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Sample records for geomagnetic cut-off rigidity

  1. Changes in cosmic ray cut-off rigidities due to secular variations of the geomagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    Full Text Available An analytical expression is derived for the cutoff rigidity of cosmic rays arriving at a point in an arbitrary direction, when the main geomagnetic field is approximated by that of an eccentric dipole. This expression is used to determine changes in geomagnetic cutoffs due to secular variation of the geomagnetic field since 1835. Effects of westward drift of the quadrupole field and decrease in the effective dipole moment are seen in the isorigidity contours. On account of the immense computer time required to determine the cutoff rigidities more accurately using the particle trajectory tracing technique, the present formulation may be useful in estimating the transmission factor of the geomagnetic field in cosmic ray studies, modulation of cosmogenic isotope production by geomagnetic secular variation, and the contribution of geomagnetic field variation to long term changes in climate through cosmic ray related modulation of the current flow in the global electric circuit.

  2. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths.

  3. Atmospheric secondary charged cosmic radiation at a place of 11.5 GV geomagnetic cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcarate, I. N.

    2002-04-01

    An experiment performed with a balloon-borne plastic scintillator is described. The detector system was transported by a stratospheric balloon, that was launched from Reconquista, province of Santa Fe, Argentina, on 24 February 1992. The geomagnetic cut-off of the site was 11.5 GV. The energy-loss spectra of both the atmospheric gamma radiation ( for E^γ>= 4.15 MeV) and the charged component of the secondary cosmic radiation were alternatively measured at different altitudes, during the ascent of the balloon, and at ceiling altitude. The author analyzed the atmospheric gamma-ray spectrum in a previous paper ( Azcárate, 2000). It was necessary to perform the computation of the response of the detector to the charged radiation in order to explain , at least qualitatively, the energy-loss spectrum in the detector produced by this type of radiation. It is argued that at ceiling altitude the observed feature in the spectrum is produced mainly by relativistic muons falling horizontally upon the detector. The growth curve for the counting rate below this feature and the intensity of relativistic μ-mesons were also obtained. References : Azcárate, I.N., Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, 36, 81, 2000.

  4. The geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes for different solar wind and geomagnetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, W. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather; Univ. of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). College of Earth Sciences; Qin, G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Space Weather

    2016-04-01

    Studying the access of the cosmic rays (CRs) into the magnetosphere is important to understand the coupling between the magnetosphere and the solar wind. In this paper we numerically studied CRs' magnetospheric access with vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities using the method proposed by Smart and Shea (1999). By the study of CRs' vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities at high latitudes we obtain the CRs' window (CRW) whose boundary is determined when the vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities drop to a value lower than a threshold value. Furthermore, we studied the area of CRWs and found out they are sensitive to different parameters, such as the z component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), the solar wind dynamic pressure, AE index, and Dst index. It was found that both the AE index and Dst index have a strong correlation with the area of CRWs during strong geomagnetic storms. However, during the medium storms, only AE index has a strong correlation with the area of CRWs, while Dst index has a much weaker correlation with the area of CRWs. This result on the CRW can be used for forecasting the variation of the cosmic rays during the geomagnetic storms.

  5. From Dimensional to Cut-Off Regularization

    CERN Document Server

    Dillig, M

    2006-01-01

    We extent the standard approach of dimensional regularization of Feynman diagrams: we replace the transition to lower dimensions by a 'natural' cut-off regulator. Introducing an external regulator of mass Lambda^(2e), we regain in the limit e -> 0 and e > 0 the results of dimensional and cut-off regularization, respectively. We demonstrate the versatility and adequacy of the different regularization schemes for practical examples (such as non covariant regularization, the axial anomaly or regularization in effective field theories).

  6. Spin Cut-off Parameter of Nuclear Level Density and Effective Moment of Inertia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.N. Behkami; M. Soltani

    2005-01-01

    The spin cut-off parameter of the nuclear level density and effective moment of inertia for a large number of nuclei have been determined from analysis of the experimental data on S-wave neutron resonances and spins of lowlying levels. Contrary to claims made before, it is shown the spin cut-off parameter differs considerably from their corresponding rigid body values, and the energy dependence of the effective moment of inertia confirms the interacting fermion model prediction.

  7. Magnetospheric effects of cosmic rays. 1. Long-term changes in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvozdevskii, B. B.; Abunin, A. A.; Kobelev, P. G.; Gushchina, R. T.; Belov, A. V.; Eroshenko, E. A.; Yanke, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    Vertical geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are obtained for the stations of the global network of neutron monitors via trajectory calculations for each year of the period from 1950 to 2020. Geomagnetic cutoff rigidities are found from the model of the Earth's main field International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) for 1950-2015, and the forecast until 2020 is provided. In addition, the geomagnetic cutoff rigidities for the same period are obtained by Tsyganenko model T89 (Tsyganenko, 1989) with the average annual values of the Kp-index. In each case, the penumbra is taken into account in the approximation of the flat and power spectra of variations of cosmic rays. The calculation results show an overall decrease in geomagnetic cutoff rigidities, which is associated with the overall decrease and restructuring of the geomagnetic field during the reporting period, at almost all points.

  8. Sensory cut-off point obtained from survival analysis statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Garitta, Lorena; Langohr, Klaus; Gómez Melis, Guadalupe; Hough, Guillermo; Beeren, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we applied interval-censored survival analysis techniques to estimate sensory cut-off points based on consumer’s decision to accept or reject food products taking into account the inherent variability in sensory measurements. We compared the values obtained using this survival analysis methodology with those obtained by applying a previous regression based method. Cut-off point (COP) estimations were made for acid flavor in yogurt, strawberry flavor in a strawberry flav...

  9. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  10. Designing the sound of a cut-off drum

    CERN Document Server

    Martinetti, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The spectral action in noncommutative geometry naturally implements an ultraviolet cut-off, by counting the eigenvalues of a (generalized) Dirac operator lower than an energy of unification. Inverting the well known question "how to hear the shape of a drum ?", we ask what drum can be designed by hearing the truncated music of the spectral action ? This makes sense because the same Dirac operator also determines the metric, via Connes distance. The latter thus offers an original way to implement the high-momentum cut-off of the spectral action as a short distance cut-off on space. This is a non-technical presentation of the results of http://arxiv.org/abs/1305.2605

  11. Defining Obesity Cut-Off Points for Migrant South Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura J.; Yates, Thomas; Davies, Melanie J.; Brady, Emer; Webb, David R.; Sattar, Naveed; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2011-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population. Methods 4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40–75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans. Findings For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 20.7 kg/m2 to 24.5 kg/m2) for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m2 to 27.3 kg/m2) for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m2 to 30.4 kg/m2) for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm) for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm) for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm) for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC. Conclusions Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans) for the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:22039493

  12. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

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    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  13. On the periodic variations of secondary cosmic rays and the geomagnetic Pc4 pulsations in BMAr

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    I. M. Martin

    Full Text Available In a set of balloon flights in the Brazilian magnetic anomaly region (BMAr short time periodic variations were observed, i.e. pulsation, of secondary charged and neutral particle fluxes, X- and -ray fluxes with amplitudes of about 2–4%. The pulsations are accompanied by the geomagnetic Pc4 pulsations and have similar periodicity. The phenomenon was observed over various local times and in quiet and disturbed magnetospheric conditions. One of the explanations of this effect, i.e. periodic variation of local cut-off rigidity, and following pulsations of primary and secondary cosmic ray intensity is suggested.

  14. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  15. 27-day variation of the GCR intensity based on corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances data of neutron monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Alania, M V; Wawrzynczak, A; Sdobnov, V E; Kravtsova, M V

    2015-01-01

    We study 27-day variations of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity for 2005- 2008 period of the solar cycle #23. We use neutron monitors (NMs) data corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances. Besides the limited time intervals when the 27-day variations are clearly established, always exist some feeble 27-day variations in the GCR 5 intensity related to the constantly present weak heliolongitudinal asymmetry in the heliosphere. We calculate the amplitudes of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity based on the NMs data corrected and uncorrected for geomagnetic disturbances. We show that these amplitudes do not differ for NMs with cut-off rigidities smaller than 4-5 GV comparing with NMs of higher cut-off rigidities. Rigidity spectrum of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity found in the uncorrected data is soft while it is hard in the case of the corrected data. For both cases exists definite tendency of softening the temporal changes of the 27-day variation's rigidity spectrum in period ...

  16. Energetics of southeastern Pacific cut-off lows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Manoel Alonso; Piva, Everson Dal

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cut-off lows (COLs) over South Pacific and South America is often associated with adverse weather events such as intense precipitation over the central region of South America, frost episodes in southern Brazil and the development of Andes lee cyclones and intense cyclones over the southern coast of Brazil. Despite this importance, the formation and maintenance mechanisms of the COLs are not well understood. To detail the significant variability in terms of the eddy kinetic energy equation for fifty cases of COLs that formed over the southeastern Pacific Ocean is the aim of this study. Only the cases of COLs that formed over the ocean and remained there during most of their life were chosen. The main terms of the equation [ageostrophic flux convergence (AFC), baroclinic conversion (BRC) and barotropic conversion (BRT)] were calculated using the 6-hourly gridded data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy reanalysis. The formation mechanism of the COLs was associated with BRC and AFC. During the midlife period, the BRC term converted eddy kinetic energy to eddy potential energy and the AFC had a positive contribution until 6 h after the midlife point. In the dissipation phase, the BRC term remained positive and AFC became negative. The BRT extracted kinetic energy from the COL during the entire life cycle. The AFC term was the most important in all phases of the cut-off lifetime, and it was the responsible for extending the cut-off lifetime while the others terms were negatives.

  17. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using......In order to lower the cognitive burden of decision making, consumers may apply attribute cut-off values to simplify decision strategies. Products with attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or are greatly discounted. This study provides new...

  18. Permeability porosity relationships (K, Phi cut-off)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djettou, F.; Reda, H. [Sonatrach, Algiers (Algeria)

    1995-08-01

    Several reservoirs of Lower Devonian in Ghadames basin present porosities greater than 10 Pu, but during the test they are rather impermeable. It seems that this phenomena extends to BERKINE and Rhourd Messaoud areas. This seriously affect the estimation of recovery reserves. The best we can do is to study and try to understand reservoir problems. The method we choose is based on statistical analysis of test results and their comparison with core and log measurements. It concerns mainly cummulative curves of productive and non-productive tests (dry test). This involves about 20 wells where are can define: Siegenian with: Fine grained in BBK and ROM Coarse grained toward BRN - Emsian is rather homogeneous in the region. The sand cut-off porosity is greater than 11 Pu. However the reservoir can`t produce itself then we can not take account in reserve estimation. In conclusion, a sandy reservoir of Lower Devonian in Ghadames basin may be very porous (11-12%) and impermeable while in the other cases reservoirs can produce with porosity of 7 or 8 Po. However a HC definition based on cut-off porosity in Ghadames basin should be done before net pay an recovery reserves estimation.

  19. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  20. Transferring Cut-off Values between Assays for Cerebrospinal Fluid Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Vanderstichele, Hugo M. J.; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Current technologies quantifying cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to identify subjects with Alzheimer's disease pathology report different concentrations in function of technology and suffer from between-laboratory variability. Hence, lab- and technology-specific cut-off values are required. It is common practice to establish cut-off values on small datasets and, in the absence of well-characterized samples, to transfer the cut-offs to another assay format using 'side-by-side' testing of sample...

  1. Emission Enhancement in a Plasmonic Waveguide at Cut-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Alù

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancement of molecular emission is usually obtained by coupling small optical emitters with external resonant structures and systems, as first established by Purcell several decades ago, and verified in several recent investigations using molecules or quantum dots coupled with plasmonic nanoantennas. Here we theoretically investigate in detail a different mechanism for emission enhancement, based on our recent idea of a plasmonic nanolauncher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2009, 103, 043902], i.e., a metamaterial-inspired ultranarrow waveguide channel operating near its cut-off frequency. Such system is not necessarily at resonance, but its peculiar operation may provide enhanced emission over a relatively broad physical area, which may allow enhancement of emission independent of the position of an individual or of a group of molecules along such plasmonic channel, and the possibility to bend and route the emitted energy with large flexibility. We present here extensive theoretical and numerical results that confirm this intuition and may envision a novel method for molecular emission enhancement at the nanoscale, with more flexibility than the conventional Purcell resonance techniques.

  2. Numerical Computation of Proton Geomagnetic Vertical Cutoff Rigidities on 7-8 November 2004%质子地磁垂直截止刚度在2004年11月7-8日两个时刻处的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄杰; 楚伟

    2013-01-01

    利用单粒子轨道理论,在T04和IGRF2000磁场模式建立的磁层模型基础上,应用四阶龙格库塔方法,模拟计算宇宙线带电质子在地球磁层中的运动以及沿天顶方向入射到达地球磁场内的某一特定位置,得到了距地球表面450km高度处全球质子垂直截止刚度在2004年11月7-8日中两个时刻的计算值.根据计算得到的684个不同位置处的截止刚度值,分析了同一时刻地磁垂直截止刚度随磁纬和磁经的变化.与此同时,模拟计算了相同时刻下磁纬为30°,磁经为0°,45°,90°,135°,180°,225°,270°,315°处,地磁有效垂直截止刚度随高度的变化情况.结果表明,在磁纬30°处,其质子有效垂直截止刚度随距离地心高度的变化沿向阳处向磁尾处方向,变化越来越缓慢.%The geomagnetic cut-off rigidity can effectively measure the shielding effect of Earth's magnetic field on cosmic ray particles.In this paper,the single particle orbit theory is used to simulate the movement of cosmic ray protons in the Earth's magnetosphere and the specific location within the magnetic field along the vertical direction to the Earth center.Based on the establishment of T04 and IGRF2000,the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to simulate the trajectories of particles.The vertical cutoff rigidities of global cosmic protons around the height of 450 km above Earth's surface at two moments in November 2004 are calculated.The value change of geomagnetic vertical cutoff rigidity with the magnetic latitude and magnetic longitude is analysed with the help of 684 calculation results at the same moment.The changes of protons vertical cutoff rigidity with the height from Earth's center,at the position of magnetic latitude of 30°,magnetic longitude of 0°,45°,90°,135°,180°,225°,270°,315°,are also simulated.Simulation results show that the change of geomagnetic effective vertical cutoff rigidity with the increasing height from the Earth's center is

  3. Surface Tension of Methanol as a Function of cut-off Radius and Temperature Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Abdalla; Jaradat, Adnan; Hamdan, Bushra

    Molecular dynamics is used to calculate the surface tension of van Leeuwen methanol. The van Leeuwen model of methanol is chosen over other models of methanol, since this model is widely used to study nucleation at low temperature. Usually, scientists use the cut-off radius to be three order of magnitude of segment diameter. In this study, we varied the cut-off radius to estimate the best cut-off at which the surface tension reaches its plateau. After deciding the best cut-off radius for van der Waals and Coulomb interactions (CUT-OFF and PME were used for Coulomb interaction), we varied the temperature controller (van-Housen, Berendsen, and v-rescale) to decide the best temperature controller to be used to study methanol. In all simulations, Gromacs is used at T =200-300K with periodic boundary conditions in all dimensions. JUST.

  4. Body mass index cut-offs for screening for childhood overweight and obesity in Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, V V; Khadilkar, A V; Borade, A B; Chiplonkar, S A

    2012-01-01

    To develop age and sex specific cut offs for BMI to screen for overweight and obesity in Indian children linked to an adult BMI of 23 and 28 kg/m2 respectively, using contemporary Indian data. Cross-sectional. Multicentric, School based. 19834 children were measured from 11 affluent schools from five major geographical regions of India. Data were analyzed using the LMS method, which constructs growth reference percentiles adjusted for skewness. Compared to the cut-offs suggested for European populations and those by the Indian Academy of Pediatrics 2007 Guidelines, the age and sex specific cut off points for body mass index for overweight and obesity for Indian children suggested by this study are lower. Contemporary cross-sectional age and sex specific BMI cut-offs for Indian children linked to Asian cut-offs of 23 and 28 kg/m2 for the assessment of risk of overweight and obesity, respectively are presented.

  5. Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines improve diagnostic accuracy for detecting pheochromocytomas in two separate cohorts, compared to symptom-independent cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Song, Kee-Ho; Kim, Young Nam; Ahn, Seong Hee; Kim, Hyeonmok; Park, Sooyoun; Suh, Sunghwan; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lee, Soo-Youn; Chun, Sail; Koh, Jung-Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2016-10-01

    The development of advanced imaging techniques has increased the detection of subclinical pheochromocytomas. Because of the substantial proportions of subclinical pheochromocytomas, measurement of urine metanephrine concentrations is crucial due to detect or exclude pheochromocytoma. Although urine metanephrines are elevated in symptomatic subjects, diagnostic cut-offs according to the presence of adrenergic symptoms have not been studied. Pheochromocytomas patients who underwent adrenalectomy at Samsung Medical Center and a control group were compared to determine cut-off concentrations of urine metanephrines. An independent population was analyzed for urine metanephrines with different kits to validate the improvement in diagnostic accuracy using adjusted cut-offs. Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines were higher for symptomatic patients (307 μg/day in males, 235 μg/day in females for urine metanephrine, and 1,045 μg/day in males and 457 μg/day in females for urine normetanephrine) than for asymptomatic patients (206 μg/day in males, 199 μg/day in females for urine metanephrine, and 489 μg/day in males and 442 μg/day in females for urine normetanephrine). Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines improved a specificity from 92.7 % to 96.3 % and a high sensitivity of 97.8 % was maintained. Using the Symptom-dependent cut-offs raised diagnostic accuracy by 5.5 % (p <0.001). Similar trend was also observed in an independent population using different hormone kits. Using symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines in symptomatic patients for pheochromocytomas resulted in a significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy in two separate cohorts.

  6. Optimal cut-off values and population means of waist circumference in different populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Jun; Si, Damin

    2010-12-01

    Abdominal obesity is a risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, and has become a major public health problem in the world. Waist circumference is generally used as a simple surrogate marker to define abdominal obesity for population screening. An increasing number of publications solely rely on the method that maximises sensitivity and specificity to define 'optimal' cut-off values. It is well documented that the optimal cut-off values of waist circumference vary across different ethnicities. However, it is not clear if the variation in cut-off values is a true biological phenomenon or an artifact of the method for identifying optimal cut-off points. The objective of the present review was to assess the relationship between optimal cut-offs and population waist circumference levels. Among sixty-one research papers, optimal cut-off values ranged from 65·5 to 101·2 cm for women and 72·5 to 103·0 cm for men. Reported optimal cut-off values were highly correlated with population means (correlation coefficient: 0·91 for men and 0·93 for women). Such a strong association was independent of waist circumference measurement techniques or the health outcomes (dyslipidaemia, hypertension or hyperglycaemia), and existed in some homogeneous populations such as the Chinese and Japanese. Our findings raised some concerns about applying the sensitivity and specificity approach to determine cut-off values. Further research is needed to understand whether the differences among populations in waist circumference were genetically or environmentally determined, and to understand whether using region-specific cut-off points can identify individuals with the same absolute risk levels of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes among different populations.

  7. Global changes of cosmic ray cutoff rigidities in the maximum of the geomagnetic storm of November 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernova, Elena; Tyasto, Marta; Danilova, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Vertical cosmic ray (CR) cutoff rigidities were calculated by the CR particle trajectory tracing method in the magnetic field of the Tsyganenko's disturbed magnetosphere model Ts01 for the minimum of the Dst-variation for world grid 5°x15°. The results were compared with cutoff rigidities of Shea & Smart for IGRF2000. The areas of the large differences between them are revealed.

  8. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory;

    2016-01-01

    evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...... a latent class model identifies several key consumer segments (e.g., a price sensitive group) based on their choice behavior and reveals that the relationship between involvement, cut-off use and cut-off violations is not uniform across consumer segments....

  9. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  10. Atmospheric Effect on Cosmic Ray Muons at High Cut-Off Rigidity Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullrahman Maghrabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmic ray data and radiosonde measurements from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (Rc = 14.4 GV, for the period 2002–2012, were used to study the effect of atmospheric pressure, level of pion production, and temperature at that level, on cosmic ray muons. We found that, even if corrections were made to the detected muons using these three parameters, seasonal variations of the cosmic rays still exist. This suggests that other terrestrial and/or extraterrestrial causes may be considered. The levels of pion production and atmospheric pressure are inversely correlated with the muon rate. On the other hand, the temperature at the pion production level is correlated with muons in spring and winter and inversely correlated in fall and summer. There is no clear explanation for this behavior.

  11. 76 FR 33161 - Installation and Use of Engine Cut-off Switches on Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... installed engine cut-off switch to their person, clothing, or life jacket (if worn) when operating a... variety of negative impacts, including loss of life, injuries, and property damage. As described above and...

  12. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: This study assessed healthy young adults to determine the normal limits for electrocardiographic ... The normal limits for heart rate, P wave duration, amplitude and axis in lead II ... Gender difference exists in some cut-off values for.

  13. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L-1 for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L......-1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...... could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type...

  14. Important factors influencing molecular weight cut-off determination of membranes in organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijnenberg, Harmen Jan; Dutczak, S.M.; Boerrigter, M.E.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Benes, Nieck Edwin; Wessling, Matthias; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    In solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF), sensible selection of a membrane for a particular solvent/solute system is recognized as challenging. Prospective methods for suitability analysis of membranes include molecular weight cut off (MWCO) characterization. However, insufficient understanding of

  15. The acoustic cut-off frequency of the Sun and the solar magnetic activity cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, A; Palle, P L

    2011-01-01

    The acoustic cut-off frequency -the highest frequency for acoustic solar eigenmodes- is an important parameter of the solar atmosphere as it determines the upper boundary of the p-mode resonant cavities. At frequencies beyond this value, acoustic disturbances are no longer trapped but traveling waves. Interference amongst them give rise to higher-frequency peaks -the pseudomodes- in the solar acoustic spectrum. The pseudomodes are shifted slightly in frequency with respect to p modes making possible the use of pseudomodes to determine the acoustic cut-off frequency. Using data from GOLF and VIRGO instruments on board the SOHO spacecraft, we calculate the acoustic cut-off frequency using the coherence function between both the velocity and intensity sets of data. By using data gathered by these instruments during the entire lifetime of the mission (1996 till the present), a variation in the acoustic cut-off frequency with the solar magnetic activity cycle is found.

  16. The Mass Shell of the Nelson Model without Cut-Offs

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Pizzo, A

    2011-01-01

    The massless Nelson model describes non-relativistic, spinless quantum particles interacting with a relativistic, massless, scalar quantum field. The interaction is linear in the field. We analyze the one particle sector. First, we construct the renormalized mass shell of the non-relativistic particle for an arbitrarily small infrared cut-off that turns off the interaction with the low energy modes of the field. No ultraviolet cut-off is imposed. Second, we implement a suitable Bogolyubov transformation of the Hamiltonian in the infrared regime. This transformation depends on the total momentum of the system and is non-unitary as the infrared cut-off is removed. For the transformed Hamiltonian we construct the mass shell in the limit where both the ultraviolet and the infrared cut-off are removed. Our approach is constructive and leads to explicit expansion formulae which are amenable to rigorously control the S-matrix elements.

  17. Less pollution - less raw materials - less noise: Automatic cylinder cut-off technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    VW's automatic cylinder cut-off technology displays its advantages especially in city traffic - as road tests have proved. Though no fuel saving was measured on motorways it came up to 16% when driving on country roads and 30% in inner city traffic. One intends to use cylinder cut-off first for diesel cars as the restart reliability of diesel engines is much higher than that of petrol engines. (HW)

  18. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  19. Phase properties of the cut-off high-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Khokhlova, M A

    2015-01-01

    The cut-off regime of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) by atoms in an intense laser field is studied numerically and analytically. We find that the cut-off regime is characterized by equal dephasing between the successive harmonics. The change of the harmonic phase-locking when HHG evolves from the cut-off to the plateau regime determines the optimal bandwidth of the spectral region which should be used for attosecond pulse generation via amplitude gating technique. The cut-off regime is also characterized by a linear dependence of the harmonic phase on the fundamental intensity. The proportionality coefficient grows as the cube of the fundamental wavelength, thus this dependence becomes very important for the HHG by mid-infrared fields. Moreover, for every high harmonic there is a {\\it range} of laser intensities providing the generation in the cut-off regime and the atomic response magnitude in this regime can be greater than that in the plateau regime. Thus the cut-off regime substantially contributes ...

  20. Effect of copper slag recovery on hydrometallurgical cut-off grades considering environmental aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AFSHIN AKBARI; ESMAEIL RAHIMI

    2016-01-01

    Determining the hydrometallurgical cut-off grades specifies the destination of low grade materials and this is subjected to more benefits in mining. Copper production rate is considered as one of the fundamental issues in hydrometallurgical cut-off grades determination. Slags are remarked as one of the main sources of copper. It is not only regarded as a waste but also identified as another resource extracting base metals. Slags are characterized by copper high grade. Thus, slag copper recovery can be led to different cut-off grades and net present value (NPV). The current research scrutinizes the effect of slag recovery by both flotation and hydrometallurgical methods on the hydrometallurgical cut-off grades. For this purpose, the optimum cut-off grade algorithms of hydrometallurgical methods are developed by considering associated environmental parameters, incomes and also the costs. Then, their optimum amounts are calculated with NPV maximization as an objective function. The results indicate that considering slag copper recovery in the hydrometallurgical cut-off grade algorithms reduces the environmental costs caused by slag dumping and leads to more NPV by 9%.

  1. Cut-off wavenumber of Alfven waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Zaqarashvili, T V; Ballester, J L; Khodachenko, M L

    2012-01-01

    Alfven wave dynamics in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere shows that there is indeed a cut-off wavenumber, i.e. the Alfven waves with wavenumbers higher than the cut-off value are evanescent. The cut-off wavenumber appears in single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation but it is absent in a multi-fluid approach. Up to now, an explanation for the existence of the cut-off wavenumber is still missing. The aim of this paper is to point out the reason for the appearance of a cut-off wavenumber in single-fluid MHD. Beginning with three-fluid equations (with electrons, protons and neutral hydrogen atoms), we performed consecutive approximations until we obtained the usual single-fluid description is obtained. We solved the dispersion relation of linear Alfven waves at each step and sought the approximation responsible of the cut-off wavenumber appearance. We have found that neglecting inertial terms significantly reduces the real part of the Alfven frequency although it never becomes zero. T...

  2. Atmospheric structure and acoustic cut-off frequency of roAp stars

    CERN Document Server

    Audard, N; Morel, P; Provost, J P; Weiss, W W

    1998-01-01

    Some of the rapidly oscillating (CP2) stars, have frequencies which are larger than the theoretical acoustic cut-off frequency. As the cut-off frequency depends on the T(tau) relation in the atmosphere, we have computed models and adiabatic frequencies for pulsating Ap stars with T(tau) laws based on Kurucz model atmospheres and on Hopf's purely radiative relation. The frequency-dependent treatment of radiative transfer as well as an improved calculation of the radiative pressure in Kurucz model atmospheres increase the theoretical acoustic cut-off frequency by about 200 microHz, which is closer to the observations. For alpha Cir we find models with Kurucz atmospheres which have indeed a cut-off frequency beyond the largest observed frequency and which are well within the Teff - L error box. For HD 24712 only models which are hotter by about 100 K and less luminous by nearly 10% than what is actually the most probable value would have an acoustic cut-off frequency large enough. One may thus speculate that the...

  3. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, Á; Salamon, P; Vertse, T

    2015-01-01

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential with realistic depth $S$-matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis.

  4. Investigation of the negative-mass behaviors occurring below a cut-off frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Shanshan; Zhou Xiaoming; Hu Gengkai, E-mail: zhxming@bit.edu.c, E-mail: hugeng@bit.edu.c [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2010-10-15

    Negative-mass phenomena occurring below a cut-off frequency are examined using both theoretical and experimental methods. The paper begins with an investigation of a mass-spring structure, the effective mass of which is shown to be negative below a specific frequency. Due to the decaying nature of lattice waves in the negative-mass system, the transmission drop induced by negative effective mass is demonstrated experimentally. Further investigation is conducted for a rectangular solid waveguide with clamped boundary conditions. It is shown that the lowest bandgap mode of the clamped waveguide can be attributed to negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency. Based on this observation, elastic metamaterials made of a steel grid filled with styrene butadiene rubber are designed and fabricated. Both the simulation and experimental analyses demonstrate that the designed metamaterials have negative effective mass below a cut-off frequency.

  5. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, A.; Noszaly, Cs. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Salamon, P. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Vertse, T. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-15

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon (CWS) potential with realistic depth S -matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value, which is an unphysical parameter. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value, which is an apparent handicap of the CWS potential. (orig.)

  6. BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL WITH ZETAc OPTIMAL CUT-OFF SCORE TO CORRECT TYPE I ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Iwan

    2005-06-01

    This research has successfully attained the following results: (1 type I error is in fact 59,83 times more costly compared to type II error, (2 22 ratios distinguish between bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups, (3 2 financial ratios proved to be effective in predicting bankruptcy, (4 prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score predicts more companies filing for bankruptcy within one year compared to prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score, (5 Although prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score is more accurate, prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score proved to be able to minimize cost incurred from classification errors.

  7. Suppressing the weakly bound states in the photoassociation dynamics by using a frequency cut-off laser pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Feng; Zhang Wei; Zhao Ze-Yu; Cong Shu-Lin

    2012-01-01

    The photoassociation dynamics of ultracold lithium atoms controlled by a cut-off pulse has been investigated theoretically by solving numerically the time-dependent Schr(o)dinger equation using the mapped Fourier grid method.The frequency components of the laser pulse close to the atomic resonance are partly cut off.Compared with the typical Gauss-type pulses,the cut-off pulse is helpful to suppress efficiently the weakly bound states and prepare the associated molecules in the lower vibrational states.Especially,the dependence of photoassociation probability on the cut-off position of the laser pulse is explored.

  8. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti......Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women...

  9. Establishing streptomycin epidemiological cut-off values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Microbial Drug Resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Migura, L.; Sunde, M.; Karlsmose, S.; Veldman, K.T.; Schroeter, A.; Guerra, B.; Granier, S.A.; Perrin-Guyomard, A.; Gicquel-Bruneau, M.; Franco, A.; Englund, S.; Teale, C.; Heiska, H.; Clemente, L.; Boerlin, P.; Moreno, M.A.; Daignault, D.; Mevius, D.J.; Hendriksen, R.S.; Aarestrup, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32¿mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates we

  10. Effective spectral density functions from finite cut-off frequencies of baths

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Xian-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Firstly, we obtain the effective spectral density functions of baths for two basic open quantum systems by setting cut-off frequencies of the baths finite. By using the spectral density functions and the conventional ones from infinite cut-off frequency of the baths we investigate the dynamics of open qubits. When the cut-off frequencies of the baths are smaller than about 5 times of the Rabi frequency of the qubits, the two kinds of spectral density functions result in different qubits' dynamics. Secondly, we obtain the effective spectral density functions of the baths for another two complex models from finite cut-off frequencies of the baths and through which we investigate the dynamics of open qubits in these models. One of these models is a quantum system couple to an intermediate harmonic oscillator and both of them couple to their independent baths respectively, and the other is both of them couple to a common bath. The qubit in the later model has longer decoherence and relaxation times. In the invest...

  11. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Babaei, Javad; Londrillo, Pasquale; Mirzanejad, Saeed; Rovelli, Tiziano; Sinigardi, Stefano; Turchetti, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations, so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitti...

  12. A New Regularization Mechanism for the Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Luis

    2016-11-01

    We apply recent results on regularity for general integro-differential equations to derive a priori estimates in Hölder spaces for the space homogeneous Boltzmann equation in the non cut-off case. We also show an a priori estimate in {L^∞} which applies in the space inhomogeneous case as well, provided that the macroscopic quantities remain bounded.

  13. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than

  14. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  15. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than rando

  16. Ethnic-specific body mass index cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2010-03-19

    To develop ethnic-specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls from New Zealand's five major ethnic groups. A total of 1676 girls (41% European, 21% Pacific Island, 15% East Asian, 13% Māori, and 11% South Asian) aged 5-16 years participated in this study. BMI was determined from height and weight, and body fat percentage (%BF) was obtained from hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance measurements. Using stepwise multiple regression, a series of ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points were developed that corresponded to the equivalent %BF of European girls at the BMI reference values provided by the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF). The adjusted cut-off points for overweight and obesity ranged from an average of 3.3 and 3.8 kg.m(-2) (respectively) lower than the IOTF standards in South Asian girls to 1.5 and 1.9 kg.m(-2) higher in Pacific Island girls. We conclude that the ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points developed in this study are more appropriate than universal definitions of overweight and obesity for predicting excess adiposity in New Zealand girls.

  17. Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job): definition of the cut-off score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavolin, Silvia; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Leonardi, Matilde; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Frangiamore, Rita; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Clerici, Valentina Torri; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Ponzio, Michela; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) mainly affects people of working age. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties (MSQ-Job) was designed to measure difficulties in work-related tasks. Our aim is to define cut-off score of MSQ-Job to identify potential critical situations that might require specific attention. A sample of patients with MS completed the MSQ-Job, WHODAS 2.0 and MSQOL-54 respectively for work difficulties, disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) evaluation. K-means Cluster Analysis was used to divide the sample in three groups on the basis of HRQoL and disability. ANOVA test was performed to compare the response pattern between these groups. The cut-off score was defined using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses for MSQ-Job total and count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3: a score value corresponding to the maximum of the sensitivity-to-specificity ratio was chosen as the cut-off. Out of 180 patients enrolled, twenty were clustered in the higher severity group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.845 for the MSQ-Job total and 0.859 for the count of MSQ-Job items scores ≥3 while the cut-off score was 15.8 for MSQ-Job total and 8 for count of items scored ≥3. We recommend the use of MSQ-Job with this calculation as cut-off for identifying critical situations, e.g. in vocational rehabilitation services, where work-related difficulties have a significant impact in terms of lower quality of life and higher disability.

  18. Comparison of different DIAGNOdent cut-off limits for in vivo detection of occlusal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Kühnisch, J; Oehme, T; Ziehe, A; Stösser, L; García-Godoy, F

    2003-01-01

    This study tested recently recommended cut-off limits for the laser fluorescence based device DIAGNOdent (KaVo) for detection of occlusal caries. Two hundred and forty-eight permanent molars from 94 patients (mean age 19.2 years) of a general dental practice were included. After professional tooth cleaning, the teeth were examined visually and by the laser fluorescence method. The extent of occlusal lesions (gold standard) was determined after minimal operative intervention. Upon fissure opening, 24 teeth had enamel caries and 224 teeth revealed dentin caries, of which 58 and 166, respectively, were up to or beyond half the dentin. The optimal cut-off limits based on the highest kappa-values (0.51 and 0.54) were > 18 for superficial dentinal caries (D3) and > 37 for deep dentinal caries (D4). The comparison with DIAGNOdent cut-offs given by the manufacturer (n = 4) and those based on clinical trials with in vivo validation (n = 4) and in vitro studies with histological validation (n = 3) revealed a considerable variation in performance. Recommended cut-offs between 17 and 21 for superficial dentin lesions were in the same order of magnitude (0.48-0.51). On the D4 level, only the manufacturer's cut-off of > 34 achieved the best performance (0.51). According to the highest kappa-values and the area under the ROC curves (D3: A(z) = 0.903; D4: A(z) = 0.830), the agreement between the extent of validated caries and laser fluorescence value is still unsatisfactory.

  19. THE INTEGRAL HIGH-ENERGY CUT-OFF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B. [IASF-Bologna, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P. [IAPS-Roma, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bird, A. J., E-mail: malizia@iasfbo.inaf.it [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-20

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E {sub c} of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT {sub e} from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  20. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  1. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  2. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  3. Methodological issues in the design of a rheumatoid arthritis activity score and its cut-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collignon O

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Olivier Collignon Centre de Recherche Public de la Santé (CRP-Santé, Competences Centre for Methodology and Statistics (CCMS, Strassen, Luxembourg Abstract: Activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA can be evaluated using several scoring scales based on clinical features. The most widely used one is the Disease Activity Score involving 28 joint counts (DAS28 for which cut-offs were proposed to help physicians classify patients. However, inaccurate scoring can lead to inappropriate medical decisions. In this article some methodological issues in the design of such a score and its cut-offs are highlighted in order to further propose a strategy to overcome them. As long as the issues reviewed in this article are not addressed, results of studies based on standard disease activity scores such as DAS28 should be considered with caution. Keywords: DAS28, disease activity score, penalized logistic regression, clinical prediction, modeling

  4. Edge plasmons and cut-off behavior of graphene nano-ribbon waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Haowen; Teng, Jinghua; Palacios, Tomás; Chua, Soojin

    2016-07-01

    Graphene nano-ribbon waveguides with ultra-short plasmon wavelength are a promising candidate for nanoscale photonic applications. Graphene edge plasmons are the fundamental and lowest losses mode. Through finite element method, edge plasmons show large effective refractive index and strong field confinement on nanoscale ribbons. The edge plasmons follow a k1/2 dispersion relation. The wavelengths of the edge plasmons and center plasmons differ by a fixed factor. The width of edge plasmon is inversely proportional to wave vector of edge plasmon kedge. Edge defects associate with graphene nano-ribbon induce extra losses and reduce the propagation length. Cut-off width of edge plasmons reduces with increasing frequency. Cut-off width of center plasmon is enlarged by edge component but the enlargement effect diminishing with the increase of kedge. The results are important for the application of graphene plasmon towards ultra-compact photonic devices.

  5. Establishment of triglyceride cut-off values to detect chylous ascites and pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Markus A; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Schulz, Christoph; Luppa, Peter B

    2017-02-01

    Lipoprotein electrophoresis is the gold standard for the detection of chylous ascites and pleural effusions. It is, however, not suitable as a front-line test and not widely available. Most clinicians must rely solely on the quantitative determination of lipids. The aim of this work was to establish lipid cut-off values for the presence of chylomicrons in pleural and peritoneal fluid. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels from 113 peritoneal and 154 pleural fluid samples investigated for chylomicrons via lipoprotein electrophoresis were considered. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and cut-off levels determined. 54 peritoneal and 59 pleural fluid samples were positive for chylomicrons. In peritoneal fluid, triglycerides and triglycerides/cholesterol ratio exhibited areas under the curve (AUC) not significantly different from each other, but significantly larger than cholesterol alone. The AUC for triglycerides in pleural fluid was significantly larger than the AUCs for cholesterol and the triglycerides/cholesterol ratio. Triglyceride cut-offs with maximum Youden-Index, sensitivity >95%, and specificity >95% were calculated to be 187, 148, and 246mg/dl (2.13, 1.69, and 2.80mmol/l) for peritoneal fluid, and 240, 94, and 240mg/dl (2.74, 1.07, and 2.74mmol/l) for pleural fluid. Triglyceride levels are the best parameter to detect chylous body fluids when lipoprotein electrophoresis is not available. Single-point triglyceride cut-offs of 187 and 240mg/dl (2.13 and 2.74mmol/l) or alternatively equivocal ranges of 148-246 and 94-240mg/dl (1.69-2.80 and 1.07-2.74mmol/l) were established for peritoneal and pleural fluid, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A framework for cut-off sampling in business survey design

    OpenAIRE

    Bee, Marco; Benedetti, Roberto; Espa, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    In sampling theory the large concentration of the population with respect to most surveyed variables constitutes a problem which is difficult to tackle by means of classical tools. One possible solution is given by cut-off sampling, which explicitly prescribes to discard part of the population; in particular, if the population is composed by firms or establishments, the method results in the exclusion of the “smallest” firms. Whereas this sampling scheme is common among practitioners, its the...

  7. Method and systems for power control of internal combustion engines using individual cycle cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorenko, Y.; Korzhov, M.; Filippov, A.; Atamanenko, N.

    1996-09-01

    A new method of controlling power has been developed for improving efficiency and emissions performance of internal combustion engines at partial load. The method involves cutting-off some of the work cycles, as the load decreases, to obtain required power. Theoretical and experimental material is presented to illustrate the underlying principle, the implementation means and the results for the 4- and 8-cylinder piston engine and a twin rotor Wankel engine applications.

  8. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  9. Introduction of a distance cut-off into structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H

    1997-08-01

    Two approximations were introduced into the double dynamic programming algorithm, in order to reduce the computational time for structural alignment. One of them was the so-called distance cut-off, which approximately describes the structural environment of each residue by its local environment. In the approximation, a sphere with a given radius is placed at the center of the side chain of each residue. The local environment of a residue is constituted only by the residues with side chain centers that are present within the sphere, which is expressed by a set of center-to-center distances from the side chain of the residue to those of all the other constituent residues. The residues outside the sphere are neglected from the local environment. Another approximation is associated with the distance cut-off, which is referred to here as the delta N cut-off. If two local environments are similar to each other, the numbers of residues constituting the environments are expected to be similar. The delta N cut-off was introduced based on the idea. If the difference between the numbers of the constituent residues of two local environments is greater than a given threshold value, delta N, the evaluation of the similarity between the local environments is skipped. The introduction of the two approximations dramatically reduced the computational time for structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm. However, the approximations also decreased the accuracy of the alignment. To improve the accuracy with the approximations, a program with a two-step alignment algorithm was constructed. At first, an alignment was roughly constructed with the approximations. Then, the epsilon-suboptimal region for the alignment was determined. Finally, the double dynamic programming algorithm with full structural environments was applied to the residue pairs within the epsilon-suboptimal region to produce an improved alignment.

  10. Interacting Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy and IR Cut-Off Length

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, J; Moghaddam, Z Abbaspour

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider holographic dark energy model with corrected holographic energy density and show that this model may be equivalent to the modified Chaplygin gas model. Then we obtain relation between entropy corrected holographic dark energy model and scalar field models. We do these works by using choices of IR cut-off length proportional to the Hubble radius, the event horizon radius, the Ricci length, and the Granda-Oliveros length.

  11. Validity of Alternative Cut-Off Scores for the Back-Saver Sit and Reach Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.; Gilbert, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if currently used FITNESSGRAM[R] cut-off scores for the Back Saver Sit and Reach Test had the best criterion-referenced validity evidence for 6-12 year old children. Secondary analyses of an existing data set focused on the passive straight leg raise and Back Saver Sit and Reach Test flexibility scores of…

  12. Jet grouted cut-off is used at Pergau in Malaysia. [Dam construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-04-01

    One of the most important hydropower projects currently under way in South-East Asia is the 600 MW Pergau scheme in Kelantan, in the northeast corner of Malaysia. The project, which involves many complex construction difficulties, is being built on a design-and-construct basis. The 67 m-high main dam involves a cut-off which is being constructed by jet grouting. (author)

  13. Evaluation of novel large cut-off ultrafiltration membranes for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piergiuseppe Nestola

    Full Text Available The purification of virus particles and viral vectors for vaccine and gene therapy applications is gaining increasing importance in order to deliver a fast, efficient, and reliable production process. Ultrafiltration (UF is a widely employed unit operation in bioprocessing and its use is present in several steps of the downstream purification train of biopharmaceuticals. However, to date few studies have thoroughly investigated the performance of several membrane materials and cut-offs for virus concentration/diafiltration. The present study aimed at developing a novel class of UF cassettes for virus concentration/diafiltration. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i membrane materials, namely polyethersulfone (PES, regenerated cellulose (RC, and highly cross-linked RC (xRC, (ii nominal cut-off, and (iii UF device geometry at different production scales. The results indicate that the xRC cassettes with a cut-off of approximately 500 kDa are able to achieve a 10-fold concentration factor with 100% recovery of particles with a process time twice as fast as that of a commercially available hollow fiber. DNA and host cell protein clearances, as well as hydraulic permeability and fouling behavior, were also assessed.

  14. Evaluation of novel large cut-off ultrafiltration membranes for adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, Piergiuseppe; Martins, Duarte L; Peixoto, Cristina; Roederstein, Susanne; Schleuss, Tobias; Alves, Paula M; Mota, José P B; Carrondo, Manuel J T

    2014-01-01

    The purification of virus particles and viral vectors for vaccine and gene therapy applications is gaining increasing importance in order to deliver a fast, efficient, and reliable production process. Ultrafiltration (UF) is a widely employed unit operation in bioprocessing and its use is present in several steps of the downstream purification train of biopharmaceuticals. However, to date few studies have thoroughly investigated the performance of several membrane materials and cut-offs for virus concentration/diafiltration. The present study aimed at developing a novel class of UF cassettes for virus concentration/diafiltration. A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the effects of (i) membrane materials, namely polyethersulfone (PES), regenerated cellulose (RC), and highly cross-linked RC (xRC), (ii) nominal cut-off, and (iii) UF device geometry at different production scales. The results indicate that the xRC cassettes with a cut-off of approximately 500 kDa are able to achieve a 10-fold concentration factor with 100% recovery of particles with a process time twice as fast as that of a commercially available hollow fiber. DNA and host cell protein clearances, as well as hydraulic permeability and fouling behavior, were also assessed.

  15. Cut-off proposal for the detection of ketamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, A; Gerace, E; Diana, P; Romeo, M; Malvaso, V; Di Corcia, D; Vincenti, M

    2015-03-01

    Ketamine is a powerful anesthetic drug used in both human and veterinary surgery, but it is also commonly misused because of its psychotropic properties. Since the abuse of this drug has been reported in many countries worldwide, its determination in hair samples is offered as a specialist test by hundreds of laboratories. However, unlike other common drugs of abuse, a cut-off level for ketamine in hair has not been fixed yet. Therefore, aim of this study is to propose a concentration value for ketamine in hair analysis, in order to discriminate between chronic and occasional use, and between active use and external contamination. After considering the chemical properties of this molecule, and the experimental data collected in our laboratory or reported in several other published studies, we propose a cut-off level of 0.5ng/mg, as indicative of repeated exposure to ketamine. Additionally, we suggest that the detection of the metabolite norketamine should be mandatory to prove active intake and exclude false positive result from external contamination. Thus, a reasonable cut-off value for norketamine could be fixed at 0.1ng/mg, while the minimal concentration ratio norketamine/ketamine may be positively established at 0.05.

  16. Clustered star formation as a natural explanation for the Halpha cut-off in disk galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflamm-Altenburg, Jan; Kroupa, Pavel

    2008-10-02

    The rate of star formation in a galaxy is often determined by the observation of emission in the Halpha line, which is related to the presence of short-lived massive stars. Disk galaxies show a strong cut-off in Halpha radiation at a certain galactocentric distance, which has led to the conclusion that star formation is suppressed in the outer regions of disk galaxies. This is seemingly in contradiction to recent observations in the ultraviolet which imply that disk galaxies have star formation beyond the Halpha cut-off, and that the star-formation-rate surface density is linearly related to the underlying gas surface density, which is a shallower relationship than that derived from Halpha luminosities. In a galaxy-wide formulation, the clustered nature of star formation has recently led to the insight that the total galactic Halpha luminosity is nonlinearly related to the galaxy-wide star formation rate. Here we show that a local formulation of the concept of clustered star formation naturally leads to a steeper radial decrease in the Halpha surface luminosity than in the star-formation-rate surface density, in quantitative agreement with the observations, and that the observed Halpha cut-off arises naturally.

  17. Re-Evaluation of Serum Ferritin Cut-Off Values for the Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency in Children Aged 12-36 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Fehlings, Darcy; Hanley, Anthony J; Thorpe, Kevin E; Parkin, Patricia C

    2017-09-01

    An ongoing challenge has been determining clinically relevant serum ferritin cut-offs in the diagnosis of iron deficiency in children aged 1-3 years. We identified 2 potential clinically relevant serum ferritin cut-off values through their association with clinically important cut-off of hemoglobin as the indicator of anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. World Health Organization hemoglobin cut-off points for the detection of anemia are valid for an Indonesian population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khusun, H; Yip, R; Schultink, W; Dillon, D H

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to determine whether population-specific hemoglobin cut-off values for detection of iron deficiency are needed for Indonesia by comparing the hemoglobin distribution of healthy...

  19. 40 CFR 53.53 - Test for flow rate accuracy, regulation, measurement accuracy, and cut-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definitions. (1) Sample flow rate means the quantitative volumetric flow rate of the air stream caused by the... the flow rate cut-off test, download the archived data from the test sampler and verify that the...

  20. The Adjustment Disorder–New Module 20 as a Screening Instrument: Cluster Analysis and Cut-off Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Lorenz

    2016-10-01

    against the theory-based diagnostic algorithm, revealed an optimal cut-off score at 47.5 to distinguish between people at high risk for AjD and people at low risk. Conclusion: The ADNM-20 distinguishes between people with low, moderate, and high symptomatology. The recommendation for a cut-off score at 47.5 facilitates the use of the ADNM-20 in research and practice.

