleward recovery of FACs on the nightside is slower than on the dayside. The latitudinal variations on the nightside are better described by the variations of the Dst index. (3 The latitudinal width of the FAC region on the nightside spreads over a wide range of about 25° in latitude.

  18. Impacts of ionospheric electric fields on the GPS tropospheric delays during geomagnetic storms in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suparta, W

    2017-01-01

    This paper aimed to overview the interaction of the thunderstorm with the ionospheric electric fields during major geomagnetic storms in Antarctica through the GPS tropospheric delays. For the purpose of study, geomagnetic activity and electric fields data for the period from 13 to 21 March 2015 representing the St. Patrick’s Day storm is analyzed. To strengthen the analysis, data for the period of 27 October to 1 st November 2003 representing for the Halloween storm is also compared. Our analysis showed that both geomagnetic storms were severe ( Ap ≥ 100 nT), where the intensity of Halloween storm is double compared to St. Patrick’s Day storm. For the ionospheric electric field, the peaks were dropped to -1.63 mV/m and -2.564 mV/m for St. Patrick and Halloween storms, respectively. At this time, the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component was significantly dropped to -17.31 nT with Ap > 150 nT (17 March 2015 at 19:20 UT) and -26.51 nT with Ap = 300 nT (29 October 2003 at 19:40 UT). For both geomagnetic storms, the electric field was correlated well with the ionospheric activity where tropospheric delays show a different characteristic. (paper)

  19. Time variations of geomagnetic activity indices Kp and Ap: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rangarajan

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Kp and Ap indices covering the period 1932 to 1995 are analysed in a fashion similar to that attempted by Bartels for the 1932–1961 epoch to examine the time variations in their characteristics. Modern analysis techniques on the extended data base are used for further insight. The relative frequencies of occurrence of Kp with different magnitudes and the seasonal and solar cycle dependences are seen to be remarkably consistent despite the addition of 35 years of observations. Many of the earlier features seen in the indices and special intervals are shown to be replicated in the present analysis. Time variations in the occurrence of prolonged periods of geomagnetic calm or of enhanced activity are presented and their relation to solar activity highlighted. It is shown that in the declining phase the occurrence frequencies of Kp = 4–5 (consecutively over 4 intervals can be used as a precursor for the maximum sunspot number to be expected in the next cycle. The semi-annual variation in geomagnetic activity is re-examined utilising not only the Ap index but also the occurrence frequencies of Kp index with different magnitudes. Lack of dependence of the amplitude of semi-annual variation on sunspot number is emphasised. Singular spectrum analysis of the mean monthly Ap index shows some distinct periodic components. The temporal evolution of ~44 month, ~21 month and ~16 month oscillations are examined and it is postulated that while QBO and the 16 month oscillations could be attributed to solar wind and IMF oscillations with analogous periodicity, the 44 month variation is associated with a similar periodicity in recurrent high speed stream caused by sector boundary passage. It is reconfirmed that there could have been only one epoch around 1940 when solar wind speed could have exhibited a 1.3-year periodicity comparable to that seen during the post-1986 period.

  20. Time variations of geomagnetic activity indices Kp and Ap: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rangarajan

    Full Text Available Kp and Ap indices covering the period 1932 to 1995 are analysed in a fashion similar to that attempted by Bartels for the 1932–1961 epoch to examine the time variations in their characteristics. Modern analysis techniques on the extended data base are used for further insight. The relative frequencies of occurrence of Kp with different magnitudes and the seasonal and solar cycle dependences are seen to be remarkably consistent despite the addition of 35 years of observations. Many of the earlier features seen in the indices and special intervals are shown to be replicated in the present analysis. Time variations in the occurrence of prolonged periods of geomagnetic calm or of enhanced activity are presented and their relation to solar activity highlighted. It is shown that in the declining phase the occurrence frequencies of Kp = 4–5 (consecutively over 4 intervals can be used as a precursor for the maximum sunspot number to be expected in the next cycle. The semi-annual variation in geomagnetic activity is re-examined utilising not only the Ap index but also the occurrence frequencies of Kp index with different magnitudes. Lack of dependence of the amplitude of semi-annual variation on sunspot number is emphasised. Singular spectrum analysis of the mean monthly Ap index shows some distinct periodic components. The temporal evolution of ~44 month, ~21 month and ~16 month oscillations are examined and it is postulated that while QBO and the 16 month oscillations could be attributed to solar wind and IMF oscillations with analogous periodicity, the 44 month variation is associated with a similar periodicity in recurrent high speed stream caused by sector boundary passage. It is reconfirmed that there could have been only one epoch around 1940 when solar wind speed could have exhibited a 1.3-year periodicity comparable to that seen during the post-1986 period.

  1. The temporal and spatial variations of low frequency geomagnetic pulsations at polar cusp and cap latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleimenova, N.; Kozyreva, O.V.; Francia, P.; Villante, U.

    1999-01-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements at two Antarctic are compared during two weeks in the local summer (January 1-15, 1992). Low frequency (0.6 mHz) pulsations are observed at each station near local magnetic noon. The same wave packets appear in some case also at the other station, although with a significant attenuation, more clearly in the morning sector; the wave show a near noon reversal of the polarization sense from counterclockwise in the morning to clockwise in the afternoon indicating a westward and an eastward propagation, respectively

  2. The temporal and spatial variations of low frequency geomagnetic pulsations at polar cusp and cap latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bitterly

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic field measurements at two Antarctic stations are compared during two weeks in the local summer (January 1-15, 1992. Low frequency (0.6-6 mHz pulsations are observed at each station near local magnetic noon. The same wave packets appear in some cases also at the other station, although with a significant attenuation, more clearly in the morning sector; the waves show a near noon reversal of the polarization sense from counter-clockwise in the morning to clockwise in the afternoon indicating a westward and an eastward propagation, respectively.

  3. Investigation of geomagnetic field forecasting and fluid dynamics of the core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The discovery of simple, theoretically sound upper limits for geomagnetic moments (dipole, quadrupole, etc.) provides a significant use of MAGSAT data, establishes useful constraints for future magnetic models, and bears strongly on the probable time required before the next polarity reversal can occur. The field models of MAGSAT data are of prime use and are highly suitable as supplied to date.

  4. Sources of the Geomagnetic Field and theModern Data That Enable Their Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Sabaka, Terence J.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The geomagnetic field one canmeasure at the Earth’s surface or on board satellites is the sumof contributions frommany different sources.These sources have different physical origins and can be found both below (in the form of electrical currents and magnetized material) and above (only...

  5. On a forecast of geomagnetic activity according to magnetic fields on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponyavin, D.I.; Pudovkin, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    Technique for tracking the current layer orientation in the solar corona and solar wind high-velocity flux sources is suggested according to the observation of large-scale magnetic fields at the Sun. Ionospheric magnetic fields in potential approximation are extrapolated to the Sun atmosphere high layers - in the region of probable formation of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. The chart of isocline-lines of field vector even inclination to the surface of R=1.8R sun radius sphere is plotted according to the calculated magnetic field. Daily plotting of such charts allows to continuosly track the large-scale structure and evolution of solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field. Th comparison of isoclinic charts with geomagnetic activity for October 1982 has shown the principal possibility to use this technique for the purposes of geomagnetic activity forecasting

  6. Signatures of storm sudden commencements in geomagnetic H, Y and Z fields at Indian observatories during 1958−1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The work describes an intensive study of storm sudden commencement (SSC impulses in horizontal (H, eastward (Y and vertical (Z fields at four Indian geomagnetic observatories between 1958–1992. The midday maximum of ΔH has been shown to exist even at the low-latitude station Alibag which is outside the equatorial electrojet belt, suggesting that SSC is associated with an eastward electric field at equatorial and low latitudes. The impulses in Y field are shown to be linearly and inversely related to ΔH at Annamalainagar and Alibag. The average SC disturbance vector is shown to be about 10–20°W of the geomagnetic meridian. The local time variation of the angle is more westerly during dusk hours in summer and around dawn in the winter months. This clearly suggests an effect of the orientation of shock front plane of the solar plasma with respect to the geomagnetic meridian. The ΔZ at SSC have a positive impulse as in ΔH. The ratio of ΔZ/ΔH are abnormally large exceeding 1.0 in most of the cases at Trivandrum. The latitudinal variation of ΔZ shows a tendency towards a minimum over the equator during the nighttime hours. These effects are explained as (1 resulting from the electromagnetic induction effects due to the equatorial electrojet current in the subsurface conducting layers between India and Sri Lanka, due to channelling of ocean currents through the Palk Strait and (2 due to the concentration of induced currents over extended latitude zones towards the conducting graben between India and Sri Lanka just south of Trivandrum.Key words. Interplanetary physics (interplanetary shocks · Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere · Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  7. Large geomagnetic field anomalies revealed in Bronze to Iron Age archeomagnetic data from Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaar, Ron; Tauxe, Lisa; Ron, Hagai; Ebert, Yael; Zuckerman, Sharon; Finkelstein, Israel; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-05-01

    Geomagnetic field measurements from the past few centuries show heightened secular variation activity in the southern hemisphere associated with the south Atlantic anomaly (SAA). It is uncertain whether geomagnetic anomalies at a similar scale have existed in the past owing to limited coverage and uncertainties in the paleomagnetic database. Here we provide new evidence from archaeological sources in the Levant suggesting a large positive northern hemisphere anomaly, similar in magnitude to the SAA during the 9th-8th centuries BCE, called ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly;. We also report an additional geomagnetic spike in the 8th century. The new dataset comprises 73 high precision paleointensity estimates from ca. 3000 BCE to 732 BCE, and five directional measurements between the 14th and the 9th centuries BCE. Well-dated pottery and cooking ovens were collected from twenty archaeological strata in two large contemporaneous stratigraphical mounds (tells) in Israel: Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor. The new data are combined with previously published data and interpreted automatically using the PmagPy Thellier GUI program. The Tel Megiddo and Tel Hazor data sets demonstrate excellent internal consistency and remarkable agreement with published data from Mesopotamia (Syria). The data illustrate the evolution of an extreme geomagnetic high that culminated in at least two spikes between the 11th and the 8th centuries BCE (Iron Age in the Levant). The paleomagnetic directional data of the 9th century BCE show positive inclination anomalies, and deviations of up to 22° from the averaged geocentric axial dipole (GAD) direction. From comparison of the Levantine archaeomagnetic data with IGRF model for 2015 we infer the ;Levantine Iron Age anomaly; between the 10th and the 8th centuries BCE is a local positive anomaly. The eastward extent of the anomaly is currently unknown.

  8. Geomagnetically conjugate observations of ionospheric and thermospheric variations accompanied by a midnight brightness wave at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, D.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Kubota, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Komonjinda, S.; Yatini, C. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We conducted geomagnetically conjugate observations of 630-nm airglow for a midnight brightness wave (MBW) at Kototabang, Indonesia [geomagnetic latitude (MLAT): 10.0°S], and Chiang Mai, Thailand (MLAT: 8.9°N), which are geomagnetically conjugate points at low latitudes. An airglow enhancement that was considered to be an MBW was observed in OI (630-nm) airglow images at Kototabang around local midnight from 2240 to 2430 LT on February 7, 2011. This MBW propagated south-southwestward, which is geomagnetically poleward, at a velocity of 290 m/s. However, a similar wave was not observed in the 630-nm airglow images at Chiang Mai. This is the first evidence of an MBW that does not have geomagnetic conjugacy, which also implies generation of MBW only in one side of the hemisphere from the equator. We simultaneously observed thermospheric neutral winds observed by a co-located Fabry-Perot interferometer at Kototabang. The observed meridional winds turned from northward (geomagnetically equatorward) to southward (geomagnetically poleward) just before the wave was observed. This indicates that the observed MBW was generated by the poleward winds which push ionospheric plasma down along geomagnetic field lines, thereby increasing the 630-nm airglow intensity. The bottomside ionospheric heights observed by ionosondes rapidly decreased at Kototabang and slightly increased at Chiang Mai. We suggest that the polarization electric field inside the observed MBW is projected to the northern hemisphere, causing the small height increase observed at Chiang Mai. This implies that electromagnetic coupling between hemispheres can occur even though the original disturbance is caused purely by the neutral wind.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Geological support for the Umbrella Effect as a link between geomagnetic field and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaba, Ikuko; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Katoh, Shigehiro; Dettman, David L.; Sato, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The weakening of the geomagnetic field causes an increase in galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux. Some researchers argue that enhanced GCR flux might lead to a climatic cooling by increasing low cloud formation, which enhances albedo (umbrella effect). Recent studies have reported geological evidence for a link between weakened geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. However, more work is needed on the mechanism of this link, including whether the umbrella effect is playing a central role. In this research, we present new geological evidence that GCR flux change had a greater impact on continental climate than on oceanic climate. According to pollen data from Osaka Bay, Japan, the decrease in temperature of the Siberian air mass was greater than that of the Pacific air mass during geomagnetic reversals in marine isotope stages (MIS) 19 and 31. Consequently, the summer land-ocean temperature gradient was smaller, and the summer monsoon was weaker. Greater terrestrial cooling indicates that a reduction of insolation is playing a key role in the link between the weakening of the geomagnetic field and climatic cooling. The most likely candidate for the mechanism seems to be the increased albedo of the umbrella effect. PMID:28091595

  10. Application of the SP algorithm to the INTERMAGNET magnetograms of the disturbed geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, R. V.; Soloviev, A. A.; Bogoutdinov, Sh. R.

    2012-05-01

    The algorithmic system developed in the Laboratory of Geoinformatics at the Geophysical Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, which is intended for recognizing spikes on the magnetograms from the global network INTERMAGNET provides the possibility to carry out retrospective analysis of the magnetograms from the World Data Centers. Application of this system to the analysis of the magnetograms allows automating the job of the experts-interpreters on identifying the artificial spikes in the INTERMAGNET data. The present paper is focused on the SP algorithm (abbreviated from SPIKE) which recognizes artificial spikes on the records of the geomagnetic field. Initially, this algorithm was trained on the magnetograms of 2007 and 2008, which recorded the quiet geomagnetic field. The results of training and testing showed that the algorithm is quite efficient. Applying this method to the problem of recognizing spikes on the data for periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity is a separate task. In this short communication, we present the results of applying the SP algorithm trained on the data of 2007 to the INTERMAGNET magnetograms for 2003 and 2005 sampled every minute. This analysis shows that the SP algorithm does not exhibit a worse performance if applied to the records of a disturbed geomagnetic field.

  11. Geomagnetically conjugate observations of ionospheric and thermospheric variations accompanied with a midnight brightness wave at low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, D.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Kubota, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Nishioka, M.; Komonjinda, S.; Yatini, C. Y.

    2014-12-01

    A midnight brightness wave (MBW) is the phenomenon that the OI (630-nm) airglow enhancement propagates poleward once at local midnight. In this study, we first conducted geomagnetically conjugate observations of 630nm airglow for an MBW at conjugate stations. An airglow enhancement which is considered to be an MBW was observed in the 630-nm airglow images at Kototabang, Indonesia (geomagnetic latitude (MLAT): 10.0S) at around local midnight from 1540 to 1730 UT (from 2240 to 2430 LT) on 7 February 2011. This MBW was propagating south-southwestward, which is geomagnetically poleward, with a velocity of 290 m/s. However, similar wave was not observed in the 630-nm airglow images at Chiang Mai, Thailand (MLAT: 8.9N), which is close to being conjugate point of Kototabang. This result indicates that the MBW does not have geomagnetic conjugacy. We simultaneously observed thermospheric neutral winds observed by a co-located Fabry-Perot interferometer at Kototabang. The observed meridional winds turned from northward (geomagnetically equatorward) to southward (geomagnetically poleward) just before the MBW was observed. The bottomside ionospheric heights observed by ionosondes rapidly decreased at Kototabang and slightly increased at Chiang Mai simultaneously with the MBW passage. In the presentation, we discuss the MBW generation by the observed poleward neutral winds at Kototabang, and the cause of the coinciding small height increase at Chiang Mai by the polarization electric field inside the observed MBW at Kototabang.

  12. Importance of selecting archaeomagnetic data for geomagnetic modelling: example of the new Western Europe directional and intensity secular variation curves from 1500 BC to 200 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herve, Gwenael; Chauvin, Annick; Lanos, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Paris do not fit our local secular variation curves. Hervé, G., Chauvin, A. & Lanos, P., 2013a. Geomagnetic field variations in Western Europe from 1500BC to 200AD. Part I : Directional secular variation curve, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 218, 1-13. Hervé, G., Chauvin, A. & Lanos, P., 2013b. Geomagnetic field variations in Western Europe from 1500BC to 200AD. Part II : New intensity secular variation curve, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 218, 51-65.

  13. A field like today's? The strength of the geomagnetic field 1.1 billion years ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprain, Courtney J.; Swanson-Hysell, Nicholas L.; Fairchild, Luke M.; Gaastra, Kevin

    2018-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic data from ancient rocks are one of the few types of observational data that can be brought to bear on the long-term evolution of Earth's core. A recent compilation of palaeointensity estimates from throughout Earth history has been interpreted to indicate that Earth's magnetic field strength increased in the Mesoproterozoic (between 1.5 and 1.0 billion years ago), with this increase taken to mark the onset of inner core nucleation. However, much of the data within the Precambrian palaeointensity database are from Thellier-style experiments with non-ideal behaviour that manifests in results such as double-slope Arai plots. Choices made when interpreting these data may significantly change conclusions about long-term trends in the intensity of Earth's geomagnetic field. In this study, we present new palaeointensity results from volcanics of the ˜1.1-billion-year-old North American Midcontinent Rift. While most of the results exhibit non-ideal double-slope or sagging behaviour in Arai plots, some flows have more ideal single-slope behaviour leading to palaeointensity estimates that may be some of the best constraints on the strength of Earth's field for this time. Taken together, new and previously published palaeointensity data from the Midcontinent Rift yield a median field strength estimate of 56.0 ZAm2—very similar to the median for the past 300 Myr. These field strength estimates are distinctly higher than those for the preceding billion years (Ga) after excluding ca. 1.3 Ga data that may be biased by non-ideal behaviour—consistent with an increase in field strength in the late Mesoproterozoic. However, given that ˜90 per cent of palaeointensity estimates from 1.1 to 0.5 Ga come from the Midcontinent Rift, it is difficult to evaluate whether these high values relative to those estimated for the preceding billion years are the result of a stepwise, sustained increase in dipole moment. Regardless, palaeointensity estimates from the Midcontinent

  14. The correlation between geomagnetic field reversals, Hawaiian volcanism, and the motion of the Pacific plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dong

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between geomagnetic field reversals and volcanism is investigated, according to the speculated consequence on volcanoes of the transient electric currents in the geodynamo, through Joule's heating, before and after every reversal event. We evaluate the temporal variation during the last ~ 70 Ma both of the magma emplacement rate Q(t from the Hawaii hot spot, and of the speed v(t of the Pacific plate, by means of the observed volumes of islands and seamounts along the Hawaii/Emperor Seamounts chain, and their respective radiometric datings. Results confirm expectations. A justification of the volcanic crises that lead to the generation of the large igneous provinces during the last ~ 250 Ma also emerged. We describe in detail the complex pattern of the timings of the different effects. Joule's power is generally responsible for ~ 75-80% of magmatism, and friction power only for ~ 20-25%; but, on some occasions almost ~ 100% is fuelled by friction alone. The visco-elastic coupling between lithosphere and asthenosphere results ~ 96% viscous, and ~ 4% elastic.

  15. The Geomagnetic Field and Correlations with Multiple Sclerosis: A Possible Etiology of Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Brett

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease that results in a demyelinating process of the central nervous system. It is the most common, progressive, neurological disease affecting young adults, and there is no cure. A curious feature of MS is its distinct global prevalence with high rates of occurrence between 40 and 60 degrees latitude. While genetics may partially explain this phenomenon, studies have shown that the influence of genetics is modest. Many non-genetic variables, such as viruses, vitamin D, smoking, diet, hormones, etc., have been shown to be related to the expression of MS but none of these variables have been determined to be necessarily strong enough to exclude other factors. The geomagnetic field, which is a non-uniform, three dimensional entity which protects all living things from ionizing radiation, is suggested in this research to be related to global MS prevalence. This study hypothesized that either the total field, the vertical field, or the horizontal field strength of the geomagnetic field will be correlated with MS. Using secondary sources of prevalence studies (N=131) and geomagnetic data, the results supported all three hypotheses with the strongest correlation being an inverse relationship between the horizontal field and MS (r = -.607). The explanation for the inverse relationship being most strongly correlated with MS prevalence is explained by the fact that the horizontal aspect of the geomagnetic field has a protective effect from incoming cosmic radiation. Chronic exposure to high levels of background radiation can have deleterious health effects. This research suggests that living in areas of a weak horizontal field increases a person's exposure to ionizing radiation and therefore increases the risk for developing MS. While it was not the intention of this research, it became clear that an explanation which explained the results of this research and also attempted to unify the mechanisms of all non

  16. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  17. Evaluation of geomagnetic field models using magnetometer measurements for satellite attitude determination system at low earth orbits: Case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilden-Guler, Demet; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2018-01-01

    In this study, different geomagnetic field models are compared in order to study the errors resulting from the representation of magnetic fields that affect the satellite attitude system. For this purpose, we used magnetometer data from two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft and the geomagnetic models IGRF-12 (Thébault et al., 2015) and T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) models to study the differences between the magnetic field components, strength and the angle between the predicted and observed vector magnetic fields. The comparisons were made during geomagnetically active and quiet days to see the effects of the geomagnetic storms and sub-storms on the predicted and observed magnetic fields and angles. The angles, in turn, are used to estimate the spacecraft attitude and hence, the differences between model and observations as well as between two models become important to determine and reduce the errors associated with the models under different space environment conditions. We show that the models differ from the observations even during the geomagnetically quiet times but the associated errors during the geomagnetically active times increase. We find that the T89 model gives closer predictions to the observations, especially during active times and the errors are smaller compared to the IGRF-12 model. The magnitude of the error in the angle under both environmental conditions was found to be less than 1°. For the first time, the geomagnetic models were used to address the effects of the near Earth space environment on the satellite attitude.

  18. Full-vector geomagnetic field records from the East Eifel, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monster, Marilyn W. L.; Langemeijer, Jaap; Wiarda, Laura R.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Biggin, Andy J.; Hurst, Elliot A.; Groot, Lennart V. de

    2018-01-01

    To create meaningful models of the geomagnetic field, high-quality directional and intensity input data are needed. However, while it is fairly straightforward to obtain directional data, intensity data are much scarcer, especially for periods before the Holocene. Here, we present data from twelve flows (age range ∼ 200 to ∼ 470 ka) in the East Eifel volcanic field (Germany). These sites had been previously studied and are resampled to further test the recently proposed multi-method palaeointensity approach. Samples are first subjected to classic palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic analyses to optimise the subsequent palaeointensity experiments. Four different palaeointensity methods - IZZI-Thellier, the multispecimen method, calibrated pseudo-Thellier, and microwave-Thellier - are being used in the present study. The latter should be considered as supportive because only one or two specimens per site could be processed. Palaeointensities obtained for ten sites pass our selection criteria: two sites are successful with a single approach, four sites with two approaches, three more sites work with three approaches, and one site with all four approaches. Site-averaged intensity values typically range between 30 and 35 μT. No typically low palaeointensity values are found, in line with paleodirectional results which are compatible with regular palaeosecular variation of the Earth's magnetic field. Results from different methods are remarkably consistent and generally agree well with the values previously reported. They appear to be below the average for the Brunhes chron; there are no indications for relatively higher palaeointensities for units younger than 300 ka. However, our young sites could be close in age, and therefore may not represent the average intensity of the paleofield. Three of our sites are even considered coeval; encouragingly, these do yield the same palaeointensity within uncertainty bounds.

  19. Cloud-based calculators for fast and reliable access to NOAA's geomagnetic field models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, A.; Nair, M. C.; Boneh, N.; Chulliat, A.

    2017-12-01

    While the Global Positioning System (GPS) provides accurate point locations, it does not provide pointing directions. Therefore, the absolute directional information provided by the Earth's magnetic field is of primary importance for navigation and for the pointing of technical devices such as aircrafts, satellites and lately, mobile phones. The major magnetic sources that affect compass-based navigation are the Earth's core, its magnetized crust and the electric currents in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. NOAA/CIRES Geomagnetism (ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/) group develops and distributes models that describe all these important sources to aid navigation. Our geomagnetic models are used in variety of platforms including airplanes, ships, submarines and smartphones. While the magnetic field from Earth's core can be described in relatively fewer parameters and is suitable for offline computation, the magnetic sources from Earth's crust, ionosphere and magnetosphere require either significant computational resources or real-time capabilities and are not suitable for offline calculation. This is especially important for small navigational devices or embedded systems, where computational resources are limited. Recognizing the need for a fast and reliable access to our geomagnetic field models, we developed cloud-based application program interfaces (APIs) for NOAA's ionospheric and magnetospheric magnetic field models. In this paper we will describe the need for reliable magnetic calculators, the challenges faced in running geomagnetic field models in the cloud in real-time and the feedback from our user community. We discuss lessons learned harvesting and validating the data which powers our cloud services, as well as our strategies for maintaining near real-time service, including load-balancing, real-time monitoring, and instance cloning. We will also briefly talk about the progress we achieved on NOAA's Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) funded project to develop API

  20. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.C.; Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 R/sub E/ downstream from earth. The principal observations are (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma

  1. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  2. Strong geomagnetic activity forecast by neural networks under dominant southern orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valach, F.; Bochníček, Josef; Hejda, Pavel; Revallo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2014), s. 589-598 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300120608; GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : geomagnetic activity * interplanetary magnetic field * artificial neural network * ejection of coronal mass * X-ray flares Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014

  3. Diurnal global variability of the Earth's magnetic field during geomagnetically quiet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, V.

    2012-12-01

    This work proposes a methodology (or treatment) to establish a representative signal of the global magnetic diurnal variation. It is based on a spatial distribution in both longitude and latitude of a set of magnetic stations as well as their magnetic behavior on a time basis. We apply the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique using gapped wavelet transform and wavelet correlation. This new approach was used to describe the characteristics of the magnetic variations at Vassouras (Brazil) and 12 other magnetic stations spread around the terrestrial globe. Using magnetograms from 2007, we have investigated the global dominant pattern of the Sq variation as a function of low solar activity. This year was divided into two seasons for seasonal variation analysis: solstices (June and December) and equinoxes (March and September). We aim to reconstruct the original geomagnetic data series of the H component taking into account only the diurnal variations with periods of 24 hours on geomagnetically quiet days. We advance a proposal to reconstruct the Sq baseline using only the PCA first mode. The first interpretation of the results suggests that PCA/wavelet method could be used to the reconstruction of the Sq baseline.

  4. Regional estimation of geomagnetically induced currents based on the local magnetic or electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viljanen Ari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a close relationship between the time derivative of the horizontal geomagnetic field vector (dH/dt and geomagnetically induced currents (GIC at a nearby location in a power grid. Similarly, a high correlation exists between GIC and the local horizontal geoelectric field (E, typically modelled from a measured magnetic field. Considering GIC forecasting, it is not feasible to assume that detailed prediction of time series will be possible. Instead, other measures summarising the activity level over a given period are preferable. In this paper, we consider the 30-min maximum of dH/dt or E as a local activity indicator (|dH/dt|30 or |E|30. Concerning GIC, we use the sum of currents through the neutral leads at substations and apply its 30-min maximum as a regional activity measure (GIC30. We show that |dH/dt|30 at a single point yields a proxy for GIC activity in a larger region. A practical consequence is that if |dH/dt|30 can be predicted at some point then it is also possible to assess the expected GIC level in the surrounding area. As is also demonstrated, |E|30 and GIC30 depend linearly on |dH/dt|30, so there is no saturation with increasing geomagnetic activity contrary to often used activity indices.

  5. Anomaly of the geomagnetic Sq variation in Japan: effect from 3-D subterranean structure or the ocean effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvshinov, Alexei; Utada, Hisashi

    2010-12-01

    Many years ago Rikitake et al. described the anomalous behaviour of the vertical component Z of the geomagnetic solar quiet (Sq) daily variation field at observatories in central and northern Japan - namely about 2 hr shift of the local noontime peak towards morning hours. They suggested that this anomaly is associated with the anomalous distribution of electrical conductivity in the mantle beneath central Japan. Although a few works have been done to confirm or argue this explanation, no clear answer has been obtained so far. The goal of this work is to understand the nature of this anomaly using our 3-D forward solution. The conductivity model of the Earth includes oceans of laterally variable conductance and conducting mantle either spherically symmetric or 3-D underneath. Data from six Japanese observatories at four seasons for two different years of the solar cycle are analysed. As an inducing ionospheric (Sq) current system, we use those provided by the Comprehensive Model (CM4) of Sabaka et al. Our analysis clearly demonstrates that 3-D induction in the ocean is responsible for the anomalous behaviour of Z daily variations in this region. We also show that the effects from a suite of 3-D mantle models that include mantle wedge and subducting slab are minor compared with the ocean effect.

  6. Spectral analysis of pipe-to-soil potentials with variations of the Earth's magnetic field in the Australian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.

    2010-05-01

    Long, steel pipelines used to transport essential resources such as gas and oil are potentially vulnerable to space weather. In order to inhibit corrosion, the pipelines are usually coated in an insulating material and maintained at a negative electric potential with respect to Earth using cathodic protection units. During periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity, potential differences between the pipeline and surrounding soil (referred to as pipe-to-soil potentials (PSPs)) may exhibit large voltage swings which place the pipeline outside the recommended "safe range" and at an increased risk of corrosion. The PSP variations result from the "geoelectric" field at the Earth's surface and associated geomagnetic field variations. Previous research investigating the relationship between the surface geoelectric field and geomagnetic source fields has focused on the high-latitude regions where line currents in the ionosphere E region are often the assumed source of the geomagnetic field variations. For the Australian region Sq currents also contribute to the geomagnetic field variations and provide the major contribution during geomagnetic quiet times. This paper presents the results of a spectral analysis of PSP measurements from four pipeline networks from the Australian region with geomagnetic field variations from nearby magnetometers. The pipeline networks extend from Queensland in the north of Australia to Tasmania in the south and provide PSP variations during both active and quiet geomagnetic conditions. The spectral analyses show both consistent phase and amplitude relationships across all pipelines, even for large separations between magnetometer and PSP sites and for small-amplitude signals. Comparison between the observational relationships and model predictions suggests a method for deriving a geoelectric field proxy suitable for indicating PSP-related space weather conditions.

  7. Studies of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the sensitivity of gamma-ray observatories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, Maria

    2011-02-01

    Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a ground-based high energy gamma radiation detector. This radiation is detected by the measurement of particle showers in the atmosphere. The questions of the origin of the cosmic radiation, the functional principle of cosmic particle accelerators in the area of black holes or the nature of the dark matter are in the scientific goals of CTA. At the moment the instrument is in the planning phase and first results will probably be in 2014. The site of the instrument has an immediate influence on the sensitivity e.g. due to the weather, the height above sea level. Several possible sites for CTA are being considered at the moment including Namibia, Argentina, Canary Islands and Mexico. The geomagnetic field affects the development of showers and distorts the images of the air shower in the telescope. The aim of this work is to quantify the influence of the strength and the direction of the geomagnetic field at the different possible locations on the sensitivity of CTA using Monte Carlo simulations of particle showers. Firstly, we simulated the lateral distribution at the twelve sites. The geomagnetic field of the sites was obtained from the National Geographic Data Center (NGDC). To study the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, we held the altitude of the sites constant at 2000 m. Hence, we could choose two sites per hemisphere which could be potential candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: BeaufortWest (South Africa), El Leoncito (Argentina), La Palma (Canary Islands) and San Pedro Martir (Mexico). To compare the results with a site which is already known, we chose the observatory H.E.S.S. in Namibia. After the study of the energy thresholds and the effective areas we decided in favour of two sites, one in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. Considering the influence of the geomagnetic field on the predictions, the southern observatory should be in Beaufort West in South Africa. The northern array of CTA

  8. Studies of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the sensitivity of gamma-ray observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Maria

    2011-02-15

    Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) will be a ground-based high energy gamma radiation detector. This radiation is detected by the measurement of particle showers in the atmosphere. The questions of the origin of the cosmic radiation, the functional principle of cosmic particle accelerators in the area of black holes or the nature of the dark matter are in the scientific goals of CTA. At the moment the instrument is in the planning phase and first results will probably be in 2014. The site of the instrument has an immediate influence on the sensitivity e.g. due to the weather, the height above sea level. Several possible sites for CTA are being considered at the moment including Namibia, Argentina, Canary Islands and Mexico. The geomagnetic field affects the development of showers and distorts the images of the air shower in the telescope. The aim of this work is to quantify the influence of the strength and the direction of the geomagnetic field at the different possible locations on the sensitivity of CTA using Monte Carlo simulations of particle showers. Firstly, we simulated the lateral distribution at the twelve sites. The geomagnetic field of the sites was obtained from the National Geographic Data Center (NGDC). To study the influence of the Earth's magnetic field, we held the altitude of the sites constant at 2000 m. Hence, we could choose two sites per hemisphere which could be potential candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: BeaufortWest (South Africa), El Leoncito (Argentina), La Palma (Canary Islands) and San Pedro Martir (Mexico). To compare the results with a site which is already known, we chose the observatory H.E.S.S. in Namibia. After the study of the energy thresholds and the effective areas we decided in favour of two sites, one in the southern and one in the northern hemisphere. Considering the influence of the geomagnetic field on the predictions, the southern observatory should be in Beaufort West in South Africa. The northern array

  9. Comment on ``Annual variation of geomagnetic activity'' by Alicia L. Clúa de Gonzales et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnemann, G. R.