  1. Cut-off wavenumber of Alfvén waves in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Carbonell, M.; Ballester, J. L.; Khodachenko, M. L.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Alfvén wave dynamics in partially ionized plasmas of the solar atmosphere shows that there is indeed a cut-off wavenumber, i.e. the Alfvén waves with wavenumbers higher than the cut-off value are evanescent. The cut-off wavenumber appears in single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation but it is absent in a multi-fluid approach. Up to now, an explanation for the existence of the cut-off wavenumber is still missing. Aims: The aim of this paper is to point out the reason for the appearance of a cut-off wavenumber in single-fluid MHD. Methods: Beginning with three-fluid equations (with electrons, protons and neutral hydrogen atoms), we performed consecutive approximations until we obtained the usual single-fluid description. We solved the dispersion relation of linear Alfvén waves at each step and sought the approximation responsible of the cut-off wavenumber appearance. Results: We have found that neglecting inertial terms significantly reduces the real part of the Alfvén frequency although it never becomes zero. Therefore, the cut-off wavenumber does not exist at this stage. However, when the inertial terms together with the Hall term in the induction equation are neglected, the real part of the Alfvén frequency becomes zero. Conclusions: The appearance of a cut-off wavenumber, when Alfvén waves in partially ionized regions of the solar atmosphere are studied, is the result of neglecting inertial and Hall terms, therefore it has no physical origin.

  2. Dimensional versus cut-off renormalization and the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, A; Talukdar, B; Ghosh, Angsula; Adhikari, Sadhan K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of dimensional regularization is discussed and compared with that of cut-off regularization in some quantum mechanical problems with ultraviolet divergence in two and three dimensions with special emphasis on the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both types of renormalizations are performed for attractive divergent one- and two-term separable potentials, a divergent tensor potential, and the sum of a delta function and its derivatives. We allow energy-dependent couplings, and determine the form that these couplings should take if equivalence between the two regularization schemes is to be enforced. We also perform renormalization of an attractive separable potential superposed on an analytic divergent potential.

  3. Dimensional versus cut-off renormalization and the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Angsula; Adhikari, Sadhan K.; Talukdar, B.

    1998-10-01

    The role of dimensional regularization is discussed and compared with that of cut-off regularization in some quantum mechanical problems with ultraviolet divergence in two and three dimensions with special emphasis on the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Both types of renormalizations are performed for attractive divergent one- and two-term separable potentials, a divergent tensor potential, and the sum of a delta function and its derivatives. We allow energy-dependent couplings, and determine the form that these couplings should take if equivalence between the two regularization schemes is to be enforced. We also perform renormalization of an attractive separable potential superposed on an analytic divergent potential.

  4. On the discovery of the Greisen–Zatzepin–Kuzmin cut-off

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tadeusz Wibig

    2009-11-01

    The recent claim of the `5 sigma' observation of the Greisen–Zatzepin–Kuzmin cut-off by the HiRes group based on their nine years data is a significant step towards the eventual solution of one of the most intriguing questions in physics for more than 40 years. Recent results from Pierre Auger Observatory seem to confirm the statement. However, the word `significance' is used in the mentioned paper in a sense which is not quite obvious. In the present paper we argue that this claim is a little premature.

  5. Sensitivity studies of spin cut-off models on fission fragment observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulliez L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fission fragment de-excitation code, FIFRELIN, is being developed at CEA Cadarache. It allows probing the characteristics of the prompt emitted particles, neutrons and gammas, during the de-excitation process of fully accelerated fission fragments. The knowledge of the initial states of the fragments is important to accurately reproduce the fission fragment observables. In this paper a sensitivity study of various spin cut-off models, completely defining the initial fission fragment angular momentum distribution has been performed. This study shows that the choice of the model has a significant impact on gamma observables such as spectrum and multiplicity and almost none on the neutron observables.

  6. Renormalization and Computation II: Time Cut-off and the Halting Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Manin, Yuri I

    2009-01-01

    This is the second installment to the project initiated in [Ma3]. In the first Part, I argued that both philosophy and technique of the perturbative renormalization in quantum field theory could be meaningfully transplanted to the theory of computation, and sketched several contexts supporting this view. In this second part, I address some of the issues raised in [Ma3] and provide their development in three contexts: a categorification of the algorithmic computations; time cut--off and Anytime Algorithms; and finally, a Hopf algebra renormalization of the Halting Problem.

  7. Energy loss in unstable QGP - problem of the upper cut-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrington Margaret E.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss of a highly energetic parton in a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma is studied as an initial value problem. An extremely prolate plasma, where the momentum distribution is infinitely elongated along one direction, is considered. The energy loss is strongly time and direction dependent and its magnitude can much exceed the equilibrium value. It is logarithmically ultraviolet divergent. We argue that a good approximation to the energy loss can be obtained if this divergence is cut off with the parton energy.

  8. Aligning DNA on Si surface and cutting off by tips of atomic force microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    DNA is a kind of promising molecule as nano-lead to build or connect nano-devices due to its stable linear structure and certain conductivity. Many methods have been applied to constructing nano-patterns by using DNA molecule. In this report it is presented that (-DNA was aligned on Si substrate by using the free-flowing method and then imaged by an atomic force microscope (AFM). After the second liquid flow, a catenary-like pattern and a crossed network of -DNA were formed. In addition, the aligned (-DNA was successfully cut off by tips of AFM.

  9. Optimal BMI cut-off values for predicting diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee Chee; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Lim, Kuang H; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Khor, Geok L; Shahar, Suzana; Rahman, Jamalludin Abd; Zainuddin, Ahmad A; Mustafa, Amal N

    2013-03-01

    To determine the optimal cut-offs of BMI for Malaysian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of BMI with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of three cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between BMI and these cardiovascular risk factors. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years (n 32 703) who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. The optimal BMI cut-off value for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one of these cardiovascular risk factors varied from 23.3 to 24.1 kg/m2 for men and from 24.0 to 25.4 kg/m2 for women. In men and women, the odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one cardiovascular risk factor increased significantly as BMI cut-off point increased. Our findings indicate that BMI cut-offs of 23.0 kg/m2 in men and 24.0 kg/m2 in women are appropriate for classification of overweight. We suggest that these cut-offs can be used by health professionals to identify individuals for cardiovascular risk screening and weight management programmes.

  10. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lesions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and cut-off values for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions in colorectal cancer (CC) as multiple studies have questioned their validity. We also investigated more extended indices using common semi-quantification an......OBJECTIVE: We investigated maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and cut-off values for differentiation of malignant and benign lesions in colorectal cancer (CC) as multiple studies have questioned their validity. We also investigated more extended indices using common semi...... lesions, SUVmax was >5 and SUVmean≥2.7. Malignant SUVmax values (mean±SD: 16.5±6.2) were overall significantly higher than benign levels (9.8±3.6). There was a substantial overlap with values in polyps/adenomas (14.4±7.7). Both SUVpeak and SUVmean showed similar characteristics. Malignant MAV and TLG...... showed more distinct levels. Though different segmentation methods introduced variations, largest in MAV (-58.6%-141.5%), and PVC generally increased measures significantly by a factor of 1.2-2.7, neither changed relative levels much. SUVmax values were inadequate for aetiological differentiation of ICF...

  11. Comparison of helioseismic cut-off frequency formulations by the means of MHD simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Thaler, Irina; Roth, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The discussion of helioseismic wave phenomena requires a self-consistent description of the plasma pressure. Magnetically active regions on the Sun are observed to have distinct wave phenomena as compared to quiet regions. With better helioseismologic diagnostics near active regions one may also better understand not only the chromospheric energy budget, but also halo formation and running penumbral waves. The line formation height (with respect to the beta=1 level) and the magnetic field inclination near the solar surface are in the same time difficult to measure and important to correctly interpret observations. With the help of a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model, that features an active region as bottom boundary and has shown good agreement to various observations, we may compute values for theoretically derived formulations of cut-off frequencies from the model plasma parameters. Our results show strongly varying vertical atmospheric profiles and we give estimates of their influence on the expected cut-off frequencies.

  12. TDE fallback cut-off due to a pre-existing accretion disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirgamaraju, Adithan; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Giannios, Dimitrios

    2017-07-01

    Numerous tidal disruption event (TDE) candidates originating from galactic centres have been detected (e.g. by Swift and ASASSN). Some of their host galaxies show typical characteristics of a weak active galactic nucleus (AGN), indicative of a pre-existing accretion disc around the supermassive black hole (SMBH). In this work, we develop an analytic model to study how a pre-existing accretion disc affects a TDE. We assume the density of the disc ρ ∝ R-λ, R being the radial distance from the SMBH and λ varying between 0.5 and 1.5. Interactions between the pre-existing accretion disc and the stream of the tidally disrupted star can stall the stream far from the SMBH, causing a sudden drop in the rate of fallback of gas into the SMBH. These interactions could explain the steep cut-off observed in the light curve of some TDE candidates (e.g. Swift J1644 and Swift J2058). With our model, it is possible to use the time of this cut-off to constrain some properties pertaining to the pre-existing accretion disc, such as λ and the disc viscosity parameter α. We demonstrate this by applying our theory to the TDE candidates Swift J1644, Swift J2058 and ASASSN-14li. Our analysis favours a disc profile with λ ˜ 1 for viscosity parameters α ˜ 0.01-0.1.

  13. Cut-Off Values of Visceral Adiposity to Predict NAFLD in Brazilian Obese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study aimed at determining cut-off points of visceral fat to predict NAFLD and analyzed metabolic disorders of obese adolescents. Methods. Cross-sectional study involved 165 obese adolescents ranged in age from 15 to 19 years. Glycemia, hepatic transaminases, lipid profile, and insulin resistance were analyzed. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured by ultrasound and body composition by plesthysmography. Results. The NAFLD adolescents had significantly higher values for body mass, BMI-for-age, BMI, total fat, waist circumference, and visceral fat when compared with non-NAFLD obese adolescents in both genders. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between visceral fat with the variables BMI-for-age (r=0.325,, TG (r=0.277, AST (r=0.509, ALT (r=0.519, WC (r=0.390, and visceral/subcutaneous ratio (r=0.790 for NAFLD group. Total fat, triglycerides, and visceral fat were the independent predictors to NAFLD. Analysis of the ROC curves revealed cut-off points of visceral fat of 4.47 cm for girls and 4.21 cm for boys. Conclusions. The results may suggest that abdominal ultrasonography procedure may be a safe alternative method of assessing visceral adiposity aiming to be considered to the development of preventive and treatment strategies in obese individuals. This clinial trial is registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT01358773.

  14. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Takuji; Noda, Koji

    2002-08-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 μs from 700 μs by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  15. Projection systems with a cut-off line for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    2005-08-01

    The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.

  16. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  17. Determining a diagnostic cut-off on the Teate Depression Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Michela Balsamo, Aristide SagginoDepartment of Psychological Sciences, Humanities and Territory, G. d’Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: A small but growing body of literature suggests that the Teate Depression ­Inventory (TDI may be an “objective” measure of depression compared with other commonly used scales. Furthermore, the TDI has strong psychometric properties in both clinical and nonclinical samples. The present study aimed to extend the use of TDI by identifying cut-off scores that could differentiate varying levels of depression severity in a group of clinically diagnosed depression disorder patients (N=125. Three receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated cut-off scores of 21 (sensitivity =0.86, specificity =0.94, and classification accuracy =0.90; 36 (sensitivity =0.84, specificity =0.96, and classification accuracy =0.92; and 50 (sensitivity =0.81, specificity =0.93, and classification accuracy =0.90, for minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression, respectively. Results suggest that the TDI measures depression severity across a broad range with high test accuracy and may be appropriately used to screen for depression.Keywords: major depression, ROC curve, self-report scales, Rasch analysis, depression screening

  18. Characterization of thermal cut-off mechanisms in prismatic lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, Ganesh

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells that are subjected to electrical abuse, overcharge and external short-circuit in particular, exhibit a rapid increase in cell temperature that could potentially lead to catastrophic disassembly of the cell. For this reason these cells are integrated or combined with one or more safety components that are designed to restrict or even prevent current flow through the cell under abusive conditions. In this work, the characteristics of these components in several prismatic Li-ion cells are studied by monitoring the impedance ( Z) at 1 kHz and the open circuit voltage (OCV) of the discharged cells as a function of temperature. All the cells studied were found to use polyethylene-based shutdown (SD) separators that were irreversibly activated within a narrow temperature range between 130 and 135°C. In some cells irreversible cut-off was also provided by a current interrupt device (CID) or a thermal fuse. Both these devices had a circuit-breaker effect, causing the impedance of the cell to rise infinitely and the OCV to drop to zero. In addition to these irreversible cut-off mechanisms, some cells also contained internal or external positive-temperature-coefficient (PTC) devices that could provide current-limiting capability over a very wide temperature range. The interdependence of the thermal behavior of these components on each other and on other thermally dependant processes like cell venting, separator meltdown and weld joint failure are also discussed.

  19. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...... were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. Out of 236 Salmonella isolates, 32 (13.5%) yielded amplicons for aadA (n = 23), strA (n = 9), and strB (n = 11). None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4 mg/L harbored resistance genes....... Of the Salmonella isolates exhibiting MICs 8 mg/L, 16 mg/L, and 32 mg/L, 1.6%, 15%, and 39%, respectively, tested positive for one or more genes. For most monitoring programs, the streptomycin ECOFF for Salmonella is wild type (WT) ≤32 or ≤16 mg/L. A cut-off value of WT ≤32 mg/L would have misclassified 13...

  20. Memristor-capacitor passive filters to tune both cut-off frequency and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shawkat; Hassan, Arshad; Hassan, Gul; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    In various optical sensor applications, programmable analog filters are desirable to reduce the hardware requirement. Memristor is two state programmable nonvolatile resistor, which has a small size and low power consumption. Using these resistance switching characteristics of a memristor, we propose a novel memristor-capacitor (MC) based printed low pass and high pass filters for analog circuits to achieve tunable cut-off frequencies and bandwidth. The cut-off frequencies of filters are controlled through a memristor state switching (HRS/LRS), whereas the capacitor has a fixed value. The proposed MC filters utilize graphene/poly 4-vinlyphenol (G/PVP) for dielectric layer of capacitors and Graphene Quatum Dots (GQDs)/PVP for an active layer of memristor, and these layers are fabricated on ITO coated flexible PET substrate through electrohydrodynamic (EHD) technique. Both MC filters are designed as parameters of two state memristance and a capacitance. From comparison between designed and fabricated filters, we show that they are matched quite well.

  1. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  2. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  3. oA novel nonparametric approach for estimating cut-offs in continuous risk indicators with application to diabetes epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferger Dietmar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and clinical studies, often including anthropometric measures, have established obesity as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Appropriate cut-off values for anthropometric parameters are necessary for prediction or decision purposes. The cut-off corresponding to the Youden-Index is often applied in epidemiology and biomedical literature for dichotomizing a continuous risk indicator. Methods Using data from a representative large multistage longitudinal epidemiological study in a primary care setting in Germany, this paper explores a novel approach for estimating optimal cut-offs of anthropomorphic parameters for predicting type 2 diabetes based on a discontinuity of a regression function in a nonparametric regression framework. Results The resulting cut-off corresponded to values obtained by the Youden Index (maximum of the sum of sensitivity and specificity, minus one, often considered the optimal cut-off in epidemiological and biomedical research. The nonparametric regression based estimator was compared to results obtained by the established methods of the Receiver Operating Characteristic plot in various simulation scenarios and based on bias and root mean square error, yielded excellent finite sample properties. Conclusion It is thus recommended that this nonparametric regression approach be considered as valuable alternative when a continuous indicator has to be dichotomized at the Youden Index for prediction or decision purposes.

  4. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  5. Cut-off characterisation of energy spectra of bright fermi sources: Current instrument limits and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, C.; Taylor, A. M.; Aharonian, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper some of the brightest GeV sources observed by the Fermi-LAT were analysed, focusing on their spectral cut-off region. The sources chosen for this investigation were the brightest blazar flares of 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 and the Vela pulsar with a reanalysis with the latest Fermi-LAT software. For the study of the spectral cut-off we first explored the Vela pulsar spectrum, whose statistics in the time interval of the 3FGL catalog allowed strong constraints to be obtained on the parameters. We subsequently performed a new analysis of the flaring blazar SEDs. For these sources we obtained constraints on the cut-off parameters under the assumption that their underlying spectral distribution is described by a power-law with a stretched exponential cut-off. We then highlighted the significant potential improvements on such constraints by observations with next generation ground based Cherenkov telescopes, represented in our study by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Adopting currently available simulations for this future observatory, we demonstrate the considerable improvement in cut-off constraints achievable by observations with this new instrument when compared with that achievable by satellite observations.

  6. Why did Van Gogh cut off his ear? The problem of alternative explanations in psychobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, W M

    1981-06-01

    One of the tasks of personality psychology is to explain the behavior of individual human beings. Vincent Van Gogh, for example, cut off the lower half of his left ear and gave it to a prostitute. More than a dozen different explanations of his actions have been proposed. Is one of these explanations true, are all of them true, or, perhaps, are none of them true? And how can we know? This incident is examined in order to explore some of the problems in applying personality theories to the life of a single individual. A sequential procedure for generating and critically evaluating alternative explanatory conjectures is presented a a partial, although not a complete, solution to the problem of multiple interpretations.

  7. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  8. Estimation of cut-off wavelength of rare earth doped single-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jagneet; Thyagarajan, K.; Pal, B. P.

    1999-11-01

    A new empirical relation is proposed describing spectral variation of mode-field radius (MFR) as inferred from measurements in the far-field of the fiber. It is shown that using this relation, it is possible to estimate the cut-off wavelength ( λc) of the fiber. The proposed technique is successfully tested through measurements made on two standard step index single-mode fibers, as well as on an erbium doped fiber (EDF) having λc falling within its strong absorption band around 980 nm. This empirical formula is more accurate than the widely used Marcuse's formula to describe spectral dependence of MFR determined through measurements made in the fiber's far-field. The proposed technique is especially suited for estimation of λc of doped fibers in which λc falls within an absorption band.

  9. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  10. Viscous holographic dark energy universe with Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshudyan, Martiros

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we consider a toy model of large scale universe, when one of the dark components is a generalized holographic DE with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off. On the other hand, we made another assumption concerning to the companion of considered DE model due to impossibility of exact parameterization of dark side of the large scale universe. In particular, we assume an inhomogeneous viscous dark fluid discussed in literature very actively, to be possible candidate for the companion. In addition to cosmographic analysis we discuss the results from Om and two point Om analysis and estimated present day values of statefinder parameters (r,s) and (ω^' }_{de}, ω_{de}). Moreover, validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics is studied showing that theoretical results are well consistent with observational data. Constraints on cosmological parameters are due to Planck 2015 experiments.

  11. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  12. The puzzle about the radial cut-off in galactic disks

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, C A; Narayan, Chaitra A.; Jog, Chanda J.

    2003-01-01

    The stellar disk in a spiral galaxy is believed to be truncated physically because the disk surface brightness is observed to fall faster than that for an exponential in the outer, faint regions. We review the literature associated with this phenomenon and find that a number of recent observations contradict the truncation picture. Hence we question the very existence of a physical outer cut-off in stellar disks. We show, in this paper, that the observed drop in the surface brightness profiles in fact corresponds to a negligible decrease in intensity, and that this minor change at the faint end appears to be exaggerated on a log-normal plot. Since minor deviations from a perfect exponential are common throughout the disk, we suggest that such a deviation at the faint end could easily give rise to the observed sharp drop.

  13. The Warm DM halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    CERN Document Server

    Angulo, Raul E; Abel, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Warm Dark Matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artifacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus, are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. When explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a stron...

  14. Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of 89,90Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Razavi, R.; Kakavand, T.

    2015-09-01

    The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in 89,90Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of 90Y compared to 89Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus 89Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.

  15. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  16. Role of neutron and proton system in spin cut off parameter and entropy of {sup 89,90}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatinejad, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, R., E-mail: rrazavin@ihu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Hossein Comprehensive University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kakavand, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The nuclear level densities, entropies and spin cut off parameters have been determined in {sup 89,90}Y nuclei using the BCS model with inclusion of pairing interaction. The results have a good agreement with the recent experimental data on the level densities measured by the Oslo group. In addition, the entropy excess of {sup 90}Y compared to {sup 89}Y as a function of temperature has been extracted. Also, the role of neutron and proton systems in the entropy excess as well as the spin cut off excess have been investigated using the entropy excess ratio and spin cut off excess ratio introduced in our previous publication. The role of the neutron system at low temperatures, the temperatures below critical temperature, in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 89}Y is similar compared to the closed shell proton system in the tin isotopes.

  17. Geomagnetism 4

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, John A

    2013-01-01

    Geomagnetism, Volume 4 focuses on the processes, methodologies, technologies, and approaches involved in geomagnetism, including electric fields, solar wind plasma, pulsations, and gravity waves.The selection first offers information on solar wind, magnetosphere, and the magnetopause of the Earth. Discussions focus on magnetopause structure and transfer processes, magnetosphere electric fields, geomagnetically trapped radiation, microstructure of the solar wind plasma, and hydro magnetic fluctuations and discontinuities. The text then examines geomagnetic tail, neutral upper atmosphere, and ge

  18. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Silva, Líliam Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a cut-off for the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-bref) as a predictor of quality of life in older adults.METHODS Cross-sectional study with 391 older adults registered in the Northwest Health District in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, between October 8, 2010 and May 23, 2011. The older adults' quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-bref. The analysis was rationalized by outlining two extreme and simultaneous groups according to perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health (quality of life good/satisfactory - good or very good self-reported quality of life and being satisfied or very satisfied with health - G5; and poor/very poor quality of life - poor or very poor self-reported quality of life and feeling dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with health - G6). A Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) was created to assess the diagnostic ability of different cut-off points of the WHOQOL-bref.RESULTS ROC curve analysis indicated a critical value 60 as the optimal cut-off point for assessing perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health. The area under the curve was 0.758, with a sensitivity of 76.8% and specificity of 63.8% for a cut-off of ≥ 60 for overall quality of life (G5) and sensitivity 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for a cut-off of < 60 for overall quality of life (G6).CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic interpretation of the ROC curve revealed that cut-off < 60 for overall quality of life obtained excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value for tracking older adults with probable worse quality of life and dissatisfied with health.

  19. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Aparecida Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria; Santos, Joseph Fabiano Guimarães; Silva, Líliam Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a cut-off for the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-bref) as a predictor of quality of life in older adults. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 391 older adults registered in the Northwest Health District in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, between October 8, 2010 and May 23, 2011. The older adults’ quality of life was measured using the WHOQOL-bref. The analysis was rationalized by outlining two extreme and simultaneous groups according to perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health (quality of life good/satisfactory – good or very good self-reported quality of life and being satisfied or very satisfied with health – G5; and poor/very poor quality of life – poor or very poor self-reported quality of life and feeling dissatisfied or very dissatisfied with health – G6). A Receiver-Operating Characteristic curve (ROC) was created to assess the diagnostic ability of different cut-off points of the WHOQOL-bref. RESULTS ROC curve analysis indicated a critical value 60 as the optimal cut-off point for assessing perceived quality of life and satisfaction with health. The area under the curve was 0.758, with a sensitivity of 76.8% and specificity of 63.8% for a cut-off of ≥ 60 for overall quality of life (G5) and sensitivity 95.0% and specificity of 54.4% for a cut-off of < 60 for overall quality of life (G6). CONCLUSIONS Diagnostic interpretation of the ROC curve revealed that cut-off < 60 for overall quality of life obtained excellent sensitivity and negative predictive value for tracking older adults with probable worse quality of life and dissatisfied with health. PMID:25119934

  20. N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours of twisted mass quarks. Cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschevskaya, Elena [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing; Cichy, Krzysztof [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics

    2010-12-15

    We present a calculation of cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for the K and D mesons using the twisted mass formulation of lattice QCD. The analytical calculations are performed in the time-momentum frame. The relative sizes of cut-off effects are compared for the pion, the kaon and the D meson masses. In addition, different realizations of maximal twist condition are considered and the corresponding cut-off effects are analyzed. (orig.)

  1. Approach to realize sharp cut-off characteristics multi-ring optical filters; Fukugo ringu kyoshin koha fuiruta no shadan tokusei no kyushunka ni taisuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Hirosuke; Tsuruta, Ken' ichi; Miyamoto, Tokuo

    1999-03-01

    Recently, optical filters for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems has been very intensively investigated. However, the report on improved cut-off characteristics is very few. For this reason, we tried to improve cut-off characteristics of filters adding feedback route to the ring resonators. Very sharp cut-off characteristics are obtained. But the attenuation loss become down. It may be very effective to improve the cut-off characteristics of filters to adding a new feedback route to the resonators but some new measurements must be necessary to keep the high stop band loss. (author)

  2. Cut-off levels and diagnostic accuracy of infliximab trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Bendtzen, Klaus; Brynskov, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for infliximab failure in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are debated. Serum levels of infliximab and anti-infliximab antibodies have been associated with loss of response. We aimed at determining cut-off levels for infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody concentrations associated...

  3. Anthropometric parameters’ cut-off points and predictive value for metabolic syndrome in women from Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Mora-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate anthropometric parameters’ (APs cut-off points and association for metabolic syndrome (MetS. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a total of 434 adult women from Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012. APs measured were waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Cut-off points were estimated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC. Logistic regression was applied to estimate possible associations. Results. Cut-off points for WC, BMI, BAI, WHR and WHtR were 85 cm, 28 kg/m2, 39%, 0.80 and 56, respectively. Only WHtR was associated to MetS (OR=1.11, CI95% [1.07-1.15]. Conclusion. WC cut-off point was higher than those proposed for Latin-American women by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS. WHtR had a low predictive value for MetS.

  4. Screening for Internet Addiction: An Empirical Study on Cut-off Points for the Chen Internet Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Ko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the optimal cut-off points of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, to screen for and diagnose Internet addiction among adolescents in the community by using the well- established diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction. This survey of 454 adolescents used screening (57/58 and diagnostic (63/64 cut-off points of the CIAS, a self-reported instrument, based on the results of systematic diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that CIAS has good diagnostic accuracy (89.6%. The screening cut-off point had high sensitivity (85.6% and the diagnostic cut-off point had the highest diagnostic accuracy, classifying 87.6% of participants correctly. Accordingly, the screening point of the CIAS could provide a screening function in two-stage diagnosis, and the diagnostic point could serve as a diagnostic criterion in one-stage massive epidemiologic research.

  5. Intense, Narrow-band THz Emission from a Current Source Immersed in Cut-off of Plasma-like Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Min Sup; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Noble, Adam; Suk, Hyyong; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2016-10-01

    Recently we found an interesting behavior of the electromagnetic radiation emerging from cut-off condition of a plasma-like medium, when it is driven by a current source. Differently from conventional total reflection of the incident wave at the cut-off, we found a spatially diffusing and temporally growing electromagnetic field from the current source. Direct result of such diffusion-growth is the selectively enhanced emission (SEE) at the cut-off frequency from a generally broadband current oscillation. We demonstrate examples demonstrating the SEE. One is the two-color-driven THz emission from field ionization of the gas slab located in a tapered waveguide. The emission propagating through the waveguide exhibits a significantly enhanced spectral density at the cut-off frequency. The other example is the THz emission from a magnetized plasma driven by two colliding ultra-short laser pulses. Since a very narrow-band emission can be selectively enhanced from a broadband radiation source, the SEE concept can be used for conversion of a general broadband THz source to a narrow-band one by locating it in a meta-structure such as the waveguide or a plasma-like medium. We discuss other possible systems to which SEE can be applied.

  6. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  7. Quantum fields and poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Jacqueline; Gaveau, Bernard; Rideau, Guy

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schrödinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful.

  8. Cut-off Characterisation of Energy Spectra of Bright Fermi Sources: Current instrument limits and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Romoli, C; Aharonian, F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper some of the brightest GeV sources observed by the Fermi-LAT were analysed, focusing on their spectral cut-off region. The sources chosen for this investigation were the brightest blazar flares of 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 and the Vela pulsar using catalogue data and reanalysis with the latest Fermi-LAT software. For the study the spectral cut-off we first explored the Vela pulsar spectrum, whose statistics in the 3FGL catalog allowed strong constraints to be obtained on the parameters. We subsequently performed a new analysis of the flaring blazar SEDs. For these sources we obtained constraints on the cut-off parameters under the assumption that their underlying spectral distribution is described by a power-law with a stretched exponential cut-off. We then highlighted the significant potential improvements on such constraints by observations with next generation ground based Cherenkov telescopes, represented in our study by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Adopting currently available simulations ...

  9. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 hPa...

  10. Flexible Lab-Tailored Cut-Offs for Suitability of Formalin-Fixed Tumor Samples for Diagnostic Mutational Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Sara; Tondat, Fabrizio; Pacchioni, Donatella; Molinaro, Luca; Barreca, Antonella; Macrì, Luigia; Chiusa, Luigi; di Celle, Paola Francia; Cassoni, Paola; Sapino, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The selection of proper tissues from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumors before diagnostic molecular testing is responsibility of the pathologist and represents a crucial step to produce reliable test results. The international guidelines suggest two cut-offs, one for the percentage and one for the number of tumor cells, in order to enrich the tumor content before DNA extraction. The aim of the present work was two-fold: to evaluate to what extent a low percentage or absolute number of tumor cells can be qualified for somatic mutation testing; and to determine how assay sensitivities can guide pathologists towards a better definition of morphology-based adequacy cut-offs. We tested 1797 tumor specimens from melanomas, colorectal and lung adenocarcinomas. Respectively, their BRAF, K-RAS and EGFR genes were analyzed at specific exons by mutation-enriched PCR, pyrosequencing, direct sequencing and real-time PCR methods. We demonstrate that poorly cellular specimens do not modify the frequency distribution of either mutated or wild-type DNA samples nor that of specific mutations. This observation suggests that currently recommended cut-offs for adequacy of specimens to be processed for molecular assays seem to be too much stringent in a laboratory context that performs highly sensitive routine analytical methods. In conclusion, new cut-offs are needed based on test sensitivities and documented tumor heterogeneity. PMID:25844806

  11. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  12. Spectrally selective solar absorber with sharp and temperature dependent cut-off based on semiconductor nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Qinghui; Lu, Hong; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Spectrally selective absorbers (SSA) with high selectivity of absorption and sharp cut-off between high absorptivity and low emissivity are critical for efficient solar energy conversion. Here, we report the semiconductor nanowire enabled SSA with not only high absorption selectivity but also temperature dependent sharp absorption cut-off. By taking advantage of the temperature dependent bandgap of semiconductors, we systematically demonstrate that the absorption cut-off profile of the semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can be flexibly tuned, which is quite different from most of the other SSA reported so far. As an example, silicon nanowire based selective absorbers are fabricated, with the measured absorption efficiency above (below) bandgap ˜97% (15%) combined with an extremely sharp absorption cut-off (transition region ˜200 nm), the sharpest SSA demonstrated so far. The demonstrated semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can enable a high solar thermal efficiency of ≳86% under a wide range of operating conditions, which would be competitive candidates for the concentrated solar energy utilizations.

  13. Screening for colorectal cancer: random comparison of guaiac and immunochemical faecal occult blood testing at different cut-off levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, L; Wilschut, J A; van Ballegooijen, M; van Vuuren, A J; van der Valk, H; Reijerink, J C I Y; van der Togt, A C M; Kuipers, E J; Habbema, J D F; van Leerdam, M E

    2009-01-01

    Immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (FIT) provides quantitative test results, which allows optimisation of the cut-off value for follow-up colonoscopy. We conducted a randomised population-based trial to determine test characteristics of FIT (OC-Sensor micro, Eiken, Japan) screening at different cut-off levels and compare these with guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening in an average risk population. A representative sample of the Dutch population (n=10 011), aged 50–74 years, was 1 : 1 randomised before invitation to gFOBT and FIT screening. Colonoscopy was offered to screenees with a positive gFOBT or FIT (cut-off 50 ng haemoglobin/ml). When varying the cut-off level between 50 and 200 ng ml−1, the positivity rate of FIT ranged between 8.1% (95% CI: 7.2–9.1%) and 3.5% (95% CI: 2.9–4.2%), the detection rate of advanced neoplasia ranged between 3.2% (95% CI: 2.6–3.9%) and 2.1% (95% CI: 1.6–2.6%), and the specificity ranged between 95.5% (95% CI: 94.5–96.3%) and 98.8% (95% CI: 98.4–99.0%). At a cut-off value of 75 ng ml−1, the detection rate was two times higher than with gFOBT screening (gFOBT: 1.2%; FIT: 2.5%; P<0.001), whereas the number needed to scope (NNscope) to find one screenee with advanced neoplasia was similar (2.2 vs 1.9; P=0.69). Immunochemical faecal occult blood testing is considerably more effective than gFOBT screening within the range of tested cut-off values. From our experience, a cut-off value of 75 ng ml−1 provided an adequate positivity rate and an acceptable trade-off between detection rate and NNscope. PMID:19337257

  14. Detection of the high-energy cut-off from the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; MᶜHardy, I. M.; Mallick, Labani; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.

    2017-09-01

    We perform the NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint energy spectral fitting of simultaneous observations from the broad-line Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273. When fitted with the combination of an exponential cut-off power law and a reflection model, a high-energy cut-off is detected at 143^{+96}_{-40} keV with 2σ significance. Existence of such cut-off is also consistent with the observed Comptonizing electron temperature when fitted with a Comptonization model independently. We observe a moderate hard X-ray variability of the source over the time-scale of ∼12 yr using INTEGRAL/ISGRI observations in the energy range of 20-100 keV. When the hard-band count rate (6-20 keV) is plotted against the soft-band count rate (3-6 keV), a hard offset is observed. Our results indicate that the cut-off energy may not correlate with the coronal X-ray luminosity in a simple manner. Similarities in parameters that describe coronal properties indicate that the coronal structure of NGC 5273 may be similar to that of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 and another galaxy MCG-5-23-16, where the coronal plasma is dominated by electrons, rather than electron-positron pairs. Therefore, the coronal cooling is equally efficient to the heating mechanism keeping the cut-off energy at low even at the low accretion rate.

  15. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  16. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  17. Extended characterization of a new class of membranes for blood purification: the high cut-off membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti-de-Fierro, Adriana; Voigt, Manuel; Storr, Markus; Krause, Bernd

    2013-07-01

    High cut-off membranes are a new class of blood purification membranes whose particular characteristics present challenges for commonly-used characterization methods. Dextran sieving curves for representative blood purification membranes of the high-flux and high cut-off types were measured and compared to curves for the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The performance was also determined after blood exposure for the most permeable synthetic membranes. High cut-off membranes were observed to be more open than the GFB before blood exposure, but become tighter and more selective after the exposure, keeping the permeation for low and middle molecules while restraining the filtration of large species. Based on dextran sieving experiments for a variety of commercially available blood purification membranes, we present a novel method for classifying blood purification membranes. By using a well-established technique and introducing a new characteristic parameter for the sieving curve--the molecular weight retention onset (MWRO)--a graph of molecular weight cut-off versus molecular weight retention onset provides the landscape of dialysis membrane types. This meaningful representation is based on only one in vitro method, and allows the membrane classification by indirectly considering two structural parameters: pore size and pore size distribution. In this way, the families of low-flux, high-flux, protein leaking, and high cut-off membranes are clearly differentiated. The differentiation allows for the definition of MWCO/MWRO regions for the different types, so that further classification of newly developed membranes can be easily achieved.

  18. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3Mage or older was 95.6%.

  19. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  20. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  1. Holographic Dark Energy Model with Hubble Horizon as an IR Cut-off

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Lixin

    2009-01-01

    The main task of this paper is to realize a cosmic observational compatible present accelerated expansion and past decelerated expansion universe in the framework of holographic dark energy model when the Hubble horizon $H$ as an IR cut-off. When the model parameter $c$ of time variable cosmological constant (CC) $\\Lambda(t)=3c^{2}H^{2}(t)$ becomes time or scale dependent, another extra term is gained in the effective equation of sate (EoS) of the vacuum energy $w^{eff}_{\\Lambda}=-c^2-d\\ln c^{2}/3d\\ln a$. This extra term can make the effective EoS of time variable CC cross the cosmological boundary and phantom-like at present. For the lack of a first principle and fundamental physics theory to obtain the form $c^2$, we give a simple parameterized $c^2$ as an example which is confronted by the cosmic observations including SN Ia, BAO and CMB shift parameter $R$. The result shows that the model is consistent with cosmic observations.

  2. Susceptibility profile and epidemiological cut-off values of Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba, Susana; Isla, Maria G; Szusz, Wanda; Vivot, Walter; Altamirano, Rodrigo; Davel, Graciela

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs) based on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution have been recently proposed for some antifungal drug/Cryptococcus neoformans combinations. However, these ECVs vary according to the species studied, being serotypes and the geographical origin of strains, variables to be considered. The aims were to define the wild-type (WT) population of the C. neoformans species complex (C. neoformans) isolated from patients living in Argentina, and to propose ECVs for six antifungal drugs. A total of 707 unique C. neoformans isolates obtained from HIV patients suffering cryptococcal meningitis were studied. The MIC of amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole was determined according to the EDef 7.2 (EUCAST) reference document. The MIC distribution, MIC50 , MIC90 and ECV for each of these drugs were calculated. The highest ECV, which included ≥95% of the WT population modelled, was observed for flucytosine and fluconazole (32 μg ml(-1) each). For amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole, the ECVs were: 0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 0.06 μg ml(-1) respectively. The ECVs determined in this study may aid in identifying the C. neoformans strains circulating in Argentina with decreased susceptibility to the antifungal drugs tested.

  3. Fast Modeling of Large Wave Energy Farms Using Interaction Distance Cut-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Göteman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In many wave energy concepts, power output in the MW range requires the simultaneous operation of many wave energy converters. In particular, this is true for small point-absorbers, where a wave energy farm may contain several hundred devices. The total performance of the farm is affected by the hydrodynamic interactions between the individual devices, and reliable tools that can model full farms are needed to study power output and find optimal design parameters. This paper presents a novel method to model the hydrodynamic interactions and power output of very large wave energy farms. The method is based on analytical multiple scattering theory and uses time series of irregular wave amplitudes to compute the instantaneous power of each device. An interaction distance cut-off is introduced to improve the computational cost with acceptable accuracy. As an application of the method, wave energy farms with over 100 devices are studied in the MW range using one month of wave data measured at an off-shore site.

  4. Mechanically robust 39 GHz cut-off frequency graphene field effect transistors on flexible substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Pallecchi, Emiliano; Haque, Samiul; Borini, Stefano; Avramovic, Vanessa; Centeno, Alba; Amaia, Zurutuza; Happy, Henri

    2016-08-07

    Graphene has been regarded as a promising candidate channel material for flexible devices operating at radio-frequency (RF). In this work we fabricated and fully characterized double bottom-gate graphene field effect transistors on flexible polymer substrates for high frequency applications. We report a record high as-measured current gain cut-off frequency (ft) of 39 GHz. The corresponding maximum oscillation frequency (fmax) is 13.5 GHz. These state of the art high frequency performances are stable against bending, with a typical variation of around 10%, for a bending radius of up to 12 mm. To demonstrate the reliability of our devices, we performed a fatigue stress test for RF-GFETs which were dynamically bend tested 1000 times at 1 Hz. The devices are mechanically robust, and performances are stable with typical variations of 15%. Finally we investigate thermal dissipation, which is a critical parameter for flexible electronics. We show that at the optimum polarization the normalized power dissipated by the GFETs is about 0.35 mW μm(-2) and that the substrate temperature is around 200 degree centigrade. At a higher power, irreversible degradations of the performances are observed. Our study on state of the art flexible GFETs demonstrates mechanical robustness and stability upon heating, two important elements to assess the potential of GFETs for flexible electronics.

  5. Scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics and the cut-off in size distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yu

    Full Text Available Identification of cortical dynamics strongly benefits from the simultaneous recording of as many neurons as possible. Yet current technologies provide only incomplete access to the mammalian cortex from which adequate conclusions about dynamics need to be derived. Here, we identify constraints introduced by sub-sampling with a limited number of electrodes, i.e. spatial 'windowing', for well-characterized critical dynamics-neuronal avalanches. The local field potential (LFP was recorded from premotor and prefrontal cortices in two awake macaque monkeys during rest using chronically implanted 96-microelectrode arrays. Negative deflections in the LFP (nLFP were identified on the full as well as compact sub-regions of the array quantified by the number of electrodes N (10-95, i.e., the window size. Spatiotemporal nLFP clusters organized as neuronal avalanches, i.e., the probability in cluster size, p(s, invariably followed a power law with exponent -1.5 up to N, beyond which p(s declined more steeply producing a 'cut-off' that varied with N and the LFP filter parameters. Clusters of size s≤N consisted mainly of nLFPs from unique, non-repeated cortical sites, emerged from local propagation between nearby sites, and carried spatial information about cluster organization. In contrast, clusters of size s>N were dominated by repeated site activations and carried little spatial information, reflecting greatly distorted sampling conditions. Our findings were confirmed in a neuron-electrode network model. Thus, avalanche analysis needs to be constrained to the size of the observation window to reveal the underlying scale-invariant organization produced by locally unfolding, predominantly feed-forward neuronal cascades.

  6. Potential interface slip analysis of Peribonka Dam plastic concrete cut-off wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morency, J.Y.; Chahde, J.; Bigras, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Garand, P.; Rattue, A. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The Peribonka hydroelectric development is currently under construction near the confluence of the Manouane River with the Peribonka River in Quebec. It includes an 80 m high dam and two dykes of zoned earth fills with a till core, an underground power house with an installed capacity of 385 MW, a diversion tunnel and a spillway. The Peribonka dam will be built on a highly permeable alluvial foundation. The design includes a 10 m high working platform in the river between the cofferdams and a plastic concrete cut-off wall (COW) down to bedrock. The maximum depth of the COW in a narrow canyon will be 115 m. A bi-dimensional finite element stress and deformation analysis software (SDAS) was used to model the stress-strain behaviour of the foundation soils and the COW under the dam. The SDAS software made it possible to determine the vertical deformations as well as the horizontal stress distribution in the foundation soils. It was shown that due to the oedometric nature of the loading of the soil, no significant shear stress was generated due to the soil deformations in the foundation below the axis of the dam. However, the finite element program did not allow hyperbolic model slip elements. As such, it was not possible to evaluate if negative skin friction occurred at the soilplastic concrete interface. For that reason, a one-dimensional model allowing the simulation of negative or positive friction between the soil and the COW was developed. This model considered the elastic-plastic behaviour of the COW using a hyperbolic model. It showed that nowhere, except in the upper 2 to 3 m of the COW embedment in the core, was negative friction able to mobilize the full value of the internal friction angle of the soil. 4 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  7. Metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia are arrested at extreme levels of psychopathy: The cut-off effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Heinke, Dietmar; Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Bo, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Psychopathy and metacognitive difficulties have been associated with the occurrence of violence in schizophrenia. However, evidence suggests that nonschizophrenic psychopaths match or even outperform healthy controls on tests of metacognition. We hypothesize that the metacognitive difficulties associated with schizophrenia may be ameliorated by comorbid psychopathy. To this end, metacognition (using the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated [MAS-A]) and psychopathy (using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [PCL-R]) are assessed in 79 patients with schizophrenia with a history of criminal offending. Piecewise regression reveals that the association between metacognition and psychopathy changes from a negative to a positive association at a breakpoint corresponding to a score of 24 on the PCL-R. This score is within the range of the cut-off point used for the diagnosis of psychopathy in Europe, which corresponds to a score of 26 on the PCL-R. The patients scoring above 24 on the PCL-R demonstrated better overall metacognitive abilities, suggesting that these patients constitute a specific group in which schizophrenia has an attenuated impairing effect on metacognition. However, this effect was absent for the Mastery subscale of the MAS-A, which refers to the ability to use one's own mental states to solve social and psychological dilemmas. Our results suggest that the relative preservation of metacognitive abilities in schizophrenic patients with extreme levels of psychopathy may contribute to their offending behavior as it may enable them to understand how to manipulate and extort their victims. However, enhancing the Mastery domain of metacognition in these patients may attenuate this offending behavior.

  8. [Cut-off point of epicardial adipose tissue thickness for predicting metabolic syndrome in Venezuelan population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Martínez, Marcos M; Paoli, Mariela; Donis, José H; Odreman, Rodolfo; Torres, Christopher; Iacobellis, Gianluca

    2013-12-01

    To define an echocardiographically-assessed cut-off point for epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness associated to metabolic syndrome (MS) components in Venezuelan subjects. Fifty-two subjects aged 20-65 years diagnosed with MS according to International Diabetes Federation criteria and 45 sex- and age-matched controls were selected. Blood glucose and plasma lipids were tested; EAT thickness and left ventricular mass were measured by echocardiography. No significant age and sex differences were found between the two groups. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly higher (P=.0001) in the MS group. This group showed significantly higher levels of fasting blood glucose (P=.0001), total cholesterol (P=.002), LDL-C (P=.007), non-HDL-C (P=.0001), triglycerides (P=.0001), Tg-HDL-C ratio (P=.0001), and lower HDL-C levels (P=.0001) as compared to the control group. EAT thickness (P=.0001) and left ventricular mass (P=.017) were significantly higher in the MS group. The ROC curve showed an AUC of 0.852 (P=.0001) with a power of the test of 0.99. A 5-mm EAT thickness showed a sensitivity of 84.62% (95%CI: 71.9-93.1) and a specificity of 71.11% (95%CI: 55.7-83.6) for predicting MS. The odds ratio of this population for experiencing MS due to an EAT ≥ 5 mm was 8.25 (95%CI: 3.15-21.56; P=.0001). An EAT value ≥ 5 mm has good sensitivity and specificity for predicting MS in the Venezuelan population. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Thirteen treated of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with high cut off filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Receiver operating characteristic analysis and the cost--benefit analysis in determination of the optimal cut-off point].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vránová, J; Horák, J; Krátká, K; Hendrichová, M; Kovaírková, K

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the use of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis within medicine is provided. A survey of the theory behind the analysis is offered together with a presentation on how to create a ROC curve and how to use Cost--Benefit analysis to determine the optimal cut-off point or threshold. The use of ROC analysis is exemplified in the "Cost--Benefit analysis" section of the paper. In these examples, it can be seen that the determination of the optimal cut-off point is mainly influenced by the prevalence and the severity of the disease, by the risks and adverse events of treatment or the diagnostic testing, by the overall costs of treating true and false positives (TP and FP), and by the risk of deficient or non-treatment of false negative (FN) cases.

  11. Cut-off analysis of 19-cell Yb-doped double-cladding rod-type photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, F; Coscelli, E; Alkeskjold, T T; Passaro, D; Cucinotta, A; Leick, L; Broeng, J; Selleri, S

    2011-05-09

    Yb-doped double-cladding large mode area rod-type photonic crystal fibers are a key component for power scaling in fiber laser systems. Recently, designs with 19-cell core defect, that is with 19 missing air-holes in the center of the photonic crystal cladding, have been proposed, with reported core diameter up to 100 μm. In this paper an analysis of the cut-off wavelength of the first high-order mode in such low-NA fibers is reported, accounting for different approaches for the definition of the cladding effective index. Results have shown that taking into account the finite fiber cross-section and considering the first cladding mode of the actual fiber is mandatory to obtain a correct estimate of the cut-off wavelength.

  12. General cutting-off die for trapezoidal sheet%梯形料片通用切断模设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐柏鸿

    2013-01-01

      介绍了一种可快速调整刀口间隙、切口位置、角度的梯形料通用切断模,配套自动矫平送料机,实现了切断模的自动化生产,提高了生产效率,降低了生产成本,取得了较好的经济效益。%A general cutting-off die being able to quickly adjust the trapezoidal sheet was presented which was used in the automatic leveling feeder. Through implementing the auto⁃matic production using cutting-off die, the production efficiency was improved and its cost was reduced.

  13. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique du Solide; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author). 18 refs.

  14. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: skaya@pamukkale.edu.tr; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey); Yuncu, Gokhan [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Sevinc, Serpil [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Kiroglu, Yilmaz [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion.

  15. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA(®) -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA(®) -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Evaluation of Waist Circumference Cut-off Values as a Marker for Fatty Liver among Japanese Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Abe

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal ultrasound is the most efficient means of diagnosing fatty liver, but this examination seldom occurs because the test is not routinely performed at workers’ health checkups. In people found to have a high risk of fatty liver, recommendations can be made for abdominal ultrasound based on the waist circumference cut-off values obtained in this study. That is, waist circumference can be used in high risk individuals as an effective marker for early detection of fatty liver.

  17. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  18. Improved nonparametric estimation of the optimal diagnostic cut-off point associated with the Youden index under different sampling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jingjing; Samawi, Hani; Linder, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    A diagnostic cut-off point of a biomarker measurement is needed for classifying a random subject to be either diseased or healthy. However, the cut-off point is usually unknown and needs to be estimated by some optimization criteria. One important criterion is the Youden index, which has been widely adopted in practice. The Youden index, which is defined as the maximum of (sensitivity + specificity -1), directly measures the largest total diagnostic accuracy a biomarker can achieve. Therefore, it is desirable to estimate the optimal cut-off point associated with the Youden index. Sometimes, taking the actual measurements of a biomarker is very difficult and expensive, while ranking them without the actual measurement can be relatively easy. In such cases, ranked set sampling can give more precise estimation than simple random sampling, as ranked set samples are more likely to span the full range of the population. In this study, kernel density estimation is utilized to numerically solve for an estimate of the optimal cut-off point. The asymptotic distributions of the kernel estimators based on two sampling schemes are derived analytically and we prove that the estimators based on ranked set sampling are relatively more efficient than that of simple random sampling and both estimators are asymptotically unbiased. Furthermore, the asymptotic confidence intervals are derived. Intensive simulations are carried out to compare the proposed method using ranked set sampling with simple random sampling, with the proposed method outperforming simple random sampling in all cases. A real data set is analyzed for illustrating the proposed method.

  19. Assessment of undergorund mining of Nussir copper deposit: With special emphasize on cut-off and mining method

    OpenAIRE

    Sletten, Audun Mortveit

    2012-01-01

    The narrow steeply dipping strata bound sediment hosted copper deposit, Nussir, located in Kvalsund community, Finmark, Norway, have been subject to an assessment of underground mining. Resources classified as Indicated, within a 0,9%Cu cut-off limit have been identified as suitable for sublevel open stoping mining method, accessed by 590m long tunnel from fjord, a 2000m haulage tunnel in footwall progressing westward along strike and two individual ramps separated by 1280m along strike. Stop...

  20. Insulin sensitivity indices: a proposal of cut-off points for simple identification of insulin-resistant subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radikova, Z; Koska, J; Huckova, M; Ksinantova, L; Imrich, R; Vigas, M; Trnovec, T; Langer, P; Sebokova, E; Klimes, I

    2006-05-01

    Demanding measurement of insulin sensitivity using clamp methods does not simplify the identification of insulin resistant subjects in the general population. Other approaches such as fasting- or oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity indices were proposed and validated with the euglycemic clamp. Nevertheless, a lack of reference values for these indices prevents their wider use in epidemiological studies and clinical practice. The aim of our study was therefore to define the cut-off points of insulin resistance indices as well as the ranges of the most frequently obtained values for selected indices. A standard 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in 1156 subjects from a Caucasian rural population with no previous evidence of diabetes or other dysglycemias. Insulin resistance/sensitivity indices (HOMA-IR, HOMA-IR2, ISI Cederholm, and ISI Matsuda) were calculated. The 75th percentile value as the cut-off point to define IR corresponded with a HOMA-IR of 2.29, a HOMA-IR2 of 1.21, a 25th percentile for ISI Cederholm, and ISI Matsuda of 57 and 5.0, respectively. For the first time, the cut-off points for selected indices and their most frequently obtained values were established for groups of subjects as defined by glucose homeostasis and BMI. Thus, insulin-resistant subjects can be identified using this simple approach.

  1. Interstellar flow longitude from pickup ion cut-off observations at 1 AU with STEREO and ACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Gloeckler, G.; Drews, C.; Keilbach, D.

    2016-11-01

    A precision determination of the interstellar neutral (ISN) flow direction is important in several ways. As a cardinal axis of the heliosphere it has strong leverage on the plane subtended by the ISN velocity and interstellar magnetic field vector, which controls the shape of the heliosphere and its interaction with the interstellar medium. Continuing observations of the ISN flow through the heliosphere for several decades allow the search for potential temporal variations of the ISN flow and comparison with astronomical observations. Recent efforts to obtain a consistent ISN vector and temperature with Ulysses and IBEX neutral gas observations point to remaining uncertainties and potential systematic effects. In particular, IBEX measurements provide a very precise relation between ISN flow longitude and speed via the hyperbolic trajectory equation, but they contain larger uncertainties along the parameter tube defined by this relation. The pickup ion (PUI) cut-off variation with ecliptic longitude at 1 AU can provide a complementary determination of the ISN flow longitude with high precision. We compare STEREO PLASTIC and ACE SWICS observations with a simple analytical model of the cut-off. We perform a Pearson correlation analysis of the cut-off as a function of ecliptic longitude with its mirrored function and obtain the symmetry axis with a statistical uncertainty <0.1°. Here we test variations of this value due to Poisson fluctuations in the original data with simulations and due to systematic effects with multi year and location ACE SWICS and STEREO PLASTIC samples.

  2. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index and waist circumference in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Suhyun; Park, Soo-Jung; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Blood mercury (methyl-mercury) from environmental exposure may be related to inflammation in our body. We investigated the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. On the basis of data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012), 11,159 subjects (5543 males and 5616 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Partial correlation, linear regression, and analysis of covariance (according to the mercury quartile) tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between blood mercury and BMI or waist circumference. In addition, we determined the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased BMI and waist circumference in both genders. Mean values of blood mercury concentration were 5.07 ± 0.07 μg/L in males and 3.59 ± 0.04 μg/L in females. After log transformation of blood mercury, significant (p waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant and gradual increase as mercury quartile increased in both genders. Blood mercury concentration was weakly but significantly (p waist circumference. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration correlated with increased BMI and waist circumference were around 3.95 μg/L in males and 3.40 μg/L in females.

  3. A rare East Indian Ocean autumn season tropical cut-off low: impacts and a high-resolution modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, B. W.; Leslie, L. M.; Sullivan, W.; Leplastrier, M.; Qi, L.

    2007-04-01

    There are two aims of this study. The first is to provide a synoptic description of the lifecycle and impacts of a seasonally rare but intense cut-off low of tropical origin that developed off the northwest coast of Australia, during the Southern Hemisphere autumn months of late April/early May, 2005. The second, and more important, part of this study is an assessment of the capacity of a state-of-the-science numerical model, assimilating all available satellite-derived observational data, to predict the track, intensity, duration, and severe weather that occurred during the life cycle of the cut-off low. The system was unusual in that its initial development occurred over tropical waters and was associated with a strong and highly involuted subtropical jetstream, generating a cloud band that produced record 24 h rainfall totals in northwest Western Australia for this time of the year. The cut-off low then underwent further deepening which produced more unseasonable heavy rainfall. Confirmed tornado reports occurred over the populous southwest corner of Western Australia. The synoptic discussion focuses initially on the intensification phase of the system, next on the period of heavy rainfall and gale to storm force winds that were generated by the cut-off during its most intense phase, and finally on the severe thunderstorm outbreak over southwest Western Australia. The study reveals a possible additional reason for the intensification of the tropical low, namely, the presence of positive SST anomalies of up to 3 °C over which the storm track passed early in its life. The modelling study used a high-resolution version (10 km horizontal grid spacing) of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model developed at the University of Oklahoma. The 96 hour forecast covered the period 00 UTC April 28 to 00 UTC May 2, 2005. The initial and boundary conditions were obtained from the archived analyses and forecasts from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The numerical forecasts

  4. The first cut-off wall in the Indian Himalayas for the dam of the Dhauliganga hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, W.G. [Bauer Maschinen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details a Bauer cutter used to build a cut-off wall for the Dhaulinganga power plant project in the Himalayan mountains. The dam for the project was built as a 56 m high concrete-faced rockfill dam with a length of 270 m at the crown. A cut-off wall was constructed on the upstream side of the dam extending down from the dam's plinth to the bedrock level. A Bauer cutter was used to key the cut-off wall straight into the bedrock, which omitted the need for a grout curtain. The cut-off wall is 1 m thick and 70 m deep, with a total area of 8000 m{sup 2}. The wall was constructed as a series of primary and secondary panels. Excavation of the panels was carried out in single bites by the Bauer DHG hydraulic diaphragm wall grabs, supported a box chisel, cross chisel and a Bauer BC 40 rock cutter. Trench stability was provided by bentonite slurry. The closing forces were activated by a cylinder which was installed vertically inside the base body. The Bauer cutter continuously removed soil and rock from the bottom of the trench for mixing with the bentonite slurry. The slurry was then pumped through a ring main of hose pipes to a desanding plant where it was cleaned and returned to the trench. Advantages offered by using the cutter included a consistently high output, an extremely high degree of verticality, watertight joints, and the ability to cut through hard boulders. Use of the cutter at the Dhaulinganga site showed that the project could not be carried out successfully without the use of the cutter, which was used whenever grab and chisel methods were unable to achieve satisfactory rates of penetration. Deployment of the cutter was essential to key the cut-off wall into the underlying bedrock. It was concluded that the Dhualinganga project will provide a model for future power generation projects in the Indian Himalayas. 11 figs.

  5. Geomagnetism applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    The social uses of geomagnetism include the physics of the space environment, satellite damage, pipeline corrosion, electric power-grid failure, communication interference, global positioning disruption, mineral-resource detection, interpretation of the Earth's formation and structure, navigation, weather, and magnetoreception in organisms. The need for continuing observations of the geomagnetic field, together with careful archiving of these records and mechanisms for dissemination of these data, is emphasized.

  6. High frequency cut-off in 1/f conductivity noise of hole-doped La1-x Ca x MnO3 manganite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybytek, Jacek; Fink-Finowicki, Jan; Puźniak, Roman; Jung, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    High frequency bias and temperature-dependent Lorentzian cut-off has been observed in the 1/f spectra of the conductivity fluctuations in low hole-doped ferromagnetic insulating La1-x Ca x MnO3 manganite at low temperatures. The cut-off frequency depends on dc current bias and temperature. The high frequency cut-off has been tentatively associated with intrinsic limits of the appearance of 1/f noise in the hopping regime of the Coulomb glass state. The assumption is validated by the fact that the Efros-Shklovskii temperature {{T}\\text{ES}} , estimated from the fit of the model to the experimentally measured temperature dependence of the cut-off frequency, has the same value as the temperature {{T}\\text{ES}} evaluated independently from the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the corresponding temperature range.

  7. Waist circumference cut-off values for the prediction of cardiovascular risk factors clustering in Chinese school-aged children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ying; Du Lin; Li Yanping; Hu Xiaoqi; Hills Andrew P; Liu Ailing; Byrne Nuala M; Ma Guansheng

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Waist circumference has been identified as a valuable predictor of cardiovascular risk in children. The development of waist circumference percentiles and cut-offs for various ethnic groups are necessary because of differences in body composition. The purpose of this study was to develop waist circumference percentiles for Chinese children and to explore optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors clustering in this population. Met...

  8. Elevated d-dimer cut-off values for computed tomography pulmonary angiography—d-dimer correlates with location of embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubak, Mateuzs Piotr; Borthne, Arne; Ruud, Espen Asak; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is a potentially fatal condition, and making a timely diagnosis can be challenging. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has become the modality of choice, and this contributes to the increasing load on emergency room CT scanners. Our purpose was to investigate whether an elevated d-dimer cut-off could reduce the demand for CTPA while maintaining a high sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV). Methods We retrospectively reviewed all patients referred for CTPA with suspicion of APE in 2012, and collected d-dimer values and CTPA results. We investigated the diagnostic performance of d-dimer using a 0.5 mg/L cut-off and an age adjusted cut-off. We also evaluated a new and elevated cut-off. Cases were categorized according to their CTPA result into: no embolism, peripheral embolism, lobar embolism and central embolism. Finally we investigated a possible correlation between d-dimer values and location of embolism. Results We included 1,051 CTPAs, from which 216 (21%) showed pulmonary embolism. There were concomitant d-dimer analyses in 822 CTPA examinations. The current 0.5 mg/L cut-off achieved a sensitivity and NPV of 99%. The age-adjusted cut-off achieved a sensitivity and NPV of 98%, and our suggested cut-off of 0.9 mg/L achieved a sensitivity and NPV of 97%. Conclusions We conclude that the elevated d-dimer cut-off of 0.9 mg/L achieved a high sensitivity and NPV, while reducing the number of CTPA by 27%. The correlation between d-dimer values and location of embolisms supports the suggestion of an elevated d-dimer value. PMID:27386486

  9. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto; ,

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for ...

  10. Different diagnostic cut-off values of urinary fractionated metanephrines according to sex for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in Korean subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Seo Young; Park, Hyung Doo; Lee, Soo Youn; Kim, Jung Han; Jung, Byong Chang; Kim, Hye Jeong; Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Moon Kyu; Min, Yong Ki; Kim, Jae Hyeon

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma depends on the documentation of catecholamine overproduction. The use of urinary fractionated metanephrines has recently become common for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. In order to avoid false positive and false negative results, optimal cut-off levels are necessary; however, there have been few published reports on whether different cut-off levels are needed to diagnose pheochromocytoma according to sex. We reviewed the medical records of 815 subjects (including 103 pheochromocytoma patients) whose of 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrine was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography methods and adrenal imaging at Samsung Medical Center. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine cut-off values according to sex. The upper limit values of fractionated metanephrine in healthy volunteers and the control group were significantly higher in male subjects compared with females. When we applied cut-off values according to sex, the diagnostic efficacies (defining a positive test as either metanephrine or normetanephrine levels above the cut-off value) were a sensitivity of 96% in male subjects and 98.1% in female subjects and a specificity of 88.6% in male subjects and 94.1% in female subjects. However, when we applied cut-off values without considering sex, the specificity decreased from 88.6% to 77.8% in male subjects. In this study, urinary fractionated metanephrines had a high level of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. However, diagnostic cut-off values were higher in male subjects than in female subjects. Therefore, different cut-off values may be needed according to sex to diagnose pheochromocytoma in Koreans.

  11. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, Phypothyroidism.

  12. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas; de Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. Results: We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. PMID:27812631

  13. Accuracy and cut-off point selection in three-class classification problems using a generalization of the Youden index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakas, Christos T; Alonzo, Todd A; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T

    2010-12-10

    We study properties of the index J(3), defined as the accuracy, or the maximum correct classification, for a given three-class classification problem. Specifically, using J(3) one can assess the discrimination between the three distributions and obtain an optimal pair of cut-off points c(1)sum of the correct classification proportions will be maximized. It also serves as the generalization of the Youden index in three-class problems. Parametric and non-parametric approaches for estimation and testing are considered and methods are applied to data from an MRS study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients.

  14. Determination of the optimal cut-off point for ELISA test for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soudbakhsh A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Finding a reliable diagnostic method for brucellosis is the most challengeable problem. In this study we determined the optimal diagnostic cut-off point for ELISA test."n"nMethods: We gathered 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis. Furthermore blood samples from 126 controls including 73 healthy controls and 53 without brucellosis febrile patients were collected. In all of the cases and controls ELISA Ig G and ELISA Ig M levels were measured and compared with each other by Box plot graph and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA Ig G and Ig M were fixed in different cut-off values and Ig G and Ig M levels yielding maximal sensitivity plus specificity were selected for determination of optimal cut-off point."n"nResults: The nineteen patients had positive blood cultures for Brucella melitensis. The standard agglutination test results were 1/160 or more in 54 patients. The Box plot graph indicated a high degree of dispersion for Ig G and Ig M data in patients with brucellosis compared with febrile patients without brucellosis and healthy controls. We observed partial overlap for Ig M data (not for Ig G between cases and controls. The area under ROC curve for

  15. Exploration of the optimal diameter cut-off value in patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor suitable for surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the pathology of the patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor (NFA, and explore the optimal diameter cut-off value. Methods  The clinical data of 243 patients with NFA, evaluated in the Department of Endocrinology and operated in the Department of Urology of General Hospital of Chinese PLA from Feb. 1996 to Jan. 2016, were collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to pathology: those in real demand of surgery were classified to the surgery-need group (n=57, while the others were categorized as the surgery-unwanted group (n=186. The general situation, pathological type and tumor diameter of the two groups and the factors affecting the surgery were analyzed, and the ROC curve was used to explore the optimal surgery cut-off value, which represents the maximum value of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results  Of the 57 patients in surgery-need group (27 males and 30 females, the lesions were on the right in 31 cases, on the left in 25 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 4.5cm, and the average age was 41.5±12.1 years old. Of the 186 patients in surgery-unwanted group (87 males and 99 females, the lesions were on the right in 99 cases, on the left in 86 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 3.0cm, and the average age was 50.6±10.9 years old. Logistic regression revealed that lesion diameter might be a risk factor (OR=1.340, 95%CI 1.266-1.418, P=0.000 and age be a protective factor (OR=0.942, 95%CI 0.929-0.955, P=0.000 for real demand of surgery. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of lesion diameter was 0.757(95%CI 0.681-0.833. The optimal cut-off value was 4.1cm (sensitivity 60.7% and specificity 83.0%. Conclusions  Younger patients with bigger lesion diameter may have greater possibility for surgery. The optimal surgery cut-off value of the lesion diameter is 4.1cm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.11

  16. {sup 3}He spectrum at small atmospheric depths for different geomagnetic cutoff values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    It is carried out a calculation to determine the energy spectra of secondary {sup 3}He at small atmospheric depths. It is produced in the spallation reaction of primary helium and heavier nuclei in the overlying atmosphere. It is examined the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of the secondary {sup 3}He nuclei. The calculations are being carried out for both solar minimum and maximum periods. Results from these calculations will be presented at the Conference.

  17. Effects of inductive waves on multi-band below-cut-off transmission in waveguides loaded with dielectric metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Unusual backward and forward wave propagation in below cut-off waveguides loaded with dielectric metamaterials comprised of linear arrays of dielectric resonators (DRs has been investigated by using theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods. Transmission bands were shown to correspond to three lowest resonances in arrays and were analyzed by using the concepts of magneto- and electro-inductive (MI and EI waves describing the transfer of resonance excitation along the chains of coupled resonators. Equivalent circuit models (ECMs have been constructed to describe MI and EI wave propagation and to obtain the dispersion diagrams. Good agreement between the obtained data and the results of full-wave simulations, theoretical calculations, and experiments provided an opportunity to determine coupling coefficients characterizing interaction between DRs in arrays at various resonances. It was shown that ripples observed in below cut-off transmission bands are transmission resonances caused by Fabry-Perot oscillations of inductive waves at impedance mismatch at the array ends. Fitting the transmission spectra for MI/EI waves in arrays, calculated by using the Transfer Matrix Method to the spectra obtained by using full-wave simulations/measurements, allowed for determining the ECM parameters to fully characterize the DR array properties.

  18. CFT dual of the AdS Dirichlet problem : Fluid/Gravity on cut-off surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Brattan, Daniel K; Loganayagam, R; Rangamani, Mukund

    2011-01-01

    We study the gravitational Dirichlet problem in AdS spacetimes with a view to understanding the boundary CFT interpretation. We define the problem as bulk Einstein's equations with Dirichlet boundary conditions on fixed timelike cut-off hypersurface. Using the fluid/gravity correspondence, we argue that one can determine non-linear solutions to this problem in the long wavelength regime. On the boundary we find a conformal fluid with Dirichlet constitutive relations, viz., the fluid propagates on a `dynamical' background metric which depends on the local fluid velocities and temperature. This boundary fluid can be re-expressed as an emergent hypersurface fluid which is non-conformal but has the same value of the shear viscosity as the boundary fluid. The hypersurface dynamics arises as a collective effect, wherein effects of the background are transmuted into the fluid degrees of freedom. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this collective fluid is forced to be non-relativistic below a critical cut-off radius in...

  19. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo [Ibi General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu

    1997-12-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  20. Determination of the accuracy and optimal cut-off point for ELISA test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibi, Mehrdad; Jafari, Sirus; Mortazavi, Habibollah; Asadollahi, Marjan; Esmaeeli Djavid, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    In endemic area the most challenging problem for brucellosis is to find a reliable diagnostic method. In this case-control study, we investigated the accuracy of ELISA test for diagnosis of human brucellosis and determined the optimal cut-off value for ELISA results in Iran. The laboratory diagnosis of brucellosis was performed by blood isolation of Brucella organism with a BACTEC 9240 system and/or detection of Brucella antibodies by standard agglutination test (titer ≥ 1:160). Serum level of ELISA IgG and ELISA IgM from 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis and 126 controls were compared with each other by Box plot graph and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Box plot graphs showed the high degree of dispersion for IgG and IgM data in patients compared with all controls. We observed partially overlapping for IgM data (not for IgG) between cases and controls in graphs. The area under ROC curve for distinguishing between cases and controls was larger for IgG compared to IgM. Based on results of this study, ELISA IgG test was more reliable than ELISA IgM test in diagnosis of human brucellosis in Iran. Using a cut-off of 10 IU/ml and 50 IU/ml had most sensitivity (92.9%) and most specificity (100%) for ELISA IgG test, respectively.

  1. Dynamic Changes, Cut-Off Points, Sensitivity, and Specificity of Laboratory Data to Differentiate Macrophage Activation Syndrome from Active Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheleh Assari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the laboratory data and changes in these data between patients with MAS and patients with flare-up of the autoimmune diseases. Methods. In a prospective study, the static laboratory data and dynamic changes in the selected data in 17 consecutive patients with MAS and 53 patients with active disease of SJIA, PJIA, Kawasaki disease, and SLE were compared. The ROC curve analysis was used to evaluate cut-off points, sensitivity, and specificity of the static and dynamic laboratory data to differentiate between MAS and active disease. Results. In the MAS group, the mean CRP3, ALT, AST, total bilirubin, ferritin, LDH, PT, PTT, and INR were significantly higher and the mean WBC2, PMN2, Lymph2, Hgb1, 2, 3, ESR2, serum albumin, and sodium were significantly lower than in control group. Some of the important cut-off points were PLT2 38.5, ALT > 38, WBC 5277 ng/mL. Conclusion. The dynamic changes in some laboratory data, especially PLT, can differentiate between MAS and active disease. The changes in WBC, PMN, and ESR and the levels of the liver enzymes may also be helpful in the early differentiation. Very high levels of ferritin may also help the diagnosis along with other clinical and laboratory signs.

  2. Cut-off scaling of high-harmonic generation driven by a femtosecond visible optical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirmi, Giovanni; Lai, Chien-Jen; Granados, Eduardo; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sell, Alexander; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Keathley, Phillip; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2012-10-01

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ1.7 + 0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ˜25 and ˜100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  3. Accuracy of cut-off value by measurement of third molar index: Study of a Colombian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Stefano; Aguilar, Lina; Rivera, Marcela; Palacio, Luz Andrea Velandia; Riccomi, Giulia; Bestetti, Fiorella; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to test the accuracy of cut-off value of 0.08 by measurement of third molar index (I3M) in assessing legal adult age of 18 years in a sample of Colombian children and young adults. Digital orthopantomographs of 288 Colombian children and young adults (163 girls and 125 boys), aged between 13 and 22 years, were analysed. Concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and κ statistics (Cohen's Kappa coefficient) showed that repeatability and reproducibility are high for both intra- and inter-observer error. κ statistics for intra- and inter-observer agreement in decision on adult or minor was 0.913 and 0.877, respectively. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both girls and boys. For girls, the sensitivity test was 95.1% (95% CI 87.1%-95%) and specificity was 93.8% (95% CI 87.1%-98.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 95.1%. For boys, the sensitivity test was 91.7% (95% CI 85.1%-96.8%) and specificity was 90.6% (95% CI 82.1%-97.8%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 89.7%. The cut-off value of 0.08 is highly useful to determine if a subject is 18 years of age or older or not.

  4. STS-114: Engine Cut-Off Sensors Are a No-Go: Teaching Notes for NASA Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    This case study format is intended to simulate the experience of facing the same difficult challenges and making the same critical decisions as managers, engineers, and scientists in the Space Shuttle Program. It has been designed for use in the classroom setting to help students develop skills related to decision-making. Students will read about the engine cut-off sensor anomaly which created challenges during the STS-114 mission and have the opportunity to make decisions as lead NASA engineers and Mission Management Team members. Included within this document are three case study presentation options - class discussion, group activity, and open-ended research. Please read the full case prior to in-class presentation to allow ample time for students' analysis and reflection, as well as to prepare additional questions. activities or exercises, material selection, etc. Depending upon the setting of your presentation and the number of participants, please choose at least one presentation format beforehand and plan accordingly. You may expect the following learning objectives by using the proposed formats. Learning Objectives: To enable students to experience the responsibilities of NASA management, engineers, and analysis; to discover possible procedures for investigating system anomalies; to become familiar with the liquid hydrogen low level engine cut-off sensor, including its function, connecting components, and location within the Space Shuttle; and to encourage critical analysis and stimulating discussion of Space Shuttle mission challenges.

  5. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio cut-off points for categorisation of obesity among Omani Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, Jawad A; Jousilahti, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    There are no data on optimal cut-off points to classify obesity among Omani Arabs. The existing cut-off points were obtained from studies of European populations. To determine gender-specific optimal cut-off points for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) associated with elevated prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Omani Arabs. A community-based cross-sectional study. The survey was conducted in the city of Nizwa in Oman in 2001. The study contained a probabilistic random sample of 1421 adults aged > or =20 years. Prevalent CVD risk was defined as the presence of at least two of the following three risk factors: hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Logistic regression and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used to determine optimal cut-off points for BMI, WC and WHR in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. Over 87% of Omanis had at least one CVD risk factor (38% had hyperglycaemia, 19% hypertension and 34.5% had high total cholesterol). All three indices including BMI (AUC = 0.766), WC (AUC = 0.772) and WHR (AUC = 0.767) predicted prevalent CVD risk factors equally well. The optimal cut-off points for men and women respectively were 23.2 and 26.8 kg m-2 for BMI, 80.0 and 84.5 cm for WC, and 0.91 and 0.91 for WHR. To identify Omani subjects of Arab ethnicity at high risk of CVD, cut-off points lower than currently recommended for BMI, WC and WHR are needed for men while higher cut-off points are suggested for women.

  6. One millimetre is the safe cut-off for magnetic resonance imaging prediction of surgical margin status in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F G M; Quirke, P; Heald, R J; Moran, B; Blomqvist, L; Swift, I; St Rose, S; Sebag-Montefiore, D J; Tekkis, P; Brown, G

    2011-06-01

    A pathologically involved margin in rectal cancer is defined as tumour within 1 mm of the surgical resection margin. There is no standard definition of a predicted safe margin on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of this study was to assess which cut-off (1, 2 or 5 mm) was the best predictor of local recurrence based on preoperative MRI assessment of the circumferential resection margin (CRM). Data were collected prospectively on the distance between the tumour and mesorectal fascia for patients with documented radiological margin status in the MERCURY study. Positive margin and local recurrence rates were compared for MRI distances from the tumour to the mesorectal fascia of 1 mm or less, more than 1 mm up to 2 mm, more than 2 mm up to 5 mm, and more than 5 mm. The Cox proportional hazard regression method was used to determine the effect of level of margin involvement on time to local recurrence. Univariable analysis showed that, relative to a distance measured by MRI of more than 5 mm, the hazard ratio (HR) for local recurrence was 3·90 (95 per cent confidence interval 1·99 to 7·63; P < 0·001) for a margin of 1 mm or less, 0·81 (0·36 to 1·85; P = 0·620) for a margin of more than 1 mm up to 2 mm, and 0·33 (0·10 to 1·08; P = 0·067) for a margin greater than 2 mm up to 5 mm. Multivariable analysis of the effect of MRI distance to the mesorectal fascia and preoperative treatment on local recurrence showed that a margin of 1 mm or less remained significant regardless of preoperative treatment (HR 3·72, 1·43 to 9·71; P = 0·007). For preoperative staging of rectal cancer, the best cut-off distance for predicting CRM involvement using MRI is 1 mm. Using a cut-off greater than this does not appear to identify patients at higher risk of local recurrence. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Trend, projection, and appropriate body mass index cut-off point for diabetes and hypertension in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Akter, Shamima; Jung, Jenny; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Sultana, Papia

    2017-04-01

    Rapid increasing of high body mass index (BMI) is a global health concern. Population with high BMI predicts an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension. The objective of the present study is to estimate the trend and prediction of diabetes and hypertension in Bangladesh, to examine the association of BMI with risk of diabetes and hypertension, and to ascertain an appropriate BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes. We searched PubMed from inception to August 2016 and identified studies reporting diabetes and hypertension prevalence in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011 data was also included in this study. Bayesian model was used to estimate trend and projection in diabetes and hypertension prevalence by sex and residence. Receiver operating characteristic curves was used to determine the optimal BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes. Of 535 articles reviewed, 35 studies reported prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. Prevalence of diabetes (95% credible interval) increased between 1992 and 2015 from 3.2% (2.2-4.3) to 12.1% (9.1-15.4) in men, and from 2.5% (1.8-3.5) to 13.4% (9.7-17.6) in women. Diabetes prevalence in 2030 is expected to reach 23.6% (13.6-36.3) for men and 33.5% (19.9-50.9) for women. Hypertension prevalence increased between 1992 and 2015 from 11.0% (8.6-13.7) to 20.4% (18.4-22.4%) in 2015 in men, and from 14.0% (10.3-19.0) to 21.3% (19.0-23.6) in women. Annual average rate of change for diabetes prevalence was higher among women and in rural areas, while for hypertension prevalence it was higher in men and urban areas. Adults with BMI of 22.5kg/m(2) or above had a higher risk of diabetes and hypertension in this study. The optimal BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes was 23kg/m(2) for overall population, 22kg/m(2) for men, and 23kg/m(2) for women. Diabetes is more prevalent among women and rural population groups, while hypertension is more prevalent among men and urban population groups in Bangladesh. A BMI

  8. The impact of an underground cut-off wall on nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Pingping; Xu, Shiguo

    2017-03-01

    Underground cut-off walls in coastal regions are mainly used to prevent saltwater intrusion, but their impact on nutrient dynamics in groundwater is not clear. In this study, a combined analysis of multiple isotopes ([Formula: see text]) and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations is used in order to assess the impact of the underground cut-off walls on the nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China. Compared with the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in groundwater downstream of the underground cut-off walls, high [Formula: see text] and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations and similar concentration levels of [Formula: see text] and total dissolved phosphorus are found in groundwater upstream of the underground cut-off walls. The isotopic data indicated the probable occurrence of denitrification and nitrification processes in groundwater upstream, whereas the fingerprint of these processes was not shown in groundwater downstream. The management of fertilizer application is critical to control nitrogen concentrations in groundwater restricted by the underground cut-off walls.

  9. Suggested cut-off values for vitamin D as a risk marker for total and cardiac death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Naesgaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut off levels are still under debate. Objectives: To assess two cut-off levels, 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Results: 255 patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L, [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50 – 0.88, p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22 – 0.94, p = 0.034, respectively].Conclusion: Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  10. How does a low-mass cut-off in the stellar IMF affect the evolution of young star clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; de Grijs, R; Rose, M; Kim, Sungsoo S

    2014-01-01

    We investigate how different stellar initial mass functions (IMFs) can affect the mass loss and survival of star clusters. We find that IMFs with radically different low-mass cut-offs (between 0.1 and 2 Msun) do not change cluster destruction time-scales as much as might be expected. Unsurprisingly, we find that clusters with more high-mass stars lose relatively more mass through stellar evolution, but the response to this mass loss is to expand and hence significantly slow their dynamical evolution. We also argue that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to have clusters with different IMFs that are initially "the same", since the mass, radius and relaxation times depend on each other and on the IMF in a complex way. We conclude that changing the IMF to be biased towards more massive stars does speed up mass loss and dissolution, but that it is not as dramatic as might be thought.

  11. On a holographic dark energy model with a Nojiri-Odintsov cut-off in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Khurshudyan, M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the models of the accelerated expanding large scale universe~(according to general relativity) containing a generalized holographic dark energy with a Nojiri - Odintsov cut - off. The second component of the darkness is assumed to be the pressureless cold dark matter according to observed symmetries of the large scale universe. Moreover, we assume specific forms of the interaction between these two components and besides the cosmographic analysis, we discuss appropriate results from $Om$ and $Om3$ analysis and organize a closer look to the models via the statefinder hierarchy analysis, too. In this way we study mainly impact of the interaction on the dynamics of the background of our universe~(within specific forms of interaction). To complete the cosmographic analysis, the present day values of the statefinder parameters $(r,s)$ and $(\\omega^{\\prime}_{de}, \\omega_{de})$ has been estimated for all cases and the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics is demonstrated....

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF 3-D TURBULENT FLOWS IN A CUT-OFF VALVE AND ANALYSIS OF FLOW CHARACTERISTICS IN PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Zhi-guo; Mao Gen-hai; Yuan Xing-ming

    2003-01-01

    The 3-D turbulent flows in a valve pipe were described by the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with an RNG k-ε turbulence model. With the finite volume method and a body-fitted coordinate system, the discretised equations were solved by the SIMPLEST algorithm. The numerical result of a cut-off valve with curved inlet shows the flow characteristics and the main cause of energy loss when fluid flows through a valve. And then, the boundaries of valve were modified in order to reduce the energy loss. The computational results of modified valve show that the numerical value of turbulent kinetic energy is lower, and that the modified design of the 3-D valve boundaries is much better. The analysis of the result also shows that RNG k-ε turbulence model can successfully be used to predict the 3-D turbulent separated flows and the secondary flow inside valve pipes.

  13. The Development of Appropriate Waist-to-Hip Ratio Cut- off Points: Survey in Large Iranian Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Jahanlou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Proportion of Waist-to-Hip Ratio (WHR is an indicator of abdominal obesity, which is supported by some studies but rejected by others. The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy of the WHR and obtain suitable cut- off points for detecting obesity among adult Iranians. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional-descriptive study the sample consisted of 19366 adults. The data collection took place from 2009 to 2014, using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA. The following data were obtained: WHR, Percentile of Body Fat (PBF, To-tal Fat (TF, and Soft Lean Mass (SLM. Sensitivity and specificity, based on World Health Organization’s Gold Standards were calculated for both sexes at three age groups. The data analysis included t-test, chi-square, ROC curve, and linear regression. Results: All study variables were correlated with each other. Age was only correlated with the WHR. Percentages of sensitivity and Negative Predictive Value (NPV were 84.2% and 85.6% in women; 21% and 50.7% in men. Increase in age was associated with increase in sensitivity in men and women, and NPV in men. The suitable cut-off points for men and women were found to be 87.5% and 83.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Waist-to-Hip ration is a suitable indictor of obesity for Iranian women but not men, especially among those who are under 59 years old. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 144-151

  14. Absolute depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer is superior to the currently used cut-off value of 50%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Y P; Pijnenborg, J M A; van den Berg-van Erp, S H M; Snijders, M P M L; Bulten, J; Massuger, L F A G

    2013-05-01

    In endometrial carcinoma, myometrial invasion is a well known predictor of recurrence, and important in the decision making for adjuvant treatment. According to the FIGO staging system, myometrial invasion is expressed as invasion of of the myometrium (50%MI). It has been suggested to use the absolute depth of invasion (DOI), or the tumor free distance to the serosa (TFD). The aim of this study was to compare DOI, 50%MI, and TFD. All patients diagnosed with endometrioid endometrial carcinoma at the RUNMC, and the CWH from 1999 to 2009 were included. Histologic slides were reviewed for histologic type and grade, DOI, 50%MI, and TFD. After review, 335 patients were identified. DOI, 50%MI, and TFD were evaluated for their prediction of clinicopathologic characteristics. The prediction of recurrence was best performed by DOI when compared to TFD, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.726, and 0.638 respectively. The optimal cut-off value for DOI was 4mm. DOI independently correlated with recurrence of disease, and death of disease. TFD was associated with advanced age and large tumor diameter. DOI was the best predictor of progression-free and disease-specific survival next to 50%MI and TFD (HR 3.15, 95%CI 1.16-8.56) and (HR 10.35, 95%CI 1.23-86.93). DOI showed better predictive performance than TFD, and was more strongly correlated with clinicopathologic parameters than TFD and 50%MI. Possibly, DOI should substitute 50%MI as measure to express myometrial invasion in daily clinical practice. External validation is mandatory to confirm the proposed cut-off value of 4mm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A new perspective of the climatological features of upper-level cut-off lows in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Henri Rossi; Hodges, Kevin Ivan; Gan, Manoel Alonso; Ferreira, Nelson Jesuz

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a detailed view of the seasonal variability of upper-level cut-off lows (COLs) in the Southern Hemisphere. The COLs are identified and tracked using data from a 36-year period of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis (ERA-Interim). The objective identification of the COLs uses a new approach, which is based on 300 hPa relative vorticity minima, and three restrictive criteria of the presence of a cold-core, stratospheric potential vorticity intrusion, and cut-off cyclonic circulation. The highest COL activity is in agreement with previous studies, located near three main continental areas (Australia, South America, and Africa), with maximum frequencies usually observed in the austral autumn. The COL mean intensity values show a marked seasonal and spatial variation, with maximum (minimum) values during the austral winter (summer), a unique feature that has not been observed previously in studies based on the geopotential. The link between intensity and lysis is examined, and finds that weaker systems are more susceptible to lysis in the vicinity of the Andes Cordillera, associated with the topographic Rossby wave. Lysis and genesis regions are close to each other, confirming that COLs are quasi-stationary systems. Also, COLs tend to move eastward and are faster over the higher latitudes. The mean growth/decay rates coincide with the major genesis and lysis density regions, such as the significant decay values across the Andes all year. As a consequence of using vorticity for the tracking method a longer lifetime of COLs is detected than in other studies, but this does not affect the total frequency of occurrence. Comparisons with other studies suggest that the differences in seasonality are due to uncertainties in the reanalyses and the methods used to identify COLs.

  16. The optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index for the survival differs according to the TNM stage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yukiyasu; Sugiura, Teiichi; Ito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ashida, Ryo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    To establish the optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) for prognosis according to the Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. This retrospective study reviewed the records of 375 patients. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI was established according to the TNM stage, and overall survival was compared between the low and high PNI groups. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI decreased with increasing TNM stage, with 52, 47, and 43 patients having stage I, II, and III HCC, respectively. A low preoperative PNI predicted a poorer overall survival than did a high PNI for stage I (P TNM stages and that the preoperative PNI is a favorable prognostic factor for stage I HCC.

  17. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M.; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. Results The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI’s AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28’s AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. Conclusions The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis. PMID:27603313

  18. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Rumiko; Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Masahiro; Fujisue, Mamiko; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR) and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%). The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer. PMID:26177501

  19. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  20. Cross section of reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181W and the influence of the spin cut-off parameter on the cross section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Jie; HU Bi-Tao

    2011-01-01

    In this work,the program Cindy was modified to calculate the formation cross section of each energy level of residual nucleus 181W resulting from the reaction 181Ta(p,nγ)181 W.The concerned cross sections calculated at proton energy Ep=4.5-8.5 MeV agreed well with experimental results.The influence of the spin cut-off parameter in the energy level density model on the cross section was studied.The obtained results show that the influence of spin cut-off is obvious for lower energy levels.

  1. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  2. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  3. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  4. Response of a Balloon-Borne Omnidirectional Detector to the Atmospheric Secondary Charged Cosmic Radiation at a place of 11.5 GV Geomagnetic Cut-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Azcárate

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un experimento llevado a cabo con un centelleador plástico de gran volumen. El sistema detector fue trasportado por un globo estratosférico, que fue lanzado desde Reconquista, Provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, el 24 de febrero de 1992. El corte geomagnético del lugar es 11.5 GV. Los espectros de pérdida de energía de la radiación gama (para E 4:15 MeV y la componente cargada de la radiación cósmica secundaria fueron medidos –alternativamente– a diferentes alturas durante el ascenso del balón, y a la altura de nivelación. En un trabajo publicado anteriormente (Azcárate 2000 se analizó el espectro de radiación gama atmosférica. La forma de espectros de pérdida de energía debida a la radiación cargada puede explicarse, al menos cualitativamente, por el cálculo de la respuesta del detector a este tipo de radiación. Se postula que, a altura de nivelación, el pico observado en el espectro se debe fundamentalmente a muones relativistas que inciden horizontalmente sobre el detector. Se ha obtenido también la curva de crecimiento para el contaje bajo el pico y la intensidad de los muones relativistas.

  5. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  6. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate...

  7. Waist circumference cut-off in relation to body mass index and percentage of body fat in adult women from Merida, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Banik, Sudip; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) as an index of central obesity is related to body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (PBF). Waist circumference data were analyzed to identify a WC cut-off for adult women with respect to BMI-based obesity (≥ 30 kg/m²) and PBF. The sample was 138 women aged 22 to 41 years with Maya ancestry (based on surnames) in Merida, Yucatan, measured during 2011 - 2013. Anthropometric parameters included height, body weight (BW), and BMI. The PBF was estimated by bioelectrical impedance. Estimated cut-offs per centimeter WC (80 - 99 cm) were predicted by BMI for obesity (≥ 30 kg m⁻²; binomial: Yes = 1, No = 0) and PBF (continuous variable) using binary logistic regression analyses. Mean age was 32 years, mean BMI was 29 kg m(-2) and mean WC was 89 cm. The sample exhibited high PBF (44 %), and high rates of overweight (44%) and obesity (40%). The threshold WC (≥ 93 cm) had high sensitivity (80%), specificity (82%), Youden Index value (0.62), and correct classification rate (82%). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 88 %. The WC ≥ 93 cm cut-off had corresponding values for mean BMI (34 kg m⁻²) and PBF (47%). The optimal WC cut-off at 93 cm significantly identified central obesity for BMI ≥ 30 kg m⁻² and PBF for this sample.

  8. Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the visual analogue scale for pain in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R. Schiphorst; Balk, Gerlof A.; Stewart, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cut-off points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) to distinguish among mild, moderate, and severe pain, in relation to the following: pain-related interference with functioning; verbal description of the VAS scores; and latent class analysis for patients with ch

  9. Lattice cut-off effects and their reduction in studies of QCD thermodynamics at non-zero temperature and chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Hegde, P; Laermann, E; Shcheredin, S

    2008-01-01

    We clarify the relation between the improvement of dispersion relations in the fermion sector of lattice regularized QCD and the improvement of bulk thermodynamic observables. We show that in the infinite temperature limit the cut-off dependence in dispersion relations can be eliminated up to O(a^n) corrections, if the quark propagator is chosen to be rotationally invariant up to this order. In bulk thermodynamic observables this eliminates cut-off effects up to the same order at vanishing as well as non-vanishing chemical potential. We furthermore show, that in the infinite temperature, ideal gas limit the dependence of finite cut-off corrections on the chemical potential is given by Bernoulli polynomials which are universal as they do not depend on a particular discretization scheme. We explicitly calculate leading and next-to-leading order cut-off corrections for some staggered and Wilson fermion type actions and compare these with exact evaluations of the free fermion partition functions. This also includ...

  10. Quantum fields and poisson processes II: Interaction of boson-boson and boson-fermion fields with a cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, J.; Gaveau, B.; Rideau, G.

    1985-05-01

    Quantum field evolutions are written as expectation values with respect to Poisson processes in two simple models: interaction of two boson fields (with conservation of the number of particles in one field) and interaction of a boson with a fermion field. The introduction of a cut-off ensures that the expectation values are well-defined.

  11. Using Logistic Regression for Validating or Invalidating Initial Statewide Cut-Off Scores on Basic Skills Placement Tests at the Community College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secolsky, Charles; Krishnan, Sathasivam; Judd, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The community colleges in the state of New Jersey went through a process of establishing statewide cut-off scores for English and mathematics placement tests. The colleges wanted to communicate to secondary schools a consistent preparation that would be necessary for enrolling in Freshman Composition and College Algebra at the community college…

  12. Using an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off value increases the number of older patients in whom deep vein thrombosis can be safely excluded

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, Renée A.; Tan, Melanie; Schutgens, Roger E.G.; Bates, Shannon M.; Perrier, Arnaud; Legnani, Cristina; Biesma, Douwe H.; Ginsberg, Jeffrey S.; Bounameaux, Henri; Palareti, Gualtiero; Carrier, Marc; Mol, Gerben C.; Le Gal, Grégoire; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Righini, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background D-dimer testing to rule out deep vein thrombosis is less useful in older patients because of a lower specificity. An age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value increased the proportion of older patients (>50 years) in whom pulmonary embolism could be excluded. We retrospectively validated the eff

  13. Cosmological properties and reconstruction of scalar field models of the Holographic Dark Energy model with Granda-Oliveros cut-off in Kaluza-Klein cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Assaf, Khudhair A.; Salako, Ines G.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of the Holographic Dark Energy (HDE) model in the context of Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology with infrared cut-off given by the recently proposed by Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one proportional to the Hubble parameter squared. Moreover, this cut-off is characterized by two free parameters which are the proportional constants of the two terms of the cut-off. We derive the expression of the Equation of State (EoS) parameter ωD and of the deceleration parameter q for both non-interacting and interacting Dark Sectors and in the limiting case of a flat Dark Dominated Universe. Moreover, we study the squared speed of the sound vs2 and the statefinder diagnostic \\{r,s\\} in order to understand the cosmological properties of the model considered. We also develop a correspondence between the model considered and three scalar field models: the tachyon, the k-essence and the quintessence ones.

  14. Optimal Waist Circumference Cut-off values for Identifying Metabolic Risk Factors in Middle-aged and Elderly Subjects in Shandong Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Xin Guo; ZHANG Xiu Ping; JIANG Mei; WANG Wei Qing; NING Guang; ZHENG Hui Zhen; MA Ai Xia; SUN Yu; SONG Jun; LIN Peng; LIANG Kai; WANG Chuan; LIU Fu Qiang; LI Wen Juan; XIAO Juan; GONG Lei; WANG Mei Jian; LIU Ji Dong; YAN Fei; YANG Jun Peng; WANG Ling Shu; TIAN Meng; MA Ze Qiang; ZHAO Ru Xing; JIANG Ling; CHEN Li; YANG Wei Fang; WANG Ji Xiang; LI Cheng Qiao; WANG Yu Lian; LIU Shu Min; Hu Xiu Ping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off values for identifying metabolic risk factors in middle-aged and elderly subjects in Shandong Province of China. Methods A total of 2 873 men and 5 559 women were included in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was diagnosed according to the definition of Chinese Diabetes Society in 2004. The relation between WC and MetS was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The optimal WC cut-off values were identified using the area under the ROC curve and the different diagnostic criteria for central obesity were compared. Results The WC was the risk factor for MetS independent of BMI, blood glucose, blood lipid, and blood pressure. The optimal WC cut-off value was 83.8 cm and 91.1 cm for identifying MetS in women and men, respectively. Compared with 80 cm and 85 cm for women and men, 85 cm and 90 cm had a higher Youden index for identifying all metabolic risk factors and MetS in women and men. Conclusion The appropriate WC cut-off value is 85 cm and 90 cm for identifying central obesity and MetS in women and men in Shandong Province of China.

  15. Enhanced Narrow-band, Coherent Emission from a Current Source Immersed in Cut-off of a Plasma-like Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Min Sup; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Noble, Adam; Suk, Hyyong; Jaroszynski, Dino

    2016-10-01

    In plasma-like media sharing a similar dispersion relation, there exists a cut-off frequency to make the wave number zero. This particular situation has been understood classically in a way that the radiation impedance becomes infinite, resulting in a total reflection of an incident wave. However, in this framework of understanding the cut-off, a pure current source immersed in the cut-off region leads to infinite radiation power from Ohm's law. This is obviously unphysical and requires a different approach to address the problem. In this presentation, we show that by solving the driven time-dependent Schrödinger equation, the radiation at the cut-off frequency can be selectively enhanced by several times the pure vacuum-emission. Important question here is whether such current sources are available in practical systems. We find that quasi-current sources are actually ubiquitous as long as the conversion efficiency from the current driver to the radiation emission is low. We demonstrate two such cases by PIC simulations; THz radiation from a plasma driven by colliding laser pulses, and THz from two-color lasers enclosed by a tapered waveguide. We also discuss the previous experimental results in terms of this enhanced emission concept.

  16. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy-Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-12-08

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required.

  17. Estimation of Saliva Cotinine Cut-Off Points for Active and Passive Smoking during Pregnancy—Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Kaluzny, Pawel; Ligocka, Danuta; Mikolajewska, Karolina; Shaheen, Seif; Walton, Robert; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    A reliable assessment of smoking status has significant public health implications and is essential for research purposes. The aim of this study was to determine optimal saliva cotinine cut-off values for smoking during pregnancy. The analyses were based on data from 1771 women from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Saliva cotinine concentrations were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI + MS/MS). The saliva cotinine cut-off value for active smoking was established at 10 ng/mL (sensitivity 96%, specificity 95%) and for passive smoking at 1.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 63%, specificity 71%). About 5% of the self-reported non-smoking women were classified as smokers based on the cotinine cut-off value. Significantly more younger, single, and less educated self-reported non-smokers had a cotinine concentration higher than 10 ng/mL compared to those who were older, married, and who had a university degree. Close to 30% of the non-smokers who indicated that smoking was not allowed in their home could be classified as exposed to passive smoking based on the cut-off value. The study suggests that self-reported smoking status is a valid measure of active smoking, whereas in the case of passive smoking, a combination of questionnaire data and biomarker verification may be required. PMID:27941658

  18. Forbush decreases at a middle latitude neutron monitor: relations to geomagnetic activity and to interplanetary plasma structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnahaj, I.; Kudela, K.

    2015-09-01

    Results of statistical study on relations between Forbush decreases (FDs) as observed at a middle-latitude, high mountain cosmic ray (CR) neutron monitor (NM), and the geomagnetic storms (GS), as well as on connections of FDs to interplanetary plasma structures, are presented. Study confirms and extends (until 2014) earlier results based on NM data from different geomagnetic cut-off positions and covering earlier periods, namely that FDs associated with halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and those related with the shocks correspond to higher amplitudes of FDs than those without the mentioned features.