    2002-10-01

    Clúa de Gonzales et al. (J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 63 (2001) 367) analyzed the monthly means of the geomagnetic /aa-index available since 1868 and found enhanced geomagnetic activity in July outside of the known seasonal course of semiannual variation. They pointed out that this behavior is mainly caused by the high values of the geomagnetic activity. Their analysis confirmed results obtained from an analysis of Ap-values nearly 30 years ago but widely unknown to the scientific community. At that time the entire year was analyzed using running means of the activity values averaged to the same date. Aside from the July period, the calculations revealed distinct deviations from the seasonal course-called geomagnetic singularities. The most marked singularity occurs from the middle of March to the end of March characterized by a strong increase from, on average, relatively calm values to the actually strongest ones during the entire year. Some typical time patterns around and after equinox are repeated half a year later. An analysis in 1998 on the basis of the available /aa-values confirmed the findings derived from Ap-values and the local activity index Ak from Niemegk, Germany available since 1890. The new results will be presented and discussed. Special attention is paid to the statistical problem of the persistence of geomagnetic perturbations. The main problem under consideration is that the variation of the mean activity is not caused by an accidental accumulation of strong perturbations occurring within certain intervals of days. We assume that the most marked variations of the mean value are not accidental and result from internal processes within the earth's atmosphere but different, particularly small-scale features, are most probably accidental.

  10. 40Ar/39Ar Dating of the Brunhes-Matuyama Geomagnetic Field Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, A K; Hsu, V; McWilliams, M O; Farrar, E

    1992-04-17

    Magnetostratigraphic studies are widely used in conjunction with the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) to date events in the range 0 to 5 million years ago. A critical tie point on the GPTS is the potassium-argon age of the most recent (Brunhes-Matuyama) geomagnetic field reversal. Astronomical values for the forcing frequencies observed in the oxygen isotope record in Ocean Drilling Project site 677 suggest that the age of this last reversal is 780 ka (thousand years ago), whereas the potassium-argon-based estimate is 730 ka. Results from 4039; Ar incremental heating studies on a series of lavas from Maui that straddle the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal give an age of 783 + 11 ka, in agreement with the astronomically derived value. The astronomically based technique appears to be a viable tool for dating young sedimentary sequences.

  11. Particle precipitation events in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Caraballo, R.; Da Silva Barbosa, C.

    2003-01-01

    Particle precipitation events in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) have been correlated with impulses in the H component of the geomagnetic field. Sudden changes in the H component of the geomagnetic field can produce high intensity peaks in geomagnetic induced currents (GIC) at the Earth’s surface. The effects related to electron precipitation on the upper and middle atmosphere are still not well understood, especially in the area of the SAMA. This study focuses on the Halloween magnetic storm (29-31 October 2003) and two of the largest magnetic storms occurred in 2011. Data from POES and DMSP satellites have been contrasted with the Vassoura s magnetic observatory records and the GIC in a H V transformer neutral at Itumbiara substation (central Brazilian area) to look for possible correlations between d H, the GIC and the precipitation flux of ultrarelativistic electrons. The observations suggest some overlap between episodes of intense precipitation of electrons in the inner radiation belt and impulsive changes in these variables

  12. Geomagnetic field fluctuations during the passage at the Earth’s orbit of the tail of the 15–16 July 2000 ejecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Francia

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the analysis of the geomagnetic field fluctuations observed at different ground stations (approximately along two latitudinal arrays, separated by several hours in local time during the passage at the Earth’s orbit of the tail of the 15–16 July 2000 coronal ejecta. The time interval of interest is characterized by northward interplanetary magnetic field conditions and several changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We found at all stations, both in the local morning and in the local evening, simultaneous and highly coherent waves at the same discrete frequencies (~ 1.8 and ~ 3.6 mHz and suggest a possible interpretation in terms of global compressional modes driven by an impulsive variation of the solar wind pressure. Along the array situated in the morning sector, at the highest latitudes, the higher frequency mode seems to couple with the local field line resonance; on the other hand, along the array situated in the evening sector, the characteristics of the observed fluctuations suggest that the highest latitude station could be located at the footprint of open field lines. Our results also show that solar wind pressure variations observed during the recovery phase of the storm do not find correspondence in the geomagnetic field variations, regardless of local time and latitude; conversely, some hours later continuous solar wind pressure variations find a close correspondence in the geomagnetic field variations at all stations.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interaction; MHD waves and instabilities

  13. Development of Geomagnetic Monitoring System Using a Magnetometer for the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Cheol; Kim, Sung-Wook; Choi, Eun-Kyeong; Kim, In-Soo

    2014-05-01

    Three institutes including KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration), KSWC (Korean Space Weather Center) of NRRA (National Radio Research Agency) and KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) are now operating magnetic observatories. Those observatories observe the total intensity and three components of geomagnetic element. This paper comes up with a magnetic monitoring system now under development that uses a magnetometer for field survey. In monitoring magnetic variations in areas (active faults or volcanic regions), more reliable results can be obtained when an array of several magnetometers are used rather than a single magnetometer. In order to establish and operate a magnetometer array, such factors as expenses, convenience of the establishment and operation of the array should be taken into account. This study has come up with a magnetic monitoring system complete with a magnetometer for the field survey of our own designing. A magnetic monitoring system, which is composed of two parts. The one is a field part and the other a data part. The field part is composed of a magnetometer, an external memory module, a power supply and a set of data transmission equipment. The data part is a data server which can store the data transmitted from the field part, analyze the data and provide service to the web. This study has developed an external memory module for ENVI-MAG (Scintrex Ltd.) using an embedded Cortex-M3 board, which can be programmed, attach other functional devices (SD memory cards, GPS antennas for time synchronization, ethernet cards and so forth). The board thus developed can store magnetic measurements up to 8 Gbytes, synchronize with the GPS time and transmit the magnetic measurements to the data server which is now under development. A monitoring system of our own developing was installed in Jeju island, taking measurements throughout Korea. Other parts including a data transfer module, a server and a power supply using solar

  14. What do we mean by accuracy in geomagnetic measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.W.

    1990-01-01

    High accuracy is what distinguishes measurements made at the world's magnetic observatories from other types of geomagnetic measurements. High accuracy in determining the absolute values of the components of the Earth's magnetic field is essential to studying geomagnetic secular variation and processes at the core mantle boundary, as well as some magnetospheric processes. In some applications of geomagnetic data, precision (or resolution) of measurements may also be important. In addition to accuracy and resolution in the amplitude domain, it is necessary to consider these same quantities in the frequency and space domains. New developments in geomagnetic instruments and communications make real-time, high accuracy, global geomagnetic observatory data sets a real possibility. There is a growing realization in the scientific community of the unique relevance of geomagnetic observatory data to the principal contemporary problems in solid Earth and space physics. Together, these factors provide the promise of a 'renaissance' of the world's geomagnetic observatory system. ?? 1990.

  15. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field evolution during the Matuyama/Brunhes transition: Iterative Bayesian inversion and independent verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Roman; Fabian, Karl

    2007-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field changed its polarity from the last reversed into today's normal state approximately 780 000 years ago. While before and after this so called Matuyama/Brunhes reversal, the Earth magnetic field was essentially an axial dipole, the details of its transitional structure are still largely unknown. Here, a Bayesian inversion method is developed to reconstruct the spherical harmonic expansion of this transitional field from paleomagnetic data. This is achieved by minimizing the total variational power at the core-mantle boundary during the transition under paleomagnetic constraints. The validity of the inversion technique is proved in two ways. First by inverting synthetic data sets from a modeled reversal. Here it is possible to reliably reconstruct the Gauss coefficients even from noisy records. Second by iteratively combining four geographically distributed high quality paleomagnetic records of the Matuyama/Brunhes reversal into a single geometric reversal scenario without assuming an a priori common age model. The obtained spatio-temporal reversal scenario successfully predicts most independent Matuyama/Brunhes transitional records. Therefore, the obtained global reconstruction based on paleomagnetic data invites to compare the inferred transitional field structure with results from numerical geodynamo models regarding the morphology of the transitional field. It is found that radial magnetic flux patches form at the equator and move polewards during the transition. Our model indicates an increase of non-dipolar energy prior to the last reversal and a non-dipolar dominance during the transition. Thus, the character and information of surface geomagnetic field records is strongly site dependent. The reconstruction also offers new answers to the question of existence of preferred longitudinal bands during the transition and to the problem of reversal duration. Different types of directional variations of the surface geomagnetic field

  16. Long periods (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio

    The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long periods.

  17. ANOMALOUS CHANGES OF THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD VERTICAL COMPONENT IN KAMCHATKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Moroz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Secular changes of the lithospheric electric conductivity were analyzed based on the monitoring data of the Earth’s electric field over the period from 2001 to 2014. Those measures were carried out in Verchniya Paratunka, Tundroviy, and Shipunskiy that are located alongside the coastline of the Avacha Bay of Kamchatka and where the catastrophic earthquake is to be expected according the long-term forecast. It is noticed that the changes in behavior of the secular movements of the lithospheric electric conductivity sannual average values represented with changes at along and transverse directions of the seismic focal zone extension. A great many of such changes were detected on the Shipunskiy peninsula.

  18. New paleomagnetic data from Siberia: Non-uniformitarian geomagnetic field around the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V.; Shatsillo, A.; Kouznetsov, N.; Gazieva, E.

    2017-12-01

    There is a range of evidence, mainly from sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Laurentia and Baltica cratons, that argue for the anomalous character of the Ediacaran-Early Cambrian paleomagnetic record. This feature could be linked either to some peculiarities of the paleomagnetic record itself or to some unusual geophysical event that would have taken place around the Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundary (e.g., true polar wander or nonuniformitarian geomagnetic field behavior). In the latter case, the traces of this event should be observed in Ediacaran-Early Cambrian rocks anywhere there is a possibility to observe a primary paleomagnetic signal. In previous work, we reported results that suggested an anomalous paleomagnetic record in Siberian Ediacaran-Lower Cambrian rocks. Here we present new Siberian data that indicate a very high geomagnetic reversal frequency during this period and the coexistence of two very different paleomagnetic directions. We speculate that these features could be due either to a near-equatorial geomagnetic dipole during the polarity transitions or to alternation between axial and near equatorial dipoles not directly linked with polarity reversals.

  19. CHAOS-2-a geomagnetic field model derived from one decade of continuous satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    We have derived a model of the near-Earth's magnetic field using more than 10 yr of high-precision geomagnetic measurements from the three satellites Orsted, CHAMP and SAC-C. This model is an update of the two previous models, CHAOS (Olsen et al. 2006) and xCHAOS (Olsen & Mandea 2008). Data...... by minimizing the second time derivative of the squared magnetic field intensity at the core-mantle boundary. The CHAOS-2 model describes rapid time changes, as monitored by the ground magnetic observatories, much better than its predecessors....

  20. Long-term variations in the geomagnetic activity level Part II: Ascending phases of sunspot cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mussino

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Monthly averages of the Helsinki Ak-values have been reduced to the equivalent aa-indices to extend the aa-data set back to 1844. A periodicity of about five cycles was found for the correlation coefficient (r between geomagnetic indices and sunspot numbers for the ascending phases of sunspot cycles 9 to 22, confirming previous findings based on a minor number of sunspot cycles. The result is useful to researchers in topics related to solar-terrestrial physics, particularly for the interpretation of long-term trends in geomagnetic activity during the past, and to forecast geomagnetic activity levels in the future.

  1. A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model basing on geomagnetic environment simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chunsheng; Zhou, Jian-jun; Yang, Zhen-yu

    2015-01-01

    In aeromagnetic survey, it is difficult to solve the aircraft magnetic field model by flying for some unman controlled or disposable aircrafts. So a model solving method on the ground is proposed. The method simulates the geomagnetic environment where the aircraft is flying and creates the background magnetic field samples which is the same as the magnetic field arose by aircraft’s maneuvering. Then the aircraft magnetic field model can be solved by collecting the magnetic field samples. The method to simulate the magnetic environment and the method to control the errors are presented as well. Finally, an experiment is done for verification. The result shows that the model solving precision and stability by the method is well. The calculated model parameters by the method in one district can be used in worldwide districts as well. - Highlights: • A method to solve the aircraft magnetic field model on the ground is proposed. • The method solves the model by simulating dynamic geomagnetic environment as in the real flying. • The way to control the error of the method was analyzed. • An experiment is done for verification

  2. Palaeomagnetic dating method accounting for post-depositional remanence and its application to geomagnetic field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A.; Suttie, N.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary palaeomagnetic data may exhibit some degree of smoothing of the recorded field due to the gradual processes by which the magnetic signal is `locked-in' over time. Here we present a new Bayesian method to construct age-depth models based on palaeomagnetic data, taking into account and correcting for potential lock-in delay. The age-depth model is built on the widely used "Bacon" dating software by Blaauw and Christen (2011, Bayesian Analysis 6, 457-474) and is designed to combine both radiocarbon and palaeomagnetic measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first palaeomagnetic dating method that addresses the potential problems related post-depositional remanent magnetisation acquisition in age-depth modelling. Age-depth models, including site specific lock-in depth and lock-in filter function, produced with this method are shown to be consistent with independent results based on radiocarbon wiggle match dated sediment sections. Besides its primary use as a dating tool, our new method can also be used specifically to identify the most likely lock-in parameters for a specific record. We explore the potential to use these results to construct high-resolution geomagnetic field models based on sedimentary palaeomagnetic data, adjusting for smoothing induced by post-depositional remanent magnetisation acquisition. Potentially, this technique could enable reconstructions of Holocene geomagnetic field with the same amplitude of variability observed in archaeomagnetic field models for the past three millennia.

  3. Westward equatorial electrojet during daytime hours. [relation to geomagnetic horizontal field depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of the depression of the geomagnetic horizontal field during the daytime hours of magnetically quiet days at equatorial stations is described. These events are generally seen around 0700 and 1600 LT, being more frequent during the evening than the morning hours. The evening events are more frequent during periods of low solar activity and in the longitude region of weak equatorial electrojet currents. The latitudinal extent of the phenomenon is limited to the normal equatorial electrojet region, and on some occasions the phenomenon is not seen at both stations, separated by only a few hours in longitude. During such an event, the latitudinal profile of the geomagnetic vertical field across the equator is reversed, the ionospheric drift near the equator is reversed toward the east, the q type of sporadic E layer is completely absent, and the height of the peak ionization in the F2 region is decreased. It is suggested that these effects are caused by a narrow band of current flowing westward in the E region of the ionosphere and within the latitude region of the normal equatorial electrojet, due to the reversal of the east-west electrostatic field at low latitudes.

  4. Sources of the Geomagnetic Field and the Modern Data That Enable Their Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Hulot, Gauthier; Sabaka, Terence J.

    2014-01-01

    has a large and complicated magnetic field, a major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. What is measured at or near the surface of the Earth, however, is the superposition of the core field and of additional fields caused by magnetized rocks......The geomagnetic field one can measure at the Earth’s surface or on board satellites is the sum of contributions from many different sources. These sources have different physical origins and can be found both below (in the form of electrical currents and magnetized material) and above (only...... in the form of electrical currents) the Earth’s surface. Each source happens to produce a contribution with rather specific spatio-temporal properties. This fortunate situation is what makes the identification and investigation of the contribution of each source possible, provided appropriate observational...

  5. A study of the geomagnetic indices asymmetry based on the interplanetary magnetic field polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Borie, M. A.; El-Taher, A. M.; Aly, N. E.; Bishara, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Data of geomagnetic indices ( aa, Kp, Ap, and Dst) recorded near 1 AU over the period 1967-2016, have been studied based on the asymmetry between the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) directions above and below of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). Our results led to the following conclusions: (i) Throughout the considered period, 31 random years (62%) showed apparent asymmetries between Toward (T) and Away (A) polarity days and 19 years (38%) exhibited nearly a symmetrical behavior. The days of A polarity predominated over the T polarity days by 4.3% during the positive magnetic polarity epoch (1991-1999). While the days of T polarity exceeded the days of A polarity by 5.8% during the negative magnetic polarity epoch (2001-2012). (ii) Considerable yearly North-South (N-S) asymmetries of geomagnetic indices observed throughout the considered period. (iii) The largest toward dominant peaks for aa and Ap indices occurred in 1995 near to minimum of solar activity. Moreover, the most substantial away dominant peaks for aa and Ap indices occurred in 2003 (during the descending phase of the solar cycle 23) and in 1991 (near the maximum of solar activity cycle) respectively. (iv) The N-S asymmetry of Kp index indicated a most significant away dominant peak occurred in 2003. (v) Four of the away dominant peaks of Dst index occurred at the maxima of solar activity in the years 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2013. The largest toward dominant peak occurred in 1991 (at the reversal of IMF polarity). (vi) The geomagnetic indices ( aa, Ap, and Kp) all have northern dominance during positive magnetic polarity epoch (1971-1979), while the asymmetries shifts to the southern solar hemisphere during negative magnetic polarity epoch (2001-2012).

  6. Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, S.

    Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender males and females; (3) blood pressure degree persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.

  7. Spatial correlation structure of the ionosphere predicted by geomagnetic indices and application to global field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschneider, M.; Ferrat, K.; Lesur, V.; Stolle, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric fields are modelled in terms of random structures taking into account a mean behaviour as well as random fluctuations which are described through two point correlation kernels. These kernels are estimated from long time series of numerical simulations from various models. These correlations are best expressed in SM system of coordinates. For the moment we limit ourselves to spatial correlations only in this coordinate system. We study the influence of various indices as possible predictor parameters for these correlations as well as seasonal effects. The various time series of ionospheric fields are stored in a HDF5 database which is accessible via a web interface. The obtained correlation structures serve as prior information to separate external and internal field components from observatory based measurements. We present a model that predicts the correlations as a function of time and some geomagnetic indices. First results of the inversion from observatory data are presented.

  8. POGO satellite orbit corrections: an opportunity to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockmann, Reto; Christiansen, Freddy; Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    We present an attempt to improve the quality of the geomagnetic field measurements from the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO) satellite missions in the late 1960s. Inaccurate satellite positions are believed to be a major source of errors for using the magnetic observations for field...... modelling. To improve the data, we use aniterative approach consisting of two main parts: one is a main field modelling process to obtain the radial fieldgradient to perturb the orbits and the other is the state-of-the-art GPS orbit modelling software BERNESE to calculatenew physical orbits. We report....... With this approach, weeliminate the orbit discontinuities at midnight but only tiny quality improvements could be achieved forgeomagnetically quiet data. We believe that improvements to the data are probably still possible, but it would require the original tracking observations to be found....

  9. Multi-method palaeointensity data of the geomagnetic field during the past 500 kyrs from European volcanoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monster, M.W.L.

    2016-01-01

    The Earth’s magnetic field is generated in the liquid outer core of our planet and acts as a shield against harmful radiation from space. Without it, life on Earth would not be possible. However, the geomagnetic field is not stable: its poles continually move around and sometimes even swap positions

  10. Further studies on the problems of geomagnetic field intensity determination from archaeological baked clay materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostadinova-Avramova, M.; Kovacheva, M.

    2015-10-01

    Archaeological baked clay remains provide valuable information about the geomagnetic field in historical past, but determination of the geomagnetic field characteristics, especially intensity, is often a difficult task. This study was undertaken to elucidate the reasons for unsuccessful intensity determination experiments obtained from two different Bulgarian archaeological sites (Nessebar - Early Byzantine period and Malenovo - Early Iron Age). With this aim, artificial clay samples were formed in the laboratory and investigated. The clay used for the artificial samples preparation differs according to its initial state. Nessebar clay was baked in the antiquity, but Malenovo clay was raw, taken from the clay deposit near the site. The obtained artificial samples were repeatedly heated eight times in known magnetic field to 700 °C. X-ray diffraction analyses and rock-magnetic experiments were performed to obtain information about the mineralogical content and magnetic properties of the initial and laboratory heated clays. Two different protocols were applied for the intensity determination-Coe version of Thellier and Thellier method and multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol. Various combinations of laboratory fields and mutual positions of the directions of laboratory field and carried thermoremanence were used in the performed Coe experiment. The obtained results indicate that the failure of this experiment is probably related to unfavourable grain sizes of the prevailing magnetic carriers combined with the chosen experimental conditions. The multispecimen parallel differential pTRM protocol in its original form gives excellent results for the artificial samples, but failed for the real samples (samples coming from previously studied kilns of Nessebar and Malenovo sites). Obviously the strong dependence of this method on the homogeneity of the used subsamples hinders its implementation in its original form for archaeomaterials. The latter are often

  11. Simulation of ultra-high energy photon propagation in the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, P.; Góra, D.; Heck, D.; Klages, H.; PeĶala, J.; Risse, M.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.

    2005-12-01

    The identification of primary photons or specifying stringent limits on the photon flux is of major importance for understanding the origin of ultra-high energy (UHE) cosmic rays. UHE photons can initiate particle cascades in the geomagnetic field, which leads to significant changes in the subsequent atmospheric shower development. We present a Monte Carlo program allowing detailed studies of conversion and cascading of UHE photons in the geomagnetic field. The program named PRESHOWER can be used both as an independent tool or together with a shower simulation code. With the stand-alone version of the code it is possible to investigate various properties of the particle cascade induced by UHE photons interacting in the Earth's magnetic field before entering the Earth's atmosphere. Combining this program with an extensive air shower simulation code such as CORSIKA offers the possibility of investigating signatures of photon-initiated showers. In particular, features can be studied that help to discern such showers from the ones induced by hadrons. As an illustration, calculations for the conditions of the southern part of the Pierre Auger Observatory are presented. Catalogue identifier:ADWG Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWG Program obtainable: CPC Program Library, Quen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer on which the program has been thoroughly tested:Intel-Pentium based PC Operating system:Linux, DEC-Unix Programming language used:C, FORTRAN 77 Memory required to execute with typical data:Recipes, http://www.nr.com]. Nature of the physical problem:Simulation of a cascade of particles initiated by UHE photon passing through the geomagnetic field above the Earth's atmosphere. Method of solution: The primary photon is tracked until its conversion into ee pair or until it reaches the upper atmosphere. If conversion occurred each individual particle in the resultant preshower is checked for either bremsstrahlung radiation (electrons) or

  12. Non-Dipole Features of the Geomagnetic Field May Persist for Millions of Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, J.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present paleointensity results from within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which is a large non-dipole feature of the geomagnetic field. Within the area of the SAA, anomalous declinations, inclinations, and intensities are observed. Our results suggest that the SAA has been present for at least 5 Ma. This is orders-of-magnitude greater than any previous estimate, and suggests that some non-dipole features do not `average out' over geologic time, which is a fundamental assumption in all paleodirectional studies. The SAA has been steadily growing in size since the first magnetic measurements were made in the South Atlantic, and it is widely believed to have appeared 400 years ago. Recent studies from South Africa (Tarduno et al. (2015)) and Tristan da Cunha (Shah et al. (2016)) have suggested that the SAA has persisted for 1 ka and 96 ka respectively. We conducted paleointensity (PI) experiments on basaltic lavas from James Ross Island, on the Antarctic Peninsula. This large shield volcano has been erupting regularly over the last 6+ Ma (dated via Ar/Ar geochronology), and therefore contains the most complete volcanostratigraphic record in the south Atlantic. Our PI experiments used the Thellier-Thellier method, the IZZI protocol, and the same selection criteria as the Lawrence et al. (2009) study of Ross Island lavas (near McMurdo Station), which is the only comparable PI study on the Antarctic continent. We determined an average paleointensity at JRI of 13.8±5.2 μT, which is far lower than what we would expect from a dipole field (55 μT). In addition, this is far lower than the current value over James Ross Island of 36 μT. These results support the following conclusions: The time-averaged field model of Juarez et al. (1998) and Tauxe et al. (2013) is strongly favored by our PI data. The SAA has persisted over James Ross Island for at least 5 Ma, and has not drifted significantly over that time. The strength of non-dipole features such as the SAA

  13. The Geomagnetic Field Recorded in Sediments of the Tuzla Section (the Krasnodar Territory, Russia) over the Time Interval 120-70 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilipenko, Olga; Abrahamsen, N.; Trubikhin, V. M.

    2007-01-01

    Petro- and paleomagnetic methods are applied to the study of the lower part of the Early Pleistocene Tuzla section on the Black Sea coast of the Taman Peninsula. This part of the section is composed of marine and lagoonal sediments deposited over the time interval 120-70 ka. The measured curves...... of the variation in the geomagnetic field inclination reveal an anomalous direction dated at ~110 ka which coincides with a similar anomalous direction in the Eltigen section (Ukraine) correlating with the Blake paleomagnetic event. The significant correlation between the time series NRM0.015/SIRM0.015 (Tuzla...

  14. [Seasonal variations in the myocardial infarction incidence and possible effects of geomagnetic micropulsations on the cardiovascular system in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleĭmenova, N G; Kozyreva, O V; Breus, T K; Rapoport, S I

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of the ambulance calls in Moscow, related to myocardial infarction (85.000 events), sudden death (71.700 events), and hypertension crises (165.500 events) over the period of 1979-1981 demonstrated their clear seasonal variations with a profound summer minimum and a winter maximum. The same results were obtained in the analysis of statistical monthly data on sudden death from infarction in Bulgaria over the period of 15 years (1970-1985). However, there are a great number of clinical and statistical studies confirming the rises in the incidence of myocardial infarction, hypertension crise, and sudden death during geomagnetic disturbances, which have maximum occurrence near equinox, not in winter. In order to explain this contradiction, we suggested that one of critical factors that affect the human cardiovascular system is geomagnetic micropulsations Pc1 having the frequency comparable with the frequency of heart rate beatings and winter maximum in their occurrence. The results of a comparative analysis of data of ambulance calls in Moscow related to myocardial infarction and sudden death and the catalog of Pc1 observations at the geophysical observatory "Borok" (Yaroslavl region) are presented. It is shown that in approximately 70% of days with an anomalously large number of ambulance calls related to myocardial infarction, Pc1 micropulsations have been registered. The probability of simultaneous occurrence of myocardial infarction and Pc1 in the winter season was 1.5 times greater than their accidental coincidence. Moreover, it was found that in winter the effects of magnetic storms and Pc1 IM(A) were much higher than in summer. We suggested that one of possible reasons for the seasonal variations in the occurrence of myocardial infarction is an increase in the production of the pineal hormone melatonin in winter which leads to an unstable state of the human organism and an increase in its sensitivity to the effect of geomagnetic pulsations.

  15. On some problems of the dynamics of protons captured by geomagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, K.; Dubinski, Yu.

    1977-01-01

    Problems on the dynamics of protons captured by the geomagnetic field is reviewed using new experimental data obtained from artificial satellites. The problems on radial and pitch-angular diffusion of high-energy protons on different L-shells are considered. A good agreement is shown to exist between experimental data and diffusion analysis results. The experimental researches of the changes in the fluxes of quasi-captured, captured, and spilled protons are interpreted as a result of the scattering of protons on lowfrequency waves in the magnetosphere. Presented are the graphs of measurement of the flux of spilled and quasi-ca.ptured protons on different L-shells according to the data obtained from the ''ESRO-1A'' and ''Intercosmos-5'' satellites. To clarify the dynamics of the interaction of protons with waves, it is acknowledged as necessary to pay attention to enhancing the role played by a complex character of experiments

  16. Wp index: A new substorm index derived from high-resolution geomagnetic field data at low latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nose, M.; Iyemori, T.; Wang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Geomagnetic field data with high time resolution (typically 1 s) have recently become more commonly acquired by ground stations. Such high time resolution data enable identifying Pi2 pulsations which have periods of 40-150 s and irregular (damped) waveforms. It is well-known that pulsations of th...

  17. Longitudinal distribution of recurrent solar activity sources and its reflection in geomagnetic variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letfus, V.; Apostolov, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    By analysing the autocorrelation function of the geomagnetic Asup(p)-index, a series of subsidiary maxima were found which seem to indicate that they correspond to periods considerably different from the solar rotation period. It was found that these subsidiary maxima are located symmetrically around the maxima of the first and second recurrences of the solar rotation period (and probably also around the subsequent ones). This fact leads to a model of two or more geoactive longitudes on the Sun. (author)

  18. Magnetic local time dependence of geomagnetic disturbances contributing to the AU and AL indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomita, S; Nose´, M; Iyemori, T

    2010-01-01

    activity in the auroral zone. In the present study, we examine magnetic local time (MLT) dependence of geomagnetic field variations contributing to the AU and AL indices. We use 1-min geomagnetic field data obtained in 2003. It is found that both AU and AL indices have two ranges of MLT (AU: 15:00-22:00MLT...

  19. An Approach to Model Earth Conductivity Structures with Lateral Changes for Calculating Induced Currents and Geoelectric Fields during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During geomagnetic disturbances, the telluric currents which are driven by the induced electric fields will flow in conductive Earth. An approach to model the Earth conductivity structures with lateral conductivity changes for calculating geoelectric fields is presented in this paper. Numerical results, which are obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM with a planar grid in two-dimensional modelling and a solid grid in three-dimensional modelling, are compared, and the flow of induced telluric currents in different conductivity regions is demonstrated. Then a three-dimensional conductivity structure is modelled and the induced currents in different depths and the geoelectric field at the Earth’s surface are shown. The geovoltages by integrating the geoelectric field along specific paths can be obtained, which are very important regarding calculations of geomagnetically induced currents (GIC in ground-based technical networks, such as power systems.

  20. Elimination of the geomagnetic field stimulates the proliferation of mouse neural progenitor and stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Peng Fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Living organisms are exposed to the geomagnetic field (GMF throughout their lifespan. Elimination of the GMF, resulting in a hypogeomagnetic field (HMF, leads to central nervous system dysfunction and abnormal development in animals. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects have not been identified so far. Here, we show that exposure to an HMF (<200 nT, produced by a magnetic field shielding chamber, promotes the proliferation of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs/NSCs from C57BL/6 mice. Following seven-day HMF-exposure, the primary neurospheres (NSs were significantly larger in size, and twice more NPCs/NSCs were harvested from neonatal NSs, when compared to the GMF controls. The self-renewal capacity and multipotency of the NSs were maintained, as HMF-exposed NSs were positive for NSC markers (Nestin and Sox2, and could differentiate into neurons and astrocyte/glial cells and be passaged continuously. In addition, adult mice exposed to the HMF for one month were observed to have a greater number of proliferative cells in the subventricular zone. These findings indicate that continuous HMF-exposure increases the proliferation of NPCs/NSCs, in vitro and in vivo. HMF-disturbed NPCs/NSCs production probably affects brain development and function, which provides a novel clue for elucidating the cellular mechanisms of the bio-HMF response.

  1. Variational methods for field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Menahem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Four field theory models are studied: Periodic Quantum Electrodynamics (PQED) in (2 + 1) dimensions, free scalar field theory in (1 + 1) dimensions, the Quantum XY model in (1 + 1) dimensions, and the (1 + 1) dimensional Ising model in a transverse magnetic field. The last three parts deal exclusively with variational methods; the PQED part involves mainly the path-integral approach. The PQED calculation results in a better understanding of the connection between electric confinement through monopole screening, and confinement through tunneling between degenerate vacua. This includes a better quantitative agreement for the string tensions in the two approaches. Free field theory is used as a laboratory for a new variational blocking-truncation approximation, in which the high-frequency modes in a block are truncated to wave functions that depend on the slower background modes (Boron-Oppenheimer approximation). This ''adiabatic truncation'' method gives very accurate results for ground-state energy density and correlation functions. Various adiabatic schemes, with one variable kept per site and then two variables per site, are used. For the XY model, several trial wave functions for the ground state are explored, with an emphasis on the periodic Gaussian. A connection is established with the vortex Coulomb gas of the Euclidean path integral approach. The approximations used are taken from the realms of statistical mechanics (mean field approximation, transfer-matrix methods) and of quantum mechanics (iterative blocking schemes). In developing blocking schemes based on continuous variables, problems due to the periodicity of the model were solved. Our results exhibit an order-disorder phase transition. The transfer-matrix method is used to find a good (non-blocking) trial ground state for the Ising model in a transverse magnetic field in (1 + 1) dimensions.

  2. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its variations are recorded in rocks as a natural remanent magnetization (NRM) during the formation of these rocks. The study of the NRM in sedimentary reversal records is the subject of this dissertation.

  3. Anomalous variations of lithosphere magnetic field before several earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Z.; Chen, B.

    2015-12-01

    Based on the geomagnetic vector data measured each year since 2011 at more than 500 sites with a mean spatial interval of ~70km.we observed anomalous variations of lithospheric magnetic field before and after over 15 earthquakes having magnitude > 5. We find that the field in near proximity (about 50km) to the epicenter of large earthquakes shows high spatial and temporal gradients before the earthquake. Due to the low frequency of repeat measurements it is unclear when these variations occurred and how do them evolve. We point out anomalous magnetic filed using some circles with radius of 50km usually in June of each year, and then we would check whether quake will locat in our circles during one year after that time (June to next June). Now we caught 10 earthquakes of 15 main shocks having magnitude > 5, most of them located at less than10km away from our circles and some of them were in our circles. Most results show that the variations of lithosphere magnetic filed at the epicenter are different with surrending backgroud usually. When we figure out horizontal variations (vector) of lithosphere magnetic field and epicenter during one year after each June, we found half of them show that the earthquakes will locat at "the inlands in a flowing river", that means earthquakes may occur at "quiet"regions while the backgroud show character as"flow" as liquid. When we compared with GPS results, it appears that these variations of lithospere magnetic field may also correlate with displacement of earth's surface. However we do not compared with GPS results for each earthquake, we are not clear whether these anomalous variations of lithospere magnetic field may also correlate with anomalous displacement of earth's surface. Future work will include developing an automated method for identifying this type of anomalous field behavior and trying to short repeat measurement period to 6 month to try to find when these variations occur.

  4. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade....... The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites....

  5. Summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The diagrams in this section of the publication illustrate the summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow observed in Japan. For convenience, the observational results are arranged by the solar rotation number. The aim of this illustration is to disseminate an outline of daily events observed in Japan for the benefit of active research workers who plan to make detailed study of the specific solar and terrestrial events. Therefore, the illustrations do not show all observational results in Japan but only representative ones at some key stations in Japan. They will suffice for the present purpose. The method of illustration shown in the instruction on the next page is still a preliminary one, and it is subject to change resulting from the kind advice of the users of this part of the publication. We welcome any advice for making the data arrangement and expression better and more convenient. (auth.)