  19. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  20. A new three-component signal model to objectively select power Doppler wall filter cut-off velocity for quantitative microvascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfarnawany, Mai; Lacefield, James C.

    2013-03-01

    The wall-filter selection curve (WFSC) method was developed to automatically select cut-off velocities for high-frequency power Doppler imaging. Selection curves are constructed by plotting color pixel density (CPD) as a function of wall filter cut-off velocity. A new three-component mathematical model is developed to guide the design of an online implementation of the method for in vivo imaging. The model treats Doppler imaging as a signal detection task in which the scanner must distinguish intravascular pixels from perivascular and extravascular pixels and includes a cost function to identify the optimum cut-off velocity that provides accurate vascular quantification and minimizes the effect of color pixel artifacts on visualization of vascular structures. The goodness of fit of the three-component model to flow-phantom data is significantly improved compared to a previous two-component model (F test, p new model indicate that selection curves should be sampled using at least 100 cut-off velocities to ensure robust performance of the automated WFSC method and determine an upper bound on CPD variability that ensures reliable vascular quantification accuracy, defined as CPD within 5% of the reference vascular volume fraction. Results of the simulations also provide evidence that limiting the selection of the cut-off velocity to a binary choice between the middle and right end of the characteristic interval is sufficient to meet the quantification accuracy goal. The model provides an intuitive, empirical description of the relationship between system settings and blood-flow detection performance in power Doppler imaging.

  1. Endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens and further recommendation for interpretative cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Jensen, P; Kietzerow, J; Schrot, M; Wilke, N; Vettorazzi, E; Mueller, A; Iwersen-Bergmann, S

    2015-01-01

    When interpreting gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in post-mortem specimens, a possible increase in GHB concentrations because of post-mortem generation must be considered. In this study, endogenous GHB concentrations in post-mortem biological fluids were investigated. Additionally, we review post-mortem GHB concentrations already published in the literature. Heart and peripheral blood samples, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and vitreous humor were collected from 64 autopsies in subjects where the cause of death excluded GHB exposure. Sample analysis was carried out either on the day of autopsy or later after immediate freezing and storage at -20 °C. GHB concentrations in venous blood samples (n = 61) were GHB concentrations in cases where there were signs of beginning putrefaction at the time of autopsy (n = 9) and cases without obvious signs of putrefaction. In one case with advanced putrefaction, the GHB concentration in venous blood was 32.7 mg/L. In conclusion, for post-mortem venous blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid, an interpretative cut-off of 30 mg/L for GHB concentrations is suggested in cases where GHB analysis is conducted on the day of sample collection at autopsy or if samples have been stored at -20 °C immediately after collection.

  2. Accuracy of a cut-off value based on the third molar index: Validation in an Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Daniel; Karkhanis, Shalmira; Flavel, Ambika; Collini, Federica; DeLuca, Stefano; Cameriere, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    According to Recommendation N°196 of the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the age at which a child reaches adulthood for the purposes of criminal law should be 18 years in all Australian jurisdictions. With specific reference to age at majority, the only tooth with development spanning adolescence (and thus the legally relevant 18 years of age) is the third molar, which limits the number of methods that can be applied from those available in the published literature. The aim of the present study is to test the accuracy of the third molar index (I3M=0.08), based on the correlation between chronological age and normalized measures of the open apices and height of the third mandibular molar, in order to assess the legal adult age of 18 years. Digital orthopantomographs of 143 living Australian subjects (72 boys and 71 girls) are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the sensitivity is 0.90 in boys and 0.90 in girls; associated specificity values are 0.85 and 0.87 respectively. We conclude that the cut-off value of I3M=0.08 is statistically robust and thus valid for forensic application in an Australian population.

  3. On the newtonian limit and cut--off scales of isothermal dark matter halos with cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, R A; Sussman, Roberto A.; Hernandez, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    We examine isothermal dark matter halos in hydrostatic equilibrium with a cosmological constant Lambda =Omega_\\Lambda rho_{crit}c^2, where Omega_\\Lambda=0.7, and rho_{crit} is the present value of the critical density with h=0.65. The Newtonian limit of General Relativity yields equilibrium equations that are different from those arising by merely coupling an ``isothermal sphere'' to the Lambda-field within a Newtonian framework. The conditions for the existence and stability of circular geodesic orbits show the existence of (I) an ``isothermal region'' (0r_1) dominated by the Lambda-field, where the Newtonian potential oscillates and circular orbits exist in disconnected patches of the domain of r; (III) a ``transition region'' (r_20.008 M_\\odot {pc}^3, in agreement with rotation curve studies of dwarf galaxies. Since r_2 marks the largest radius of a stable circular orbit, it provides a ``cut off'' radius. For current estimates of rho_c and velocity dispersion of galactic structures, this is around five tim...

  4. Urinary hepcidin identifies a serum ferritin cut-off for iron supplementation in young athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, P; Spaccamiglio, A; Rizzo, M; Termine, A; Chierto, E; Campostrini, N; Quaranta, F; Di Gianfrancesco, A; Pigozzi, F

    2011-01-01

    The use of iron supplements should be a judicious choice, primarily when considering the possible risks deriving from an unjustified treatment. In trained athletes, levels of ferritin between 15 and 30 microg/L are frequently observed. Within this ferritin range, the usefulness of iron supplementation is still controversial. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the clinical usefulness of hepcidin assessment in the analysis of the iron status of young non-anemic athletes. Fifty young athletes were enrolled. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to their ferritin levels. No statistically significant difference was found regarding hepcidin levels between athletes with ferritin lower than 15 microg/L and those in the 15-30 microg/L range. Similarly, no difference was found between athletes with ferritin higher than 50 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. On the contrary, statistically significant differences were found between athletes with ferritin levels ranging from 15 to 30 microg/L and those in the 30-50 microg/L range. The present study suggests that serum ferritin levels below 30 microg/L indicate an asymptomatic iron deficiency status inhibiting hepcidin expression and that 30 microg/L should be considered the ferritin cut-off when considering an iron supplementation in young athletes.

  5. Kinetic Isotope Effects from QM/MM Subset Hessians: "Cut-Off" Analysis for SN2 Methyl Transfer in Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ian H

    2012-02-14

    Isotopic partition-function ratios and kinetic isotope effects for reaction of S-adenosylmethionine with catecholate in water are evaluated using a subset of 324 atoms within its surrounding aqueous environment at the AM1/TIP3P level. Two alternative methods for treating motion in the six librational degrees of freedom of the subset atoms relative to their environment are compared. A series of successively smaller subset Hessians are generated by cumulative deletion of rows and columns from the initial 972 × 972 Hessian. We find that it is better to treat these librations as vibrations than as translations and rotations and that there is no need to invoke the Teller-Redlich product rule. The validity of "cut-off" procedures for computation of isotope effects with truncated atomic subsets is assessed: to ensure errors in ln(KIE) < 1% (or 2% for the quantum-corrected KIE) for all isotopic substitutions considered, it is necessary to use a less-restrictive procedure than is suggested by the familiar two-bond cutoff rule.

  6. Adherence to a standardized protocol for measuring grip strength and appropriate cut-off values in adults over 65 years with sarcopenia: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Benjamin; Henwood, Tim; Schaap, Laura; Bruyère, Olivier; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Roberts, Helen; Cooper, Cyrus; Cherubini, Antonio; dellʼAquilla, Giuseppina; Maggio, Marcello; Volpato, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to examine the use of grip strength analysis in well and unwell populations in adults 65 years and over as a tool to establish muscle strength in sarcopenia.More specifically, the main review question is:1. What protocol, if any, is most commonly used among older adults with sarcopenia and does this match the standardized protocol suggested in 2011 by Roberts et al.1?Secondary review questions are:2. What are the reported cut-off values being used to determine sarcopenia in older adults, with consideration for ethnic and gender variability?3. Is grip strength, as a tool to measure muscle strength, suitable for people with common comorbidities and geriatric syndromes, such as osteoarthritis, often associated with sarcopenia? Sarcopenia, a commonly used concept in geriatrics and gerontology, is characterized by a loss of muscle mass, muscle strength and/or physical functioning. Prevalence rates vary between 1-39% in community dwelling older populations and 14-33% in long-term care populations. Several epidemiological studies have shown the association of sarcopenia with adverse health outcomes such as falls, disability, hospitalization and mortality. Originally, sarcopenia refers to the loss of muscle mass with aging, which was later complemented with loss of muscle strength and physical functioning.In 2010, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) reported a consensus definition of sarcopenia, which included measurement of low muscle mass and low muscle function (strength or physical performance). This consensus definition can be used to identify sarcopenia patients in clinical practice and to select individuals for clinical trials. Well-designed clinical trials could ultimately lead to effective treatment and prevention strategies for sarcopenia. Since the publication of the consensus report, many studies have adopted this definition, which could potentially lead to better comparison of results between

  7. Satellite Geomagnetism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Earth’s magnetic field from space began more than 50 years ago. A continuous monitoring of the field using low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites, however, started only in 1999, and three satellites have taken highprecision measurements of the geomagnetic field during the past decade...... ability to characterize and understand the many sources that contribute to Earth’s magnetic field. In this review, we summarize investigations of Earth’s interior and environment that have been possible through the analysis of high-precision magnetic field observations taken by LEO satellites........ The unprecedented time-space coverage of their data opened revolutionary new possibilities for monitoring, understanding, and exploring Earth’s magnetic field. In the near future, the three-satellite constellation Swarm will ensure continuity of such measurement and provide enhanced possibilities to improve our...

  8. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%. The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer.

  9. Body composition-derived BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Indians and Creoles of Mauritius: comparison with Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunma, S; Ramuth, H; Miles-Chan, J L; Schutz, Y; Montani, J-P; Joonas, N; Dulloo, A G

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Global estimates of overweight and obesity prevalence are based on the World Health Organisation (WHO) body mass index (BMI) cut-off values of 25 and 30 kg m−2, respectively. To validate these BMI cut-offs for adiposity in the island population of Mauritius, we assessed the relationship between BMI and measured body fat mass in this population according to gender and ethnicity. Methods: In 175 young adult Mauritians (age 20-42 years) belonging to the two main ethnic groups—Indians (South Asian descent) and Creoles (African/Malagasy descent), body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured, total body fat assessed by deuterium oxide (D2O) dilution and trunk (abdominal) fat by segmental bioimpedance analysis. Results: Compared to body fat% predicted from BMI using Caucasian-based equations, body fat% assessed by D2O dilution in Mauritians was higher by 3–5 units in Indian men and women as well as in Creole women, but not in Creole men. This gender-specific ethnic difference in body composition between Indians and Creoles is reflected in their BMI–Fat% relationships, as well as in their WC–Trunk Fat% relationships. Overall, WHO BMI cut-offs of 25 and 30 kg m−2 for overweight and obesity, respectively, seem valid only for Creole men (~24 and 29.5, respectively), but not for Creole women whose BMI cut-offs are 2–4 units lower (21–22 for overweight; 27–28 for obese) nor for Indian men and women whose BMI cut-offs are 3–4 units lower (21–22 for overweight; 26–27 for obese). Conclusions: The use of BMI cut-off points for classifying overweight and obesity need to take into account both ethnicity and gender to avoid gross adiposity status misclassification in this population known to be at high risk for type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This is particularly of importance in obesity prevention strategies both in clinical medicine and public health. PMID:27698347

  10. Practical cut-offs for visual rating scales of medial temporal, frontal and posterior atrophy in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, D; Cavallin, L; Larsson, E-M; Muehlboeck, J-S; Mecocci, P; Vellas, B; Tsolaki, M; Kłoszewska, I; Soininen, H; Lovestone, S; Simmons, A; Wahlund, L-O; Westman, E

    2015-09-01

    Atrophy in the medial temporal lobe, frontal lobe and posterior cortex can be measured with visual rating scales such as the medial temporal atrophy (MTA), global cortical atrophy - frontal subscale (GCA-F) and posterior atrophy (PA) scales, respectively. However, practical cut-offs are urgently needed, especially now that different presentations of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are included in the revised diagnostic criteria. The aim of this study was to generate a list of practical cut-offs for the MTA, GCA-F and PA scales, for both diagnosis of AD and determining prognosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to evaluate the influence of key demographic and clinical factors on these cut-offs. AddNeuroMed and ADNI cohorts were combined giving a total of 1147 participants (322 patients with AD, 480 patients with MCI and 345 control subjects). The MTA, GCA-F and PA scales were applied and a broad range of cut-offs was evaluated. The MTA scale showed better diagnostic and predictive performances than the GCA-F and PA scales. Age, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) ε4 status and age at disease onset influenced all three scales. For the age ranges 45-64, 65-74, 75-84 and 85-94 years, the following cut-offs should be used. MTA: ≥1.5, ≥1.5, ≥2 and ≥2.5; GCA-F, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1; and PA, ≥1, ≥1, ≥1 and ≥1, respectively, with an adjustment for early-onset ApoE ε4 noncarrier AD patients (MTA: ≥2, ≥2, ≥3 and ≥3; and GCA-F: ≥1, ≥1, ≥2 and ≥2, respectively). If successfully validated in clinical settings, the list of practical cut-offs proposed here might be useful in clinical practice. Their use might also (i) promote research on atrophy subtypes, (ii) increase the understanding of different presentations of AD, (iii) improve diagnosis and prognosis and (iv) aid population selection and enrichment for clinical trials. © 2015 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  11. High-speed video of competing and cut-off leaders prior to "upward illumination-type" lightning ground strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Marshall, Thomas; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Karunarathna, Nadeeka; Warner, Tom; Orville, Richard

    2013-04-01

    This study presents evidence to test a hypothesis regarding the physical mechanism resulting in very weak "upward illumination" (UI) type ground strokes occurring within a few milliseconds after a normal return stroke (RS) of a negative lightning flash. As described in previous work [Stolzenburg et al., JGR D15203, 2012], these short duration (strokes form a new ground connection, without apparent connection to the main RS, over their relatively short (return path. From a dataset of 170 video flashes acquired in 2011 (captured at 50000 frames per second), we find 20 good UI examples in 18 flashes at 2.5-32.3 km distance from the camera. Average separation values are 1.26 ms and 1.9 km between the ground connections of the UI and main RS. Based on electric field change data for the flashes, the estimated peak current of the UI strokes averages -5.0 kA, about one-third the average value for the preceding RS. In 15 cases the video data show a distinct stepped leader to the UI which develops concurrently with the stepped leader to the main RS. Estimated altitude of the UI leader tip just before the main RS occurs ranges from 0 to 610 m, and in 7 cases steps are visible in the UI leader after the main RS. In most of the examples the RS and UI appear as separate channels for their entire visible portion, but in 5 cases there is a junction indicating the UI leader is a cut-off branch from the main leader. A generalized schematic of the seven main luminosity stages in a typical UI, along with video examples showing each of these stages and electric field change data, will be presented.

  12. Establishing New Cut-Off Limits for Galactose 1-Phosphate-Uridyltransferase Deficiency for the Dutch Newborn Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, E A; Boelen, A; Bosch, A M; van Veen-Sijne, M; van Rijswijk, C N; Bouva, M J; Fingerhut, R; Schielen, P C J I

    2016-05-21

    Newborn screening for classical galactosemia in the Netherlands is performed by five laboratories and is based on the measurement of galactose 1-phosphate-uridyltransferase (GALT) activity and total galactose (TGAL) in heel prick blood spots. Unexpected problems with the GALT assay posed a challenge to switch to a new assay. The aim of this study was to make an analytical and clinical evaluation of GALT assays to replace the current assay and to establish new cut-off values (COVs).First, the manual assay from PerkinElmer (NG-1100) and the GSP assay were compared by analyzing 626 anonymous heel prick samples in parallel. Secondly, a manual GSP method was evaluated and 2,052 samples were compared with the automated GSP assay. Finally, a clinical evaluation was performed by collecting data from 93 referred newborns.No satisfactory correlation was observed between GALT activity measured with the manual NG-1100 assay and the automated GSP assay. An acceptable correlation was found between the manual and automated GSP assay. Intra- and inter-assay variation of the automated GSP were 1.8-10.0% and 3.1-13.9%, respectively. Evaluation of clinical data demonstrated that adjusting the COVs for GALT to 2.0 U/dl and TGAL to 1,100 μmol/l improved specificity of screening for classical galactosemia.An assay designed for automated processing to measure GALT activity in heel prick samples works equally well when processed manually. We therefore adopted both methods in the Dutch screening laboratories. As a result of this evaluation new COVs for GALT and TGAL have been introduced and are valid from July 2015.

  13. Medium Cut-Off (MCO) Membranes Reduce Inflammation in Chronic Dialysis Patients-A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, Daniel; Schindler, Ralf; Willy, Kevin; Martus, Peter; Pawlak, Michael; Storr, Markus; Hulko, Michael; Boehler, Torsten; Glomb, Marcus A; Liehr, Kristin; Henning, Christian; Templin, Markus; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ulrich, Christof; Werner, Kristin; Fiedler, Roman; Girndt, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    To increase the removal of middle-sized uremic toxins a new membrane with enhanced permeability and selectivity, called Medium Cut-Off membrane (MCO-Ci) has been developed that at the same time ensures the retention of albumin. Because many middle-sized substances may contribute to micro-inflammation we hypothesized that the use of MCO-Ci influences the inflammatory state in hemodialysis patients. The randomized crossover trial in 48 patients compared MCO-Ci dialysis to High-flux dialysis of 4 weeks duration each plus 8 weeks extension phase. Primary endpoint was the gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), secondary endpoints were plasma levels of specified inflammatory mediators and cytokines. After four weeks of MCO-Ci the expression of TNF-α mRNA (Relative quantification (RQ) from 0.92 ± 0.34 to 0.75 ± 0.31, -18.5%, pdialysis but increased after additional 8 weeks of MCO dialysis. Twelve weeks treatment with MCO-Ci was well tolerated regarding the number of (S)AEs. In the extension period levels of CRP, TNF-α-mRNA and IL-6 mRNA remained stable in High-flux as well as in MCO-Ci. MCO-Ci dialyzers modulate inflammation in chronic HD patients to a greater extent compared to High-flux dialyzers. Transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral leukocytes is markedly reduced and removal of soluble mediators is enhanced with MCO dialysis. Serum albumin concentrations stabilize after an initial drop. These results encourage further trials with longer treatment periods and clinical endpoints.

  14. Medium Cut-Off (MCO) Membranes Reduce Inflammation in Chronic Dialysis Patients—A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickler, Daniel; Schindler, Ralf; Willy, Kevin; Martus, Peter; Pawlak, Michael; Storr, Markus; Hulko, Michael; Boehler, Torsten; Glomb, Marcus A.; Liehr, Kristin; Henning, Christian; Templin, Markus; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ulrich, Christof; Werner, Kristin; Fiedler, Roman; Girndt, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background To increase the removal of middle-sized uremic toxins a new membrane with enhanced permeability and selectivity, called Medium Cut-Off membrane (MCO-Ci) has been developed that at the same time ensures the retention of albumin. Because many middle-sized substances may contribute to micro-inflammation we hypothesized that the use of MCO-Ci influences the inflammatory state in hemodialysis patients. Methods The randomized crossover trial in 48 patients compared MCO-Ci dialysis to High-flux dialysis of 4 weeks duration each plus 8 weeks extension phase. Primary endpoint was the gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), secondary endpoints were plasma levels of specified inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Results After four weeks of MCO-Ci the expression of TNF-α mRNA (Relative quantification (RQ) from 0.92 ± 0.34 to 0.75 ± 0.31, -18.5%, pkappa and lambda free light chains, urea and an increase for Lp-PLA2 (PLA2G7) compared to High-flux. Albumin levels dropped significantly after 4 weeks of MCO dialysis but increased after additional 8 weeks of MCO dialysis. Twelve weeks treatment with MCO-Ci was well tolerated regarding the number of (S)AEs. In the extension period levels of CRP, TNF-α-mRNA and IL-6 mRNA remained stable in High-flux as well as in MCO-Ci. Conclusions MCO-Ci dialyzers modulate inflammation in chronic HD patients to a greater extent compared to High-flux dialyzers. Transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral leukocytes is markedly reduced and removal of soluble mediators is enhanced with MCO dialysis. Serum albumin concentrations stabilize after an initial drop. These results encourage further trials with longer treatment periods and clinical endpoints. PMID:28085888

  15. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  16. Criteria to interpret cancer biomarker increments crossing the recommended cut-off compared in a simulation model focusing on false positive signals and tumour detection time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Flemming; Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Pedersen, Merete Frejstrup;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several criteria have been proposed to interpret increments in serological cancer biomarker concentrations starting from low baseline concentrations crossing the cut-off. None of the criteria have been compared for their ability to signal tumour growth when ≤2% false positive results...... are accepted. METHODS: The cancer biomarker Tissue Polypeptide Antigen was used as an example. Seven criteria to interpret increments in concentrations were investigated by computer simulations. Firstly, for each criterion, we identified a baseline concentration stratified for three levels of biological...... that different types of criteria should be used within different intervals of below cut-off level concentrations if the rate of false positive signals of marker increments should be kept ≤2%....

  17. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung KS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Soo Chung,1,2 Ji Ye Jung,1,2 Moo Suk Park,1,2 Young Sam Kim,1,2 Se Kyu Kim,1,2 Joon Chang,1,2 Joo Han Song1,2 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6 has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction.Materials and methods: We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal.Results: Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women, 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990. This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off

  18. A cautionary note about the cross-national and clinical validity of cut-off points for the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufeli, W B; Van Dierendonck, D

    1995-06-01

    In the present study, burnout scores of three samples, as measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, were compared: (1) the normative American sample from the test-manual (N = 10,067), (2) the normative Dutch sample (N = 3,892), and (3) a Dutch outpatient sample (N = 142). Generally, the highest burnout scores were found for the outpatient sample, followed by the American and Dutch normative samples, respectively. Slightly different patterns were noted for each of the three components. Probably sampling bias, i.e., the healthy worker effect, or cultural value patterns, i.e., femininity versus masculinity, might be responsible for the results. It is concluded that extreme caution is required when cut-off points are used to classify individuals by burnout scores; only nation-specific and clinically derived cut-off points should be employed.

  19. Optimal Body Mass Index Cut-offs for Identification of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease at High Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Po-Fun; Tai, Bee-Choo; Loo, Germaine; Koo, Chieh-Yang; Ong, Thun-How; Yeo, Tiong-Cheng; Lee, Chi-Hang

    2016-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) in Chinese patients hospitalised with coronary artery disease, and to determine the optimal BMI cut-off for prediction of OSA. Consecutive Chinese patients who were hospitalised with symptomatic coronary artery disease were recruited to undergo an in-hospital sleep study. A total of 587 patients were recruited. Using cut-off for Asians, 81.2% of the cohort was overweight (BMI ≥23kg/m(2)) and 31.6% was obese (≥27kg/m(2)). A total of 59.5% was diagnosed with OSA, defined as apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥15. Body mass index, hypertension and smoking were predictors of OSA. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BMI remains an independent predictor of OSA (odds ratio: 1.11 [95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 1.17], poptimal BMI cut-offs to screen for OSA were 27.3kg/m(2), 23.0-23.9kg/m(2), and 20kg/m(2) for patients with neither, either, or both predictors (smoking and hypertension) respectively. The area under the curve for the adjusted and unadjusted models were similar (0.6013 vs 0.6262, p=0.118). Body mass index represents a convenient and readily available tool for bedside identification of patients at high risk of OSA. Body mass index cut-offs to predict risks of OSA in Chinese patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease are defined in this study. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  1. Development and validation of optimal cut-off value in inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference for prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Akira; Kusunose, Kenya; Kageyama, Norihito; Sumitomo, Masayuki; Abe, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Hiroyuki; Sata, Masataka

    2017-08-19

    An inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the optimal cut-off value of IAD as a predictor of major adverse cardiac events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. From 2009 to 2014, 1076 patients who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor were included in the analysis. We defined 700 randomly selected patients as a development cohort to confirm that IAD was the predictor of cardiovascular events and to determine optimal cut-off value of IAD. Next, we validated outcomes in the remaining 376 patients as a validation cohort. The blood pressure (BP) of both arms measurements were done simultaneously using the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) form of automatic device. The primary endpoint was the cardiovascular event and secondary endpoint was the all-cause mortality. During a median period of 2.8 years, 143 patients reached the primary endpoint in the development cohort. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, IAD was the strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.05, p=0.005). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that 5mmHg was the optimal cut-off point of IAD to predict cardiovascular events (p<0.001). In the validation cohort, the presence of a large IAD (IAD ≥5mmHg) was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (p=0.021). IAD is significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. The optimal cut-off value of IAD is 5mmHg. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the visual analogue scale for pain in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R; Balk, Gerlof A; Stewart, Roy E

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to find the cut-off points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) to distinguish among mild, moderate, and severe pain, in relation to the following: pain-related interference with functioning; verbal description of the VAS scores; and latent class analysis for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A total of 456 patients were included. Pain was assessed using the VAS and verbal rating scale; functioning was assessed using the domains of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Eight cut-off point schemes were tested using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), ordinal logistic regression, and latent class analysis. The study results showed that VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 corresponded to mild interference with functioning, whereas 3.5 to 6.4 implied moderate interference, and ⩾ 6.5 implied severe interference. VAS scores ⩽ 3.4 were best described for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain as mild pain, 3.5 to 7.4 as moderate pain, and ⩾ 7.5 as severe pain. Latent class analysis found that a 3-class solution fitted best, resulting in the classes 0.1 to 3.8, 3.9 to 5.7, and 5.8 to 10 cm. Findings from our study agree with those of some other studies, although many other studies found different optimal cut-off point schemes. As there appear to be no universally accepted cut-off points, and in view of the low-to-moderate associations between VAS scores and functioning and between VAS and verbal rating scale scores, the correct classification of VAS scores as mild, moderate. or severe in clinical practice seems doubtful.

  3. Determining cut-off values for neck circumference as a measure of the metabolic syndrome amongst a South African cohort: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Hoebel, Svelka; Malan, Leone; Van Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to determine receiver operating characteristic (ROC) neck circumference (NC) cut offs best associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a South African cohort. We included 409 urban Africans and Caucasians and stratified them into gender and age groups (25–45 years; 45–65 years). Measurements included anthropometric, fasting overnight urine and biological markers for the MetS (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein). ROC ana...

  4. Prediction of subacute infarct lesion volumes by processing apparent diffusion coefficient maps based on apparent diffusion coefficient cut-off values in patients with acute stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of prediction of subacute infarct lesion volumes by processing ADC maps based on ADC cut-off values in patients with acute stroke.Methods MRI was performed in 20 patients with clinically diagnosed acute infarct less than 6 h after stroke onset.The MRI included a DWI and conventional MRI.The follow-up MR examinations of all the patients

  5. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Mario Ferney López-Cifuentes; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Emilio González-Jiménez; Diana Paola Córdoba-Rodríguez; Andrés Vivas; Hector Reynaldo Triana-Reina; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional stud...

  6. Triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses percentiles and cut-offs for overweight and obesity in a population-based sample of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Cifuentes, Mario Ferney

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to establish a Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS tables for tríceps, subscapular and sum tríceps+subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic analysis based in a populationbased sample of schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia and to compare them with international studies. METHODS: A total of 9 618 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girl...

  7. Geomagnetic Principal Magnetic Storms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The abbreviations used for observatory names are as follows: GEOMAGNETIC OBSERVATORIES Code Station Geomagnetic Latitude ABG Alibag AMS Martin de Vivie. These data...

  8. Improving Screening Cut-Off Scores for DSM-5 Adolescent Anxiety Disorder Symptom Dimensions with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Hale III

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently most adolescent anxiety disorder screening instruments make their determination of running a high risk for an anxiety disorder on the basis of a cut-off score measured by a single screening which can lead to false positives. Therefore, the goal of this study is to examine whether a repeated administration of the SCARED screening instrument for DSM-5 anxiety disorder symptoms could help in the detection of true positives while also avoiding false positives. Participants were 923 early adolescents from the general community. The adolescents’ ages at the first annual screening ranged from 10 to 15 with an average of 12.5 years. In a prospective five-year longitudinal design, the adolescents completed the SCARED screening instrument for anxiety disorder symptoms on a yearly basis. To detect true positives and avoid false positives, the data were analyzed with Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC cut-off score analyses. ROC cut-off score analyses revealed that the sensitivity and specificity of high risk were greatly improved for repeated screenings above those of a single screening. The findings of this study demonstrate that a screening instrument (such as the SCARED should be administered not just once but several times in order to better determine true positives and avoid false positives.

  9. Advances in the clinical application of high cut-off hemodialysis%高截留量血液透析临床应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬步云

    2012-01-01

    高截留量膜最初用于清除严重脓毒症的炎症介质,近年来被用于治疗骨髓瘤管型肾病、横纹肌溶解等疾病,并有望用于终末期肾病患者大分子毒素的清除.本文就高截留量膜的定义、理论基础、高截留量血液透析相关技术及临床应用进展作一简述.%Initially designed to remove the inflamamatory mediators in the patients with severe sepsis,high cut-off membranes have being applicated in the treatment of myeloma kidney and rhabdomyolysis. Furthermore, high cut-off membranes have a potential for the removal of uremic toxins with large molecules in the patients with .end-stage renal disease. This review is to summarize the definition, rational, techniques and advancement in the clinical application of high cut-off membranes.

  10. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  11. Cut-off value for absolute lymphocytes as an alternative for the immunophenotypic analysis of CD3+ T cells in the monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy with thymoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislaine Furlanetto

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Immunosuppression of T lymphocytes is required for preventing acute rejection after transplantation and for the treatment of chronic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The laboratory monitoring for this therapy is the measurement of T cells by immunophenotyping, aiming the target value of less than 20 cells per µL. Objective: To establish a cut-off point for the total number of lymphocytes in the automated blood cell count that reflects less than twenty T cells µL by immunophenotyping. Methods: We studied and evaluated 242 kidney transplant patients that had results of automated blood cell count and quantification of T cells by immunophenotyping technique. The patients were divided into two groups, depending on the T lymphocyte immunophenotyping rates established by lower and higher than 20 cells per µL. After, we evaluated the cut-off point for lymphocytes in the blood cell count with a specificity of 100% to exclude patients with high levels of T lymphocytes. Results: We found that the cut-off point of 70 lymphocytes per µL obtained by automated blood cell count showed 100% of specificity to exclude patients with T-cell counts higher than 20 cells per µL by immunophenotyping. Conclusion: The results found in this study may be helpful to monitor the immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplant patients in places where a flow cytometer is not available, or when this equipment is not present in the full routine.

  12. Further performance evaluation of 5.3 μm cut-off Hawaii-2RG detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Derek; Beckmann, Udo; Alvarez, Domingo; Finger, Gert; Geimer, Christoph; Heininger, Matthias; Mehrgan, Leander; Tulloch, Simon

    2016-07-01

    ESO has now delivered or tested in-house, four new 5.3 μm cut-off H2RG detectors, for various projects, such as MATISSE for the VLTI and the upgrade project for CRIRES, the cryogenic high-resolution infrared echelle spectrograph for the VLT. The specified instruments have required the implementation of some of the more unusual read out options for these detectors, which may have already been used by other groups, for example, the line-reset-read and line-read-reset modes rather than the standard global reset mode. The detectors are also offered with both output speed options, that is, the standard slow, low noise readout and the faster, higher noise readout, where > 10 frames/s are possible. In the process of building these detector systems and implementing these new options we have delved deeper into some of the lesser known features of these detectors and tried to characterize them more fully. It is important that these characteristics are well understood before delivery of the next generation of detectors for the ELTs where high speed and windowing options are required. We obtain very good performance at 2 Mpixel/s pixel speeds with less than 40 e- rms read noise, in all other aspects such as linearity, noise versus number of non-destructive reads and cross talk then the performance of the outputs is the same as slow speed operation. However, the high speed output stages are quite complex to operate, they need to be very well tuned and are prone to oscillation, if not set correctly. We will report on the best bias options to optimize their performance. Some stability issues are also seen with the slow outputs and this is also reported. Likewise we have observed differences between global reset and line reset for the detectors, manifested in a significant increase in detector full well for the line reset option, this also will be reported on. We have also determined that there may be signal induced by the detector readout clocking process for certain detector

  13. Prevalence of body mass index and body weight cut-off points for in vitro fertilization treatment at U.S. clinics and current clinic weight loss strategy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Grant, Breănna L

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how many clinics providing in vitro fertilization (IVF) in the United States require a body mass index (BMI) or body weight cut-off point to determine treatment eligibility. US clinics listed as members on the Society of Assisted Reproduction website in late 2013 were contacted by phone between January and March 2014. Clinic personnel were asked if a BMI or body weight cut-off points was used to determine IVF treatment eligibility and what strategies they recommended for their patients to achieve a healthy body weight. Of the 379 clinics contacted, 347 responded (92% response rate) and 35% (n = 120) reported using a BMI or body weight cut-off points to determine eligibility for IVF treatment. Mean BMI (± SD) cut-off points was 38.4 ± 5.2 kg/m(2) and mean body weight (± SD) cut-off points was 130.2 ± 14.8 kg. Of the clinics using a set cut-off points, half (46%) provided no weight loss recommendations for patients. A sizable portion of US IVF clinics report a required or preferred BMI or body weight cut-off points for treatment. Despite this, most clinics did not provide a recommended program or approach for weight loss with very few clinics reporting an in-house program.

  14. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, W. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Essen, Clinic of Angiology, Essen (Germany); Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Toussaint, T.L. [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Hoepffner, N. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Internal Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Holzer, K. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Frankfurt (Germany); Kluge, A. [Kerckhoff Heart Center, Department of Radiology, Bad Nauheim (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps <10 mm, 13 polyps {>=}10 mm, 24 carcinomas) were determined by region-of-interest (ROI) measurements in 38 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CTC. In addition, the height (H) of the colonic lesions was measured in CT. CT values were also measured in the aorta (A), superior mesenteric vein (V) and colonic wall. The contrast phase was defined by xA + (1 - x)V using x as a weighting factor for describing the different contrast phases ranging from the pure arterial phase (x=1) over the intermediate phases (x=0.9-0.1) to the pure venous phase (x=0). The CT values of the lesions were correlated with their height (H), the different phases (xA + (1 - x)V) and the ratio [xA + (1 - x)V]/H. The CT cut-off was linearly adjusted to the imaged contrast phase and height of the lesion by the line y = m[xA + (1 - x)V]/H + y{sub 0}. The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion {proportional_to}[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y{sub 0} by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps {>=}10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and

  15. Determining a Cut-Off Point for Scores of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form: Secondary Data Analysis of an Intervention Study in Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nanishi

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding self-efficacy can be measured with the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF. Mothers with low BSES-SF scores stop exclusive breastfeeding prematurely, but specific interventions can prevent that undesirable outcome. Because those interventions can be expensive, often one must decide which mothers will receive them. For that purpose, a cut-off BSES-SF score would be useful, but none is available. Therefore, we aimed to assess the overall accuracy of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, and to choose an appropriate cut-off score for making that prediction.This is a secondary data analysis of an intervention study. Data from 378 women in two non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals were analyzed. Participants were women in their third trimester who were 16 years of age or older, were able to read and write Japanese, were expected to have a singleton birth, and had completed the BSES-SF before discharge. BSES-SF scores were measured before discharge. Breastfeeding status was assessed 4 weeks and 12 weeks postpartum. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves were used to assess the predictive ability of the BSES-SF and to inform the choice of a cut-off point.For both of the ROC curves (4 and 12 weeks postpartum the area under the curve was 0.74. To obtain a high sensitivity, a cut-off score of 50 was chosen. With that cut-off score the sensitivity was 79% and the specificity was 52% 4 weeks postpartum, and they were 77% and 52%, respectively, 12 weeks postpartum.In conclusion, the BSES-SF has moderate overall accuracy to distinguish women who will not practice exclusive breastfeeding after discharge from those who will. At non-Baby-Friendly hospitals in Japan, interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding might be considered for new mothers who have BSES-SF scores that are less than or equal to 50.

  16. Prognostic impact of proliferation for resected early stage 'pure' invasive lobular breast cancer: Cut-off analysis of Ki67 according to histology and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Fabi, Alessandra; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Kadrija, Dzenete; Griguolo, Gaia; Pilotto, Sara; Guarneri, Valentina; Zampiva, Ilaria; Brunelli, Matteo; Orvieto, Enrico; Nortilli, Rolando; Fiorio, Elena; Parolin, Veronica; Manfrin, Erminia; Caliò, Anna; Nisticò, Cecilia; Pellini, Francesca; Scarpa, Aldo; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Conte, Pierfranco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this analysis was to investigate and validate the prognostic potential of Ki67 in a multi-center series of patients affected by early stage 'pure' invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Clinical-pathological data of patients affected by ILC were correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival (OS/DFS); data from a parallel invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients' cohort were gathered as well. The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to Ki67 continuous variable to estimate the appropriate cut-off. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed as well. Data from overall 1097 (457/222 ILC: training/validation set; 418 IDC) patients were gathered. The identified optimal Ki67 cut-offs were 4% and 14% for DFS in ILC and IDC cohort, respectively. In ILC patients, the Ki67 cut-off was an independent OS predictor. Ten-years OS and DFS were 89.9% and 77.2% (p = 0.007) and 79.4% and 69.2% (p = 0.03) for patients with Ki67 ≤ 4% and >4%, respectively. In IDC patients, 10-years OS was 93.8% and 71.7%, p = 0.02, DFS was 84.0% and 52.6%, p = 0.0003, for patients with Ki67 ≤ 14% and >14%, respectively. In the validation set, the optimal Ki67 OS cut-off was 5%. The STEPP analysis showed that in the presence of low Ki67 values, IDC patients have a better DFS than ILC patients, while with the increase of values the prognosis tends to overlap. Despite the retrospective design of the study, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 (as well as its optimal cut-off) seems to significantly differ according to breast cancer histology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal cut-off of obesity indices to predict cardiovascular disease risk factors and metabolic syndrome among adults in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuchun; Tao, Yuhui; Yang, Sen; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Jin, Lina

    2016-10-13

    CVD risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and MetS are closely related to obesity. The selection of an optimal cut-off for various obesity indices is particularly important to predict CVD risk factors and MetS. Sixteen thousand seven hundred sixty-six participants aged 18-79 were recruited in Jilin Province in 2012. Five obesity indices, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR and BAI were investigated. ROC analyses were used to evaluate the predictive ability and determine the optimal cut-off values of the obesity indices for CVD risk factors and MetS. BMI had the highest adjusted ORs, and the adjusted ORs for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and MetS were 1.19 (95 % CI, 1.17 to 1.20), 1.20 (95 % CI, 1.19 to 1.22), 1.12 (95 % CI, 1.10 to 1.13), and 1.40 (95 % CI, 1.38 to 1.41), respectively. However, BMI did not always have the largest adjusted AUROC. In general, the young age group (18 ~ 44) had higher ORs and AUROCs for CVD risk factors and MetS than those of the other age groups. In addition, the optimal cut-off values for WC and WHR in males were relatively higher than those in females, whereas the BAI in males was comparatively lower than that in females. The appropriate obesity index, with the corresponding optimal cut-off values, should be selected in different research studies and populations. Generally, the obesity indices and their optimal cut-off values are: BMI (24 kg/m(2)), WC (male: 85 cm; female: 80 cm), WHR (male: 0.88; female: 0.85), WHtR (0.50), and BAI (male: 25 cm; female: 30 cm). Moreover, WC is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in males, whereas, WHtR is superior to other obesity indices in predicting CVD risk factors and MetS in females.

  18. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  19. Using a 3% Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Cut-off Value Increases Sensitivity of Detection of Hepatic Steatosis, Based on Results from Histopathology Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Patrik; Forsgren, Mikael F; Ignatova, Simone; Dahlström, Nils; Cedersund, Gunnar; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Norén, Bengt; Ekstedt, Mattias; Lundberg, Peter; Kechagias, Stergios

    2017-03-09

    It is possible to estimate hepatic triglyceride content by calculating the proton density fat fraction (PDFF), using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS), instead of collecting and analyzing liver biopsies to detect steatosis. However, the current PDFF cut-off value (5%) used to define steatosis by magnetic resonance was derived from studies that did not use histopathology as the reference standard. We performed a prospective study to determine the accuracy of (1)H-MRS PDFF in measurement of steatosis using histopathology analysis as the standard. We collected clinical, serologic, (1)H-MRS PDFF, and liver biopsy data from 94 adult patients with increased levels of liver enzymes (6 months or more) referred to the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Linköping University Hospital in Sweden from 2007 through 2014. Steatosis was graded using the conventional histopathology method and fat content was quantified in biopsy samples using stereological point counts (SPCs). We correlated (1)H-MRS PDFF findings with SPCs (r = 0.92; P <.001). (1)H-MRS PDFF results correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.87; P <.001), and SPCs correlated with histopathology results (ρ = 0.88; P <.001). All 25 subjects with PDFF values of 5.0% or more had steatosis based on histopathology findings (100% specificity for PDFF). However, of 69 subjects with PDFF values below 5.0% (negative result), 22 were determined to have steatosis based on histopathology findings (53% sensitivity for PDFF). Reducing the PDFF cut-off value to 3.0% identified patients with steatosis with 100% specificity and 79% sensitivity; a PDFF cut-off value of 2.0% identified patients with steatosis with 94% specificity and 87% sensitivity. These findings might be used to improve non-invasive detection of steatosis.

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of Transient Elastography for Detecting Liver Fibrosis After Liver Trannsplantation: A Specific Cut-Off Value Is Really Needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Guardia, B; Evangelista, A S; Felga, G E; Marins, L V; Salvalaggio, P R; Almeida, M D

    2017-01-01

    Liver transplant recipients often perform liver biopsy (LB), specially in the context of potentially recurring diseases, such as hepatitis C infection. However, the LB has risks of complications, despite being the gold standard. Transient elastography (TE) is a noninvasive method comparable to the LB to evaluate liver fibrosis in various settings, but its accuracy among transplant recipients is not fully understood. To determine the accuracy of TE in liver transplant recipients compared with LB to successfully predict liver fibrosis. Patients who underwent liver transplantation at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from 2010 to 2012 and presented with LB indication were also subjected to TE at the time of LB. The medium value of ten successful measurements was kept as a representative of the liver stiffness. The definition of cut-off points was made to ensure specificity of ≥90 % for all fibrosis stages (F0-F4). LB was performed in 267 patients. TE was not analyzed in only 8 (3 %) due to an elevated body mass index. The optimal liver stiffness cut-off value and diagnostic performance were 8.1 kPa for F ≥ 1, 12.3 kPa for F ≥ 2, 15.1 for F ≥ 3, and 16.7 for F = 4 for all patients and were 8.1 kPa for F ≥ 1, 12.3 kPa for F ≥ 2, 16.5 for F ≥ 3, and 17.6 for F = 4 for patients with hepatitis C. TE demonstrated good performance in defining cut-off points for fibrosis on liver histology observed in transplant recipients. The TE can be considered an alternative to LB in post-liver transplantation.

  1. Raising cut-off value of prostate specific antigen (PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India to reduce unnecessary biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Agnihotri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The characteristics of prostate specific antigen (PSA for trans-rectal ultrasonography guided prostate biopsy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS are not well defined. This study was carried out to analyse the threshold of PSA for biopsy in symptomatic men in India. Methods: From January 2000 to June 2011, consecutive patients who had digital rectal examination (DRE and PSA testing done for LUTS were included in this study. PSA was done with ELISA technique. Patients with acute or chronic prostatitis, prostatic abscess, history of surgery on prostate within the previous three months and patients on 5α-reductase inhibitors or on urethral catheter were excluded. Results: Of the 4702 patients evaluated, 70.9 per cent had PSA of less than 4 ng/ml and 29.1 per cent had PSA of more than 4 ng/ml. Of these, 875 men with a mean age of 65.72±7.4 (range 50-75 yr had trans rectal ultrasonography (TRUS guided biopsy. Twenty five men had biopsy at PSA level of 20 ng/ml. Positive predictive value of PSA in ranges of 4.1-10, 10.1-20, >20 ng/ml was 15.2, 24 and 62.6 per cent, respectively with negative DRE. PSA cut-off to do biopsy was derived by ROC curve as 5.82 ng/ml for all the men. When the subjects were further stratified on the basis of DRE findings, a cut-off of 5.4 ng/ml was derived in men with normal DRE. Interpretation & conclusions: A cut-off for biopsy in symptomatic men with negative DRE could safely be raised to 5.4 ng/ml, which could avoid subjecting 10 per cent of men to undergo unnecessary biopsy.

  2. Effectiveness of Different Waist Circumference Cut-off Values in Predicting Metabolic Syndrome Prevalence and Risk Factors in Adults in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hai Cheng; TIAN Hao Ming; JI Qiu He; ZHU Da Long; CHEN Li; GUO Xiao Hui; ZHAO Zhi Gang; Li Qiang; ZHOU Zhi Guang; GE Jia Pu; SHAN Guang Liang; LAI Ya Xin; SHAN Zhong Yan; JIA Wei Ping; YANG Wen Ying; LU Ju Ming; WENG Jian Ping; JI Li Nong; LIU Jie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of waist circumference cut-off values in predicting the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and risk factors in adults in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was condcuted in 14 provinces (autonomous region, municipality) in China. A total of 47 325 adults aged ≥20 years were selected by multistage stratified sampling, and questionnaire survey and physical and clinical examination were conducted among them. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria and modified IDF criteria. Results The age-standardized prevalence of MetS was 24.2%(22.1%in men and 25.8%in women) and 19.5% (22.1% in men and 18.0% in women) according to the IDF criteria and modified IDF criteria respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of pre-MetS was 8.1%(8.6%in men and 7.8%in women) according to the modified IDF criteria. The prevalence of MetS was higher in urban residents than rural residents and in northern China residents than in southern China residents. The prevalence of central obesity was about 30% in both men and women according to the ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity (90 cm for men and 85 cm for women). Multivariate regression analysis revealed no significant difference in risk factors between the two MetS definitions. Conclusion Using both the modified IDF criteria and ethnicity-specific cut-off values of waist circumference can provide more useful information about the prevalence of MetS in China.

  3. Determination of sensitivity, specificity and cut off point of visual- Motor Bender Gestalt Test in the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tayebeh Rezaie nasab

    2013-02-01

    Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.

  4. Optimal cut-off criteria for duplex ultrasound for the diagnosis of restenosis in stented carotid arteries: Review and protocol for a diagnostic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Martin M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotid angioplasty with stenting is a relatively new, increasingly used, less-invasive treatment for the treatment of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. It is being evaluated in ongoing and nearly finished randomized trials. An important factor in the evaluation of stents is the occurrence of in-stent restenosis. An un-stented carotid artery is likely to have a more elastic vessel wall than a stented one, even if stenosis is present. Therefore, duplex ultrasound cut-off criteria for the degrees of an in-stent stenosis, based on blood velocity parameters, are probably different from the established cut-offs used for un-stented arteries. Routine criteria can not be applied to stented arteries but new criteria need to be established for this particular purpose. Methods/Design Current literature was systematically reviewed. From the selected studies, the following data were extracted: publication year, population size, whether the study was prospective, duplex ultrasound cut-off criteria reported, which reference test was used, and if there was an indication for selection bias and for verification bias in particular. Previous studies often were retrospective, or the reference test (DSA or CTA was carried out only when a patient was suspected of having restenosis at DUS, which may result in verification bias. Results In general, the velocity cut-off values for stenosis measurements in stented arteries were higher than those reported for unstented arteries. Previous studies often were retrospective, or the reference test (DSA or CTA was carried out only when a patient was suspected of having restenosis at DUS, which may result in verification bias. Discussion To address the deficiencies of the existing studies, we propose a prospective cohort study nested within the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS, an international multi-centre trial in which over 1,700 patients have been randomised between stenting and CEA. In this

  5. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  6. Cut-off effect in antimicrobial activity and in membrane perturbation efficiency of the homologous series of N,N-dimethylalkylamine oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devínsky, F; Kopecka-Leitmanová, A; Sersen, F; Balgavý, P

    1990-11-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the homologous series of N,N-dimethylalkylamine oxides (DMAO) was found to be quasi parabolically dependent on alkyl chain length with a maximum at n approximately 15 and n approximately 12 for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The physiochemical properties of DMAOs as characterized by critical micelle concentrations, retention times of 1-alkenes generated from DMAOs by gas-liquid chromatography, Rm values in reversed phase chromatography, and bacterial lipid/aqueous phase partition coefficients were found to correlate with the alkyl chain length. The effect of DMAOs on the structure of the model membrane prepared from isolated lipids from Escherichia coli as detected by a spin probe method was maximal for the alkyl chain length n approximately 10-12 coinciding with the maximum in the antimicrobial activity observed with Escherichia coli. It is suggested that the cut-off in the DMAO antimicrobial activity is caused by the cut-off in the DMAO perturbing effect on the membrane structure.