  6. Latitudinal and longitudinal behavior of the geomagnetic field during a disturbed period: A case study using wavelet techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Virginia; Domingues, Margarete Oliveira; Mendes, Odim; da Costa, Aracy Mendes; Papa, Andres Reinaldo Rodriguez; Gonzalez, Arian Ojeda

    2016-11-01

    Coronal mass ejections are the primary cause of the highly disturbed conditions observed in the magnetosphere. Momentum and energy from the solar wind are transferred to the Earth's magnetosphere mainly via magnetic reconnection which produces open field lines connecting the Earth magnetic field to the solar wind. Magnetospheric currents are coupled to the ionosphere through field-aligned currents. This particular characteristic of the magnetosphere-ionosphere interconnection is discussed here on the basis of the energy transfer from high (auroral currents) to low-latitudes (ring current). The objective of this work is to examine how the conditions during a magnetic storm can affect the global space and time configuration of the ring current, and, how these processes can affect the region of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. The H- or X-components of the Earth's magnetic field were examined using a set of six magnetometers approximately aligned around the geographic longitude at about 10 °, 140 ° and 295 ° from latitudes of 70 ° N to 70 ° S and aligned throughout the equatorial region, for the event of October 18-22, 1998. The investigation of simultaneous observations of data measured at different locations makes it possible to determine the effects of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and, it tries to establish some relationships among them. This work also compares the responses of the aligned magnetic observatories to the responses in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly region. The major contribution of this paper is related to the applied methodology of the discrete wavelet transform. The wavelet coefficients are used as a filter to extract the information in high frequencies of the analyzed magnetogram. They also better represent information about the injections of energy and, consequently, the disturbances of the geomagnetic field measured on the ground. As a result, we present a better way to visualize the correlation between the X- or H

  7. Prospect of Using Numerical Dynamo Model for Prediction of Geomagnetic Secular Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Tangborn, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Modeling of the Earth's core has reached a level of maturity to where the incorporation of observations into the simulations through data assimilation has become feasible. Data assimilation is a method by which observations of a system are combined with a model output (or forecast) to obtain a best guess of the state of the system, called the analysis. The analysis is then used as an initial condition for the next forecast. By doing assimilation, not only we shall be able to predict partially secular variation of the core field, we could also use observations to further our understanding of dynamical states in the Earth's core. One of the first steps in the development of an assimilation system is a comparison between the observations and the model solution. The highly turbulent nature of core dynamics, along with the absence of any regular external forcing and constraint (which occurs in atmospheric dynamics, for example) means that short time comparisons (approx. 1000 years) cannot be made between model and observations. In order to make sensible comparisons, a direct insertion assimilation method has been implemented. In this approach, magnetic field observations at the Earth's surface have been substituted into the numerical model, such that the ratio of the multiple components and the dipole component from observation is adjusted at the core-mantle boundary and extended to the interior of the core, while the total magnetic energy remains unchanged. This adjusted magnetic field is then used as the initial field for a new simulation. In this way, a time tugged simulation is created which can then be compared directly with observations. We present numerical solutions with and without data insertion and discuss their implications for the development of a more rigorous assimilation system.

  8. Can a nightside geomagnetic Delta H observed at the equator manifest a penetration electric field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Fraenz, M.; Dubinin, E.; He, M.; Ren, Z.; Zhao, B.; Liu, J.; Wan, W.; Yumoto, K.; Watari, S.; Alex, S.

    2013-06-01

    A prompt penetration electric field (PPEF) usually manifests itself in the form of an equatorial ionospheric electric field being in correlation with a solar wind electric field. Due to the strong Cowling conductivity, a PPEF on the dayside can be inferred from Delta H (ΔH), which is the difference in the magnitudes of the horizontal (H) component between a magnetometer at the magnetic equator and one off the equator. This paper aims to investigate the performance of ΔH in response to a PPEF on the nightside, where the Cowling conductivity is not significant. We first examine the strongest geomagnetically active time during the 20 November 2003 superstorm when the Dst drops to -473 nT and show that the nightside ΔH can indeed manifest a PPEF but with local time dependence and longitude dependence. We then examine a moderately active time by taking advantage of the multiple-penetration event during 11-16 November 2003 when the Dst remains greater than -60 nT. During this event, a series of PPEF pulses recorded in Peru, Japan, and India form a database, allowing us to examine PPEF effects at different local times and longitudes. The results show that (1) the nightside ΔH was caused by attenuation of the effects of the polar electric field with decreasing latitude; (2) the nightside ΔH can manifest a PPEF at least in the midnight-dawn sector (0000-0500 LT), but not always; and (3) the magnitude of the nightside ΔH in the midnight-dawn sector in Peru is on average only 1/18 of that of the dayside ΔH in response to a given PPEF.

  9. Research on Stealthy Headphone Detector Based on Geomagnetic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of stealth headphone detector based on geomagnetic sensor has been developed to deal with the stealth headphones which are small, extremely stealthy and hard to detect. The U.S. PNI geomagnetic sensor is chosen to obtain magnetic field considering the strong magnetic performance of stealth headphones. The earth’s magnetic field at the geomagnetic sensor is eliminated by difference between two geomagnetic sensors, and then weak variations of magnetic field is detected. STM8S103K2 is chosen as the central controlling chip, which is connected to LED, buzzer and LCD 1602. As shown by the experimental results, the probe is not liable to damage by the magnetic field and the developed device has high sensitivity, low False Positive Rate (FAR and satisfactory reliability.

  10. High-resolution records of non-dipole variations in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the short-term behavior of the Earth’s magnetic field is currently mainly hampered by a lack of high-resolution records of geomagnetic intensity variations that are well distributed over the globe and cover the same timespan. Over the past decades many efforts have been made to

  11. Quasi-biennial oscillations in the geomagnetic field: Their global characteristics and origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Jiaming; Du, Aimin; Finlay, Chris

    2017-01-01

    of second-order derivatives of the geomagnetic X, Y, and Z components reveals salient QBO signals at periods of 1.3, 1.7, 2.2, 2.9, and 5.0 years, with the most prominent peak at 2.2 years. The signature of geomagnetic QBO is generally stronger in the X and Z components and with larger amplitudes...... on geomagnetically disturbed days. The amplitude of the QBO in the X component decreases from the equator to the poles, then shows a local maximum at subauroral and auroral zones. The QBO in the Z component enhances from low latitudes toward the polar regions. At high latitudes (poleward of 50°) the geomagnetic QBO...... exhibits stronger amplitudes during LT 00:00–06:00, depending strongly on the geomagnetic activity level, while at low latitudes the main effect is in the afternoon sector. These results indicate that the QBOs at low-to-middle latitudes and at high latitudes are influenced by different magnetospheric...

  12. DTU candidate field models for IGRF-12 and the CHAOS-5 geomagnetic field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    We present DTU’s candidate field models for IGRF-12 and the parent field model from which they were derived,CHAOS-5. Ten months of magnetic field observations from ESA’s Swarm mission, together with up-to-date ground observatory monthly means, were used to supplement the data sources previously u...... been documented, but the 2013 pulse has only recently been identified. The spatial signature of the 2013pulse at the core surface, under the Atlantic sector where it is strongest, is well correlated with the 2006 pulse, but anti-correlated with the 2009 pulse....

  13. Letter to the Editor: Geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Rastogi; R. G. Rastogi

    1999-01-01

    The geomagnetic horizontal (H) field from the chain of nine observatories in India are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. The peak decrease in storm-time variation in H showed significant enhancements at the equatorial electrojet stations over and above the normally expected decrease due to the ring current effects corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed a large decrease around midday...

  14. A more realistic estimate of the variances and systematic errors in spherical harmonic geomagnetic field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowes, F.J.; Olsen, Nils

    2004-01-01

    Most modern spherical harmonic geomagnetic models based on satellite data include estimates of the variances of the spherical harmonic coefficients of the model; these estimates are based on the geometry of the data and the fitting functions, and on the magnitude of the residuals. However...

  15. Resonant geomagnetic field oscillations and Birkeland currents in the morning sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Bythrow, P.F.; Erlandson, R.E.; Lundin, R.; Marklund, G.T.; Block, L.P.; Lindqvist, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic field, electric field, and particle measurements acquired by the Viking satellite and magnetic field measurements acquired by the Active Magnetosphere Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) CCE satellite have been used to study the relationship between large-scale Birkeland currents and resonant oscillations in the Earth's magnetic field. Region 1, region 2, and northward B Z (NBZ) Birkeland currents were identified with the data acquired by the Viking magnetic field instrument. Magnetic field oscillations, present in each of the 10 consecutive Viking passes studied here, have periods between 1 min. and 6 min. and amplitudes from 5 nT to 60 nT. These oscillations extend from lower L shells where they correlate with the CCCE observations up to at least the interface between the region 1 and region 2 Birkeland current system. The Viking particle observations confirm that the region 1/region 2 interface maps closely to the interface between the low-latitude boundary layer (LLBL) and the central plasma sheet (CPS). Electric and magnetic field variations are closely correlated in the region 1 Birkeland current. In the region 2 system of Birkeland currents, the northward electric and eastward magnetic field components show the same resonance oscillations with the electric field variations leading the magnetic field by approximately 90 degree. There is evidence that the amplitudes of the oscillations observed by Viking are correlated with interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle. In one case, the energy-time dispersion signature of temporal magnetosheath plasma injection into the low-latitude boundary layer was associated with the resonant oscillations. These relationships and the presence of the resonant oscillations on field lines up to the region 1/region 2 (LLBL/CPS) interface lead us to conclude that there are several features in the solar wind and the direction of the IMF that can initiate magnetospheric pulsations

  16. Signals and noise in measurements of low-frequency geomagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, E.A.; Morrison, H.F.; Clarke, J.

    1988-01-01

    The apparent magnetic noise, obtained from the coherency function for two parallel magnetic sensors, generally overstimates sensor noise because the sensors do not measure the same signal. The different signals result from the nonparallel alignment of the sensors and from the additional magnetic signal induced in each sensor by its motion in the Earth's magnetic field. A magnetometer array experiment was completed in Grass Valley, Nevada, to determine the minimum magnetic signal that could be detected in the presence of background natural field variations and motion of the sensor. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers with interval biaxial tiltmeters were used to record the magnetic fields and the motion of the sensors

  17. Low Amplitude of Geomagnetic Secular Variations Recorded in Traps of the Southern Siberian Platform: Very Fast Emplacement or Regional Remagnetization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Pavlov, V. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have studied the lowest part of the Permo-Triassic Siberian trap sequence which is located in the middle course of the Angara river (Southern Siberia). This sequenced is composed by 200m thick volcanoclastic rocks (tuffs with bombs of different composition) and includes numerous mafic subvolcanic bodies (dykes and sills). Altogether more than 20 sites representing tuffs, bombs, dykes and sills stretched along the valley of the Angara river over the distance more than 30 km have been sampled and studied. Obtained site mean paleomagnetic directions are tightly grouped, showing very lower scatter. Taking into account that amplitude of geomagnetic secular variation at the P-T boundary was about of same order as in Late Cenozoic (Pavlov et al., 2011) this lower scatter can be either a sequence of very fast traps emplacement which could have disastrous environmental impact or a result of subsequent regional remagnetization. The only geological event in the region which seems to be capable to cause this remagnetization is emplacement of Early Triassic sills in nearby areas. In such the case we should expect that mean paleomagnetic directions from these sills will be very close to these ones obtained from site presented in this report. We present results of paleomagnetic studies of these sills and make a choice in favor of one of discussed options. This work was supported by grants NSF EAR 0807585 ("The Siberian Traps and end-Permian extinction") and RFBR 09-05-01180, 10-05-00557.

  18. Full vector archaeomagnetic records from Anatolia between 2400 and 1350 BCE: Implications for geomagnetic field models and the dating of fires in antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertepinar, P.; Langereis, C. G.; Biggin, A. J.; de Groot, L. V.; Kulakoğlu, F.; Omura, S.; Süel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Anatolia, as one of the busiest crossroads of ancient civilizations, provides an ideal platform for archaeomagnetic studies. Previous results from the Middle East have suggested the occurrence of a strong peak in geomagnetic intensity at ∼1000 BCE associated with dramatic field strength variations that could require a radical rethinking of geodynamo theory. The behavior of the field in the centuries preceding this peak remains poorly constrained, however. Here we present the results of full-vector archaeomagnetic experiments performed on 18 sets of samples from three archaeological sites belonging to Assyrian Trade Colony and Hittite periods. Associated rock magnetic analyses showed that the major magnetic carrier is magnetite chemically stable up to 700 °C and the magnetic mineral assemblage is composed mostly of non-interacting PSD grains. The directional results are compared with existing data and with the most recent global geomagnetic field models pfm9k.1b and SHA.DIF.14k. The directions are in remarkably good agreement with SHA.DIF.14k which is based on archaeomagnetic and lava flow data. Together with our earlier results from Anatolia, we triple the existing database of directions for the 700 year long period 2200-1500 BCE, over a large region from Greece to Azerbaijan, and from Moldavia/Ukraine to Egypt. Three archaeointensity methods: thermal IZZI-Thellier, microwave Thellier and the multi-specimen protocol (MSP) produced virtual axial dipole moment estimates (9.0- 10.9 ×1022 Am2) that are somewhat higher than contemporaneous (regional and global) data and model predictions suggesting that the field was already substantially stronger than today more than 800 years prior to the reported peak. In addition to constraining geomagnetic variability, our data also allow us to assign relative dates to inferred fire events in the Assyrian Trade Colony Period sites. This allows us to conclude that the fire events at the largest site, Kültepe, were not all

  19. Equatorial E Region Electric Fields and Sporadic E Layer Responses to the Recovery Phase of the November 2004 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, J.; Resende, L. C. A.; Denardini, C. M.; Xu, J.; Batista, I. S.; Andrioli, V. F.; Carrasco, A. J.; Batista, P. P.; Schuch, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    Equatorial E region electric fields (EEFs) inferred from coherent radar data, sporadic-E (Es) layers observed from a digital ionosonde data, and modeling results are used to study the responses of the equatorial E region over São Luís (SLZ, 2.3°S, 44.2°W, -7° dip angle), Brazil, during the super storm of November 2004. The EEF is presented in terms of the zonal (Ey) and vertical (Ez) components in order to analyze the corresponding characteristics of different types of Es seen in ionograms and simulated with the E region ionospheric model. We bring out the variabilities of Ey and Ez components with storm time changes in the equatorial E region. In addition, some aspects of the electric fields and Es behavior in three cases of weak, very weak, and strong Type II occurrences during the recovery phase of the geomagnetic storm are discussed. The connection between the enhanced occurrence and suppressions of the Type II irregularities and the q-type Es (Esq) controlled by electric fields, with the development or disruption of the blanketing sporadic E (Esb) layers produced by wind shear mechanism, is also presented. The mutual presence of Esq along with the Esb occurrences is a clear indicator of the secular drift of the magnetic equator and hence that of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) over SLZ. The results show evidence about the EEJ and Es layer electrodynamics and coupling during geomagnetic disturbance time electric fields.

  20. Variations in the geomagnetic and gravitational background associated with two strong earthquakes of the May 2012 sequence in the Po Valley Plain (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straser, Valentino

    2013-04-01

    Reawakening of seismic activity in the Emilian Po Valley Plain (Italy) resulted in 2,492 earthquakes over five and a half months: 2,270 with M= 7. The mainshock was recorded during the night of 20 May 2012, at 04:03:52 Italian time (02:03:52 UTC) with epicentre in Finale Emilia, at a depth of 6.3km, by the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Vulcanology (INGV). A long sequence of telluric shocks occurred in the same seismic district in the areas between the provinces of Modena, Ferrara, Mantua, Reggio Emilia, Bologna and Rovigo. In addition to the general devastation plus damage to civil and industrial buildings and the historical heritage, the earthquakes resulted in a total of 27 victims. Concomitant with the two strongest quakes, recorded on 20 and 29 May 2012, respectively, as in the case of others, variations were noted in the geomagnetic background by the LTPA monitoring station in Rome (Italy). The geomagnetic background variations were associated with the appearance of radio-anomalies in a frequency range from 0.1 to 3.0Hz, as well as gravimetric variations found around 60km from the epicentre. The peak accelerations, detected in correspondence with the strongest shocks on 20 and 29 May 2012, were respectively 0.31g and 0.29g. The appearance of the radio-anomalies coincided, from a temporal point of view, with average gravimetric variations of approximately 30µGal around the epicentre areas, concurrent with the mainshock. In this study, both the appearance of radio-anomalies and the gravitational variations recorded before strong earthquakes were related to the dynamics of the fault and a progressive reduction in granulometry in the core of the fracture, until the point of dislocation was reached. The intense friction in the fault and the damping factors produced before the shock are hypothesized as being proportional to the number of radio-anomalies measured. The radio anomaly is an unknown radio emission that has no characteristics (duration

  1. The CHAOS-3 Geomagnetic Field Model and Candidates for the 11th Generation IGRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, Mioara; Sabaka, Terence J.

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the 11th generation IGRF defined by IAGA, we propose a candidate model for the DGRF 2005, a candidate model for IGRF 2010 and a candidate model for the mean secular variation between 2010 and 2015. These candidate models, the derivation of which is described in the following, are bas...... = 20, described by order 6 splines (with 6-month knot spacing) spanning the time interval 1997.0–2010.0. The third time derivative of the squared magnetic field intensity is regularized at the core-mantle boundary. No spatial regularization is applied....

  2. Average energetic ion flux variations associated with geomagnetic activity from EPIC/STICS on Geotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, S. P.; Gloeckler, G.; Eastman, T. E.; McEntire, R. W.; Roelef, E. C.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Williams, D. J.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Kokubun, S.; hide

    1996-01-01

    The magnetotail ion flux measurements from the Geotail spacecraft are analyzed both with and without the application of selection criteria that identify the plasma regime in which an observation is obtained. The different results are compared with each other. The initial results on the changes of energetic ion flux and composition correlated to average substorm activity in different magnetotail plasma regimes are discussed. The energetic ions are measured using the energetic particles and ion composition (EPIC) experiment and the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS). The plasma, wave and field instruments of the Geotail satellite were used to identify the principle magnetotail plasma regimes of plasma sheet, lobe, and magnetospheric boundary layer, as well as the magnetosheath and solar wind. Energetic O and H ions were observed in all the plasma regimes.

  3. Low-frequency (0.7-7.4 mHz geomagnetic field fluctuations at high latitude: frequency dependence of the polarization pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cafarella

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A statistical analysis of the polarization pattern of low-frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations (0.7-7.4 mHz covering the entire 24-h interval was performed at the Antarctic station Terra Nova Bay (80.0°S geomagnetic latitude throughout 1997 and 1998. The results show that the polarization pattern exhibits a frequency dependence, as can be expected from the frequency dependence of the latitude where the coupling between the magnetospheric compressional mode and the field line resonance takes place. The polarization analysis of single pulsation events shows that wave packets with different polarization sense, depending on frequency, can be simultaneously observed.

  4. Anisotropic diffusion of meteor trails due to the geomagnetic field over King Sejong Station (62.2°S, 58.8°W), Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-Min; Kwak, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Ha; Lee, Changsup; Kim, Jeong-Han; Jee, Geonhwa; Yang, Tae-Yong

    2018-06-01

    We analyzed meteor decay times measured by a VHF meteor radar at King Sejong Station, Antarctica (62.22°S, 58.78°W) to study diffusion processes of the meteor trails above the altitude of ˜93 km. Above this altitude, where the atmospheric density is so dilute that collisions between trail ions and ambient molecules become rare, diffusion of a meteor trail can be greatly affected by the geomagnetic field, resulting in anisotropic distribution of measured decay times over the azimuthal and elevation angles. Our preliminary analysis confirm the anisotropic nature of meteor decay times due to geomagnetic field.

  5. High-resolution empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D: Investigating run-on-request and forecasting modes of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Vandegriff, J. D.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    2010-12-01

    The dramatic increase of the geomagnetic field data volume available due to many recent missions, including GOES, Polar, Geotail, Cluster, and THEMIS, required at some point the appropriate qualitative transition in the empirical modeling tools. Classical empirical models, such as T96 and T02, used few custom-tailored modules to represent major magnetospheric current systems and simple data binning or loading-unloading inputs for their fitting with data and the subsequent applications. They have been replaced by more systematic expansions of the equatorial and field-aligned current contributions as well as by the advanced data-mining algorithms searching for events with the global activity parameters, such as the Sym-H index, similar to those at the time of interest, as is done in the model TS07D (Tsyganenko and Sitnov, 2007; Sitnov et al., 2008). The necessity to mine and fit data dynamically, with the individual subset of the database being used to reproduce the geomagnetic field pattern at every new moment in time, requires the corresponding transition in the use of the new empirical geomagnetic field models. It becomes more similar to runs-on-request offered by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center for many first principles MHD and kinetic codes. To provide this mode of operation for the TS07D model a new web-based modeling tool has been created and tested at the JHU/APL (http://geomag_field.jhuapl.edu/model/), and we discuss the first results of its performance testing and validation, including in-sample and out-of-sample modeling of a number of CME- and CIR-driven magnetic storms. We also report on the first tests of the forecasting version of the TS07D model, where the magnetospheric part of the macro-parameters involved in the data-binning process (Sym-H index and its trend parameter) are replaced by their solar wind-based analogs obtained using the Burton-McPherron-Russell approach.

  6. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  7. Global Distribution and Variations of NO Infrared Radiative Flux and Its Responses to Solar Activity and Geomagnetic Activity in the Thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chaoli; Wei, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dong; Luo, Tao; Dai, Congming; Wei, Heli

    2017-12-01

    The global distribution and variations of NO infrared radiative flux (NO-IRF) are presented during 2002-2016 in the thermosphere covering 100-280 km altitude based on Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) data set. For investigating the spatial variations of the mutual relationship between NO-IRF and solar activity, the altitude ranges from 100 km to 280 km are divided into 90 altitude bins, and the latitude regions of 83°S-83°N are divided into 16 latitude bins. By processing about 1.8E9 NO-IRF observation values from about 5E6 vertical nighttime profiles recorded in SABER data set, we obtained more than 4.1E8 samples of NO-IRF. The annual-mean values of NO-IRF are then calculated by all available NO-IRF samples within each latitude and altitude bin. Local latitudinal maxima in NO-IRF are found between 120 and 145 km altitude, and the maximum NO-IRF located at polar regions are 3 times more than that of the minimum at equatorial region. The influences of solar and geomagnetic activity on the spatial variations of NO-IRF are investigated. Both the NO-IRF and its response to solar and geomagnetic activity show nearly symmetric distribution between the two hemispheres. It is demonstrated that the observed changes in NO-IRF at altitudes between 100 and 225 km correlate well with the changes in solar activity. The NO-IRF at solar maximum is about 4 times than that at solar minimum, and the current maximum of NO-IRF in 2014 is less than 70% of the prior maximum in 2001. For the first time, the response ranges of the NO-IRF to solar and geomagnetic activity at different altitudes and latitudes are reported.

  8. The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and geomagnetic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.; Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Qin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Studying the access of the cosmic rays (CRs) into the magnetosphere is important to understand the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In this paper we numerically studied CRs' magnetospheric access with vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities using the method proposed by Smart and Shea (1999). By the study of CRs' vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes we obtain the CRs' window (CRW) whose boundary is determined when the vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities drop to a value lower than a threshold value. Furthermore, we studied the area of CRWs and found out they are sensitive to different parameters, such as the z component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index, and Dst index. It was found that both the AE index and Dst index have a strong correlation with the area of CRWs during strong geomagnetic storms. However, during the medium storms, only AE index has a strong correlation with the area of CRWs, while Dst index has a much weaker correlation with the area of CRWs. This result on the CRW can be used for forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the geomagnetic storms.

  9. Letter to the Editor: Geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic horizontal (H field from the chain of nine observatories in India are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. The peak decrease in storm-time variation in H showed significant enhancements at the equatorial electrojet stations over and above the normally expected decrease due to the ring current effects corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed a large decrease around midday hours over and above the usual dawn-maximum and dusk-minimum seen at any mid-latitude stations around the world. These slow and persistent additional decreases of H of disturbance daily variation at equatorial latitudes could be the effect of a westward electric field due to the Disturbance Ionospheric dynamo coupled with abnormally large electrical conductivities in the E region over the equator.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Magnetospheric physics (electric fields; storms and substorms

  10. Letter to the Editor: Geomagnetic storm effects at low latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Rastogi

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic horizontal (H field from the chain of nine observatories in India are used to study the storm-time and disturbance daily variations. The peak decrease in storm-time variation in H showed significant enhancements at the equatorial electrojet stations over and above the normally expected decrease due to the ring current effects corrected for geomagnetic latitudes. The disturbance daily variation of H at equatorial stations showed a large decrease around midday hours over and above the usual dawn-maximum and dusk-minimum seen at any mid-latitude stations around the world. These slow and persistent additional decreases of H of disturbance daily variation at equatorial latitudes could be the effect of a westward electric field due to the Disturbance Ionospheric dynamo coupled with abnormally large electrical conductivities in the E region over the equator.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents · Magnetospheric physics (electric fields; storms and substorms

  11. Low frequency geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitude during the passage of a higher pressure solar wind region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The passage of a higher pressure solar wind region at the Earth's orbit marked the onset of low latitude (L=1.6 fluctuations in the frequency range (0.8–5.5 mHz for both the horizontal geomagnetic field components. Spectral peaks mostly occur at the same frequencies as the spectral enhancements which appeared in the long term analysis of experimental measurements from the same station and were tentatively interpreted in terms of ground signatures of global magnetospheric modes. A comparison with simultaneous observations discussed by previous investigations allows us to conclude that the same set of frequencies is enhanced in a wide portion of the Earth's magnetosphere.

  12. Effects of Hypomagnetic Conditions and Reversed Geomagnetic Field on Calcium-Dependent Proteases of Invertebrates and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantserova, N. P.; Krylov, V. V.; Lysenko, L. A.; Ushakova, N. V.; Nemova, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    The effects of hypomagnetic conditions and the reversal of the geomagnetic field (GMF) on intracellular Ca2+-dependent proteases (calpains) of fish and invertebrates have been studied in vivo and in vitro. It is found that the intravital exposure of examined animals to hypomagnetic conditions leads to a significant decrease in its calpain activity. The activity of preparations of calcium-dependent proteases was tested in separate experiments. It is shown that preparations of Ca2+-dependent proteases from invertebrates and fish are also inactivated substantially under effect of hypomagnetic conditions. The ambiguous results obtained in the experiments with a reversed GMF do not make it possible to discuss the biological response of calcium-dependent proteases to the reversal of the GMF.

  13. Paleosecular variations from lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.P.; Banerjee, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Data are presented on the secular variations of the magnetization of wet and dry lake sediments for 17 North American locations. The usefullness of this data in terms of the geomagnetic field is discussed

  14. Decadal period external magnetic field variations determined via eigenanalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shore, R. M.; Whaler, K. A.; Macmillan, S.

    2016-01-01

    to a full solar cycle. Our analysis focuses on geomagnetically quiet days and middle to low latitudes. We use the climatological eigenanalysis technique called empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs), which allows us to identify discrete spatiotemporal patterns with no a priori specification of their geometry...... mean external field distribution. Separate patterns of semiannual and solar-cycle-length periods appear to stem from the amplitude modulations of spatially fixed background fields....

  15. Geomagnetic fluctuations during a polarity transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audunsson, Haraldur; Levi, Shaul

    1997-01-01

    The extensive Roza Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Washington State) has intermediate paleomagnetic directions, bracketed by underlying normal and overlying reverse polarity flows. A consistent paleomagnetic direction was measured at 11 widely distributed outcrops; the average direction has a declination of 189° and an inclination of -5°, with greater variation in the inclination [Rietman, 1966]. In this study the Roza Member was sampled in two Pasco Basin drillcores, where it is a single cooling unit and its thickness exceeds 50 m. Excellent core recovery allowed uniform and dense sampling of the drillcores. During its protracted cooling, the Roza flow in the drillcores recorded part of a 15.5 Ma geomagnetic polarity transition. The inclination has symmetric, quasicyclic intraflow variation, while the declination is nearly constant, consistent with the results from the outcrops. Thermal models of the cooling flow provide the timing for remanence acquisition. The inclination is inferred to have progressed from 0° to -15° and back to -3°over a period of 15 to 60 years, at rates of 1.6° to 0.5°/yr. Because the geomagnetic intensity was probably weak during the transition, these apparently high rates of change are not significantly different from present-day secular variation. These results agree with the hypothesis that normal secular variation persists through geomagnetic transitions. The Iow-amplitude quasicyclical fluctuations of the field over tens of years, recorded by Roza, suggest that the geomagnetic field reverses in discrete steps, and that more than 15-60 years were required to complete this reversal.

  16. The PhE4-49B photomultiplier spply providing the protection from the geomagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.V.; Gladyshev, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    To protect a scintillation detector from the effect of the geomagnetic field it is proposed to use an experimentally selected voltage divider in the FEhU-49B photomultiplier supplying circuit. Employment of such a divider makes it possible to increase the electrostatic field strength in the photomultiplier input chamber which ensures better collection of photoelectrons on the first dynode, to decrease effect of the magnetic field on electron focusing and to increase the first dynode secondary emission coefficient. Selection of photomultiplier supplying conditions is carried out experimentally on a scintillation counter with a plastic scintillator. The potentials of the focusing electrode and the first dynode are adjusted so that the relation between the counting rate at a photomultiplier orientation along the magnetic field lines of force and the counting rate at normal orientation to the lines of force is minimum. Usage of the experimentally selected voltage divider improves the scintillation counter time resolution and decreases the photomultiplier operating supply voltage by 100-150 V. The scintillation counter provided with a proposed divider requires no magnetic shields [ru

  17. Relative Paleointensity of the Geomagnetic Field 12-20 kyr. From Sediment Cores, Lake Moreno (Patagonia, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogorza, C. S.; Irurzun, M. A.; Chaparro, M. A.; Lirio, J. M.; Nunez, H.; Sinito, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Four cores labeled Lmor1, Lmor2, Lmor3, Lmor98-1, Lmor98-2 from the bottom sediments of Lake Moreno (south-western Argentina) have been used to estimate regional geomagnetic paleointensity. Lake Moreno is on the east side of the Andean Cordillera Patagónica; it is located in the Llao Llao area, San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina (41° S, 71° 30'W). The following measurements were performed: Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), magnetic susceptibility at low and high frequency (specific, X and volumetric, k), Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) reaching the Saturation Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (SIRM), Back Field, Anhysteric Remanent Magnetization with a direct field of 0.1mT and an alternating field between 2.5 and 100mT (ARM100mT). Associated parameters were calculated: S-ratio, Remanent Coercitive Field (BCR, anhysteric volumetric susceptibility (kanh), SIRM/k, ARM100mT/k, and SIRM/ ARM100mT. The rock magnetic studies indicate that the magnetic mineralogy of the clay-rich sediments is dominated by pseudo- single domain magnetite in a narrow range of grain size (between 1 and 4μm) and concentration (between 0.05 and 0.1%), thereby meeting established criteria for relative paleointensity studies. The remanent magnetization at 20mT (NRM20mT) has been normalized using the anhysteric remanent magnetization at 20mT (ARM20mT), the saturation of the isothermal remanent magnetization at 20mT (SIRM20mT) and k. A comparison of these results with relative paleointensity records obtained in previous works, Lake Escondido (Gogorza et al., 2004) and Lake El Trébol (Gogorza et al., 2006) allows obtaining detailed information about the disagreement observed in the period 12-20 kyr between both records. References Gogorza, C.S.G., J.M. Lirio, H. Nunez, M.A.E. Chaparro, H.R. Bertorello, A.M. Sinito. Paleointensity studies on Holocene-Pleistocene sediments from Lake Escondido, Argentina, Phys. Earth and Planet. Inter. 145: 219-238, 2004. Gogorza, C.S.G., M.A. Irurzun

  18. Geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, A.G.

    1980-01-01

    Disturbances due to geomagnetic storms can affect the functioning of communications satellites and of power lines and other long conductors. Two general classes of geomagnetic activity can be distinguished: ionospheric current flow (the auroral electrojet), and magnetospheric compression. Super magnetic storms, such as the one of August 1972, can occur at any time and average about 17 occurrences per century. Electrical transmission systems can be made more tolerant of such events at a price, but the most effective way to minimize damage is by better operator training coupled with effective early warning systems. (LL)

  19. Recent studies of time variations of natural electromagnetic fields in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, V. R. S.; Dawes, G.; Ingham, M.; Kirkwood, S.; Mbipom, E. W.; Sik, J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of geomagnetic induction studies has been undertaken in Scotland since 1973. It includes the operation of two geomagnetic arrays, one over northern Scotland and the other over southern Scotland, subsequent individual station and small-scale geomagnetic array studies, and three sets of magnetotelluric soundings which traverse Scotland from the Lewisian Foreland to the English border. The problems associated with the interpretation of induction data from an island located in the subauroral region are discussed qualitatively and the manner in which both coast and source field effects can be accounted for, is described. The geomagnetic deep sounding data (GDS) from all the observation sites have been collated, and examples of hypothetical event contour maps and traverses across the Great Glen and of individual events from the northern array are presented. They indicate that significant lateral variations in electrical conductivity structure within the crust and upper mantle are associated with the major geological faults in the region. Examples of the results of the magnetotelluric soundings are also presented, together with an outline of the procedure used for one- and two-dimensional modelling. Models of the geo-electric structure in both northern and southern Scotland have been obtained. These show distinctive features which are compatible with the qualitative interpretation of the magnetovariational data. For example, the major granitic blocks are highly resistive while regions of relatively low resistivity exist at upper crustal depths near the Great Glen, Highland boundary and Southern Uplands faults. A zone of low resistivity exists at lower crust-uppermost mantle depths throughout much of the region, the lowest value occurring under the Southern Uplands.

  20. Electric field in the magnetotail depending on the geomagnetic activity level and intensity Esub(y) in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudovkin, M.I.; Osipov, V.V.; Shukhtina, M.A.; Zajtseva, S.A.; AN SSSR, Vladivostok. Dal'nevostochnyh Nauchnyj Tsentr)

    1982-01-01

    The value of the large-scale electric field in the near magnetotail on AE-index variations delay in relation to interplanetary electric field variations is estimated. It is obtained that the electric field value in a tail increases with magnetic activity level. The solar wind electric field under strong magnetic disturbance penetrates into the magnetosphere practically without weakening and is essentially weakened in magneto-quit conditions. Calculated values of the electric field magnitude in the magnetotail (0.01-1mBm) are in agreement with those obtained earlier [ru

  1. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  2. Effect of geomagnetic storms on VHF scintillations observed at low latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. B.; Patel, Kalpana; Singh, A. K.

    2018-06-01

    A geomagnetic storm affects the dynamics and composition of the ionosphere and also offers an excellent opportunity to study the plasma dynamics. In the present study, we have used the VHF scintillations data recorded at low latitude Indian station Varanasi (Geomag. latitude = 14^{°}55^' }N, long. = 154^{°}E) which is radiated at 250 MHz from geostationary satellite UFO-02 during the period 2011-2012 to investigate the effects of geomagnetic storms on VHF scintillation. Various geomagnetic and solar indices such as Dst index, Kp index, IMF Bz and solar wind velocity (Vx) are used to describe the geomagnetic field variation observed during geomagnetic storm periods. These indices are very helpful to find out the proper investigation and possible interrelation between geomagnetic storms and observed VHF scintillation. The pre-midnight scintillation is sometimes observed when the main phase of geomagnetic storm corresponds to the pre-midnight period. It is observed that for geomagnetic storms for which the recovery phase starts post-midnight, the probability of occurrence of irregularities is enhanced during this time and extends to early morning hours.

  3. Improving geomagnetic observatory data in the South Atlantic Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Morschhauser, Achim; Brando Soares, Gabriel; Pinheiro, Katia

    2016-04-01

    The Swarm mission clearly proofs the benefit of coordinated geomagnetic measurements from a well-tailored constellation in order to recover as good as possible the contributions of the various geomagnetic field sources. A similar truth applies to geomagnetic observatories. Their scientific value can be maximised by properly arranging the position of individual observatories with respect to the geometry of the external current systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, with respect to regions of particular interest for secular variation, and with respect to regions of anomalous electric conductivity in the ground. Here, we report on our plans and recent efforts to upgrade geomagnetic observatories and to recover unpublished data from geomagnetic observatories at low latitudes in the South Atlantic Anomaly. In particular, we target the magnetic equator with the equatorial electrojet and low latitudes to characterise the Sq- and ring current. The observatory network that we present allows also to study the longitudinal structure of these external current systems. The South Atlantic Anomaly region is very interesting due to its secular variation. We will show newly recovered data and comparisons with existing data sets. On the technical side, we introduce low-power data loggers. In addition, we use mobile phone data transfer, which is rapidly evolving in the region and allows timely data access and quality control at remote sites that previously were not connected to the internet.

  4. Regional-Scale High-Latitude Extreme Geoelectric Fields Pertaining to Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, Antti; Bernabeu, Emanuel; Eichner, Jan; Viljanen, Ari; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of the high-voltage power transmission industry, we use data from the high-latitude IMAGE magnetometer array to study characteristics of extreme geoelectric fields at regional scales. We use 10-s resolution data for years 1993-2013, and the fields are characterized using average horizontal geoelectric field amplitudes taken over station groups that span about 500-km distance. We show that geoelectric field structures associated with localized extremes at single stations can be greatly different from structures associated with regionally uniform geoelectric fields, which are well represented by spatial averages over single stations. Visual extrapolation and rigorous extreme value analysis of spatially averaged fields indicate that the expected range for 1-in-100-year extreme events are 3-8 V/km and 3.4-7.1 V/km, respectively. The Quebec reference ground model is used in the calculations.

  5. Challenges Handling Magnetospheric and Ionospheric Signals in Internal Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Lesur, V.; Thébault, E.

    2017-01-01

    systems in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In order to fully exploit magnetic data to probe the physical properties and dynamics of the Earth’s interior, field models with suitable treatments of external sources, and their associated induced signals, are essential. Here we review the methods presently......-by-track analysis to characterize magnetospheric field fluctuations, differences in internal field models that result from alternative treatments of the quiet-time ionospheric field, and challenges associated with rapidly changing, but spatially correlated, magnetic signatures of polar cap current systems. Possible...

  6. Correlations between Geomagnetic Disturbances and Field-Aligned Currents during the 22-29 July 2004 Storm Time Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, R.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Morley, S.; Aruliah, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Using the CHAMP fluxgate magnetometer to calculate field-aligned current (FAC) densities and magnetic latitudes, with SuperMAG ground magnetometers analogously providing ground geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) magnetic perturbations and latitudes, we probe FAC locations and strengths as predictors of GMD locations and strengths. We also study the relationships between solar wind drivers and global magnetospheric activity, and both FACs and GMDs using IMF Bz and the Sym-H index. We present an event study of the 22-29 July 2004 storm time interval, which had particularly large GMDs given its storm intensity. We find no correlation between FAC and GMD magnitudes, perhaps due to CHAMP orbit limitations or ground magnetometer coverage. There is, however, a correlation between IMF Bz and nightside GMD magnitudes, supportive of their generation via tail reconnection. IMF Bz is also correlated with dayside FAC and GMD magnetic latitudes, indicating solar wind as an initial driver. The ring current influence increases during the final storm, with improved correlations between the Sym-H index and both FAC magnetic latitudes and GMD magnitudes. Sym-H index correlations may only be valid for higher intensity storms; a statistical analysis of many storms is needed to verify this.

  7. Summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow. During October 1973 through September 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-12-01

    The diagrams in this section of the publication illustrate the summary of daily observational results of solar phenomena, cosmic ray, geomagnetic variation, ionosphere, radio wave propagation and airglow observed in Japan. For convenience, the observational results are arranged by the solar rotation number. The aim of this illustration is to disseminate an outline of daily events observed in Japan for the benefit of active research workers who plan to make detailed study of the specific solar and terrestrial events. Therefore, the illustrations do not show all observational results in Japan but only representative ones at some key stations in Japan. They will suffice for the present purpose. The method of illustration shown in the instruction on the next page is still a preliminary one, and it is subject to change resulting from the kind advice of the users of this part of the publication.

  8. Periodic auroral forms and geomagnetic field oscillations in the 1400 MLT region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Vo, H.; Venkatesan, D.; Cogger, L.L.; Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Bythrow, P.F.; Anderson, B.J.

    1990-01-01

    The UV images obtained with the Viking satellite often show bright features which resemble beads or pearls aligned in the east-west direction between noon and 1800 MLT. Viking acquired a series of 25 UV images during a 28-min period on July 29, 1986, which showed a distinct series of periodic bright features in this region. Magnetic field and hot plasma measurements obtained by Viking confirm that the UV emissions are colocated with the field line projection of an upward-flowing region 1 Birkeland current and precipitating energetic (∼200 eV) electrons. The magnetic field and electric field measurements show transverse oscillations with a nearly constant period of about 3.5 min from 67 degree invariant latitude equatorward up to the location of the large-scale Birkeland current system near 76 degree invariant latitude. The electric field oscillations lead the magnetic field oscillations by about a quarter-period. The authors interpret the observed oscillations as standing Alfven waves driven at a frequency near the local resonance frequency by a large-scale wave in the boundary layer. They propose that the energy flux of the precipitating low-energy electrons in this afternoon region is modulated by this boundary wave and produces the periodic UV emission features. The results of this study support the view that large-scale oscillations of magnetospheric boundaries, possibly associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, can modulate currents, particles, and auroral forms

  9. Structural and temporal requirements for geomagnetic field reversal deduced from lava flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brad S; Hoffman, Kenneth A; Coe, Robert S; Brown, Laurie L; Jicha, Brian R; Pringle, Malcolm S; Chauvin, Annick

    2005-03-31

    Reversals of the Earth's magnetic field reflect changes in the geodynamo--flow within the outer core--that generates the field. Constraining core processes or mantle properties that induce or modulate reversals requires knowing the timing and morphology of field changes that precede and accompany these reversals. But the short duration of transitional field states and fragmentary nature of even the best palaeomagnetic records make it difficult to provide a timeline for the reversal process. 40Ar/39Ar dating of lavas on Tahiti, long thought to record the primary part of the most recent 'Matuyama-Brunhes' reversal, gives an age of 795 +/- 7 kyr, indistinguishable from that of lavas in Chile and La Palma that record a transition in the Earth's magnetic field, but older than the accepted age for the reversal. Only the 'transitional' lavas on Maui and one from La Palma (dated at 776 +/- 2 kyr), agree with the astronomical age for the reversal. Here we propose that the older lavas record the onset of a geodynamo process, which only on occasion would result in polarity change. This initial instability, associated with the first of two decreases in field intensity, began approximately 18 kyr before the actual polarity switch. These data support the claim that complete reversals require a significant period for magnetic flux to escape from the solid inner core and sufficiently weaken its stabilizing effect.

  10. Paleointensity Behavior and Intervals Between Geomagnetic Reversals in the Last 167 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurazhkovskii, A. Yu.; Kurazhkovskaya, N. A.; Klain, B. I.

    2018-01-01

    The results of comparative analysis of the behavior of paleointensity and polarity (intervals between reversals) of the geomagnetic field for the last 167 Ma are presented. Similarities and differences in the behavior of these characteristics of the geomagnetic field are discussed. It is shown that bursts of paleointensity and long intervals between reversals occurred at high mean values of paleointensity in the Cretaceous and Paleogene. However, there are differences between the paleointensity behavior and the reversal regime: (1) the characteristic times of paleointensity variations are less than the characteristic times of the frequency of geomagnetic reversals, (2) the achievement of maximum values of paleointensity at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary and the termination of paleointensity bursts after the boundary of 45-40 Ma are not marked by explicit features in the geomagnetic polarity behavior.

  11. The effect of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray energy estimates and large scale anisotropy searches on data from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, P.; /Lisbon, IST; Aglietta, M.; /IFSI, Turin; Ahn, E.J.; /Fermilab; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; /Sao Paulo U.; Allard, D.; /APC, Paris; Allekotte, I.; /Centro Atomico Bariloche; Allen, J.; /New York U.; Allison, P.; /Ohio State U.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Ambrosio, M.; /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /Nijmegen U., IMAPP

    2011-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the influence of the geomagnetic field on the energy estimation of extensive air showers with a zenith angle smaller than 60{sup o}, detected at the Pierre Auger Observatory. The geomagnetic field induces an azimuthal modulation of the estimated energy of cosmic rays up to the {approx} 2% level at large zenith angles. We present a method to account for this modulation of the reconstructed energy. We analyse the effect of the modulation on large scale anisotropy searches in the arrival direction distributions of cosmic rays. At a given energy, the geomagnetic effect is shown to induce a pseudo-dipolar pattern at the percent level in the declination distribution that needs to be accounted for. In this work, we have identified and quantified a systematic uncertainty affecting the energy determination of cosmic rays detected by the surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory. This systematic uncertainty, induced by the influence of the geomagnetic field on the shower development, has a strength which depends on both the zenith and the azimuthal angles. Consequently, we have shown that it induces distortions of the estimated cosmic ray event rate at a given energy at the percent level in both the azimuthal and the declination distributions, the latter of which mimics an almost dipolar pattern. We have also shown that the induced distortions are already at the level of the statistical uncertainties for a number of events N {approx_equal} 32 000 (we note that the full Auger surface detector array collects about 6500 events per year with energies above 3 EeV). Accounting for these effects is thus essential with regard to the correct interpretation of large scale anisotropy measurements taking explicitly profit from the declination distribution.

  12. The effect of longitudinal conductance variations on the ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazykin, S.; Wolf, R.; Spiro, R.; Fejer, B.

    Ionospheric prompt penetration electric fields of magnetospheric origin, together with the atmospheric disturbance dynamo, represent the most important parameters controlling the storm-time dynamics of the low and mid-latitude ionosphere. These prompt penetration fields result from the disruption of region-2 field-aligned shielding currents during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Penetration electric fields con- trol, to a large extent, the generation and development of equatorial spread-F plasma instabilities as well as other dynamic space weather phenomena in the ionosphere equatorward of the auroral zone. While modeling studies typically agree with average patterns of prompt penetration fields, experimental results suggest that longitudinal variations of the ionospheric con- ductivities play a non-negligible role in controlling spread-F phenomena, an effect that has not previously been modeled. We present first results of modeling prompt pene- tration electric fields using a version of the Rice Convection Model (RCM) that allows for longitudinal variations in the ionospheric conductance tensor. The RCM is a first- principles numerical ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling model that solves for the electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle distributions in the ionosphere and inner/middle magnetosphere. We compare these new theoretical results with electric field observations.

  13. Main Geomagnetic Field Models from Oersted and Magsat Data Via a Rigorous General Inverse Theory with Error Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, George E.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the grant was to study how prior information about the geomagnetic field can be used to interpret surface and satellite magnetic measurements, to generate quantitative descriptions of prior information that might be so used, and to use this prior information to obtain from satellite data a model of the core field with statistically justifiable error estimates. The need for prior information in geophysical inversion has long been recognized. Data sets are finite, and faithful descriptions of aspects of the earth almost always require infinite-dimensional model spaces. By themselves, the data can confine the correct earth model only to an infinite-dimensional subset of the model space. Earth properties other than direct functions of the observed data cannot be estimated from those data without prior information about the earth. Prior information is based on what the observer already knows before the data become available. Such information can be "hard" or "soft". Hard information is a belief that the real earth must lie in some known region of model space. For example, the total ohmic dissipation in the core is probably less that the total observed geothermal heat flow out of the earth's surface. (In principle, ohmic heat in the core can be recaptured to help drive the dynamo, but this effect is probably small.) "Soft" information is a probability distribution on the model space, a distribution that the observer accepts as a quantitative description of her/his beliefs about the earth. The probability distribution can be a subjective prior in the sense of Bayes or the objective result of a statistical study of previous data or relevant theories.

  14. Electron polar cap and the boundary of open geomagnetic field lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L. C.; Stone, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    A total of 333 observations of the boundary of the polar access region for electrons (energies greater than 530 keV) provides a comprehensive map of the electron polar cap. The boundary of the electron polar cap, which should occur at the latitude separating open and closed field lines, is consistent with previously reported closed field line limits determined from trapped-particle data. The boundary, which is sharply defined, seems to occur at one of three discrete latitudes. Although the electron flux is generally uniform across the polar cap, a limited region of reduced access is observed about 10% of the time.

  15. Latitude dependence of long-term geomagnetic activity and its solar wind drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myllys, M. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Partamies, N. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen (Norway). Dept. of Arctic Geophysics; Juusola, L. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-09-01

    To validate the usage of global indices in studies of geomagnetic activity, we have examined the latitude dependence of geomagnetic variations in Fennoscandia and Svalbard from 1994 to 2010. Daily standard deviation (SD) values of the horizontal magnetic field have been used as a measure of the ground magnetic disturbance level.We found that the timing of the geomagnetic minimum depends on the latitude region: corresponding to the minimum of sunspot cycle 22 (in 1996), the geomagnetic minimum occurred between the geomagnetic latitudes 57-61 in 1996 and at the latitudes 64-67 in 1997, which are the average auroral oval latitudes. During sunspot cycle 23, all latitude regions experienced the minimum in 2009, a year after the sunspot minimum. These timing differences are due to the latitude dependence of the 10 s daily SD on the different solar wind drivers. In the latitude region of 64-67 , the impact of the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) on the geomagnetic activity is the most pronounced compared to the other latitude groups, while in the latitude region of 57-61 , the importance of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) dominates. The geomagnetic activity maxima during ascending solar cycle phases are typically caused by CME activity and occur especially in the oval and sub-auroral regions. The strongest geomagnetic activity occurs during the descending solar cycle phases due to a mixture of CME and HSS activity. Closer to the solar minimum, less severe geomagnetic activity is driven by HSSs and mainly visible in the poleward part of the auroral region. According to our study, however, the timing of the geomagnetic activity minima (and maxima) in different latitude bands is different, due to the relative importance of different solar wind drivers at different latitudes.

  16. Latitude dependence of long-term geomagnetic activity and its solar wind drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllys, M.

    2015-01-01

    To validate the usage of global indices in studies of geomagnetic activity, we have examined the latitude dependence of geomagnetic variations in Fennoscandia and Svalbard from 1994 to 2010. Daily standard deviation (SD) values of the horizontal magnetic field have been used as a measure of the ground magnetic disturbance level.We found that the timing of the geomagnetic minimum depends on the latitude region: corresponding to the minimum of sunspot cycle 22 (in 1996), the geomagnetic minimum occurred between the geomagnetic latitudes 57-61 in 1996 and at the latitudes 64-67 in 1997, which are the average auroral oval latitudes. During sunspot cycle 23, all latitude regions experienced the minimum in 2009, a year after the sunspot minimum. These timing differences are due to the latitude dependence of the 10 s daily SD on the different solar wind drivers. In the latitude region of 64-67 , the impact of the high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs) on the geomagnetic activity is the most pronounced compared to the other latitude groups, while in the latitude region of 57-61 , the importance of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) dominates. The geomagnetic activity maxima during ascending solar cycle phases are typically caused by CME activity and occur especially in the oval and sub-auroral regions. The strongest geomagnetic activity occurs during the descending solar cycle phases due to a mixture of CME and HSS activity. Closer to the solar minimum, less severe geomagnetic activity is driven by HSSs and mainly visible in the poleward part of the auroral region. According to our study, however, the timing of the geomagnetic activity minima (and maxima) in different latitude bands is different, due to the relative importance of different solar wind drivers at different latitudes.

  17. About temporal evolution of the geomagnetic field in the River Plate region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianibelli, J.; Quaglino, L.

    2010-01-01

    Permanent Observatories network allows to study the total intensity of the magnetic field of the Earth surface to assess its annual change and inductive effects on networks of large pipes and pipelines. This paper is about the results of the significant decline in the River Plate region. The effects observed in this surface anomaly continue amplified and reaching minimum values

  18. Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr – Part 2: A new reconstruction of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new reconstruction of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, B for 1846–2012 with a full analysis of errors, based on the homogeneously constructed IDV(1d composite of geomagnetic activity presented in Part 1 (Lockwood et al., 2013a. Analysis of the dependence of the commonly used geomagnetic indices on solar wind parameters is presented which helps explain why annual means of interdiurnal range data, such as the new composite, depend only on the IMF with only a very weak influence of the solar wind flow speed. The best results are obtained using a polynomial (rather than a linear fit of the form B = χ · (IDV(1d − βα with best-fit coefficients χ = 3.469, β = 1.393 nT, and α = 0.420. The results are contrasted with the reconstruction of the IMF since 1835 by Svalgaard and Cliver (2010.

  19. Review Article: On the relation between the seismic activity and the Hurst exponent of the geomagnetic field at the time of the 2000 Izu swarm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Masci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many papers document the observation of earthquake-related precursory signatures in geomagnetic field data. However, the significance of these findings is ambiguous because the authors did not adequately take into account that these signals could have been generated by other sources, and the seismogenic origin of these signals have not been validated by comparison with independent datasets. Thus, they are not reliable examples of magnetic disturbances induced by the seismic activity. Hayakawa et al. (2004 claim that at the time of the 2000 Izu swarm the Hurst exponent of the Ultra-Low-Frequency (ULF: 0.001–10 Hz band of the geomagnetic field varied in accord with the energy released by the seismicity. The present paper demonstrates that the behaviour of the Hurst exponent was insufficiently investigated and also misinterpreted by the authors. We clearly show that during the Izu swarm the changes of the Hurst exponent were strongly related to the level of global geomagnetic activity and not to the increase of the local seismic activity.

  20. Methodology for simulation of geomagnetically induced currents in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boteler David

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the geomagnetic hazard to power systems it is useful to be able to simulate the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC that are produced during major geomagnetic disturbances. This paper examines the methodology used in power system analysis and shows how it can be applied to modelling GIC. Electric fields in the area of the power network are used to determine the voltage sources or equivalent current sources in the transmission lines. The power network can be described by a mesh impedance matrix which is combined with the voltage sources to calculate the GIC in each loop. Alternatively the power network can be described by a nodal admittance matrix which is combined with the sum of current sources into each node to calculate the nodal voltages which are then used to calculate the GIC in the transmission lines and GIC flowing to ground at each substation. Practical calculations can be made by superposition of results calculated separately for northward and eastward electric fields. This can be done using magnetic data from a single observatory to calculate an electric field that is a uniform approximation of the field over the area of the power system. It is also shown how the superposition of results can be extended to use data from two observatories: approximating the electric field by a linear variation between the two observatory locations. These calculations provide an efficient method for simulating the GIC that would be produced by historically significant geomagnetic storm events.

  1. Geomagnetic radioflash unfold (GRUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, J.S.

    1975-08-01

    A method of inverting the geomagnetic component of the radioflash signal from a nuclear explosion to obtain the gamma-ray time history was proposed by E. D. Dracott of the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment. A simplified development of an elaboration by B. R. Suydam has been programmed for small calculators in a form suitable for interim field analysis of such data. The development of the program is contained in the report

  2. Accurate Predictions of Mean Geomagnetic Dipole Excursion and Reversal Frequencies, Mean Paleomagnetic Field Intensity, and the Radius of Earth's Core Using McLeod's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.; Conrad, Joy

    1996-01-01

    The geomagnetic spatial power spectrum R(sub n)(r) is the mean square magnetic induction represented by degree n spherical harmonic coefficients of the internal scalar potential averaged over the geocentric sphere of radius r. McLeod's Rule for the magnetic field generated by Earth's core geodynamo says that the expected core surface power spectrum (R(sub nc)(c)) is inversely proportional to (2n + 1) for 1 less than n less than or equal to N(sub E). McLeod's Rule is verified by locating Earth's core with main field models of Magsat data; the estimated core radius of 3485 kn is close to the seismologic value for c of 3480 km. McLeod's Rule and similar forms are then calibrated with the model values of R(sub n) for 3 less than or = n less than or = 12. Extrapolation to the degree 1 dipole predicts the expectation value of Earth's dipole moment to be about 5.89 x 10(exp 22) Am(exp 2)rms (74.5% of the 1980 value) and the expected geomagnetic intensity to be about 35.6 (mu)T rms at Earth's surface. Archeo- and paleomagnetic field intensity data show these and related predictions to be reasonably accurate. The probability distribution chi(exp 2) with 2n+1 degrees of freedom is assigned to (2n + 1)R(sub nc)/(R(sub nc). Extending this to the dipole implies that an exceptionally weak absolute dipole moment (less than or = 20% of the 1980 value) will exist during 2.5% of geologic time. The mean duration for such major geomagnetic dipole power excursions, one quarter of which feature durable axial dipole reversal, is estimated from the modern dipole power time-scale and the statistical model of excursions. The resulting mean excursion duration of 2767 years forces us to predict an average of 9.04 excursions per million years, 2.26 axial dipole reversals per million years, and a mean reversal duration of 5533 years. Paleomagnetic data show these predictions to be quite accurate. McLeod's Rule led to accurate predictions of Earth's core radius, mean paleomagnetic field

  3. On the usage of geomagnetic indices for data selection in internal field modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauristie, K.; Morschhauser, A.; Olsen, Nils

    2017-01-01

    are primarily used in data selection criteria for weak magnetic activity.The publicly available extensive data bases of index values are used to derive joint conditional Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) for different pairs of indices in order to investigate their mutual consistency in describing quiet......) as derived from solar wind observations. We use in our PDF analysis the PC-index as a proxy for MEF and estimate the magnetic activity level at auroral latitudes with the AL-index. With these boundary conditions we conclude that the quiet time conditions that are typically used in main field modelling (PC...

  4. Solar flares associated coronal mass ejection accompanied with DH type II radio burst in relation with interplanetary magnetic field, geomagnetic storms and cosmic ray intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Harish; Bhatt, Beena

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have selected 114 flare-CME events accompanied with Deca-hectometric (DH) type II radio burst chosen from 1996 to 2008 (i.e., solar cycle 23). Statistical analyses are performed to examine the relationship of flare-CME events accompanied with DH type II radio burst with Interplanetary Magnetic field (IMF), Geomagnetic storms (GSs) and Cosmic Ray Intensity (CRI). The collected sample events are divided into two groups. In the first group, we considered 43 events which lie under the CME span and the second group consists of 71 events which are outside the CME span. Our analysis indicates that flare-CME accompanied with DH type II radio burst is inconsistent with CSHKP flare-CME model. We apply the Chree analysis by the superposed epoch method to both set of data to find the geo-effectiveness. We observed different fluctuations in IMF for arising and decay phase of solar cycle in both the cases. Maximum decrease in Dst during arising and decay phase of solar cycle is different for both the cases. It is noted that when flare lie outside the CME span CRI shows comparatively more variation than the flare lie under the CME span. Furthermore, we found that flare lying under the CME span is more geo effective than the flare outside of CME span. We noticed that the time leg between IMF Peak value and GSs, IMF and CRI is on average one day for both the cases. Also, the time leg between CRI and GSs is on average 0 to 1 day for both the cases. In case flare lie under the CME span we observed high correlation (0.64) between CRI and Dst whereas when flare lie outside the CME span a weak correlation (0.47) exists. Thus, flare position with respect to CME span play a key role for geo-effectiveness of CME.

  5. Geomagnetic Field (Gmf) and Plant Evolution: Investigating the Effects of Gmf Reversal on Arabidopsis thaliana Development and Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertea, Cinzia M; Narayana, Ravishankar; Agliassa, Chiara; Rodgers, Christopher T; Maffei, Massimo E

    2015-11-30

    One of the most stimulating observations in plant evolution is a correlation between the occurrence of geomagnetic field (GMF) reversals (or excursions) and the moment of the radiation of Angiosperms. This led to the hypothesis that alterations in GMF polarity may play a role in plant evolution. Here, we describe a method to test this hypothesis by exposing Arabidopsis thaliana to artificially reversed GMF conditions. We used a three-axis magnetometer and the collected data were used to calculate the magnitude of the GMF. Three DC power supplies were connected to three Helmholtz coil pairs and were controlled by a computer to alter the GMF conditions. Plants grown in Petri plates were exposed to both normal and reversed GMF conditions. Sham exposure experiments were also performed. Exposed plants were photographed during the experiment and images were analyzed to calculate root length and leaf areas. Arabidopsis total RNA was extracted and Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qPCR) analyses were performed on gene expression of CRUCIFERIN 3 (CRU3), copper transport protein1 (COTP1), Redox Responsive Transcription Factor1 (RRTF1), Fe Superoxide Dismutase 1, (FSD1), Catalase3 (CAT3), Thylakoidal Ascorbate Peroxidase (TAPX), a cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase1 (APX1), and NADPH/respiratory burst oxidase protein D (RbohD). Four different reference genes were analysed to normalize the results of the qPCR. The best of the four genes was selected and the most stable gene for normalization was used. Our data show for the first time that reversing the GMF polarity using triaxial coils has significant effects on plant growth and gene expression. This supports the hypothesis that GMF reversal contributes to inducing changes in plant development that might justify a higher selective pressure, eventually leading to plant evolution.

  6. Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field intensity differences between ASM and VFM instruments onboard Swarm constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Michelis, Paola; Tozzi, Roberta; Consolini, Giuseppe

    2017-02-01

    From the very first measurements made by the magnetometers onboard Swarm satellites launched by European Space Agency (ESA) in late 2013, it emerged a discrepancy between scalar and vector measurements. An accurate analysis of this phenomenon brought to build an empirical model of the disturbance, highly correlated with the Sun incidence angle, and to correct vector data accordingly. The empirical model adopted by ESA results in a significant decrease in the amplitude of the disturbance affecting VFM measurements so greatly improving the vector magnetic data quality. This study is focused on the characterization of the difference between magnetic field intensity measured by the absolute scalar magnetometer (ASM) and that reconstructed using the vector field magnetometer (VFM) installed on Swarm constellation. Applying empirical mode decomposition method, we find the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) associated with ASM-VFM total intensity differences obtained with data both uncorrected and corrected for the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle. Surprisingly, no differences are found in the nature of the IMFs embedded in the analyzed signals, being these IMFs characterized by the same dominant periodicities before and after correction. The effect of correction manifests in the decrease in the energy associated with some IMFs contributing to corrected data. Some IMFs identified by analyzing the ASM-VFM intensity discrepancy are characterized by the same dominant periodicities of those obtained by analyzing the temperature fluctuations of the VFM electronic unit. Thus, the disturbance correlated with the Sun incidence angle could be still present in the corrected magnetic data. Furthermore, the ASM-VFM total intensity difference and the VFM electronic unit temperature display a maximal shared information with a time delay that depends on local time. Taken together, these findings may help to relate the features of the observed VFM-ASM total intensity

  7. Full-Vector Geomagnetic Field Records for the Late Quaternary from El Hierro and the Eifel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monster, M.; de Groot, L. V.; Dekkers, M. J.; van Galen, J. P.; Kuiper, K.; Langemeijer, J.; Wiarda, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-eight flows in the age range of c. 100 to c. 500 ka were sampled on the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain) and twelve in the Eifel (Germany). All sites from the Eifel had been previously dated, whereas the ages of the El Hierro flows were approximated by stratigraphic and directional coherency with a dated section c. 4 km to the north-east. Additionally, seven flows were dated using the ThermoFisher Helix multi-collector mass spectrometer at VU University Amsterdam (the Netherlands). The rocks were subjected to standard rock magnetic and palaeomagnetic experiments. Palaeodirections were obtained using both thermal and alternating-field demagnetisation techniques. Apart from two sites that appear to have been struck by lightning, all sites yielded reliable palaeodirections. Absolute palaeointensities were obtained using three different methods: IZZI-Thellier, the multispecimen protocol and the calibrated pseudo-Thellier technique. Nineteen sites from El Hierro and all twelve sites from the Eifel passed the selection criteria for one or more of these methods, with the pseudo-Thellier technique having the highest success rate (c. 35% for El Hierro and 55% for the Eifel). The palaeointensities obtained for El Hierro were mostly between 20 and 40 μT and for the Eifel between 20 and 50 μT, both with a tendency to be somewhat low compared to the present-day field of c. 39 μT and c. 49 μT, respectively. The pseudo-Thellier and multispecimen methods generally yielded lower palaeointensities than IZZI-Thellier, but no clear trend was visible.

  8. A study of Sq(H) variations over equatorial electrojet regions | Okeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The newly established geomagnetic field observations in Japan, have enabled us to analyse the 1998 data of Huancayo, Kiritimati (Christmas Island) and Pohnpei where the geomagnetic Sq(H) variations of equatorial electrojet have been studied. The diurnal variation of the monthly means of Sq(H) on the five international ...

  9. A model of the FAD redox cycle describes the dynamics of the effect of the geomagnetic field on the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, Franz; Bartsch, Bengt

    2017-12-01

    In experimental studies, we could show that the visual threshold of man is influenced by the geomagnetic field. One of the results was that the threshold shows periodic fluctuations when the vertical component of the field is reversed periodically. The maximum of these oscillations occurred at a period duration of 110 s. To explain this phenomenon, we chose the process that likely underlies the navigation of birds in the geomagnetic field: the light reaction of the FAD component of cryptochrome in the retina. The human retina contains cryptpochrome like the bird retina. Based on the investigations of Müller and Ahmad (J Biol Chem 286:21033-21040, 2011) and Solov'yov and Schulten (J Phys Chem B 116:1089-1099, 2012), we designed a model of the light-induced reduction and subsequent reoxidation of FAD. This model contains a radical pair, whose interconversion dynamics are affected by the geomagnetic field. The parameters of the model were partly calculated from the data of our experimental investigation and partly taken from the results of other authors. These parameters were then optimized by adjusting the model behaviour to the experimental results. The simulation of the finished model shows that the concentrations of all substances included show really oscillations with the frequency of the modelled magnetic field. After optimization of the parameters, the oscillations of FAD and FADH* show maximal amplitude at a period duration of 110 s, as was observed in the experiment. This makes it most likely that the signal, which influences the visual system, originates from FADH* (signalling state).

  10. The national geomagnetic initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  11. Stochastic modeling of the Earth's magnetic field: Inversion for covariances over the observatory era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, N.; Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Inferring the core dynamics responsible for the observed geomagnetic secular variation requires knowledge of the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary together with its associated model covariances. However, most currently available field models have been built using regularization conditions...... variation error model in core flow inversions and geomagnetic data assimilation studies....

  12. Stochastic modelling of the Earth’s magnetic field: inversion for covariances over the observatory era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillet, Nicolas; Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Inferring the core dynamics responsible for the observed geomagnetic secular variation requires knowledge of the magnetic field at the core mantle boundary together with its associated model covariances. However, all currently available field models have been built using regularization conditions...... variation error model in core flow inversions and geomagnetic data assimilation studies....

  13. Zonal wind observations during a geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N. J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1986-01-01

    In situ measurements taken by the Wind and Temperature Spectrometer (WATS) onboard the Dynamics Explorer 2 spacecraft during a geomagnetic storm display zonal wind velocities that are reduced in the corotational direction as the storm intensifies. The data were taken within the altitudes 275 to 475 km in the dusk local time sector equatorward of the auroral region. Characteristic variations in the value of the Dst index of horizontal geomagnetic field strength are used to monitor the storm evolution. The detected global rise in atmospheric gas temperature indicates the development of thermospheric heating. Concurrent with that heating, reductions in corotational wind velocities were measured equatorward of the auroral region. Just after the sudden commencement, while thermospheric heating is intense in both hemispheres, eastward wind velocities in the northern hemisphere show reductions ranging from 500 m/s over high latitudes to 30 m/s over the geomagnetic equator. After 10 hours storm time, while northern thermospheric heating is diminishing, wind velocity reductions, distinct from those initially observed, begin to develop over southern latitudes. In the latter case, velocity reductions range from 300 m/s over the highest southern latitudes to 150 m/s over the geomagnetic equator and extend into the Northern Hemisphere. The observations highlight the interhemispheric asymmetry in the development of storm effects detected as enhanced gas temperatures and reduced eastward wind velocities. Zonal wind reductions over high latitudes can be attributed to the storm induced equatorward spread of westward polar cap plasma convection and the resulting plasma-neutral collisions. However, those collisions are less significant over low latitudes; so zonal wind reductions over low latitudes must be attributed to an equatorward extension of a thermospheric circulation pattern disrupted by high latitude collisions between neutrals transported via eastward winds and ions

  14. Geomagnetic field: Conclusions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gorodnitsky, A; Subrahmanyam, A

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. New parameterization of external and induced fields in geomagnetic field modeling, and a candidate model for IGRF 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Sabaka, T.J.; Lowes, F.