  7. Power-law and Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy Models in Brans-Dicke Cosmology with Granda-Oliveros Cut-Off

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqua, Antonio; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the cosmological implications of the Power Law Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (PLECHDE) and the Logarithmic Entropy Corrected Holographic Dark Energy (LECHDE) models in the context of Brans-Dicke (BD) cosmology for both non-interacting and interacting DE and Dark Matter (DM) are studied. As the system infrared cut-off, we choose the recently proposed Granda-Oliveros cut-off, which contains a term proportional to the first time derivative of the Hubble parameter and one term proportional to $H^2$, i.e. the Hubble parameter squared. We obtain the expressions of three quantities, i.e. the Equation of State (EoS) parameter $\\omega_D$, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the evolutionary form of the energy density parameter $\\Omega'_D$ of the PLECHDE and LECHDE models in a non-flat Universe for non-interacting and interacting DE and DM as well. Moreover, we investigate the limiting cases corresponding to: a) absence of entropy corrections; b) Einstein's gravity; and c) concomitantly absenc...

  8. Italians do it worse. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) optimal cut-off scores for people with probable Alzheimer's disease and with probable cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Andrea; Spano, Giuseppina; Caffò, Alessandro O; Lopez, Antonella; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Saracino, Giuseppe; Pinto, Katia; Hoogeveen, Frans; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2017-02-02

    Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a test providing a brief screening for people with cognitive impairment due to aging or neurodegenerative syndromes. In Italy, as in the rest of the world, several validation studies of MoCA have been carried out. This study compared, for the first time in Italy, a sample of people with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with healthy counterparts. The study also compared two community-dwelling groups of aged participants with and without probable cognitive impairment, as discriminated by two cut-off points of adjusted MMSE score. All the comparisons were carried out according to ROC statistics. Optimal cutoff for a diagnosis of probable AD was a MoCA score ≤14. Optimal cutoff for the discrimination of probable cognitive impairment was a MoCA score ≤17 (associated to MMSE cutoff of 23.8). Results confirm the substantial discrepancy in cut-off points existing between Italian and other international validation studies, showing that Italian performance on MoCA seems to be globally lower than that in other Countries. Characteristics of population might explain these results.

  9. Determination of the cut-off score of an endoscopic scoring method to predict whether elderly patients with dysphagia can eat pureed diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Torao Sakamoto; Akira Horiuchi; Toshiyuki Makino; Masashi Kajiyama; Naoki Tanaka; Masamitsu Hyodo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To identify the cut-off value for predicting the ability of elderly patients with dysphagia to swallow pureed diets using a new endoscopy scoring method. METHODS: Endoscopic swallowing evaluation of pureed diets were done in patients ≥ 65 years with dysphagia. The Hyodo-Komagane score for endoscopic swallowing evaluation is expressed as the sum(0-12) of four degrees(0-3) with four parameters:(1) salivary pooling in the vallecula and piriform sinuses;(2) the response of glottal closure reflex induced by touching the epiglottis with the endoscope;(3) the location of the bolus at the time of swallow onset assessed by "white-out" following swallowing of test jelly; and(4) pharyngeal clearance after swallowing of test jelly. We used receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve analysis to retrospectively analyze the association between the total score and successful oral intake of pureed diets. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-eight patients were enrolled including 113 men(63%), mean age 83 years(range, 66-98). One hundred and twenty-six patients(71%) were able to eat pureed diets during the observation period(mean ± SD, 19 ± 14 d). In ROC analysis, the cut-off value of the score for eating the pureed diets was 7(sensitivity = 0.98; specificity = 0.91).CONCLUSION: The Hyodo-Komagane endoscopic score is useful to predict the ability to eat pureed diets in elderly patients with dysphagia.

  10. Rocking at 81 and Rolling at 34: ROC Cut-Off Scores for the Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Ivana B.; Vukelić, Milica; Čizmić, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are still searching for the ways to identify different categories of employees according to their exposure to negative acts and psychological experience of workplace bullying. We followed Notelaers and Einarsen’s application of the ROC analysis to determine the NAQ-R cut-off scores applying a “lower” and “higher” threshold. The main goal of this research was to develop and test different gold standards of personal and organizational relevance in determining the NAQ-R cut-off scores in a specific cultural and economic context of Serbia. Apart from combining self-labeling as a victim with self-perceived health, the objectives were to test the gold standards developed as a combination of self-labeling with life satisfaction, self-labeling with intention to leave and a complex gold standard based on self-labeling, self-perceived health, life satisfaction and intention to leave taken together. The ROC analysis on Serbian workforce data supports applying of different gold standards. For identifying employees in a preliminary stage of bullying, the most applicable was the gold standard based on self-labeling and intention to leave (score 34 and higher). The most accurate identification of victims could be based on the most complex gold standard (score 81 and higher). This research encourages further investigation of gold standards in different cultures. PMID:28119652

  11. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A W; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-10-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the effects of hydrocortisone on haemodynamics in children with low cardiac output syndrome depend on the presence of (relative) adrenal insufficiency. A retrospective study was done on paediatric patients who received hydrocortisone when diagnosed with resistant low cardiac output syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery in the period from 1 November 2005 to 31 December 2008. We studied the difference in effects of treatment with hydrocortisone administration between patients with adrenal insufficiency defined as an exploratory cut-off value of total cortisol of cortisol of ≥ 100 nmol/l. A total of 62 of patients were enrolled, meeting the inclusion criteria for low cardiac output syndrome. Thirty-two patients were assigned to Group 1 (cortisol concentration and those with normal baseline cortisol levels. A cortisol value using an exploratory cut-off value of 100 nmol/l for adrenal insufficiency should not be used as a criterion to treat these patients with hydrocortisone.

  12. One strategy to enhance electrochemical properties of Ni-based cathode materials under high cut-off voltage for Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Longwei; Jiang, Feng; Cao, Yanbing; Hu, Guorong; Du, Ke; Peng, Zhongdong

    2016-10-01

    Well-distributed, nano-sized and amorphous or crystalized NaTi2(PO4)3 (NTP) coating layer with high ionic conductivity is successfully introduced onto the surface of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (LNCM) particles by a simple and effective mechanical activation method followed by adjusting the reheating temperature appropriately. The promoting influence of NTP coating on the structure stability, cycle life and high rate capability under elevated cut-off voltage has been investigated in-depth. Particularly for the crystalized NTP-coated LNCM, the main reason for the enhanced electrochemical performance can be attributed to the NTP layer with rhombohedral structure providing convenient and low activation barrier diffusion pathways for Li+ ions to insert/extract the interface of electrode/electrolyte. Besides, the NTP-coated layer with stable structure can effectively inhibit the surface side reaction during the long charge/discharge process under high cut-off voltage, which will reduce the harmful insulative by-products. It's worth mentioning that the cyclic stability of crystalized NTP-coated LNCM between 3.0 and 4.6 V is also improved significantly even under the rigorous test environment.

  13. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-09-24

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  15. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation, M (median, and S (coefficient of variation tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years. Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001. The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  16. [Logistic regression analysis of the risk factors for difficult airway and the cut-off value of height-to-thyromental distance ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hao; Chen, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To analyze the risk factors for difficult airway in laryngoscopy and mask ventilation. A total of 300 patients receiving general anesthesia with tracheal intubation were examined preoperatively for height, thyromental and sternomental distance (TMD), range of neck movement, inter-incisor distance, and modified Mallampati class. Intubation Difficult Score was used to identify a difficult laryngoscopy. Difficult airway was defined as either difficult laryngoscopy or difficult mask ventilation. The association between the airway characteristics and difficult airway was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, and the cut-off values for the height-to-TMD ratio was determined by the ROC curve. Eight airway characteristics were identified to contribute to a difficult airway, including (OR [95%CI]) the height-to-TMD ratio (3.58[1.95-8.46]), modified Mallampati class (3.34 [1.82-7.14]), BMI (3.07 [1.64-6.69]), history of a previous difficult airway (2.79 [1.28-5.25]), a thick neck (2.15 [1.04-4.37]), range of neck movement (1.98 [0.96-3.89]), sternomental and angulus mandibulae distance (1.46 [0.67-3.04]), and inter-incisor distance (1.01 [0.49-2.54]). The optimal cut-off value for the height-to-TMD ratio was 22.8 for predicting a difficult airway.

  17. International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Maus, S.; Beggan, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    The eleventh generation of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted in December 2009 by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy Working Group V‐MOD. It updates the previous IGRF generation with a definitive main field model for epoch 2005.0, a main field...

  18. Yield and Water Productivity Responses to Irrigation Cut-off Strategies after Fruit Set Using Stem Water Potential Thresholds in a Super-High Density Olive Orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada-Orellana, Luis E; Ortega-Farías, Samuel; Searles, Peter S; Retamales, Jorge B

    2017-01-01

    An increase in the land area dedicated to super-high density olive orchards has occurred in Chile in recent years. Such modern orchards have high irrigation requirements, and optimizing water use is a priority. Moreover, this region presents low water availability, which makes necessary to establish irrigation strategies to improve water productivity. An experiment was conducted during four consecutive growing seasons (2010-2011 to 2013-2014) to evaluate the responses of yield and water productivity to irrigation cut-off strategies. These strategies were applied after fruit set using midday stem water potential (Ψstem) thresholds in a super-high density olive orchard (cv. Arbequina), located in the Pencahue Valley, Maule Region, Chile. The experimental design was completely randomized with four irrigation cut-off treatments based on the Ψstem thresholds and four replicate plots per treatment (five trees per plot). Similar to commercial growing conditions in our region, the Ψstem in the T1 treatment was maintained between -1.4 and -2.2 MPa (100% of actual evapotranspiration), while T2, T3 and T4 treatments did not receive irrigation from fruit set until they reached a Ψstem threshold of approximately -3.5, -5.0, and -6.0 MPa, respectively. Once the specific thresholds were reached, irrigation was restored and maintained as T1 in all treatments until fruits were harvested. Yield and its components were not significantly different between T1 and T2, but fruit yield and total oil yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter were decreased by the T3 and T4 treatments. Moreover, yield showed a linear response with water stress integral (SΨ), which was strongly influenced by fruit load. Total oil content (%) and pulp/stone ratio were not affected by the different irrigation strategies. Also, fruit and oil water productivities were significantly greater in T1 and T2 than in the T3 and T4. Moreover, the T2, T3, and T4 treatments averaged 37, 51, and 72 days without

  19. Cut-off value of initial serum β-hCG level predicting a successful MTX therapy in tubal ectopic pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, S; Bader, Y; Pablik, E; Tiringer, D; Pils, S; Laml, T; Kölbl, H; Koch, M

    2014-08-01

    To determine the optimal serum β-hCG cut-off level to predict MTX treatment success in tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP). Data of 240 women, who presented between 2003 and 2011 at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Medical University of Vienna, with tubal EP and who received MTX as primary treatment, were retrieved from the hospital information system (KIS). 198 patients could be included for final evaluation. Statistical analysis included area under the ROC curve, maximal Euclidean and Youden index, chi-squared and a five-fold cross validation. The serum β-hCG level cut-off value was calculated at 2121mlU/ml with a specificity of 76.54% and sensitivity of 80.56% (AUC 0.789; phCG level below 2121mlU/ml (n=131) experienced MTX treatment failure in 5.3% (n=7), compared to 43.3% (n=29) of patients with an initial serum β-hCG level equal to or above 2121mlU/ml (n=67). There was no statistically significant correlation between clinical symptoms and the MTX therapy outcome (p=0.580; likelihood quotient p=0.716). The correct decision of therapy in patients with tubal ectopic pregnancy still represents a challenge. In this study we can conclude that, according to our results there is no endpoint of initial serum β-hCG levels, which can be clearly used as cut-off value for the optimal management of tubal EP. However, an initial serum β-hCG level of less than 2121mlU/ml seems to be a good value to expect a successful MTX treatment. Limitations are the retrospective study design and the inability of classifying clinical symptoms like pain as an objective parameter. Wider implications of the findings may include more detailed patient information and more accurate selection of suitable patients for MTX therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Breslow thickness and (18)F-FDG PET-CT result in initial staging of cutaneous melanoma: Can a cut-off point be established?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Candil, A; Rodríguez-Rey, C; Cano-Carrizal, R; Cala-Zuluaga, E; González Larriba, J L; Jiménez-Ballvé, A; Fuentes-Ferrer, M E; Cabrera-Martín, M N; Pérez-Castejón, M J; García García-Esquinas, M; Lapeña-Gutierrez, L; Carreras-Delgado, J L

    2016-01-01

    To establish a Breslow Thickness (BT) cut-off point for indication of PET-CT of cutaneous melanoma in early stages and evaluate its prognostic value. Retrospective analysis of 347 PET-CT studies with diagnosis of melanoma, of which 108 were performed for initial staging. Thirty-one patients were excluded, and a final sample of 77 patients remained. A ROC curve analysis was performed to establish an optimal cut-off point. A survival analysis was performed, considering death assignable to melanoma as the main event, for the evaluation of its prognostic value. Forty-seven (61.04%) of all 77 patients selected were men, and 11 (14.29%) had a positive PET-CT result. Mean age was 65.17±15.00 years. The median BT in patients with a negative PET-CT result was 2.75 mm (IQR 1.83-4.50) and in the positive group 6.25 mm (IQR 5.40-7.50) (P=.0013). In the ROC curve analysis (AUC 0.804, SE 0.054), an optimal value of 5 mm BT with the following values was obtained: sensitivity 90.91%, specificity 78.79%, negative predictive value (NPV) 98.1%, positive predictive value (PPV) 41.7%, diagnostic OR 37.1, and accuracy 80.52%. Mean follow-up was 18.66±14,35 months, detecting 2/53 (3.77%) deaths in the BT<5 mm group, and 7/24 (29.17%) in the BT≥5 mm group. Survival curves between both groups were significantly different (P=.0013). A 5 mm cut-off point correctly distinguishes those patients with positive PET-CT from those with negative results in the early stages of cutaneous melanoma; therefore it could be included in initial staging of this subgroup of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  1. Geomagnetically Induced Currents: Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Denny M.; Ngwira, Chigomezyo M.

    2017-10-01

    The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground. For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents (GICs). Intense GICs can cause dramatic effects on man-made technological systems, such as damage to high-voltage power transmission transformers leading to interruption of power supply, and/or corrosion of oil and gas pipelines. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the 13-14 March 1989 extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age.

  2. InGaAs Photodetectors Cut-off at 1.9μm Grown by Gas-Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Gang; HAO Guo-Qiang; GU Yi; ZHU Cheng; LI Ai-Zhen; LIU Tian-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Using a linear graded Inx Ga1- x As as the buffer layer, positive-intrinsic-negative wavelength-extended In0.6Ga0.4As photodetectors with 50% cut-off wavelength of 1.9μm at room temperature were grown by using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy, and their performance over a wide temperature range has been extensively investigated. The detectors show typical dark current at bias voltage 50mV and the resistance-area product RO A of 7nA/765Ωcm2 and 31pA/404kΩcm2 at 290K and 210K, respectively. The thermal activation energy of the dark current in the temperature range 250-350 K is 0.488 eV.

  3. Residual magnetic field profiles and their current density profiles of coated conductors for fast and slow cut-off current operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J.; Taillouli, M.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Chikumoto, N.; Yamaguchi, S. [Chubu University, Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Shyshkin, O. [V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2015-03-15

    Coated conductor is an important candidate for power cable applications due to its high current density. Even for DC power cable transmission, we must study the transport properties of HTS tapes after slow and fast discharge. In order to evaluate relation of the magnetic field with applied current we developed a scanning magnetic field measurements system by employing a Hall probe. This work presents the measurements of the magnetic fields above a coated conductor by varying applied current pattern. In the work, a transport current of 100 A, less than the critical current, is applied to YBCO coated conductor. We measured the residual magnetic field distributions after cut off the transport current with slow and fast operations. The results show differences of the magnetic field profiles and the corresponding current profiles by an inverse solution from the magnetic field measurement between these two operations because of the hysteresis of coated conductor excited by the transport current.

  4. Establishment of cut off values for vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid in 24-hr urine accumulation during mass screening for neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, M; Miyake, H; Takeda, T; Takasugi, N; Sato, Y; Hanai, J

    1987-09-01

    The establishment of cut off values in vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 24-hr urine specimens for the purpose of separating true positive cases from normal infants has been discussed. The specimens were collected at the time when thorough examinations under a mass screening programme for neuroblastoma were taking place, and data from 17 infants with neuroblastoma (patients) and 50 healthy infants (controls) have been employed. The function square root VMA2 + HVA2 = 34 (micrograms/mg of creatinine) separated the two groups with no overlapping cases. This function represents the distance from the origin of the VMA-HVA co-ordinates, and is thought to be one of the most reasonable discriminant methods when considering the distribution pattern of the data for normal cases and patients.

  5. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  6. Profiles of body mass index and the nutritional status among children and adolescents categorized by waist-to-height ratio cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Chu, Zun-Hua; Zhao, Jin-Shan

    2016-11-15

    Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is proposed as a simple, valid and convenient measure of abdominal obesity and health risks in practice. The present study examined the distribution of nutritional status among children and adolescents categorized by WHtR cut-offs. A total of 30,459 students (15,249 boys and 15,210 girls) aged 7-18years participated in the study. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) of all subjects were measured, body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated. The grades of nutritional status (thinness, normal weight, overweight and obesity) was defined by the international BMI cut-offs. All subjects were divided into three groups (low, moderate and high) according to their WHtR, BMI level and the distribution of nutritional status among the three groups were compared. In both boys and girls, significant differences in BMI level and the nutritional status were observed among the three groups. Children and adolescents aged 7-18years in the 'high WHtR group' (≥0.5) had higher BMI than those in the 'low WHtR group' (nutritional status is found in the 'moderate WHtR group' (between 0.4 and 0.5) with the highest proportion of normal weight and low prevalence of thinness and obesity. WHtR is associated with nutritional status, which could be an indicator of nutritional status and early health risk. It is necessary to develop optimal boundary values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. EARLY APPLICATION OF HIGH CUT-OFF HAEMODYALISIS FOR DE-NOVO MYELOMA NEPHROPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM DIALYSIS-INDEPENDENCY AND RENAL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC. It has been demonstrated that reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases of MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de-novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a median follow up of 26 months, (range, 13-36 our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early on the treatment and become dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis dependant. Conclusion Our study suggests that if myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain disease, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further trials to confirm our results are warranted. Key Words: Multiple myeloma, renal failure, High cut-off haemodialysis, chemotherapy, outcome.

  8. Evaluating the Possibility of Defining Cut-Off Points for ΔFA% in Order to Differentiate Four Major Types of Peri-Tumoral White Matter Tract Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deilami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and its different scalar values such as fractional anisotropy (FA have recently been used for evaluation of peri-tumoral white matter (WM involvement to help define safer surgical excision margins. Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the possibility of defining diagnostic cut-off points for differentiating four major types of peri-tumoral WM involvement using FA. Patients and Methods DTI was performed in 12 patients with high presumption of having brain tumors, on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. DTI data was processed by MedINRIA software. Two-hundred region of interests (ROI were evaluated: 100 in the lesion zone and the rest in the normal WM in the contralateral hemisphere. FA value related to each ROI was measured, and the percentage of FA decrement (ΔFAs% was calculated. Results Of the 100 ROIs on the lesion side, 74 were related to high-grade lesions, 23 to low-grade ones, and three to “gliosis”. There were 54 “infiltrated”, 22 “displaced”, 15 “disrupted”, and 9 “edematous” tracts. The major type of fiber involvement, both in low-grade and high-grade tumors was “infiltrated, whereas “edematous” fibers comprised the minority. ΔFA% was more than -35 for “displaced” and “edematous” fibers, and less than -35 for the majority of “disrupted” ones, but “infiltrated” fibers had scattered distribution. Mean ΔFA% was the least for “disrupted”, followed by “infiltrated”, “edematous” and “displaced” parts. Conclusion Introducing definite diagnostic cut-points was not possible, due to overlap. Based on the fact that “disruption” is the most aggressive process, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for “disrupted” fibers for several presumptive cut-off points.

  9. Trapping of strangelets in the geomagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Paulucci, L; Medina-Tanco, G A

    2007-01-01

    Strangelets coming from the interstellar medium (ISM) are an interesting target to experiments searching for evidence of this hypothetic state of hadronic matter. We entertain the possibility of a {\\it trapped} strangelet population, quite analogous to ordinary nuclei and electron belts. For a population of strangelets to be trapped by the geomagnetic field, these incoming particles would have to fulfill certain conditions, namely having magnetic rigidities above the geomagnetic cutoff and below a certain threshold for adiabatic motion to hold. We show in this work that, for fully ionized strangelets, there is a narrow window for stable trapping. An estimate of the stationary population is presented and the dominant loss mechanisms discussed. It is shown that the population would be substantially enhanced with respect to the ISM flux (up to two orders of magnitude) due to quasi-stable trapping.

  10. Cosmic rays, geomagnetic field and climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M.; Smart, D.

    The possibility of a connection between cosmic radiation and climate has intrigued scientists for the past several decades. The recent studies of Friis -Christensen and Svensmark has shown an observed variation of 3-4% of the global cloud cover between 1980 and 1995 that appeared to be directly correlated with the change in galactic cosmic radiation flux over the solar cycle. However, in studies of this type, not only the solar cycle modulation of cosmic radiation must be considered, but also the changes in the cosmic radiation impinging at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the long term evolution of the geomagnetic field. We present preliminary results of an on-going study of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities over a 400-year interval. These results show (1) the change in cutoff rigidity is sufficient large so that the change in cosmic radiation flux impacting the earth is approximately equal to the relative change in flux over a solar cycle, and (2) the changes in cutoff rigidity are non- uniform over the globe with both significant increases and decreases at mid-latitude locations.

  11. On Saturnian cosmic ray cutoff rigidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, H. H.

    1980-03-01

    It has been determined that Saturn possesses a relatively pure dipolar magnetic field through magnetometer measurements made by Ness et al. (1979, private comm.) and Smith et al. (1979). The paper briefly outlines the dipole geomagnetic cutoff theory and demonstrates the scaling required for its applicability to energetic particle measurements in the vicinity of Saturn. Since the cutoff rigidity is a function of viewing direction, the effective cutoff rigidity must be determined as an integration over the finite viewing angle of a physical detector.

  12. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  13. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  14. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  15. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Stewart, Roy E.; Köke, Albère J. A.; Oosterwijk, René F. A.; Swaan, Jeannette L.; Schreurs, Karlein M. G.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients’ catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6–7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4–6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low

  16. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Ma, Rulin; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Mei; Ding, Yusong; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Zhang, Jingyu; Wei, Bin; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Jiaolong; Pang, Hongrui; Li, Shugang; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-02-08

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old) from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into local preventive

  17. The Optimal Ethnic-Specific Waist-Circumference Cut-Off Points of Metabolic Syndrome among Low-Income Rural Uyghur Adults in Far Western China and Implications in Preventive Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia He

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is pandemic; however, the cut-off values for waist circumference (WC vary widely depending on the ethnic groups studied and the criteria applied for WC measurement. Previous studies for defining optimal WC cut-off points included high-income and urban settings, and did not cover low-income, rural settings, especially for ethnic minorities. This study aimed at defining optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off points in a low-income, rural population comprising the largest inhabitant minority group residing in far Western China. Methods: Questionnaire-based surveys, physical examinations, and blood testing of 3542 individuals were conducted in 2010, using a stratified cluster random sampling method in rural Uyghur residents (≥18 years old from 12 villages in Xinjiang, China, approximately 4407 km away from the capital city, Beijing. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. Optimal, ethnic-specific WC cut-off values for diagnosing metabolic syndrome were determined using receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Results: As WC increased, there was a significant, increasing trend of detection and risk in rural Uyghur adults, regardless of the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 components of metabolic syndrome by IDF criteria. The optimal ethnic-specific WC cut-off point to predict the presence of metabolic syndrome was 85 cm for men and 82 cm for women. With these cut-off points, the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome among men, women, and overall population in Uyghur adults were 19.5%, 23.0%, and 21.3%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, among rural Uyghurs in Western China. A WC cut-off of 85 cm in men and 82 cm in women was the best predictor of metabolic syndrome in this population. Because of the cost-effectiveness in measuring WC, we recommend that these WC cut-off points be integrated into

  18. Vocoder Excitation Model Based on Voicing Cut-Off Frequency%基于语音截止频率的声码器激励模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐静云; 赵晓群; 李荣芸; 王峤

    2015-01-01

    在低速率声码器中,对激励信号的描述直接影响重建语音的质量。为了改善音质,提出一种基于语音截止频率的声码器激励模型。该模型编码时通过语音截止频率将激励谱分成谐波和噪声2个子带,谐波子带的激励谱幅度引入离散余弦变换变维模型进行描述,语音截止频率进行4 bit 非线性量化。解码时将恢复出的谐波子带激励谱幅度进行傅里叶反变换,噪声子带则由白噪声进行以语音截止频率为阻带截止频率的高通滤波,最后由谐波子带和噪声子带叠加出激励。实验结果表明,该模型提高了全带激励谱幅度和谐波噪声成分的描述精度,可使重建语音的音质得以明显改善,主客观指标更优,对男声更为突出。%A vocoder excitation model based on voicing cut-off frequency(VCO) was presented. In enco-ding part, the excitation spectrum was divided into two distinct spectral bands by VCO: harmonic sub-band and noise sub-band, the model of variable dimension through discrete cosine transform was used to express the excitation spectral parameter of harmonic sub-band, and VCO was quantized through 4bits nonlinear scalar quantization. In decoding part, the recovered excitation spectral parameter of harmonic sub-band was inversely Fourier transformed, the noise sub-band was obtained by the white noise pass through a high pass filter which used the VCO as the stop-band cut-off frequency, harmonic sub-band and noise sub-band were superimposed to get the excitation. The model greatly improves the description preci-sion of the entire spectral envelope and harmonic plus noise components. With better subjective and ob-jective indicators, especially for male’s speech, the reconstructed speech shows more natural.

  19. Alzheimer's disease dementia as the diagnosis best supported by the cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers: difference in cut-off levels from thai experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanarong, V; Siwasariyanon, N; Washirutmangkur, L; Poungvarin, N; Ratanabunakit, C; Aoonkaew, N; Udomphanthurak, S

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine how beta-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 1-42), total tau (tTau), and phosphorylated tau (pTau) levels in CSF behave in a cohort of Thai patients from the Memory Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods. During 2009-2011, twenty eight subjects from the memory clinic at Siriraj Hospital had CSF analysis for AD biomarkers. Aβ 1-42, tTau, and pTau (at amino acid 181) were measured in CSF by ELISA technique. Results. Mean of Thai mental state examination (TMSE) of 28 Thai cohort was 16.48 (6.63). Fourteen had AD, ten had non-AD dementia, and four non-cases were those with subjective memory complaint (SMC) without dementia. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, ptau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the AD group were 241.36 (60.14) pg/mL, 222.79 (212.24) pg/mL, 40.79 (27.84) pg/mL, and 0.18 (0.12) accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-AD dementia group were 430.40 (125.18) pg/mL, 349.30 (692.16) pg/mL, 36.80 (14.90) pg/mL, and 0.09 (0.04) accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181), and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-cases with SMC without dementia were 499.75 (93.44) pg/mL, 137.25 (62.74) pg/mL, 31.75 (17.48) pg/mL, and 0.06 (0.02). There is significant difference (P < 0.05) among the 3 groups in CSF Aβ 1-42 and pTau/Aβ 1-42. We propose mean + 1.5 SD of CSF Aβ 1-42 in AD group (331.57 pg/mL) to be the cut-off point in Thai subjects. Conclusion. There are significant different in CSF Aβ 1-42 and CSF p-tau/Aβ 1-42 among those with AD, non-AD dementia and non cases with SMC without dementia in Thai cohort. Cut-off point of CSF Aβ 1-42 of 331.57 pg/mL is suggested in Thai study.

  20. Geomagnetic Workshop, Canberra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.; Lilley, F. E. M.; Milligan, P. R.

    On May 14-15, 1985, 63 discerning geomagnetists flocked to Canberra to attend the Geomagnetic Workshop coorganized by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) and the Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University (ANU). With an aurorally glowing cast that included an International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) president, former president, and division chairman, the Oriental Magneto-Banquet (which was the center of the meeting), was assured of success. As a cunning ploy to mask the true nature of this gastronomic extravagance from the probings of income tax departments, a presentation of scientific papers on Australian geomagnetism in its global setting was arranged.The Australian region, including New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and a large sector of the Antarctic, covers one eighth of the Earth's surface and historically has played an important role in the study of geomagnetism. The region contains both the south magnetic and geomagnetic poles, and two Australian Antarctic stations (Casey and Davis) are situated in the region of the south polar cusp (see Figure 1).

  1. Age-dependent D-dimer cut-off to avoid unnecessary CT-exams for ruling-out pulmonary embolism; Altersangepasste Anhebung des D-Dimer-Grenzwertes zur Vermeidung unnoetiger CT-Untersuchungen bei Verdacht auf Lungenarterienembolie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.M.; Hoehne, M.; Herold, T. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Radiology; Wrede, C.E. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Emergency Department; Peetz, D. [HELIOS Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Laboratory Medicine; Stroszczynski, C. [University Medical Center, Radiology, Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of an age-dependent D-Dimer cut-off in patients who underwent a computed tomography pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Retrospective application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off (age/100 in patients aged over 50) in 530 consecutive patients, both in- and outpatients, aged over 18, who underwent CTPA for suspected PE according to the guidelines. The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off showed a now negative test-result in 17 of 530 patients (3.2 %). The proportion was 4.1 % (17 of 418) in patients aged over 50. None of these 17 cases was diagnosed with PE in CTPA, the false-negative rate was 0 %. The effect could be seen in outpatients (14 of 377 [3.7 %]) as well as in inpatients(3 of 153 [2.0 %]) with no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The application of an age-dependent D-dimer cut-off as part of the guideline-based algorithm for suspected PE reduced the number of necessary CTPA in outpatients as well as in inpatients.

  2. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis.

  3. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Rico N.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Aaronson, Neil K.; Leemans, C. Rene

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is

  4. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, R.N.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Doornaert, P.; Buter, J.; de Bree, R.; Langendijk, J.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Leemans, C.R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is

  5. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gong, Chun-dan; Wu, Qiao-ling; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Zheng-yan; Peng, Yong-mei

    2013-01-01

    ...) and metabolic indices, determine the best cut-off value of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia. Fifteen schools in Shanghai's two districts were chosen by cluster sampling and primary screening was done in children aged 9-15 years old...

  6. Establishment the cut-off value of congenital hypothyroidism on newborn in Guangzhou city%广州市新生儿先天性促甲状腺素筛查切值的建立和探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋翔; 江剑辉; 李蓓; 吴伽; 陈倩瑜; 曹伟锋; 贾雪芳; 李慧

    2013-01-01

    【Objective】 To get the distribution of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and cut-off value in Guangzhou city. 【Method】 The results of 209 534 newborns were analysed from September 2011 to August 2012,which was described by percentiles and ROC curve,and determined the reasonable cut-off value combined with the actual screening results. 【Results】 The distribution of newborn screen was deflection,P99 was 9. 63 mU/L,the optimal cut-off value was 14 mU/L by ROC curve,the low cut-off value of our lab was 9 mU/L and the high cut-off value was 25 mU/L. 【Conclusion】 It is necessary to establish the reasonable cut-off value before earring out the neonatal screening. The determination of low and high cut-off value and establishment of recall-back methods are effective mode for neonatal screening.%[目的]探讨广州地区新生儿先天性促甲状腺素的水平分布并建立本地区的筛查实验切值. [方法]对广州市2011年9月-2012年8月间209 534例新生儿先天性甲状腺功能低下筛查的结果进行统计,使用百分位数法及ROC曲线计算促甲状腺素(thyroid stimulating hormone,TSH)参考切值,并结合实际筛查工作确定合理的切值. [结果]新生儿疾病筛查TSH水平呈偏态分布,TSH水平P99为9.63 mU/L,ROC曲线计算的最佳TSH值为14 mU/L,最终确定的TSH低切值为9 mU/L,高切值为25 mU/L. [结论]在开展筛查工作之前必须根据本地区的实际情况确立适宜的切值,确立高低两个切值并建立不同的召回方式对甲低筛查工作是合理有效的模式.

  7. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi Armin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR and metabolic syndrome (MetS in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Methods Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII and International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. Results The area under the curve (AUC (95%CI was 0.650 (0.631-0.670 for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703 with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF. The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6% and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0% for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. Conclusion We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  8. Analysis on Cutting-off of Non-fire-fighting Power Supply of Metro Stations%地铁车站非消防电源的切除分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莉

    2014-01-01

    现行国家相关设计规范对火灾时非消防电源的切除提出了明确的规定,但对火灾时切除非消防电源的目的、方式(手动方式或自动方式)及位置并未形成一致的要求。针对这些问题,进行较为深入的分析。明晰了火灾时切除非消防电源的主要原则和目标,即:避免造成人员恐慌和二次事故;避免火灾的进一步扩大;保证火灾扑救人员的安全,避免造成触电事故;在保证消防救灾的前提下,尽量减小断电范围。最后,结合地铁车站用电负荷及运营管理的特点,提出车站设备区、公共区发生火灾时切除非消防电源的原则、方式及位置。%In the current national design codes and standards,there are definite provisions for the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply,however,there are no specific provisions on the purposes,manners (manual cutting-off manner or automatic cutting-off manner)and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply.In this article,analysis is made on the purposes,manners (manual cutting-off manner or automatic cutting-off manner)and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply.The main principles and purposes of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply in case of fire are defined,i.e.,trying to avoid passenger chaos and secondary incident,trying to avoid further spread of the fire,trying to ensure the safety of the firefighters and trying to minimize the power cutting-off scope.Finally,the principles,manners and positions of the cutting-off of the non-fire-fighting power supply in case of fire occurring in the equipment area and public area of Metro stations are proposed on basis of the features of the power load and operation management of Metro stations.

  9. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun-dan; Wu, Qiao-ling; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Zheng-yan; Peng, Yong-mei

    2013-08-28

    The prevalence of adolescents' obesity and overweight has dramatically elevated in China. Obese children were likely to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However there was no cut-off point of anthropometric values to predict the risk factors in Chinese adolescents. The present study was to investigate glycolipid metabolism status of adolescents in Shanghai and to explore the correlations between body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and metabolic indices, determine the best cut-off value of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia. Fifteen schools in Shanghai's two districts were chosen by cluster sampling and primary screening was done in children aged 9-15 years old. After screening of bodyweight and height, overweight and obese adolescents and age-matched children with normal body weight were randomly recruited in the study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurements of glycolipid profiles were done. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were made and the best cut-off values of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia were determined while the Youden indices were maximum. Five hundred and thirty-eight adolescents were enrolled in this research, among which 283 have normal bodyweight, 115 were overweight and 140 were obese. No significant differences of the ages among 3 groups were found. There were significant differences of WC-SDS (pBMI elevated in girls. The best cut-off value of BMI-SDS was 1.22 to predict dyslipidemia in boys. The BMI cut-off was 21.67 in boys. Overweight and obese youths had reduced insulin sensitivity and high prevalence of dyslipidemia.When BMI-SDS elevated up to 1.22 and BMI was higher than 21.67 in boys, dyslipidemia may happen.

  10. Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Self-Report Questionnaires and Composite Clinical Disease Index for Assessing Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity: Identification of Cut-Off Points for Routine Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Salaffi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide information on the value of Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS in rheumatoid arthritis (RA by the identification of PASS thresholds for patient-reported outcomes (PROs composite scores. Methods. The characteristics of RA patients with affirmative and negative assignment to PASS were compared. Contributors to physician response were estimated by logistic regression models and PASS thresholds by the 75th percentile and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve methods. Results. 303 RA patients completed the study. All PROs were different between the PASS (+ and PASS (− groups (p<0.0001. The thresholds with the 75th percentile approach were 2.0 for the RA Impact of Disease (RAID score, 2.5 for the PRO-CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA index, and 1.0 for the Recent-Onset Arthritis Disability (ROAD questionnaire. The cut-off values for Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI were in the moderate range of disease activity. Assessing the size of the logistic regression coefficients, the strongest predictors of PASS were the disease activity (p=0.0007 and functional state level (0.006. Conclusion. PASS thresholds were relatively high and many patients in PASS had moderate disease activity states according to CDAI. Factors such as disease activity and physical function may influence a negative PASS.

  11. Cut-off of Non-fire Power Supply in Civil Buiding%民用建筑非消防电源的切除

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海东

    2011-01-01

    Fire fighting system is related to personal property and is importance in design and examination.The rules about cutting off non-fine power supply under firing had be early set.But following the improvement of people's life,the classification of non-fire%消防系统关系到人身及财产安全,一直是设计及审查的重点。关于火灾状态下非消防电源的切除要求各规范中早有规定,但随着生活水平的提高,非消防电源的分类日趋复杂。就火灾状态下如何合理切断非消防电源进行了论述,希望电气设计师在设计过程中加深对众多规范的理解,使设计成果更加合理。

  12. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  13. UV Filtering of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: The Effects of Varying the UV Cut-Off upon Cell Performance and Incident Photon-to-Electron Conversion Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Carnie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With current technology, UV filters are essential to ensure long-term dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC stability. Blocking photons, however, will have an obvious effect on device performance and upon its incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE. Filters have been applied to DSC devices with a range of cut-off wavelengths in order to assess how different levels of filtering affect the performance and IPCE of devices made with three different dyes, namely N719, Z907, and N749. It is shown that dyes that extend their IPCE further into the NIR region suffer lesser relative efficiency losses due to UV filtering than dyes with narrower action spectra. Furthermore, the results are encouraging to those working towards the industrialisation of DSC technology. From the results presented it can be estimated that filtering at a level intended to prevent direct band gap excitation of the TiO2 semiconductor should cause a relative drop in cell efficiency of no more than 10% in forward illuminated devices and no more than 2% in reverse illuminated devices.

  14. Determining cut-off values for neck circumference as a measure of the metabolic syndrome amongst a South African cohort: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, S; Malan, L; de Ridder, J H

    2012-10-01

    The aim was to determine receiver operating characteristic (ROC) neck circumference (NC) cut offs best associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a South African cohort. We included 409 urban Africans and Caucasians and stratified them into gender and age groups (25-45 years; 45-65 years). Measurements included anthropometric, fasting overnight urine and biological markers for the MetS (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein). ROC analysis determined pathological (NC) cut-points of 39 and 35 cm for young and older African men; 32 and 35 cm for young and old African women; 40 and 41 cm for Caucasian men; 34 and 33 cm for Caucasian women. Pathological NC cut-points significantly predicted MetS in all ethnic-gender-age groups except in African women (ORs 2.3-5.4; 95% CI 1.36-16.5). Multiple regression analyses revealed that MetS prevalence and ROC cut-points were not associated with renal impairment in any groups. ROC NC cut-points demonstrated that NC may be used as an additional anthropometric marker to predict the MetS in a South African cohort but not in African women.

  15. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  16. PREVALENCE OF WASTED, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE CHILDREN BASED ON WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION CUT-OFFS FOR BODY MASS INDEX, IN A URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Badami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: BMI is a good indicator of levels of body fat, and it is known that having a BMI that is either too low or too high is associated with an increased risk of ill health during childhood as well as later in life. BMI is relatively quick and easy to calculate and as a result, is used for population surveys and by health professionals when assessing individual patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of wasted, overweight and obese children in an urban slum using WHO child growth standards BMI cut offs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study included 150 urban slum children of whom 77 were boys and 73 were girls. Anthropometric data in the form of height in cms and weight in kgs were collected by standard methods as reported by D. B. Jelliffe. BMI was calculated. Analysis of data was done according to WHO child growth standards. RESULTS: The prevalence of wasting was 25.97% in boys and 24.65% in girls. Among boys 1.29% were at risk of overweight, 2.59% were overweight, 2.59% were obese. Among girls 5.47% were at risk of overweight and 2.73% were obese. CONCLUSION: It can concluded from the study that undernutrition remains the main problem than overnutrition. However, the rapid changes in the dietary patterns and life styles occurring in many developing countries warrant close monitoring of overweight prevalence in children so that preventive measures can be taken in timely manner.

  17. Geomagnetic Observations and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mandea, Mioara

    2011-01-01

    This volume provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of all the main areas linked to geomagnetic field observation, from instrumentation to methodology, on ground or near-Earth. Efforts are also focused on a 21st century e-Science approach to open access to all geomagnetic data, but also to the data preservation, data discovery, data rescue, and capacity building. Finally, modeling magnetic fields with different internal origins, with their variation in space and time, is an attempt to draw together into one place the traditional work in producing models as IGRF or describing the magn

  18. PAMELA's measurements of geomagnetic cutoff variations during the 14 December 2006 storm

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; De Donato, C; de Nolfo, G A; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mikhailov, M Mergé V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2016-01-01

    Data from the Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) satellite experiment were used to measure the geomagnetic cutoff for high-energy (>80 MeV) protons during the 14 December 2006 geomagnetic storm. The variations of the cutoff latitude as a function of rigidity were studied on relatively short timescales, corresponding to spacecraft orbital periods (94 min). Estimated cutoff values were compared with those obtained by means of a trajectory tracing approach based on a dynamical empirical modeling of the Earth's magnetosphere. We found significant variations in the cutoff latitude, with a maximum suppression of about 7 deg at lowest rigidities during the main phase of the storm. The observed reduction in the geomagnetic shielding and its temporal evolution were related to the changes in the magnetospheric configuration, investigating the role of interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind and geomagnetic parameters. PAMELA's results represent the first direct measurement...

  19. Comparing the Cervista HPV HR test and Hybrid Capture 2 assay in a Dutch screening population: improved specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test by changing the cut-off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniek Boers

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of the widely-used Cervista HPV HR test was compared to the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2 test in a Dutch population-based cervical cancer screening program. In 900 scrapings of women with normal cytomorphology, specificity was 90% (95%CI: 87.84-91.87 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 96% (95%CI: 94.76-97.37 for the HC2 test with 93% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.5, p<0.001. The sensitivity for CIN2+ using 65 scrapings of women with histological-confirmed CIN2+ was 91% (95%CI: 80.97-96.51 for the Cervista HPV HR test and 92% (95%CI: 82.94-97.43 for the HC2 test with 95% agreement between both tests (κ = 0.7, p<0.001. Fifty-seven of 60 HC2 negative/Cervista positive cases tested HPV-negative with PCR-based HPV assays; of these cases 56% were defined as Cervista triple-positive with FOZ values in all 3 mixes higher than the second cut-off of 1.93 (as set by manufacturer. By setting this cut-off at 5.0, specificity improved significantly without affecting sensitivity. External validation of this new cut-off at 5.0 in triple-positive scrapings of women selected from the SHENCCASTII database revealed that 22/24 histological normal cases now tested HPV-negative in the Cervista HPV HR test, while CIN2+ lesions remained HPV-positive. The intra-laboratory reproducibility of the Cervista HPV HR test (n = 510 showed a concordance of 92% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.83 and κ = 0.84, p<0.001 and inter-laboratory agreement of the Cervista HPV HR test was 90% and 93% for cut-off 1.93 and 5.0 (κ = 0.80 and κ = 0.85, p<0.001. In conclusion, the specificity of the Cervista HPV HR test could be improved significantly by increasing the second cut-off from 1.93 to 5.0, without affecting the sensitivity of the test in a population-based screening setting.

  20. Cut off from supplies - sulfate exhaustion and implications for methane emissions in a brackish rewetted peatland after separation from the coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Franziska; Liu, Bo; Schmiedinger, Iris; Spitzy, Alejandro; Köhler, Stefan; Koch, Marian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Gehre, Matthias; Sachs, Torsten; Böttcher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems are at the interface between marine and freshwater and exhibit a special geochemistry. We investigate the S and C geochemistry of a coastal, degraded fen peatland. The site has been cut off from the Baltic Sea since 1995 and was rewetted with freshwater from the surrounding catchment in 2010. Despite of locally high pore water sulfate (SO42-) concentrations, the fen turned into a strong source for methane (CH4) with annual budgets up to 0.26±0.06 kg m-2 (Hahn et al. 2015). To reconcile this apparent contradiction we use concentration patterns and stable isotope signatures of water, SO42-, pyrite, dissolved carbon, and CH4 (δ2H, δ13C, δ18O, δ34S) along a transect with increasing distance to the Baltic coastline (300-1500 m). The current peatland geochemistry is characterized by a combination of relict signals reflecting former brackish water intrusion events and indicators of recent human activities such as internal eutrophication and increasing freshwater contribution. The shallow peat layer (depth mostly ≤ 55 cm) exhibited a pronounced vertical gradient with a freshwater-front lying on top of the brackish water layer. S geochemistry was decoupled from present brackish water distribution as marine SO42- was almost completely biotically reduced and converted to pyrite. The remaining pore water SO42- pool was remarkably 34S-enriched in relation to Baltic Sea SO42- (up to +86.4 and +21‰, respectively) and also δ34S-values of pyrite were comparatively high (+4.8‰), thereby demonstrating a distinct reservoir effect under closed-system conditions. However, one of the profiles situated 1150 m from the Baltic Sea coast line exhibited a contrasting S pattern with pronounced excess of isotopically lighter SO42- at depth (up to 32.8 mM and +22.7‰). We hypothesize, that local groundwater seeps might provide electron acceptors such as NO3- for the contemporary oxidation of pyrite. δ13C in DIC exhibited a pronounced vertical shift from -23.9

  1. Alzheimer’s Disease Dementia as the Diagnosis Best Supported by the Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers: Difference in Cut-Off Levels from Thai Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Senanarong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine how beta-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ 1-42, total tau (tTau, and phosphorylated tau (pTau levels in CSF behave in a cohort of Thai patients from the Memory Clinic in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods. During 2009–2011, twenty eight subjects from the memory clinic at Siriraj Hospital had CSF analysis for AD biomarkers. Aβ 1-42, tTau, and pTau (at amino acid 181 were measured in CSF by ELISA technique. Results. Mean of Thai mental state examination (TMSE of 28 Thai cohort was 16.48 (6.63. Fourteen had AD, ten had non-AD dementia, and four non-cases were those with subjective memory complaint (SMC without dementia. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, ptau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the AD group were 241.36 (60.14 pg/mL, 222.79 (212.24 pg/mL, 40.79 (27.84 pg/mL, and 0.18 (0.12 accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-AD dementia group were 430.40 (125.18 pg/mL, 349.30 (692.16 pg/mL, 36.80 (14.90 pg/mL, and 0.09 (0.04 accordingly. Mean CSF Aβ 1-42, tTau, pTau (181, and pTau/Aβ 1-42 in the non-cases with SMC without dementia were 499.75 (93.44 pg/mL, 137.25 (62.74 pg/mL, 31.75 (17.48 pg/mL, and 0.06 (0.02. There is significant difference (P<0.05 among the 3 groups in CSF Aβ 1-42 and pTau/Aβ 1-42. We propose mean + 1.5 SD of CSF Aβ 1-42 in AD group (331.57 pg/mL to be the cut-off point in Thai subjects. Conclusion. There are significant different in CSF Aβ 1-42 and CSF p-tau/Aβ 1-42 among those with AD, non-AD dementia and non cases with SMC without dementia in Thai cohort. Cut-off point of CSF Aβ 1-42 of 331.57 pg/mL is suggested in Thai study.