    2005-01-01

    When deriving spherical harmonic models of the Earth's magnetic field, low-degree external field contributions are traditionally considered by assuming that their expansion coefficient q(1)(0) varies linearly with the D-st-index, while induced contributions are considered assuming a constant ratio...... Q(1) of induced to external coefficients. A value of Q(1) = 0.27 was found from Magsat data and has been used by several authors when deriving recent field models from Orsted and CHAMP data. We describe a new approach that considers external and induced field based on a separation of D-st = E-st + I......-st into external (E-st) and induced (I-st) parts using a 1D model of mantle conductivity. The temporal behavior of q(1)(0) and of the corresponding induced coefficient are parameterized by E-st and I-st, respectively. In addition, we account for baseline-instabilities of D-st by estimating a value of q(1...

  16. Ionospheric and induced field leakage in geomagnetic field models, and derivation of candidate models for DGRF 1995 and DGRF 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Lowes, F.; Sabaka, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    the zonal coefficients g(1)(0), g(3)(0),..., by 1-2 nT. We describe the reason for this contamination, and present a method to correct for it. Since not only OSVM but probably all main field models that are derived primarily from data around local midnight suffer from this effect, the presented scheme can...

  17. New Late Neolithic (c. 7000-5000 BC) archeointensity data from Syria. Reconstructing 9000 years of archeomagnetic field intensity variations in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Molist Montaña, Miquel; Genevey, Agnès; Clop García, Xavier; Thébault, Erwan; Gómez Bach, Anna; Le Goff, Maxime; Robert, Béatrice; Nachasova, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We present new archeomagnetic intensity data from two Late Neolithic archeological sites (Tell Halula and Tell Masaïkh) in Syria. These data, from 24 groups of potsherds encompassing 15 different time levels, are obtained using the Triaxe experimental protocol, which takes into account both the thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate effects on intensity determinations. They allow us to recover the geomagnetic intensity variations in the Middle East, between ∼7000 BC and ∼5000 BC, i.e. during the so-called pre-Halaf, proto-Halaf, Halaf and Halaf-Ubaid Transitional cultural phases. The data are compared with previous archeointensity results of similar ages from Northern Iraq (Yarim Tepe II and Tell Sotto) and Bulgaria. We find that previous dating of the Iraqi material was in error. When corrected, all northern Mesopotamian data show a relatively good consistency and also reasonably match with the Bulgarian archeointensity dataset. Using a compilation of available data, we construct a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for the Middle East encompassing the past 9000 years, which makes it presently the longest known regional archeomagnetic intensity record. We further use this compilation to constrain variations in dipole field moment over most of the Holocene. In particular, we discuss the possibility that a significant dipole moment maximum occurred during the third millennium BC, which cannot easily be identified in available time-varying global geomagnetic field reconstructions.

  18. Kinematic reversal schemes for the geomagnetic dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Fluctuations in the distribution of cyclonic convective cells, in the earth's core, can reverse the sign of the geomagnetic field. Two kinematic reversal schemes are discussed. In the first scheme, a field maintained by cyclones concentrated at low latitude is reversed by a burst of cyclones at high latitude. Conversely, in the second scheme, a field maintained predominantly by cyclones in high latitudes is reversed by a fluctuation consisting of a burst of cyclonic convection at low latitude. The precise fluid motions which produce the geomagnetic field are not known. However, it appears that, whatever the details are, a fluctuation in the distribution of cyclonic cells over latitude can cause a geomagnetic reversal.

  19. Refined permo-triassic paleomagnetic pole for the Siberian platform and geomagnetic secular variations at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary as recorded in volcanic traps key sections of northern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. E.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Khokhlov, A.; Latyshev, A. V.; fluteau, F.

    2011-12-01

    Two new volcanic key sections of the Siberian traps erupted ~ 250 million years ago have been studied in the Norilsk region (NW of the Siberian platform). Along with results obtained earlier from both this area (Heunemann et al., 2004) and Maymecha-Kotuy region (northern Siberian platform, Pavlov et al., 2011) these data constitute rather extensive database, including paleomagnetic information on about 200 volcanic flows. Using this information we can not only get refined permo-triassic paleomagnetic pole for the Siberian platform, based exceptionally on lava flows data, but also estimate amplitude of geomagnetic secular variation at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary and check their compatibility with statistic models, suggested for description of recent (Late Cenozoic) Earth's magnetic field. Moreover, our results can be also used to obtain additional time constraints on duration of the trap emplacement and to isolate volcanic pulses within the traps sections. We present a report where we discuss all these topics. This work was supported by grants NSF # EAR 0807585 and RBRF #09-05-01180, 11-05-00601,10-05- 00557.

  20. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  1. Geomagnetic Principal Magnetic Storms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abbreviations used for observatory names are as follows: GEOMAGNETIC OBSERVATORIES Code Station Geomagnetic Latitude ABG Alibag AMS Martin de Vivie. These data...

  2. Morphology in the total electron content under geomagnetic disturbed conditions: results from global ionosphere maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Biqiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using 8-year global ionosphere maps (GIMs of TEC products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, we make a statistical study on the morphology of the global ionospheric behaviors with respect to the geomagnetic disturbances. Results show that the behaviors of TEC during geomagnetic storm present clear seasonal and local time variations under geomagnetic control in a similar way as those of NmF2 (Field and Rishbeth, 1997. A negative phase of TEC occurs with high probability in the summer hemisphere and most prominent near the geomagnetic poles, while a positive phase is obvious in the winter hemisphere and in the far pole region. A negative storm effect toward lower latitudes tends to occur from post-midnight to the morning sector and recedes to high latitude in the afternoon. A positive storm effect is separated by geomagnetic latitudes and magnetic local time. Furthermore, ionospheric responses at different local time sectors with respect to the storm commencement shows very different developing processes corresponding to the evolution of the geomagnetic storm. A daytime positive storm effect is shown to be more prominent in the American region than those in the Asian and European regions, which may suggest a longitudinal effect of the ionospheric storm.

  3. Morphology in the total electron content under geomagnetic disturbed conditions: results from global ionosphere maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Biqiang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Using 8-year global ionosphere maps (GIMs of TEC products from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, we make a statistical study on the morphology of the global ionospheric behaviors with respect to the geomagnetic disturbances. Results show that the behaviors of TEC during geomagnetic storm present clear seasonal and local time variations under geomagnetic control in a similar way as those of NmF2 (Field and Rishbeth, 1997. A negative phase of TEC occurs with high probability in the summer hemisphere and most prominent near the geomagnetic poles, while a positive phase is obvious in the winter hemisphere and in the far pole region. A negative storm effect toward lower latitudes tends to occur from post-midnight to the morning sector and recedes to high latitude in the afternoon. A positive storm effect is separated by geomagnetic latitudes and magnetic local time. Furthermore, ionospheric responses at different local time sectors with respect to the storm commencement shows very different developing processes corresponding to the evolution of the geomagnetic storm. A daytime positive storm effect is shown to be more prominent in the American region than those in the Asian and European regions, which may suggest a longitudinal effect of the ionospheric storm.

  4. Statistical Properties of Geomagnetic Activity Indices and Solar Wind Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hee Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the prediction of geomagnetic storms is becoming an important and practical problem, conditions in the Earth’s magnetosphere have been studied rigorously in terms of those in the interplanetary space. Another approach to space weather forecast is to deal with it as a probabilistic geomagnetic storm forecasting problem. In this study, we carry out detailed statistical analysis of solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices examining the dependence of the distribution on the solar cycle and annual variations. Our main findings are as follows: (1 The distribution of parameters obtained via the superimposed epoch method follows the Gaussian distribution. (2 When solar activity is at its maximum the mean value of the distribution is shifted to the direction indicating the intense environment. Furthermore, the width of the distribution becomes wider at its maximum than at its minimum so that more extreme case can be expected. (3 The distribution of some certain heliospheric parameters is less sensitive to the phase of the solar cycle and annual variations. (4 The distribution of the eastward component of the interplanetary electric field BV and the solar wind driving function BV2, however, appears to be all dependent on the solar maximum/minimum, the descending/ascending phases of the solar cycle and the equinoxes/solstices. (5 The distribution of the AE index and the Dst index shares statistical features closely with BV and BV2 compared with other heliospheric parameters. In this sense, BV and BV2 are more robust proxies of the geomagnetic storm. We conclude by pointing out that our results allow us to step forward in providing the occurrence probability of geomagnetic storms for space weather and physical modeling.

  5. Five millions years of paleosecular variations from the Golan Heights volcanic field, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, N.; Shaar, R.; Asefaw, H.; Ebert, Y.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most fundamental assumption in paleomagnetism is that the averaged geomagnetic field on geological timescales is a geocentric axial dipole (GAD). Given the first order importance of the GAD hypothesis, it is essential to rigorously test its validity and to understand the limits of its use. Additionally, it is equally vital to characterize statistically paleomagnetic secular variations (PSV) over timescales of 106 years. The Plio-Pleistocene volcanic field in the Golan Heights, Israel (32.7°N-33.3°N) is a nearly ideal location to investigate these issues, owing to excellent exposure of basaltic flows, dated using more than 100 radiometric (K/Ar and Ar/Ar) ages covering the past 5 Myr. Here we present new data from 89 basalt flows from the Golan Heights with ages spanning from 5.4 Ma to 0.1 Ma, and 18 new Ar/Ar ages. This relatively large dataset allows us to calculate three different Virtual Geomagnetic Poles (VGP): Pleistocene, Pliocene, and a combined Plio-Pleistocene. From each pole we calculate the inclination anomaly (ΔI) and the VGP scatter parameter (SB). The Pleistocene pole yields a VGP scatter parameter around SB =13, lower than predictions of PSV models. Also, it demonstrates negligible inclination anomaly of less than 2°, suggesting validation of the GAD model. The Pliocene pole shows a larger scatter (SB 18) and a negative inclination anomaly around ΔI = -7°. We discuss these results in view of the worldwide paleomagnetic database and the available PSV models.

  6. Development of deepsea geomagnetic and electric fields observation system using submarine cables. 2; Kaitei cable riyo no shinkai chijiki denba kansoku station no kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T; Nakatsuka, T; Murakami, Y [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Onishi, N

    1997-10-22

    VENUS Project aims at constructing a deepsea geomagnetic and electric fields observation station to cover the Ryukyu Trench, Philippine Sea, and Mariana Trough, by the reuse of the Okinawa-Guam commercial marine communication cable now out of service. This report deals with a scenario for the development of a geomagnetic/electric observation system as a part of the planned long-term sea bottom observation effort and the installation of equipment therefor. The first stage consists of the towing of a frame mounted with the system equipment and a cable to connect to a data transmission relay and their placement at a specified location on the sea bottom. The cable is extended toward the relay and its leading end is allowed to land near the relay. Next, a manned submersible vessel is used to connect the cable end to the relay, the submersible vessel is next driven along the connection cable toward the system equipment for the determination of the position and orientation of the system equipment, and then electrodes are arrayed at an interval of 20m into an L-letter configuration. The system will be established in March, 1998, on the 4200m-deep continental slope of the Ryukyu Trench approximately 90km southeast of Okinawa. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Variational method for integrating radial gradient field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legarda-Saenz, Ricardo; Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Rivera, Mariano; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo

    2014-12-01

    We propose a variational method for integrating information obtained from circular fringe pattern. The proposed method is a suitable choice for objects with radial symmetry. First, we analyze the information contained in the fringe pattern captured by the experimental setup and then move to formulate the problem of recovering the wavefront using techniques from calculus of variations. The performance of the method is demonstrated by numerical experiments with both synthetic and real data.

  8. VLF Wave Properties During Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Artemyev, A.; Mozer, F.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Whistler-mode chorus is important for the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere electron population due to its ability to scatter and accelerate electrons of a wide energy range in the outer radiation belt. The parameters of these VLF emissions change dynamically during geomagnetic storms. Presented is an analysis of four years of Van Allen probe data, utilizing electric and magnetic field in the VLF range focused on the dynamics of chorus wave properties during the enhancement of geomagnetic activity. It is found that VLF emissions respond to geomagnetic storms in more complicated ways than just by affecting the waves' amplitude growth or depletion. Oblique wave amplitudes grow together with parallel waves during periods of intermediate geomagnetic activity, while the occurrence rate of oblique waves decreases during larger geomagnetic storms.

  9. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haihong; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-01-01

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H p (y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H p (y), its slope coefficient K S and maximum gradient K max changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H p (y) and its slope coefficient K S increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H p (y) and K S reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H p (y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H p (y), K S , K max and the change rate of K S increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H p (y) signals. • Magnitude of H p (y), K S and K max increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  10. Magnetic memory signals variation induced by applied magnetic field and static tensile stress in ferromagnetic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haihong, E-mail: huanghaihong@hfut.edu.cn; Yang, Cheng; Qian, Zhengchun; Han, Gang; Liu, Zhifeng

    2016-10-15

    Stress can induce a spontaneous magnetic field in ferromagnetic steel under the excitation of geomagnetic field. In order to investigate the impact of applied magnetic field and tensile stress on variation of the residual magnetic signals on the surface of ferromagnetic materials, static tensile tests of Q235 structural steel were carried out, with the normal component of the residual magnetic signals, H{sub p}(y), induced by applied magnetic fields with different intensities measured through the tensile tests. The H{sub p}(y), its slope coefficient K{sub S} and maximum gradient K{sub max} changing with the applied magnetic field H and tensile stress were observed. Results show that the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) and its slope coefficient K{sub S} increase linearly with the increase of stress in the elastic deformation stage. Under yield stress, H{sub p}(y) and K{sub S} reach its maximum, and then decrease slightly with further increase of stress. Applied magnetic field affects the magnitude of H{sub p}(y) instead of changing the signal curve′s profile; and the magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S}, K{sub max} and the change rate of K{sub S} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. The phenomenon is also discussed from the viewpoint of magnetic charge in ferromagnetic materials. - Highlights: • We investigated how applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact H{sub p}(y) signals. • Magnitude of H{sub p}(y), K{sub S} and K{sub max} increase with the increase of applied magnetic field. • Both applied magnetic field and tensile stress impact material magnetic permeability. • Applied magnetic field can help to evaluate the stress distribution of components.

  11. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  12. Natural time analysis on the ultra-low frequency magnetic field variations prior to the 2016 Kumamoto (Japan) earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potirakis, Stelios M.; Schekotov, Alexander; Asano, Tomokazu; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2018-04-01

    On 15 April 2016 a very strong and shallow earthquake (EQ) (MW = 7.0 , depth ∼ 10 km) occurred in Southwest Japan under the city of Kumamoto, while two very strong foreshocks (MW = 6.2 and MW = 6.0) preceded by about one day. The Kumamoto EQs being very catastrophic, have already attracted much attention among the scientific community in a quest for understanding the generation mechanism, as well as for reporting any preseismic anomalies in various observables and assessing the effectivity of the current early warning systems. In the present article we report precursory behavior of the ground-based observed ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetic field variations before the Kumamoto EQs. By analyzing specific ULF magnetic field characteristics in terms of the recently introduced natural time (NT) analysis method, we identified that ULF magnetic field variations presented critical features from 2 weeks up to 1 month before the Kumamoto EQs. Specifically, the ULF magnetic field characteristics Fh , Fz , Dh and δDep were analyzed. The first two represent variations of the horizontal and vertical components of the geomagnetic field. The third and fourth characteristics correspond to the depression (decrease) and a relative depression of the horizontal magnetic field variations, respectively. The latter depends on the degree of ionospheric disturbance. All of them were found to reach criticality before the Kumamoto EQs; however, in different time periods for each characteristic.

  13. Super-Planckian spatial field variations and quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaewer, Daniel; Palti, Eran [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität,Philosophenweg 19, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    We study scenarios where a scalar field has a spatially varying vacuum expectation value such that the total field variation is super-Planckian. We focus on the case where the scalar field controls the coupling of a U(1) gauge field, which allows us to apply the Weak Gravity Conjecture to such configurations. We show that this leads to evidence for a conjectured property of quantum gravity that as a scalar field variation in field space asymptotes to infinity there must exist an infinite tower of states whose mass decreases as an exponential function of the scalar field variation. We determine the rate at which the mass of the states reaches this exponential behaviour showing that it occurs quickly after the field variation passes the Planck scale.

  14. Modelling geomagnetically induced currents in midlatitude Central Europe using a thin-sheet approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Halbedl, Thomas S.; Schattauer, Ingrid; Römer, Alexander; Achleitner, Georg; Beggan, Ciaran D.; Wesztergom, Viktor; Egli, Ramon; Leonhardt, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) in power systems, which can lead to transformer damage over the short and the long term, are a result of space weather events and geomagnetic variations. For a long time, only high-latitude areas were considered to be at risk from these currents, but recent studies show that considerable GICs also appear in midlatitude and equatorial countries. In this paper, we present initial results from a GIC model using a thin-sheet approach with detailed surface and subsurface conductivity models to compute the induced geoelectric field. The results are compared to measurements of direct currents in a transformer neutral and show very good agreement for short-period variations such as geomagnetic storms. Long-period signals such as quiet-day diurnal variations are not represented accurately, and we examine the cause of this misfit. The modelling of GICs from regionally varying geoelectric fields is discussed and shown to be an important factor contributing to overall model accuracy. We demonstrate that the Austrian power grid is susceptible to large GICs in the range of tens of amperes, particularly from strong geomagnetic variations in the east-west direction.

  15. Toward a possible next geomagnetic transition?

    OpenAIRE

    A. De Santis; E. Qamili; L. Wu

    2013-01-01

    The geomagnetic field is subject to possible reversals or excursions of polarity during its temporal evolution. Considering that: (a) the typical average time between one reversal and the next (the so-called chron) is around 300 000 yr, (b) the last reversal occurred around 780 000 yr ago, (c) more excursions (rapid changes of polarity) can occur within the same chron and (d) the geomagnetic field dipole is currently decreasing, a possible imminent geomagne...

  16. Spatial Variations of Poloidal and Toroidal Mode Field Line Resonances Observed by MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Slavin, J. A.; Anderson, B. J.; Kepko, L.; Nakamura, R.; Plaschke, F.; Torbert, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Field line resonances (FLRs) are magnetosphere's responses to solar wind forcing and internal instabilities generated by solar wind-magnetospheric interactions. They are standing waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines oscillating in either poloidal or toroidal modes. The two types of waves have their unique frequency characteristics. The eigenfrequency of FLRs is determined by the length of the field line and the plasma density, and thus gradually changes with L. For toroidal mode oscillations with magnetic field perturbations in the azimuthal direction, ideal MHD predicts that each field line oscillates independently with its own eigenfrequency. For poloidal mode waves with field lines oscillating radially, their frequency cannot change with L easily as L shells need to oscillate in sync to avoid efficient damping due to phase mixing. Observations, mainly during quiet times, indeed show that poloidal mode waves often exhibit nearly constant frequency across L shells. Our recent observations, on the other hand, reveal a clear L-dependent frequency trend for a long lasting storm-time poloidal wave event, indicating the wave can maintain its power with changing frequencies for an extended period [Le et al., 2017]. The spatial variation of the frequency shows discrete spatial structures. The frequency remains constant within each discrete structure that spans about 1 REalong L, and changes discretely. We present a follow-up study to investigate spatial variations of wave frequencies using the Wigner-Ville distribution. We examine both poloidal and toroidal waves under different geomagnetic conditions using multipoint observations from MMS, and compare their frequency and occurrence characteristics for insights into their generation mechanisms. Reference: Le, G., et al. (2017), Global observations of magnetospheric high-m poloidal waves during the 22 June 2015 magnetic storm, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 3456-3464, doi:10.1002/2017GL073048.

  17. Computation of geomagnetic elements for Nigeria for the year 2000 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Earth's magnetic field may be considered to be the sum of two parts, the main geomagnetic field which originates from the earth's fluid core, and the anomaly field that has its sources in the earth crust. The analysis of the geomagnetic field residual or anomaly, obtained from the difference between these two sources are ...

  18. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T. G.; Miah, M. A.; Mitchell, J. M.; Wefel, J. P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of about 10 deg but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 Km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969-1982) of the intensity.

  19. Low-altitude trapped protons at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, T.G.; Miah, M.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Wefel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Geomagnetically trapped protons in the 0.6- to 9-MeV energy range were measured at latitudes near the geomagnetic equator by the Phoenix 1 experiment on board the S81-1 mission from May to November 1982. The protons show a distribution in latitude along the line of minimum magnetic field strength with a full width at half maximum of ∼10 0 but with no appreciable longitudinal variation. Between 170 and 290 km the peak proton flux shows a fifth-power altitude dependence, in contrast to previous measurements at higher altitudes, possibly demonstrating source attenuation. The efficiency of the telescope is calculated as a function of particle pitch angle and used to investigate the time dependence (1969--1982) of the intensity. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  20. A high-resolution, 60 kyr record of the relative geomagnetic field intensity from Lake Towuti, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirana, Kartika Hajar; Bijaksana, Satria; King, John; Tamuntuan, Gerald Hendrik; Russell, James; Ngkoimani, La Ode; Dahrin, Darharta; Fajar, Silvia Jannatul

    2018-02-01

    Past changes in the Earth's magnetic field can be highlighted through reconstructions of magnetic paleointensity. Many magnetic field variation features are global, and can be used for the detailed correlation and dating of sedimentary records. On the other hand, sedimentary magnetic records also exhibit features on a regional, rather than a global scale. Therefore, the development of regional scale magnetic field reconstructions is necessary to optimize magnetic paleointensity dating. In this paper, a 60 thousand year (kyr) paleointensity record is presented, using the core TOW10-9B of Lake Towuti, located in the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, as a part of the ongoing research towards understanding the Indonesian environmental history, and reconstructing a high-resolution regional magnetic record from dating the sediments. Located in the East Sulawesi Ophiolite Belt, the bedrock surrounding Lake Towuti consists of ultramafic rocks that render the lake sediments magnetically strong, creating challenges in the reconstruction of the paleointensity record. These sediment samples were subject to a series of magnetic measurements, followed by testing the obtained paleointensity records resulting from normalizing natural remanent magnetization (NRM) against different normalizing parameters. These paleointensity records were then compared to other regional, as well as global, records of magnetic paleointensity. The results show that for the magnetically strong Lake Towuti sediments, an anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) is the best normalizer. A series of magnetic paleointensity excursions are observed during the last 60 kyr, including the Laschamp excursion at 40 kyr BP, that provide new information about the magnetic history and stratigraphy of the western tropical Pacific region. We conclude that the paleointensity record of Lake Towuti is reliable and in accordance with the high-quality regional and global trends.

  1. A new regard about Surlari National Geomagnetic Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimopolos, Laurentiu; Asimopolos, Natalia-Silvia; Pestina, Agata-Monica

    2010-05-01

    Geomagnetic field study in Romanian stations has started with irregular measurements in late XIXth century. In 1943, the foundation of Surlari National Geomagnetic Observatory (SNGO) marks the beginning of a new era in the systematic study of geomagnetic field by a continuous registration of its variations and by carrying out standard absolute measurements in a fundamental station. The location of the observatory meets the highest exigencies, being situated in physical-geological conditions of a uniform local field, at a reasonably long distance from human activities. Its laboratories observe strict conditions of non-magnetism, ensuring the possibility of absolute standard measurements (national magnetic standards) for all the units in the country, civil or military, which are endowed with equipment based on geomagnetic metrology. These basic conditions have allowed the observatory to become by developing its initial preoccupations a centre of complex geomagnetic research, constantly involved in national and international issues, promoting new themes in our country and bringing significant contributions. During the last two decades, infrastructure and equipment used in monitoring geomagnetic field at European and planetary level have experienced a remarkable development. New registering techniques have allowed a complete to automate of data acquisition, and sampling step and their precision increased by two classes of size. Systems of transmitting these data in real time to world collecting centres have resulted in the possibility of approaching globalize studies, suitable for following some phenomena at planetary scale. At the same time, a significant development in the procedures of processing primary data has been registered, based on standardized programmes. The new stage of this fundamental research, largely applicable in various fields, is also marked by the simultaneous observation of space-time distribution of terrestrial electromagnetic field by means of

  2. The correspondence between dayside long-period geomagnetic pulsations and the open-closed field line boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, V. A.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Baddeley, L. J.

    2018-05-01

    Long-period pulsations in the nominal Pc5-6 band (periods about 3-15 min) have been known to be a persistent feature of dayside high latitudes. A mixture of broadband Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrowband P≿5 waves is often observed. The mechanism and origin of IPCL have not been firmly established yet. Magnetopause surface eigenmodes were suggested as a potential source of high-latitude ULF waves with frequencies less than 2 mHz. A ground response to these modes is expected to be beneath the ionospheric projection of the open-closed field line boundary (OCB). To unambiguously resolve a possible association of IPCL with the magnetopause surface modes, multi-instrument observation data from Svalbard have been analyzed. We examine the latitudinal structure of high-latitude pulsations in the Pc5-6 band recorded by magnetometers covering near-cusp latitudes. This structure is compared with an instant location of the equatorward boundary of the cusp aurora, assumed to be a proxy of the OCB. The optical OCB latitude has been identified by an automatic algorithm, using data from the meridian scanning photometer at Longyearbyen, Svalbard. The comparison has shown that the latitudinal maximum of the broadband IPCL maximizes about 2°-3° deeper in the magnetosphere than the OCB optical proxy. Therefore, these pulsations cannot be associated with the ground image of the magnetopause surface modes. It is likely that an essentially non-dipole geometry of field lines and a high variability of the magnetopause region may suppress the excitation efficiency. The obtained result imposes important limitations on possible mechanisms of high-latitude dayside ULF variations.

  3. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    points on the sphere to resolve the calibration parameters. This approach is nearly identical to 5 Vasconcelos [44]. Additionally, the composition of...possible. 1.1.5 Three-axis Magnetometer Calibration. Vasconcelos et al., addressed three-dimensional ellipsoid calibration techniques for...Strangway, David W. History of the Earth’s Magnetic Field. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY, 1970. 44. Vasconcelos , J.F., G. Elkaim, C. Silvestre, P

  4. A simple statistical model for geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Catherine

    1990-01-01

    The diversity of paleomagnetic records of geomagnetic reversals now available indicate that the field configuration during transitions cannot be adequately described by simple zonal or standing field models. A new model described here is based on statistical properties inferred from the present field and is capable of simulating field transitions like those observed. Some insight is obtained into what one can hope to learn from paleomagnetic records. In particular, it is crucial that the effects of smoothing in the remanence acquisition process be separated from true geomagnetic field behavior. This might enable us to determine the time constants associated with the dominant field configuration during a reversal.

  5. An impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past

    OpenAIRE

    Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day...

  6. Magnetotactic bacteria at the geomagnetic equator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, R.B.; Blakemore, R.P.; Araujo, F.F.T. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.; Danon, J.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetotatic bacteria are observed in freshwater and marine sediments of Fortaleza, Brazil, situated close to the geomagnetic equator. Both South-seeking and North-seeking bacteria are present in roughly equal numbers in the same samples. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the vertical component of the geomagnetic field selects the predominant polarity type among magnetotactic bacteria in natural environments. (Author) [pt

  7. Model of Dipole Field Variations in the LEP Bending Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; Drees, A; Mugnai, G

    1998-01-01

    The determination of the Z mass at LEP requires a knowledge of the relative beam energy in the order of 10 ppm, therefore it is essential to understand the dipole field variations to the same level of accuracy. In LEP the bending magnet field shows a relative increase of the order of 100 ppm over 10 hours, which was found to be caused by leakage currents from railways flowing along the vacuum cham ber and temperature variations. A LEP dipole test bench was set up for systematic investigations. Field variations were monitored with NMR probes while the cooling water temperature of both coil and vacuum chamber was kept under control. The results lead to a parametrisation of the magnetic field variation as a function of the vacuum chamber current and temperature.

  8. Lower thermosphere (80-100 km) dynamics response to solar and geomagnetic activity: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimirovsky, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    The variations of solar and geomagnetic activity may affect the thermosphere circulation via plasma heating and electric fields, especially at high latitudes. The possibility exists that the energy involved in auroral and magnetic storms can produce significant changes of mesosphere and lower thermosphere wind systems. A study of global radar measurements of winds at 80 to 100 km region revealed the short term effects (correlation between wind field and geomagnetic storms) and long term variations over a solar cycle. It seems likely that the correlation results from a modification of planetary waves and tides propagated from below, thus altering the dynamical regime of the thermosphere. Sometimes the long term behavior points rather to a climatic variation with the internal atmospheric cause than to a direct solar control

  9. Analysis of Total Electron Content and Electron Density Profile during Different Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, N. P.; Rana, B.; Adhikari, B.

    2017-12-01

    Total Electron content (TEC) and electron density are the key parameters in the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio communication system. Detail study of the TEC and electron density variations has been carried out during geomagnetic storms, with longitude and latitude, for four different locations: (13˚N -17˚N, 88˚E -98˚E), (30˚N-50˚N, 120˚W -95˚W), (29˚S-26˚S, 167˚W-163˚W,) and (60˚S-45˚S, 120˚W-105˚W) using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations. In order to find the geomagnetic activity, the solar wind parameters such as north-south component of inter planetary magnetic field (Bz), plasma drift velocity (Vsw), flow pressure (nPa), AE, Dst and Kp indices were obtained from Operating Mission as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) web system. The data for geomagnetic indices have been correlated with the TEC and electron density for four different events of geomagnetic storms on 6 April 2008, 27 March 2008, 4 September 2008, and 11 October 2008. The result illustrates that the observed TEC and electron density profile significantly vary with longitudes and latitudes. This study illustrates that the values of TEC and the vertical electron density profile are influenced by the solar wind parameters associated with solar activities. The peak values of electron density and TEC increase as the geomagnetic storms become stronger. Similarly, the electron density profile varies with altitudes, which peaks around the altitude range of about 250- 350 km, depending on the strength of geomagnetic storms. The results clearly show that the peak electron density shifted to higher altitude (from about 250 km to 350 km) as the geomagnetic disturbances becomes stronger.

  10. Spatial Variation of Magnetotelluric Field Components in simple 2D ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The E-polarization mode electromagnetic field components were computed for different aspect ratios of the inhomogeneity and for different frequencies of the incident waves. The results show that as aspect ratio of the inhomogeneity is reduced the spatial variation of the electric field component Ex is reduced and that of the ...

  11. Geotectonic variations of radon fields in Tashkent subway stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yafasov, A.Ya.; Akimov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The anomalies of radon fields in the air of stations of Tashkent subway were investigated. These stations are located in areas with different tectonic characteristics. The influence of tectonic anomalies on formation and variations of radon fields in the environment was shown. (author)

  12. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its

  13. Variational multi-valued velocity field estimation for transparent sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez-Manzanares, Alonso; Rivera, Mariano; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Motion estimation in sequences with transparencies is an important problem in robotics and medical imaging applications. In this work we propose a variational approach for estimating multi-valued velocity fields in transparent sequences. Starting from existing local motion estimators, we derive...... a variational model for integrating in space and time such a local information in order to obtain a robust estimation of the multi-valued velocity field. With this approach, we can indeed estimate multi-valued velocity fields which are not necessarily piecewise constant on a layer –each layer can evolve...

  14. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  15. Geometric effects of ICMEs on geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, KyungSuk; Lee, Jae-Ok

    2017-04-01

    It has been known that the geomagnetic storm is occurred by the interaction between the Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) and the Earth's magnetosphere; especially, the southward Bz component of ICME is thought as the main trigger. In this study, we investigate the relationship between Dst index and solar wind conditions; which are the southward Bz, electric field (VBz), and time integral of electric field as well as ICME parameters derived from toroidal fitting model in order to find what is main factor to the geomagnetic storm. We also inspect locations of Earth in ICMEs to understand the geometric effects of the Interplanetary Flux Ropes (IFRs) on the geomagnetic storms. Among 59 CDAW ICME lists, we select 30 IFR events that are available by the toroidal fitting model and classify them into two sub-groups: geomagnetic storms associated with the Magnetic Clouds (MCs) and the compression regions ahead of the MCs (sheath). The main results are as follows: (1) The time integral of electric field has a higher correlation coefficient (cc) with Dst index than the other parameters: cc=0.85 for 25 MC events and cc=0.99 for 5 sheath events. (2) The sheath associated intense storms (Dst ≤-100nT) having usually occur at flank regions of ICMEs while the MC associated intense storms occur regardless of the locations of the Earth in ICMEs. The strength of a geomagnetic storm strongly depends on electric field of IFR and durations of the IFR passages through the Earth.

  16. Effect of geomagnetic storms on the daytime low-latitude thermospheric wave dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karan, Deepak K.; Pallamraju, Duggirala

    2018-05-01

    The equatorial- and low-latitude thermospheric dynamics is affected by both equatorial electrodynamics and neutral wave dynamics, the relative variation of which is dependent on the prevalent background conditions, which in turn has a seasonal dependence. Depending on the ambient thermospheric conditions, varying effects of the geomagnetic disturbances on the equatorial- and low-latitude thermosphere are observed. To investigate the effect of these disturbances on the equatorial- and low-latitude neutral wave dynamics, daytime airglow emission intensities at OI 557.7 nm, OI 630.0 nm, and OI 777.4 nm are used. These emissions from over a large field-of-view (FOV∼1000) have been obtained using a high resolution slit spectrograph, MISE (Multiwavelength Imaging Spectrograph using Echelle grating), from a low-latitude location, Hyderabad (17.50N, 78.40E; 8.90N MLAT), in India. Variations of the dayglow emission intensities are investigated during three geomagnetic disturbance events that occurred in different seasons. It is seen that the neutral dayglow emission intensities at all the three wavelengths showed different type of variations with the disturbance storm time (Dst) index in different seasons. Even though the dayglow emission intensities over low-latitude regions are sensitive to the variation in the equatorial electric fields, during periods of geomagnetic disturbances, especially in solstices, these are dependent on thermospheric O/N2 values. This shows the dominance of neutral dynamics over electrodynamics in the low-latitude upper atmosphere during geomagnetic disturbances. Further, spectral analyses have been carried out to obtain the zonal scale sizes in the gravity wave regime and their diurnal distributions are compared for geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days. Broadly, the zonal scales seem to be breaking into various scale sizes on days of geomagnetic disturbances when compared to those on quiet days. This contrast in the diurnal distribution of the

  17. Hot gauge field properties from the thermal variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Y.; Schulz, H.

    1995-10-01

    A Feynman-Jensen version of the thermal variational principle is applied to hot gauge fields, abelian as well as nonabelian: scalar electrodynamics (without scalar self-coupling) and the gluon plasma. The perturbatively known self-energies are shown to derive by variation from a free quadratic (''gaussian'') trial Lagrangian. Independence of the covariant gauge fixing parameter is reached (within the order g 2 studies and for scalar ED) after a reformulation of the partition function such that it depends on only even powers of the gauge field. This way, however, the potential non-perturbative power of the calculus seems to be ruined. (orig.)

  18. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  19. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  20. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  1. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  2. The Earth's revolution, Moon phase, Syzygy astronomy events, their effect in disturbances of the Earth's geomagnetic field, and the ``Magnetic Storm Double Time Method'' for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I. W.

    2003-04-01

    An increasing number of geomagnetic observation stations were established and operated in China since 1966 to the 1980s (and until present), effectively covering a large area of the nation. Close relativity between magnetic storms and earthquakes, as well as close relativity between the regional differences of magnetic disturbance recorded by these stations and the epicenter location of earthquakes, was discovered and observed by Tie-zheng Zhang during1966 - 1969. On such basis during 1969/1970, Zhang developed the “Magnetic Storm Double Time Method” for predicting the occurrence time, magnitude and epicenter location of EQs. By this method,.Zhang successfully predicted the Yunnan Tonghai Ms7.7 EQ Jan. 5, 1970 (occurrence date only), the Bohai ML5.2 EQ, Feb. 12, 1970 and other EQs, including the Haicheng Ms7.3 EQ Feb. 4, 1975, and the Tangshan Ms7.8 EQ July 28, 1976. On the basis of this method, Z.P. Shen developed the “Geomagnetic Deflection Angle Double Time Method” in 1970, and later developed the “Magnetic Storm - Moon Phase Double Time Method” in 1990s. With this method, Shen is able to predict the occurrence dates of most of the strongest EQs Ms37.5 on the Earth since 1991. Zhang also discovered that strong EQs often correspond with a number of sets of magnetic storms. Z.Q. Ren discovered close relativity exists between Syzygy astronomy events and such sets of magnetic storm as well as the occurrence dates of strong EQs. Computerized calculation of historical magnetic storm and EQ data proves the effectiveness of this method. Over 3,000 days of geomagnetic isoline images are computer processed by the Author from over 400,000 geomagnetic field data obtained by Zhang from over 100 geomagnetic observation stations during 1966 - 1984. Clear relativity is shown between the Earth’s revolution, Moon phases, Syzygy astronomy events related to the Earth, and their disturbance effect on the Earth’s geomagnetic field and the occurrence of EQs.

  3. Rapid core field variations during the satellite era: Investigations using stochastic process based field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    We present a new ensemble of time-dependent magnetic field models constructed from satellite and observatory data spanning 1997-2013 that are compatible with prior information concerning the temporal spectrum of core field variations. These models allow sharper field changes compared to tradition...... physical hypotheses can be tested by asking questions of the entire ensemble of core field models, rather than by interpreting any single model.......We present a new ensemble of time-dependent magnetic field models constructed from satellite and observatory data spanning 1997-2013 that are compatible with prior information concerning the temporal spectrum of core field variations. These models allow sharper field changes compared to traditional...... regularization methods based on minimizing the square of second or third time derivative. We invert satellite and observatory data directly by adopting the external field and crustal field modelling framework of the CHAOS model, but apply the stochastic process method of Gillet et al. (2013) to the core field...

  4. Variational principles for particles and fields in Heisenberg matrix mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.; Li, C.T.; Vassanji, M.

    1980-01-01

    For many years we have advocated a form of quantum mechanics based on the application of sum rule methods (completeness) to the equations of motion and to the commutation relations, i.e., to Heisenberg matrix mechanics. Sporadically we have discussed or alluded to a variational foundation for this method. In this paper we present a series of variational principles applicable to a range of systems from one-dimensional quantum mechanics to quantum fields. The common thread is that the stationary quantity is the trace of the Hamiltonian over Hilbert space (or over a subspace of interest in an approximation) expressed as a functional of matrix elements of the elementary operators of the theory. These parameters are constrained by the kinematical relations of the theory introduced by the method of Lagrange multipliers. For the field theories, variational principles in which matrix elements of the density operators are chosen as fundamental are also developed. A qualitative discussion of applications is presented

  5. Relation of atmogeochemical field variations to radon metronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruntorad, J.

    1996-01-01

    Atmogeochemical field variations were monitored through the equivalent volume activity of radon. The interdependences between the various physical variables and the radon activity are presented and discussed, and it is shown that the problem is very complex and a number of factors have to be taken into account. (P.A.). 10 figs., 24 refs

  6. Geomagnetic observations on Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, Nils; Maule, C. F.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37 degrees 05' S, 12 degrees 18' W, is therefore of cr...

  7. Using ACE Observations of Interplanetary Particles and Magnetic Fields as Possible Contributors to Variations Observed at Van Allen Probes during Major events in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Patterson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Observations from ACE EPAM including energy spectra of protons, helium, and oxygen will be prepared for coordinated use in estimating the direct and indirect access of energetic particles to inner and outer geomagnetic trapping zones. Complete temporal coverage from ACE at 12 seconds, 5 minutes, 17 minutes, hourly and daily cadences will be used to catalog interplanetary events arriving at Earth including interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries, interplanetary shocks, and interplanetary coronal mass ejections, ICMEs. The first 6 months of 2013 have included both highly disturbed times, March 17 and May 22, and extended quiet periods of little or no variations. Among the specific questions that ACE and Van Allen Probes coordinated observations may aid in resolving are: 1. How much, if any, direct capture of interplanetary energetic particles occurs and what conditions account for it? 2. How much influence do interplanetary field and particle variations have on energization and/or loss of geomagnetically trapped populations? The poster will also present important links and describe methods and important details of access to numerically expressed ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE observations that can be flexibly and easily accessed via the internet for student and senior researcher use.

  8. A high-resolution paleosecular variation record from Black Sea sediments indicating fast directional changes associated with low field intensities during marine isotope stage (MIS) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Jiabo, Liu; Frank, Ute; Arz, Helge W.

    2018-02-01

    A total of nine sediment cores recovered from the Archangelsky Ridge in the SE Black Sea were systematically subjected to intense paleo- and mineral magnetic analyses. Besides 16 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C ages available for another core from this area, dating was accomplished by correlation of short-term warming events during the last glacial monitored by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning as maxima in both Ca/Ti and K/Ti ratios in Black Sea sediments to the so-called 'Dansgaard-Oeschger events' recognized from Greenland ice cores. Thus, several hiatuses could be identified in the various cores during the last glacial/interglacial cycle. Finally, core sections documenting marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 at high resolution back to 69 ka were selected for detailed analyses. At 64.5 ka, according to obtained results from Black Sea sediments, the second deepest minimum in relative paleointensity during the past 69 ka occurred, with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion at 41 ka being associated with the lowest field intensities. The field minimum during MIS 4 is associated with large declination swings beginning about 3 ka before the minimum. While a swing to 50°E is associated with steep inclinations (50-60°) according to the coring site at 42°N, the subsequent declination swing to 30°W is associated with shallow inclinations of down to 40°. Nevertheless, these large deviations from the direction of a geocentric axial dipole field (I = 61 °, D = 0 °) still can not yet be termed as 'excursional', since latitudes of corresponding virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) only reach down to 51.5°N (120°E) and 61.5°N (75°W), respectively. However, these VGP positions at opposite sides of the globe are linked with VGP drift rates of up to 0.2° per year in between. These extreme secular variations might be the mid-latitude expression of a geomagnetic excursion with partly reversed inclinations found at several sites much further North in Arctic

  9. Geomagnetic spikes on the core-mantle boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. J.; Constable, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme variations of Earth's magnetic field occurred in the Levantine region around 1000 BC, where the field intensity rose and fell by a factor of 2-3 over a short time and confined spatial region. There is presently no coherent link between this intensity spike and the generating processes in Earth's liquid core. Here we test the attribution of a surface spike to a flux patch visible on the core-mantle boundary (CMB), calculating geometric and energetic bounds on resulting surface geomagnetic features. We show that the Levantine intensity high must span at least 60 degrees in longitude. Models providing the best trade-off between matching surface spike intensity, minimizing L1 and L2 misfit to the available data and satisfying core energy constraints produce CMB spikes 8-22 degrees wide with peak values of O(100) mT. We propose that the Levantine spike grew in place before migrating northward and westward, contributing to the growth of the axial dipole field seen in Holocene field models. Estimates of Ohmic dissipation suggest that diffusive processes, which are often neglected, likely govern the ultimate decay of geomagnetic spikes. Using these results, we search for the presence of spike-like features in geodynamo simulations.

  10. Variational field theoretic approach to relativistiv meson-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Rosenfelder, R.; Schreiber, A.W.; TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC; Adelaide Univ., SA; Adelaide Univ., SA; Univ. Adelaide

    1998-01-01

    Non-perturbative polaron variational methods are applied, within the so-called particle or worldline representation of relativistic field theory, to study scattering in the context of the scalar Wick-Cutkosky model. Important features of the variational calculation are that it is a controlled approximation scheme valid for arbitrary coupling strengths, the Green functions have all the cuts and poles expected for the exact result at any order in perturbation theory and that the variational parameters are simultaneously sensitive to the infrared as well as the ultraviolet behaviour of the theory. We generalize the previously used quadratic trial action by allowing more freedom for off-shell propagation without a change in the on-shell variational equations and evaluate the scattering amplitude at first order in the variational scheme. Particular attention is paid to the s-channel scattering near threshold because here non-perturbative effects can be large. We check the unitarity of a our numerical calculation and find it greatly improved compared to perturbation theory and to the zeroth order variational results. (orig.)

  11. Geomagnetic response to sudden expansions of the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Tohru; Nagano, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The geomagnetic response to five successive sudden expansions of the magnetosphere was examined by the use of magnetic data observed on the ground and by satellites. At the geosynchronous orbit between 0800 and 1100 LT the magnetic field component parallel to Earth's rotation axis decreased successively. The amplitude and the fall time of each decrease were 20-30 nT and 2.5-3.5 min, respectively. The decrease was propagated about 10 min later to the distance of about 31 R E from Earth in the antisunward direction, indicating propagation speed of about 300 km/s. The H component of ground magnetograms from low-latitude stations showed decreases with waveform similar to that at the geosynchronous orbit, but each decrease at the dayside equator was greatly enhanced and preceded by a short small positive impulse. Each of the corresponding geomagnetic variations at high latitude stations consisted of two successive sharp pulses of opposite sense with 2-3 min duration. The dominant component and the sense of these high-latitude pulses were highly dependent upon local time and latitude. The distribution of equivalent ionospheric current arrows for each high-latitude pulse showed clear twin vortices centered at 70-76 degree geomagnetic latitude in the dayside and was approximately symmetric with respect to the noon meridian. The current direction of the vortices was reversed from the first pulse to the second. it suggests successive appearance of a dawn-to-dusk and then a dusk-to-dawn electric field, both of which were transmitted from the magnetosphere to the polar ionosphere. The effect of ionospheric currents due to these polar electric fields was superposed on the simple magnetic decrease produced by an expansion of the whole magnetosphere and produced the complex waveform distribution on the ground

  12. Evidence for geomagnetic imprinting as a homing mechanism in Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Nathan F; Lohmann, Kenneth J; Putman, Emily M; Quinn, Thomas P; Klimley, A Peter; Noakes, David L G

    2013-02-18

    In the final phase of their spawning migration, Pacific salmon use chemical cues to identify their home river, but how they navigate from the open ocean to the correct coastal area has remained enigmatic. To test the hypothesis that salmon imprint on the magnetic field that exists where they first enter the sea and later seek the same field upon return, we analyzed a 56-year fisheries data set on Fraser River sockeye salmon, which must detour around Vancouver Island to approach the river through either a northern or southern passageway. We found that the proportion of salmon using each route was predicted by geomagnetic field drift: the more the field at a passage entrance diverged from the field at the river mouth, the fewer fish used the passage. We also found that more fish used the northern passage in years with warmer sea surface temperature (presumably because fish were constrained to more northern latitudes). Field drift accounted for 16% of the variation in migratory route used, temperature 22%, and the interaction between these variables 28%. These results provide the first empirical evidence of geomagnetic imprinting in any species and imply that forecasting salmon movements is possible using geomagnetic models. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Atmospheric tides and periodic variations in the precipitation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevolani, G.; Bacci, P.; Bonelli, P.; Isnardi, C.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of daily precipitations data at many weather stations in Alpes and Po Valley gives evidence of a ''tidal'' influence from luni-solar gravitational fields. The tidal influence does not appear to be strictly constant with time, as the possible results of a modulation effect of luni-solar cycles having similar periods. Time variations of daily precipitation data as a function of some particular cycles show that gravitational tides effect heavy rainfalls more than mean precipitation values

  14. New detailed holocene paleomagnetic records with anomalous geomagnetic field behavior in Argentina Nuevos registros paleomagnéticos holocenos detallados con comportamiento anómalo del campo magnético terrestre en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo G Nami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Detailed palaeomagnetic studies were performed in several archaeological and geological sections dated with diverse relative and absolute methods. Data from 360 cores obtained in eight sites across eastern Argentina are reported. Characteristic remanence magnetization directions were determined by progressive alternating field demagnetization. Remanence directions showed anomalous geomagnetic field behavior far from the present magnetic field bearing oblique normal, oblique reverse and reverse polarities for the latest Pleistocene and Holocene, as well as evidence of possible field excursions recorded in several stratigraphic sections spanning ~11-0.5 kya. Computed virtual geomagnetic poles from those directions tend to be concentrated over North America, Europe, Eastern Asia, Africa and Australia. The hypothesis of the anomalous geomagnetic field directions is probably related with 14C fluctuations and solar activity.Se realizaron estudios paleomagnéticos detallados en varias secciones sedimentarias arqueológicas y geológicas fechadas con diversos métodos de datación absoluta y relativa. Se reportan resultados obtenidos de 360 muestras recogidas en ocho sitios localizados en el este de Argentina. La magnetización remanente característica fue determinada por desmagnetización progresiva utilizando campos alternos. Las direcciones remanentes mostraron conductas anómalas del campo geomagnético lejanas al campo actual mostrando polaridades oblicuas normales, oblicuas reversas y reversas con evidencia de posibles excursiones geomagnéticas registradas en varias secciones con un lapso temporal de ~11-0.5 kya. Los polos geomagnéticos virtuales computados a partir de las direcciones tienden a concentrarse sobre Norteamérica, Europa, Este de Asia, África y Australia. Se discute la hipótesis que la conducta anómala del campo magnético terrestre probablemente se relacione con las fluctuaciones de la producción de 14C y la actividad solar.

  15. Eliminating large-scale magnetospheric current perturbations from long-term geomagnetic observatory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, L.; Korte, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetospheric currents generate the largest external contribution to the geomagnetic field observed on Earth. Of particular importance is the solar-driven effect of the ring current whose fluctuations overlap with internal field secular variation (SV). Recent core field models thus co-estimate this effect but their validity is limited to the last 15 years offering satellite data. We aim at eliminating magnetospheric modulation from the whole geomagnetic observatory record from 1840 onwards in order to obtain clean long-term SV that will enhance core flow and geodynamo studies.The ring current effect takes form of a southward directed external dipole field aligned with the geomagnetic main field axis. Commonly the Dst index (Sugiura, 1964) is used to parametrize temporal variations of this dipole term. Because of baseline instabilities, the alternative RC index was derived from hourly means of 21 stations spanning 1997-2013 (Olsen et al., 2014). We follow their methodology based on annual means from a reduced station set spanning 1960-2010. The absolute level of the variation so determined is "hidden" in the static lithospheric offsets taken as quiet-time means. We tackle this issue by subtracting crustal biases independently calculated for each observatory from an inversion of combined Swarm satellite and observatory data.Our index reproduces the original annual RC index variability with a reasonable offset of -10 nT in the reference time window 2000-2010. Prior to that it depicts a long-term trend consistent with the external dipole term from COV-OBS (Gillet et al., 2013), being the only long-term field model available for comparison. Sharper variations that are better correlated with the Ap index than the COV-OBS solution lend support to the usefulness of our initial modeling approach. Following a detailed sensitivity study of station choice future work will focus on increasing the resolution from annual to hourly means.

  16. Seasonal Gravity Field Variations from GRACE and Hydrological Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.

    2004-01-01

    . Four global hydrological models covering the same period in 2002–2003 as the GRACE observations were investigated to for their mutual consistency in estimates of annual variation in terrestrial water storage and related temporal changes in gravity field. The hydrological models differ by a maximum of 2...... µGal or nearly 5 cm equivalent water storage in selected regions. Integrated over all land masses the standard deviation among the annual signal from the four hydrological models are 0.6 µGal equivalent to around 1.4 cm in equivalent water layer thickness. The estimated accuracy of the annual...

  17. On the use of quartic force fields in variational calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenberry, Ryan C.; Huang, Xinchuan; Yachmenev, Andrey; Thiel, Walter; Lee, Timothy J.

    2013-06-01

    Quartic force fields (QFFs) have been shown to be one of the most effective ways to efficiently compute vibrational frequencies for small molecules. In this letter we discuss how the simple-internal or bond-length bond-angle (BLBA) coordinates can be transformed into Morse-cosine (-sine) coordinates which produce potential energy surfaces from QFFs that possess proper limiting behavior and can describe the vibrational (or rovibrational) energy levels of an arbitrary molecular system to 5 cm-1 or better compared to experiment. We investigate parameter scaling in the Morse coordinate, symmetry considerations, and examples of transformed QFFs making use of the MULTIMODE, TROVE, and VTET variational vibrational methods.

  18. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  19. An Impending geomagnetic transition? Hints from the past.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eLAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid decrease of the geomagnetic field intensity in the last centuries has led to speculations that an attempt to a reversal or an excursion might be under way. Here we investigate this hypothesis by examining past records of geomagnetic field intensity obtained from sedimentary cores and from the study of cosmogenic nuclides. The selected records describe geomagnetic changes with an unprecedented temporal resolution between 20 and 75 kyr B.P. We find that some aspects of the present-day geomagnetic field have some similarities with those documented for the Laschamp excursion 41 kyr ago. Under the assumption that the dynamo processes for an eventual future reversal or excursion would be similar to those of the Laschamp excursion, we tentatively suggest that, whilst irreversible processes that will drive the geodynamo into a polarity change may have already started, a reversal or an excursion should not be expected before 500 to 1000 years.

  20. K-type geomagnetic index nowcast with data quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Warnant

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    A nowcast system for operational estimation of a proxy K-type geomagnetic index is presented. The system is based on a fully automated computer procedure for real-time digital magnetogram data acquisition that includes screening of the dataset and removal of the outliers, estimation of the solar regular variation (SR of the geomagnetic field, calculation of the index, and issuing of an alert if storm-level activity is indicated. This is a time-controlled (rather than event-driven system that delivers the regular output of: the index value, the estimated quality flag, and eventually, an alert. The novel features provided are first, the strict control of the data input and processing, and second, the increased frequency of production of the index (every 1 h. Such quality control and increased time resolution have been found to be of crucial importance for various applications, e.g. ionospheric monitoring, that are of particular interest to us and to users of our service. The nowcast system operability, accuracy and precision have been tested with instantaneous measurements from recent years. A statistical comparison between the nowcast and the definitive index values shows that the average root-mean-square error is smaller than 1 KU. The system is now operational at the site of the Geophysical Centre of the Royal Meteorological Institute in Dourbes (50.1ºN, 4.6ºE, and it is being used for alerting users when geomagnetic storms take place.

  1. Evaluation of geomagnetic storm effects on the GPS derived Total Electron Content (TEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P K; Atulkar, Roshni; Mansoori, Azad A; Khan, Parvaiz A; Bhawre, Purushottam; Tripathi, Sharad C; Khatarkar, Prakash; Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Aslam, A M; Waheed, Malik A; Gwal, A K

    2015-01-01

    The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind- magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as triggers ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For this investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998- 2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by Sheath driven Magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or Sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR. (paper)

  2. Influence of megapolis on the physical field variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabova, Svetlana; Loktev, Dmitry; Spivak, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The research of geophysical fields in the conditions of megapolis attracts particular interest not only in terms of their influence on the operation of precision equipment and technological processes associated with nanotechnology, but also it is perhaps the most important in terms of the formation of a special human and other biological objects' habitat. Indeed, the megapolis causes significant changes in regime of the physical fields both directly and indirectly. Negative factors of megapolis associated with elevated vibrations of soil as a result of traffic, acoustic load in the construction of infrastructure and transport communications, etc. are complemented by another negative factor, which until quite recently wasn't known much. It is a variation of physical fields (primarily electric and magnetic) induced by anthropogenic activities. As a result of the evolution a man has adapted to the natural regime of physical fields. Therefore, any, even the short-term changes of physical fields in the environment, their deviations from the natural rate can have a significant influence on human health including changes in the psycho-emotional state. In the present work we have evaluated the influence of the megapolis (in our case, Moscow) on the nature and regime of microseismic, electric and acoustic field in the surface atmosphere. We have analyzed data obtained as a result of continuous simultaneous registration of physical fields and meteorological parameters at the Center for geophysical monitoring of Moscow of Institute of Geosphere Dynamics of Russian Academy of Sciences. For determination of the characteristics of physical fields in the megapolis obtained data were compared with the results of the registration carried out at the Geophysical Observatory "Mikhnevo" of IDG RAS (located 85 km south from Moscow). The work is shown that the influence of the megapolis appears to increase the amplitude of physical fields, change of their spectral composition

  3. Hamiltonian lattice field theory: Computer calculations using variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zako, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    I develop a variational method for systematic numerical computation of physical quantities -- bound state energies and scattering amplitudes -- in quantum field theory. An infinite-volume, continuum theory is approximated by a theory on a finite spatial lattice, which is amenable to numerical computation. I present an algorithm for computing approximate energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory and for bounding the resulting errors. I also show how to select basis states and choose variational parameters in order to minimize errors. The algorithm is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz principle and Kato's generalizations of Temple's formula. The algorithm could be adapted to systems such as atoms and molecules. I show how to compute Green's functions from energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory, and relate these to physical (renormalized) coupling constants, bound state energies and Green's functions. Thus one can compute approximate physical quantities in a lattice theory that approximates a quantum field theory with specified physical coupling constants. I discuss the errors in both approximations. In principle, the errors can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the size of the lattice, decreasing the lattice spacing and computing sufficiently long. Unfortunately, I do not understand the infinite-volume and continuum limits well enough to quantify errors due to the lattice approximation. Thus the method is currently incomplete. I apply the method to real scalar field theories using a Fock basis of free particle states. All needed quantities can be calculated efficiently with this basis. The generalization to more complicated theories is straightforward. I describe a computer implementation of the method and present numerical results for simple quantum mechanical systems

  4. Hamiltonian lattice field theory: Computer calculations using variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zako, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A variational method is developed for systematic numerical computation of physical quantities-bound state energies and scattering amplitudes-in quantum field theory. An infinite-volume, continuum theory is approximated by a theory on a finite spatial lattice, which is amenable to numerical computation. An algorithm is presented for computing approximate energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory and for bounding the resulting errors. It is shown how to select basis states and choose variational parameters in order to minimize errors. The algorithm is based on the Rayleigh-Ritz principle and Kato's generalizations of Temple's formula. The algorithm could be adapted to systems such as atoms and molecules. It is shown how to compute Green's functions from energy eigenvalues and eigenstates in the lattice theory, and relate these to physical (renormalized) coupling constants, bound state energies and Green's functions. Thus one can compute approximate physical quantities in a lattice theory that approximates a quantum field theory with specified physical coupling constants. The author discusses the errors in both approximations. In principle, the errors can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the size of the lattice, decreasing the lattice spacing and computing sufficiently long. Unfortunately, the author does not understand the infinite-volume and continuum limits well enough to quantify errors due to the lattice approximation. Thus the method is currently incomplete. The method is applied to real scalar field theories using a Fock basis of free particle states. All needed quantities can be calculated efficiently with this basis. The generalization to more complicated theories is straightforward. The author describes a computer implementation of the method and present numerical results for simple quantum mechanical systems

  5. GDS (Geomagnetic Depth Sounding in Italy: applications and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gambetta

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of geomagnetic field variations is a useful tool to detect electrical conductivity contrasts within the Earth. Lateral resolution of outlined patterns depends on the array dimensions and density of measurement sites over the investigated area. The inspection depth is constrained by the period of geomagnetic variations considered in data processing. Regions with significant geological features such as boundaries of continental plates, marginal areas of contact between tectonic units or other geodynamical processes, are of primary interest for the application of the MagnetoVariational (MV method. In the last ten years, in the frame of the ElectroMagnetic (EM sounding techniques in applied geophysics, this method has been applied in Italy by researchers of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Rome, the Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universitá di Genova and the Czech Science Academy of Prague. The Ivrea body in the Northwestern Alps and their junction with the Apennine chain, the micro-plate of the Sardinian-Corsican system and, recently, the central part of the peninsula along Tyrrhenian-Adriatic lithospheric transects were investigated. Studies in time and frequency-domain used in the first investigations, have been followed by more refined analysis involving tests on the induced EM field dimension, computations of single site Transfer Functions (TFs through Parkinson arrows' and Fourier maps in the Hypothetical Event technique (HE. It was possible to describe the electrical conductivity distribution in the inner part of the SW Alpine arc and to confirm the presence of lithospheric and asthenospheric anomalies obtained by other geophysical methods. For the Sardinia-Corsica system, 2D and 3D inversion models highlighted the existence of two major conducting bodies, one north of Corsica, and the other south of Sardinia. In Central Italy, the regional electrical conductivity distribution pointed out a deep conductive structure

  6. Variability Analysis of the Horizontal Geomagnetic Component: A Case Study Based on Records from Vassouras Observatory (Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Virginia; Papa, Andres; Mendes, Odim; Oliveira Domingues, Margarete

    It is well known that any of the components of the magnetic field measured on the Earth's surface presents characteristic frequencies with 24, 12, 8 and 6-hour period. Those typical kinds of oscillations of the geomagnetic field are known as solar quiet variation and are primary due to the global thermotidal wind systems which conduct currents flowing in the "dynamo region" of the ionosphere, the E-region. In this study, the horizontal component amplitude observed by ground-based observatories belonged to the INTERMAGNET network have been used to analyze the global pattern variance of the Sq variation. In particular we focused our attention on Vassouras Observatory (VSS), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has been active since 1915. In the next years, a brazilian network of magnetometers will be implemented and VSS can be used as reference. This work aims mainly to highlight and interpret these quiet daily variations over the Brazilian sector compared to the features from other magnetic stations reasonably distributed over the whole Earth's surface. The methodological approach is based on wavelet cross-correlation technique. This technique is useful to isolate the period of the spectral components of geomagnetic field in each station and to correlate them as function of scale (period) between VSS and the other stations. The wavelet cross-correlation coefficient strongly depends on the scale. We study the geomagnetically quiet days at equinox and solstice months during low and high solar activity. As preliminary remarks, the results show that the records in the magnetic stations have primary a latitudinal dependence affected by the time of year and level of solar activity. On the other hand, records of magnetic stations located at the same dip latitude but at different longitude presented some peculiarities. These results indicated that the winds driven the dynamo are very sensitive of the location of the geomagnetic station, i. e., its effects depend upon the direction

  7. Long-term rise in geomagnetic activity - A close connection between quiet days and storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Geomagnetic quiet days and magnetic storms are naturally believed to be due to very different solar wind conditions. In this study we however demonstrate that the long-term variation of geomagnetic quiet and disturbed days are surprisingly similar. By the use of daily averages of the geomagnetic.......7. The results indicate that the longterm,increase is due to an increase in the background solar wind parameters, rather than in the number of solar wind disturbances....

  8. HEIGHT VARIATION OF THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR SPICULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suárez, D. Orozco; Ramos, A. Asensio; Bueno, J. Trujillo, E-mail: dorozco@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm height.

  9. Effects of interplanetary magnetic field and magnetospheric substorm variations on the dayside aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholt, P. E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.; Deehr, C. S.; Sivjee, G. G.; Romick, G. J.

    1983-11-01

    Photometric auroral observations and geomagnetic measurements obtained simultaneously on the dayside in Norway and the nightside in the USSR, Alaska, and Canada are combined with ISEE-1 and 3 data on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to study the relative importance of substorm perturbations and IMF in determining dayside auroral (DA) motion. Ten events from December, 1978, and January and December, 1979, are characterized, the data are presented in tables, illustrated with charts and graphs, and summarized. The equatorward and poleward motion of the DA is correlated with the growth and decay of DP2-mode geomagnetic disturbances and changes in the north-south component of the IMF. Discrete DA forms appear in a region of sunward-convecting field lines. A detailed model of DA motion is developed which explains these phenomena as the result of a direct global response of the magnetospheric electromagnetic state to the solar-wind magnetic field. Using the model, the potential drop, Pedersen current, and Joule heat-dissipation rate of the polar-cap ionosphere are estimated as 125 kV, 800,000 A, and 100 GW, respectively.

  10. Automated detection of geomagnetic storms with heightened risk of GIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rachel L.; Leonhardt, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Automated detection of geomagnetic storms is of growing importance to operators of technical infrastructure (e.g., power grids, satellites), which is susceptible to damage caused by the consequences of geomagnetic storms. In this study, we compare three methods for automated geomagnetic storm detection: a method analyzing the first derivative of the geomagnetic variations, another looking at the Akaike information criterion, and a third using multi-resolution analysis of the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform of the variations. These detection methods are used in combination with an algorithm for the detection of coronal mass ejection shock fronts in ACE solar wind data prior to the storm arrival on Earth as an additional constraint for possible storm detection. The maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform is found to be the most accurate of the detection methods. The final storm detection software, implementing analysis of both satellite solar wind and geomagnetic ground data, detects 14 of 15 more powerful geomagnetic storms over a period of 2 years.

  11. Gravity wave generation and propagation during geomagnetic storms over Kiruna (67.8°N, 20.4°E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Fagundes

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric gravity waves, detected over Kiruna (67.8°N, 20.4°E during geomagnetic storms, are presented and analysed. The data include direct measurements of the OI 630.0 nm emission line intensity, the x-component of the local geomagnetic field and thermospheric (meridional and zonal wind velocities derived from the OI 630.0 nm Doppler shift observed with an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer (IFPI. A low pass band filter technique was used to determine short-period variations in the thermospheric meridional wind velocities observed during geomagnetic storms. These short-period variations in the meridional wind velocities, which are identified as due to gravity waves, are compared to the corresponding variations observed in the OI 630.0 nm emission line intensity, x-component of the local geomagnetic field and the location of the auroral electrojet. A cross-correlation analysis was used to calculate the propagation velocities of the observed gravity waves.

  12. Morphology of geomagnetic storms, recorded at Hurbanovo, and its relation to solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochabova, P.; Psenakova, M.

    1977-01-01

    The morphological structure of geomagnetic storms was investigated using the data on 414 storms, recorded in the years 1949 to 1968 at the Geomagnetic Observatory of Hurbanovo (phi=47.9 deg N, lambda=18.2 deg E). These data also formed a suitable basis for investigating the effect of the solar activity on the characteristic features of storms. The storm-time variation of the geomagnetic field was considered after the Sq-variation had been eliminated. The sets of storms, i.e. 263 storms recorded at a time of high sunspot activity and 151 storms recorded at a time of low activity, were divided into 7 groups, depending on the duration of their initial phase. In 92% of the investigated storms the increase in the horizontal component lasted from 0 to 15 hrs. The effect of the solar activity was markedly reflected in the occurrence of very severe storms, as well as in the maximum decrease in the H-component in the main phase. This can also be seen in the rate at which the storms recover. (author)

  13. Northern hemisphere mid-latitude geomagnetic anomaly revealed from Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation (LAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.; Agnon, A.; Ben-Yosef, E.; Hassul, E.

    2015-12-01

    The rich archaeological heritage of Israel and nearby Levantine countries provides a unique opportunity for archaeomagnetic investigation in high resolution. Here we present a summary of our ongoing effort to reconstruct geomagnetic variations of the past several millennia in the Levant at decadal to millennial resolution. This effort at the Southern Levant, namely the "Levantine Archaeomagnetic Compilation" (LAC), presently consists of data from over 650 well-dated archaeological objects including pottery, slag, ovens, and furnaces. In this talk we review the methodological challenges in achieving a robust master secular variation curve with realistic error estimations from a large number of different datasets. We present the current status of the compilation, including the southern and western Levant LAC data (Israel, Cyprus, and Jordan) and other published north-eastern Levant data (Syria and southern Turkey), and outline the main findings emerging from these data. The main feature apparent from the new compilation is an extraordinary intensity high that developed over the Levant region during the first two millennia BCE. The climax of this event is a double peak intensity maximum starting at ca. 1000 BCE and ending at ca. 735 BCE, accompanied with at least two events of geomagnetic spikes. Paleomagnetic directions from this period demonstrate anomalies of up to 20 degrees far from the averaged GAD field. This leads us to postulate that the maximum in the intensity is a manifestation of an intense mid-latitude local positive geomagnetic anomaly that persisted for over two centuries.