  2. Cut off values of laser fluorescence for different storage methods at different time intervals in comparison to frozen condition: A 1 year in vitro study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Rudra; Kaul, Vibhuti; Farooq, Riyaz; Wazir, Nikhil Dev; Khateeb, Shafayat Ullah; Malik, Altaf H; Masoodi, Ajaz Amin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the change in laser fluorescence (LF) values for extracted teeth stored in different solutions over 1 year period, to give cut-off values for different storage media at different time intervals to get them at par with the in vivo conditions and to see which medium gives best results with the least change in LF values and while enhancing the validity of DIAGNOdent in research. Materials and Methods: Ninety extracted teeth selected, from a pool of frozen teeth, were divided into nine groups of 10 each. Specimens in Groups 1-8 were stored in 1% chloramine, 10% formalin, 10% buffered formalin, 0.02% thymol, 0.12% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite, a commercially available saliva substitute-Wet Mouth (ICPA Pharmaceuticals) and normal saline respectively at 4°C. The last group was stored under frozen condition at −20°C without contact with any storage solution. DIAGNOdent was used to measure the change the LF values at day 30, 45, 60, 160 and 365. Statistical Analysis Used: The mean change in LF values in different storage mediums at different time intervals were compared using two-way ANOVA. Results: At the end of 1 year, significant decrease in fluorescence (P < 0.05) was observed in Groups 1-8. Maximum drop in LF values occurred between day 1 and 30. Group 9 (frozen specimens) did not significantly change their fluorescence response. Conclusions: An inevitable change in LF takes place due to various storage media commonly used in dental research at different time intervals. The values obtained from our study can remove the bias caused by the storage media and the values of LF thus obtained can hence be conveniently extrapolated to the in vivo condition. PMID:24778506

  3. Impact of High-Cut-Off Dialysis on Renal Recovery in Dialysis-Dependent Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans U Gerth

    Full Text Available High-cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD can effectively reduce high concentrations of circulating serum free light chains (sFLC in patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI due to multiple myeloma (MM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze renal recovery in a retrospective single-center cohort of dialysis-dependent MM patients treated with either conventional HD (conv. HD or HCO-HD.The final cohort consisted of 59 patients treated with HCO-HD (n = 42 or conv. HD (n = 17. A sustained sFLC response was detected in a significantly higher proportion of HCO-HD patients (83.3% compared with conv. HD patients (29.4%; p = 0.007. The median duration of sFLC required to reach values <1000 mg/l was 14.5 days in the HCO-HD group and 36 days in the conv. HD group. The corresponding rates of renal recovery were 64.3% and 29.4%, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.014. Multivariate regression and decision tree analysis (recursive partitioning revealed HCO-HD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-24.5], p = 0.011 and low initial uric acid values (adjusted OR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0-1.7], p = 0.045 as independent and paramount variables associated with a favorable renal outcome.In summary, the results from this retrospective case-control study suggest in addition to novel agent-based chemotherapy a benefit of HCO-HD in sFLC removal and renal outcome in dialysis-dependent AKI secondary to MM. This finding was especially pertinent in patients with low initial uric acid values, resulting in a promising renal recovery rate of 71.9%. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  4. Burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS in pedicel mediated fruit abscission after carbohydrate supply was cut off in longan (Dimocarpus longan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqin eYang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutting off carbohydrate supply to longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. fruit by girdling and defoliation or by detachment induced 100% abscission within a few days. We used these treatments to study the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in fruit abscission. Girdling plus defoliation decreased sugar concentrations in the fruit and pedicel and depleted starch grains in the chloroplasts in the cells of abscission zone. Prior to the occurrence of intensive fruit abscission, there was a burst in ROS in the pedicel, which peaked at 1 day after treatment (DAT, when H2O2 in the abscission zone was found to be chiefly located along the plasma membrane (PM. H2O2 was found exclusively in the cell walls 2 DAT, almost disappeared 3 DAT, and reappeared in the mitochondria and cell walls 4 DAT. Signs of cell death such as cytoplasm breakdown were apparent from 3 DAT. The burst of ROS coincided with a sharp increase in the activity of PM-bound NADPH oxidase in the pedicel. At the same time, activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase (POD were all increased by the treatment and maintained higher than those in the control. Accompanying the reduction in H2O2 abundance, there was a sharp decrease in PM-bound NADPH oxidase activity after 1 DAT in the treated fruit. H2O2 scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU, 1 g L-1 significantly inhibited fruit abscission in detached fruit clusters and suppressed the increase in cellulase activity in the abscission zone. These results suggest that fruit abscission induced by carbohydrate stress is mediated by ROS. Roles of ROS in regulating fruit abscission were discussed in relation to its subcellular distribution.

  5. Cut off values of laser fluorescence for different storage methods at different time intervals in comparison to frozen condition: A 1 year in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudra Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the change in laser fluorescence (LF values for extracted teeth stored in different solutions over 1 year period, to give cut-off values for different storage media at different time intervals to get them at par with the in vivo conditions and to see which medium gives best results with the least change in LF values and while enhancing the validity of DIAGNOdent in research. Materials and Methods: Ninety extracted teeth selected, from a pool of frozen teeth, were divided into nine groups of 10 each. Specimens in Groups 1-8 were stored in 1% chloramine, 10% formalin, 10% buffered formalin, 0.02% thymol, 0.12% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite, a commercially available saliva substitute-Wet Mouth (ICPA Pharmaceuticals and normal saline respectively at 4°C. The last group was stored under frozen condition at −20°C without contact with any storage solution. DIAGNOdent was used to measure the change the LF values at day 30, 45, 60, 160 and 365. Statistical Analysis Used: The mean change in LF values in different storage mediums at different time intervals were compared using two-way ANOVA. Results: At the end of 1 year, significant decrease in fluorescence (P < 0.05 was observed in Groups 1-8. Maximum drop in LF values occurred between day 1 and 30. Group 9 (frozen specimens did not significantly change their fluorescence response. Conclusions: An inevitable change in LF takes place due to various storage media commonly used in dental research at different time intervals. The values obtained from our study can remove the bias caused by the storage media and the values of LF thus obtained can hence be conveniently extrapolated to the in vivo condition.

  6. Anti-mullerian hormone cut-off values for predicting poor ovarian response to exogenous ovarian stimulation in in-vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Satwik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (a To establish the cut-off levels for anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH in a population of Indian women that would determine poor response. (b To determine which among the three ie.,: age, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, or AMH, is the better determinant of ovarian reserve. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: In vitro fertilization (IVF unit of a tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: The inclusion criterion was all women who presented to the center for in-vitro fertilization/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The exclusion criteria were age >45 years, major medical illnesses precluding IVF or pregnancy, FSH more than 20 IU/L, and failure to obtain consent. The interventions including baseline pelvic scan, day 2/3 FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, estradiol estimations, and AMH measurement on any random day of cycle were done. Subjects underwent IVF according to long agonist or antagonist protocol regimen. Oocyte recovery was correlated with studied variables. The primary outcome measure was the number of oocytes aspirated (OCR. Three categories of ovarian response were defined: poor response, OCR ≤ 3; average response, OCR between 4 and 15; hyperresponse, OCR > 15. Results: Of the 198 patients enrolled, poor, average, and hyperresponse were observed in 23%, 63%, and 14% respectively. Correlation coefficient for AMH with ovarian response was r = 0.591. Area under the curve (AUCs for poor response for AMH, subject′s age, and FSH were 0.768, 0.624, and 0.635, respectively. The discriminatory level of AMH for prediction of absolute poor response was 2 pmoL/l, with 98% specificity and 20% sensitivity. Conclusions: AMH fares better than age and FSH in predicting the overall ovarian response and poor response, though it cannot be the absolute predictor of non-responder status. A level of 2 pmol/l is discriminatory for poor response.

  7. Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-05-01

    We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  8. Impact analysis of different cut-off plans on river floods%不同裁弯取直方案对河道行洪影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭志学; 钟友胜; 吕伟

    2014-01-01

    T wo-dimensional numerical models were used to analyze the impacts of tw o cut-off plans on river floods in the up-stream of Fu River in Chengdu City. T he first cut-off plan assigned the elevation difference of the curve reach to the whole riv-er, and the second cut-off plan assigned t he elevation difference to one step-fall. The results show ed that ( 1) both cut-off plans can decrease the wat er level and increase the velocity in the upstream of orthodontic curved river channel and w eaken the flow dynamics in the old river channel; ( 2) the first cut-off plan has higher w eakening impacts on the flow discharge and hydrody-namic parameters in the old river channel than the second cut- off plan; ( 3) the second cut-off plan can cause high velocity in the local area, w hich is disadvantageous to the river channel erosion and has apparent noise pollution; and ( 4) the first plan is similar to the natural cut-off river progress by assigning the elevation difference to the w hole river channel therefore it is more reasona-ble.%采用二维数学模型,对成都市府河上游段河道裁弯取直工程进行了对比分析,探讨了弯颈落差全河段分摊和设置集中跌落两种不同裁弯取直方案对河道行洪的影响。结果表明,不同裁弯取直方案均会造成畸弯河道上游主槽水位降低和流速的增加,并引起老河湾水流动力的减弱;落差分摊方案对老河湾分流量及水流动力参数的消弱作用更大,上游河道水位降低更为明显;从流速沿程分布规律来看,设置集中跌落的裁弯取直方案将引起局部河段流速过高,对河道冲刷安全不利,且存在明显的噪声污染。但是,落差分摊方案将弯颈落差通过工程措施直接分摊到整治河段范围,更接近自然裁弯取直的河道演变过程,因此该工程方案更为合理。

  9. On regional geomagnetic charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  10. Modeling and analysis on spark discharge of capacitive circuit with cut-off type protection%截止型保护方式下容性电路短路火花放电模型及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于月森; 张望; 孟庆海; 伍小杰

    2013-01-01

    提出截止型输出短路保护方式下本质安全型开关变换器火花放电的容性等效电路模型.通过在IEC火花试验装置上进行试验,研究截止型保护方式下容性电路火花放电的规律,建立截止型保护方式下容性电路火花放电数学模型.分析与实验表明,建立的数学模型与实际基本相符;截止放电模式与自然放电模式在火花放电规律方面有显著的差异;截止放电模式下减小截止时间和减小电容值均能提高本质安全性能,但在不同取值范围效果不同.%It was proposed that the equivalent circuit model of intrinsically safe switching converter with cut-off type output short circuit protection was capacitive circuit with cut-off type protection. The discharge characteristic of the capacitive circuit with cut-off type protection was found out through a large number of spark discharge experiment in IEC spark test apparatus. The spark discharge mathematical model was established. Analysis and experimental results show that mathematical model is consistent with the reality. The spark discharge laws are significant differences between natural discharge mode and cut-off discharge mode. Under natural discharge mode, both shortening the discharge time and reducing the capacitance value could improve the performance of intrinsical safety, but there are different effects in different value range.

  11. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in patients in an emergency department setting, suspected of acute coronary syndrome: optimal cut-off point, diagnostic value and future opportunities in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Robert T A; van Severen, Evie; Vandervoort, Pieter M; Grieten, Lars; Buntinx, Frank; Glatz, Jan F C; Dinant, Geert Jan

    2015-01-01

    Most patients presenting chest complaints in primary care are referred to secondary care facilities, whereas only a few are diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim is to determine the optimal cut-off value for a point-of-care heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) test in patients presenting to the emergency department and to evaluate a possible future role of H-FABP in safely ruling out ACS in primary care. Serial plasma H-FABP (index test) and high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT) (reference test) were determined in patients with any new-onset chest complaint. In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off value of H-FABP for ACS was determined. Predictive values of H-FABP for ACS were calculated. For 202 consecutive patients (prevalence ACS 59%), the ROC curve based on the results of the first H-FABP was equal to the ROC curve of hs-cTnT (AUC 0.79 versus 0.80). Using a cut-off value of 4.0 ng/ml for H-FABP, sensitivity for ACS of the H-FABP (hs-cTnT) tests was 73.9% (70.6%). Negative predictive value (NPV) of H-FABP for ACS in a population representative for primary care (incidence of ACS 22%) thus could reach 90.8%. In patients presenting chest pain, plasma H-FABP reaches the highest diagnostic value when a cut-off value of 4 ng/ml is used. Diagnostic values of an algorithm combining point-of-care H-FABP measurement and a score of signs and symptoms should be studied in primary care, to learn if such an algorithm could safely reduce referral rate by GPs.

  12. Reference centile curves for triceps skinfold thickness for Indian children aged 5 to 17 years and cut offs for predicting risk of childhood hypertension: a multi-centric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Anuradha; Mandlik, Rubina; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Khadilkar, Vaman; Ekbote, Veena; Patwardhan, Vivek

    2015-08-01

    To create age and gender specific Triceps Skinfold Thickness percentile curves for Indian children; and to determine cut-offs for predicting the risk of childhood hypertension. Cross-sectional. Multicentric, school-based, 5 major Indian cities. 13375 children (7590 boys) aged 5-17 years. Data on height, weight, blood pressure, triceps skinfold thickness (using Harpenden Skinfold caliper) were collected. Reference triceps skinfold thickness percentile curves were derived for boys and girls by LMS (lambda-mu-sigma) method. Receiver operating curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off of triceps skinfold thickness centile for predicting the risk of hypertension. Percentile curves for boys plateau around 13 years whereas for girls the curves increase steadily till the age of 17 years. Median triceps skinfold thickness increased by 7% to 9% till the age of 9 years in boys and girls. After 12 years, median triceps skinfold thickness decreased by 1% to 2% in boys but increased by 3% to 4% in girls. The optimal cut-off percentile yielding maximal sensitivity (68%) and specificity (74-78%) for predicting high blood pressure was the 70th triceps skinfold thickness percentile in both genders. Percentile curves for triceps skinfold thickness developed in the present study would be useful in the assessment of adiposity and the risk of hypertension in Indian children.

  13. 中国哈萨克族成人代谢综合征腰围适宜切点研究%The optimum cut-off points of waist circumference for identifying metabolic syndrome in Kazak adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静; 王宁; 王建疆; 娜孜姑丽; 谢自敬; 毛新民; 李琳琳

    2010-01-01

    探讨哈萨克族成人代谢综合征(MS)诊断的腰围适宜切点.选取2 052例哈萨克族成人,依据国际糖尿病联盟标准,检出两个以上MS组分的假阳性和假阴性率均较低的腰围切点为男性≥99 cm,女性≥88 cm.建议哈萨克族成人以此切点作为MS的检出标准.%The optimum cut-off point of waist circumference for identifying metabolic syndrome(MS)in Kazak was investigated.Based on Internationul Diabetes Eederation.2052 Kazak adults were analysed.At the cut-off point of waist circumference(≥199 cm for men,≥88 cm for women),the rates of false positive and negative for identifying MS were reduced to a minimum.The two cut-off points were possibly appropriate for identifying MS in Kazak.

  14. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and their Epidemiological Cut-off Values using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The COWT values calculated by Normalised Resistance Interpretation (NRI analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT. When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a COWT of ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1, ≤ 2 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the COWT were ≤1 μg mL-1, ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin respectively. The disc diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disc data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39 and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41 and 44%, when disc data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disc data respectively, were 24% and 10% for amoxicillin, 8% and 2% for florfenicol and 70% and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disc diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies

  15. Consistency and inconsistency in testing biomarkers in breast cancer. A GRELL study in cut-off variability in the Romance language countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Caldarella, Adele; Ferretti, Stefano; Ardanaz, Eva; Arveux, Patrick; Bara, Simona; Barrios, Enrique; Bento, Maria J; Bordoni, Andrea; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Candela, Giuseppina; Colombani, Françoise; Delafosse, Patricia; Federico, Massimo; Francart, Julie; Giacomin, Adriano; Grosclaude, Pascale; Guizard, Anne V; Izarzugaza, Isabel; Konzelmann, Isabelle; La Rosa, Francesco; Lapotre, Benedicte; Leone, Nathalie; Ligier, Karine; Mangone, Lucia; Marcos-Gragera, R; Martinez, Ruth; Michelena, Maria J; Michiara, Maria; Miranda, Ana; Molinié, Florence; Mugarza-Gomez, Conception; Paci, Eugenio; Piffer, Silvano; Puig-Vives, Montserrat; Sacchettini, Claudio; Sánchez, Maria J; Traina, Adele; Tretarre, Brigitte; Tumino, Rosario; Van Vaerenbergh, Elke; Velten, Michel; Woronoff, Anne S

    2013-08-01

    Biological markers are crucial factors in order to differentiate female breast cancers and to determine the right therapy. This study aims at evaluating whether testing for biomarkers for female breast cancer has similar frequency and characteristics across and within countries. Population-based cancer registries of the Association for cancer registration and epidemiology in Romance language countries (GRELL) were asked to complete a questionnaire on biomarkers testing. The data collected referred to invasive female breast cancer cases diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. The investigation focused on 1) the overexpression and amplification of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncogene (HER2); 2) the expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PgR) receptors; and 3) the proliferation index (PI). Weighted percentages, the heterogeneity among and within countries, and the correlation between responses and calendar years were evaluated. The study was based on 19,644 breast cancers. Overall, 85.9% of the cases were tested for HER2, 91.8% for both ER and PgR, and 74.1% for proliferative markers. For HER2 and ER-PgR, the frequency of testing increased from 2004 to 2009. Testing varied among countries (HER2 from 82.0% to 95.9%, ER-PgR from 89.3% to 98.9%, PI from 10% to 92%) and also within the same country (e.g. HER2 in Italy from 51% to 99%) as well as within single cancer registries. The most relevant differences were in the scores for positive/negative/not clearly defined HER2 (e.g. HER2 was defined positive if IHC 3+ in 21/33 registries), and in the cut-off of positive cells for ER/PgR (from >0% to >30%) and PI positivity (from >0% to >20%). Biological markers are widely tested in the Romance language countries; however, the parameters defining their positivity may vary, raising concerns about homogeneity in breast cancer classification and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Kurotani, Kayo; Sasaki, Naoko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Chii; Shimizu, Makiko; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Nagahama, Satsue; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Tomita, Kentaro; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Hori, Ai; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Akter, Shamima; Kashino, Ikuko; Kabe, Isamu; Liu, Weiping; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2016-03-03

    We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC) cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM) and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS) for DM in Japanese. Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20-69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980), were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3-4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7-9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women) had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women) for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  17. On affine rigidity

    CERN Document Server

    Gortler, Steven J; Liu, Ligang; Thurston, Dylan P

    2010-01-01

    We study the properties of affine rigidity of a hypergraph and prove a variety of fundamental results. First, we show that affine rigidity is a generic property (i.e., depends only on the hypergraph, not the particular embedding). Then we prove that a graph is generically neighborhood affinely rigid in d-dimensional space if it is (d+1)-vertex-connected. We also show neighborhood affine rigidity of a graph implies universal rigidity of its squared graph. Our results, and affine rigidity more generally, have natural applications in point registration and localization, as well as connections to manifold learning.

  18. On affine rigidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Gortler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the properties of affine rigidity of a hypergraph and prove a variety of fundamental results. First, we show that affine rigidity is a generic property (i.e., depends only on the hypergraph, not the particular embedding. Then we prove that a graph is generically neighborhood affinely rigid in d-dimensional space if it is (d+1-vertex-connected. We also show neighborhood affine rigidity of a graph implies universal rigidity of its squared graph.  Our results, and affine rigidity more generally, have natural applications in point registration and localization, as well as connections to manifold learning.

  19. Hazards of geomagnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property. Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. 

  20. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  1. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  2. Design of Cut-off Ditch at Valley-type Small Waste Sanitary Landfill Site in Southwest China%西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹许鑫; 吕燕; 尹滔

    2012-01-01

    对西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计展开探讨,结合相关规范优选适用于西南地区的截洪沟设计充满度、设计流速、径流系数等关键设计参数,对截洪沟的流量计算、断面选择、沟壁沟底材料及基础设计、出水口及转弯段的设计、整体平面布置等进行讨论,提出三种优化截洪沟断面.通过截洪沟的优化设计可实现清污分流,降低渗滤液产量,减少雨水对垃圾渗滤液收集及处理系统的冲击,降低垃圾渗滤液处理成本,确保垃圾填埋场正常、安全运行.%The design of cut-off ditch at valley-type small landfill site in the southwest China is explored. The design parameters of cut-off ditch applicable to the southwest China, such as design filling degree, design flow, runoff coefficient and other key design parameters are selected according to the related codes. The flow calculation, cross section selection, materials and foundation design for the ditch walls and bottom, design of outlet and curved segment and overall layout are discussed. Three kinds of optimized cross sections of cut-off ditch are proposed. The optimization design of cut-off dilch can achieve the separation of rainwater and sewage, reduce the leachate production, mitigate the impact of rainwater on collection and treatment systems of landfill leachate, thus reducing the treatment cost of landfill leachate and ensuring the normal and safe operation of landfill site.

  3. Predictive Values of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference for Risk Factors of Certain Related Diseases in Chinese Adults - Study on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For prevention of obesity in Chinese population, it is necessary to define the optimal range of healthy weight and the appropriate cut-off points of BMI and waist circumference for Chinese adults. The Working Group on Obesity in China under the support of International Life Sciences Institute Focal point in China organized a meta-analysis on the relation between BMI, waist circumference and risk factors of related chronic diseases (e. g.,high diabetes, diabetes mellitus, and lipoprotein disorders). Methods 13 population studies in all met the criteria for enrollment, with data of 239 972 adults (20-70 year) surveyed in the 1990s. Data on waist circumference was available for 111411 persons and data on serum lipids and glucose were available for more than 80 000. The study populations located in 21provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in mainland China as well as in Taiwan. Each enrolled study provided data according to a common protocol and uniform format. The Center for data management in Department of Epidemiology, Fu Wai Hospital was responsible for statistical analysis. Results and conclusion The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and clustering of risk factors all increased with increasing levels of BMI or waist circumference. BMI at 24 with best sensitivity and specificity for identification of the risk factors, was recommended as the cut-off point for overweight, BMI at 28 which may identify the risk factors with specificity around 90 % was recommended as the cut-off point for obesity. Waist circumference beyond 85 cm for men and beyond 80 cm for women were recommended as the cut-off points for central obesity.Analysis of population attributable risk percent illustrated that reducing BMI to normal range (<24) could prevent 45%-50% clustering of risk factors. Treatment of obese persons (BMI ≥ 28)with drugs could prevent 15%-17% clustering of risk factors. The waist circumference controlled under 85 cm for men and under 80 cm for

  4. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. H.; Shih, A. Z. L.; Woo, Y. C.; Fong, C. H. Y.; Leung, O. Y.; Janus, E.; Cheung, B. M. Y.; Lam, K. S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. Material & Methods In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25–74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995–1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010–2012) after 15 years of follow-up. Results At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713–0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777–0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. Conclusions HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance. PMID:27658115

  5. Bayesian inference in geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, George E.

    1988-01-01

    The inverse problem in empirical geomagnetic modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference (BI) to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B(r) at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins (1983) and Gubbins and Bloxham (1985). It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.

  6. Geomagnetic Observatory Database February 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (formerly National Geophysical Data Center) maintains an active database of worldwide geomagnetic observatory...

  7. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  8. An approach for the delineation of a generic cut-off value for local respiratory tract irritation by irritating or corrosive substances as a pragmatic tool to fulfill REACH requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, H

    2014-04-01

    Under the current European legislation for the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals (REACHs) a Derived No Effect Level (DNEL) has to be delineated for acute and chronic inhalation effects. The majority of available experimental studies are performed by the oral route of exposure. Route to route extrapolation poses particular problems for irritating or corrosive substances but the necessity for additional animal studies with inhalation exposure needs to be balanced with the regulatory information requirements. Existing occupational exposure limits (OEL) as surrogate for cut-off limits representing safe exposure under working conditions were grouped under certain criteria for substances that are legally classified in Europe as irritating or corrosive. As a result, it was shown that the OEL for irritating substances in this dataset is not lower than 10mg/m(3) and for corrosives not lower than 1mg/m(3). Under certain conditions these generic limits could be applied as a pragmatic, but still sufficiently reliable and protective upper cut-off limit approach to avoid additional animal tests with irritating or corrosive chemicals. The respective systemic toxicity profiles and physical-chemical properties need to be considered. Specific exclusion criteria for the discussed concept apply.

  9. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification: population-based analysis from the Danish Lymphoma Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Anne O; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco; Pedersen, Lars M; Jensen, Bo A; Jensen, Paw; Møller, Michael B; Mourits-Andersen, Hans T; Pedersen, Robert S; Klausen, Tobias W; de N Brown, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients ≤ 70 years including PS, LDH, albumin level and > 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage.

  10. High Voltage Test Power’s Fast Cutting-off Device Based on Infrared%基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断装置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡双双; 周刚; 胡海平; 邱东晓; 金海; 潘克菲

    2015-01-01

    High voltage power system during the test will generate tens of kilovolts or more high-pressure. Therefore,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment is a basic requirement.However,approaches of the traditional use of ropes or fence to seclude the high voltage test area can not protect the safety of personnel and equipment at the root when testing personnel or foreign body mistakenly go in the charged region.This paper presented a program of fast high voltage test power cut-off device based on infrared.It can make audible voice alarm,at the same time quickly cut off high voltage power supply,to ensure the safety of persons and equipment from the source,when testing personnel or foreign objects mistakenly go in the charged region.%提出了一种基于红外线的高压试验电源快速切断的方案,并设计了装置的硬件电路和系统软件。经现场试验,当有人员或异物误入带电区域时,发出声光语音报警的同时快速切断高压电源,从源头上保证人身和设备安全。

  11. On-line cut-off technique and organic modifier addition aided signal enhancement for trace analysis of carbohydrates in cellulase hydrolysate by ion exclusion chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheanyeh; Tsai, Hsiang-Rong; Chang, Kuo-Chung

    2006-06-30

    Paper cellulose has been hydrolyzed with calcium alginate immobilized cellulase to produce carbohydrate products and the three trace sugars, galactose, arabinose, and mannose in the cellulase hydrolysate have been analyzed by HPIEC/ESI-MS. Applying the on-line cut-off technique to the HPIEC/ESI-MS can cut the high concentration glucose off to eliminate its interference on the peaks of minor sugars and enhance their signals from 1.1- to 1.6-fold. However, the on-line post column addition of 15% ethanol to the eluate can increase the signal of the three trace sugars, galactose, arabinose, and mannose up to 17-, 23-, and 11-fold, respectively, and make the corresponding detection limits as 0.04, 0.04, and 0.03 ppm. The accuracies of the quantitative analysis for the three trace sugars with the signal enhanced HPIEC/ESI-MS by the two enhancement methods were larger than 95%. The precisions of the analytical results were also greatly improved by the assistance of the two techniques and were less than 6.5%. The quantitative analysis of the three trace sugars was performed with the internal standard method and the internal standard (IS) was sorbitol. Overall, the signal enhancement of HPIEC/ESI-MS and quantification of the three trace sugars by the on-line cut-off technique and organic modifier addition was successful.

  12. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  13. Analysis of Forbush decreases during strong geomagnetic disturbances in March-April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, M. V.; Sdobnov, V. E.

    2014-08-01

    Using ground-based cosmic-ray (CR) observations on the worldwide network of neutron monitors, we have studied the variations in CR rigidity spectrum, anisotropy, and planetary system of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities during Forbush decreases in March-April 2001 by the global spectrographic method. By jointly analyzing ground-based and satellite measurements, we have determined the parameters of the CR rigidity spectrum that reflect the electromagnetic characteristics of the heliospheric fields in each hour of observations within the framework of the model of CR modulation by the heliosphere's regular electromagnetic fields. The rigidity spectra of the variations and the relative changes in the intensity of CRs with rigidities of 4 and 10 GV in the solar-ecliptic geocentric coordinate system are presented in specific periods of the investigated events.

  14. Rigid monomial ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Timothy B P

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the class of rigid monomial ideals. We give a characterization of the minimal free resolutions of certain classes of these ideals. Specifically, we show that the ideals in a particular subclass of rigid monomial ideals are lattice-linear and thus their minimal resolution can be constructed as a poset resolution. We then use this result to give a description of the minimal free resolution of a larger class of rigid monomial ideals by using $\\mathcal{L}(n)$, the lattice of all lcm-lattices of monomial ideals with $n$ generators. By fixing a stratum in $\\mathcal{L}(n)$ where all ideals have the same total Betti numbers we show that rigidity is a property which is upward closed in $\\mathcal{L}(n)$. Furthermore, the minimal resolution of all rigid ideals contained in a fixed stratum is shown to be isomorphic to the constructed minimal resolution.

  15. Study on Spectral Response beyond Cut off of Cs2Te Ultra Violet Photo Cathode%Cs2Te紫外光电阴极带外光谱响应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓峰; 姜云龙; 李靖雯; 姬明; 李金沙; 张勤东

    2015-01-01

    With the strong light as the input, the spectral response beyond cut off of the Cs2Te ultraviolet photo cathode is measured. The results show that the spectral response of the Cs2Te cathode beyond cut off is lower, and is several orders of magnitude lower than that within the cutoff. The peak sensitivity of within cutoff can be greater than 40mA/W, but the spectral response beyond cut off can be as low as 10-3mA/W order of magnitude at 550nm wavelength. The divergence of spectral response beyond cut off of Cs2Te ultraviolet photo cathode made with the same process is large. According to the test of three different visible light photo cathode, namely Na2KSb (Cs), K2CsSb and GaAs (Cs-O), it is proved that these three kinds of visible light photo cathode also have certain spectral response. The test data show that the spectral response beyond cut off is related to the size of the work function (positive electron affinity cathode) or the band gap (negative electron affinity cathode). The smaller the work function or the band gap is, the greater the spectral response beyond cut off. The spectral response beyond cut off is a common phenomenon for photo cathode. The reason is that the effect of multiphoton absorption, i.e. multiphoton effect. Because Cs2Te photo cathodes are present spectral response beyond cut off, thus, when solar blind image intensifier adopting Cs2Te photo cathodes is used in the strong sun light or straight to the sun's light, detected signal would be disturbed by the light of the sun, or by the image of the sun like. Thus solar blind image intensifier does not have the sun blind characteristic. In order to make the solar blind ultraviolet image intensifier fully equipped with solar blind characteristic, solar blind filter is needed. Combining solar blind filter with spectral response of Cs2Te cathode beyond cut off, solar blind image intensifier can achieve complete solar blind. So in the practical application of ultra violet detecting, the solar

  16. 虎红平板凝集试验确诊布鲁杆菌病截断值的探讨%Cut-off value of rose bengal plate agglutination test in rapid diagnosis of brucellosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志东; 刘云霞; 李艳红; 李建云

    2013-01-01

    Objective To find out the cut-off value of rose bengal plate agglutination test(RBPT) in rapid diagnosis of brucellosis.Methods From May to June 2009,398 people who came to the outpatient department of Inner Mongolia Center for Endemic Disease Control and Research were diagnosed brucellosis by RBPT and tube agglutination test (SAT).Tube agglutination test as a gold standard,rose bengal plate agglutination test,its authenticity and reliability were evaluated.Results Taking positive predictive value 100.0% as the selection standard,the cut-off value of RBPT was "++" which could be used to diagnose brucellosis.The sensitivity was 83.3%; the specificity was 100.0%; the Youden index was 0.832; and the compliance rote was 89.9%.Conclusion The cut-off value "++" of RBPT to diagnosis brucellosis is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的 探讨虎红平板凝集试验确诊布鲁杆菌病凝集度的截断值.方法 内蒙古地方病防治研究中心门诊部选择2009年5月至2009年6月,进行布鲁杆菌病检查的398人,进行试管凝集试验和虎红平板凝集试验检测,以试管凝集试验为金标准,探讨虎红平板凝集试验诊断布鲁杆菌病的截断值,并对可靠性和真实性进行评价.结果 以阳性预测值100.0%作为筛选标准,虎红平板凝集试验快速确诊布鲁杆菌病的截断值为“++”,以该凝集度强度作为截断值进行布鲁杆菌病诊断,灵敏度为83.3%,特异度为100.0%,约登指数为0.823,符合率为89.9%.结论 以虎红平板凝集试验的“++”作为截断值诊断布鲁杆菌病,值得临床推广.

  17. Determination of a cut-off value of antral area measured in the supine position for the fast diagnosis of an empty stomach in the parturient: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Lucille; Zieleskiewicz, Laurent; Desgranges, François-Pierrick; Cogniat, Bérengère; Pop, Marius; Boucher, Pierre; Bellon, Amandine; Léone, Marc; Chassard, Dominique; Bouvet, Lionel

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound measurement of the antral cross-sectional area of the stomach, performed in the supine position, has been described for preoperative assessment of gastric content in the adult, but, to date, no study has determined the cut-off value of the antral area for the diagnosis of an empty stomach in the parturient. Nevertheless, previous studies in parturients have reported that the use of a simple qualitative grading scale (0 to 2) was reliable for the estimation of the gastric fluid volume. However, this qualitative grading score requires turning the parturient into the right lateral decubitus position for the ultrasound examination, something which may not be easily feasible, particularly in the case of an obstetric emergency. To calculate the cut-off value of the antral area, measured in the supine position during established labour, for the diagnosis of 'empty' stomach. A prospective cohort study. Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Lyon, France. Seventy-three women in established labour. For each parturient, ultrasound assessment of gastric contents was performed in the supine and right lateral decubitus position and scored 0 to 3 on a qualitative grading scale. This assessment was followed by ultrasound measurement of the antral cross-sectional area in both the supine and right lateral positions. To assess the performance of the antral area measured in the supine position for the diagnosis of an 'empty' stomach (gastric antrum grade 0), a receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated. Data from 73 women were analysed. For the diagnosis of grade 0, the cut-off value for the antral area measured in the supine position was 381 mm (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 76% and negative predictive value, 80%). With a parturient lying in the supine position, a single assessment of the antral cross-sectional area may be used for the fast diagnosis of an empty

  18. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Ngwira, Chigomezyo

    2016-12-01

    We propose an emergency alert framework for geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), based on the empirically extreme values and theoretical upper limits of the solar wind parameters and of d B/d t, the time derivative of magnetic field variations at ground. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. Large-amplitude d B/d t values are the major cause of hazards associated with three different types of GICs: (1) slow d B/d t with ring current evolution (RC-type), (2) fast d B/d t associated with auroral electrojet activity (AE-type), and (3) transient d B/d t of sudden commencements (SC-type). We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than -300 nT (once per 10 years), -600 nT (once per 60 years), or -900 nT (once per 100 years), respectively. The extreme d B/d t values of the AE-type GICs are 2000, 4000, and 6000 nT/min at caution, warning, and emergency levels, respectively. For the SC-type GICs, a "transient alert" is also proposed for d B/d t values of 40 nT/s at low latitudes and 110 nT/s at high latitudes, especially when the solar energetic particle flux is unusually high.

  19. PtSi红外探测器截止波长延长研究%Study on Extension of Cut-off Wavelength of PtSi Infrared Detectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 杨家德; 刘飒; 宁永功; 陈艾

    2001-01-01

    The basic theory of the extension of cut-off wavelength of PtSi infrared detectors is discussed.Three methods are introduced including Tl+ and Ir+ doping, MBE growth of P+layer and B+, In+ low-energy ion-implantation.%讨论了将PtSi红外探测器截止波长延长的理论基础,并介绍了采用在衬底掺入Tl+和Ir+,MBE生长P+层以及低能离子注入B+,In+来延长PtSi红外探测器截止波长的三种方法。

  20. 蒙古族农牧民代谢综合征诊断的腰围切点观察%Observation of the cut-off point of waist circumference for diagnosing metabolic syndrome in Mongolian peasants and herdsmen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 刘永跃; 王健; 阿尔斯楞; 李永山; 张永红; 佟伟军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To survey the cut-off point of waist circumference for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS) in Chinese Mongolian peasants and herdsmen. Methods Based on the IDF consensus worldwide definition of metabolic syndrome (2005), 2589 Mongolia adults aged over 20 years from agricultural and pastoral areas in Tongliao city were enrolled to analyze the Ors of the clustering of MS components at different sizes of waist circumference. The sensitivity , specificity and area under the ROC curve by different cut-off points of waist circumference for identifying at least two components of MS were estimated to find the cut-off points for men and women in Mongolia. Results The Ors of the clustering of MS components were increased significantly with the sizes of waist circumference. The waist circumference( ≥ 84cm for men, ≥81 cm for women) corresponded to the largest area under the ROC curve , namely, at these cut-off points, the rates of sensitivity and specificity for identifying MS were relatively high. Conclusion The cut-points of WC according to IDF criteria are high for men of Mongolia peasant and herdsmen. It should be lowered to 85cm for men and 80cm for women. This recommendation needs to be further confirmed by follow-up studies in Mongolian people.%目的 研究我国蒙古族农牧民代谢综合征(MS)诊断的腰围(WC)适宜切点. 方法 以内蒙古自治区通辽市科左后旗朝鲁吐苏木和奈曼旗固日班花苏木32个自然村2589名年龄大于20岁的蒙古族农牧民为研究对象,以国际糖尿病联盟(IDF) MS全球共识诊断标准为基础,分析蒙古族男女不同WC水平与MS其他组分聚集的关联,检出至少两个组分存在时灵敏度和特异度均较高的WC界限,作为诊断蒙古族农牧民MS的WC切点,并以此计算不同年龄组MS的检出率. 结果 随WC增大,MS组分聚集的OR值显著增高.当男性WC≥84 cm、女性WC≥81 cm时,ROC曲线下面积最大. 结论 IDF标准在蒙古族农牧民男性

  1. Diagnostic and prognostic value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations in very elderly heart disease patients: specific geriatric cut-off and impacts of age, gender, renal dysfunction, and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondé-Cynober, F; Morineau, G; Estrugo, B; Fillie, E; Aussel, C; Vincent, J-P

    2011-01-01

    Confirming the presence of heart failure (HF) in geriatric patients is made difficult by the overlapping symptoms with other diseases and by limited access to investigative techniques such as echography, and the clinical signs are either non-constant or difficult to interpret. In this context, BNP measurement could prove highly useful. We determined a cut-off value of BNP for diagnosing HF in geriatric patients and gauged its predictive power in terms of cardiovascular events, dependence and death within a 6-month timeframe. This clinical and biological study was performed in patients, 44 women and 20 men, age>65 years with suspected HF hospitalized in the geriatric unit at Emile-Roux hospital. Echography was performed at baseline examination. BNP concentrations were determined at baseline examination and at 2 and 6 months later. Renal function was assessed via the Cockroft-Gault formula. Nutritional status was assessed using the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI). Final reference diagnosis was established by both cardiologist and geriatrician. The diagnostic value of BNP was assessed by area under the ROC curve. The average age of the 64 patients was 84.3±7.4 years. The final diagnosis was HF in 26 patients (41%). A BNPvalue of 90% (accuracy 80%) for excluding the diagnosis of HF. BNP values were predictive of cardiovascular events over a 2-month timeframe in patients with HF and over a 6-month timeframe in the global population. BNP values were not predictive of mortality in patients with or without HF. BNP testing should help to differentiate pulmonary from cardiac etiologies of dyspnea, but a specific cut-off point has to be used in geriatric settings, mainly for patients presenting nutritional and renal dysfunctions.

  2. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs.

  3. On Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1998-01-01

    A statistical description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is neither "flat" nor "while" at any depth, but is akin to spectra advanced by Stevenson and McLeod. This multipole spectrum describes the magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Natural variations of core multipole powers about their mean values are to be expected over geologic time and are described via trial probability distribution functions that neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is thus applicable to core-source dipole and low degree non-dipole fields despite axial dipole anisotropy. The description is combined with main field models of modem satellite and surface geomagnetic measurements to make testable predictions of: (1) the radius of Earth's core, (2) mean paleomagnetic field intensity, and (3) the mean rates and durations of both dipole power excursions and durable axial dipole reversals. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismologic value. The predicted root mean square paleointensity (35.6 mu T) and mean Virtual Axial Dipole Moment (about 6.2 lx 1022 Am(exp 2)) are within the range of various mean paleointensity estimates. The predicted mean rate of dipole power excursions, as defined by an absolute dipole moment <20% of the 1980 value, is 9.04/Myr and 14% less than obtained by analysis of a 4 Myr paleointensity record. The predicted mean rate of durable axial dipole reversals (2.26/Myr) is 2.3% more than established by the polarity time-scale for the past 84 Myr. The predicted mean duration of axial dipole reversals (5533 yr) is indistinguishable from an observational value. The accuracy of these predictions demonstrates the power and utility of the description, which is thought to merit further development and testing. It is suggested that strong stable stratification

  4. HOMOLOGY RIGIDITY OF GRASSMANNIANS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Duan Haibao

    2009-01-01

    Applying the theory of GrSbner basis to the Schubert presentation for the cohomology of Grassmannians [2], we extend the homology rigidity results known for the classical Grassmaniaas to the exceptional cases.

  5. Geomagnetic effects on cosmic ray propagation under different conditions for Buenos Aires and Marambio, Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Masías-Meza, Jimmy J

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (Bgeo) sets a lower cutoff rigidity (Rc) to the entry of cosmic particles to Earth which depends on the geomagnetic activity. From numerical simulations of the trajectory of a proton using different models for Bgeo (performed with the MAGCOS code), we use backtracking to analyze particles arriving at the location of two nodes of the net LAGO (Large Aperture Gamma ray burst Observatory) that will be built in the near future: Buenos Aires and Marambio (Antarctica), Argentina. We determine the asymptotic trajectories and the values of Rc for different incidence directions, for each node. Simulations were done using several models for Bgeo that emulate different geomagnetic conditions. The presented results will help to make analysis of future observations of the flux of cosmic rays done at these two LAGO nodes.

  6. PAMELA's measurements of geomagnetic cutoff variations during solar energetic particle events

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, A; Barbarino, G C; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bravar, U; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Christian, E C; De Donato, C; de Nolfo, G A; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Lee, M; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergè, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Ryan, J M; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stochaj, S; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2015-01-01

    Data from the PAMELA satellite experiment were used to measure the geomagnetic cutoff for high-energy ($\\gtrsim$ 80 MeV) protons during the solar particle events on 2006 December 13 and 14. The variations of the cutoff latitude as a function of rigidity were studied on relatively short timescales, corresponding to single spacecraft orbits (about 94 minutes). Estimated cutoff values were cross-checked with those obtained by means of a trajectory tracing approach based on dynamical empirical modeling of the Earth's magnetosphere. We find significant variations in the cutoff latitude, with a maximum suppression of about 6 deg for $\\sim$80 MeV protons during the main phase of the storm. The observed reduction in the geomagnetic shielding and its temporal evolution were compared with the changes in the magnetosphere configuration, investigating the role of IMF, solar wind and geomagnetic (Kp, Dst and Sym-H indexes) variables and their correlation with PAMELA cutoff results.

  7. Mantle superplumes induce geomagnetic superchrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eOlson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We use polarity reversal systematics from numerical dynamos to quantify the hypothesis that the modulation of geomagnetic reversal frequency, including geomagnetic superchrons, results from changes in core heat flux related to growth and collapse of lower mantle superplumes. We parameterize the reversal frequency sensitivity from numerical dynamos in terms of average core heat flux normalized by the difference between the present-day core heat flux and the core heat flux at geomagnetic superchron onset. A low-order polynomial fit to the 0-300 Ma Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS reveals that a decrease in core heat flux relative to present-day of approximately 30% can account for the Cretaceous Normal Polarity and Kiaman Reverse Polarity Superchrons, whereas the hyper-reversing periods in the Jurassic require a core heat flux equal to or higher than present-day. Possible links between GPTS transitions, large igneous provinces (LIPs, and the two lower mantle superplumes are explored. Lower mantle superplume growth and collapse induce GPTS transitions by increasing and decreasing core heat flux, respectively. Age clusters of major LIPs postdate transitions from hyper-reversing to superchron geodynamo states by 30-60 Myr, suggesting that superchron onset may be contemporaneous with LIP-forming instabilities produced during collapses of lower mantle superplumes.

  8. Solar dynamo and geomagnetic activity

    CERN Document Server

    Georgieva, Katya

    2010-01-01

    The correlation between geomagnetic activity and the sunspot number in the 11-year solar cycle exhibits long-term variations due to the varying time lag between the sunspot-related and non-sunspot related geomagnetic activity, and the varying relative amplitude of the respective geomagnetic activity peaks. As the sunspot-related and non-sunspot related geomagnetic activity are caused by different solar agents, related to the solar toroidal and poloidal fields, respectively, we use their variations to derive the parameters of the solar dynamo transforming the poloidal field into toroidal field and back. We find that in the last 12 cycles the solar surface meridional circulation varied between 5 and 20 m/s (averaged over latitude and over the sunspot cycle), the deep circulation varied between 2.5 and 5.5 m/s, and the diffusivity in the whole of the convection zone was ~10**12 m2/s. In the last 12 cycles solar dynamo has been operating in moderately diffusion dominated regime in the bulk of the convection zone....

  9. The geomagnetic field gradient tensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Olsen, Nils

    2012-01-01

    We develop the general mathematical basis for space magnetic gradiometry in spherical coordinates. The magnetic gradient tensor is a second rank tensor consisting of 3 × 3 = 9 spatial derivatives. Since the geomagnetic field vector B is always solenoidal (∇ · B = 0) there are only eight independe...... of the small-scale structure of the Earth’s lithospheric field....

  10. A New Theory of Geomagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    1999-01-01

    It is pointed out, that in the light of recent results on the semionic or anomalous behaviour of electrons below the Fermi temperature, the solid core of the earth which has been ignored so far, would contribute significantly to Geomagnetism and help explain the puzzling magnetic reversals.

  11. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  12. Extreme Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present the first large statistical study of extreme geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst provide a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the extreme storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the extreme storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the extreme storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence

  13. Rigidity of melting DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Tanmoy; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M.

    2016-05-01

    The temperature dependence of DNA flexibility is studied in the presence of stretching and unzipping forces. Two classes of models are considered. In one case the origin of elasticity is entropic due to the polymeric correlations, and in the other the double-stranded DNA is taken to have an intrinsic rigidity for bending. In both cases single strands are completely flexible. The change in the elastic constant for the flexible case due to thermally generated bubbles is obtained exactly. For the case of intrinsic rigidity, the elastic constant is found to be proportional to the square root of the bubble number fluctuation.

  14. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape-changing inte......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape...

  15. Effect of Body Mass Index on All-cause Mortality and Incidence of Cardiovascular Diseases - Report for Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies on Optimal Cut-off Points of Body Mass Index in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To verify the optimal cut-off points for overweight and obesity in Chinese adults based on the relationship of baseline body mass index (BMI) to all-cause mortality, and incidence of cardiovascular diseases from pooled data of Chinese cohorts. Methods The prospective study data of existing cohort studies in China were collected, and the age-adjusted all-cause mortality stratified by BMI were estimated. The similar analysis was repeated after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and after excluding smokers. The incidence of age-adjusted coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke stratified by BMI were also analyzed. Multiple Cox regression coefficients of BMI for the incidence of CHD and stroke after controlling other risk factors were pooled utilizing the methods of weighting by inverse of variance to reveal whether BMI had independent effect and its strength on the incidence of CHD and stroke. Results The data of 4 cohorts including 76 227persons, with 745 346 person-years of follow-up were collected and analyzed. The age-adjusted allcause mortality stratified by BMI showed a U-shaped curve, even after excluding deaths within the first three years of follow-up and excluding smokers. Age-adjusted all-cause mortality increased when BMI was lower than 18.5 and higher than 28. The incidence of CHD and stroke, especially ishemic stroke increased with increasing BMI, this was consistent with parallel increasing of risk factors. Cox regression analysis showed that BMI was an independent risk factor for both CHD and stroke. Each amount of 2 kg/m2 increase in baseline BMI might cause 15.4%, 6.1% and 18.8 % increase in relative risk of CHD, total stroke and ischemic stroke. Reduction of BMI to under 24 might prevent the incidence of CHD by 11% and that of stroke by15 % for men, and 22 % of both diseases for women. Conclusion BMI ≤18.5, 24-27.9 and ≥28 (kg/m2) is the appropriate cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obesity in

  16. Selection of a cut-off for high- and low-methane producers using a spot-methane breath test: results from a large north American dataset of hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide measurements in breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Klaus; Le, Chenxiong; Wacher, Vince; Sliman, Joe; Cruz, Christine; Porter, Tyler; Carter, Stephen

    2017-01-27

    Levels of breath methane, together with breath hydrogen, are determined by means of repeated collections of both, following ingestion of a carbohydrate substrate, at 15-20 minutes intervals, until 10 samples have been obtained. The frequent sampling is required to capture a rise of hydrogen emissions, which typically occur later in the test: in contrast, methane levels are typically elevated at baseline. If methane emissions represent the principal objective of the test, a spot methane test (i.e. a single-time-point sample taken after an overnight fast without administration of substrate) may be sufficient. We analysed 10-sample lactulose breath test data from 11 674 consecutive unique subjects who submitted samples to Commonwealth Laboratories (Salem, MA, USA) from sites in all of the states of the USA over a one-year period. The North American Consensus (NAC) guidelines criteria for breath testing served as a reference standard. The overall prevalence of methane-positive subjects (by NAC criteria) was 20.4%, based on corrected methane results, and 18.9% based on raw data. In our USA dataset, the optimal cut-off level to maximize sensitivity and specificity was ≥4 ppm CH4, 94.5% [confidential interval (CI): 93.5-95.4%] and 95.0% (CI: 94.6-95.5%), respectively. The use of a correction factor (CF) (5% CO2 as numerator) led to reclassifications CH4-high to CH4-low in 0.7 % and CH4-low to CH4-high in 2.1%. A cut-off value for methane at baseline of either ≥4 ppm, as in our USA dataset, or ≥ 5 ppm, as described in a single institution study, are both highly accurate in identifying subjects at baseline that would be diagnosed as 'methane-positive' in a 10-sample lactulose breath test for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press and Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

  17. Improving thermal and electrochemical performances of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode at high cut-off charge potentials by MF{sub 3} (M=Ce, Al) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboulaich, Abdelmaula, E-mail: a.aboulaich@managemgroup.com; Ouzaouit, Khalid; Faqir, Hakim; Kaddami, Abderrahman; Benzakour, Intissar; Akalay, Ismail

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Fluoride metal is successfully coated on the surface of LiCoO{sub 2}. • Easy and scalable method is adopted for the synthesis of coated-LiCoO{sub 2}. • Appropriate amount of AlF{sub 3} or CeF{sub 3} is beneficial to reduce cation disorder. • The electrochemical performances of coated LiCoO{sub 2} is significantly enhanced at higher potential (cycling efficiency and reversible capacity). • The coated cathode exhibits excellent thermal stability highlighted by calorimetric technique. - Abstract: Surface coating of LiCoO{sub 2} remained one of the efficient methods to enhance its electrochemical and thermal performances, especially at high cut-off potential. In this work, MF{sub 3} (M = Ce, Al) coated LiCoO{sub 2} was synthesized via co-precipitation method followed by a solid state reaction at 400 °C. The morphology and structure of the modified cathode material were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that the fluoride compound MF{sub 3} is successfully coated on the surface of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode particles with an average layer thickness about 12 nm and 40 nm for AlF{sub 3} and CeF{sub 3}, respectively. The electrochemical tests show that the AlF{sub 3}-coating layer significantly enhances the cycling performance of LiCoO{sub 2} cathode material, even at high cut-off potential. While the bare LiCoO{sub 2} cathode displays fast fading at 4.6 V vs. Li{sup +}/Li cutoff potential, the surface-modified electrode exhibits the great capacity of 160 mAh g{sup −1} with excellent capacity retention on several cycles. We concluded that the electrochemical and the thermal enhancement at high potential are ascribed to the presence of MF{sub 3} coating layer which prevent the side reaction during the charge discharge process, alleviate the attack by the acidic electrolyte and reduce the damage of electrode structure.

  18. Heart attacks and geomagnetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, E G; Armstrong, E; Lancashire, R; Wall, M; Haynes, R

    1979-10-18

    Malin and Srivastava reported a remarkable correlation between daily variations in the geomagnetic field strength and daily admissions to the cardio-thoracic wards of hospitals in Hyderabad and Secunderabad, for cardiac emergencies, during 1967--72. We have now carried out a similar enquiry in the West Midlands region of the UK for the years 1969--70, but were unable to confirm the Indian results.

  19. Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Chulliat, A.; Mandea, M.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of the geomagnetic field have been made for more than 400 years, beginning with individual determinations of the angle between geographic and magnetic North. This was followed by the start of continuous time series of full vector measurements at geomagnetic observatories and t...... for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories....... and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments...

  20. On Multifractal Rigidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meson, Alejandro M., E-mail: meson@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar; Vericat, Fernando, E-mail: vericat@iflysib.unlp.edu.ar [CONICET-UNLP, Instituto de Fisica de Liquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB) (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    We analyze when a multifractal spectrum can be used to recover the potential. This phenomenon is known as multifractal rigidity. We prove that for a certain class of potentials the multifractal spectrum of local entropies uniquely determines their equilibrium states. This leads to a classification which identifies two systems up to a change of variables.

  1. Electrostatics of Rigid Polyelectrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, G.C.L.

    2009-06-04

    The organization of rigid biological polyelectrolytes by multivalent ions and macroions are important for many fundamental problems in biology and biomedicine, such as cytoskeletal regulation and antimicrobial sequestration in cystic fibrosis. These polyelectrolytes have been used as model systems for understanding electrostatics in complex fluids. Here, we review some recent results in theory, simulations, and experiments.

  2. Electoral Stability and Rigidity

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, Michael Y

    2016-01-01

    Some argue that political stability is best served through a two-party system. This study refutes this. The author mathematically defines the stability and rigidity of electoral systems comprised of any quantity of electors and parties. In fact, stability is a function of the quantity of electors - i.e., the number of occupied seats at the table. As the number of electors increases, the properties of an electorate are increasingly well resolved, and well described by those of an electorate that is least excessive -- that is to say an electorate that is closest to equilibrium. Further, electoral rigidity is a function of the quantity of parties and their probabilities of representation. An absolutely rigid system admits no fluctuations -- whatever happens to one elector will happen to all electors. As the quantity of parties increases so does the number of party lines, and with it the quantity of alternatives with which to respond to an external stimulus. Rigidity is significant in a social system that places ...

  3. The Causes of Geomagnetic Storms During Solar Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine (1852).

  4. Optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome%腰围身高比预测代谢综合征的切点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋建家; 张雅萍; 林振忠; 牟伦盼; 孙炳庆; 苏劲波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between waist-to-height ratio and metabolic syndrome,in order to identify the optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome.Methods In this cross-sectional study,we recruited 343 people who received physical examination in First Hospital of Quanzhou between January 2012 and June 2014,and collected the information of their waist circumference,height,weight,blood pressure,laboratory test results (including fasting blood glucose,2-hour glucose after oral glucose tolerance test,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and visceral fat area assessed by computed tomography.Then a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to estimate the optimal cut-off points of waist-to-height ratio for the prediction of metabolic syndrome.Results Among the 343 people,there were 195 metabolic syndrome patients,the prevalence rate was 56.8%,which was 70.2% in men (127/181) and 42.0% in women (68/162).In ROC curve analysis,the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio for the prediction of metabolic syndrome was 0.664 for men,and 0.673 for women.The optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome was 0.543 0 (sensitivity 88.2%,specificity 44.4%) for men,and 0.568 3 (sensitivity 86.8%,specificity 46.8%).Conclusion The optimal cut-off point of waist-to-height ratio for predicting metabolic syndrome in Quanzhou population is 0.543 0 for men and 0.568 3 for women.%目的 研究腰围身高比与代谢综合征的关系,寻找腰围身高比预测代谢综合征的最佳切点.方法 采用横断面调查方法,纳入2012年1月至2014年6月在福建医科大学附属泉州第一医院进行体检的343名人员,体检项目包括腰围、身高、体质量、血压、实验室检查(包括空腹血糖、口服葡萄糖耐量试验2h血糖、三酰甘油、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇)、CT测定腹腔内脂肪面积.通过受试者工

  5. On the comparison of the polarisation behaviour of exchange-biased AF/F NiMn/Fe 37Co 48Hf 15 bi-layer and multi-layer films with increased ferromagnetic cut-off frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, K.; Leiste, H.; Krüger, K.

    2012-03-01

    Antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (AF/F) NiMn/Fe37Co48Hf15 films were investigated with respect to their exchange bias, in-plane unidirectional anisotropy, polarisation and high frequency behaviour. After deposition, carried out by r.f. magnetron sputtering, the films were post-annealed for 4 h at 300 °C in a static magnetic field, in order to induce exchange-bias, which results in a unidirectional anisotropy. Dependent on the presence of a bi-layer or multi-layer sandwich structure the films show a different exchange-bias field-ferromagnetic inter-layer thickness behaviour with exchange-bias fields μ0*Heb between 2 and 10 mT. The in-plane uniaxial (single film) or unidirectional anisotropy fields μ0*HUF were between 4 and 18 mT. This results in a significant increase of the cut-off frequency in the GHz range in comparison to a single Fe37Co48Hf15 film, which is shown by frequency-dependent permeability plots. High damping in the imaginary part of the permeability, i.e., high resonance line broadening could be observed for films with high coercivity μ0*Hc of around 7 mT in the easy axis of magnetisation.

  6. Extracorporeal light chain elimination: high cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis parallel to chemotherapy allows for a high proportion of renal recovery in multiple myeloma patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Nils; Denecke, Barbara; Guthoff, Martina; Oehrlein, Katharina; Kanz, Lothar; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Weisel, Katja C

    2012-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in multiple myeloma (MM) patients and strongly affects prognosis, with particularly poor outcomes in patients requiring hemodialysis. Introduction of the novel therapeutic agents to MM therapy has improved myeloma response and renal outcome. This case series reviews the efficacy of combined systemic and extracorporeal therapy to further optimize time to light chain (serum-free light chain (sFLC)) reduction and renal recovery in MM patients with dialysis-dependent AKI (n = 19). High cut-off (HCO) hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC removal was initiated in parallel to chemotherapy. Combined therapy resulted in early sFLC response after a median of 13 (range 4-48) days and 6 (3-22) HCO hemodialysis sessions. Time to sFLC response was shorter in patients recovering renal function. Median time to dialysis independence was 15 (4-64) days. By intent-to-treat analysis, sustained renal recovery was achieved in 73.7% (77.8% adjusted for death) of patients. In multivariate analysis, duration of AKI prior to initiation of therapy was an independent predictor of renal functional outcome. Combining HCO hemodialysis for extracorporeal sFLC elimination and effective chemotherapy is a novel treatment strategy allowing for early and sustained sFLC reduction and a high proportion of renal recovery in these patients. Timely diagnosis and onset of therapy is essential for improving renal outcome.

  7. Obituary--rigid contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan

    2010-10-01

    Scleral and corneal rigid lenses represented 100 per cent of the contact lens market immediately prior to the invention of soft lenses in the mid-1960s. In the United Kingdom today, rigid lenses comprise 2 per cent of all new lens fits. Low rates of rigid lens fitting are also apparent in 27 other countries which have recently been surveyed. Thus, the 1998 prediction of the author that rigid lenses--also referred to as 'rigid gas permeable' (RGP) lenses or 'gas permeable' (GP) lenses--would be obsolete by the year 2010 has essentially turned out to be correct. In this obituary, the author offers 10 reasons for the demise of rigid lens fitting: initial rigid lens discomfort; intractable rigid lens-induced corneal and lid pathology; extensive soft lens advertising; superior soft lens fitting logistics; lack of rigid lens training opportunities; redundancy of the rigid lens 'problem solver' function; improved soft toric and bifocal/varifocal lenses; limited uptake of orthokeratology; lack of investment in rigid lenses; and the emergence of aberration control soft lenses. Rigid lenses are now being fitted by a minority of practitioners with specialist skills/training. Certainly, rigid lenses can no longer be considered as a mainstream form of contact lens correction. May their dear souls (bulk properties) rest in peace.

  8. Cutting off Mediation. Agamben as Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agamben’s Homo Sacer turns centrally upon “bare life”. However, the following subjects are not thematized: natality, gender, sexuality, the relation of the sexes, the heterosexual character of the symbolic order and political culture, the interest of women in the reproduction of life. The entire question of sexual difference —like that of the difference between victim and perpetrator, between witnesses and those born afterwards— is banned from Agamben’s horizon. Thus a deep unease remains, which this paper is intended to explore. It will first present the methodological and theoretical inspirations, which Homo Sacer owes to the thought of Carl Schmitt. Secondly it will show that Schmitt’s concepts of nomos and the state of exception cannot provide a suitable basis for rewriting Foucault’s concept of biopolitics.

  9. Warped product rigidity

    CERN Document Server

    He, Chenxu; Wylie, William

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the space of solutions to an overdetermined linear system involving the Hessian of functions. We show that if the solution space has dimension greater than one, then the underlying manifold has a very rigid warped product structure. This warped product structure will be used to study warped product Einstein structures in our paper "The space of virtual solutions to the warped product Einstein equation".

  10. Attitude dynamics and control of spacecraft using geomagnetic Lorentz force

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia A

    2014-01-01

    The attitude stabilization of a charged rigid spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) using torques due to Lorentz force in pitch and roll directions is considered. A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in the Earth magnetic field will be subject to perturbations from Lorentz force. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft's orientation. We assume that the spacecraft is moving in the Earth's magnetic field in an elliptical orbit under the effects of the gravitational, geomagnetic and Lorentz torques. The magnetic field of the Earth is modeled as a non-tilted dipole. A model incorporating all Lorentz torques as a function of orbital elements has been developed on the basis of electric and magnetic fields. The stability of the spacecraft orientation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The existence and stability of equilibrium positions is investigated for different values of the charge to...

  11. Electric Utility Industry Experience with Geomagnetic Disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as a few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration.

  12. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  13. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  14. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Taylor, E.R. Jr. (ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems' responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  15. Electric utility industry experience with geomagnetic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Rizy, D.T.; McConnell, B.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Taylor, E.R. Jr. [ABB Power Systems, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tesche, F.M.

    1991-09-01

    A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) by its nature occurs globally and almost simultaneously. Severe geomagnetic storms cause problems for electric power systems. The vulnerability of electric power systems to such events has apparently increased during the last 10 to 20 years because power system transmission lines have become more interconnected and have increased in length and because power systems are now operated closer to their limits than in the past. In this report, the experience of electric utilities during geomagnetic storms is examined and analyzed. Measured data, effects on power system components, and power system impacts are considered. It has been found that electric power systems are susceptible to geomagnetically induced earth-surface potential gradients as small as few (2 to 3) volts per kilometer, corresponding to a storm of K-6 intensity over an area of high earth resistivity. The causes and effects are reasonably well understood, but additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of solar-induced geomagnetic storms and the responses of power systems to these types of storms. A better understanding of geomagnetic storms and the power systems` responses to GMDs is needed so that mitigation measures can be implemented that will make power systems less susceptible to severe geomagnetic disturbances. A GMD caused by a large high-altitude nuclear detonation is similar in many ways to that of solar-induced geomagnetic storms except that a nuclear-caused disturbance would be much more intense with a far shorter duration. 49 refs.

  16. Geomagnetic Information Model for the Year 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Brkić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The finalization of the survey of the Basic Geomagnetic Network of the Republic of Croatia (BGNRC and completion of geomagnetic information models for the Institute for Research and Development of Defence Systems of the Ministry of Defence and the State Geodetic Administration (e.g. Brkić M., E. Jungwirth, D. Matika and Ž. Bačić, 2012, Geomagnetic Information and Safety, 3rd Conference of Croatian National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, National Protection and Rescue Directorate, Zagreb was followed in 2012 with validity confirmation of the GI2012 predictive model by geomagnetic observations in quiet conditions. The differences between the measured and modelled declination were found to be within the expected errors of the model. It needs to be pointed out that this was the first successful implementation of night surveying (especially suitable for geomagnetic surveys of airports in the Republic of Croatia.

  17. History of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doell, Richard R.

    1969-01-01

    Direct measurements of the direction and strength of the earth's magnetic field have provided a knowledge of the field's form and behavior during the last few hundreds of years. For older times, however, it has been necessary to measure the magnetism of certain rocks to learn what the geomagnetic field was like. For example, when a lava flow solidifies (at temperatures near 1000??C) and cools through the Curie point of the magnetic minerals contained in it (around 500??C) it acquires a remanent magnetism that is (1) very weak, (2) very stablel, (3) paralle to the direction of the ambient geomagnetic field, and (4) proportional in intensity to the ambient field. Separating, by various analytical means, this magnetization from other 'unwanted' magnetizations has allowed paleomagnetists to study the historical and prehistorical behavior of the earth's field. It has been learned, for example, that the strength of the field was almost twice its present value 2000 years ago and that it has often completely reversed its polarity. Paleo-magnetists have also confirmed that most oceans are, geologically speaking, relatively new features, and that the continents have markedly changed their positions over the surface of the earth. ?? 1969 The American Institute of Physics.

  18. 电励磁同步电动机转矩角截止负反馈闭环控制%Torque-Angle Cut-Off Negative Feedback Closed-Loop Control Strategy of Electrical Excited Synchronous Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慕君; 步伟明; 冯敬芳; 王志乾

    2013-01-01

    针对电励磁同步电动机负载变化易失步的问题,通过对转矩角特性分析,提出了一种基于转矩角截止负反馈的控制策略。阐述了利用转矩角控制防止失步的原理,建立了基于同步电动机磁链观测的转矩角数学模型,并设计了转矩角外环、励磁电流内环的双闭环控制系统。仿真结果表明,该控制策略与常规控制相比,适应负载变化的能力显著提高,有效抑制了电机的失步,为电机的稳定控制开辟了新途径。%Aiming at the problem that the electrical synchronous excited motor will be out of step with the load changes, this paper raised a control strategy based on torque-angle cut-off feedback via the analysis of torque-angle characteristics. Discussion was made to the principle using torque-angle control to prevent out-of-step. The mathematical model of torque-angle was constructed based on the flux linkage observation of synchronous motors and the double closed-loop control system for the outer loop adopting torque-angle and the inner loop adopting field current were designed. The simulation results show that compared with conventional control, this control strategy obviously met the requirements of load changes, effectively restraining out-of-step of motors, which opens up a new way for stable control of motors.

  19. ROC curve establish to cut-off value of hematologic indicators for thalassemia screening%ROC曲线确立血液学各指标在地贫筛查中的CUT-OFF值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 何升; 阙婷; 唐燕青

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Establish to cut - off value of hematologic indicators for thalassemia screening. Methods: Use SYSMEX he- matology analyzer to detect MCV, MCH, RDW - CV, Hb RBC, use HPLC analyzer HBA2. All of examples carry out thalassemia gene test which apply gap - per and RDB principle. Result: MCV MCH are better than other hematologic indicators. In thalassemia screening. MCV is higher than MCH RDW - CV HBA2 showed value for β thalassemia screening. RBC and HB have screening of limited value. Conclusion; Laboratory should establish; to suit cutoff value in order to ruduse missed diagnosis and Diagnostic Errors.%目的 用ROC曲线(受试者工作特征曲线)确立各血液学指标在地贫筛查中的切值.方法 以SYSMEX五分类血细胞分析仪进行全血细胞计数,记录RBC,HB,MCH,MCV,RDW-CV的数值.用伯乐HPLC进行血红蛋白电泳分析记录HBA2值.所有标本进行地中海贫血基因检测.采用gap-pcr及RDB(反向点杂交)原理对筛查结果进行验证.结果 在地贫筛查中MCV和MCH比较有价值,MCV的价值略大于MCH,RDW-CV,和HBA2对β地贫的筛查价值更加的显著,而RBC及HB在地贫筛查中价值不大.结论 为减少漏诊及误诊,实验室应该建立合适的切值

  20. Electrochemical performance of a nickel-rich LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material for lithium-ion batteries under different cut-off voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-lin; Mu, Dao-bin; Wu, Bo-rong; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ying; Wang, Rui

    2017-03-01

    A spherical-like Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursor was tuned homogeneously to synthesize LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. The effects of calcination temperature on the crystal structure, morphology, and the electrochemical performance of the as-prepared LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 were investigated in detail. The as-prepared material was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, laser particle size analysis, charge-discharge tests, and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results show that the spherical-like LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 material obtained by calcination at 900°C displayed the most significant layered structure among samples calcined at various temperatures, with a particle size of approximately 10 μm. It delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189.2 mAh•g-1 at 0.2C with a capacity retention of 94.0% after 100 cycles between 2.7 and 4.3 V. The as-prepared cathode material also exhibited good rate performance, with a discharge capacity of 119.6 mAh•g-1 at 5C. Furthermore, within the cut-off voltage ranges from 2.7 to 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 V, the initial discharge capacities of the calcined samples were 170.7, 180.9, and 192.8 mAh•g-1, respectively, at a rate of 1C. The corresponding retentions were 86.8%, 80.3%, and 74.4% after 200 cycles, respectively.

  1. 热阻可调式断桥复合保温砌块的研制%Development of a bridge-cut-off composite insulation block with the adjustable thermal resistance feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永权; 任增茂; 罗天祥; 陈延军

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a bridge-cut-off composite insulation block with the adjustable thermal resistance feature,which structure is constituted by a new force block and insulating material.Regulating the proportion size of the insulation material and air interlayer on the basis of constant force main structure,the block can meet the demand of the wall thermal performance in different climatic regions with an economical way, and the performance price ratio of the block enhances at the same time.The block can use many kinds of waste in its production,e.g.,fly ash,construction waste.It has many advantages,such as environmental protection,energy conservation,fire preventing and so on,which can be generalized in nationwide.%介绍了一种热阻可调式断桥复合保温砌块,该砌块采用新型受力块体与绝热材料复合构造,在受力主体结构不变的基础上,可以通过调节绝热材料和空气间层配合尺寸,以最经济的方式满足不同气候环境区域对墙体热工性能的要求,增强了复合保温砌块节能性价比。该砌块在生产过程中可以利用粉煤灰、建筑垃圾等多种废弃物,具有经济、环保、节能和防火性能好等特点,适合在全国范围内推广应用。

  2. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  3. Body mass index cut-offs for overweight and obesity in Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years%中国2~18岁儿童青少年超重和肥胖筛查体重指数界值点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 宗心南; 季成叶; 米杰

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the body cut-offs of mass index (BMI) for the purpose of screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years. Methods Based on the BMI growth reference values for Chinese children aged 0-18, using the common methods to establish the BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity. These methods were having the same empirical percentile or Z scores and the BMI value at 18 years consistent with adults.Three sets of BMI cut-offs, including (BMI24, BMI28) , (P85, P95) and (Z1, Z2) , were initially identified. Differences were compared on different cut-off points and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity with different BMI reference, different values and "prevalence" of overweight and obesity based on "2004 Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome Study ". Cut-offs standards which recommended by the Chinese Working Group on Obesity for Children (WGOC) and by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) were also used. Finally the appropriate cut-offs were defined. Results Three sets of BMI cut-offs for screening overweight and obesity for Chinese children and adolescents aged 2-18 years were obtained according to the above mentioned methods for selection. The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity defined by those cut-offs appeared not to be significantly different. Compared with the WGOC, the BMI cut-off points for screening overweight and obesity for both boys and girls from our study were very close to the WGOC', but cut-off points for screening overweight for girls aged 8.5-15.5 y was 0.3-1.0 kg/m2 lower than the WGOC'. Going through the database on screening of "2004 Beijing Children's Metabolic Syndrome Survey ", the prevalence of overweight for girls was about 3.4% higher than using the cut-offs of WGOC. Conclusion Results from this study suggested that the BMI cut-offs passed through the cut-off point of BMI24 and BMI28 at 18 years was appropriate for screening overweight and obesity in

  4. Centennial to millennial geomagnetic field variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscheler Raimund

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of the geomagnetic field in the past represent a useful tool not only to investigate the geodynamo process, but also to estimate the effect of geomagnetic shielding for any studies on cosmogenic radionuclides and galactic cosmic rays. A number of new millennial-scale geomagnetic field reconstructions have been published over the last years, based on improved global archeo- and paleomagnetic data compilations. Here we review several spherical harmonic models and compare their dipole field predictions to reconstructions based on virtual axial dipole moments and virtual geomagnetic poles. Dipole intensity estimates from cosmogenic radionuclide production records, with suitable filtering to minimise the solar influence, have also been included in the comparison to provide independent information about variations in the strength of the geomagnetic field. However, due to differences among geomagnetic models and between 14C and 10Be production records this comparison is fairly inconclusive with respect to multi-centennial variations. Different geomagnetic dipole tilt reconstructions agree well for much of the Holocene, but dipole moment estimates still differ substantially. Recent spherical harmonic models for the past 3 and 10 kyrs have improved considerably compared to earlier versions. Nevertheless at present we recommend to test if any interpretation depends on the choice of model.

  5. Improved geomagnetic referencing in the Arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poedjono, B.; Beck, N.; Buchanan, A. C.; Borri, L.; Maus, S.; Finn, Carol; Worthington, Bill; White, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Geomagnetic referencing uses the Earth’s magnetic field to determine accurate wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs, either as an alternative or a complement to north-seeking gyroscopic referencing. However, fluctuations in the geomagnetic field, especially at high latitudes, make the application of geomagnetic referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise crustal mapping and the monitoring of real-time variations by nearby magnetic observatories is crucial to achieving the required geomagnetic referencing accuracy. The Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate, real-time data to the oilfield drilling industry. Geomagnetic referencing is enhanced with real-time data from DED and other observatories, and has been successfully used for accurate wellbore positioning. The availability of real-time geomagnetic measurements leads to significant cost and time savings in wellbore surveying, improving accuracy and alleviating the need for more expensive surveying techniques. The correct implementation of geomagnetic referencing is particularly critical as we approach the increased activity associated with the upcoming maximum of the 11-year solar cycle. The DED observatory further provides an important service to scientific communities engaged in studies of ionospheric, magnetospheric and space weather phenomena.

  6. An Ensemble Algorithm Based Component for Geomagnetic Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Sun and Weijia Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic data assimilation is one of the most recent developments in geomagnetic studies. It combines geodynamo model outputs and surface geomagnetic observations to provide more accurate estimates of the core dynamic state and provide accurate geomagnetic secular variation forecasting. To facilitate geomagnetic data assimilation studies, we develop a stand-alone data assimilation component for the geomagnetic community. This component is used to calculate the forecast error covariance matrices and the gain matrix from a given geodynamo solution, which can then be used for sequential geomagnetic data assimilation. This component is very flexible and can be executed independently. It can also be easily integrated with arbitrary dynamo models.

  7. Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Philip B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

  8. Solar wind and geomagnetism. Toward a standard classification of geomagnetic activity from 1868 to 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbo, J.L. [Univ. Polytechnique de Bobo Dioulasso (Burkina Faso); UPMC/Polytechique/CNRS, UMR 7648, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (France). LPP-Lab. de Physique des Plasmas; Mazaudier, C. Amory [UPMC/Polytechique/CNRS, UMR 7648, Saint-Maur-des-Fosses (France). LPP-Lab. de Physique des Plasmas; Ouattara, F. [Koudougou Univ. (Burkina Faso). Ecole Normale Superieure; Richardson, J.D. [M.I.T., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Space Research

    2012-07-01

    We examined solar activity with a large series of geomagnetic data from 1868 to 2009. We have revisited the geomagnetic activity classification scheme of Legrand and Simon (1989) and improve their scheme by lowering the minimum Aa index value for shock and recurrent activity from 40 to 20 nT. This improved scheme allows us to clearly classify about 80% of the geomagnetic activity in this time period instead of only 60% for the previous Legrand and Simon classification. (orig.)

  9. Differential rotation of geomagnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zigang; XU Wenyao

    2003-01-01

    The latitudinal dependence of the westward drift in the main geomagnetic field is examined by using the correlation analysis of moving random pattern. The study reveals the characteristics in the differential rotation of the main field. The results show that the global geomagnetic field drifts westward with an average speed of 0.18°/a during 1900-2000. The westward drift rate is not symmetrical with respect to the equator. The maximum westward drift rate, 0.31°/a, occurs at the latitude --= -15°, forming a Rapid Westward Drift Belt (RDB) around this latitude. Going northward and southward from this belt, the drift rate decreases and reaches the minimum (0.12°/a) at --= 50° and the minimum (0.14°/a) at --= -56°, forming a Northern Hemisphere Slow Westward Drift Belt (N-SDB) and a Southern Hemisphere Slow Westward Drift Belt (S-SDB). Three phases can be detected in the evolution of the westward drift. In the first phase (1900-1940), the RDB dominates the global drift pattern. The westward drifts in this belt are much faster than those in other areas. In the second phase (1940-1960), the drift rates in the RDB are less than those in the first phase, while the drifts in the N-SDB and S-SDB are relatively large. In this phase, the differential rotation becomes less obvious. In the third phase (1960-2000), the westward drift in the RDB increases again and the differential rotation gradually becomes apparent.

  10. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...... for the torsional rigidity are actually attained and give conditions under which the geometric average of the stochastic mean exit time for Brownian motion at infinity is finite....

  11. Rigid collapsible dish structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, William B. (Inventor); Giebler, Martin M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A collapsible dish structure composed of a plurality of rows of rigid radial petal assemblies concentric with the axis of the dish. The petal assemblies consist of a center petal and two side petals, the center petal hinged on an axis tangent to a circle concentric with the axis of the dish and the side petals hinged to the center petal at their mating edge. The center petal is foldable inwardly and the side petals rotate about their hinges such that the collapsed dish structure occupies a much smaller volume than the deployed dish. Means of controlling the shape of the dish to compensate for differential expansion of the deployed dish are also provided.

  12. Rigid Quasilocal Frames

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I examine in detail the properties of rigid quasilocal frames (RQF), which have been proposed as a geometrically natural way to define spatially extended reference frames in general relativity. I also explore their usefulness, in particular, as a tool for constructing completely general conservation laws that do not rely on the presence of spacetime symmetries and include both matter and gravitational contributions without the need for any ad hoc structures such as pseudotensors. In doing so, I show how the RQF approach affords a deeper understanding of the nature of gravitational fluxes via the equivalence principle. Finally, I apply the RQF formalism to explore Ehrenfest's rotating disk paradox, a generalization of Archimedes' law to curved spacetime, tidal interactions for Earth's and Jupiter's moons, and more.

  13. After Rigid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troiano, Giovanni Maria

    to convey particular information (e.g., big-isurgent, loud-is-up). The second work presents a large-scale analysis of 340 Sci-Fi movies that identifies instances of shape-changing interfaces. Results from the analysis reveals emergent behavioral patterns of shape change, namely Reconfiguration......Deformable and shape-changing interfaces are rapidly emerging in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). Deformable interfaces provide users with newer input possibilities such as bending, squeezing, or stretching, which were impossible to achieve with rigid interfaces. Shape......-changing interfaces can reconfigure their shape dynamically, providing users with new affordances and output modalities. This thesis contributes to both the field of deformable interfaces and shape-changing interfaces through empirical research. In the area of deformable interfaces, this thesis presents two studies...

  14. Cosmic rays during great geomagnetic storms in cycle 23 of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, M. V.; Sdobnov, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Variations in the cosmic ray intensity (specifically, Forbush effects) and in the geomagnetic cutoff rigidity planetary system during powerful geomagnetic disturbances in cycle 23 were studied based on worldwide station network data by the global spectrographic survey method. The cosmic ray variation spectra during these periods and the spectral indices of these variations when the spectrum was approximated by the power function of the particle rigidity varying from 10 to 50 GV during different Forbush effect development phases are presented. It was indicated that the spectral indices of cosmic ray variations during spectrum approximation by the power function of the particle rigidity are larger during the maximal modulation phase than during the cosmic ray intensity decline and recovery phases. The fact that the amplitude of the second harmonic of the cosmic ray pitch angle anisotropy did not increase on November 20, 2003, confirms that the Earth fell into a Sun-independent spheromark magnetic cloud. The increased amplitudes of the second harmonic of the cosmic ray pitch angle anisotropy during other Forbush effects in July 2000, March-April 2001, October 2003, and November 2004 indicate that the Earth was in the coronal mass ejection region, in which the interplanetary magnetic field structure was loop-like during these periods.

  15. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA. Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio. The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39% were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1 by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ΁ 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection.

  16. Fasting serum leptin levels in the analysis of body mass index cut-off values: are they useful for overweight screening in children and adolescents? A school population-based survey in three provinces of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Papi, F; Molinari, D; De Giorgi, G; Faraoni, F; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1998-12-01

    -III, stage IV-V). Children and adolescents from central Italy had greater BMI percentiles when compared to other European populations. Fasting serum leptin concentrations showed a distribution pattern related to z-score, thus allowing to identification of two different subgroups. The z-scores of BMI, identified as separation points, indicated a trend to leptin production by adipocytes that could be taken as indicators of significant increases of fat mass. This study proposes criteria and a statistical approach that could be useful in the identification of BMI cut-off values when screening children and adolescents for overweight.

  17. What happens when the geomagnetic field reverses?

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    During geomagnetic field reversals the radiation belt high-energy proton populations become depleted. Their energy spectra become softer, with the trapped particles of highest energies being lost first, and eventually recovering after a field reversal. The radiation belts rebuild in a dynamical way with the energy spectra flattening on the average during the course of many millennia, but without ever reaching complete steady state equilibrium between successive geomagnetic storm events determined by southward turnings of the IMF orientation. Considering that the entry of galactic cosmic rays and the solar energetic particles with energies above a given threshold are strongly controlled by the intensity of the northward component of the interplanetary magnetic field, we speculate that at earlier epochs when the geomagnetic dipole was reversed, the entry of these energetic particles into the geomagnetic field was facilitated when the interplanetary magnetic field was directed northward. Unlike in other compleme...

  18. Digitized Historical Geomagnetic Publications in PDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A catalog of 732 historical geomagnetic publications that were at risk of loss have been digitized and converted in pdf documents.

  19. Geomagnetism solid Earth and upper atmosphere perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Basavaiah, Nathani

    2011-01-01

    This volume elaborates several important aspects of solid Earth geomagnetism. It covers all the basics of the subject, including biomagnetism and instrumentation, and offers a number of practical applications with carefully selected examples and illustrations.

  20. The geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloxham, Jeremy; Roberts, Paul H.

    1991-01-01

    Information available on the geomagnetic main field and the geodynamo is presented. Attention is given to the process of mapping the magnetic field, the last version of International Geomagnetic Reference Field Model, and maps of the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary and their interpretation. Particular consideration is given to the existing geodynamo theories, with special relation given to the Braginsky and Meytlis theory of core turbulence in which the turbulence differs fundamentally from classical turbulence of Kolmogorov type.

  1. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Love, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    This is a set of five world charts showing the declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, vertical component, and total intensity of the Earth's magnetic field at mean sea level at the beginning of 2005. The charts are based on the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) main model for 2005 and secular change model for 2005-2010. The IGRF is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 ellipsoid. Additional information about the USGS geomagnetism program is available at: http://geomag.usgs.gov/

  2. Integration Technology of Combining Binary-layer Foundation Excavation Dewatering with Suspended Cut-off Wall and Recharge%二元地基基坑降水结合悬挂式防渗墙及回灌一体化技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒; 李守德; 王由国; 柯倩雯; 张灿虹

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,a generalized model of the typical cross-section is used to study the consequence of excavation dewatering with suspended cut-off wall and recharge well which have some effects on water head and ground subsidence which is outside of excavation. The comparisons of the condition of excavation direct precipitation , the condition of cut-off wall excavation precipitation and the condition of cut-off wall and recharge well excavation dewatering are analyzed. The result shows that suspended cut-off wall and recharge well can significantly enhance the water head and effectively reduce the settlement in the outside of the excavation,reduce the unit sedimentation of soft soil,have little effect on the unit sedimentation of silt and sand layers. Meanwhile,the comparisons of the tilt ratio of three conditions indicate the distance away from cut-off wall and recharge well closer ,the smaller the differential settlement.%通过构造基坑降水三维概化模型,利用有限元软件FLAC3D分析悬挂式防渗墙和回灌对基坑坑外的水头和地面沉降影响,主要将基坑直接降水工况、设置防渗墙的基坑降水工况和设置防渗墙及回灌井的基坑降水工况进行对比分析。分析结果表明防渗墙和回灌井,可明显提升坑外水头,有效降低了坑外沉降,减小软土层的单位沉降值,对粉砂层和细砂层的单位沉降值影响很小。同时,对比三种工况下的倾斜比,说明了距离防渗墙与回灌井越近,不均匀沉降越小。

  3. Pontos de corte para a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e a triagem de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares na infância Cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points and cardiovascular risk factors screening at infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Gustavo Bergmann

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a validade e propor novos pontos de corte para aptidão cardiorrespiratória de escolares de sete a 12 anos de idade. A amostra foi constituída por 1.413 escolares. A aptidão cardiorrespiratória foi medida através do teste de corrida/caminhada de nove minutos. O colesterol total e as pressões arterial sistólica e diastólica foram medidas e através delas foram criadas referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Através da curva receiver operating characteristic entre a aptidão cardiorrespiratória e as referências de fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares foram identificados os valores dos pontos de corte. Adicionalmente foi utilizada a análise bivariada seguida do cálculo de razão de chances (odds ratio-OR para identificar quanto os indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos tinham a mais de chance de apresentar fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Os resultados indicaram que, dentre as propostas analisadas, a que foi sugerida neste estudo apresentou melhores ajustamentos entre sensibilidade e especificidade. Os resultados da análise bivariada mostraram que indivíduos que não atenderam os pontos de corte propostos têm maiores chances de apresentarem fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares.The main objective of the study was to analyze and propose news cardiorespiratory fitness cut offs points for 7 to 12-year old school students. The sample was composed of 1,413 students. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by the 9-minutes walking/running test. Total cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured and with their results cardiovascular risk factors reference were designed. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve between cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors reference identified the cut offs point values. The bivariate analysis and odds ratio (OR calculation was used to

  4. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertson, V.D.; Bozoki, B.; Feero, W.E.; Kappenman, J.G.; Larsen, E.V.; Nordell, D.E.; Ponder, J.; Prabhakara, F.S.; Thompson, K.; Walling, R.

    1993-07-01

    In the northern hemisphere, the aurora borealis is visual evidence of simultaneous fluctuations in the earth's magnetic field (geomagnetic field). These geomagnetic disturbances (GMD's), or geomagnetic storms, can affect a number of man-made systems, including electric power systems. The GMD's are caused by the electromagnetic interaction of the solar wind plasma of protons and electrons with the geomagnetic field. These dynamic impulses in the solar wind are due to solar flares, coronal holes, and disappearing filaments, and reach the earth from one to six days after being emitted by a solar event. Instances of geomagnetic storms affecting telegraph systems were noted in England in 1846, and power system disturbances linked to GMD's were first reported in the United States in 1940. This Working Group report is a summary of the state of knowledge and research activity to the present time, and covers the GMD/Geomagnetically-induced currents (GIC) phenomena, transformer effects, the impact on generators, protective relay effects, and communication system effects. It also summarizes modeling and predicting GIC, measuring and monitoring GIC, mitigation methods, system operating guidelines during GMD's, and alerting and forecasting procedures and needs for the power industry.

  5. International rigid contact lens prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-06-01

    Rigid lenses have been fitted less since the introduction of soft lenses nearly 40 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 facilitate an accurate characterization of the pattern of the decline of rigid lens fitting during the first decade of this century. There is a trend for rigid lenses to be utilized primarily for refitting those patients who are already successful rigid lens wearers-most typically older females being refit with higher Dk materials. Rigid lenses are generally fitted on a full-time basis (four or more days of wear per week) without a planned replacement schedule. Orthokeratology is especially popular in the Netherlands, but is seldom prescribed in the other countries surveyed.

  6. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  7. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero, Ruben; Rojas, Efrain

    2010-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We show thus that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  8. DYNAMICS OF THE GEOMAGNETIC FIELD AND SUPERGRAVITY IN 112D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of changing the polarity of the geomagnetic field as a problem of a unified field theory and supergravity in the 112D. Investigated centrally symmetric metric depends on the radial coordinate in the observable physical space of one of the worlds. The equation that relates the magnetic field of the planet with a gravitational field in 5D has been derived. The problem of changing the polarity of the magnetic field of the Earth discussed. The rapid change of the geomagnetic field polarity detected on the basis of paleomagnetic data is modeled as a movement on a hypersphere in the 112D, which corresponds to 110 corners. The simplest example of such a movement in the case of the three angles is the Euler model that describes the rigid body rotation. In this model, there are modes with a quick flip of the body while conservation of the angular momentum. If the body has a magnetic moment, when such a change occurs flip of the magnetic field. It is assumed that the central core of the earth is magnetized and surrounded by a number of satellites, each of which has a magnetic moment. Satellites interact with a central core and one another by means of gravity and through a magnetic field. The central core may sudden flip, as in the Euler model. It is shown that the duration of phase with constant polarity and upheaval time depends on the magnitude of the disturbance torque and core asymmetry. We discuss Einstein's hypothesis about the origin of the magnetic field when rotating the neutral masses. It is shown that the motion on a hypersphere in the 112D has the effect of a magnetic field due to the interaction of nucleons in nuclei. Such magnetic field is most evident for iron, cobalt and nickel - elements are consisting of the Earth's core

  9. Ionospheric redistribution during geomagnetic storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immel, T J; Mannucci, A J

    2013-12-01

    [1]The abundance of plasma in the daytime ionosphere is often seen to grow greatly during geomagnetic storms. Recent reports suggest that the magnitude of the plasma density enhancement depends on the UT of storm onset. This possibility is investigated over a 7year period using global maps of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analysis confirms that the American sector exhibits, on average, larger storm time enhancement in ionospheric plasma content, up to 50% in the afternoon middle-latitude region and 30% in the vicinity of the high-latitude auroral cusp, with largest effect in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigate whether this effect is related to the magnitude of the causative magnetic storms. Using the same advanced Dst index employed to sort the TEC maps into quiet and active (Dststorm strength that corresponds closely to the TEC variation but follows it by 3-6h. For this and other reasons detailed in this report, we conclude that the UT-dependent peak in storm time TEC is likely not related to the magnitude of external storm time forcing but more likely attributable to phenomena such as the low magnetic field in the South American region. The large Dst variation suggests a possible system-level effect of the observed variation in ionospheric storm response on the measured strength of the terrestrial ring current, possibly connected through UT-dependent modulation of ion outflow.

  10. On Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    2000-01-01

    A partial description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested three ways. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is approximately inversely proportional to horizontal wavenumber atop Earth's core. This multipole spectrum describes a magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range. Temporal variations of core multipole powers about mean values are to be expected and are described statistically, via trial probability distribution functions, instead of deterministically, via trial solution of closed transport equations. The distributions considered here are closed and neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is therefore applicable to, and tested against, both dipole and low degree non-dipole fields. In Part 1, a physical basis for an expectation spectrum is developed and checked. The description is then combined with main field models of twentieth century satellite and surface geomagnetic field measurements to make testable predictions of the radius of Earth's core. The predicted core radius is 0.7% above the 3480 km seismological value. Partial descriptions of other planetary dipole fields are noted.

  11. Akinetic rigid syndrome: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Praveen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Akinetic-rigid syndromes can be caused by diverse etiologies. It is vital to separate idiopathic Parkinson′s disease from other neurodegenerative diseases and causes of secondary parkinsonism as it has significant therapeutic implications. However even specialists may misdiagnose nonidiopathic parkinsonism as Parkinson′s disease in a quarter of cases. Often the history may be nonspecific and all investigations may be normal. The diagnosis may thus rest entirely on clinical features. The etiological diagnosis of Akinetic rigid syndrome has critical therapeutic and prognostic implications. Therefore we will review the various etiologies of akinetic rigid syndrome and highlight critical clinical features to aid in differential diagnosis.

  12. Bats Use Geomagnetic Field: Behavior and Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known that numerous animals can use the Earth's magnetic field for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation, nevertheless, how animals can respond to the magnetic field remain mostly ambiguous. The intensities of the global geomagnetic field varies between 23 and 66 μT, and the geomagnetic field intensity could drop to 10% during geomagnetic polarity reversals or geomagnetic excursions. Such dramatic changes of the geomagnetic field may pose a significant challenge for the evolution of magnetic compass in animals. For examples, it is vital whether the magnetic compass can still work in such very weak magnetic fields. Our previous experiment has demonstrated that a migratory bat (Nyctalus plancyi) uses a polarity compass for orientation during roosting when exposed to an artificial magnetic field (100 μT). Recently, we experimentally tested whether the N. plancyi can sense very weak magnetic fields that were even lower than those of the present-day geomagnetic field. Results showed: 1) the bats can sense the magnetic north in a field strength of present-day local geomagnetic field (51μT); 2) As the field intensity decreased to only 1/5th of the natural intensity (10 μT), the bats still responded by positioning themselves at the magnetic north. Notably, as the field polarity was artificially reversed, the bats still preferred the new magnetic north, even at the lowest field strength tested (10 μT). Hence, N. plancyi is able to detect the direction of a magnetic field with intensity range from twice to 1/5th of the present-day field strength. This allows them to orient themselves across the entire range of present-day global geomagnetic field strengths and sense very weak magnetic fields. We propose that this high sensitivity might have evolved in bats as the geomagnetic field strength varied and the polarity reversed tens of times over the past fifty million years since the origin of bats. The physiological mechanisms underlying

  13. Principles of major geomagnetic storms forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagnetko, Alexander; Applbaum, David; Dorman, Lev; Pustil'Nik, Lev; Sternlieb, Abraham; Zukerman, Igor

    According to NOAA Space Weather Scales, geomagnetic storms of scales G5 (3-hour index of geomagnetic activity Kp=9), G4 (Kp=8) and G3 (Kp=7) are dangerous for people technology and health (influence on power systems, on spacecraft operations, on HF radio-communications and others). To prevent these serious damages will be very important to forecast dangerous geomagnetic storms. In many papers it was shown that in principle for this forecasting can be used data on CR intensity and CR anisotropy changing before SC of major geomagnetic storms accompanied by sufficient Forbush-decreases (e.g., Dorman et al., 1995, 1999). In this paper we consider all types of observed precursor effects in CR what can be used for forecasting of great geomagnetic storms and possible mechanisms of these precursor effects origin. REFERENCES: Dorman L.I., et al. "Cosmic-ray forecasting features for big Forbush-decreases". Nuclear Physics B, 49A, 136-144 (1995). L.I.Dorman, et al, "Cosmic ray Forbush-decrease as indicators of space dangerous phenomenon and possible use of cosmic ray data for their pre-diction", Proc. of 26-th Intern. Cosmic Ray Conference, Salt Lake City, 6, 476-479 (1999).

  14. Skeletal Rigidity of Phylogenetic Trees

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Howard; Li, Brian; Risteski, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by geometric origami and the straight skeleton construction, we outline a map between spaces of phylogenetic trees and spaces of planar polygons. The limitations of this map is studied through explicit examples, culminating in proving a structural rigidity result.

  15. The latitudinal distribution of the baseline geomagnetic field during the March 17, 2015 geomagnetic storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Piersanti, Mirko; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio; De Michelis, Paola; Villante, Umberto; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    Geomagnetic storms (GS) are global geomagnetic disturbances that result from the interaction between magnetized plasma that propagates from the Sun and plasma and magnetic fields in the near-Earth space plasma environment. The Dst (Disturbance Storm Time) global Ring Current index is still taken to be the definitive representation for geomagnetic storm and is used widely by researcher. Recent in situ measurements by satellites passing through the ring-current region (i.e. Van Allen probes) and computations with magnetospheric field models showed that there are many other field contributions on the geomagnetic storming time variations at middle and low latitudes. Appling the Empirical Mode Decomposition [Huang et al., 1998] to magnetospheric and ground observations, we detect the different magnetic field contributions during a GS and introduce the concepts of modulated baseline and fluctuations of the geomagnetic field. In this work, we apply this method to study the latitudinal distribution of the baseline geomagnetic field during the St. Patrick's Day Geomagnetic Storm 2015 in order to detect physical informations concerning the differences between high-latitude and equatorial ground measurements.

  16. The Brazilian hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticide registration: a critical appraisal / Critérios de exclusão baseados em perigo adotados no Brasil para registro de pesticidas: Uma avalição crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, the world’s top consumer of agricultural pesticides, adopts a unique hazard-based cut-off approach to pesticide registration. Cut-off criteria for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, hormonal disturbances and damage to reproductive organs were introduced by the Pesticide Law enacted in 1989. As far as health is concerned, law enforcement is additionally regulated by rules issued by the federal health authority (National Agency for Health Surveillance – ANVISA. Contrasting to the European Union’s hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticides, Brazilian rules do not make an exception for “negligible” exposures. Moreover, Brazilian regulations have shortcomings (e.g. no reference to relevance of Mode of Action to humans that make cut-off criteria difficult to be put into effect. The deficiencies of regulations and difficulties to consistently apply the hazard-based cut-off criteria are appraised in this article. Adoption of a risk assessment approach or cut-off criteria based on classification into the Globally Harmonized System’s hazard categories 1A and 1B is suggested. Resumo O Brasil, líder mundial do consumo de agro-químicos, adota uma singular abordagem para registro de agrotóxicos que é baseada em critérios de exclusão quanto à periculosidade. Critérios de exclusão para mutagenicidade, carcinogenicidade, teratogenicidade, distúrbios hormonais e dano a órgãos reprodutivos foram introduzidos pela Lei de Agrotóxicos promulgada em 1989. Em relação à saúde, a aplicação da lei é também regulada por portarias publicadas pela autoridade sanitária federal (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA. Em contraste com os critérios de exclusão baseados na periculosidade que a União Européia usa para agrotóxicos, a regulamentação brasileira não faz exceção para exposições insignificantes. Além disso, a regulamentação brasileira apresenta deficiências (e.g., não faz men

  17. Wage rigidity and job creation

    OpenAIRE

    Haefke, Christian; Sonntag, Marcus; Rens, Thijs van

    2013-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in accounting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage rigidity in the data.

  18. 10th Generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Stefan; Macmillan, Susan

    2005-04-01

    The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) released the 10th Generation International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) on 12 December 2004. This is the latest version of a standard mathematical description of the Earth's main magnetic field, and is used widely in studies of the Earth's deep interior, crust, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. The coefficients were finalized by a task force of IAGA, Division V, Working Group V-MOD: Geomagnetic Field Modeling. The IGRF is the product of a large collaborative effort between magnetic field modelers and the institutes around the world involved in collecting and disseminating magnetic field data from satellites and observatories. The IGRF is a series of mathematical models of the Earth's main field and its annual rate of change (secular variation). The sources of the main magnetic field are electric currents in the Earth and the magnetization of crustal rocks.

  19. Quantifying Power Grid Risk from Geomagnetic Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeier, N.; Wei, L. H.; Gannon, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    We are creating a statistical model of the geophysical environment that can be used to quantify the geomagnetic storm hazard to power grid infrastructure. Our model is developed using a database of surface electric fields for the continental United States during a set of historical geomagnetic storms. These electric fields are derived from the SUPERMAG compilation of worldwide magnetometer data and surface impedances from the United States Geological Survey. This electric field data can be combined with a power grid model to determine GICs per node and reactive MVARs at each minute during a storm. Using publicly available substation locations, we derive relative risk maps by location by combining magnetic latitude and ground conductivity. We also estimate the surface electric fields during the August 1972 geomagnetic storm that caused a telephone cable outage across the middle of the United States. This event produced the largest surface electric fields in the continental U.S. in at least the past 40 years.

  20. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca

    2011-01-01

    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET......Geomagnetic observatory practice and instrumentation has evolved significantly over the past 150 years. Evolution continues to be driven by advances in technology and by the need of the data user community for higher-resolution, lower noise data in near-real time. Additionally, collaboration...

  1. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    properties of those spatial mathematical representations are also discussed, especially in view of providing a formal justification for the fact that geomagnetic field models can indeed be constructed from ground-based and satellite-born observations, provided those reasonably approximate the ideal......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers...... be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered...

  2. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    properties of those spatial mathematical representations are also discussed, especially in view of providing a formal justification for the fact that geomagnetic field models can indeed be constructed from ground-based and satellite-born observations, provided those reasonably approximate the ideal situation......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers...... be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered...

  3. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the third generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    In August 1981 the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy revised the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). It is the second revision since the inception of the IGRF in 1968. The revision extends the earlier series of IGRF models from 1980 to 1985, introduces a new series of definitive models for 1965-1976, and defines a provisional reference field for 1975- 1980. The revision consists of: 1) a model of the main geomagnetic field at 1980.0, not continuous with the earlier series of IGRF models together with a forecast model of the secular variation of the main field during 1980-1985; 2) definitive models of the main field at 1965.0, 1970.0, and 1975.0, with linear interpolation of the model coefficients specified for intervening dates; and 3) a provisional reference field for 1975-1980, defined as the linear interpolation of the 1975 and 1980 main-field models.-from Author

  4. Progress in Studies of Geomagnetic Navigation of Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Lanxiang; Pan Yongxin; Lin Wei; Wang Yinan; Zhang Shuyi

    2005-01-01

    @@ The geomagnetic field may play a key role in orientation and navigation of many long-distance migratory animals. Taking homing and migrating birds as examples, this paper reviews recent progress in studies of geomagnetic "compass" of animals.Moreover, we propose to address two aspects in future geomagnetic orientation research: ( 1 ) what are the true components of the "map"? (2) What are the magneto-receptors and which brain areas acquire and process the geomagnetic field information ?

  5. Coupling Functions for NM-64 and NM Without Lead Derived on the Basis of Calculated Apparent Cutoff Rigidities for CR Latitude Survey from Antarctica to Italy in Minimum of Solar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, L.I.; Danilova, O.A.; Tyasto, M.I.; Ptitsina, N.G.; Villoresi, G.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.

    L. I. Dorman (1,2), O. A. Danilova (3), M. I. Tyasto (3), N. G. Ptitsina (3), G. Villoresi (4), N. Iucci (4) and M. Parisi (4) ? (1) Israel Cosmic Ray Center affiliated to Tel Aviv University, Technion and Israel Space Agency, Israel; (2) IZMIRAN, Troitsk, Russia; (3) SPbFIZMIRAN, St. Petersburg, Russia; (4) Dipartimento di Fisica "E. Amaldi", Università "Roma Tre", Rome, Italy In Dorman et al. (2007) it was calculate the apparent cut-off rigidities for the backward route (Antarctica-Italy) of the CR latitude survey performed on a ship during 1996-1997 solar minimum. These computations were done on the basis of results of trajectory calculations for inclined cut-off rigidities for various azimuth and zenith angles (0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°) and azimuth directions changing from 0° to 360° in steps of 45°. The information on integral multiplicities of secondary neutrons detected by neutron monitor in dependence of zenith angle of incoming primary CR particles have been also used. This information is based on the theoretical calculations of meson-nuclear cascades of primary protons with different rigidities arriving to the Earth's atmosphere at zenith angles 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 75°. By using this information and data of CR latitude survey from Antarctica to Italy in minimum of solar activity we determine coupling functions for NM-64 and NM without lead. Reference: L.I. Dorman et al. “Apparent Cutoff Rigidities for Cosmic Ray Latitude Survey from Antarctica to Italy in Minimum of Solar Activity”, Adv. Space Res., 2007 (in press).

  6. On the application of plastic concrete cut-off wall in Huashan Reservoir Risk Removal Reinforcement Project%浅谈塑性混凝土防渗墙在花山水库除险加固工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳正绍; 梁水新; 陆家辉

    2016-01-01

    Plastic concrete cut-off wall is a plastic wall structure with certain compressive strength and impermeability capacity,and lower modulus of elasticity,which can be controlled artificially for curbing leakage,piping,etc.Plastic concrete cut-off wall not only can cut off seepage flow of the dam (soil)body and lower seepage slope in the dam (soil) body,but also can withstand certain vertical and horizontal load.It can adapt to the surrounding dam (soil ) body deformation and foundation deformation,thereby greatly reducing stress in the wall,avoiding wall cracking,saving cement and reducing the cost of the engineering seepage control with remarkable effect.%塑性混凝土防渗墙是一种塑性墙体结构,具有一定的抗压强度和抗渗能力,有较低的弹性模量,并可人为地控制,抑制渗漏、管涌等。塑性混凝土防渗墙不仅能有效截断坝(土)体的渗透水流和降低坝(土)体中渗透坡降,还能承受一定的垂直和水平荷载,能适应周围坝(土)体变形、地基变形,大大减小墙体内应力,避免墙体开裂,且可节约水泥,降低工程防渗造价,效果显著。

  7. Nursing care of sectioned skin-flap ligation for early pedicle cut-off in 93 patients with Ⅲ-grade burns%93例Ⅲ度烧伤患者分段结扎皮瓣早期断蒂的护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉丹; 黄书润; 邱双双; 李丽香; 沈秋凤

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the nursing care of sectioned skin-flap ligation for early pedicle cut-off in 93 patients with Ⅲ-grade burns. During pedicle ligation,nursing care focused on close observation of blood circulation of the skin flap,especially within the 24 hours after ligation,so as to detect and deal with problems as early as possible and prevent ischemia and necrosis of skin flap. Careful and gentle operations to relieve patients' pain on the premise of tight ligation. After ligation,the key points were changing dressings timely to prevent wound infection and suture reaction,as well as early functional exercises after pedicle cut-off. The average time of pedicle cut-off in the 93 patients was 10 days with good therapeutic outcome and without necrosis of skin flap.%对93例接受分段结扎皮瓣早期断蒂的患者进行观察及护理.认为护理要点包括:每次结扎蒂部时均严密观察皮瓣血液循环,特别是结扎后24h内,及时发现问题,并采取积极的处理措施,建立皮瓣情况评估单,预防皮瓣缺血、坏死;结扎时做到耐心沟通,动作轻柔,既保证扎紧蒂部又能减轻患者的疼痛;结扎后加强换药,减少伤口感染及线头反应等并发症;断蒂后尽早行功能锻练.本组平均断蒂时间10d,结扎或断蒂后皮瓣无坏死,随访结果满意.

  8. Toward a possible next geomagnetic transition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Santis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic field is subject to possible reversals or excursions of polarity during its temporal evolution. Considering that: (a the typical average time between one reversal and the next (the so-called chron is around 300 000 yr, (b the last reversal occurred around 780 000 yr ago, (c more excursions (rapid changes of polarity can occur within the same chron and (d the geomagnetic field dipole is currently decreasing, a possible imminent geomagnetic reversal or excursion would not be completely unexpected. In that case, such a phenomenon would represent one of the very few natural hazards which are really global. The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA is a great depression of the geomagnetic field at the Earth's surface, caused by a reverse magnetic flux in the terrestrial outer core. In analogy with critical point phenomena characterised by some cumulative quantity, we fit the surface extent of this anomaly over the last 400 yr with power or logarithmic functions in reverse time, also decorated by log-periodic oscillations, whose final singularity (a critical point tc reveals a great change in the near future (2034 ± 3 yr, when the SAA area reaches almost a hemisphere. An interesting aspect that has been recently found is the possible direct connection between the SAA and the global mean sea level (GSL. That the GSL is somehow connected with SAA is also confirmed from the similar result when an analogous critical-like fit is performed over GSL: the corresponding critical point (2033 ± 11 yr agrees, within the estimated errors, with the value found for SAA. From this result, we point out the intriguing conjecture that tc would be the time of no return, after which the geomagnetic field could fall into an irreversible process of a global geomagnetic transition that could be a reversal or excursion of polarity.

  9. Toward a possible next geomagnetic critical transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamili, Enkelejda; De Santis, Angelo; Wu, Lixin

    2014-05-01

    The geomagnetic field is subject to possible reversals or excursions of polarity during its temporal evolution. Considering the characteristics of the recent geomagnetic field, a possible imminent geomagnetic reversal or excursion would not be completely unexpected. In that case, such a phenomenon would represent one of the very few natural hazards that are really global. The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a great depression of the geomagnetic field strength at the Earth's surface, caused by a reverse magnetic flux in the terrestrial outer core. In analogy with critical point phenomena characterized by some cumulative quantity, we fit the surface extent of this anomaly over the last 400 yr with power law or logarithmic functions in reverse time, also decorated by log-periodic oscillations, whose final singularity (a critical point tc) reveals a great change in the near future (2034±3 yr), when the SAA area reaches almost a hemisphere. An interesting aspect that has recently been found is the possible direct connection between the SAA and the global mean sea level (GSL). That the GSL is somehow connected with SAA is also confirmed by the similar result when an analogous critical-like fit is performed over GSL: the corresponding critical point (2033±11 yr) agrees, within the estimated errors, with the value found for the SAA. From this result, we point out the intriguing conjecture that tc would be the time of no return, after which the geomagnetic field could fall into an irreversible process of a global geomagnetic transition that could be a reversal or excursion of polarity.

  10. Toward a possible next geomagnetic transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, A.; Qamili, E.; Wu, L.

    2013-12-01

    The geomagnetic field is subject to possible reversals or excursions of polarity during its temporal evolution. Considering that: (a) in the last 83 million yr the typical average time between one reversal and the next (the so-called chron) is around 400 000 yr, (b) the last reversal occurred around 780 000 yr ago, (c) more excursions (rapid changes in polarity) can occur within the same chron and (d) the geomagnetic field dipole is currently decreasing, a possible imminent geomagnetic reversal or excursion would not be completely unexpected. In that case, such a phenomenon would represent one of the very few natural hazards that are really global. The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is a great depression of the geomagnetic field strength at the Earth's surface, caused by a reverse magnetic flux in the terrestrial outer core. In analogy with critical point phenomena characterized by some cumulative quantity, we fit the surface extent of this anomaly over the last 400 yr with power law or logarithmic functions in reverse time, also decorated by log-periodic oscillations, whose final singularity (a critical point tc) reveals a great change in the near future (2034 ± 3 yr), when the SAA area reaches almost a hemisphere. An interesting aspect that has recently been found is the possible direct connection between the SAA and the global mean sea level (GSL). That the GSL is somehow connected with SAA is also confirmed by the similar result when an analogous critical-like fit is performed over GSL: the corresponding critical point (2033 ± 11 yr) agrees, within the estimated errors, with the value found for the SAA. From this result, we point out the intriguing conjecture that tc would be the time of no return, after which the geomagnetic field could fall into an irreversible process of a global geomagnetic transition that could be a reversal or excursion of polarity.

  11. Norms for the mini-mental state examination: adjustment of the cut-off point in population-based studies (evidences from the Bambuí health aging study Normas para o uso do mini-exame do estado mental: adequação do ponto de corte em estudos populacionais (evidências do Projeto Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Castro-Costa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in an elderly population-based cohort, using several Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE cut-off points recommended by Brazilian authors and to examine the percentile distribution of MMSE scores in the study population. METHOD: A total of 1558 subjects aged >60 years (89.4% of the total, living in the city of Bambuí, MG, completed the MMSE and were included in the present study. RESULTS: The estimated prevalences of cognitive impairment varied from 13.2% to 27.0% depending on the cut-off point and agreement varied widely between them (kappa range: 0.38 to 0.88. Cut-off point 13/14 corresponded to the 5th percentile and 21/22 corresponded to the lower quartile of the MMSE score distribution. CONCLUSION: In the absence of comparable cut-off points, percentile distributions are more adequate for population-based studies of elderly with low schooling level.OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de déficit cognitivo em uma base populacional de idosos, utilizando-se os diferentes pontos de corte do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM recomendados por autores brasileiros e verificar a distribuição em percentis da pontuação do MEEM na população estudada. MÉTODO: Participaram do estudo 1558 (89,4% do total indivíduos com idade >60 anos residentes na cidade de Bambuí, MG, que foram submetidos ao MEEM. RESULTADOS: A prevalência estimada de déficit cognitivo variou de 13,2% a 27,0%, dependendo do ponto de corte utilizado, observando-se grande variação na sua concordância (índices de kappa entre 0,38 e 0,88. O ponto de corte de 13/14 correspondeu ao 5º percentil e o de 21/22, ao quartil inferior da distribuição dos escores do MEEM. CONCLUSÃO: Na ausência de pontos de corte comparáveis, a distribuição em percentis é mais adequada para estudos de base populacional de idosos com baixa escolaridade.

  12. Satellite data for geomagnetic field modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Baldwin, R. T.

    1992-06-01

    Satellite measurements of the geomagnetic fields began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May of 1958 and have continued sporadically. Spacecraft making significant contributions to main field geomagnetism will be reviewed and the characteristics of their data discussed, including coverage, accuracy, resolution and data availability. Of particular interest are Vanguard 3; Cosmos 49, Ogo's -2, -4, and -6; Magsat; DE-2; and POGS. Spacecraft make measurements on a moving platfrom above the ionosphere as opposed to measurements from fixed observatories and surveys, both below the ionosphere. Possible future missions, such as Aristoteles and GOS are reviewed.

  13. Satellite Data for Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, R. A.; Baldwin, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite measurements of the geomagnetic fields began with the launch of Sputnik 3 in May of 1958 and have continued sporadically. Spacecraft making significant contributions to main field geomagnetism will be reviewed and the characteristics of their data discussed, including coverage, accuracy, resolution and data availability. Of particular interest are Vanguard 3; Cosmos 49, Ogo's -2, -4, and -6; Magsat; DE-2; and POGS. Spacecraft make measurements on a moving platfrom above the ionosphere as opposed to measurements from fixed observatories and surveys, both below the ionosphere. Possible future missions, such as Aristoteles and GOS are reviewed.

  14. Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, V E

    1979-01-01

    The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal geomagnetic flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of geomagnetism and city growth rate were overlooked.

  15. Rigid multibody system dynamics with uncertain rigid bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr; Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS (France)

    2012-03-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction of a probabilistic model of uncertain rigid bodies for multibody system dynamics. We first construct a stochastic model of an uncertain rigid body by replacing the mass, the center of mass, and the tensor of inertia by random variables. The prior probability distributions of the stochastic model are constructed using the maximum entropy principle under the constraints defined by the available information. The generators of independent realizations corresponding to the prior probability distribution of these random quantities are further developed. Then several uncertain rigid bodies can be linked to each other in order to calculate the random response of a multibody dynamical system. An application is proposed to illustrate the theoretical development.

  16. Attitude dynamics and control of spacecraft using geomagnetic Lorentz force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia A.; Shoaib, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Attitude stabilization of a charged rigid spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit using torques due to Lorentz force in pitch and roll directions is considered. A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in the Earth's magnetic field will be subject to perturbations from the Lorentz force. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft's orientation. We assume that the spacecraft is moving in the Earth's magnetic field in an elliptical orbit under the effects of gravitational, geomagnetic and Lorentz torques. The magnetic field of the Earth is modeled as a non-tilted dipole. A model incorporating all Lorentz torques as a function of orbital elements has been developed on the basis of electric and magnetic fields. The stability of the spacecraft orientation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The existence and stability of equilibrium positions is investigated for different values of the charge to mass ratio (α*). Stable orbits are identified for various values of α*. The main parameters for stabilization of the spacecraft are α* and the difference between the components of the moment of inertia for the spacecraft.

  17. Reliability, validity and cut-off value of the childhood autism spectrum test%儿童孤独症谱系测验量表的信度、效度及临界值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关智勇; 龚建华; 陈艳琳; 周首俊; 李丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of the childhood autism spectrum test (CAST) of children in Mainland China according to autism screening,in order to provide the effective reference for the identification and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders of children.Methods Two hundreds and fifty-two typical developing children,and 61 autistic children who were confirmed by psychological clinic of Child Healthcare Clinic,Shenzhen Luohu District Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital who were conformed with diagnosis standards of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition(DSM-5) by using CAST Chinese version were assessed,and the reliability and validity analysis were made on the CAST scale.The receiver operating characteristic curve was drew to determine the optimal threshold value,and the sensitivity,specificity and positive predictive value were calculated.Results CAST Chinese version had good reliability,Cronbach's α was 0.880.Split-half reliability coefficient r was 0.821,and the whole scale calibration reliability coefficient was 0.902.There was statistically significant difference between items and the total score(P<0.05).The consistency between the CAST ≥4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.884(P=0.000).The consistency 3-<4 years old children and diagnosis standards of DSM-5 reached 0.867 (P=0.000).Among the screening of the children who were ≥4 years old,the cut off was 15 scores that the sensitivity and specificity were best.With the children of 3-<4 years old,a designated cut-point should be 17 scores.Conclusions There are good reliability and validity of CAST,which can be used to mainland China,as well as to screen autistic children more than 3 years old.%目的 探讨儿童孤独症谱系测验(CAST)量表在中国大陆儿童孤独症筛查的适用性,为儿童孤独症谱系障碍的识别与诊断提供有效参考.方法 采用CAST量表对252例健康儿童及深圳市罗湖区妇幼

  18. What causes geomagnetic activity during sunspot minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Kirov, Boian; Georgieva, Katya; Obridko, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The average geomagnetic activity during sunspot minimum has been continuously decreasing in the last four cycles. The geomagnetic activity is caused by both interplanetary disturbances - coronal mass ejections and high speed solar wind streams, and the background solar wind over which these disturbances ride. We show that the geomagnetic activity in cycle minimum does not depend on the number and parameters of coronal mass ejections or high speed solar wind streams, but on the background solar wind. The background solar wind has two components: slower and faster. The source of the slower component is the heliospheric current sheet, and of the faster one the polar coronal holes. It is supposed that the geomagnetic activity in cycle minimum is determined by the thickness of the heliospheric current sheet which is related to the portions of time the Earth spends in slow and in fast solar wind. We demonstrate that it is also determined by the parameters of these two components of the background solar wind which v...

  19. Some aspects of geomagnetically conjugate phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rycroft, M.J.

    1987-12-01

    Both charged particles and waves convey information about the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa, along geomagnetic flux tubes.The interhemispheric travel time of electrons or ions, being dependent upon L-value , pitch angle and energy (which may lie between less than or equal to 1 eV and greater than or equal to 1 MeV) may be many hours, ranging down to less than or equal to 1 s. However, the one-hop propagation time for magnetohydrodynamic or whistler mode waves generally lies between 10/sup 2/s and 1 s. Such times, therefore, give the time scales of transient phenomena that are geomagnetically conjugate and of changes in steady-state plasma processes occurring in geomagnetically conjugate regions. Contrasting examples are presented of conjugate physical phenomena, obtained using satellite, rocket, aircraft and ground-based observations; the latter capitalise upon the rather rare disposition of land - rather than ocean - at each end of a geophysically interesting flux tube. Particular attention is paid to the interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons. Geomagnetic, radio, optical and plasma observations, taken together with model computations, provide a wealth of knowledge on conjugate phenomena and their dependence on conditions in the solar wind, substorms, L-value, etc... Finally, some suggestions are made for future lines of research.

  20. Geomagnetic referencing in the arctic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podjono, Benny; Beck, Nathan; Buchanan, Andrew; Brink, Jason; Longo, Joseph; Finn, Carol A.; Worthington, E. William

    2011-01-01

    Geomagnetic referencing is becoming an increasingly attractive alternative to north-seeking gyroscopic surveys to achieve the precise wellbore positioning essential for success in today's complex drilling programs. However, the greater magnitude of variations in the geomagnetic environment at higher latitudes makes the application of geomagnetic referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise, real-time data on those variations from relatively nearby magnetic observatories can be crucial to achieving the required accuracy, but constructing and operating an observatory in these often harsh environments poses a number of significant challenges. Operational since March 2010, the Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory (DED), located in Deadhorse, Alaska, was created through collaboration between the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and a leading oilfield services supply company. DED was designed to produce real-time geomagnetic data at the required level of accuracy, and to do so reliably under the extreme temperatures and harsh weather conditions often experienced in the area. The observatory will serve a number of key scientific communities as well as the oilfield drilling industry, and has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate data while offering significant cost and time savings, compared with traditional surveying techniques.

  1. Geomagnetic storms: historical perspective to modern view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Gurbax S.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    2016-12-01

    The history of geomagnetism is more than 400 years old. Geomagnetic storms as we know them were discovered about 210 years ago. There has been keen interest in understanding Sun-Earth connection events, such as solar flares, CMEs, and concomitant magnetic storms in recent times. Magnetic storms are the most important component of space weather effects on Earth. We give an overview of the historical aspects of geomagnetic storms and the progress made during the past two centuries. Super magnetic storms can cause life-threatening power outages and satellite damage, communication failures and navigational problems. The data for such super magnetic storms that occurred in the last 50 years during the space era is sparce. Research on historical geomagnetic storms can help to create a database for intense and super magnetic storms. New knowledge of interplanetary and solar causes of magnetic storms gained from spaceage observations will be used to review the super magnetic storm of September 1-2, 1859. We discuss the occurrence probability of such super magnetic storms, and the maximum possible intensity for the effects of a perfect ICME: extreme super magnetic storm, extreme magnetospheric compression, and extreme magnetospheric electric fields.

  2. Incorporation of geomagnetic data and services into EPOS infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejda, Pavel; Chambodut, Aude; Curto, Juan-Jose; Flower, Simon; Kozlovskaya, Elena; Kubašta, Petr; Matzka, Jürgen; Tanskanen, Eija; Thomson, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of the geomagnetic field has a long history across Europe that dates back to 1830', and is currently experiencing an increased interest within Earth observation and space weather monitoring. Our goals within EPOS-IP are to consolidate the community, modernise data archival and distribution formats for existing services and create new services for magnetotelluric data and geomagnetic models. Specific objectives are: • Enhance existing services providing geomagnetic data (INTERMAGNET- INTErnational Real-time MAGnetic observatory NETwork; World Data Centre for Geomagnetism; IMAGE- International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects) and existing services providing geomagnetic indices (ISGI - International Service of Geomagnetic Indices). • Develop and enhance the geomagnetic community's metadata systems by creating a metadata database, filling it and putting in place processes to ensure that it is kept up to date in the future. • Develop and build access to magnetotelluric (MT) data including transfer functions and time series data from temporary, portable MT-arrays in Europe, as well as to lithospheric conductivity models derived from TM-data. • Develop common web and database access points to global and regional geomagnetic field and conductivity models. • Establish links from the geomagnetic data services, products and models to the Integrated Core Services. The immediate task in the current period is to identify data models of existing services, modify them and integrate into a common model of Geomagnetic Thematic Core Services.

  3. Application of pipe-joint technology in Kaoshantun Reservoir dam concrete cut-off wall construction%接头管法在靠山屯水库大坝混凝土防渗墙施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金文

    2016-01-01

    本文以辽宁锦州义县靠山屯水库大坝混凝土防渗墙施工为例,针对接头施工质量难控制问题,对接头管法施工工艺中接头管下设、拔管时机控制与起拔力确定等关键技术进行了阐述分析,并结合工程实际,提出了混凝土防渗墙接头管施工常见问题及其解决措施,以期对此类地下连续墙施工有所借鉴。%In the paper,Liaoning Jinzhou Kaoshantun Reservoir dam concrete cut-off wall construction is adopted as an example.The key technologies of pipe-joint installation,pipe removal timing control,removal force datermination,etc. during pipe-joint technology construction process are described and analyzed aiming at difficult quality control in joint construction.Engineering practice is combined for proposing common problems and solutions in concrete cut-off wall pipe-joint construction,thereby providing reference for similar underground continuous wall construction.

  4. Solar cycle distribution of major geomagnetic storms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ming Le; Zi-Yu Cai; Hua-Ning Wang; Zhi-Qiang Yin; Peng Li

    2013-01-01

    We examine the solar cycle distribution of major geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤-100 nT),including intense storms at the level of-200 nT< Dst ≤-100 nT,great storms at-300 nT< Dst ≤-200 nT,and super storms at Dst ≤-300 nT,which occurred during the period of 1957-2006,based on Dst indices and smoothed monthly sunspot numbers.Statistics show that the majority (82%) of the geomagnetic storms at the level of Dst ≤-100 nT that occurred in the study period were intense geomagnetic storms,with 12.4% ranked as great storms and 5.6% as super storms.It is interesting to note that about 27% of the geomagnetic storms that occurred at all three intensity levels appeared in the ascending phase of a solar cycle,and about 73% in the descending one.Statistics also show that 76.9% of the intense storms,79.6% of the great storms and 90.9% of the super storms occurred during the two years before a solar cycle reached its peak,or in the three years after it.The correlation between the size of a solar cycle and the percentage of major storms that occurred,during the period from two years prior to maximum to three years after it,is investigated.Finally,the properties of the multi-peak distribution for major geomagnetic storms in each solar cycle is investigated.

  5. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A; Lang, Robert J; Magleby, Spencer P; Howell, Larry L

    2015-09-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented.

  6. Rigidly foldable origami gadgets and tessellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Thomas A.; Lang, Robert J.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.

    2015-01-01

    Rigidly foldable origami allows for motion where all deflection occurs at the crease lines and facilitates the application of origami in materials other than paper. In this paper, we use a recently discovered method for determining rigid foldability to identify existing flat-foldable rigidly foldable tessellations, which are also categorized. We introduce rigidly foldable origami gadgets which may be used to modify existing tessellations or to create new tessellations. Several modified and new rigidly foldable tessellations are presented. PMID:26473037

  7. Determining the Optimum Cut-Off Grades in Sulfide Copper Deposits / Określanie Optymalnej Wartości Odcięcia Zawartości Procentowej Pierwiastka Użytecznego W Złożach Siarczku Miedzi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Esmaeil; Oraee, Kazem; Shafahi, Zia Aldin; Ghasemzadeh, Hasan

    2015-03-01

    Optimum cut-off grades determination in mining life affects production planning and ultimate pit limit and it is also important from social, economical and environmental aspects. Calculation of optimum cut-off grades has been less considered for mines containing various mineral processing methods. In this paper, an optimization technique is applied to obtain optimum cut-off grades for both concentration and heap leaching processes. In this technique, production costs and different recoveries of heap leaching method directed into modeling different annual cash flows in copper mines. Considering the governing constraints, the Lagrange multiplier method is practiced to optimize the cut-off grades in which the objective function is supposed to maximize Net Present Value. The results indicate the effect of heap leaching process on the optimum cut-off grades of primary and secondary sulfide deposits. Określanie optymalnego poziomu odcięcia dla zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego ma poważny wpływ na planowanie produkcji, określanie ostatecznych limitów zasobów złoża; jest to także ważna kwestia z punktu widzenia kwestii społecznych, ekonomicznych i środowiskowych. Obliczanie optymalnego poziomu odcięcia dla zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego nie było zwykle szeroko rozważane w przypadku kopalni prowadzących ciągły system przeróbki. W pracy tej przedstawiono technikę optymalizacji określania poziomu zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego z uwzględnieniem zarówno procesów koncentracji jak i ługowania. W metodzie uwzględniono koszty produkcji i różne wskaźniki odzysku rudy, wielkości te wykorzystane zostały do modelowania rocznych przepływów gotówki w kopalniach miedzi. Uwzględniając narzucone ograniczenia, zastosowano metodę mnożników Lagrange'a w celu optymalizacji określania poziomu zawartości procentowej pierwiastka użytecznego, gdzie przyjętą funkcją celu jest maksymalizacja wartości bie

  8. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members of flexible word classes are characterized by their vague semantics, which in the case of nouns means that values for the semantic features Shape...

  9. On flexible and rigid nouns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that in addition to the major flexible lexical categories in Hengeveld’s classification of parts of speech systems (Contentive, Non-Verb, Modifier), there are also flexible word classes within the rigid lexical category Noun (Set Noun, Sort Noun, General Noun). Members...

  10. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  11. Rigid coupling is also flexible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleberry, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    Spring-loaded coupling is rigid under light loads and swivels under higher loads. Break-out point can be set at any desired value by selecting appropriate preload springs. Coupling requires no cushions or elastomeric joints that limit temperature range.

  12. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1A: Steady motional induction of geomagnetic chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1992-01-01

    Geomagnetic effects of magnetic induction by hypothetically steady fluid motion and steady magnetic flux diffusion near the top of Earth's core are investigated using electromagnetic theory, simple magnetic earth models, and numerical experiments with geomagnetic field models. The problem of estimating a steady fluid velocity field near the top of Earth's core which induces the secular variation indicated by broad-scale models of the observed geomagnetic field is examined and solved. In Part 1, the steady surficial core flow estimation problem is solved in the context of the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core model. In the first paper (IA), the theory underlying such estimates is reviewed and some consequences of various kinematic and dynamic flow hypotheses are derived. For a frozen-flux core, fluid downwelling is required to change the mean square normal magnetic flux density averaged over the core-mantle boundary. For surficially geostrophic flow, downwelling implies poleward flow. The solution of the forward steady motional induction problem at the surface of a frozen-flux core is derived and found to be a fine, easily visualized example of deterministic chaos. Geomagnetic effects of statistically steady core surface flow may well dominate secular variation over several decades. Indeed, effects of persistent, if not steady, surficially geostrophic core flow are described which may help explain certain features of the present broad-scale geomagnetic field and perhaps paleomagnetic secular variation.

  13. Interactive Perception of Rigid and Non-Rigid Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Willimon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the concept of interactive perception, in which sensing guides manipulation, in the context of extracting and classifying unknown objects within a cluttered environment. In the proposed approach, a pile of objects lies on a flat background, and the goal of the robot is to isolate, interact with, and classify each object so that its properties can be obtained. The algorithm considers each object to be classified using color, shape, and flexibility. The approach works with a variety of objects relevant to service robot applications, including both rigid objects such as bottles, cans, and pliers as well as non‐rigid objects such as soft toy animals, socks, and shoes. Experiments on a number of different piles of objects demonstrate the ability of efficiently isolating and classifying each item through interaction.

  14. International Geomagnetic Reference Field: the seventh generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.

    A seventh-generation revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) was adopted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) at the XXI General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics in July 1995. The new spherical harmonic models adopted are based on weighted averages of candidate models submitted by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the Russian Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionospheric, and Radio Wave Propagation - IZMIRAN, and jointly by the US Naval Oceanographic Office and the British Geological Survey. The revised IGRF specifies the Earth's main field from 1900 to 2000 and is declared to be definitive from 1945 to 1990. This paper lists the IGRF coefficients, describes the derivation of the new IGRF models, and examines aspects of the IGRF's accuracy, continuity, and behaviour during the 20th century.

  15. Modeling the ocean effect of geomagnetic storms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kuvshinov, A.

    2004-01-01

    At coastal sites, geomagnetic variations for periods shorter than a few days are strongly distorted by the conductivity of the nearby sea-water. This phenomena, known as the ocean (or coast) effect, is strongest in the magnetic vertical component. We demonstrate the ability to predict the ocean...... if the oceans are considered. Our analysis also indicates a significant local time asymmetry (i.e., contributions from spherical harmonics other than P-I(0)), especially during the main phase of the storm....

  16. MAGSAT for geomagnetic studies over Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.; Bhargava, B. N.; Singh, B. P.; Rao, D. R. K.; Rangarajan, G. K.; Rajaram, R.; Roy, M.; Arora, B. R.; Seth, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress in the preparation of software for converting data tapes produced on an IBM system to data readable on a DEC-10 system, in the creation of awareness of the utility of MAGSAT data among users in India, and in making computer programs supplied by NASA operational on the DEC-10 system is reported. Papers presented to Indian users, at the IAGA fourth scientific assembly, at a symposium on interdisciplinary approaches to geomagnetism, and a paper published in Science Today are included.

  17. Geographical localisation of the geomagnetic secular variation

    OpenAIRE

    Aubert, Julien; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils

    2013-01-01

    Directly observed changes in Earth’s magnetic field occur most prominently at low latitudes beneath the Atlantic hemisphere, while the Pacific is comparatively quiet. This striking hemispheric asymmetry in geomagnetic secular variation is a consequence of the geographical localisation of intense, westward moving, magnetic flux patches at the core surface. Despite its successes in explaining the main morphological properties of Earth’s magnetic field, self-consistent numerical modelling of the...

  18. Influence of different body mass index cut-off values in assessing the nutritional status of adolescents in a household survey Influência de distintos valores críticos do índice de massa corporal na avaliação do estado nutricional de adolescentes em inquérito domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric nutritional status of the adolescent population of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and the influence of changes in the adopted body mass index (BMI cut-offs in the nutritional status assessment of the adolescent population. A population-based survey conducted in 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households and 523 adolescents. The multiple proportions test and prevalence ratios were used to analyze differences between estimates obtained from different BMI cut-offs. Changes in cut-off values from the old to the new recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO resulted in a significant increase in overweight prevalence among total, male and female adolescent population (25%, 27% and 23%, respectively (p Este artigo tem por objetivo avaliar o estado nutricional antropométrico da população adolescente residente em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, bem como a influência das mudanças nos valores críticos de índice de massa corporal (IMC na avaliação do estado nutricional dessa população. Uma pesquisa amostral probabilística de base populacional conduzida em 2003 obteve dados de 1.734 domicílios e 523 adolescentes. Testes para múltiplas proporções e razões de prevalência foram utilizados para analisar as diferenças entre estimativas obtidas segundo distintos valores críticos de IMC. Mudanças nos pontos de corte da antiga para a atual recomendação da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS resultaram em aumentos significativos nas prevalências de sobrepeso entre o total de adolescentes, meninos e meninas (25%, 27% e 23%, respectivamente (p < 0,05. A proposta da International Obesity Task Force resultou em uma redução significativa de 29% e 39% na prevalência de baixo-IMC-para-idade entre o total de adolescentes e meninos, respectivamente, quando comparada à recomendação atual da OMS (p < 0,05. Foi evidenciado que uma simples

  19. Prognostic value of Ki67 and p53 in patients with estrogen receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative breast cancer: Validation of the cut-off value of the Ki67 labeling index as a predictive factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHARA, MASAHIRO; MATSUURA, KAZUO; AKIMOTO, ETSUSHI; NOMA, MIDORI; DOI, MIHOKO; NISHIZAKA, TAKASHI; KAGAWA, NAOKI; ITAMOTO, TOSHIYUKI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of the Ki67 labeling index and p53 status as prognostic and predictive indicators of operable estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Among 697 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent curative surgery between 2002 and 2013, 308 patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer were assessed. The results of the multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that a high Ki67 labeling index was significantly associated with a short recurrence-free interval (RFI) (p=0.004) and was marginally associated with a worse overall survival (p=0.074). A positive p53 status was not associated with worse outcomes. To validate the cut-off values of the Ki67 labeling index for identifying patients who may benefit from additional chemotherapy, prognostic factors were investigated in breast cancer patients treated postoperatively with endocrine therapy alone. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that a Ki67 labeling index cut-off of 20.0% was optimal for predicting recurrence among patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-year RFIs for patients with Ki67 <20 and ≥20% were 97.2 and 86.6%, respectively (p=0.0244). A high Ki67 labeling index (≥20%) was significantly associated with large tumors (p<0.01), lymph node metastasis (p=0.0236) and positive p53 status (p<0.001). The univariate analysis demonstrated that Ki67 labeling index ≥20%, lymph node metastasis and progesterone receptor negativity were significant worse prognostic factors for RFI (p=0.0333, 0.0116 and 0.0573, respectively). The Ki67 labeling index was found to be a useful prognostic factor in patients with ER-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer and the cut-off values of the Ki67 labeling index for making a decision regarding adjuvant treatment were validated. PMID:27073684

  20. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, P.

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

  1. Geomagnetic Jerks in the Swarm Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William; Beggan, Ciaran; Macmillan, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The timely provision of geomagnetic observations as part of the European Space Agency (ESA) Swarm mission means up-to-date analysis and modelling of the Earth's magnetic field can be conducted rapidly in a manner not possible before. Observations from each of the three Swarm constellation satellites are available within 4 days and a database of close-to-definitive ground observatory measurements is updated every 3 months. This makes it possible to study very recent variations of the core magnetic field. Here we investigate rapid, unpredictable internal field variations known as geomagnetic jerks. Given that jerks represent (currently) unpredictable changes in the core field and have been identified to have happened in 2014 since Swarm was launched, we ask what impact this might have on the future accuracy of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). We assess the performance of each of the IGRF-12 secular variation model candidates in light of recent jerks, given that four of the nine candidates are novel physics-based predictive models.

  2. Geomagnetic Earthquake Precursors Improvement Formulation on the basis of SKO (Skopje) and PAG (Intermagnet) Geomagnetic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, Strachimir Chterev

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the simple analysis of the local geomagnetic field behaviour can serve as reliable imminent precursor for regional seismic activity increasing. As the first step the problem was investigated using one- component Dubna fluxgate magnetometer. The result of 2001-2004 Sofia monitoring confirmed many old papers for connection between Earth tide (Sun- Moon tides as earthquakes trigger) and jump (Geomagnetic quake) of daily averaged one minute standart deviation of the geomagnetic field. The second step (2004-present), which included analisys of three-component Danish fluxgate magnetometer data, worked in Skopje Seismological observatory, confirmed the first step result. The analysis of INTERMAGNET data stations around which was happened stronger earthquakes also confirmed our result. The distribution of time difference between the times of such earthquakes and local daily averaged tide vector movement for impending tide extreme confirms our estimate that the increasing seismicity is reali...

  3. Geomagnetic excursions date early hominid migration to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Atreyee

    2012-09-01

    Global-scale geomagnetic reversals, which are periods when the direction of Earth's magnetic field flips, leave imprints in magnetic minerals present in sediments. But so do smaller-scale, even local, changes in Earth's magnetic field direction. Paleomagnetists believe that the smaller-scale events represent “failed reversals” and refer to them as “geomagnetic excursions.” Scientists use geomagnetic excursions in sedimentary basins as markers to tie together events of Earth's history across the globe.

  4. Rigid subsets of symplectic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Entov, Michael

    2007-01-01

    We show that there is an hierarchy of intersection rigidity properties of sets in a closed symplectic manifold: some sets cannot be displaced by symplectomorphisms from more sets than the others. We also find new examples of rigidity of intersections involving, in particular, specific fibers of moment maps of Hamiltonian torus actions, monotone Lagrangian submanifolds (following the previous work of P.Albers) as well as certain, possibly singular, sets defined in terms of Poisson-commutative subalgebras of smooth functions. In addition, we get some geometric obstructions to semi-simplicity of the quantum homology of symplectic manifolds. The proofs are based on the Floer-theoretical machinery of partial symplectic quasi-states.

  5. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups Hard Fd and Soft Fd according to size of Fd at Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable for the present purpose than that of power-exponential type or of power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd.

  6. Rigid body dynamics of mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    The second volume of Rigid Body Dynamics of Mechanisms covers applications via a systematic method for deriving model equations of planar and spatial mechanisms. The necessary theoretical foundations have been laid in the first volume that introduces the theoretical mechanical aspects of mechatronic systems. Here the focus is on the application of the modeling methodology to various examples of rigid-body mechanisms, simple planar ones as well as more challenging spatial problems. A rich variety of joint models, active constraints, plus active and passive force elements is treated. The book is intended for self-study by working engineers and students concerned with the control of mechanical systems, i.e. robotics, mechatronics, vehicles, and machine tools. The examples included are a likely source from which to choose models for university lectures.

  7. Coronal mass ejections and geomagnetic storms: Seasonal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.

    1992-07-01

    The well-established semiannual geomagnetic cycle, with peak activity near the equinoxes, has been attributed to the angle between the solar rotation axis and the geomagnetic dipole, which modulates the GSM Bz component in the interplanetary magnetic field (MF). This effect is predicted to be accentuated in the shocked plasma ahead of fast coronal mass ejections (CMESs); its relevance to the internal fields of the ejecta is unclear. CMEs, particularly fast events driving interplanetary shocks, are the cause of almost all large geomagnetic storms near solar maximum. We use a set of CMEs identified by ISEE-3 observations of bidirectional electron streaming, plus IMF and geomagnetic data, to investigate the semiannual geomagnetic variation and its relation to CMEs. We find that the geomagnetic effectiveness of CMEs and post-shock solar wind is well-ordered by speed and by the southward component of the IMF in GSM coordinates, as well as by preexisting geomagnetic conditions. The post-shock seasonal effect, with geomagnetic effectiveness maximizing near April 5 for negative GSEQ By and near October 5 for positive GSEQ By, is identifiable in shock and shock/CME events, but not for CME events without leading shocks. When used to complement the more fundamental causal parameter of CME speed, the seasonal effect appears to have value for prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  8. Coronal mass ejections and geomagnetic storms: Seasonal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.; McComas, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The well-established semiannual geomagnetic cycle, with peak activity near the equinoxes, has been attributed to the angle between the solar rotation axis and the geomagnetic dipole, which modulates the GSM Bz component in the interplanetary magnetic field (MF). This effect is predicted to be accentuated in the shocked plasma ahead of fast coronal mass ejections (CMESs); its relevance to the internal fields of the ejecta is unclear. CMEs, particularly fast events driving interplanetary shocks, are the cause of almost all large geomagnetic storms near solar maximum. We use a set of CMEs identified by ISEE-3 observations of bidirectional electron streaming, plus IMF and geomagnetic data, to investigate the semiannual geomagnetic variation and its relation to CMEs. We find that the geomagnetic effectiveness of CMEs and post-shock solar wind is well-ordered by speed and by the southward component of the IMF in GSM coordinates, as well as by preexisting geomagnetic conditions. The post-shock seasonal effect, with geomagnetic effectiveness maximizing near April 5 for negative GSEQ By and near October 5 for positive GSEQ By, is identifiable in shock and shock/CME events, but not for CME events without leading shocks. When used to complement the more fundamental causal parameter of CME speed, the seasonal effect appears to have value for prediction of geomagnetic storms.

  9. The Egyptian geomagnetic reference field to the Epoch, 2010.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Deebes

    2017-06-01

    The geomagnetic anomaly maps, the normal geomagnetic field maps with their corresponding secular variation maps, the normal geomagnetic field equations of the geomagnetic elements (EGRF and their corresponding secular variations equations, are outlined. The anomalous sites, as discovered from the anomaly maps are, only, mentioned. In addition, a correlation between the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF 2010.0 and the Egyptian Geomagnetic Reference Field (EGRF 2010 is indicated.

  10. Simple Riemannian surfaces are scattering rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Haomin

    2015-01-01

    Scattering rigidity of a Riemannian manifold allows one to tell the metric of a manifold with boundary by looking at the directions of geodesics at the boundary. Lens rigidity allows one to tell the metric of a manifold with boundary from the same information plus the length of geodesics. There are a variety of results about lens rigidity but very little is known for scattering rigidity. We will discuss the subtle difference between these two types of rigidities and prove that they are equiva...

  11. Geomagnetic imprint of the Persani volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besutiu, Lucian; Seghedi, Ioan; Zlagnean, Luminita; Atanasiu, Ligia; Popa, Razvan-Gabriel; Pomeran, Mihai; Visan, Madalina

    2016-04-01

    The Persani small volume volcanism is located in the SE corner of the Transylvanian Depression, at the north-western edge of the intra-mountainous Brasov basin. It represents the south-easternmost segment of the Neogene-Quaternary volcanic chain of the East Carpathians. The alkaline basalt monogenetic volcanic field is partly coeval with the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism south of Harghita Mountains (1-1.6 Ma). Its eruptions post-dated the calc-alkaline volcanism in the Harghita Mountains (5.3-1.6 Ma), but pre-dated the high-K calc-alkaline emissions of Ciomadul volcano (1.0-0.03 Ma). The major volcanic forms have been mapped in previous geological surveys. Still, due to the small size of the volcanoes and large extent of tephra deposits and recent sediments, the location of some vents or other volcanic structures has been incompletely revealed. To overcome this problem, the area was subject to several near-surface geophysical investigations, including paleomagnetic research. However, due to their large-scale features, the previous geophysical surveys proved to be an inappropriate approach to the volcanological issues. Therefore, during the summers of 2014 and 2015, based on the high magnetic contrast between the volcanic rocks and the hosting sedimentary formations, a detailed ground geomagnetic survey has been designed and conducted, within central Persani volcanism area, in order to outline the presence of volcanic structures hidden beneath the overlying deposits. Additionally, information on the rock magnetic properties was also targeted by sampling and analysing several outcrops in the area. Based on the acquired data, a detailed total intensity scalar geomagnetic anomaly map was constructed by using the recent IGRF12 model. The revealed pattern of the geomagnetic field proved to be fully consistent with the direction of magnetisation previously determined on rock samples. In order to enhance the signal/noise ratio, the results were further processed by

  12. Analysis of geomagnetic secular variation during 1980-1985 and 1985- 1990, and geomagnetic models proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddie, N.W.

    1992-01-01

    The secular variation of the main geomagnetic field during the periods 1980-1985 and 1985-1990 was analyzed in terms of spherical harmonics up to the eighth degree and order. Data from worldwide magnetic observatories and the Navy's Project MAGNET aerial surveys were used. The resulting pair of secular-variation models was used to update the Definitive Geomagnetic Reference Field (DGRF) model for 1980, resulting in new mainfield models for 1985.0 and 1990.0. These, along with the secular-variation model for 1985-1990, were proposed for the 1991 revision of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF). -Author

  13. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  14. Wage rigidity and job creation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Haefke; Marcus Sonntag; Thijs van Rens

    2007-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in accounting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage stickiness in the data. We also show, h...

  15. Wage Rigidity and Job Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Haefke, Christian; Sonntag, Marcus; Rens, Thijs van

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in accounting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage stickiness in the data. We also show, h...

  16. Wage Rigidity and Job Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Haefke; Marcus Sonntag; Thijs van Rens

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in macroeconomics emphasizes the role of wage rigidity in ac- counting for the volatility of unemployment fluctuations. We use worker-level data from the CPS to measure the sensitivity of wages of newly hired workers to changes in aggregate labor market conditions. The wage of new hires, unlike the aggregate wage, is volatile and responds almost one-to-one to changes in labor productivity. We conclude that there is little evidence for wage stickiness in the data. We also show,...

  17. High northern geomagnetic field behavior and new constraints on the Gilsá event: Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar results of ∼0.5-3.1 Ma basalts from Jökuldalur, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Døssing, Arne; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Supakulopas, Radchagrit; Riishuus, Morten S.; Mac Niocaill, Conall

    2016-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic results of extrusive rocks from high southern latitudes (>60°S) and high northern latitudes (>60°N) have been suggested to reflect a hemispheric asymmetry of the geomagnetic field on time-scales of 105 to 106 yrs, with higher and more stable fields in the north. This interpretation, however, is based on only a few modern-standard paleodirectional data sets and on high northern stable field paleointensity data of rocks that are mainly younger than 100 kyr. The sparsity of modern-standard data questions the validity (and age range) of this potential geomagnetic asymmetry. In 2013 and 2014, we sampled basaltic lava flows in Jökuldalur, north-eastern Iceland, to obtain high-standard paleodirectional and paleointensity data at relatively high-northern latitudes (65.2°N). On average, we sampled >15 cores per site at 51 sites of predominantly Matuyama age. Complete demagnetization was carried out on all samples using AF or thermal demagnetization. We present 45 distinct paleomagnetic directions based on overall N > 10 ChRMs per site and α 95 age data. The dispersion SB overall supports the interpretation of a dependence of SB on latitude during the Matuyama, while the negligible ΔI suggests little deviation from a GAD field. Based on relatively strict cut-off criteria we also present six new field strength estimates from the time interval ∼1.2-1.83 Ma, thus filling a large data gap of the high-northern stable field behavior. We obtain a median VADM of 57 ± 3ZAm2 (VDM of 60 ± 5Am2), which is higher than the median VADM of 16 intensity estimates from Antarctica (39 ± 7 ZAm2) from the same period. A higher northern field is also found when using less strict cut-off criteria resulting in 14 field estimates from Jökuldalur, i.e. we find support for higher field strength in the northern hemisphere as compared to the southern hemisphere during the Matuyama. Finally, we deliver a revised magneto-chronostratigraphic model of Jökuldalur and conduct

  18. Interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic Dst variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.

    1973-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate geomagnetic storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.

  19. Could Geoneutrinos Interact With the Geomagnetic Field?

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero, C A B

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we consider the possibility of interaction between geoneutrinos and the geomagnetic field, by adopting an approach based on the Dirac's equation with a non-minimal coupling that accounts for the magnetic interaction of the massive neutrinos. In our approach, we see that the magnetic interaction is controlled by a dimensionless parameter, $f\\simeq 10^{-1}$, and we estimate the mean value of this interaction to be of the order of $10^{-14}\\ MeV^{2}$.

  20. Properties of Pliocene sedimentary geomagnetic reversal records from the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linssen, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In the history of the Earth the dipolar geomagnetic field has frequently reversed polarity. Though this property was already known early this century (Brunhes, 1906), nowadays the characteristics and the origin of polarity transitions are still largely unknown. The geomagnetic field and its