  14. A Variational Statistical-Field Theory for Polar Liquid Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Bilin; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    Using a variational field-theoretic approach, we derive a molecularly-based theory for polar liquid mixtures. The resulting theory consists of simple algebraic expressions for the free energy of mixing and the dielectric constant as functions of mixture composition. Using only the dielectric constants and the molar volumes of the pure liquid constituents, the theory evaluates the mixture dielectric constants in good agreement with the experimental values for a wide range of liquid mixtures, without using adjustable parameters. In addition, the theory predicts that liquids with similar dielectric constants and molar volumes dissolve well in each other, while sufficient disparity in these parameters result in phase separation. The calculated miscibility map on the dielectric constant-molar volume axes agrees well with known experimental observations for a large number of liquid pairs. Thus the theory provides a quantification for the well-known empirical ``like-dissolves-like'' rule. Bz acknowledges the A-STAR fellowship for the financial support.

  15. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T; Mendoza, B

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  16. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  17. Parameters of 1-4 mHz (Pc5/Pi3) ULF pulsations during the intervals preceding non-triggered substorms at high geomagnetic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosikova, Nataliya; Yagova, Nadezda; Baddeley, Lisa; Kozyreva, Olga; Lorentzen, Dag; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    One of the important questions for understanding substorm generation is the possible existence of specific pre-substorm variations of plasma, particles and electromagnetic field parameters. In this case analyzing of isolated non-triggered substorms (i.e. substorms that occur under quiet geomagnetic conditions without any visible triggers in IMF or SW) gives benefits for investigation of processes of substorm preparation. It was shown in previous studies that during a few hours preceding a non-triggered isolated substorm, coherent geomagnetic and aurroral luminosity pulsations are observed. Moreover, PSD, amplitudes of geomagnetic fluctuations in Pc5/Pi3 (1-4 mHz) frequency range and some spectral parameters differ from those registered on days without substorms. In present work this sort of pulsations has been studied in details. Features of longitudinal and latitudinal profiles are presented. Possible correlation with ULF disturbances in IMF and SW as well as in the magnetotail/magnetosheath are discussed.

  18. The earth's magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrill, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    After a historical introduction in Chapter 1, the more traditional aspects of geomagnetism relating to the present field and historical observations are presented in Chapter 2. The various methods and techniques and theoretical background of palaeomagnetism are given in Chapter 3. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 present the results of palaeomagnetic and archaeomagnetic studies in three topics. Chapter 4 relates to studies of the geomagnetic field roughly back to about 50,000 years ago. Chapter 5 is about reversals of the geomagnetic field and Chapter 6 presents studies of the field for times older than 50,000 years and on the geological time scale of millions or hundreds of millions of years. Chapters 7, 8 and 9 provide insight into dynamo theory. Chapter 7 is essentially a non-mathematical attempt to explain the physical basis of dynamo theories to palaeomagnetists. This is followed in Chapter 8 by a more advanced theoretical treatment. Chapter 9 explains theoretical aspects of secular variation and the origin of reversals of the geomagnetic field. Chapter 10 is our attempt to relate theory to experiment and vice versa. The final two chapters consider the magnetic fields of the moon, sun, planets and meteorites, in an attempt to determine the necessary and sufficient conditions for magnetic field generation in large solar system bodies. (author)

  19. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Next Geomagnetic Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Buffett, B; Davis, W

    2018-01-01

    ©2018. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Deterministic forecasts for the next geomagnetic reversal are not feasible due to large uncertainties in the present-day state of the Earth's core. A more practical approach relies on probabilistic assessments using paleomagnetic observations to characterize the amplitude of fluctuations in the geomagnetic dipole. We use paleomagnetic observations for the past 2 Myr to construct a stochastic model for the axial dipole field and apply wel...

  20. The solar and interplanetary causes of the recent minimum in geomagnetic activity (MGA23: a combination of midlatitude small coronal holes, low IMF BZ variances, low solar wind speeds and low solar magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Minima in geomagnetic activity (MGA at Earth at the ends of SC23 and SC22 have been identified. The two MGAs (called MGA23 and MGA22, respectively were present in 2009 and 1997, delayed from the sunspot number minima in 2008 and 1996 by ~1/2–1 years. Part of the solar and interplanetary causes of the MGAs were exceptionally low solar (and thus low interplanetary magnetic fields. Another important factor in MGA23 was the disappearance of equatorial and low latitude coronal holes and the appearance of midlatitude coronal holes. The location of the holes relative to the ecliptic plane led to low solar wind speeds and low IMF (Bz variances (σBz2 and normalized variances (σBz2/B02 at Earth, with concomitant reduced solar wind-magnetospheric energy coupling. One result was the lowest ap indices in the history of ap recording. The results presented here are used to comment on the possible solar and interplanetary causes of the low geomagnetic activity that occurred during the Maunder Minimum.

  1. Climatic influence in NRM and 10 Be-derived geomagnetic paleointensity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1999-01-01

    One can determine geomagnetic paleointensities from natural remanent magnetizations (NRM) and by inverting production rates of cosmogenic isotopes such as 10 Be and 14 C. Recently, two independently derived 200-kyr stacks [Y. Guyodo, J.-P. Valet, Relative variations in geomagnetic intensity from

  2. A Probabilistic Assessment of the Next Geomagnetic Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffett, Bruce; Davis, William

    2018-02-01

    Deterministic forecasts for the next geomagnetic reversal are not feasible due to large uncertainties in the present-day state of the Earth's core. A more practical approach relies on probabilistic assessments using paleomagnetic observations to characterize the amplitude of fluctuations in the geomagnetic dipole. We use paleomagnetic observations for the past 2 Myr to construct a stochastic model for the axial dipole field and apply well-established methods to evaluate the probability of the next geomagnetic reversal as a function of time. For a present-day axial dipole moment of 7.6 × 1022 A m2, the probability of the dipole entering a reversed state is less than 2% after 20 kyr. This probability rises to 11% after 50 kyr. An imminent geomagnetic reversal is not supported by paleomagnetic observations. The current rate of decline in the dipole moment is unusual but within the natural variability predicted by the stochastic model.

  3. Environmental and geomagnetic factors in relation to self-destructive ideation and behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergiannaki, J. D.; Psarros, C.; Nastos, P. Th.; Paparigopoulos, T.; Paliatsos, A. G.; Tritakis, V. P.; Stefanis, C. N.

    2001-09-01

    Besides the individual factors such as the reaction to conflicts, several exogenous factors environmental and social may exert a pathogenic influence on suicidal behavior, suicide attempts and complete suicide on predisposed individuals. In the turn of the century many reports accord for the seasonality of suicides, which seems to have a bimodal distribution with a major peak around the spring-summer (April-May) and a second minor in autumn. On the other hand, the seasonal variation of environmental factors (daylight, sunlight duration, weather, temperature, air pressure, humidity, geomagnetism, solar activity, etc), of biological factors (melatonin, serotonin, serotonin precursors, etc) as also of sociological factors (ethnic events, major holidays, weekends etc) possibly influences the seasonal pattern of self-destructive behavior. Bimodal seasonal variation is also reported for biochemical parameters (L-tryptophan, serotonin, endorphin I fraction) that matches seasonal pattern in the prevalence of violent suicide in the total population and also in the incidence of the affective disorders. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation of environmental factors expressed by the Discomfort Index (DI) and geomagnetic factors expressed by the geomagnetic field Index DST in relation to suicidal behavior. The total number (4803) of patients recorded in the Ambulance of a Phychiatric Hospital (Eginition) throughout 1994 was used along with the records of 2750 patients of the year 1989. The Index DI is a function of dry and wet-bulb temperature. DST is probably one of the geomagnetic indices that expresses and monitors with the greatest accuracy the equatorial ring current variations. Our results show that there is a seasonal variation of suicidal behavior (Fourier analysis) with a major peak during summer (July) and a minor one during spring. A difference in the occurrence of the peaks was observed among genders. A relation of self-destructive behavior and the

  4. Limit theorems for power variations of ambit fields driven by white noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkanen, Mikko

    We study the asymptotic behavior of lattice power variations of two-parameter ambit fields that are driven by white noise. Our first result is a law of large numbers for such power variations. Under a constraint on the memory of the ambit field, normalized power variations are shown to converge...

  5. Limit theorems for power variations of ambit field driven by white noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the asymptotics of lattice power variations of two-parameter ambit fields driven by white noise. Our first result is a law of large numbers for power variations. Under a constraint on the memory of the ambit field, normalized power variations converge to certain integral functionals...

  6. Advancements in Chinese Geomagnetism and Aeronomy during the Last Thirty Years,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-09

    movements of charged particles in geomagnetic fields and neutral line magnetic fields and they vigorously initiated simulated tests. References (120-121... telluric prospecting and related probems; (6) Magnetic prospecting and interpretation of data; (7) Some research on geomagnetic instruments; (8

  7. Geomagnetic control of polar mesosphere summer echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bremer

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Using observations with the ALOMAR SOUSY radar near Andenes (69.3°N, 16.0°E from 1994 until 1997 polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE have been investigated in dependence on geomagnetic K indices derived at the Auroral Observatory Tromsø (69.66°N, 18.94°E. During night-time and morning hours a significant correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the radar results and the geomagnetic K indices could be detected with a maximum correlation near midnight. The correlation becomes markedly smaller in the afternoon and early evening hours with a minimum near 17 UT. This diurnal variation is in reasonable agreement with riometer absorption at Ivalo (68.55°N, 27.28°E and can be explained by the diurnal variation of ionization due to precipitating high energetic particles. Therefore, a part of the diurnal PMSE variation is caused by this particle precipitation. The variability of the solar EUV variation, however, has no significant influence on the PMSE during the observation period.Keywords: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere - Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating - Radio science (remote sensing

  8. Analysis of the ULF electromagnetic emission related to seismic activity, Teoloyucan geomagnetic station, 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of ULF geomagnetic measurements at station Teoloyucan (Central Mexico, 99.11'35.735''W, 19.44'45.100''N, 2280m height in relation to seismic activity in the period 1998-2001 and their analysis are presented. Variations of spectral densities for horizontal and vertical components, polarization densities and spectrograms of magnetic field, their derivatives are analyzed as a part of traditional analysis in this study. Values of spectral density were calculated for 6 fixed frequencies f=1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300mHz. Fractal characteristics of spectra were analyzed in the conception of SOC (Self-Organized Criticality. 2 nighttime intervals, 0-3 and 3-6h by local time have been used to decrease the noise interference in row data. In order to exclude the intervals with a high geomagnetic activity from analysis we referred to Ap indices, calculated for corresponding time intervals. The contribution of seismic events to geomagnetic emission was estimated by seismic index ks=100.75Ms/10D, where Ms is the amplitude of the earthquake and D is the distance from its epicenter to the station.

  9. Enhancement of low energy particle flux around plasmapause under quiet geomagnetic condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.

    2016-12-01

    Plasmapause is the boundary of the plasmaspheric region where cold plasma is dominant. In this boundary, the plasma density shows depletion to 1 10 on direction from the plasmasphere to magnetosphere and changes composition of energy distribution of particle. Some previous study provides that the location of the plasmapause expand beyond geosynchronous orbit under the quiet geomagnetic conditions. In this work, we study the changed characteristic of particle flux around the plasmapause using measurement from Van Allen Probes. On 23 April 2013, the satellites observed simultaneously proton and electron fluxes enhancement with E > 100 eV. During 12 hours prior to this event, the geomagnetic conditions were very quiet, Kp < 1, and geomagnetic storm did not occur. This event maintain for 15 minutes and only proton flux decrease rapidly in the magnetosphere. In this period SYM-H index enhanced abruptly in response to the impact of the dynamic pressure enhancement and AE index increased gradually up to about 200 nT. Electric field started to perturb in coincidence with enhancement of particle flux from the plasmapause. To explain the variation of low energy particle flux we will compare kinetic property of low energy particle by using velocity space distribution function at region of inner and outer boundary of the plasmapause.

  10. Hausdorff-Based RC and IESIL Combined Positioning Algorithm for Underwater Geomagnetic Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a primitive solution with novel scheme and algorithm for Underwater geoMagnetic Navigation (UMN, which now occurs as the hot-point in the research field of navigation. UMN as an independent or supplementary technique can theoretically supply accurate locations for marine vehicles, but in practice there are plenty of restrictions for UMN's application (e.g., geomagnetic daily variation. After analysis of the theoretical model of geomagnetic positioning in the correlation-matching mode from the viewpoint of pattern recognition, this paper proposed an appropriate matching scenario and a combined positioning algorithm for UMN. The subalgorithm of Hausdorff-based Relative Correlation (RC corresponding to the pattern classification module implements the coarse positioning, and the subalgorithm of Isograms Equidistance-Segmenting theIntersection Lines (IESILs associated with the module of feature extraction continues the fine positioning. The experiments based on the simulation platform and the real-surveyed data both validate the new algorithm, and its efficiency and accuracy are also discussed. It can be concluded that the work introduced in this paper gives an initial and real validation of UMN's potentiality.

  11. The Geomagnetic Control Concept of The Ionospheric Long- Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.

    The geomagnetic control concept has been developed to explain long-term trends of the electron concentration in the F2 and E ionospheric regions. Periods with negative and positive foF2, hmF2 and foE trends correspond to the periods of increasing or decreasing geomagnetic activity with the turning points around the end of 1950s, 1960s, and 1980s where trends change their signs. Strong latitudinal and diurnal variations revealed for the foF2 and hmF2 trends can be explained by neutral composition, temperature and thermospheric wind changes. Particle precipitation is important in the auroral zone. The newly proposed concept proceeds from a natural origin of the F2-layer trends rather than an artificial one related to the greenhouse effect. Using the proposed method a very long-term foF2 and foE trends related with general increase of geomagnetic activity in the 20th century has been revealed for the first time. The firstly revealed relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity is due to nitric oxide variations at the E-region heights. This "natural" relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity breaks down around 1970 on many stations presumably due to chemical polution of the upper atmosphere. The increasing rate of rocket and satellite launchings in the late 1960s is considered as a reason.

  12. Period and phase comparisons of near-decadal oscillations in solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, David A.

    2001-09-01

    A more complete understanding of the periodic dynamics of the Sun requires continued exploration of non-11-year oscillations in addition to the benchmark 11-year sunspot cycle. In this regard, several solar, geomagnetic, and cosmic ray time series were examined to identify common spectral components and their relative phase relationships. Several non-11-year oscillations were identified within the near-decadal range with periods of ~8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 22, and 29 years. To test whether these frequency components were simply low-level noise or were related to a common source, the phases were extracted for each component in each series. The phases were nearly identical across the solar and geomagnetic series, while the corresponding components in four cosmic ray surrogate series exhibited inverted phases, similar to the known phase relationship with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Cluster analysis revealed that this pattern was unlikely to occur by chance. It was concluded that many non-11-year oscillations truly exist in the solar dynamical environment and that these contribute to the complex variations observed in geomagnetic and cosmic ray time series. Using the different energy sensitivities of the four cosmic ray surrogate series, a preliminary indication of the relative intensities of the various solar-induced oscillations was observed. It provides evidence that many of the non-11-year oscillations result from weak interplanetary magnetic field/solar wind oscillations that originate from corresponding variations in the open-field regions of the Sun.

  13. Application of magnets with azimuthal field variation in charged particle optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dojnikov, N.I.; Lamzin, E.A.; Malitskij, N.D.

    1989-01-01

    Examples of concrete application of magnets with azimuthal field variation are presented. Magnetic mirror and bending-focusing device representing a single magnet with azimuthal field variation, providing achromatic beam bending, are used in the LUEh-40m therapeutic acceleration. A single magnet with azimuthal field variation is also used in magnetic mirror. Achromatic magnet for the Elektronika U-003 10 MeV accelerator is fabricated and examined. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  14. Plasmaspheric noise radiation during geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larkina, V.I.; Likhter, Ya.I.

    1981-01-01

    Variations of plasmospheric background radiations during geomagnetic storms of different intensity are investigated. Used are results of ELF and VLF radiation measurements as well as electron fluxes of energies Esub(e)>40 keV carried out by Intercosmos 3 and Intercosmos 5 satellites. Dependences of radiation amplitude variations at 1.6 and 25 kHz frequencies on L shell for various geomagnetic activity in the day-time as well as data on variations of quasicaptured electron fluxes at Esub(e)>40 keV, are given. It is shown that experimental data agree with the existing theories of plasmospheric noise excitation. It is concluded that the plasmospheric noise excitation area Lsub(max) is always in the region of gap between radiation belts and inner slope of external radiation belt during magnetic storms. During magnetic storms Lsub(max) area moves simultaneously with the area, where particle flux of the external radiation belt is the most intensive [ru

  15. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu I.; Vasin, A. L.; Pishchalnikov, R. Yu; Sarimov, R. M.; Sasonko, M. L.; Matveeva, T. A.

    2017-10-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  16. Geomagnetic storm under laboratory conditions: randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Yu I; Vasin, A L; Pishchalnikov, R Yu; Sarimov, R M; Sasonko, M L; Matveeva, T A

    2018-04-01

    The influence of the previously recorded geomagnetic storm (GS) on human cardiovascular system and microcirculation has been studied under laboratory conditions. Healthy volunteers in lying position were exposed under two artificially created conditions: quiet (Q) and storm (S). The Q regime playbacks a noise-free magnetic field (MF) which is closed to the natural geomagnetic conditions on Moscow's latitude. The S regime playbacks the initially recorded 6-h geomagnetic storm which is repeated four times sequentially. The cardiovascular response to the GS impact was assessed by measuring capillary blood velocity (CBV) and blood pressure (BP) and by the analysis of the 24-h ECG recording. A storm-to-quiet ratio for the cardio intervals (CI) and the heart rate variability (HRV) was introduced in order to reveal the average over group significant differences of HRV. An individual sensitivity to the GS was estimated using the autocorrelation function analysis of the high-frequency (HF) part of the CI spectrum. The autocorrelation analysis allowed for detection a group of subjects of study which autocorrelation functions (ACF) react differently in the Q and S regimes of exposure.

  17. Variation in the WWV, 15 MHz field strength received at Hiraiso during a low solar activity and the application of the result to radio disturbance warning services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshio, Mitsuo; Kidokoro, Tsuneichi

    1978-01-01

    Recurrent geomagnetic storms occur predominantly apparently during the period of low solar activity. Radio disturbance warning services are apt to be made in terms of geomagnetic disturbances in this period. This analysis has been made from the standpoint of making the electric field strength of a short wave (WWV, 15 MHz) circuit with a long distance received at Hiraiso, Japan correspond to not only geomagnetic disturbances, but also its absorption in the ionosphere. The electric field strength has been treated as a newly introduced daily mean value of time-integrated one in this paper. The result has been obtained from the analysis that about 2/3 of the daily electric field strength of the total cases treated were influenced by geomagnetic disturbances and that about 2/3 within the remaining about 1/3 proved to be influenced by the ionospheric absorption, ionospheric parameters such as f sub(min) and the phase of a VLF radio wave circuit being used. The strength has been considered to be influenced by the absorption also in case of being influenced by geomagnetic disturbances. The remaining about 1/9 of the total cases could not correspond to its cause. Some applications of the consideration have been made to practical problems. (author)

  18. Sensitivity of the Geomagnetic Octupole to a Stably Stratified Layer in the Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, C.; Stanley, S.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of a stably stratified layer at the top of the core has long been proposed for Earth, based on evidence from seismology and geomagnetic secular variation. Geodynamo modeling offers a unique window to inspect the properties and dynamics in Earth's core. For example, numerical simulations have shown that magnetic field morphology is sensitive to the presence of stably stratified layers in a planet's core. Here we use the mMoSST numerical dynamo model to investigate the effects of a thin stably stratified layer at the top of the fluid outer core in Earth on the resulting large-scale geomagnetic field morphology. We find that the existence of a stable layer has significant influence on the octupolar component of the magnetic field in our models, whereas the quadrupole doesn't show an obvious trend. This suggests that observations of the geomagnetic field can be applied to provide information of the properties of this plausible stable layer, such as how thick and how stable this layer could be. Furthermore, we have examined whether the dominant thermal signature from mantle tomography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) (a degree & order 2 spherical harmonic) can influence our results. We found that this heat flux pattern at the CMB has no outstanding effects on the quadrupole and octupole magnetic field components. Our studies suggest that if there is a stably stratified layer at the top of the Earth's core, it must be limited in terms of stability and thickness, in order to be compatible with the observed paleomagnetic record.

  19. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  20. Coronal mass ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters in relation with geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, P L; Singh, Puspraj; Singh, Preetam

    2014-01-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are the drastic solar events in which huge amount of solar plasma materials are ejected into the heliosphere from the sun and are mainly responsible to generate large disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters and geomagnetic storms in geomagnetic field. We have studied geomagnetic storms, (Dst ≤-75 nT) observed during the period of 1997-2007 with Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters (solar wind temperature, velocity, density and interplanetary magnetic field) .We have inferred that most of the geomagnetic storms are associated with halo and partial halo Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs).The association rate of halo and partial halo coronal mass ejections are found 72.37 % and 27.63 % respectively. Further we have concluded that geomagnetic storms are closely associated with the disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters. We have determined positive co-relation between magnitudes of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, jump in solar wind plasma density, jump in solar wind plasma velocity and jump in average interplanetary magnetic field with co-relation co-efficient 0 .35 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma temperature, 0.19 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind density, 0.34 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in solar wind plasma velocity, 0.66 between magnitude of geomagnetic storms and magnitude of jump in average interplanetary magnetic field respectively. We have concluded that geomagnetic storms are mainly caused by Coronal Mass Ejections and disturbances in solar wind plasma parameters that they generate.

  1. Intermittency and multifractional Brownian character of geomagnetic time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Consolini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's magnetosphere exhibits a complex behavior in response to the solar wind conditions. This behavior, which is described in terms of mutifractional Brownian motions, could be the consequence of the occurrence of dynamical phase transitions. On the other hand, it has been shown that the dynamics of the geomagnetic signals is also characterized by intermittency at the smallest temporal scales. Here, we focus on the existence of a possible relationship in the geomagnetic time series between the multifractional Brownian motion character and the occurrence of intermittency. In detail, we investigate the multifractional nature of two long time series of the horizontal intensity of the Earth's magnetic field as measured at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory during two years (2001 and 2008, which correspond to different conditions of solar activity. We propose a possible double origin of the intermittent character of the small-scale magnetic field fluctuations, which is related to both the multifractional nature of the geomagnetic field and the intermittent character of the disturbance level. Our results suggest a more complex nature of the geomagnetic response to solar wind changes than previously thought.

  2. Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the timing of reproduction of the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio , in ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... We used the four-striped field mouse, Rhabdomys pumilio (Sparrmann, 1784), to test the hypothesis that ...

  3. Relation of geomagnetic pulsations to parmeters of mid-latitude lower ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, V.L.; Kostrov, L.S.; Martynenko, S.I.; Piven', L.A.; Pushin, V.F.; Shemet, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Results of experimental investigation of the effect of geomagnetic pulsations on parameters of medium-latitude lower ionosphere with the use of methods of partial reflections and Doppler probing at short waves are presented. The relation between changes in geomagnetic field and intensity of partially reflected radiosignals is detected

  4. Manifestation of interplanetary medium parameters in development of a geomagnetic storm initial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkhetiya, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    The role of solar wind plasma parameters in formation of a geomagnetic storm initial phase is refined. On the basis of statistical analysis an empirical formula relating the interplanetary medium parameters (components of interplanetary magnetic field, proton velocity and concentration) and D st -index during the geomagnetic storm initial phase is proposed

  5. New forecasting methods of the intensity and time development of geomagnetic and ionospheric storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasofu, S.I.

    1981-01-01

    The main phase of a geomagnetic storm develops differently from one storm to another. A description is given of the solar wind quantity which controls directly the development of the main phase of geomagnetic storms. The parameters involved include the solar wind speed, the magnetic field intensity, and the polar angle of the solar wind magnetic field projected onto the dawn-dusk plane. A redefinition of geomagnetic storm and auroral activity is given. It is pointed out that geomagnetic disturbances are caused by the magnetic fields of electric currents which are generated by the solar wind-magnetosphere dynamo. Attention is given to approaches for forecasting the occurrence and intensity of geomagnetic storms and ionospheric disturbances

  6. Variations in soil microbial community structure induced by the conversion from paddy fields to upland fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use conversion is an important factor influencing the carbon and nitrogen gas exchange between land and atmosphere, and soil microorganisms is main driver of soil carbon and nitrogen gas production. Understanding the effect of land-use conversion on soil microbial communities and its influencing factor is important for greenhouse gas emission reduction and soil organic carbon and nitrogen sequestration and stability. The influence of land use conversion on soil process was undergoing a dynamic change, but little research has been done to understand the effect on soil microbial communities during the initial years after land conversion. In the study, the influences of land-use conversion from double rice cropping (RR) to maize-maize (MM) and soybean-peanut (SP) double cropping systems on soil physical and chemical properties, and microbial community structure was studied after two years of the conversion in southern China. The results showed that land use conversion significantly changed soil properties, microbial communities and biomass. Soil pH significantly decreased by 0.50 and 0.52 after conversion to MM and SP, respectively. Soil TN and NH4-N also significantly decreased by 9%-15% and 60% after conversion to upland fields, respectively. The total PLFAs, bacterial, gram-positive bacterial (G+), gram-negative bacterial (G-) and actinomycetic PLFAs decreased significantly. The ng g-1 soil concentration of monounsaturated chain PLFAs 16:1ω7c and 18:1ω9t were significantly higher at paddy fields than at upland fields. No significant differences in soil properties, microbial communities and biomass were found between conversed MM and SP. Our results indicated that land use conversion, not crop type conversed had a significant effects on soil properties and microbial communities at the initial of land conversion. And soil pH was the key factor regulating the variations in soil microbial community structure after land use conversion from paddy to upland fields.

  7. Decadal variability in core surface flows deduced from geomagnetic observatory monthly means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whaler, K. A.; Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris

    2016-01-01

    . On the annual to decadal timescale, the SV is generated primarily by advection in the fluid outer core. We demonstrate the utility of the revised monthly means by calculating models of the core surface advective flow between 1997 and 2013 directly from the SV data. One set of models assumes flow......Monthly means of the magnetic field measurements at ground observatories are a key data source for studying temporal changes of the core magnetic field. However, when they are calculated in the usual way, contributions of external (magnetospheric and ionospheric) origin may remain, which make them...... less favourable for studying the field generated by dynamo action in the core. We remove external field predictions, including a new way of characterising the magnetospheric ring current, from the data and then calculate revised monthly means using robust methods. The geomagnetic secular variation (SV...

  8. Fluxgate Magnetometer Array for Geomagnetic Abnormal Phenomena Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to develop a flexible observation mode for a geomagnetic abnormal phenomena tracking system. The instrument, based on ring core fluxgate magnetometer technology, improves the field environment performance. Using wireless technology provides on-the-spot mobile networking for the observational data, with efficient access to the earthquake precursor observation network. It provides a powerful detection method for earthquake short-term prediction through installation of a low-noise fluxgate magnetometer array, intensely observing the phenomenon of geomagnetic disturbances and abnormal low-frequency electromagnetic signals in different latitudes, then carrying out observational data processing and exploring the relationship between earthquake activity and geomagnetic field changes.

  9. Geomagnetically Induced Currents Around the World During the 17 March 2015 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Pradipta, R.; Weygand, J. M.; Piersanti, M.; Pulkkinen, Antti Aleksi; Moldwin, M. B.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) represent a significant space weather issue for power grid and pipeline infrastructure, particularly during severe geomagnetic storms. In this study, magnetometer data collected from around the world are analyzed to investigate the GICs caused by the 2015 St. Patricks Day storm. While significant GIC activity in the high-latitude regions due to storm time substorm activity is shown for this event, enhanced GIC activity was also measured at two equatorial stations in the American and Southeast Asian sectors. This equatorial GIC activity is closely examined, and it is shown that it is present both during the arrival of the interplanetary shock at the storm sudden commencement (SSC) in Southeast Asia and during the main phase of the storm approximately 10 h later in South America. The SSC caused magnetic field variations at the equator in Southeast Asia that were twice the magnitude of those observed only a few degrees to the north, strongly indicating that the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) played a significant role. The large equatorial magnetic field variations measured in South America are also examined, and the coincident solar wind data are used to investigate the causes of the sudden changes in the EEJ approximately 10 h into the storm. From this analysis it is concluded that sudden magnetopause current increases due to increases in the solarwind dynamic pressure, and the sudden changes in the resultant magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems, are the primary drivers of equatorial GICs.

  10. DE 2 observations of disturbances in the upper atmosphere during a geomagnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.J.; Brace, L.H.; Spencer, N.W.; Carignan, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    Data taken in the dusk sector of the mid-latitude thermosphere at 275-450 km by instruments on board Dynamics Explorer 2 in polar orbit are used to examine the response of the ionosphere- thermosphere system during a geomagnetic storm. The results represent the first comparison of nearly simultaneous measurements of storm disturbances in dc electric fields, zonal ion convection, zonal winds, gas composition and temperature, and electron density and temperature, at different seasons in a common local time sector. The storm commenced on November 24, 1982, during the interaction of a solar wind disturbance with the geomagnetic field while the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field, B z , was northward. The storm main phase began while B z was turning southward. Storm-induced variations in meridional de electric fields, neutral composition, and N e were stronger and spread farther equatorward in the winter hemisphere. Westward ion convection was intense enough to produce westward winds of 600 m s - 1 via ion drag in the winter hemisphere. Frictional heating was sufficient to elevate ion temperatures above electron temperatures in both seasons and to produce large chemical losses of O + by increasing the rate of O + loss via ion-atom interchange. Part of the chemical loss of O + was compensated by upward flow of O + as the ion scale height adjusted to the increasing ion temperatures. In this storm, frictional heating was an important subauroral heat source equatorward to at least 53 degree invariant latitude

  11. Variational extension of the time-dependent mean field approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate an application of the variational principle of Balian and Veneroni for density operators and observables. Our choice for the trial spaces incorporates correlations in the density operator. It allows one to calculate the expectation values of both one-body and two-body observables. We derive a set of coupled equations which extends the TDHF formalism, and determines the evolution of the partition function, the one-body density and the second cumulant (it corresponds also to a truncation of the quantal counterpart of the BBKGY equations). By restricting further the trial space for the two-body observables, the variational principle generates simpler equations which still include the effects of a selected class of correlations on the evolution of the one-body density

  12. Ionospheric F2-Layer Semi-Annual Variation in Middle Latitude by Solar Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Kyung Park

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation by solar activity in middle latitude by using foF2 observed at the Kokubunji ionosonde station in Japan for the period from 1997 to 2008. The semi-annual variation of foF2 shows obviously in high solar activity (2000-2002 than low solar activity (2006-2008. It seems that variation of geomagnetic activity by solar activity influences on the semi-annual variation of the ionospheric F2-layer electron density. According to the Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis of foF2 and Ap index, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF Bs (IMF Bz <0 component, solar wind speed, solar wind number density and flow pressure which influence the geomagnetic activity, we examine how the geomagnetic activity affects the ionospheric F2-layer electron density variation. We find that the semi-annual variation of daily foF2, Ap index and IMF Bs appear clearly during the high solar activity. It suggests that the semi-annual variation of geomagnetic activity, caused by Russell-McPherron effect, contributes greatly to the ionospheric F2-layer semi-annual electron density variation, except dynamical effects in the thermosphere.

  13. Recent investigation at INPE in magnetospheric physics and geomagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, W.D.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1984-01-01

    During recent years the following research activities related to the earth's magnetosphere have been intensified: a) studies on electric field and energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere; b) studies on high latitude magnetospheric electric fields and on their penetration into the plasmasphere; c) measurements of atmospheric-large scale-electric fields, related to the low latitude magnetospheric-ionospheric coupling and to the local atmospheric electrodynamics, using detectors on board stratospheric balloons; and d) measurements of atmospheric X-rays, related to the process of energetic particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly, using detectors also on board stratospheric balloons. Similarly, the following research activities related to geomagnetism are being pursued: a) studies on the variability of the geomagnetic field and on the dynamics of the equatorial electrojet from local geomagnetic field measurements; b) studies on terrestrial electromagnetic induction through local measurements of the geo-electromagnetic field; and c) studies on the influence of geomagnetic activity on particle precipitation at the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. (Author) [pt

  14. spatial variation of magnetotelluric field components in simple 2d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVEERERRY

    resistivities which are useful in the interpretation of magnetotelluric field measurements for investigating geologic ... equation technique required about 20 minutes – CPU time ... Maxwell's equations govern large scale EM phenomena.

  15. Geotectonic variations of radon fields in the Tashkent subway stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yafasov, A.Ya.; Akimov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The investigations into the radon fields in subsurface service rooms and platforms of the Tashkent subway arranged on the territories with different geotectonic characteristics were conducted by the use of the standard radiometers Alpha-GUARD PQ2000M and Gamma-TRACER (Germany), semiconductor spectrometers RATON (Uzbekistan). The effect of the tectonic factor on the radon fields formation in air of the subway was shown [ru

  16. ULF geomagnetic activity effects on tropospheric temperature, specific humidity, and cloud cover in Antarctica, during 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regi, Mauro; Redaelli, Gianluca; Francia, Patrizia; De Lauretis, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible relationship between the ULF geomagnetic activity and the variations of several atmospheric parameters. In particular, we compared the ULF activity in the Pc1-2 frequency band (100 mHz-5 Hz), computed from geomagnetic field measurements at Terra Nova Bay in Antarctica, with the tropospheric temperature T, specific humidity Q, and cloud cover (high cloud cover, medium cloud cover, and low cloud cover) obtained from reanalysis data set. The statistical analysis was conducted during the years 2003-2010, using correlation and Superposed Epoch Analysis approaches. The results show that the atmospheric parameters significantly change following the increase of geomagnetic activity within 2 days. These changes are evident in particular when the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component is oriented southward (Bz0). We suggest that both the precipitation of electrons induced by Pc1-2 activity and the intensification of the polar cap potential difference, modulating the microphysical processes in the clouds, can affect the atmosphere conditions.

  17. Global Ultra-Low-Frequency Geomagnetic Pulsations Associated with the March 24, 1991 Geomagnetic Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Wei Chen Jann-Yenq Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On 24 March 1991, global ultra-low-frequency (ULF pulsations (1.1 - 3.3 mHz observed in the magnetosphere as well as on the ground were studied via analyzing magnetic field data obtained from a global network, comprising ground-based observatories and geosynchronous satellites. In the magnetosphere, the compressional and transverse components of the magnetic fields recorded at two satellites, GOES 6 and GOES 7, showed dominant fluctuations when they were in the vicinity of the noon sector, whereas the transverse fluctuations became dominant when they were at the dawn side. Similarly, on the ground, the H and D components had major fluctuations along with an increase in amplitude from low to high geomagnetic latitudes. In addition, the amplitude of the ULF pulsation was enhanced at the dawn and dusk sides. The geomagnetic pulsations propagated anti-sunward and were of counterclockwise and clockwise elliptical polarizations at the dawn and dusk sides respectively. The counterclockwise elliptical polarization reversed to a clockwise elliptical polarization at geomagnetic local noon and linear polarization was observed during the reversal. It appears that the analysis of the global network data not only provided us with a study of the characteristics of the waves in the magnetosphere and on the ground but also provided us with correlations between the geosynchronous and ground observations, which should be essential to the determination of possible mechanisms of this storm-related wave event.

  18. Global ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 and their influence on HF radio wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Daria; Klimenko, Maxim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Zakharov, Veniamin

    2013-04-01

    In this work we have investigated the global ionospheric response to geomagnetic storm on May 2-3, 2010 using GSM TIP (Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere and Protonosphere) simulation results. In the GSM TIP storm time model runs, several input parameters such as cross-polar cap potential difference and R2 FAC (Region 2 Field-Aligned Currents) varied as a function of the geomagnetic activity AE-index. Current simulation also uses the empirical model of high-energy particle precipitation by Zhang and Paxton. In this model, the energy and energy flux of precipitating electrons depend on a 3 hour Kp-index. We also have included the 30 min time delay of R2 FAC variations with respect to the variations of cross-polar cap potential difference. In addition, we use the ground-based ionosonde data for comparison our model results with observations. We present an analysis of the physical mechanisms responsible for the ionospheric effects of geomagnetic storms. The obtained simulation results are used by us as a medium for HF radio wave propagation at different latitudes in quiet conditions, and during main and recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm. To solve the problem of the radio wave propagation we used Zakharov's (I. Kant BFU) model based on geometric optics. In this model the solution of the eikonal equation for each of the two normal modes is reduced using the method of characteristics to the integration of the six ray equation system for the coordinates and momentum. All model equations of this system are solved in spherical geomagnetic coordinate system by the Runge-Kutta method. This model was tested for a plane wave in a parabolic layer. In this study, the complex refractive indices of the ordinary and extraordinary waves at ionospheric heights was calculated for the first time using the global first-principal model of the thermosphere-ionosphere system that describes the parameters of an inhomogeneous anisotropic medium during a

  19. Climatologies of nighttime upper thermospheric winds measured by ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometers during geomagnetically quiet conditions: 2. High-latitude circulation and interplanetary magnetic field dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmert, J.T.; Hernandez, G.; Jarvis, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze upper thermospheric (similar to 250 km) nighttime horizontal neutral wind patterns, during geomagnetically quiet (Kp S), Halley (76 degrees S, 27 degrees W), Millstone Hill (43 degrees N, 72 degrees W), Sondre...

  20. Variations in the small-scale galactic magnetic field and short time-scale intensity variations of extragalactic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Structure functions of the Faraday rotation measures (RMs) of extragalactic radio sources are used to investigate variations in the interstellar magnetic field on length scales of approx.0.01 to 100 pc. Model structure functions derived assuming a power-law power spectrum of irregularities in n/sub e/B, are compared with those observed. The results indicate an outer angular scale for RM variations of approximately less than or equal to 5 0 and evidence for RM variations on scales as small as 1'. Differences in the variance of n/sub e/B fluctuations for various lines of sight through the Galaxy are found. Comparison of pulsar scintillations in right- and left-circular polarizations yield an upper limit to the variations in n/sub e/ on a length scale of approx.10 11 cm. RMs were determined through high-velocity molecular flows in galactic star-formation regions, with the goal of constraining magnetic fields in and near the flows. RMs of 7 extragalactic sources with a approx.20 arcmin wide area seen through Cep A, fall in two groups separated by approx.150 rad m -2 - large given our knowledge of RM variations on small angular scales and possibly a result of the anisotropy of the high-velocity material

  1. Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn, E-mail: cedricmc@icmat.e, E-mail: mdeleon@icmat.e, E-mail: david.martin@icmat.e [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas, CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-11-12

    We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  2. Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn

    2010-01-01

    We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  3. Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...

  4. Focus-variation image reconstruction in field-emission TEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coene, W.M.J.; Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Op de Beeck, M.; Van Dyck, D.; Van Zwet, E.J.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Bailey, G.W.; Rieder, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a field emission gun (FEG) in high resolution TEM (HRTEM) improves the information limit much below the point resolution. In the area between point and information resolution of the FEG-TEM, image interpretation is complicated by the lens aberrations and focus effects. Different

  5. Westward ionospheric currents over the dip equator during geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    During geomagnetic disturbed periods, the q type of sporadic E layer near the dip equator is shown to disappear with maximum error of five minutes during the period when the difference of the geomagnetic H field between the equatorial and non-equatorial station decreases below the night level. These periods are identified with the reversal to westward direction of the electrojet currents at the base of the E region around 100 km level irrespective of the changes in the S/subq/ current system which might be produced by the disturbance

  6. Displacement and stress fields around rock fractures opened by irregular overpressure variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigekazu eKusumoto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many rock fractures are entirely driven open by fluids such as ground water, geothermal water, gas, oil, and magma. These are a subset of extension fractures (mode I cracks; e.g., dikes, mineral veins and joints referred to as hydrofractures. Field measurements show that many hydrofractures have great variations in aperture. However, most analytical solutions for fracture displacement and stress fields assume the loading to be either constant or with a linear variation. While these solutions have been widely used, it is clear that a fracture hosted by heterogeneous and anisotropic rock is normally subject to loading that is neither constant nor with a linear variation. Here we present new general solutions for the displacement and stress fields around hydrofractures, modelled as two-dimensional elastic cracks, opened by irregular overpressure variations given by the Fourier cosine series. Each solution has two terms. The first term gives the displacement and stress fields due to the average overpressure acting inside the crack; it is given by the initial term of the Fourier coefficients expressing the overpressure variation. The second term gives the displacement and stress fields caused by the overpressure variation; it is given by general terms of the Fourier coefficients and solved through numerical integration. Our numerical examples show that the crack aperture variation closely reflects the overpressure variation. Also, that the general displacement and stress fields close to the crack follow the overpressure variation but tend to be more uniform far from the crack. The present solutions can be used to estimate the displacement and stress fields around any fluid-driven crack, that is, any hydrofracture, as well as its aperture, provided the variation in overpressure can be described by Fourier series. The solutions add to our understanding of local stresses, displacements, and fluid transport associated with hydrofractures in the crust.

  7. Transport from chaotic orbits in the geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Tajima, T.

    1991-01-01

    The rapid change in direction and magnitude of the magnetic field vector in crossing the quasineutral sheet in the geomagnetic tail leads to deterministic Hamiltonian chaos. The finite correlation times in the single particle orbits due to the continuum of orbital frequencies leads to well-defined collisionless transport coefficients. The transport coefficients are derived for plasma trapped in the quasineutral sheet

  8. Biological effects of geomagnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibisov, S.M.; Breus, T.K.; Levitin, A.E.; Drogova, G.M.; AN SSSR, Moscow; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    Six physiological parameters of cardio-vascular system of rabbits and ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes were investigated during two planetary geomagnetic storms. At the initial and main phase of the storm the normal circadian structure in each cardiovascular parameter was lost. The disynchronozis was growing together with the storm and abrupt drop of cardia activity was observed during the main phase of storm. The main phase of storm followed by the destruction and degradation of cardiomyocytes. Parameters of cardia activity became substantially synchronized and characterized by circadian rhythm structure while the amplitude of deviations was still significant at the recovery stage of geomagnetic storm. 3 refs.; 7 figs

  9. The Steens Mountain (Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition: 1. Directional history, duration of episodes, and rock magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Prevot, M.; Gromme, C. Sherman; Coe, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    The thick sequence of Miocene lava flows exposed on Steens Mountain in southeastern Oregon is well known for containing a detailed record of a reversed‐to‐normal geomagnetic polarity transition. Paleomagnetic samples were obtained from the sequence for a combined study of the directional and intensity variations recorded; the paleointensity study is reported in a companion paper. This effort has resulted in the first detailed history of total geomagnetic field behavior during a reversal of polarity. A comparison of the directional variation history of the reversed and normal polarity intervals on either side of the transition with the Holocene record has allowed an estimate of the duration of these periods to be made. These time estimates were then used to calculate accumulation rates for the volcanic sequence and thereby provide a means for estimating time periods within the transition itself. The polarity transition was found to consist of two phases, each with quite different characteristics. At the onset of the first phase, a one‐third decrease in magnetic field intensity may have preceded the first intermediate field directions by about 600 years. Changes in field direction were confined near the local north‐south vertical plane when the actual reversal in direction occurred and normal polarity directions may have been attained within 550±150 years. The end of the first phase of the transition was marked by a brief (possibly 100–300 years) period with normal polarity and a pretransitional intensity which suggests a quasi‐normal dipole field structure existed during this interval. The second phase of the transition was characterized by a return to very low field intensities with the changes in direction describing a long counterclockwise loop in contrast to the earlier narrowly constrained changes. This second phase lasted 2900±300 years, and both normal directions and intensities were recovered at the same time. Both directional and intensity

  10. Self-consistent field variational cellular method as applied to the band structure calculation of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lino, A.T.; Takahashi, E.K.; Leite, J.R.; Ferraz, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    The band structure of metallic sodium is calculated, using for the first time the self-consistent field variational cellular method. In order to implement the self-consistency in the variational cellular theory, the crystal electronic charge density was calculated within the muffin-tin approximation. The comparison between our results and those derived from other calculations leads to the conclusion that the proposed self-consistent version of the variational cellular method is fast and accurate. (author) [pt

  11. Role of gauge invariance in a variational and mean-field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masperi, L.; Omero, C.

    1981-08-01

    We show that the implementation of gauge invariance is essential for a variational treatment to correctly reproduce all the features of the phase diagram for the Z(2) lattice gauge theory with matter field. (author)

  12. Complementary variational principle method applied to thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-12-14

    The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.

  13. Electron collision frequency variations and electric fields in the lower ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokov, A.M.; Martynenko, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    Distribution of relative variations of the electron effective collision frequency at the ionosphere lower boundary is determined on the basis of analysis of radio-signals partially reflected from the lower ionosphere. Technique to evaluate the strength of electrical fields at the ionosphere lower boundary using experimentally measured variations of the effective frequency of electron collisions is elaborated. 12 refs., 2 figs

  14. A detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation of the Matuyama-Bruhnes geomagnetic reversal recorded in tephra-paleosol sequence of Tlaxcala(Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Soler-Arechalde

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic reversals are global phenomena, for about 50 years the paleomagnetists attempted to acquire as many detailed records as possible using the magnetic memory of sediments and lava flows. Yet, transitional field behavior remains poorly characterized largely because of sporadic aspect of volcanic eruptions. In some specific cases, paleosols such as those developed from alluvial or aeolian sediments, may also record the variations of the Geomagnetic Field across the polarity changes. Here, we report a detailed paleomagnetic and rock-magnetic investigation on some radiometrically dated chromic luvisols located in Central Mexico carrying detrital or chemical remanent magnetization. The research was developed in order i to demonstrate the primary origin of the magnetic remanence and ii to show that paleosoils are good candidates to provide a high resolution record of the behavior of geomagnetic field during reversals. The lower part of the paleosoil sequence shows a clearly defined reverse polarity magnetization followed by geomagnetically unstable transitional field and ended by normal polarity remanence. Our AMS and rock magnetic data suggest that magnetization is acquired during the initial stage of soil formation in context of active volcanic activity since magnetic fabric is essentially sedimentary and reverse and normal polarity paleodirections are almost antipodal. Titanomagnetites are identified as main magnetic carriers of rock-magnetic measurements including thermomagnetics and hysteresis cycles. We propose that the transition recorded in this study correspond to the B-M boundary, considering the K-Ar datings available at the sequence bottom and that the chromic luvisols are potentially good recorders of the paleosecular variation. The identification of the B-M boundary within the studied sequence has fundamental significance for improving the chronological scale of Tlaxcala paleosol-sedimentary sequence and its correlation with the

  15. Resolving issues concerning Eskdalemuir geomagnetic hourly values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Macmillan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The hourly values of the geomagnetic field from 1911 to 1931 derived from measurements made at Eskdalemuir observatory in the UK, and available online from the World Data Centre for Geomagnetism at http://www.wdc.bgs.ac.uk/, have now been corrected. Previously they were 2-point averaged and transformed from the original north, east and vertical down values in the tables in the observatory yearbooks. This paper documents the course of events from discovering the post-processing done to the data to the final resolution of the problem. As it was through the development of a new index, the Inter-Hour Variability index, that this post-processing came to light, we provide a revised series of this index for Eskdalemuir and compare it with that from another European observatory. Conclusions of studies concerning long-term magnetic field variability and inferred solar variability, whilst not necessarily consistent with one another, are not obviously invalidated by the incorrect hourly values from Eskdalemuir. This series of events illustrates the challenges that lie ahead in removing any remaining errors and inconsistencies in the data holdings of different World Data Centres.

  16. Waveguide propagation of electromagnetic waves in high-density ducts aligned along the geomagnetic field in the near-equatorial magnetospheric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Waveguide propagation of electromagnetic waves in axial symmetric ducts with increased plasma density aligned along the constant external magnetic field is considered for frequencies, being higher than low-hybrid, in the WKB approximation. In this case tunnel effects leading to captured wave damping are taken into account. Conditions for waveguide propagation and the logarithmic decrement of damping are found. Field construction is performed using the systems of axially symmetric WKB solutions of the Maxwell equations

  17. Ten cycles of solar and geomagnetic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Series of 110 years of sunspot numbers and indices of geomagnetic activity are used with 17 years of solar wind data in order to study through solar cycles both stream and shock event solar activity. According to their patterns on Bartels diagrams of geomagnetic indices, stable wind streams and transient solar activities are separated from each other. Two classes of stable streams are identified: equatorial streams occurring sporadically, for several months, during the main phase of sunspot cycles and both polar streams established, for several years, at each cycle, before sunspot minimum. Polar streams are the first activity of solar cycles. For study of the relationship between transient geomagnetic phenomena and sunspot activity, we raise the importance of the contribution, at high spot number, of severe storms and, at low spot number, of short lived and unstable streams. Solar wind data are used to check and complete the above results. As a conclusion, we suggest a unified scheme of solar activity evolution with a starting point every eleventh year, a total duration of 17 years and an overlapping of 6 years between the first and the last phase of both successive series of phenomena: first, from polar field reversal to sunspot minimum, a phase of polar wind activity of the beginning cycle is superimposed on the weak contribution of shock events of the ending cycle; secondly, an equatorial phase mostly of shock events is superimposed on a variable contribution of short lived and sporadic stable equatorial stream activities; and thirdly a phase of low latitude shock events is superimposed on the polar stream interval of the following cycle. (orig.)

  18. Role of the magnetospheric and ionospheric currents in the generation of the equatorial scintillations during geomagnetic storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Z. Biktash

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The equatorial ionosphere parameters, Kp, Dst, AU and AL indices characterized contribution of different magnetospheric and ionospheric currents to the H-component of geomagnetic field are examined to test the geomagnetic activity effect on the generation of ionospheric irregularities producing VLF scintillations. According to the results of the current statistical studies, one can predict near 70% of scintillations from Aarons' criteria using the Dst index, which mainly depicts the magnetospheric ring current field. To amplify Aarons' criteria or to propose new criteria for predicting scintillation characteristics is the question. In the present phase of the experimental investigations of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere new ways are opened up because observations in the interaction between the solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere during magnetic storms have progressed greatly. According to present view, the intensity of the electric fields and currents at the polar regions, as well as the magnetospheric ring current intensity, are strongly dependent on the variations of the interplanetary magnetic field. The magnetospheric ring current cannot directly penetrate the equatorial ionosphere and because of this difficulties emerge in explaining its relation to scintillation activity. On the other hand, the equatorial scintillations can be observed in the absence of the magnetospheric ring current. It is shown that in addition to Aarons' criteria for the prediction of the ionospheric scintillations, models can be used to explain the relationship between the equatorial ionospheric parameters, h'F, foF2, and the equatorial geomagnetic variations with the polar ionosphere currents and the solar wind.

  19. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eOlson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs, and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  20. CM5, a Pre-Swarm Comprehensive Geomagnetic Field Model Derived from Over 12 Yr of CHAMP, Orsted, SAC-C and Observatory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert H.; Kuvshinov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive magnetic field model named CM5 has been derived from CHAMP, Ørsted and SAC-C satellite and observatory hourly-means data from 2000 August to 2013 January using the Swarm Level-2 Comprehensive Inversion (CI) algorithm. Swarm is a recently launched constellation of three satellites to map the Earth's magnetic field. The CI technique includes several interesting features such as the bias mitigation scheme known as Selective Infinite Variance Weighting (SIVW), a new treatment for attitude error in satellite vector measurements, and the inclusion of 3-D conductivity for ionospheric induction. SIVW has allowed for a much improved lithospheric field recovery over CM4 by exploiting CHAMP along-track difference data yielding resolution levels up to spherical harmonic degree 107, and has allowed for the successful extraction of the oceanic M2 tidal magnetic field from quiet, nightside data. The 3-D induction now captures anomalous Solar-quiet features in coastal observatory daily records. CM5 provides a satisfactory, continuous description of the major magnetic fields in the near-Earth region over this time span, and its lithospheric, ionospheric and oceanic M2 tidal constituents may be used as validation tools for future Swarm Level-2 products coming from the CI algorithm and other dedicated product algorithms.

  1. Effect of the August 11, 1999 total solar eclipse on geomagnetic pulsations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pal, B.; Heilig, B.; Zieger, B.; Szendröi, J.; Verö, J.; Lühr, H.; Yumoto, K.; Tanaka, Y.; Střeštík, Jaroslav

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2007), s. 23-58 ISSN 1217-8977 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : field line resonance * geomagnetic pulsations * solar eclipse Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. The Steens Mountain ( Oregon) geomagnetic polarity transition ( USA). 3. Its regional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, E.A.; Larson, E.E.; Gromme, C.S.; Prevot, M.; Coe, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    Study of the variations of direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field as recorded by the Miocene lava flows on Steens Mountain, SE Oregon, has resulted in a detailed description of total field behavior during a reversal in polarity. In addition to information about the polarity reversal itself, the detailed paleomagnetic record includes several thousand years of geomagnetic history preceding and following the polarity transition at 15.5 Ma. To test the feasibility of using this record as a means of correlation in this part of the western US, comparisons are made of reconnaissance and previously published paleomagnetic records obtained from what has been thought to be the Steens Basalt or rocks of equivalent age. Despite the fact that many of these earlier studies were not detailed and were not intended for correlation purposes, convincing similarities among some of the records are evident. The Steens Basalt paleomagnetic record does, indeed, have potential as a correlation tool during this time of widespread basaltic volcanism. Concludes that findings indicate no post-20 Ma differential rotation between S-E Washington and S-central Oregon, in contrast to previous interpretations. -from Authors

  3. Distinct Pattern of Solar Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays above a High Geomagnetic Cutoff Rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Clem, John; Evenson, Paul; Pyle, Roger; Mitthumsiri, Warit; Ruffolo, David; Sáiz, Alejandro; Nutaro, Tanin

    2018-05-01

    Solar modulation refers to Galactic cosmic-ray variations with the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle and ∼22 yr solar magnetic cycle and is relevant to the space radiation environment and effects on Earth’s atmosphere. Its complicated dependence on solar and heliospheric conditions is only roughly understood and has been empirically modeled in terms of a single modulation parameter. Most analyses of solar modulation use neutron monitor (NM) data from locations with relatively low geomagnetic cutoff rigidity, i.e., the threshold for cosmic rays to penetrate Earth’s magnetic field. The Princess Sirindhorn Neutron Monitor at Doi Inthanon, Thailand, has the world’s highest cutoff rigidity (≈17 GV) where observations span a complete solar modulation cycle (since late 2007). The pattern of solar modulation at Doi Inthanon during 2011–2014 was qualitatively very different from that at a low geomagnetic cutoff and is not well described by the same modulation parameter. At other times, NM count rates from Doi Inthanon and McMurdo, Antarctica (cutoff ∼1 GV), were linearly correlated and confirm the observation from latitude surveys in the previous solar cycle that the slope of the correlation changes with solar magnetic polarity. Low solar magnetic tilt angles (magnetic field, which is consistent with an increase in diffusion at high rigidity short-circuiting the effects of drifts and the heliospheric current sheet.

  4. Force balance near an X line along which E x J is less than 0. [plasma transfer from closed to open field lines in geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Pridmore-Brown, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    Conditions for which particle motion within the current sheet in the vicinity of an X line can give a current in the direction appropriate for E x J is less than 0. The way in which the balance between gyroviscosity and the electric force along an X line is maintained for any E x J is shown. It is concluded that observational evidence for the occasional existence of E x J is less than 0 along an X line provides support for the suggestion that collisionless graviscosity, rather than resistivity, balances the electric force along an X line. It is found that there is a maximum electric field magnitude for particles to be able to carry a significant current. For parameters typical of the distant magnetotail, the critical electric field magnitude was found to be about 0.15 mV/m, which is of the order of, though somewhat less than, the potential electric field magnitudes expected in the magnetotail. This maximum allowable field magnitude is about the same for protons as it is for electrons in the magnetotail.

  5. CM5, a pre-Swarm comprehensive geomagnetic field model derived from over 12 yr of CHAMP, Ørsted, SAC-C and observatory data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Olsen, Nils; Tyler, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive magnetic field model named CM5 has been derived from CHAMP, Orsted and SAC-C satellite and observatory hourly-means data from 2000 August to 2013 January using the Swarm Level-2 Comprehensive Inversion (CI) algorithm. Swarm is a recently launched constellation of three satellites ...

  6. Variation-Aware Design of Custom Integrated Circuits A Hands-on Field Guide A Hands-on Field Guide

    CERN Document Server

    McConaghy, Trent; Dyck, Jeffrey; Gupta, Amit

    2013-01-01

    This book targets custom IC designers who are encountering variation issues in their designs, especially for modern process nodes at 45nm and below, such as statistical process variations, environmental variations, and layout effects.  The authors have created a field guide to show how to handle variation proactively, and to understand the benefits of doing so. Readers facing variation challenges in their memory, standard cell, analog/RF, and custom digital designs will find easy-to-read, pragmatic solutions.   Reviews the most important concepts in variation-aware design, including types of variables and variation, useful variation-aware design terminology, and an overview and comparison of high-level design flows. Describes and compares a suite of approaches and flows for PVT corner-driven design and verification. Presents Fast PVT, a novel, confidence-driven global optimization technique for PVT corner extraction and verification that is both rapid and reliable. Presents a visually-oriented overview of ...

  7. Variations mechanism in entropy of wave height field and its relation with thermodynamic entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper gives a brief description of annual period and seasonal variation in the wave height field entropy in the northeastern Pacific. A calculation of the quantity of the, received by lithosphere systems in the northern hemisphere is introduced. The wave heat field entropy is compared with the difference in the quantity of the sun's radiation heat. Analysis on the transfer method, period and lag of this seasonal variation led to the conclusion that the annual period and seasonal variation in the entropy of the wave height field in the Northwestern Pacific is due to the seasonal variation of the sun's radiation heat. Furthermore, the inconsistency between thermodynamic entropy and information entropy was studied.

  8. Geomagnetic storm effects on GPS based navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. S. Rama Rao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The energetic events on the sun, solar wind and subsequent effects on the Earth's geomagnetic field and upper atmosphere (ionosphere comprise space weather. Modern navigation systems that use radio-wave signals, reflecting from or propagating through the ionosphere as a means of determining range or distance, are vulnerable to a variety of effects that can degrade the performance of the navigational systems. In particular, the Global Positioning System (GPS that uses a constellation of earth orbiting satellites are affected due to the space weather phenomena.

    Studies made during two successive geomagnetic storms that occurred during the period from 8 to 12 November 2004, have clearly revealed the adverse affects on the GPS range delay as inferred from the Total Electron Content (TEC measurements made from a chain of seven dual frequency GPS receivers installed in the Indian sector. Significant increases in TEC at the Equatorial Ionization anomaly crest region are observed, resulting in increased range delay during the periods of the storm activity. Further, the storm time rapid changes occurring in TEC resulted in a number of phase slips in the GPS signal compared to those on quiet days. These phase slips often result in the loss of lock of the GPS receivers, similar to those that occur during strong(>10 dB L-band scintillation events, adversely affecting the GPS based navigation.

  9. Seasonal effects in the ionosphere-thermosphere response to the precipitation and field-aligned current variations in the cusp region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Namgaladze

    Full Text Available The seasonal effects in the thermosphere and ionosphere responses to the precipitating electron flux and field-aligned current variations, of the order of an hour in duration, in the summer and winter cusp regions have been investigated using the global numerical model of the Earth's upper atmosphere. Two variants of the calculations have been performed both for the IMF By < 0. In the first variant, the model input data for the summer and winter precipitating fluxes and field-aligned currents have been taken as geomagnetically symmetric and equal to those used earlier in the calculations for the equinoctial conditions. It has been found that both ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances are more intensive in the winter cusp region due to the lower conductivity of the winter polar cap ionosphere and correspondingly larger electric field variations leading to the larger Joule heating effects in the ion and neutral gas temperature, ion drag effects in the thermospheric winds and ion drift effects in the F2-region electron concentration. In the second variant, the calculations have been performed for the events of 28–29 January, 1992 when precipitations were weaker but the magnetospheric convection was stronger than in the first variant. Geomagnetically asymmetric input data for the summer and winter precipitating fluxes and field-aligned currents have been taken from the patterns derived by combining data obtained from the satellite, radar and ground magnetometer observations for these events. Calculated patterns of the ionospheric convection and thermospheric circulation have been compared with observations and it has been established that calculated patterns of the ionospheric convection for both winter and summer hemispheres are in a good agreement with the observations. Calculated patterns of the thermospheric circulation are in a good agreement with the average circulation for the Southern (summer Hemisphere obtained

  10. Crustal concealing of small-scale core-field secular variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Olsen, Nils; Thebault, E.

    2009-01-01

    of internal origin happen to be detectable now in spherical harmonic degrees up to, perhaps, 16. All of these changes are usually attributed to changes in the core field itself, the secular variation, on the ground that the lithospheric magnetization cannot produce such signals. It has, however, been pointed...... out, on empirical grounds, that temporal changes in the field of internal origin produced by the induced part of the lithospheric magnetization could dominate the core field signal beyond degree 22. This short note revisits this issue by taking advantage of our improved knowledge of the small...... cause of the observed changes in the field of internal origin up to some critical degree, N-C, is indeed likely to be the secular variation of the core field, but that the signal produced by the time-varying lithospheric field is bound to dominate and conceal the time-varying core signal beyond...

  11. Geomagnetic response of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the Earth's magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badruddin; Mustajab, F.; Derouich, M.

    2018-05-01

    A coronal mass ejections (CME) is the huge mass of plasma with embedded magnetic field ejected abruptly from the Sun. These CMEs propagate into interplanetary space with different speed. Some of them hit the Earth's magnetosphere and create many types of disturbances; one of them is the disturbance in the geomagnetic field. Individual geomagnetic disturbances differ not only in their magnitudes, but the nature of disturbance is also different. It is, therefore, desirable to understand these differences not only to understand the physics of geomagnetic disturbances but also to understand the properties of solar/interplanetary structures producing these disturbances of different magnitude and nature. In this work, we use the spacecraft measurements of CMEs with distinct magnetic properties propagating in the interplanetary space and generating disturbances of different levels and nature. We utilize their distinct plasma and field properties to search for the interplanetary parameter(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic response of different coronal mass ejections.

  12. Predictions of local ground geomagnetic field fluctuations during the 7-10 November 2004 events studied with solar wind driven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wintoft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The 7-10 November 2004 period contains two events for which the local ground magnetic field was severely disturbed and simultaneously, the solar wind displayed several shocks and negative Bz periods. Using empirical models the 10-min RMS and at Brorfelde (BFE, 11.67° E, 55.63° N, Denmark, are predicted. The models are recurrent neural networks with 10-min solar wind plasma and magnetic field data as inputs. The predictions show a good agreement during 7 November, up until around noon on 8 November, after which the predictions become significantly poorer. The correlations between observed and predicted log RMS is 0.77 during 7-8 November but drops to 0.38 during 9-10 November. For RMS the correlations for the two periods are 0.71 and 0.41, respectively. Studying the solar wind data for other L1-spacecraft (WIND and SOHO it seems that the ACE data have a better agreement to the near-Earth solar wind during the first two days as compared to the last two days. Thus, the accuracy of the predictions depends on the location of the spacecraft and the solar wind flow direction. Another finding, for the events studied here, is that the and models showed a very different dependence on Bz. The model is almost independent of the solar wind magnetic field Bz, except at times when Bz is exceptionally large or when the overall activity is low. On the contrary, the model shows a strong dependence on Bz at all times.

  13. Predictions of local ground geomagnetic field fluctuations during the 7-10 November 2004 events studied with solar wind driven models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wintoft

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The 7-10 November 2004 period contains two events for which the local ground magnetic field was severely disturbed and simultaneously, the solar wind displayed several shocks and negative Bz periods. Using empirical models the 10-min RMS and at Brorfelde (BFE, 11.67° E, 55.63° N, Denmark, are predicted. The models are recurrent neural networks with 10-min solar wind plasma and magnetic field data as inputs. The predictions show a good agreement during 7 November, up until around noon on 8 November, after which the predictions become significantly poorer. The correlations between observed and predicted log RMS is 0.77 during 7-8 November but drops to 0.38 during 9-10 November. For RMS the correlations for the two periods are 0.71 and 0.41, respectively. Studying the solar wind data for other L1-spacecraft (WIND and SOHO it seems that the ACE data have a better agreement to the near-Earth solar wind during the first two days as compared to the last two days. Thus, the accuracy of the predictions depends on the location of the spacecraft and the solar wind flow direction. Another finding, for the events studied here, is that the and models showed a very different dependence on Bz. The model is almost independent of the solar wind magnetic field Bz, except at times when Bz is exceptionally large or when the overall activity is low. On the contrary, the model shows a strong dependence on Bz at all times.

  14. Investigation of a strong positive ionospheric storm during geomagnetic disturbances occurred in the Brazilian sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, A. J.; Sahai, Y.; Fagundes, P. R.; de Jesus, R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the responses of the ionospheric F region at equatorial and low latitude regions in the Brazilian sector during the super geomagnetic storm on 15-16 May 2005. The geomagnetic storm reached a minimum Dst of -263 nT at 0900 UT on 15 May. In this paper, we present vertical total electron content (vTEC) and phase fluctuations (in TECU/min) from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations obtained at Belém (BELE), Brasília (BRAZ), Presidente Prudente (UEPP), and Porto Alegre (POAL), Brazil, during the period 14-17 May 2005. Also, we present ionospheric parameters h'F, hpF2, and foF2, using the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) obtained at Palmas (PAL) and São José dos Campos (SJC), Brazil, for the same period. The super geomagnetic storm has fast decrease in the Dst index soon after SSC at 0239 UT on 15 May. It is a good possibility of prompt penetration of electric field of magnetospheric origin resulting in uplifting of the F region. The vTEC observations show a trough at BELE and a crest above UEPP, soon after SSC, indicating strengthening of nighttime equatorial anomaly. During the daytime on 15 and 16 May, in the recovery phase, the variations in foF2 at SJC and the vTEC observations, particularly at BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL, show large positive ionospheric storm. There is ESF on the all nights at PAL, in the post-midnight (UT) sector, and phase fluctuations only on the night of 14-15 May at BRAZ, after the SSC. No phase fluctuations are observed at the equatorial station BELE and low latitude stations (BRAZ, UEPP, and POAL) at all other times. This indicates that the plasma bubbles are generated and confined on this magnetically disturbed night only up to the low magnetic latitude and drifted possibly to west.

  15. An association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipnicki, Darren M

    2009-07-01

    Daily disturbances of the earth's magnetic field produce variations in geomagnetic activity (GMA) that are reportedly associated with widespread effects on human health and behaviour. Some of these effects could be mediated by an established influence of GMA on the secretion of melatonin. There is evidence from unrelated research that melatonin influences dream bizarreness, and it is hypothesised here that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Also reported is a preliminary test of this hypothesis, a case study in which the dreams recorded over 6.5 years by a young adult male were analysed. Reports of dreams from the second of two consecutive days of either low or high GMA (K index sum or = 28) were self-rated for bizarreness on a 1-5 scale. Dreams from low GMA periods (n=69, median bizarreness=4) were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from high GMA periods (n=85, median bizarreness=3; p=0.006), supporting the hypothesised association between GMA and dream bizarreness. Studies with larger samples are needed to verify this association, and to determine the extent to which melatonin may be involved. Establishing that there is an association between GMA and dream bizarreness would have relevance for neurophysiological theories of dreaming, and for models of psychotic symptoms resembling bizarre dream events.

  16. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region.

  17. Double streams of protons in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Two intermingled streams of protons have been observed in the distant geomagnetic tail. The number densities of the two streams are comparable, and their velocity difference tends to lie along the field direction. The lower-velocity stream is probably composed of magnetosheath protons which have diffused through the boundary of the distant tail. The higher-velocity stream appears to originate in the field reversal region

  18. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Clarke, A; Garner, C P; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations.

  19. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Clarke, A; Garner, C P; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations

  20. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Justham, T.; Clarke, A.; Garner, C. P.; Hargrave, G. K.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2006-07-01

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations.