WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic repository environments

  1. Geologic environments for nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paleologos Evan K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-level radioactive waste (HLW results from spent reactor fuel and reprocessed nuclear material. Since 1957 the scientific consensus is that deep geologic disposal constitutes the safest means for isolating HLW for long timescales. Nuclear power is becoming significant for the Arab Gulf countries as a way to diversify energy sources and drive economic developments. Hence, it is of interest to the UAE to examine the geologic environments currently considered internationally to guide site selection. Sweden and Finland are proceeding with deep underground repositories mined in bedrock at depths of 500m, and 400m, respectively. Equally, Canada’s proposals are deep burial in the plutonic rock masses of the Canadian Shield. Denmark and Switzerland are considering disposal of their relative small quantities of HLW into crystalline basement rocks through boreholes at depths of 5,000m. In USA, the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada lies at a depth of 300m in unsaturated layers of welded volcanic tuffs. Disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as well as the German HLW repository favour structurally-sound layered salt stata and domes. Our article provides a comprehensive review of the current concepts regarding HLW disposal together with some preliminary analysis of potentially appropriate geologic environments in the UAE.

  2. The application of nuclear geophysics method to evaluate the geological environment of nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Xiaoqin, Wang; Kuanliang, Li; Xinsheng, Hou; Jingliang, Zhu; Binxin, Hu

    2002-01-01

    'Cleanly land should be given back ground.' This is a task while nuclear engineering have to be retired. We applied the nuclear geophysics methods and combined with geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and other methods, to evaluate the environment of nuclear waste repository. It is the important work to renovate environment and prepare technology before ex-service of the nuclear engineering

  3. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair and

  4. Geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical factors which influence repository design in the bedded salt environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Nair, O.; Ortman, D.; Rowe, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report describes the geologic, stratigraphic, thermal, and mechanical considerations applicable to repository design. The topics discussed in the report include: tectonic activity; geologic structure; stratigraphy; rock mechanical properties; and hydrologic properties

  5. Safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories is a recognised option for closing nuclear fuel cycles. Geological repositories are at present in stages of development in a number of countries and are expected to be built and operated early next century. A State usually has an obligation to safely store any nuclear material, which is considered unsuitable to re-enter the nuclear fuel cycle, isolated from the biosphere. In conjunction with this, physical protection has to be accounted for to prevent inadvertent access to such material. In addition to these two criteria - which are fully under the State's jurisdiction - a third criterion reflecting international non-proliferation commitments needs to be addressed. Under comprehensive safeguards agreements a State concedes verification of nuclear material for safeguards purposes to the IAEA. The Agency can thus provide assurance to the international community that such nuclear material has been used for peaceful purposes only as declared by the State. It must be emphasised that all three criteria mentioned constitute a 'unit'. None can be sacrificed for the sake of the other, but compromises may have to be sought in order to make their combination as effective as possible. Based on comprehensive safeguards agreements signed and ratified by the State, safeguards can be terminated only when the material has been consumed or diluted in such a way that it can no longer be utilised for any nuclear activities or has become practicably irrecoverable. As such safeguards for nuclear material in geological repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been back-filled and sealed. The effective application of safeguards must assure continuity-of-knowledge that the nuclear material in the repository has not been diverted for an unknown purpose. The nuclear material disposed in a geological repository may eventually have a higher and long term proliferation risk because the inventory is

  6. Thermodynamic stability of actinide pyrochlore minerals in deep geologic repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, YIFENG; Xu, HUIFANG

    2000-01-01

    Crystalline phases of pyrochlore (e.g., CaPuTi 2 O 7 , CaUTi 2 O 7 ) have been proposed as a durable ceramic waste form for disposal of high level radioactive wastes including surplus weapons-usable plutonium. In this paper, the authors use a linear free energy relationship to predict the Gibbs free energies of formation of pyrochlore phases (CaMTi 2 O 7 ). The Pu-pyrochlore phase is predicted to be stable with respect to PuO 2 , CaTiO 3 , and TiO 2 at room temperatures. Pu-pyrochlore is expected to be stable in a geologic repository where silica and carbonate components are absent or limited. The authors suggest that a repository in a salt formation be an ideal environment for disposal of high level, pyrochlore-based ceramic wastes. In such environment, adding CaO as a backfill will make pyrochlore minerals thermodynamically stable and therefore effectively prevent actinide release from these mineral phases

  7. IAEA safeguards for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    In September. 1988, the IAEA held its first formal meeting on the safeguards requirements for the final disposal of spent fuel and nuclear material-bearing waste. The consensus recommendation of the 43 participants from 18 countries at this Advisory Group Meeting was that safeguards should not terminate of spent fuel even after emplacement in, and closure of, a geologic repository.' As a result of this recommendation, the IAEA initiated a series of consultants' meetings and the SAGOR Programme (Programme for the Development of Safeguards for the Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geologic Repositories) to develop an approach that would permit IAEA safeguards to verify the non-diversion of spent fuel from a geologic repository. At the end of this process, in December 1997, a second Advisory Group Meeting, endorsed the generic safeguards approach developed by the SAGOR Programme. Using the SAGOR Programme results and consultants' meeting recommendations, the IAEA Department of Safeguards issued a safeguards policy paper stating the requirements for IAEA safeguards at geologic repositories. Following approval of the safeguards policy and the generic safeguards approach, the Geologic Repository Safeguards Experts Group was established to make recommendations on implementing the safeguards approach. This experts' group is currently making recommendations to the IAEA regarding the safeguards activities to be conducted with respect to Finland's repository programme. (author)

  8. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - development of new modules in the GoldSim environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopalka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokal, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments. (author)

  9. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - Development of new modules in the GoldSim environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vopálka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokál, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new modules modelling the processes that occur in a deep geological repository have been prepared in the GoldSim computer code environment (using its Transport Module). These modules help to understand the role of selected parameters in the near-field region of the final repository and to prepare an own complex model of the repository behaviour. The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The corrosion module describes corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module computes balance equations between dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The diffusion module that includes also non-linear form of the interaction isotherm can be used for an evaluation of small-scale diffusion experiments.

  10. Site selection for deep geologic repositories - Consequences for society, economy and environment; was kommt auf die regionen zu? Auswirkungen geologischer tiefenlager auf gesellschaft, wirtschaft und lebensraum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In a few years, Switzerland will make the decision regarding site selection for geological underground repositories for the storage of radioactive wastes. Besides the safety issue, many citizens are interested in how such a repository will affect environment, economy and society in the selected site's region. This brochure summarizes the results of many studies on the socio-economic impacts of nuclear waste repositories. Radioactive wastes must be stored in such a way that mankind and environment are safely protected for a long period of time. How this goal may be achieved, is already known: geologic deep repositories warrant long-term safety. For the oncoming years in Switzerland the question is where the repository will be built. The search for an appropriate site for a repository in the proposed regions will launch discussions. Within the participative framework the regions may bring their requests. The demonstration of the safety of potential repository sites has the highest priority in the selection process. In the third procedural step additional rock investigations will be made. The socio-economic studies and the experience with existing plants show that radioactive waste management plants can be built and operated in good agreement with environmental requirements. The radioactive wastes in a deep underground repository are stored many hundred meters below the Earth's surface. There, they are isolated from our vital space. Technical barriers and the surrounding dense rock confinement prevent the release of radioactive materials into the environment. A deep repository has positive consequences for the regional economy. It increases trade and value creation and creates work places. The socio-economic impacts practically extend over one century, but strongly vary with time; they are the largest during the building period. High life quality and a positive population development in the selected site region are compatible with a deep repository. A fair

  11. Andra's geologic repository monitoring strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschaert, S.; Lesoille, S.; Bertrand, J.; Landais, P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. After having concluded a feasibility study of deep geological disposal for high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in 2005, Andra was charged by the Planning Act no. 2006-739 to design and create an industrial site for geological disposal called Cigeo which must be reversible for at least a century-long period. The French Safety Guide recommends that Andra develop a monitoring program to be implemented at repository construction and conducted until closure, and possibly after closure, with the aim to confirming prior expectations and enhancing knowledge of relevant processes. This abstract focuses on underground structure monitoring. The monitoring system is based on a combination of in-situ instrumentation and nondestructive methods to obtain the required level of reliable performance. To optimize the device distribution, we take into account both the repetitive design of disposal cells and the homogeneity of the rock properties. This resulted in distinguishing pilot disposal cells that are highly instrumented and standard disposal cells where the instrumentation density could be reduced; monitoring will rely mostly on robotic nondestructive evaluations. If monitoring technologies do not comply with all monitoring objectives, real withdrawal tests of high level wastes in some pilot disposal cells are also planned to provide the possibility of carrying out visual inspection, destructive analyses and samplings on construction materials. Such cells are planned to be dismantled because of the potential disturbance of their component performances from the testing process. Based on this overall strategy, Andra has analyzed the technical requirements that must be met by its monitoring equipment. First, these must be able to provide information on key THMCR (Thermal- Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical and Radiological) processes, to provide a three-dimensional image of a disposal component's behavior and thus to understand

  12. Monitored Geologic Repository Test Evaluation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.B. Skorska

    2002-01-02

    The Monitored Geologic Repository test & evaluation program will specify tests, demonstrations, examinations, and analyses, and describe procedures to conduct and document testing necessary to verify meeting Monitored Geologic Repository requirements for a safe and effective geologic repository for radioactive waste. This test program will provide assurance that the repository is performing as designed, and that the barriers perform as expected; it will also develop supporting documentation to support the licensing process and to demonstrate compliance with codes, standards, and regulations. This comprehensive program addresses all aspects of verification from the development of test requirements to the performance of tests and reporting of the test results. The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Test & Evaluation Plan'' provides a detailed description of the test program approach necessary to achieve the above test program objectives. This test plan incorporates a set of test phases focused on ensuring repository safety and operational readiness and implements a project-wide integrated product management team approach to facilitate test program planning, analysis, and implementation. The following sections provide a description of the individual test phases, the methodology for test program planning and analyses, and the management approach for implementing these activities.

  13. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Trebules

    2006-01-01

    This document establishes the Monitored Geologic Repository system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are based on the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document'' (CRD) (DOE 2004a). The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Systems Requirements Document'' (MGR-RD) is developed in accordance with LP-3.3 SQ-OCRWM, ''Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of Repository Development Requirements Document''. As illustrated in Figure 1, the MGR-RD forms part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Technical Requirements Baseline. Revision 0 of this document identifies requirements for the current phase of repository design that is focused on developing a preliminary design for the repository and will be included in the license application submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a repository at Yucca Mountain in support of receiving a construction authorization and subsequent operating license. As additional information becomes available, more detailed requirements will be identified in subsequent revisions to this document

  14. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY SYSTEMS REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Trebules

    2006-06-02

    This document establishes the Monitored Geologic Repository system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are based on the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document'' (CRD) (DOE 2004a). The ''Monitored Geologic Repository Systems Requirements Document'' (MGR-RD) is developed in accordance with LP-3.3 SQ-OCRWM, ''Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of Repository Development Requirements Document''. As illustrated in Figure 1, the MGR-RD forms part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Technical Requirements Baseline. Revision 0 of this document identifies requirements for the current phase of repository design that is focused on developing a preliminary design for the repository and will be included in the license application submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a repository at Yucca Mountain in support of receiving a construction authorization and subsequent operating license. As additional information becomes available, more detailed requirements will be identified in subsequent revisions to this document.

  15. Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2000-10-07

    One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay

  16. Reference Design Description for a Geologic Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    One of the current major national environmental problems is the safe disposal of large quantities of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials, which are rapidly accumulating throughout the country. These radioactive byproducts are generated as the result of national defense activities and from the generation of electricity by commercial nuclear power plants. At present, spent nuclear fuel is accumulating at over 70 power plant sites distributed throughout 33 states. The safe disposal of these high-level radioactive materials at a central disposal facility is a high national priority. This Reference Design Description explains the current design for a potential geologic repository that may be located at Yucca Mountain in Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste materials. This document describes a possible design for the three fundamental parts of a repository: a surface facility, subsurface repository, and waste packaging. It also presents the current conceptual design of the key engineering systems for the final four phases of repository processes: operations, monitoring, closure, and postclosure. In accordance with current law, this design does not include an interim storage option. In addition, this Reference Design Description reviews the expected long-term performance of the potential repository. It describes the natural barrier system which, together with the engineered systems, achieves the repository objectives. This design will protect the public and the environment by allowing the safe disposal of radioactive waste received from government-owned custodial spent fuel sites, high-level radioactive waste sites, and commercial power reactor sites. All design elements meet or exceed applicable regulations governing the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The design will provide safe disposal of waste materials for at least a 10,000 year period. During this time interval, natural radioactive decay

  17. Economics of mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, P.L.; Dippold, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    During 1982, Congress considered legislation to provide for the development of repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The result of this legislative effort was the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), PL 97-425, signed into law January 7, 1983. An important part of the NWPA was the establishment of special funds in the US Treasury for Waste Disposal and Interim Storage to be financed by user fees to pay for all costs of the program. An initial fee of 1.0 mill per kilowatt-hour was specified. The Secretary was asked to annually review the amount of the fees established... to evaluate whether collection of the fee will provide sufficient revenues to offset the costs... In the event of a prospective fee cost mismatch, the Secretary was asked to propose an adjustment to the fee to insure full cost recovery. A series of studies were sponsored by DOE in 1982 to estimate program costs, to calculate the necessary fees to assure cost recovery, and to address uncertainties that could affect future program costs and consequent fee schedules. A brief summary of the 1982 cost estimates is presented. Sources of key cost uncertainties are discussed and the bases for the cost recovery fee calculations are summarized. 17 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  18. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, A.

    2009-09-01

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes

  19. Calculated compositions of porewater affected by a nuclear waste repository in a tuff geologic environment from 0 to 10,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criscenti, L.C.; Arthur, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Porewater compositions were estimated for an environment assuming that high-level radioactive waste has been stored for 10,000 years under geologic conditions analogous to those at the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada. The porewater compositions calculated with the EQ3/EQ6 geochemical code are intended for use in preliminary performance assessments of borosilicate glass waste packages. The porewater compositions were calculated using water-rock interaction models that are loosely coupled with two time-temperature periods in the host rocks: a cooling period between 900 years and 3,000 years after repository closure and an isothermal period from 3,000 years to 10,000 years. Significant changes in water composition are predicted to occur during the initial period of water-rock interaction; for example, the pH of the porewater increases from 6.4 to 9.1. Constant porewater compositions are predicted during the isothermal period. The results suggest that major changes in porewater composition will occur over a relatively short time frame and that these changes will persevere throughout the repository lifetime. (author) 5 figs., 3 tabs., 28 refs

  20. Expected repository environments in granite: thermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osnes, J.D.; Coates, G.K.; DeJong, K.B.; Loken, M.C.; Wagner, R.A.

    1984-10-01

    This report was prepared for the Reference Repository Conditions - Interface Working Group and will be used to formulate a standardized description of repository conditions for use by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. A baseline repository in granite is defined and three waste types are considered: unreprocessed spent fuel, commercial high-level waste, and defense high-level waste. Three different scales of repository environment are described - the very-near field (near the waste canister), the near field (the room and pillar), and the far field (the entire repository and surroundings). Information was compiled from the literature and, in addition, a number of calculations were performed. The major emphasis is on describing the thermal environment although the ground-water flow and chemical and radiation environments are also described. 61 figures, 24 tables

  1. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (CRWMS M and O 2000b) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) engineering design basis in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The engineering design basis documented in the PDD is to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the engineering design basis from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the engineering design basis captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 2-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1),the Engineering Design Bases (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6)

  2. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. M. Curry

    2001-01-30

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (YMP 2000a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  3. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Curry

    2000-06-01

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (CRWMS M&O 2000b) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) engineering design basis in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The engineering design basis documented in the PDD is to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the engineering design basis from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the engineering design basis captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 2-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1),the Engineering Design Bases (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  4. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements Document'' (MGR RD) (YMP 2000a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6)

  5. Current Status of Deep Geological Repository Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R J

    2005-01-01

    This talk provided an overview of the current status of deep-geological-repository development worldwide. Its principal observation is that a broad consensus exists internationally that deep-geological disposal is the only long-term solution for disposition of highly radioactive nuclear waste. Also, it is now clear that the institutional and political aspects are as important as the technical aspects in achieving overall progress. Different nations have taken different approaches to overall management of their highly radioactive wastes. Some have begun active programs to develop a deep repository for permanent disposal: the most active such programs are in the United States, Sweden, and Finland. Other countries (including France and Russia) are still deciding on whether to proceed quickly to develop such a repository, while still others (including the UK, China, Japan) have affirmatively decided to delay repository development for a long time, typically for a generation of two. In recent years, a major conclusion has been reached around the world that there is very high confidence that deep repositories can be built, operated, and closed safely and can meet whatever safety requirements are imposed by the regulatory agencies. This confidence, which has emerged in the last few years, is based on extensive work around the world in understanding how repositories behave, including both the engineering aspects and the natural-setting aspects, and how they interact together. The construction of repositories is now understood to be technically feasible, and no major barriers have been identified that would stand in the way of a successful project. Another major conclusion around the world is that the overall cost of a deep repository is not as high as some had predicted or feared. While the actual cost will not be known in detail until the costs are incurred, the general consensus is that the total life-cycle cost will not exceed a few percent of the value of the

  6. Monitored Geologic Repository Concept of Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    This updated document provides the top level guidance for development of the individual systems for the MGR which will be further developed in the System Description Documents. This document will serve as guidance for the development of functional interface and operational requirements. However, the data and engineering values presented in Monitored Geologic Repository Concept of Operations are provided as estimates or summaries of the current design. The original analyses or supporting documents must be utilized if the data or engineering values are used for design inputs. The concepts presented will be utilized as inputs for the development of operational concepts for the individual systems. It is recognized that the references listed may contain existing data or data which are to be verified. However, the data and engineering values presented will not impact the concepts presented in this technical document. As such, the data and engineering values are not being tracked as To Be Verified data. This revision was created to incorporate changes resulting from Enhanced Design Alternative II and Revision 3, DCN 01, of the Monitored Geologic Repository Requirements (YMP 1999)

  7. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-01-01

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M andO) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity

  8. Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Curry

    2001-06-26

    The primary objective of the Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document (PDD) is to allocate the functions, requirements, and assumptions to the systems at Level 5 of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) architecture identified in Section 4. It provides traceability of the requirements to those contained in Section 3 of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Requirements Document (YMP RD) (YMP 2001a) and other higher-level requirements documents. In addition, the PDD allocates design related assumptions to work products of non-design organizations. The document provides Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) technical requirements in support of design and performance assessment in preparing for the Site Recommendation (SR) and License Application (LA) milestones. The technical requirements documented in the PDD are to be captured in the System Description Documents (SDDs) which address each of the systems at Level 5 of the CRWMS architecture. The design engineers obtain the technical requirements from the SDDs and by reference from the SDDs to the PDD. The design organizations and other organizations will obtain design related assumptions directly from the PDD. These organizations may establish additional assumptions for their individual activities, but such assumptions are not to conflict with the assumptions in the PDD. The PDD will serve as the primary link between the technical requirements captured in the SDDs and the design requirements captured in US Department of Energy (DOE) documents. The approved PDD is placed under Level 3 baseline control by the CRWMS Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) and the following portions of the PDD constitute the Technical Design Baseline for the MGR: the design characteristics listed in Table 1-1, the MGR Architecture (Section 4.1), the Technical Requirements (Section 5), and the Controlled Project Assumptions (Section 6).

  9. Modelling of processes occurring in deep geological repository - development of new modules in the GoldSim environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopalka, D.; Lukin, D.; Vokal, A.

    2006-01-01

    Three new modules were prepared in the environment of the GoldSim environment (using its Transport Module). The source term module includes radioactive decay and ingrowth in the canister, first order degradation of fuel matrix, solubility limitation of the concentration of the studied nuclides, and diffusive migration through the surrounding bentonite layer controlled by the output boundary condition formulated with respect to the rate of water flow in the rock. The module was successfully compared with results of similar codes (MIVCYL and Pagoda) and possibilities of the module were extended by a more realistic model of matrix degradation. A better quantification of the role of radionuclide sorption on the bentonite surface was enabled by a module that included non-linear form of the interaction isotherm. Using this module both the influence of the shape of sorption isotherm on the values of diffusion coefficients and the limits of K d -approach that dominates in most codes used in performance assessment studies was discussed. The third of the GoldSim modules presented has been worked out for the description of corrosion of canisters made of carbon steel and for the transport of corrosion products in the near-field region. This module evaluates balance equations between the dissolving species and species transported by diffusion and/or advection from the surface of a solid material. The model also includes transport of iron directly to a fracture in the surrounding rock or into a layer of granite host rock without fractures, and takes into account the reduction of the actual corrosion rate of the canister by growth of the corrosion layer thickness

  10. 10 CFR 60.112 - Overall system performance objective for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... repository after permanent closure. 60.112 Section 60.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Performance... environment following permanent closure conform to such generally applicable environmental standards for...

  11. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Geological surveys for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the aims involved in the selection of sites for deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland. Various methods involved in their implementation are described. These include 3D-seismology, deep probe drillings, shallow drillings as well as field studies, gravimetric measurements and the study of the electrical properties of the ground and rock involved. These factors are discussed in detail. Maps are presented of the locations that are to be surveyed and details of the selected perimeters are shown. Also, the layout of a sample drilling site is presented. A timescale for the various surveys and work to be done is presented

  12. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, W.; Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-01

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open and

  13. Process for license application development for the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, D.M.; Henderson, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), specifically the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has been charged by the US Congress, through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), with the responsibility for obtaining a license to develop a geologic repository. The NRC is the licensing authority for geologic disposal, and its regulations pertinent to construction authorization and license application are specified in 10 CFR Part 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, section 60.21ff and section 60.31ff. This paper discusses the process the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) will use to identify and apply regulatory and industry guidance to development of the license application (LA) for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This guidance will be implemented by the Technical Guidance Document for Preparation of the License Application (TGD), currently in development

  14. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; McKirdy, B.; Askarieh, M.; Bond, A.; Russell, S.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1985 it has been obligatory that facilities in the European Union designed for the permanent storage or disposal of radioactive waste be assessed to determine their effects on the environment. This assessment must be undertaken in advance of any decision by national authorities to give consent for development work to proceed. Member States are given wide discretion on how the above requirements are implemented in practice, e.g. the relevant European Council Directives call for the results of the environmental assessment to be made available to the public before development consent is granted but the detailed arrangements for dissemination of such information and procedures for public consultation are determined by individual Member States. Although the Directives require an assessment of the direct and indirect effects of a project on human beings and on various elements of the natural environment, they are non-specific as to what particular impacts should be addressed, particularly as regards the effects of a project on human beings. Therefore, for example, each Member State may decide whether or not social, health and economic impacts should be included in the assessment. This paper discusses the above issues. It proposes a model approach to environmental impact assessment in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment on the overall decision processes for repository development, the scope and content of the assessment report, and approaches to public involvement

  15. Deep geological repository: Starting communication at potentially suitable sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2001-01-01

    The siting of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic is and will be a complicated process, since it is the first siting process of a nuclear facility designed from the start to be located at non-nuclear sites and to be organised under democratic conditions. This presentation describes the concept of radioactive waste and spent nuclear management in the Czech Republic, Communication activities of Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) with local representatives and lessons learned

  16. Optimization method for dimensioning a geological HLW waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrier, N.; Chaudon, L.; Malherbe, L.

    1990-01-01

    This method was developed by the CEA to optimize the dimensions of a geological repository by taking account of technical and economic parameters. It involves optimizing radioactive waste storage conditions on the basis of economic criteria with allowance for specified thermal constraints. The results are intended to identify trends and guide the choice from among available options: simple and highly flexible models were therefore used in this study, and only nearfield thermal constraints were taken into consideration. Because of the present uncertainty on the physicochemical properties of the repository environment and on the unit cost figures, this study focused on developing a suitable method rather than on obtaining definitive results. The optimum values found for the two media investigated (granite and salt) show that it is advisable to minimize the interim storage time, implying the containers must be separated by buffer material, whereas vertical spacing may not be required after a 30-year interim storage period. Moreover, the boreholes should be as deep as possible, on a close pitch in widely spaced handling drifts. These results depend to a considerable extent on the assumption of high interim storage costs

  17. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  18. Ontario Power Generation's Proposed Deep Geologic Repository, Tiverton, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M.

    2009-05-01

    Ontario Power Generation is proposing to develop a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) at the Bruce site located near Tiverton, Ontario, 225 km northwest of Toronto. The shaft accessed repository, as envisioned, would accommodate 200,000 m3 (as packaged) of L&ILW in emplacement rooms excavated at a depth of 680 m within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. The Bruce site is underlain by an approximate 860 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near horizontally bedded carbonates, shales, evaporates and sandstones, Devonian to Cambrian in age, overlying crystalline basement rocks. Regional and site-specific geoscientific studies to verify the suitability of the Bruce site to host the DGR were initiated in 2006. The focus for the geoscientific investigations has been on gathering data to develop and test an understanding of the evolution and stability of the geologic, hydrogeologic, hydrogeochemical and geomechanical environ as it relates to demonstrating repository safety. Scheduled for completion in 2010, the interim results, which have included the drilling, coring and testing of 4 deep boreholes, are providing evidence of a predictable geosphere with a deep seated (>400 m), low permeability (K 250 gm l-1) groundwater regime that is ancient and resilient to external perturbations (e.g. glaciation). Work program activities in this regard have included, among others, detailed studies of rock core lithology, mineralogy and petrophysics, rock matrix pore fluid and groundwater characterisation, in-situ rock mass hydraulic testing, geomechanical rock core testing, 2-D seismic reflection surveys and long-term hydraulic borehole instrumentation. These data, in addition to regional and site-scale hydrogeologic modelling of the sedimentary sequence that among other aspects is examining groundwater system evolution through an understanding of long

  19. An approach to improve Romanian geological repository planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei, Veronica [Romanian Association for Nuclear Energy, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Prisecaru, Ilie [University Politehnica of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)

    2016-04-15

    International standards recommend typical phases to be included within any national program for the development of a geological repository dedicated to disposal of the high level radioactive wastes generated in countries using nuclear power. However, these are not universally applicable and the content of each of these phases may need to be adapted for each national situation and regulatory and institutional framework. Several national geological repository programs have faced failures in schedules and have revised their programs to consider an adapted phased management approach. The authors have observed that in the case of those countries in the early phases of a geological repository program where boundary conditions have not been fully defined, international recommendations for handling delays/failures in the national program might not immediately help. This paper considers a case study of the influences of the national context risks on the current planning schedule of the Romanian national geological repository. It proposes an optimum solution for an integrated response to any significant adverse impact arising from these risks, enabling sustainable program planning.

  20. 10 CFR 51.67 - Environmental information concerning geologic repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental information concerning geologic repositories. 51.67 Section 51.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS National Environmental Policy Act...

  1. An Approach to Improve Romanian Geological Repository Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Andrei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International standards recommend typical phases to be included within any national program for the development of a geological repository dedicated to disposal of the high level radioactive wastes generated in countries using nuclear power. However, these are not universally applicable and the content of each of these phases may need to be adapted for each national situation and regulatory and institutional framework. Several national geological repository programs have faced failures in schedules and have revised their programs to consider an adapted phased management approach. The authors have observed that in the case of those countries in the early phases of a geological repository program where boundary conditions have not been fully defined, international recommendations for handling delays/failures in the national program might not immediately help. This paper considers a case study of the influences of the national context risks on the current planning schedule of the Romanian national geological repository. It proposes an optimum solution for an integrated response to any significant adverse impact arising from these risks, enabling sustainable program planning.

  2. Assessment of the Durability of Cementitious Materials in Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Marumo, J.T.; Miyamoto, H.; Isiki, V.L.K.; Ferreira, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Laboratory of the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute is developing the concept of a borehole repository for disused sealed radioactive sources drilled in a deep granite batholite. In this concept, the annular space between the well steel casing and the geological formation is backfilled with cement paste. The hardened cement paste functions as an additional barrier against the escape of radionuclides from the repository and their migration to the environment. It also functions as an obstacle to the flow of groundwater between different layers of the geological setting crossed by the borehole. The long term behavior of hydrated cement compounds is yet incompletely known and therefore more research is needed to increase the confidence on the performance of the material under the repository conditions as required. For the repository to achieve the required performance, the cement paste must be durable. However, in a deep repository, the cementitious materials is exposed to the deleterious action of high temperatures and pressures, the radiation field created by the radioactive sources and aggressive ion species that may be present in groundwater. Furthermore, it is necessary to consider that the cement paste is unstable in the long term because its microstructure and mineralogy change with time as the cement gel components recrystallize and react chemically with materials of the repository environment. In principle, the lifetime of this material could be determined based on the study of its long-term behavior, which, in turn, could be estimated from the extrapolation of short-term results, by accelerating, under controlled laboratory conditions, the composition changes and the loss of mechanical strength and cohesion induced by any detrimental component of the repository environment. Loss of mechanical strength, dimensional variations, changes in chemical-mineralogical composition, and leaching of hydrate compounds are all possible

  3. IAEA perspectives on geological repositories. Address at the international conference on geological repositories, Denver, 1 November 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1999-01-01

    In his address at the International Conference on Geological Repositories (Denver, 1 November 1999), the Director General of the IAEA gave a general presentation of the problem of disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and described the current situation in the countries using nuclear energy including present and future Agency's activities

  4. International Conference on Geological Repositories 2016. Conference Synthesis, 7-9 December 2016, Paris, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walke, Russell; Kwong, Gloria; )

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide consensus exists within the international community that geological repositories can provide the necessary long-term safety and security to isolate long-lived radioactive waste from the human environment over long timescales. Such repositories are also feasible to construct using current technologies. However, proving the technical merits and safety of repositories, while satisfying societal and political requirements, has been a challenge in many countries. Building upon the success of previous conferences held in Denver (1999), Stockholm (2003), Berne (2007) and Toronto (2012), the ICGR 2016 brought together high-level decision makers from regulatory and local government bodies, waste management organisations and public stakeholder communities to review current perspectives of geological repository development. This publication provides a synthesis of the 2016 conference on continued engagement and safe implementation of repositories, which was designed to promote information and experience sharing, particularly in the development of polices and regulatory frameworks. Repository safety, and the planning and implementation of repository programs with societal involvement, as well as ongoing work within different international organisations, were also addressed at the conference. (authors)

  5. Siting regions for deep geological repositories. Why just here?; Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Warum gerade hier?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieser, A

    2009-09-15

    This report helps to the popularization of the Nagra works accomplished for the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes in Switzerland. The programme for management and disposal of the radioactive wastes are extensively determined by regulations. Protection of mankind and environment is the primary objective. The basic storage process is considered as having been solved. The question addressed in the report is where the facility has to be built; the site selection procedure includes five steps: 1) according to their type the wastes have to be allocated to two different repositories: for low- and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW), and for high-level and alpha-toxic wastes (HLW); 2) the safety concept for both repositories and the requirements on the geology have to be determined; 3) large suitable geological-tectonic zones must be found where repositories could be built; 4) in these geological zones a suitable host rock has to be identified; 5) the most important spatial geological conditions of the host rock (minimum depth with respect to surface erosion, maximum depth in terms of engineering requirements, lateral extent) have to be identified. Based on these criteria, three suitable siting regions for a HLW repository were found in the North of Switzerland. The preferred host rock is Opalinus clay because of its very low permeability; it is therefore an excellent barrier against nuclide transport. In the three proposed siting regions, Opalinus clay is present in sufficient volumes at a suitable depth. For a L/ILW repository six different possible siting regions were identified, five in Northern Switzerland and one in Central Switzerland. In the three siting regions found for a possible HLW repository, it would also be possible to built a combined repository for both HLW and L/ILW wastes.

  6. Safety assessment of geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.; Burkholder, H.C.; Winegardner, W.K.

    1977-01-01

    Consideration of geologic isolation for final disposition of radioactive wastes has led to the need for evaluation of the safety of the concept. Such evaluations require consideration of factors not encountered in conventional risk analysis: consequences at times and places far removed from the repository site; indirect, complex, and alternative pathways between the waste and the point of potential consequences; a highly limited data base; and limited opportunity for experimental verification of results. R and D programs to provide technical safety evaluations are under way. Three methods are being considered for the probabilistic aspects of the evaluations: fault tree analysis, repository simulation analysis, and system stability analysis. Nuclide transport models, currently in a relatively advanced state of development, are used to evaluate consequences of postulated loss of geologic isolation. This paper outlines the safety assessment methods, unique features of the assessment problem that affect selection of methods and reliability of results, and available results. It also discusses potential directions for future work

  7. Nurture of human resources for geological repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Japanese geological repository program entered the implementing stage in 2002. At the implementing stage of the program, different sectors need various human resources to conduct their functions. This paper discusses a suitable framework of nurture of the human resources to progress the geological repository program. The discussion is based on considering of specific characters involved in the program and of the multidisciplinary knowledge related to geological disposal. Considering the specific characters of the project, two types of the human resources need to be nurtured. First type is the core persons with the highest knowledge on geological disposal. They are expected to communicate with the various stakeholders and pass down the whole knowledge of the project to the next generation. Another is to conduct the project as the managers, the engineers and the workers. The former human resources can be developed through the broad practice and experience in each sector. The latter human resources can be effectively developed by training of the fundamental knowledge on geological disposal at training centers as well as by conventional on-the-job training. The sectors involved in the program need to take their own roles in the nurture of these human resources. (author)

  8. 10 CFR 63.112 - Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... repository operations area. The preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area must... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for preclosure safety analysis of the geologic repository operations area. 63.112 Section 63.112 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  9. Proposals of geological sites for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Geological background. Text volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    On April 2008, the Swiss Federal Council approved the conceptual part of the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. The Plan sets out the details of the site selection procedure for geological repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). It specifies that selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages, the first one (the subject of this report) being the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in the later stages of the Sectoral Plan. The geoscientific background is based on the one hand on an evaluation of the geological investigations previously carried out by Nagra on deep geological disposal of HLW and L/ILW in Switzerland (investigation programmes in the crystalline basement and Opalinus Clay in Northern Switzerland, investigations of L/ILW sites in the Alps, research in rock laboratories in crystalline rock and clay); on the other hand, new geoscientific studies have also been carried out in connection with the site selection process. Formulation of the siting proposals is conducted in five steps: A) In a first step, the waste inventory is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; B) The second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability, reliability of geological findings and engineering suitability; C) In the third step, the large-scale geological-tectonic situation is assessed and large-scale areas that remain under consideration are defined. For the L

  10. Milestone M4FT-13LL0807071: International Collaboration - Radionuclide Interactions and Transport in Geologic Repository Environments - Pu Interaction with Bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begg, J D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zavarin, M [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kersting, A B [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-13

    The focus of this project is to investigate radionuclide interactions with natural and engineered materials, specifically the mineral bentonite that will be used in EU repositories and possibly in US high-level waste repository designs. These experiments are designed to develop a mechanistic understanding of Pu interactions with representative mineral substrates under granitic chemical conditions. The sorption/desorption experiments cover a large range of Pu concentrations and will be compared to sorption/desorption experiment with montmorillonite. The experiments are being coordinated with the Colloid Formation and Migration (CFM) international project led by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and located at the Grimsel Test Site underground research laboratory in Switzerland. Experiments will be completed by 8/15/2014. Milestone M4FT-13LL0807071 is a progress report on this effort. The research is addressing the following FEPs/needs identified in the R&D Roadmap: 2.2.09.05 - radionuclide speciation and solubility in host rock; 2.2.09.55 - sorption of dissolved radionuclides in host rock; 2.2.09.59 - colloidal transport in host rock.

  11. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.W.; Reijonen, H.M.; McKinley, I.G.

    2015-01-01

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  12. Natural analogues: studies of geological processes relevant to radioactive waste disposal in deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); McKinley, I.G. [MCM Consulting, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The geological disposal of radioactive wastes is generally accepted to be the most practicable approach to handling the waste inventory built up from over 70 years accumulation of power production, research-medical-industrial and military wastes. Here, a brief overview of the approach to geological disposal is presented along with some information on repository design and the assessment of repository post-closure safety. One of the significant challenges for repository safety assessment is how to extrapolate the likely long-term (i.e. ten thousand to a million years) behaviour of the repository from the necessarily short term data from analytical laboratories and underground rock laboratories currently available. One approach, common to all fields of the geosciences, but also in such diverse fields as philosophy, biology, linguistics, law, etc., is to utilise the analogue argumentation methodology. For the specific case of radioactive waste management, the term 'natural analogue' has taken on a particular meaning associated with providing supporting arguments for a repository safety assessment. This approach is discussed here with a brief overview of how the study of natural (and, in particular, geological) systems can provide supporting information on the likely long-term evolution of a deep geological waste repository. The overall approach is discussed and some relevant examples are presented, including the use of uranium ore bodies to assess waste form stability, the investigation of native metals to define the longevity of waste containers and how natural clays can provide information on the stability of waste tunnel backfill material. (authors)

  13. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY LIFE CYCLE COST ESTIMATE ASSUMPTIONS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.E. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost (LCC) estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA) , License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  14. Monitored Geologic Repository Life Cycle Cost Estimate Assumptions Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this assumptions document is to provide general scope, strategy, technical basis, schedule and cost assumptions for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) life cycle cost estimate and schedule update incorporating information from the Viability Assessment (VA), License Application Design Selection (LADS), 1999 Update to the Total System Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) estimate and from other related and updated information. This document is intended to generally follow the assumptions outlined in the previous MGR cost estimates and as further prescribed by DOE guidance

  15. Impact of advanced fuel cycles on uncertainty associated with geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Lee, Joon; Sutton, Mark; Greenberg, Harris R.; Robinson, Bruce A.; Nutt, W. Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of the impact of advanced fuel cycles, particularly partition and transmutation of actinides, on the uncertainty associated with geologic disposal. Based on the discussion, advanced fuel cycles, will not materially alter (1) the repository performance (2) the spread in dose results around the mean (3) the modeling effort to include significant features, events, and processes in the performance assessment, or (4) the characterization of uncertainty associated with a geologic disposal system in the regulatory environment of the United States. (authors)

  16. Kincardine deep geologic repository proposal and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squire, T.

    2005-01-01

    'Full text:' In 2002, the Municipality of Kincardine and OPG signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) regarding the long-term management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The purpose of the MOU was for OPG, in consultation with Kincardine, to develop a plan for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste at OPG's Western Waste Management Facility (WWMF) located on the Bruce site. An independent assessment, which included geotechnical feasibility and safety analyses, a community attitude survey and interviews with local residents, businesses and tourists, and economic modeling to determine the potential benefits and impacts, was completed in February 2004. Ultimately, Kincardine Council endorsed a resolution (Kincardine Council no. 2004-232) to: 'endorse the opinion of the Nuclear Waste Steering Committee and select the 'Deep Rock Vault' option as the preferred course of study in regards to the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste'. The surrounding municipalities of Saugeen Shores, Brockton, Arran-Elderslie, and Huron-Kinloss expressed their support for the Deep Geologic Repository proposal. This presentation discusses the history, major steps and public processes surrounding the Kincardine Deep Geologic Repository proposal. (author)

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN: Earth-Science Issues at a Geologic Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jane C. S.

    2004-05-01

    The nation has over 40,000 metric tonnes (MT) of nuclear waste destined for disposal in a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. In this review, we highlight some of the important geoscience issues associated with the project and place them in the context of the process by which a final decision on Yucca Mountain will be made. The issues include understanding how water could infiltrate the repository, corrode the canisters, dissolve the waste, and transport it to the biosphere during a 10,000-year compliance period in a region, the Basin and Range province, that is known for seismic and volcanic activity. Although the site is considered to be "dry," a considerable amount of water is present as pore waters and as structural water in zeolites. The geochemical environment is oxidizing, and the present repository design will maintain temperatures at greater than 100°C for thousands of years. Geoscientists in this project are challenged to make unprecedented predictions about coupled thermal, hydrologic, mechanical, and geochemical processes governing the future behavior of the repository and to conduct research in a regulatory and legal environment that requires a quantitative analysis of repository performance.

  18. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Within this project strategies and methods to build a safety case for deep geological repositories are further developed. This includes also the scientific fundamentals as a basis of the safety case. In the international framework the methodology of the Safety Case is frequently applied and continuously improved. According to definitions from IAEA and NEA the Safety Case is a compilation of arguments and facts, which describe, quantify and support the safety and the degree of confidence in the safety of the geological repository. The safety of the geological repository should be demonstrated by the safety case. The safety case is the basis for essential decisions during a repository programme. It comprises the results of safety assessments in combination with additional information like multiple lines of evidence and a discussion of robustness and quality of the repository, its design and the quality of all safety assessments including the basic assumptions. A crucial element of the Safety Case is the long-term safety analysis, i.e. the systematic analysis of the hazards connected with the facility and the capability of site and repository design to ensure the required safety functions and to fulfill the technical claims. Long-term safety analysis requires a powerful and qualified programme package, which contains appropriate hardware and software as well as well trained and experienced modellers performing the model calculations. The calculation tools used within safety cases need to be checked and verified and continuously adapted to the state-of-the-art science and technology. Especially it needs to be applicable to a real repository system. For the assessment of safety a deep process understanding is necessary. The R and D work performed within this project will contribute to the improvement of process and system understanding as well as to the further development of methods and strategies applied in the safety case. Emphasis was put on the following aspects

  19. Scientific basis for a safety case of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, Ulrich; Becker, Dirk-Alexander; Brasser, Thomas [and others

    2012-11-15

    Within this project strategies and methods to build a safety case for deep geological repositories are further developed. This includes also the scientific fundamentals as a basis of the safety case. In the international framework the methodology of the Safety Case is frequently applied and continuously improved. According to definitions from IAEA and NEA the Safety Case is a compilation of arguments and facts, which describe, quantify and support the safety and the degree of confidence in the safety of the geological repository. The safety of the geological repository should be demonstrated by the safety case. The safety case is the basis for essential decisions during a repository programme. It comprises the results of safety assessments in combination with additional information like multiple lines of evidence and a discussion of robustness and quality of the repository, its design and the quality of all safety assessments including the basic assumptions. A crucial element of the Safety Case is the long-term safety analysis, i.e. the systematic analysis of the hazards connected with the facility and the capability of site and repository design to ensure the required safety functions and to fulfill the technical claims. Long-term safety analysis requires a powerful and qualified programme package, which contains appropriate hardware and software as well as well trained and experienced modellers performing the model calculations. The calculation tools used within safety cases need to be checked and verified and continuously adapted to the state-of-the-art science and technology. Especially it needs to be applicable to a real repository system. For the assessment of safety a deep process understanding is necessary. The R and D work performed within this project will contribute to the improvement of process and system understanding as well as to the further development of methods and strategies applied in the safety case. Emphasis was put on the following aspects

  20. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 metres below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time

  1. From the repository to the deep geological repository - and back to the Terrain surface?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahodynsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    How deep is 'safe'? How long is long-term? How and for how long will something be isolated? Which rock, which formation and which location are suitable? A repository constructed for the safekeeping of radioactive or highly toxic wastes can be erected either on the surface, near the surface or underground. Radioactive waste is currently often stored at near-surface locations. The storage usually takes place nearby of a nuclear power plant in pits or concrete tombs (vaults). However, repositories can also be found in restricted areas, e.g. near nuclear weapon production or reprocessing plants (WAA) or nuclear weapons test sites (including Tomsk, Russia, Hanford and Nevada desert, USA), or in extremely low rainfall regions (South Africa). In addition there are disused mines which are now used as underground repositories. Low-level and medium-active (SMA) but also high-level waste (HAA) are stored at these types of sites (NPP, WAA, test areas, former mines). In Russia (Tomsk, Siberia) liquid radioactive waste has been injected into deep geological formations for some time (Minatom, 2001). However, all these locations are not the result of a systematic, scientific search or a holistic process for finding a location, but the result of political decisions, sometimes ignoring scientific findings. Why underground storage is given preference over high-security landfill sites (HSD) often has economic reasons. While a low safety standard can significantly reduce the cost of an above-ground high-security landfill as a waste disposal depot, spending remains high, especially due to the need for capital formation to cover operating expenses after filling the HSD. In the case of underground storage, on the other hand, no additional expenses are required for the period after backfilling. The assumption of lower costs for a deep repository runs through the past decades and coincides with the assumption that the desired ideal underground conditions actually exist and will

  2. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.A. (AECL, Chalk River (Canada)); Boergesson, L. (Clay Technology, Lund (Sweden)); Gunnarsson, D. (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co, Stockholm (Sweden)); Hansen, J. (Posiva Oy, Eurajoki (Finland))

    2009-11-15

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  3. Plugs for deposition tunnels in a deep geologic repository in granitic rock. Concepts and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D. A.; Boergesson, L.; Gunnarsson, D.; Hansen, J.

    2009-11-01

    Regardless of the emplacement geometry selected in a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel, there will be a requirement for the access tunnels to remain open while repository operations are ongoing. The period of repository operation will stretch for many years (decades to more than a century depending on disposal concept and number of canisters to be installed). Requirements for extended monitoring of the repository before final closure may further extend the period over which the tunnels must remain open. The intersection of the emplacement rooms/drifts and the access tunnels needs to be physically closed in order to ensure that the canisters remain undisturbed and that no undesirable hydraulic conditions are allowed to develop within the backfilled volume. As a result of these requirements, generic guidelines and design concepts have been developed for 'Plugs' that are intended to provide mechanical restraint, physical security and hydraulic control functions over the short-term (repository operational and pre-closure monitoring periods). This report focuses on the role and requirements of plugs to be installed at emplacement room/ tunnel/drift entrances or in other locations within the repository that may require installation of temporary mechanical or hydraulic control structures. These plugs are not necessarily a permanent feature of the repository and may, if required, be removed for later installation of a permanent seal. Room/Drift plugs are also by their defined function, physically accessible during repository operation so their performance can be monitored and remedial actions taken if necessary (e.g. increased seepage past the plug). A considerable number of sealing demonstrations have been undertaken at several research laboratories that are focussed on development of technologies and materials for use in isolation of spent nuclear fuel and these are briefly reviewed in this report. Additionally, technologies developed for non

  4. Assessment of Savannah River borosilicate glass in the repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Wicks, G.G.; Bibler, N.E.

    1982-04-01

    Since 1973, borosilicate glass has been studied as a matrix for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). In 1977, efforts began to develop and test the large-scale equipment necessary to convert the alkaline waste slurries at SRP into a durable borosilicate glass. A process has now been developed for the proposed Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) which will annually produce approximately 500 canisters of SRP waste glass which will be stored on an interim basis on the Savannah River site. Current national policy calls for the permanent disposal of high-level waste in deep geologic repositories. In the repository environment, SRP waste glass will eventually be exposed to such stresses as lithostatic or hydrostatic pressures, radiation fields, and self-heating due to radioactive decay. In addition, producing and handling each canister of glass will also expose the glass to thermal and mechanical stresses. An important objective of the extensive glass characterization and testing programs of the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has been to determine how these stresses affect the performance of SRP waste glass. The results of these programs indicate that: these stresses will not significantly affect the performance of borosilicate glass containing SRP waste; and SRP waste glass will effectively immobilize hazardous radionuclides in the repository environment

  5. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled ''Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  6. Current status of the Japanese geological repository programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitayama, Kazumi

    2007-01-01

    The programme for disposal of radioactive waste in Japan is now moving ahead on a number of fronts. On the regulatory side, responsibility for TRU waste disposal has been assigned to NUMO and guidelines for the safety goals for disposal of LLW have been published. NUMO, as the implementer for the deep geological disposal programme, has been developing the special tools for project management that are needed as a result of the decision to adopt a volunteering approach to siting. NUMO is also building up the technical infrastructure for flexible tailoring of site characterisation, repository design and the associated safety assessment to the conditions found in any volunteer site. This work requires openness and transparency in decision-making but, as several sites may need to be investigated in parallel, particular emphasis is placed on operational practicality. (author)

  7. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1988 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. In the area of technical assistance, there were numerous activities detailed in the next section. These included 24 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 6 Study Plans (SP) and participation in 6 SP Review Workshops, review of one whole document Site Characterization Plan (SCP) and participation in the Assembled Document SCP Review Workshops by 6 LBL reviewers; the hosting of a DOE program review, the rewriting of the project statement of work, 2 trips to technical and planning meetings; preparation of proposed work statements for two new topics for DOE, and 5 instances of technical assistance to DOE. These activities are described in a Table in the following section entitled Geoscience Technical Support for Nuclear Waste Geologic Repositories.''

  8. Experiments on thermal conductivity in buffer materials for geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, T.; Yano, T.; Wakamatsu, H.; Matsushima, E.

    1989-01-01

    Engineered barriers for geologic disposal for HLW are planned to consist of canister, overpack and buffer elements. One of important physical characteristics of buffer materials is determining temperature profiles within the near field in a repository. Buffer materials require high thermal conductivity to disperse radiogenic heat away to the host rock. As the buffer materials, compacted blocks of the mixture of sodium bentonite and sand have been the most promising candidate in some countries, e.g. Sweden, Switzerland and Japan. The authors have been carrying out a series of thermal dispersion experiments to evaluate thermal conductivity of bentonite/quartz sand blocks. In this study, the following two factors considered to affect thermal properties of the near field were examined: effective thermal conductivities of buffer materials, and heat transfer characteristics of the gap between overpack and buffer materials

  9. Communication on the Safety Case for a Deep Geological Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy; Bernier, Frederik; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Cunado, Miguel; Ilett, Doug; Kwong, Gloria; ); Noseck, Ulrich; Roehlig, Klaus; Van Luik, Abe; Weber, Jan; Weetjens, Eef

    2017-01-01

    Communication has a specific role to play in the development of deep geological repositories. Building trust with the stakeholders involved in this process, particularly within the local community, is key for effective communication between the authorities and the public. There are also clear benefits to having technical experts hone their communication skills and having communication experts integrated into the development process. This report has compiled lessons from both failures and successes in communicating technical information to non-technical audiences. It addresses two key questions in particular: what is the experience base concerning the effectiveness or non-effectiveness of different tools for communicating safety case results to a non-technical audience and how can communication based on this experience be improved and included into a safety case development effort from the beginning? (authors)

  10. Status and development of deep geological repository in Slovak republic from geological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Franzen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the operation of Slovak NPPs, production of approximately 2,300 metric tons of spent fuel expressed as heavy metal (18,654 spent fuel assemblies is expected. In addition, about 5000 metric tons of radioactive waste unfit for near surface repository at Mochovce and destined for a deep geological disposal. The safe and long-term solution of back-end fuel cycle is so highly required.One of the most favorable solutions is Deep Geological Repository (DGR. The site for a DGR, along with repository design and the engineered barrier system must ensure long-term safety of the disposal system.A preliminary set of site-selection criteria for a DGR was proposed in Slovakia, based on worldwide experience and consistent with IAEA recommendations. Main groups of criteria are: 1 geological and tectonic stability of prospective sites; 2 appropriate characteristics of host rock (lithological homogeneity, suitable hydrogeological and geochemical conditions, favourable geotechnical setting, absence of mineral resources, etc.; 3 conflict of interests (natural resources, natural and cultural heritage, protected resources of thermal waters, etc..Based on the previous geological investigations, three distinct areas (five localities were determined as the most prospective sites for construction of a DGR so far. Three of them are built by granitoids rock (Tribeč Mts., Veporske vrchy Mts. and Stolicke vrchy Mts., other consist of sedimentary rock formations (Cerova vrchovina Upland and Rimavska kotlina Basin. Objective for the next investigation stage is to perform more detailed geological characterization of the prospective sites.

  11. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Ltd, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ahonen, L. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Taxen, C. [Swedish Corrosion Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Vuorinen, U. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Werme, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in he Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long- term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature.Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid.

  12. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Ahonen, L.; Taxen, C.; Vuorinen, U.; Werme, L.

    2001-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in he Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long- term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature.Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid

  13. Copper corrosion under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Ahonen, L.; Taxen, C.; Vuorinen, U.; Werme, L.

    2002-01-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 20 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear disposal repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion before and during saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer by groundwater, general and localized corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. Much has been learnt about the long-term corrosion behaviour of copper canisters over the past 20 years. The majority of the information reviewed here is drawn from the Swedish/Finnish and Canadian programmes. Despite differences in scientific approach, and canister and repository design, the results of these two programmes both suggest that copper provides an excellent corrosion barrier in an underground repository. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  14. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for geologic waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-11-01

    One of the major objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program is to identify potential geologic sites for storage and isolation of radioactive waste (and possibly irradiated fuel). Potential sites for the storage and isolation of radioactive waste or spent fuel in a geologic rock unit are being carefully evaluated to ensure that radionuclides from the stored waste or fuel will never appear in the biosphere in amounts that would constitute a hazard to the health and safety of the public. The objective of this report is to quantify and present in graphical form the effects of significant geohydrologic and other performance characteristics that would influence the movement of radionuclides from a storage site in a rock unit to the biosphere. The effort in this study was focused on transport by groundwater because that is the most likely method of radionuclide escape. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater are presented. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere. These major performance characteristics are combind with each other and with the results of certain other combinations and presented in graphical form to provide the interrelationships of values measured during field studies. The graphical form of presentation should be useful in the screening process of site selection. An appendix illustrates the use of these graphs to assess the suitability of a site

  15. Groundwater movements around a repository. Geological and geotechnical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stille, H.; Burgess, A.; Lindblom, U.E.

    1977-09-01

    The report was prepared as one of a series of technical reports within a study of the groundwater movements around a repository for radioactive waste in the Precambrian bedrock of Sweden. This assessment is intended to provide basic geotechnical data for the analysis. These data include properties and conditions that are representative of the intact rock, the rock mass in general, and the groundwater regime. As there exist a considerable range in the mineralogy of potentially suitable plutonic rocks and since a specific site has not yet been selected, all of the parameters presented in this report must be based on presumptive geological and hydrogeological conditions. Where possible, data for two potential site areas, namely Oskarshamn and Forsmark, are presented. This report is divided into four parts. First, a brief description of the procedure for modelling groundwater movements is presented, along with a tabulation of the important parameters. Secondly, a description of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the Fennoscandian shield, as well as of the two general site areas, is given. The final two sections of the report provide thermomechanical and geohydrological characteristics and properties of the host rock

  16. Environmentally assisted cracking mechanisms in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.J.

    1987-02-01

    This paper assesses how environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) mechanisms in candidate container materials can be identified to enhance the accuracy of long-term projections of performance in the repository. In low and intermediate strength steels, the role of the two principal mechanisms, slip dissolution/film rupture (SD/FR) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), is a very complex and controversial issue. No unanimity exists concerning the operative cracking mechanisms, and there is no unique or rigorous approach that would be persuasive in selecting an appropriate model. Both of the proposed mechanisms have common rate controlling processes such as surface adsorption rate, passivation rate, and oxidation rupture rate, which makes it difficult to identify the operative mechanism. Development of a quantitative model for predicting environmental effects for low-carbon steels in repository environments would provide a theoretical basis for assuring the long-term structural integrity of waste-package containment. To date, only one quantitative model has been developed. The agreement between predicted and observed behavior suggests that SD/FR processes control the environmental acceleration in crack growth rates for this class of materials. Deviations from predicted behavior due to HE effects should be uncovered experimentally. 59 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Safeguards policy and strategies: An IAEA perspective for spent fuel in geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fattah, A.

    2002-01-01

    Safeguards for nuclear materials in geologic repositories have to be continued even after the repository has been backfilled and sealed. The nuclear materials disposed in a geologic repository may pose a higher and long-term proliferation risk because the inventory is many times the 'significant quantity' needed safeguards. The safeguards measures must be flexible enough to respond to the changing development of technology and changing need for current as well as future generations. Change in social, economic, environmental and other scenarios might demand recovery of nuclear and other materials from the repository sometime in the future. (author)

  18. Office of Geologic Repositories issues hierarchy for a mined geologic disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has indicated that the identification of the issues that must be resolved to complete licensing assessments of site and design suitability is an important step in the licensing process. The issues hierarchy developed by the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) for the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS) are based on the issues-hierarchy concept presented in the Mission Plan. Specific questions are encompassed by the general issue statements in the OGR issues hierarchy. The OGR issues hierarchy is limited to the issues related to the siting and licensing requirements of applicable federal regulations and does not address the requirements of other regulations, functional or operating requirements for the MGDS, or requirements for the integration and the design/operational efficiency of the MGDS. 4 figs

  19. Assessment of cement durability in repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.G.A.; Vicente, R.; Isiko, V.L.K.; Miyamoto, H.; Marumo, J.T.; Gobbo, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed at investigating the durability of cement paste under nuclear waste repository conditions using accelerated tests. Cement paste samples are examined after being exposed to the environmental conditions that are expected to prevail in the repository environment and the results are compared with those obtained with unexposed specimens or specimens exposed to reference conditions. The following exposure conditions were selected: a) Immersion in salt solution, distilled water, or kept in dry storage; b) Room temperature (20 C. degrees) or high temperature (60 C. degrees); c) Immersion time of 30 days or 60 days (not for dry storage); d) Irradiation to a dose of (400 kGy) or background radiation (0 kGy). After exposure to the stressing conditions, the effects of each factor on the cement paste samples were observed by changes in their characteristics. Compressive strength tests were performed on all samples and some of them were investigated in terms of changes in mineralogy by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). With the results obtained so far it was possible to point out the following conclusions. First, after a period of immersion in water, cement paste samples further hydrated and presented higher mechanical resistance, as expected. Secondly, dry storage did not allow a complete hydration as a consequence of pore water evaporation. High temperatures intensified this process and led to the ettringite decomposition to meta-ettringite. Thirdly, higher temperature accelerated hydration kinetics and promoted higher mechanical resistance in samples kept under immersion. Fourthly, the irradiation dose applied was unable to change the mineralogy of cement paste samples and fifthly, no statistically significant differences were observed between 30 or 60 days exposure time, for the test conditions

  20. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Raymond, J. R.; Brandley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K.; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  1. Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems: REFERENCE SITE INITIAL ASSESSMENT FOR A SALT DOME REPOSITORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwell, M. A.; Brandstetter, A.; Benson, G. L.; Bradley, D. J.; Serne, R. J.; Soldat, J. K; Cole, C. R.; Deutsch, W. J.; Gupta, S. K.; Harwell, C. C.; Napier, B. A.; Reisenauer, A. E.; Prater, L. S.; Simmons, C. S.; Strenge, D. L.; Washburn, J. F.; Zellmer, J. T.

    1982-06-01

    As a methodology demonstration for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program conducted an initial reference site analysis of the long-term effectiveness of a salt dome repository. The Hainesville Salt Dome in Texas was chosen to be representative of the Gulf Coast interior salt domes; however, the Hainesville Site has been eliminated as a possible nuclear waste repository site. The data used for this exercise are not adequate for an actual assessment, nor have all the parametric analyses been made that would adequately characterize the response of the geosystem surrounding the repository. Additionally, because this was the first exercise of the complete AEGIS and WASTE Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) methodology, this report provides the initial opportunity for the methodology, specifically applied to a site, to be reviewed by the community outside the AEGIS. The scenario evaluation, as a part of the methodology demonstration, involved consideration of a large variety of potentially disruptive phenomena, which alone or in concert could lead to a breach in a salt dome repository and to a subsequent transport of the radionuclides to the environment. Without waste- and repository-induced effects, no plausible natural geologic events or processes which would compromise the repository integrity could be envisioned over the one-million-year time frame after closure. Near-field (waste- and repository-induced) effects were excluded from consideration in this analysis, but they can be added in future analyses when that methodology development is more complete. The potential for consequential human intrusion into salt domes within a million-year time frame led to the consideration of a solution mining intrusion scenario. The AEGIS staff developed a specific human intrusion scenario at 100 years and 1000 years post-closure, which is one of a whole suite of possible scenarios. This scenario

  2. Adapting Dry Cask Storage for Aging at a Geologic Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.; Kimball, D.

    2005-01-01

    technologies successfully at a geologic repository

  3. Geological repositories: The last nuclear frontier. International Conference on Geological Repositories: Political and Technical Progress, 8-10 December 2003, Stockholm, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Few issues play so central a role in the public acceptance of nuclear technologies as the management and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste. In the current climate, geological repositories have come to be viewed not as one option among many for completing the nuclear fuel cycle, but as the only sustainable solution achievable in the near term. But despite a longstanding agreement among experts that geological disposal can be safe, technologically feasible and environmentally sound, a large part of the general public remains skeptical. This statement deals with the challenges that IAEA is facing to build public confidence related to spent fuel repositories

  4. The influence of geological loading on the structural integrity of an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, N.

    1985-08-01

    Stresses are developed in underground nuclear waste repositories as a result of applied loads from geological movements caused by the encroachment of ice sheets or seismic activity for example. These stresses may induce fracturing of the waste matrix, repository vault and nearfield host geology. This fracturing will enhance the advective flow and allow more-rapid transfer of radionuclides from their encapsulation through the repository barriers and nearfield host rock. Geological loads may be applied either gradually as in crustal folding or encroachment of ice sheets, or rapidly as in the case of seismic movements. The analysis outlined in this report is conducted with a view to including the effects of geological loading in a probabilistic repository site assessment computer code such as SYVAC. (author)

  5. Geological investigations for the South African nuclear waste repository facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Levin, M.; Andersen, N.J.B.; Brynard, H.J.; Toens, P.D.

    1984-02-01

    The selection of the Vaalputs site on the arid Bushmanland Plateau in the northwestern Cape of the Republic of South Africa for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was based on a national screening phase program involving socio-economic and geological criteria. Regional geohydrological studies over an area of 27,000 km 2 and a detailed study over 1,300 km 2 indicated that in general the groundwater is saline and that Vaalputs and environs was the most favourable area. The groundwater table lies between 30 and 45 m below the surface, with 14 C ages between 2,500 and 9,000 years old in the immediate vicinity. The geology of Vaalputs consists of Proterozoic granites, gneisses, metasediments, and noritoids of the 1,050 Ma Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. Upper cretaceous kimberlitic and basaltic intrusions occur locally. Overlying these basement rocks surficial upper Tertiary to Recent argillaceous sediments occur in the Vaalputs basin. The sediments consist of aeolian sand, calcrete, fluvial sandy to gritty clay, white kaolinised clay and very weathered basement rocks. It is in these rocks that the low-level waste trenches will be located. Extensive airborne geophysical surveys, such as aeromagnetics, INPUT, and infrared thermal line scanning, were undertaken to assist in the evaluation of the regional and local subsurface geology. Ground geophysical surveys included refraction seismics, electromagnetics, magnetics, borehole radiometrics and resistivity. Geohydrological modelling of the unsaturated and saturated zones is in progress

  6. Deep geologic repository for low and intermediate radioactive level waste in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianqin; Li Honghui; Sun Qinghong; Yang Zhongtian

    2012-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is undergoing a project for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (LILW)-a deep geologic repository (DGR) project for low and intermediate level waste. The waste source term disposed, geologic setting, repository layout and operation, and safety assessment are discussed. It is expected to provide reference for disposal of low and intermediate level waste that contain the higher concentration of long-lived radionuclides in China. (authors)

  7. Planning and Design Considerations for Geological Repository Programmes of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-11-01

    Disposal in a geological repository is the generally accepted solution for the long term management of high level and/or long lived radioactive wastes, in line with the general principles defined in the IAEA Safety Fundamentals. This publication presents practical information on the way a geological repository programme for radioactive waste could be defined and planned, with special attention to all aspects having an impact on the timing. Country specific examples for repository development phases are provided, based on actual experiences from Member States

  8. Canada's Deep Geological Repository for Used Nuclear Fuel - Geo-scientific Site Evaluation Process - 13117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, Alec; Ben Belfadhel, Mahrez; Hirschorn, Sarah; Hamilton, Duncan; McKelvie, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is responsible for implementing Adaptive Phased Management (APM), the approach selected by the Government of Canada for long-term management of used nuclear fuel generated by Canadian nuclear reactors. The ultimate objective of APM is the centralized containment and isolation of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a Deep Geological Repository in a suitable rock formation at a depth of approximately 500 meters (m) (1,640 feet [ft]). In May 2010, the NWMO published a nine-step site selection process that serves as the road map to decision-making on the location for the deep geological repository. The safety and appropriateness of any potential site will be assessed against a number of factors, both technical and social in nature. The selected site will be one that can be demonstrated to be able to safely contain and isolate used nuclear fuel, protecting humans and the environment over the very long term. The geo-scientific suitability of potential candidate sites will be assessed in a stepwise manner following a progressive and thorough site evaluation process that addresses a series of geo-scientific factors revolving around five safety functions. The geo-scientific site evaluation process includes: Initial Screenings; Preliminary Assessments; and Detailed Site Evaluations. As of November 2012, 22 communities have entered the site selection process (three in northern Saskatchewan and 18 in northwestern and southwestern Ontario). (authors)

  9. Field Geology for Environment Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrez, Marilia

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this project is to show the scientific and educational potential of natural environment of Lisbon region through increase of excitement for plate tectonics subjects to high school students. It is expected the students be able to understand the main concepts of the plate tectonics, stratigraphy, paleontology and paleoenvironmental interpretations, explain in the field nearby Lisbon. The richness of Guincho beach geodiversity and "Sintra Syenite Complex" valuate the geological patrimony. Combining these entities and educational purposes will raise awareness to sustainable attitudes favoring the preservation of natural patrimony by the students. The subjects approached in the project are based on the inspection of several outcrops related to the evolution of the Iberian Plate at early Mesozoic period, at several places of geological interest. The landscape of Guincho is dominated by Mesozoic formations that show good conditions paleoenvironmental and geodynamic interpretations associated to the opening of the North Atlantic. Moreover it reveals the environment linked to the magmatic intrusion of the "Sintra Alcaline Complex" at the end of Cretaceous. It is believed the contact with field is crucial to the awareness of young people to subjects that are not daily matters, however important when presented in the light of an urgent society problem such as environment preservation, at all levels by all people.

  10. Corrosion of high purity copper as engineering barrier in deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Maité; Rodríguez Martín, A.; Farina Silvia, B.

    2013-01-01

    Pure copper with oxygen content below 5 ppm (to minimize segregation at grain boundaries) and doped with phosphorus (to increase creep resistance) is the chosen material for the corrosion-resistant barrier of the High Level Radioactive 2 Wastecontainers in the Swedish and Finnish repository models. These models include the construction of the repository below the water table, which is a reducing environment in which copper has excellent resistance to general and localized corrosion in aqueous electrolytes. The aim of this work is contribute to determine the durability of the material, given that deep geological repositories of HLW are designed to ensure the protection of the environment for periods of hundreds of thousands years. As a first step in a more general analysis the effects of chloride, one of the main aggressive species of corrosion, are evaluated. To this purpose corrosion potential was determined and anodic polarization curves were performed in deaerated solutions varying the chloride concentration between 0.01 and 1M and the temperature between 30 and 90°C. Several electrochemical techniques were used: the evolution of corrosion potential was measured, anodic polarization curves were obtained and electrochemical impedance tests were performed. The analysis was complemented with microscopic observations of the type of corrosive attack, as well as determinations of the eventual corrosion products formed using Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDS). Results show that the corrosion potential decreases with the increase of temperature and with the increase of chloride concentration. A correlation of the corrosion potential as a function of temperature and chloride concentration was obtained, with the purpose of making predictions in variable conditions.The current density increases both with temperature and with chloride concentration. A pitting potential is observed in certain conditions. (author)

  11. Corrosion phase formation on container alloys in basalt repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lutton, J.M.; Rivera, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project is evaluating the suitability of basalt in southeastern Washington State as a possible location for a nuclear waste repository. The performance of the waste package, which includes the waste form, container, and surrounding packing material, will be affected by the stability of container alloys in the repository environment. Primary corrosion phases and altered packing material containing metals leached from the container may also influence subsequent reactions between the waste form and repository environment. Copper- and iron-based alloys were tested at 50 0 to 300 0 C in an air/steam environment and in pressure vessels in ground-water-saturated basalt-bentonite packing material. Reaction phases formed on the alloys were identified and corrosion rates were measured. Changes in adhering packing material were also evaluated. The observed reactions and their possible effects on container alloy durability in the repository are discussed

  12. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  13. Preliminary concepts: materials management in an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.; Whitty, W.J.; Dietz, R.J.

    1979-11-01

    Preliminary concepts of materials accountability are presented for an internationally safeguarded nuclear-waste geologic repository. A hypothetical reference repository that receives nuclear waste for emplacement in a geologic medium serves to illustrate specific safeguards concepts. Nuclear wastes received at the reference repository derive from prior fuel-cycle operations. Alternative safeguards techniques ranging from item accounting to nondestructive assay and waste characteristics that affect the necessary level of safeguards are examined. Downgrading of safeguards prior to shipment to the repository is recommended whenever possible. The point in the waste cycle where international safeguards may be terminate depends on the fissile content, feasibility of separation, and practicable recoverability of the waste: termination may not be possible if spent fuels are declared as waste

  14. Effects of heat from high-level waste on performance of deep geological repository components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    This report discusses the effects of heat on the deep geological repository systems and its different components. The report is focussed specifically on effects due to thermal energy release solely from high-level waste or spent fuel. It reviews the experimental data and theoretical models of the effects of heat both on the behaviour of engineered and natural barriers. A summary of the current status of research and repository development including underground test facilities is presented

  15. Staff Technical Position on consideration of fault displacement hazards in geologic repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, K.I.; Lee, M.P.

    1994-09-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a geologic repository recognize that fault displacement is a potentially adverse condition. However, they do not prohibit designing the geologic repository against the effects of such a potentially adverse condition. This Staff Technical Position recognizes the acceptability of designing the geologic repository to take into account the attendant effects (e.g., displacement) of faults of regulatory concern and expresses the staff's views on what is needed from the US Department of Energy if it chooses to locate structures, systems, and components important to safety or important to waste isolation in areas that contain faults of regulatory concern

  16. Development of an international safeguards approach to the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphey, W.M.; Moran, B.W.; Fattah, A.

    1996-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently pursuing development of an international safeguards approach for the final disposal of spent fuel in geological repositories through consultants meetings and through the Program for Development of Safeguards for Final Disposal of Spent Fuel in Geological Repositories (SAGOR). The consultants meetings provide policy guidance to IAEA; SAGOR recommends effective approaches that can be efficiently implemented by IAEA. The SAGOR program, which is a collaboration of eight Member State Support Programs (MSSPs), was initiated in July 1994 and has identified 15 activities in each of three areas (i.e. conditioning facilities, active repositories, and closed repositories) that must be performed to ensure an efficient, yet effective safeguards approach. Two consultants meetings have been held: the first in May 1991 and the last in November 1995. For nuclear materials emplaced in a geological repository, the safeguards objectives were defined to be (1) to detect the diversion of spent fuel, whether concealed or unconcealed, from the repository and (2) to detect undeclared activities of safeguards concern (e.g., tunneling, underground reprocessing, or substitution in containers)

  17. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  18. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  19. Evaluation of Five Sedimentary Rocks Other Than Salt for Geologic Repository Siting Purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croff, A.G.; Lomenick, T.F.; Lowrie, R.S.; Stow, S.H.

    2003-11-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), in order to increase the diversity of rock types under consideration by the geologic disposal program, initiated the Sedimary ROck Program (SERP), whose immediate objectiv eis to evaluate five types of secimdnary rock - sandstone, chalk, carbonate rocks (limestone and dolostone), anhydrock, and shale - to determine the potential for siting a geologic repository. The evaluation of these five rock types, together with the ongoing salt studies, effectively results in the consideration of all types of relatively impermeable sedimentary rock for repository purposes. The results of this evaluation are expressed in terms of a ranking of the five rock types with respect to their potential to serve as a geologic repository host rock. This comparative evaluation was conducted on a non-site-specific basis, by use of generic information together with rock evaluation criteria (RECs) derived from the DOE siting guidelines for geologic repositories (CFR 1984). An information base relevant to rock evaluation using these RECs was developed in hydrology, geochemistry, rock characteristics (rock occurrences, thermal response, rock mechanics), natural resources, and rock dissolution. Evaluation against postclosure and preclosure RECs yielded a ranking of the five subject rocks with respect to their potential as repository host rocks. Shale was determined to be the most preferred of the five rock types, with sandstone a distant second, the carbonate rocks and anhydrock a more distant third, and chalk a relatively close fourth.

  20. The general situation of clay site for high-level waste geological disposal repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Changxuan; Liu Xiaodong; Liu Pinghui

    2008-01-01

    Host medium is vitally important for safety of high-level radiaoactive waste (HLW) geological disposal. Clay, as host media of geological repository of HLW, has received greater attention for its inherent advantages. This paper summarizes IAEA and OECD/NEA's some safety guides on site selection and briefly introduces the process of the site selection, their studies and the characteristics of the clay formations in Switz-erland, France and Belgian. Based on these analyses, some suggestions are made to China's HLW repository clay site selection. (authors)

  1. Development of an Integrated Natural Barrier Database System for Site Evaluation of a Deep Geologic Repository in Korea - 13527

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Haeryong; Lee, Eunyong; Jeong, YiYeong; Lee, Jeong-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Korea Radioactive-waste Management Corporation (KRMC) established in 2009 has started a new project to collect information on long-term stability of deep geological environments on the Korean Peninsula. The information has been built up in the integrated natural barrier database system available on web (www.deepgeodisposal.kr). The database system also includes socially and economically important information, such as land use, mining area, natural conservation area, population density, and industrial complex, because some of this information is used as exclusionary criteria during the site selection process for a deep geological repository for safe and secure containment and isolation of spent nuclear fuel and other long-lived radioactive waste in Korea. Although the official site selection process has not been started yet in Korea, current integrated natural barrier database system and socio-economic database is believed that the database system will be effectively utilized to narrow down the number of sites where future investigation is most promising in the site selection process for a deep geological repository and to enhance public acceptance by providing readily-available relevant scientific information on deep geological environments in Korea. (authors)

  2. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  3. Evaluation of behaviour and Safety in a geologic deep repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive description of the post-closure radiological safety assessment of a repository for the spent fuel arisings resulting from the Spanish nuclear program. This Safety Assessment constitutes a first step within a systematical process that will permit, thorough successive approximations, to predict the performance of the different barriers of the disposal system, and its capability to comply with the assigned safety functions and with the established safety criteria. The primary bases for this Safety Assessment are the following: The disposal concept considers the storage of the fuel assemblies in carbon steel canisters of 10 cm of thickness, emplaced horizontally in galleries excavated in granite of 2,4 m of diameter and 500 m of length, using a bentonite thickness of 75 cm around canisters as buffer material. The repository is located in a granitic site defined with available data about surface characteristics of Spanish granites. The exercise uses a probabilistic approximation in order to cope with the uncertainties associated with the different imputs parameters. (Author)

  4. Corrosion of the copper canister in the repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Eriksson, Sture [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    The present report accounts for studies on copper corrosion performed at Studsvik Material AB during 1997-1999 on commission by SKI. The work has been focused on localised corrosion and electrochemistry of copper in the repository environment. The current theory of localised copper corrosion is not consistent with recent practical experiences. It is therefore desired to complete and develop the theory based on knowledge about the repository environment and evaluations of previous as well as recent experimental and field results. The work has therefore comprised a thorough compilation and up-date of literature on copper corrosion and on the repository environment. A selection of a 'working environment', defining the chemical parameters and their ranges of variation has been made and is used as a fundament for the experimental part of the work. Experiments have then been performed on the long-range electrochemical behaviour of copper in selected environments simulating the repository. Another part of the work has been to further develop knowledge about the thermodynamic limits for corrosion in the repository environment. Some of the thermodynamic work is integrated here. Especially thermodynamics for the system Cu-Cl-H-O up to 150 deg C and high chloride concentrations are outlined. However, there is also a rough overview of the whole system Cu-Fe-Cl-S-C-H-O as a fundament for the discussion. Data are normally accounted as Pourbaix diagrams. Some of the conclusions are that general corrosion on copper will probably not be of significant importance in the repository as far as transportation rates are low. However, if such rates were high, general corrosion could be disastrous, as there is no passivation of copper in the highly saline environment. The claim on knowledge of different kinds of localised corrosion and pitting is high, as pitting damages can shorten the lifetime of a canister dramatically. Normal pitting can happen in oxidising environment, but

  5. Corrosion of the copper canister in the repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Eriksson, Sture

    1999-12-01

    The present report accounts for studies on copper corrosion performed at Studsvik Material AB during 1997-1999 on commission by SKI. The work has been focused on localised corrosion and electrochemistry of copper in the repository environment. The current theory of localised copper corrosion is not consistent with recent practical experiences. It is therefore desired to complete and develop the theory based on knowledge about the repository environment and evaluations of previous as well as recent experimental and field results. The work has therefore comprised a thorough compilation and up-date of literature on copper corrosion and on the repository environment. A selection of a 'working environment', defining the chemical parameters and their ranges of variation has been made and is used as a fundament for the experimental part of the work. Experiments have then been performed on the long-range electrochemical behaviour of copper in selected environments simulating the repository. Another part of the work has been to further develop knowledge about the thermodynamic limits for corrosion in the repository environment. Some of the thermodynamic work is integrated here. Especially thermodynamics for the system Cu-Cl-H-O up to 150 deg C and high chloride concentrations are outlined. However, there is also a rough overview of the whole system Cu-Fe-Cl-S-C-H-O as a fundament for the discussion. Data are normally accounted as Pourbaix diagrams. Some of the conclusions are that general corrosion on copper will probably not be of significant importance in the repository as far as transportation rates are low. However, if such rates were high, general corrosion could be disastrous, as there is no passivation of copper in the highly saline environment. The claim on knowledge of different kinds of localised corrosion and pitting is high, as pitting damages can shorten the lifetime of a canister dramatically. Normal pitting can happen in oxidising environment, but there is

  6. Evolution of waste-package design at the potential U.S. geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, H.; Harkins, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the waste-package design at the potential geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Because the potential repository is the first of its kind, the design of its components must be flexible and capable of evolving in response to continuing scientific study, development efforts, and changes to performance criteria. The team of scientists and engineers at the Yucca Mountain Project has utilized a systematic, scientific approach to design the potential geologic nuclear-waste repository. As a result of continuing development efforts, the design has incorporated a growing base of scientific and engineering information to ensure that regulatory and performance requirements are met. (authors)

  7. Important processes affecting the release and migration of radionuclides from a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barátová, Dana; Nečas, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    The processes that affect significantly the transport of contaminants through the near field and far field of a deep geological repository of spent nuclear fuel were studied. The processes can be generally divided into (i) processes related to the release of radionuclides from the spent nuclear fuel; (ii) processes related to the radionuclide transport mechanisms (such as advection and diffusion); and (iii) processes affecting the rate of radionuclide migration through the multi-barrier repository system. A near-field and geosphere model of an unspecified geological repository sited in a crystalline rock is also described. Focus of the treatment is on the effects of the different processes on the activity flow of the major safety-relevant radionuclides. The activity flow was simulated for one spent fuel cask by using the GoldSim simulation tool. (orig.)

  8. Albedo Neutron Dosimetry in a Deep Geological Disposal Repository for High-Level Nuclear Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Becker, Frank

    2017-04-28

    Albedo neutron dosemeter is the German official personal neutron dosemeter in mixed radiation fields where neutrons contribute to personal dose. In deep geological repositories for high-level nuclear waste, where neutrons can dominate the radiation field, it is of interest to investigate the performance of albedo neutron dosemeter in such facilities. In this study, the deep geological repository is represented by a shielding cask loaded with spent nuclear fuel placed inside a rock salt emplacement drift. Due to the backscattering of neutrons in the drift, issues concerning calibration of the dosemeter arise. Field-specific calibration of the albedo neutron dosemeter was hence performed with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to assess the applicability of the albedo neutron dosemeter in a deep geological repository over a long time scale, spent nuclear fuel with different ages of 50, 100 and 500 years were investigated. It was found out, that the neutron radiation field in a deep geological repository can be assigned to the application area 'N1' of the albedo neutron dosemeter, which is typical in reactors and accelerators with heavy shielding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. An overview on the national strategy to implement a deep geological repository in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, G.; Ghitescu, P.; Dupleac, D.; Prisecaru, I.

    2010-01-01

    Since 1996 in Romania was started operation Candu 700 MW Unit 1 Cernavoda Nuclear Power Station and in 2007 begun operation of the Candu 700 MW Unit 2. The energy produced by nuclear units is accompanied by radioactive waste production. According with European Union requirements in Romania was created National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD) in 2003. ANDRAD business is radioactive waste management. ANDRAD, together with the stakeholders, worked the law of great radioactive waste generators contribution for radioactive waste management, which was approved by Governmental Ordinance in September 2007. ANDRAD is responsible manager of this fund. ANDRAD is responsible, also, with the National Strategy for radioactive waste management. Romania's National Strategy for Energy approved in 2007 by Government Ordinance says that a deep geological repository for spent fuel (SF) and High Level Waste (HLW) is to be put in operation around 2055. IAEA supported ANDRAD in a Technical Cooperation Project for a concept of a geological repository of radioactive waste. A strategy to implement o geological repository in Romania was drafted. There are problems with potential rocks and sites to host a geological repository. There are problems for funding this project and also sensitive and serious problems connected with social and political issues. Paper presents this strategy and all the problems arisen by implantation of this strategy. (authors)

  10. 10 CFR 63.113 - Performance objectives for the geologic repository after permanent closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... closure. (a) The geologic repository must include multiple barriers, consisting of both natural barriers... in combination with natural barriers, radiological exposures to the reasonably maximally exposed... engineered barrier system must be designed so that, working in combination with natural barriers, releases of...

  11. 10 CFR 60.131 - General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General design criteria for the geologic repository operations area. 60.131 Section 60.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH... materials, including, as appropriate, designing equipment for ease of repair and replacement and providing...

  12. Integrated safety case development for deep geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hideki; McKinley, Ian G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper will illustrate an 'integrated safety case', which involves combining both pre-closure and post-closure safety arguments from the point of view of a repository implementer, who must also ensure that projects are practical, acceptable and economic. The post-closure safety case is based on the performance of a number of barriers, which are established during construction, operation and closure. Such barriers must be confirmed using quality assured methods, supported, as required, by inspection and monitoring. The requirement for integrated assessment means that even the final process to end institutional control and transfer any liabilities from the implementer needs to be considered at present, even though this will undoubtedly be refined and tailored to the site characteristics over the many decades that will pass before this occurs. To illustrate the practical application of this approach, assessment of variants for remote-handled emplacement of the EBS for disposal of HLW in Japan will be discussed. (author)

  13. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  14. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories

  15. System analysis methods for geological repository of high level radioactive waste in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Weiming; Wang Ju; Li Yunfeng; Jin Yuanxin; Zhao Honggang

    2009-01-01

    Taking Beishan granite site as an example, this paper proposes the conceptual and structural design of repository for high level radioactive waste at first. Then the function, structure, environment and evolution of the repository are described by the methodology of system analysis. Based on these designs and descriptions, a calculation model for the repository is developed with software GoldSim. At last, this calculation model is applied to emulate the space-time distribution of repository radiotoxicity, to analyze the sensitivity of parameters in the model, to optimize the design parameters, and to predict and assess the repository performance. The results of this study can provide technical supports for resources allocation and coordination of R and D projects. (authors)

  16. A safeguards approach for a closed geological repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meer, K. van der; Carchon, R.

    1999-01-01

    After closure of a geological repository a diversion of fissile material can only take place by excavating spent fuel containers and bringing them to the surface. Therefore mining activities are required, either by reopening the original shaft, by creating a new shaft or by approaching the containers underground via a neighbouring mine The recovery time of the stored spent fuel plays an important role in the determination of the timeliness criterion and, therefore, the inspection frequency of the site. Obviously, this frequency can create a financial constraint due to the infinite character of the spent fuel storage in a geological repository. Anomalies for detection of a possible diversion are undeclared mining activities. The safeguards approach has to assure Continuity Of Knowledge (COK) of the fissile material. By consequence, a safeguards approach that is developed for a closed repository, is influenced by the safeguards approach applied to an open. repository and a conditioning facility. A closed repository is verified by DIV. To perform the DIV satellite monitoring could be performed for surface verification and e.g. seismic techniques could be used for verification that no undeclared mining activities underground take place. Visual inspections of the site by inspectors have to reveal concealment methods used by a potential diverter. These measures should guarantee that the disposed spent fuel remains untouched. (author)

  17. Siting of the Swedish deep geological repository - experiences and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Backblom, G.; Thegerstrom, C.; Ahlbom, K.; Leijon, B.

    1996-01-01

    The paper provides a brief overview of the Swedish siting programme for a deep repository. A stepwise process is a key element in the planning and implementation of deep disposal of long-lived waste in Sweden. The local siting work is made in cooperation with the affected and concerned municipalities. The programs, decisions and results that so far have been reported and ongoing feasibility studies is a solid platform for the continuing siting work. It can be noted that the siting work in some cases has caused heavy opposition and negative opinions. Careful considerations on how to proceed to develop the necessary background material must therefore be made. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process that has started in conjunction with feasibility studies are judged to play an important role in the future. In this process, with extensive local involvement, critical issues can be detected at an early stage and sound ideas on both the process itself and on technical issues can be incorporated. To facilitate information exchange and cooperation between the municipalities involved and to coordinate liaison between the municipalities and county administrative boards affected by the studies, the Swedish government has appointed a National Coordinator for nuclear waste disposal. The government also has decided to provide the concerned municipalities with funding for their participation in the process. (author)

  18. Radiation protection activities after closure of geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Wallberg, P.

    2002-01-01

    Although the safety of repositories for radioactive waste should not depend of active controls such as monitoring, several control measures may be required for a variety of societal reasons. It is possible that the reporting of environmental monitoring to international treaties and conventions, already in place today, may be of value in meeting those requirements. To prepare for passive institutional control includes taking measures today that may be of use for future institutional control, including the possibility that future societies may initiate or renew active control measures. Passive institutional control may be of use to prevent or reduce the likelihood of human intrusion, to allow for remedial action, or to serve as a source of information in future societies, in the form of accurate historical documents. In the process of reporting within international conventions, including the most important reporting within the so-called Waste Convention, a large body of information will be built up by a process already in place today. This information is in itself a source for passive institutional control. (author)

  19. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.

    2017-09-01

    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  20. Retrievability of high-level nuclear waste from geologic repositories - Regulatory and rock mechanics/design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanious, N.S.; Nataraja, M.S.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1987-01-01

    Retrievability of nuclear waste from high-level geologic repositories is one of the performance objectives identified in 10CFR60 (Code of Federal Regulations, 1985). 10CFR60.111 states that the geologic repository operations area shall be designed to preserve the option of waste retrieval. In designing the repository operations area, rock mechanics considerations play a major role especially in evaluating the feasibility of retrieval operations. This paper discusses generic considerations affecting retrievability as they relate to repository design, construction, and operation, with emphasis on regulatory and rock mechanics aspects

  1. Evaluation of salt beds in New Mexico as a geologic repository for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weart, W.D.

    1978-10-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing to demonstrate the acceptability of geologic disposal of radioactive waste by locating a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the salt beds 26 miles east of Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP will serve as a permanent repository for defense generated transuranic contaminated waste and will also be used as a facility in which experiments and demonstrations with all radioactive waste types can be conducted. Rock salt has been the leading candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste since the National Academy of Science recommended in 1957 that salt for repositories receive further evaluation. Subsequent studies have failed to reveal any phenoomena which would disqualify salt beds as a repository medium. The present area being proposed for the WIPP is the second such location in the Delaware Basin for which new site data have been devloped; the first site proved geologically unacceptable. Ecologic and socioeconomic aspects have been investigated and extensive geophysical, geologic and hydrologic studies have been conducted to allow an evaluation of site acceptability. This paper will deal principally with the geotechnical aspects of site characterization. These studies are now sufficiently complete that the site can be recommended for further development of the WIPP. 10 figures

  2. Stockholm international conference 2003 on geological repositories: Political and technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The conference reviewed global progress made as well as current perspectives on the activities to develop geologic repositories. The objectives were to review the progress in policy making as well as technical issues and to strengthen international co-operation on waste management and disposal issues. The first day of the conference addressed the policy aspects of geological repositories and the second day featured the more technical issues. Session 1: International progress in performing long-term safety studies and security of geological disposal were discussed and reviewed with examples from OECD/NEA, Belgium, Sweden, USA, Switzerland and Russia. Session 2: Views on stakeholder involvement and decision making process were presented by international organisations and national implementers from Japan, United Kingdom, Belgium and OECD/NEA. Session 3: Views on stakeholder involvement and decision making process were presented by regional and local stakeholders from France, Finland, Korea and Sweden. Session 4: International instruments assisting in the implementation of geological repositories were discussed, for example ICRP and IAEA/NEA safety documents, Joint Convention, Safeguard agreements, Nuclear Liability Conventions, etc. Session 5: The contribution of Research, Development and Demonstration was discussed with overviews of the progress achieved on scientific and technical issues over the past four years. Progress and key issues were presented from Switzerland, USA, Finland, Japan, Sweden and IAEA. Each of the papers and poster presentations have been analysed and indexed separately

  3. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated tasks, technical assistance and topical studies. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year 1989 and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies. The major task was a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. In the area of technical assistance, there were a total of 30 geotechnical support activities, including reviews of 15 study plans (SP) and participation in 5 SP Review Workshops; in-depth multidisciplinary review of 5 Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) Study Plans and presentation of results to DOE; preparation and revision of a white paper and proposed work statement on preclosure monitoring and performance confirmation as an outgrowth of a request made by DOE to LBL; the hosting of a DOE program review; with DOE's encouragement, preparation of 8 papers for the International High-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference to be held in April, 1990 in Las Vegas, Nevada; and 5 instances of general technical assistance to DOE

  4. Standard guide for characterization of spent nuclear fuel in support of geologic repository disposal

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This guide provides guidance for the types and extent of testing that would be involved in characterizing the physical and chemical nature of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in support of its interim storage, transport, and disposal in a geologic repository. This guide applies primarily to commercial light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and spent fuel from weapons production, although the individual tests/analyses may be used as applicable to other spent fuels such as those from research and test reactors. The testing is designed to provide information that supports the design, safety analysis, and performance assessment of a geologic repository for the ultimate disposal of the SNF. 1.2 The testing described includes characterization of such physical attributes as physical appearance, weight, density, shape/geometry, degree, and type of SNF cladding damage. The testing described also includes the measurement/examination of such chemical attributes as radionuclide content, microstructure, and corrosion product c...

  5. LISA: A performance assessment code for geological repositories of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, G.; Saltelli, A.

    1985-01-01

    LISA, developed at JRC-Ispra, is a statistical code, which calculates the radiation exposures and risks associated with radionuclide releases from geological repositories of nuclear waste. The assessment methodology is described briefly. It requires that a number of probabilistic components be quantified and introduced in the analysis; the results are thus expressed in terms of risk. The subjective judgment of experts may be necessary to quantify the probabilities of occurrence of rare geological events. Because of large uncertainties in input data, statistical treatment of the Monte Carlo type is utilized for the analysis; thus, the output from LISA is obtained in the form of distributions. A few results of an application to a probabilistic scenario for a repository mined in a clay bed are illustrated

  6. Parameters and criteria influencing the selection of waste emplacement configurations in mined geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechthold, W.; Closs, K.D.; Papp, R.

    1988-01-01

    Reference concepts for repositories in deep geological formations have been developed in several countries. For these concepts, emplacement configurations vary within a wide range that comprises drift emplacement of unshielded or self-shielded packages and horizontal or vertical borehole emplacement. This is caused by different parameters, criteria, and criteria weighting factors. Examples for parameters are the country's nuclear power program and waste management policy, its geological situation, and safety requirements, examples for criteria and repository area requirements, expenditures of mining and drilling, and efforts for emplacement and, if required, retrieval. Due to the variety of these factors and their ranking in different countries, requirements for a safe, dependable and cost-effective disposal of radioactive waste can be met in various ways

  7. NAGRA - Sites for geological repositories - Technical safety factors: Suggestions for stage 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) examines the six sites for repositories for nuclear wastes in Switzerland which have been proposed in Stage 1 of the program concerning nuclear waste repositories. Three of these sites are proposed for both highly radioactive wastes as well as for low and medium-active wastes, the other three for low and medium-active wastes only. The evaluation of the sites is discussed. The sites are to be further evaluated in Stage 2 of the program. The work to be done in the further stages involved in the selection of the final site (or sites) is described. Along with definition of the regions where deep repositories could possibly be built, suggestions for the placing of the facilities required on the surface are discussed. Geological requirements on the repositories and safety-relevant characteristics of the various site options are discussed. The results of the assessments made are presented in tabular form. Maps and geological cross-sections of all the suggested areas are included

  8. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic Geologic Repository Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    This study identified potential geologic repository concepts for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and (2) evaluated the achievable repository waste emplacement rate and the time required to complete the disposal for these concepts. Total repository capacity is assumed to be approximately 140,000 MT of spent fuel. The results of this study provide an important input for the rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) disposal cost analysis. The disposal concepts cover three major categories of host geologic media: crystalline or hard rock, salt, and argillaceous rock. Four waste package sizes are considered: 4PWR/9BWR; 12PWR/21BWR; 21PWR/44BWR, and dual purpose canisters (DPCs). The DPC concepts assume that the existing canisters will be sealed into disposal overpacks for direct disposal. Each concept assumes one of the following emplacement power limits for either emplacement or repository closure: 1.7 kW; 2.2 kW; 5.5 kW; 10 kW; 11.5 kW, and 18 kW.

  9. Long-Term Information Management (LTIM) of Safeguards Data at Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddal, R.; Finch, R.; Baldwin, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has noted that long-term information management (LTIM) of safeguards data at geological repositories will be a significant challenge in the future as information and records management systems evolve and permanent disposal of nuclear materials becomes a high-priority in many countries. Identifying approaches to how information on buried high-level nuclear waste will be managed, handled, organized, archived, read, interpreted, and secured for the long-term (1000 years after repository closure and beyond) will be key to safeguards at repositories). The purpose of this study is to explore various long-term information management systems and how they may or may not be adapted for geological repositories for high-level waste. The study will also examine what types of safeguards-related data should be included in such a system. The study will also consider hypotheses about future needs and analyze the pros and cons of very long-term information management. (author

  10. Logistics Modeling of Emplacement Rate and Duration of Operations for Generic Geologic Repository Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    This study identified potential geologic repository concepts for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and (2) evaluated the achievable repository waste emplacement rate and the time required to complete the disposal for these concepts. Total repository capacity is assumed to be approximately 140,000 MT of spent fuel. The results of this study provide an important input for the rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) disposal cost analysis. The disposal concepts cover three major categories of host geologic media: crystalline or hard rock, salt, and argillaceous rock. Four waste package sizes are considered: 4PWR/9BWR; 12PWR/21BWR; 21PWR/44BWR, and dual purpose canisters (DPCs). The DPC concepts assume that the existing canisters will be sealed into disposal overpacks for direct disposal. Each concept assumes one of the following emplacement power limits for either emplacement or repository closure: 1.7 kW; 2.2 kW; 5.5 kW; 10 kW; 11.5 kW, and 18 kW.

  11. Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a Geologic Repository for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proposed Action addressed in this EIS is to construct, operate and monitor, and eventually close a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste currently in storage at 72 commercial and 5 DOE sites across the United States. The EIS evaluates (1) projected impacts on the Yucca Mountain environment of the construction, operation and monitoring, and eventual closure of the geologic repository; (2) the potential long-term impacts of repository disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; (3) the potential impacts of transporting these materials nationally and in the State of Nevada; and (4) the potential impacts of not proceeding with the Proposed Action

  12. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD’s International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  13. International Collaboration Activities in Different Geologic Disposal Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of international collaboration regarding geologic disposal research in the Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign. Since 2012, in an effort coordinated by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, UFD has advanced active collaboration with several international geologic disposal programs in Europe and Asia. Such collaboration allows the UFD Campaign to benefit from a deep knowledge base with regards to alternative repository environments developed over decades, and to utilize international investments in research facilities (such as underground research laboratories), saving millions of R&D dollars that have been and are being provided by other countries. To date, UFD's International Disposal R&D Program has established formal collaboration agreements with five international initiatives and several international partners, and national lab scientists associated with UFD have conducted specific collaborative R&D activities that align well with its R&D priorities.

  14. Flow modeling in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.

    1995-01-01

    Assessment of long term-performance of geologic repositories requires simulation of flow through heterogeneous geologic formations. Effect on flow field of discontinuities such as fracture zones, in such media is of interest to not only waste management but also in petroleum engineering and water resources development. In this paper, a technique of deriving mass balance equations in the presence of fractures is discussed. Compared to full representation of fractures, the proposed technique provides coarser resolution of the flow field but it is relatively computationally efficient. Two examples of its application are also provided

  15. Quality assurance records system for research and development activities in support of geologic repository programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.W.; Ryder, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which is operated by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Department of Energy, is conducting site-specific research for all three candidate sites for the first geologic high-level waste repository, as well as generic research for the second repository. In conjunction with this effort, PNL has developed a quality assurance (QA) program that is applicable to all organizations that are performing research and development (R and D) activities in support of the repository programs. This QA program meets the basic and supplemental requirements of ANSI/ASME NQA-1-1983 and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Review Plan for QA Programs for Site Characterization of High Level Nuclear Waste Repositories. A key part of this program is the handling of QA records that may ultimately support the licensing process for the repository. This paper describes a QA records system that is flexible enough to accommodate several types of research, such as paper studies, test method development, site characterization studies, software development, and hardware design. In addition, the QA records system is acceptable to a variety of sponsors who have licensing concerns. The QA procedures and their relation to the requirements are described. Most important is the discussion on the approaches used to assure that the records are organized such that the user can readily recreate or defend data, conclusions, and recommendations resulting from the research

  16. Sectoral Plan 'Deep Geological Disposal', Stage 2. Proposed site areas for the surface facilities of the deep geological repositories as well as for their access infrastructure. Annexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    In line with the provisions of the nuclear energy legislation, the sites for deep geological disposal of Swiss radioactive waste are selected in a three-stage Sectoral Plan process (Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal). The disposal sites are specified in Stage 3 of the selection process with the granting of a general licence in accordance with the Nuclear Energy Act. The first stage of the process was completed on 30 th November 2011, with the decision of the Federal Council to incorporate the six geological siting regions proposed by the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) into the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Disposal, for further evaluation in Stage 2. The decision also specifies the planning perimeters within which the surface facilities and shaft locations for the repositories will be constructed. In the second stage of the process, at least two geological siting regions each will be specified for the repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and for the high-level waste (HLW) repository and these will undergo detailed geological investigation in Stage 3. For each of these potential siting regions, at least one location for the surface facility and a corridor for the access infrastructure will also be specified. NAGRA is responsible, at the beginning of Stage 2, for submitting proposals for potential locations for the surface facilities and their access infrastructure to the Federal Office of Energy (SFOE); these are then considered by the regional participation bodies in the siting regions. The general report and the present annexes volume document these proposals. In Stage 2, under the lead of the SFOE, socio-economic-ecological studies will also be carried out to investigate the impact of a repository project on the environment, economy and society. The present reports also contain the input data to be provided by NAGRA for the generic (site-independent) part of these impact studies. A meaningful

  17. Selection of nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, M.C.

    1982-12-01

    The criteria for selecting nuclide decay chains for use in the assessment of the radiological impact of geological repositories for radioactive waste are given. The reduced chains recommended for use with SYVAC are described. (author)

  18. Production, consumption and transport of gases in deep geological repositories according to the Swiss disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diomidis, N; Cloet, V.; Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Poller, A.; Stein, M.

    2016-12-01

    In a deep geological repository for radioactive waste, in absence of oxygen and in presence of water, corrosion of various metals and alloys will lead to the formation of hydrogen. If present, organic materials may slowly degrade and generate carbon dioxide, methane and other gaseous species. Depending on local conditions, gaseous species can be consumed by chemical reactions and by microbial activity. If the resulting rate of gas generation exceeds the rate of migration of dissolved gas molecules in the pores of the engineered barriers or the host rock, the solubility limit of the gas will eventually be exceeded and the formation of a discrete gas phase will occur. Gases could continue to accumulate until the pressure becomes sufficient to be released in gaseous form. This report deals with the evolution of gas-related processes that can influence the long-term behaviour and safety of low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW) repositories in Opalinus Clay. The main aim is to present a synthesis of processes and phenomena related to repository-produced gases and to assess their influence on repository performance. A current overview of gas sources, reactions and interactions, generation, consumption, and transport is provided. Furthermore, current scientific understanding is used to define safety function indicators and criteria, which are employed to evaluate the potential influence of repository-generated gas on safety-relevant properties of engineered and natural barriers. The assessment of gas generation, consumption and transport is addressed separately for the HLW and the L/ILW deep geological repositories. The employed methodology, which is common for both repository types, consists of the description and quantification of the potential gas sources, which include the waste, barrier components such as disposal canisters and other gas-generating repository components, and of the processes and reactions leading to the generation or

  19. AEGIS technology demonstration for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1982-09-01

    A technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts was conducted. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The following report documents the technology demonstration in basalt. Available information has been used to establish the data base and initial hydrologic and geologic interpretations for this site-specific application. A simplified diagram of the AEGIS analyses is shown. Because an understanding of the dynamics of ground-water flow is essential to the development of release scenarios and consequence analyses, a key step in the demonstration is the systems characterization contained in the conceptual model. Regional and local ground-water movement patterns have been defined with the aid of hydrologic computer models. Hypothetical release scenarios have been developed and evaluated by a process involving expert opinion and a Geologic Simulation Model for basalt. (The Geologic Simulation Model can also be used to forecast future boundary conditions for the hydrologic simulation.) Chemical reactivity of the basalt with ground water will influence the leaching and transport of radionuclides; solubility equilibria based on available data are estimated with geochemical models. After the radionuclide concentrations are mathematically introduced into the ground-water movement patterns, waste movement patterns are outlined over elapsed time. Contaminant transport results are summarized for significant radionuclides that are hypothetically released to the accessible environment and to the biosphere.

  20. AEGIS technology demonstration for a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, F.H.; Cole, C.R.; Foley, M.G.

    1982-09-01

    A technology demonstration of current performance assessment techniques as applied to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia Plateau Basalts was conducted. Hypothetical repository coordinates were selected for an actual geographical setting on the Hanford Reservation in the state of Washington. Published hydrologic and geologic data used in the analyses were gathered in 1979 or earlier. The following report documents the technology demonstration in basalt. Available information has been used to establish the data base and initial hydrologic and geologic interpretations for this site-specific application. A simplified diagram of the AEGIS analyses is shown. Because an understanding of the dynamics of ground-water flow is essential to the development of release scenarios and consequence analyses, a key step in the demonstration is the systems characterization contained in the conceptual model. Regional and local ground-water movement patterns have been defined with the aid of hydrologic computer models. Hypothetical release scenarios have been developed and evaluated by a process involving expert opinion and a Geologic Simulation Model for basalt. (The Geologic Simulation Model can also be used to forecast future boundary conditions for the hydrologic simulation.) Chemical reactivity of the basalt with ground water will influence the leaching and transport of radionuclides; solubility equilibria based on available data are estimated with geochemical models. After the radionuclide concentrations are mathematically introduced into the ground-water movement patterns, waste movement patterns are outlined over elapsed time. Contaminant transport results are summarized for significant radionuclides that are hypothetically released to the accessible environment and to the biosphere

  1. Effect of waste age on the design of a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, P.D.; Shirley, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    Spent fuel from civilian power reactors has been accumulating since 1969, and will be as old as 29 years out-of-reactor in 1998, when the first US repository for commercial radioactive waste is scheduled to begin operation. In an oldest-waste-first scenario, the first heat-producing waste committed to a repository will be 29 years old at the time of emplacement. Age at emplacement will decrease as the inventory of old waste is depleted, and will vary throughout the operating life of the repository. The age of the waste influences the deposition of decay energy in the waste packages themselves and in the geologic medium in which the waste packages are emplaced for disposal. In the short term, there is a local temperature pulse that is the principal consideration in the design of waste canisters - which, of course, are tailored to the individual waste forms to be emplaced. In the longer term, and on a more regional scale, the thermomechanical response of the host rock to areal energy deposition determines the design of the disposal arrays within the respository. This report is concerned with the latter problem. It is shown that the effect of waste age variability on the thermomechanical stability of the host geology can be minimized by the proper choice of waste canister spacings

  2. Site investigations for repositories for solid radioactive wastes in deep continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report reviews the earth-science investigations and associated scientific studies that may be needed to select a repository site and confirm that its characteristics are such that it will provide a safe confinement for solidified high-level and alpha-bearing and certain other solid radioactive wastes. Site investigations, as used in this report, cover earth sciences and associated safety analyses. Other site-investigation activities are identified but not otherwise considered here. The repositories under consideration are those consisting of mined cavities in deep continental rocks for accepting wastes in the solid and packaged form. The term deep as used in this report is used solely to emphasize the distinction between the repositories discussed in this report and those for shallow-ground disposal. In general, depths under consideration here are greater than 200 metres. The term continental refers to those geological formations that occur either beneath present-day land masses and adjoining islands or beneath the shallow seas. One of the objectives of site investigations is to collect the site-specific data necessary for the different evaluations, such as modelling required to assess the long-term safety of an underground repository

  3. Demonstrating the sealing of a deep geologic repository: the RECAP project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyk, G.W.; Dixon, D.A.; Martino, J.B.; Kozak, E.T.; Bilinsky, D.M.; Thompson, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has operated an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) for twenty-three years (1982-2005). The URL was designed and constructed to carry out in situ geotechnical R and D needed for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management program. The facility is now being closed, the final of several phases that have included siting, site evaluation, construction and operation. The closure phase presents a unique opportunity to develop and demonstrate the methodologies needed for closure and site restoration of a deep geologic repository for used nuclear fuel. A wealth of technical background and characterization data, dating back to before the first excavation work was carried out, are available to support closure activities. A number of closure-related activities are being proposed as part of a REpository Closure And Post-closure (RECAP) project. The RECAP project is proposed to include demonstrations of shaft and borehole sealing and monitoring as well as fracture sealing (grouting), room closure and monitoring system decommissioning, all activities that would occur when closing an actual repository. In addition to the closure-related activities, the RECAP project could provide a unique opportunity to conduct intrusion-monitoring demonstrations as part of a repository safeguards demonstration. (author)

  4. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules.

  5. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: repository performance and development criteria. Public draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This document, DOE/NWTS-33(3) is one of a series of documents to establish the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program criteria for mined geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. For both repository performance and repository development it delineates the criteria for design performance, radiological safety, mining safety, long-term containment and isolation, operations, and decommissioning. The US Department of Energy will use these criteria to guide the development of repositories to assist in achieving performance and will reevaluate their use when the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issues radioactive waste repository rules

  6. Effect of reprocessing and recycling on the geologic repository dose rate : status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E. E.; Nutt, W. M.; Wigeland, R. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-01-01

    Two simplified repository performance assessment models are used to assess the impact of modeling changes in on conclusions regarding the impact of various reprocessing and recycling strategies. Waste streams from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a preliminary design for an advanced burner test reactor (ABTR) are used for this study of the effects on the estimated dose rate resulting from the release of radionuclides from a geologic repository. Calculations for the PWR make use of radionuclide discharge vectors for an assumed burnup of 51 GWd/MTIHM[1]. The repository is assumed to be filled with 70,000 MT of the spent fuel or with a glass waste form containing the radionuclides from 70,000 MT of spent PWR fuel. For the ABTR, the radionuclide inventory discharged at the end of an equilibrium cycle[2] is processed into a glass waste form for repository disposal, assuming actinide recovery efficiencies ranging from 90% to 99.99%. The recovered actinides are returned to the reactor. To compare with the PWR results, the repository is assumed to be filled with ABTR waste from fuel that has generated the same amount of thermal energy as 70,000 MT of the PWR fuel. The two repository performance assessment models, the first a simplified model[3] (SSR) based on the site recommendation model used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP)[4], and the second an updated simplified model (US) based on more recent modeling developments by the YMP are implemented in the computer simulation code GoldSim[5]. The updated model is based on a simplified model used to conduct a sensitivity analysis to evaluate factors that potentially influence performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain over the period of peak dose[6]. Factors that have either a minor or no effect on the peak dose either were not included in that simplified model or were included in a bounding representation. In the US model, enhancements were made to include some factors that have an effect on the dose occurring

  7. Secure and Reliable Wireless Communications for Geological Repositories and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twogood, R.

    2015-01-01

    There is an important need to develop new generation robust RF communication systems to support wireless communications and instrumentation control in geological repositories and nuclear facilities, such as nuclear power plants. Often these facilities have large metallic structures with electromagnetic (EM) transients from plant equipment. The ambient EMI/RFI harsh environment is responsible for degrading radio link bandwidth. Current communication systems often employ physical cables that are not only expensive to install, but deteriorate over time and are vulnerable to failures. Furthermore, conventional high-power narrowband walkie-talkies sometimes upset other electronics. On the other hand, high-quality reliable wireless communications between operators and automated control systems are critical in these facilities, as wireless sensors become more and more prevalent in these operations. In an effort to develop novel wireless communications systems, Dirac Solutions Inc. (DSI) in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has developed high-quality ultra-wideband (UWB) hand-held communications systems that have proven to have excellent performance in ships and tunnels. The short pulse UWB RF technology, with bandwidths of many hundreds of MHz's, are non-interfering due to low average power. Furthermore, the UWB link has been shown to be highly reliable in the presence of other interfering signals. The DSI UWB communications systems can be adapted for applications in tunnels and nuclear power facilities for voice, data, and instrumentation control. In this paper we show examples of voice communication in ships with UWB walkie-talkies. We have developed novel modulation and demodulation techniques for short pulse UWB communications. The design is a low-power one and in a compact form. The communication units can be produced inexpensively in large quantities. A major application of these units might be their use by IAEA inspectors and

  8. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status report on Canada's first project to build a permanent repository for the long-term management of radioactive waste. Ontario Power Generation has initiated a project to construct a deep geologic repository for low- and intermediate-level waste at the Bruce Nuclear Site, at a depth in the range of 600 to 800 m in an Ordovician-age argillaceous limestone formation. The project is currently undergoing an Environmental Assessment and consulting companies in the areas of environmental assessment, geoscientific site characterization, engineering and safety assessment have been hired and technical studies are underway. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling will be initiated in the fall of 2006. The next major milestone for the project is the submission of the Environmental Assessment report, currently scheduled for December 2008. (author)

  9. Staff Technical Position on geological repository operations area underground facility design: Thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataraja, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this Staff Technical Position (STP) is to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) with a methodology acceptable to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff for demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 60.133(i). The NRC staff's position is that DOE should develop and use a defensible methodology to demonstrate the acceptability of a geologic repository operations area (GROA) underground facility design. The staff anticipates that this methodology will include evaluation and development of appropriately coupled models, to account for the thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are induced by repository-generated thermal loads. With respect to 10 CFR 60.133(i), the GROA underground facility design: (1) should satisfy design goals/criteria initially selected, by considering the performance objectives; and (2) must satisfy the performance objectives 10 CFR 60.111, 60.112, and 60.113. The methodology in this STP suggests an iterative approach suitable for the underground facility design

  10. Geological criteria for site selection of an LILW radioactive waste repository in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurelio, Mario; Taguibao, Kristine Joy [National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines, Quezon City (Philippines); Vargas, Edmundo; Palattao, Maria Visitacion; Reyes, Rolando; Nohay, Carl; Singayan, Alfonso [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2013-07-01

    In the selection of sites for disposal facilities involving low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommendations require that 'the region in which the site is located shall be such that significant tectonic and surface processes are not expected to occur with an intensity that would compromise the required isolation capability of the repository'. Evaluating the appropriateness of a site therefore requires a deep understanding of the geological and tectonic setting of the area. The Philippines sits in a tectonically active region frequented by earthquakes and volcanic activity. Its highly variable morphology coupled with its location along the typhoon corridor in the west Pacific region subjects the country to surface processes often manifested in the form of landslides. The Philippine LILW near surface repository project site is located on the north eastern sector of the Island of Luzon in northern Philippines. This island is surrounded by active subduction trenches; to the east by the East Luzon Trough and to the west by the Manila Trench. The island is also traversed by several branches of the Philippine Fault System. The Philippine LILW repository project is located more than 100 km away from any of these major active fault systems. In the near field, the project site is located less than 10 km from a minor fault (Dummon River Fault) and more than 40 km away from a volcanic edifice (Mt. Caguas). This paper presents an analysis of the potential hazards that these active tectonic features may pose to the project site. The assessment of such geologic hazards is imperative in the characterization of the site and a crucial input in the design and safety assessment of the repository. (authors)

  11. Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot-Delpech, Sophie; Raineau, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment (hundreds of thousands of years, if not longer), involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology's very long timescale, the project attempts "jump" in time, focusing on a far distant future, without understanding it in terms of generations. But these future generations remain measurements of time on the surface, where the issue of remembering or forgetting the repository comes to the fore. The nuclear waste geological storage project raises questions that neither politicians nor scientists, nor civil society, have ever confronted before. This project attempts to address a problem that exists on a very long timescale, which involves our responsibility toward generations in the far future.

  12. Uranium, thorium and trace elements in geologic occurrences as analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Brookins, D.G.; Cohen, L.H.; Flexser, S.; Abashian, M.; Murphy, M.; Williams, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Contact zones between intrusive rocks and tuff, basalt, salt and granitic rock were investigated as possible analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions. Results of detailed studies of contacts between quartz monzonite of Laramide age, intrusive into Precambrian gneiss, and a Tertiary monzonite-tuff contact zone indicate that uranium, thorium and other trace elements have not migrated significantly from the more radioactive instrusives into the country rock. Similar observations resulted from preliminary investigations of a rhyodacite dike cutting basalt of the Columbia River plateau and a kimberlitic dike cutting bedded salt of the Salina basin. This lack of radionuclide migration occurred in hydrologic and thermal conditions comparable to, or more severe than those expected in nuclear waste repository environments and over time periods of the order of concern for waste repositories. Attention is now directed to investigation of active hydrothermal systems in candidate repository rock types, and in this regard a preliminary set of samples has been obtained from a core hole intersecting basalt underlying the Newberry caldera, Oregon, where temperatures presently range from 100 to 265 0 C. Results of mineralogical and geochemical investigations of this core should indicate the alteration mineralogy and behavior of radioelements in conditions analogous to those in the near field of a repository in basalt

  13. Canada's deep geological repository for used nuclear fuel - site selection process update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facella, J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the Government of Canada selected Adaptive Phased Management as Canada's plan for the long-term management of Canada's used nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository, located in an informed and willing host. The process of site selection is an important milestone in this program. The NWMO describes its approach to working collaboratively with communities which expressed interest in exploring the project, as well as Aboriginal communities in the area and other surrounding communities. The project is designed to be implemented through a long-term partnership involving the interested community, Aboriginal communities and surrounding communities working with the NWMO. (author)

  14. Deep geologic repository concepts for isolation of used fuel in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maak, P.; Simmons, G.R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of a deep geologic repository (DGR) for long-term management of CANDU reactor used fuel within the stable plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield was developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) between 1978 and 1996. Since 1996, Ontario Power Generation (OPG), formerly Ontario Hydro, has been leading the development of a modified DGR concept, taking into account the 1998 recommendations of the federal Environmental Assessment and Review Panel. This paper discusses progress to date in the development of modified DGR conceptual designs and technologies. (author)

  15. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-05-13

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations.

  16. Annular air space effects on nuclear waste canister temperatures in a deep geologic waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.E.; Cheung, H.; Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Air spaces in a deep geologic repository for nuclear high level waste will have an important effect on the long-term performance of the waste package. The important temperature effects of an annular air gap surrounding a high level waste canister are determined through 3-D numerical modeling. Air gap properties and parameters specifically analyzed and presented are the air gap size, surfaces emissivity, presence of a sleeve, and initial thermal power generation rate; particular emphasis was placed on determining the effect of these variables have on the canister surface temperature. Finally a discussion based on modeling results is presented which specifically relates the results to NRC regulatory considerations

  17. Interim performance specifications for conceptual waste-package designs for geologic isolation in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The interim performance specifications and data requirements presented apply to conceptual waste package designs for all waste forms which will be isolated in salt geologic repositories. The waste package performance specifications and data requirements respond to the waste package performance criteria. Subject areas treated include: containment and controlled release, operational period safety, criticality control, identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  18. Status of technology for isolating high-level radioactive wastes in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingsberg, C.; Duguid, J.

    1980-10-01

    This report attempts to summarize the status of scientific and technological knowledge relevant to long-term isolation of high-level and transuranic wastes in a mined geologic repository. It also identifies and evaluates needed information and identifies topics in which work is under way or needed to reduce uncertainties. The major findings and conclusions on the following topics are presented: importance of the systems approach; prospects for successful isolation of wastes; need for site-specific investigations; human activities in the future; importance of modelling; disposal of transuranic wastes; status of technology of isolation barriers, performance assessment, site selection and characterization, and potential host rocks

  19. Engineered barrier system and waste package design concepts for a potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.W.; Ruffner, D.J.; Jardine, L.J.

    1991-10-01

    We are using an iterative process to develop preliminary concept descriptions for the Engineered Barrier System and waste-package components for the potential geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The process allows multiple design concepts to be developed subject to major constraints, requirements, and assumptions. Involved in the highly interactive and interdependent steps of the process are technical specialists in engineering, metallic and nonmetallic materials, chemistry, geomechanics, hydrology, and geochemistry. We have developed preliminary design concepts that satisfy both technical and nontechnical (e.g., programmatic or policy) requirements

  20. Design information verification for spent fuel conditioning plants and for geological repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myatt, J.; Ward, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of spent fuel is a major option for the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. It will require the construction, operation and eventual closure of conditioning plants and geological repositories. Consequently, a safeguards approach including Design Information Verification (DIV) must be developed for these facilities. DIV Is the examination of a completed facility to verify that it has been built to the design declared by the operator. Although DIV takes place chiefly before a plant begins routine operation, there is a continuing interest in ensuring that the plant remains as declared. That is, that the continuity of knowledge of design information is maintained during the operational phase of the plant and also post closure if necessary. A major problem with DIV of a repository is that there will be continuous structural changes during its operational life requiring advanced or special techniques for reverification. Some of these are briefly reviewed. Furthermore, since a disposal facility is expected to be operational for several decades, new mining technology may also have an impact on the DIV methods employed. Another factor in the safeguards supervision of a repository is that when the fuel has been backfilled and/or scaled in place a reassay will be a very costly exercise. The role of DIV in such novel circumstances must, therefore, be fully considered

  1. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research

  2. Characterizing the Evolution of the In-Drift Environment in a Proposed Yucca Mountain Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham Van Luik

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provides a high-level summary of the approach taken to achieve a conceptual understanding of the chemical environments likely to exist in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository after the permanent closure of the facility. That conceptual understanding was then made quantitative through laboratory and modeling studies. This summary gives an overview of the in-drift chemical environment modeling that was needed to evaluate a Yucca Mountain repository: it describes the geological, hydrological, and geochemical aspects of the chemistry of water contacting engineered barriers and includes a summary of the technical basis that supports the integration of this information into the total system performance assessment. In addition, it presents a description of some of the most important data and processes influencing the in-drift environment, and describes how data and parameter uncertainty are propagated through the modeling. Sources of data include: (1) external studies regarding climate changes; (2) site-specific studies of the structure of the mountain and the properties of its rock layers; (3) properties of dust in the mountain and investigations of the potential for deliquescence on that dust to create solutions above the boiling point of water; (4) obtaining thermal data from a comprehensive thermal test addressing coupled processes; and (5) modeling the evolution of the in-drift environment at several scales. Model validation is also briefly addressed

  3. On risk analysis for repositories in northern Switzerland: extent and probability of geological processes and events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buergisser, H.M.; Herrnberger, V.

    1981-01-01

    The literature study assesses, in the form of expert analysis, geological processes and events for a 1200 km 2 -area of northern Switzerland, with regard to repositories for medium- and high-active waste (depth 100 to 600 m and 600 to 2500 m, respectively) over the next 10 6 years. The area, which comprises parts of the Tabular Jura, the folded Jura and the Molasse Basin, the latter two being parts of the Alpine Orogene, has undergone a non-uniform geologic development since the Oligocene. Within the next 10 4 to 10 5 years a maximum earthquake intensity of VIII-IX (MSK-scale) has been predicted. After this period, particularly in the southern and eastern parts of the area, glaciations will probably occur, with associated erosion of possibly 200 to 300 m. Fluvial erosion as a reponse to an uplift could reach similar values after 10 5 to 10 6 years; however, there are no data on the recent relative vertical crustal movements of the area. The risk of a meteorite impact is considered small as compared to that of these factors. Seismic activity and the position and extent of faults are so poorly known within the area that the faulting probability cannot be derived at present. Flooding by the sea, intrusion of magma, diapirism, metamorphism and volcanic eruptions are not considered to be risk factors for final repositories in northern Switzerland. For the shallow-type repositories, the risk of denudation and landslides have to be judged when locality-bound projects have been proposed. (Auth.)

  4. Cesium and strontium fractionation from HLW for thermal-stress reduction in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.

    1983-02-01

    Results are described for a study to assess the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic repository thermal stresses. System costs are developed for a broad range of conditions comparing the Cs/Sr fractionation concept with disposal of 10-year old vitrified HLW and vitrified HLW aged to achieve (through decay) the same heat output as the fractionated high-level waste (FHLW). All comparisons are based on a 50,000 metric ton equivalent (MTE) system. The FHLW and the Cs/Sr waste are both disposed of a vitrified waste but emplaced in separate areas of a basalt repository. The FHLW is emplaced in high-integrity packages at relatively high waste loading but low heat loading, while the Cs/Sr waste is emplaced in minimum integrity packages at relatively high heat loading. System cost comparisons are based on minimum cost combinations of canister diameter, waste concentration, and canister spacing in a basalt repository for each waste type. The effects on both long- and near-term safety considerations are also addressed. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers, potentially, a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However, there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or loser costs

  5. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Oregon State University (OSU) College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS) Marine Geology Repository (MGR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon State University Marine Geology Repository (OSU-MGR) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS) database, contributing...

  6. Corporate knowledge repository: Adopting academic LMS into corporate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar, Muhamad Shahbani Abu; Jalil, Dzulkafli

    2017-10-01

    The growth of Knowledge Economy has transformed human capital to be the vital asset in business organization of the 21st century. Arguably, due to its white-collar nature, knowledge-based industry is more favorable than traditional manufacturing business. However, over dependency on human capital can also be a major challenge as any workers will inevitably leave the company or retire. This situation will possibly create knowledge gap that may impact business continuity of the enterprise. Knowledge retention in the corporate environment has been of many research interests. Learning Management System (LMS) refers to the system that provides the delivery, assessment and management tools for an organization to handle its knowledge repository. By using the aspirations of a proven LMS implemented in an academic environment, this paper proposes LMS model that can be used to enable peer-to-peer knowledge capture and sharing in the knowledge-based organization. Cloud Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), referred to an ERP solution in the internet cloud environment was chosen as the domain knowledge. The complexity of the Cloud ERP business and its knowledge make it very vulnerable to the knowledge retention problem. This paper discusses how the company's essential knowledge can be retained using the LMS system derived from academic environment into the corporate model.

  7. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance

  8. How to Shape a Successful Repository Program: Staged Development of Geologic Repositories for High-Level Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, T.

    2004-10-03

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods--many millennia--and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance.

  9. Annotated outline for the SCP conceptual design report: Office of Geologic Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) requires that site characterization plans (SCPs) be submitted to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), affected States and Indian tribes, and the general public for review and comment prior to the sinking of shafts at a candidate repository site. The SCP is also required by the NRC licensing procedures for the disposal of high-level waste. An Annotated Outline (AO) for Site Characterization Plans (OGR/B-5) has been prepared to provide DOE's standard format and guidance for preparation of SCPs. Consistent with the AO for SCPs. Chapter 6 of the SCP is to provide the requirements and references the media-specific design data base, describe the current design concepts, and discuss design information needs. In order to develop this design information, the Office of Geologic Repositories program is planning a SCP conceptual design phase as part of the overall repository design process. This phase is the first step in the design process, and the result and design can be expected to change as the program moves through the site characterization phase. The Annotated Outline which follows provides the standard format and guidance for the preparation of the SCP Conceptual Design Reports. It is considered to meet the intent of NRC's proposed Generic Technical Position philosophy contained therein. The SCP Conceptual Design Report will be the primary basis for preparation of Chapter 6 of the SCP and will be stand-alone reference document for the SCP. Appendix 1 to this Annotated Outline provides a correlation between Chapter 6 of the SCP and SCP Conceptual Design Report for the information purposes

  10. Tectonic risk forecasting through expert elicitation for geological repositories: the TOPAZ project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Junichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Chapman, Neil

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a probabilistic methodology for the evaluation of tectonic hazards to geological repositories in Japan. The approach is a development of NUMO's ITM methodology, which produced probabilistic hazard maps for volcanism and rock deformation for periods up to about 100,000 years in a set of Case Studies that covered a large area of the country. To address potential regulatory requirements, the TOPAZ project has extended the ITM methodology to look into the period between 100,000 and 1 million years, where significant uncertainties begin to emerge about the tectonic framework within which quantitative forecasting can be made. Part of this methodology extension has been to adopt expert elicitation techniques to capture differing expert views as a means of addressing such uncertainties. This paper briefly outlines progress in this development work to date. (authors)

  11. Proposal for the classification of scenarios for deep geological repositories in probability classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The provided report was elaborated in the framework of the project 3609R03210 ''Research and Development for Proof of the long-term Safety of Deep Geological Repositories''. It contains a proposal for a methodology that enables the assignment of developed scenarios in the frame of Safety Cases to defined probability classes. The assignment takes place indirectly through the categorization of the defining relevant factors (so-called FEP: Features, Events and Processes) of the respective scenarios also in probability classes. Therefore, decision trees and criteria were developed for the categorization of relevant factors in classes. Besides the description of the methodology another focal point of the work was the application of the method taking into account a defined scenario. By means of the scenario the different steps of the method and the decision criteria were documented, respectively. In addition, potential subjective influences along the path of decisions regarding the assignment of scenarios in probability classes were identified.

  12. The velocity dependent dissolution of spent nuclear fuel in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.

    1990-02-01

    A model describing the dissolution of fission products and transuranic isotopes from spent nuclear fuel into flowing ground water has been developed. This model is divided into two parts. The first part of the model calculates the temperature within a consolidated spent fuel waste form at a given time and ground water velocity. This model was used to investigate whether water flowing at rates representative of a geological repository located at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, will cool a wasteform consisting of consolidated spent nuclear fuel pins. Time and velocity dependent temperature profiles were generated. These profiles were input into the second model, which calculates the dissolution rate of waste isotopes from a spent fuel pin. Two dissolution limiting processes were modeled; the processes are dissolution limited by the solubility limit of an isotopes in the ground water, and dissolution limited by the diffusion of waste isotopes from the interior of a spent fuel pin to the surface where dissolution can occur

  13. Sequential evaluation of the potential geologic repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerstedt, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the changes that are planned for the characterization program at Yucca Mountain due to budget changes. Yucca Mountain is the only site being studied in the US for a geologic repository. Funding for the site characterization program at Yucca Mountain program was cut by roughly one half from the 1994 projected budget to complete three major milestones. These project milestones included: (1) a time-phased determination of site suitability, and if a positive finding, (2) completion of an Environmental Impact Statement, and (3) preparation of a License Application to the US NRC to authorize repository construction. In reaction, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project has shifted from parallel development of these milestones to a sequenced approach with the site suitability evaluation being replaced with a management assessment. Changes to the regulatory structure for the disposal program are under consideration by DOE and the NRC. The possibility for NRC and Doe to develop a site-specific regulatory structure follows from the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 that authorized the US EPA to develop a site specific environmental standard for Yucca Mountain

  14. Long term climate change and a deep geological repository in the Canadian Shield: issues and Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltier, W.R.

    2006-01-01

    For the past million years of Earth history, the Canadian Shield has experienced a continuous process of glaciation and deglaciation, events that have significantly altered the landscape of the northern half of the North American continent. This sequence of events, ultimately due to small changes in received solar radiation due to the influence of gravitational many body effects upon the earths orbit around the sun, should they continue, constitute an important phenomena with respect to developing an understanding of groundwater flow system evolution in Shield terrain as it may influence the long-term performance of a Deep Geologic Repository for used nuclear fuel. In this paper a description is provided of the University of Toronto Glacial Systems Model, which is being applied to yield geophysically constrained predictions of the last Laurentide (North American) glacial event. In particular, the GSM is providing unique insight into the time rate of change, magnitude and uncertainty of surface boundary conditions and permafrost occurrence at a hypothetical Shield repository site. These predictive estimates of boreal, peri-glacial and ice-sheet history are offering an innovative and reasoned basis to explore flow system characteristics and attributes that govern hydrodynamic and geochemical stability within deep-seated Shield flow domains. (author)

  15. Preclosure Seismic Design Methodology for a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Coppersmith

    2004-01-01

    This topical report describes the methodology and criteria that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) intends to use for preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that are important to safety (ITS) in the geologic repository operations area. 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 63 [DIRS 156605], states that for a license to be issued for operation of a high-level radioactive waste repository, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must find that the facility will not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public (Section 63.41[c] [DIRS 156605]). Section 63.21(c)(5) [DIRS 156605] requires that a preclosure safety analysis (PCSA) be performed to ensure that the preclosure performance objectives (Section 63.111 [DIRS 156605]) have been met. The PCSA is a systematic examination of the site, the design, and the potential hazards (Section 63.102[f] [DIRS 156605]), including a comprehensive identification of potential event sequences. Potential naturally-occurring hazards include those event sequences that are initiated by earthquake ground motions or fault displacements due to earthquakes

  16. Concepts and examples of safety analyses for radioactive waste repositories in continental geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This document is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of underground radioactive waste repositories. It is a companion to a general introductory document on the subject ''Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes'', IAEA Safety Series No. 56, 1981, and reference to this earlier document will facilitate the reader's understanding of the present report. Since examples of safety analyses are summarized here, it is hoped that this document will contribute to providing a basis for a common understanding among authorities and specialists concerned with the numerous studies involving a variety of scientific disciplines. While providing technical information, this document is also intended to stimulate further international discussion. The purposes of this report are: a) to identify the factors to be taken into account in radiological safety analyses of deep geological repositories, indicating as far as possible their relative importance during the various phases of system development; b) to show how these factors have been analysed in various safety assessment studies; and c) to comment on the merits of the selected and alternative approaches

  17. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  18. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center (WHCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  19. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the Index...

  20. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program (CMGP) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) Samples Repository is a partner in the...

  1. U.S. Department of Energy approaches to the assessment of radionuclide migration for the geologic repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luik, A.E. van; Apted, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Potential radionuclide migration in geologic repositories is being addressed by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management through its Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR). A diversity of geohydrologic settings is being investigated: unsaturated tuff, saturated basalt, and bedded salt. A number of approaches to assessing potential migration are being considered. Mass transfer is prominent among near-field approaches. For far-field analysis of migration in the geosphere, detailed characterizations of potential repository sites will lead to site-specific models describing radionuclide migration for a variety of postulated release scenarios. Finite-element and finite-difference codes are being used and developed to solve the mathematical equations pertinent to far-field assessments. Computational approaches presently in use generally require distribution coefficients to estimate the retardation of specific radionuclides with respect to the transport rate of water. 26 refs

  2. Life cycle assessment of geological repositories for the final disposal of spent fuel in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puhrer, A.; Bauer, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the geological repositories for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland and Sweden. A separate LCA has been performed for the geological spent fuel repository in each country and the results have been compared. A further benchmark comparison has been made with the LCA of the Swiss geological repository for high-level waste and spent fuel. The life cycle inventory (LCI) product system boundaries include the spent fuel repository and encapsulation facility in each country. All materials, processes, consumed utilities and transport associated with the construction, operation and closure of the repositories for spent fuel are included in the LCI. The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is performed using two methods: IPCC 2007 Climate Change and ReCiPe. These assessment methods return results pertaining to global warming potential (GWP) as well as a number of environmental impact categories such as human toxicity and natural land transformation. Results indicate that the use of copper for disposal canister fabrication and bentonite for repository backfilling are the causes for most of the environmental impact of the spent fuel repositories in Finland and Sweden. Alternate, less bentonite-intensive backfilling scenarios may mitigate this impact. While the Swiss bentonite consumption is lower and no copper is used for canister fabrication, the Swiss electricity and fuel consumption associated with final disposal of high-level waste and spent fuel is significantly higher than in Finland or Sweden. Approximately 1 g CO 2 -eq is emitted due to the final disposal of spent fuel and HLW per kWh of nuclear generated electricity. This represents some 10% of the emissions due to the entire nuclear energy chain and is practically negligible in the context of GHG emissions of other energy technologies. (authors)

  3. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  4. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, fiscal year 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises 11 reports in two major interrelated tasks: The technical assistance part of the project includes reviewing the progress of the major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive waste Management (OCRWM) Program and advising the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; analyzing geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; reviewing and commenting on major technical reports and other program documents such as Site Characterization Plans (SCP) and Study Plans; and providing scientific and technical input at technical meetings. The topical studies activity comprises studies on scientific and technical ions and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and site characterization of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. One minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for postclosure monitoring studies. The major task, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is a study of the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses

  5. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  6. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Šílený, Jan; Lednická, Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2017), s. 486-493 E-ISSN 2391-5471 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : deep geological repository * earthquake * seismicity * neo-deterministic analysis * probabilistic seismic hazard assessment Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure; DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics; Environmental and geological engineering, geotechnics (GFU-E) Impact factor: 0.745, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/phys.2017.15.issue-1/phys-2017-0055/phys-2017-0055.pdf

  7. Diffusive Transport of Sulphide through an Engineering Barrier System in a Deep Geological Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, S. A.; Sleep, B. E.; McKelvie, J. R. M.; Krol, M.

    2015-12-01

    Bentonite is a naturally occurring clay-rich sediment containing montmorillonite, a smectitic clay mineral that has a high cation exchange capacity and swells upon contact with water. Owing to these characteristics, highly compacted bentonite (HCB) is an often included component of engineered barrier systems (EBS) designed to protect used fuel containers (UFCs) in deep geological repositories (DGR) for high-level nuclear waste. The low water activity and high swelling pressure of HCB suppresses microbial activity and the related production of sulphide that could cause microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) of UFCs The Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has chosen a UFC that consists of an inner steel core and outer copper coating which is resistant to corrosion. However, under anaerobic conditions, MIC can still contribute to UFC corrosion if sulphides are present in the groundwater. Therefore the EBS consisting of bentonite blocks and pellets has been designed to impede the movement of sulphides to the UFC. In order to examine the effectiveness of the EBS, a 3D numerical model was developed capable of simulating the diffusive transport of sulphide within the NWMO EBS. The model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element software package and is parametric which allows the impact of different repository layouts to be assessed. The developed model was of the entire NWMO placement room, as well as, a stand-alone UFC and included conservative assumptions such as a fully saturated system and a constant concentration boundary condition. The results showed that the highest sulphide flux occurred at the semi-spherical end caps of the UFC. Further studies examined the effect of sulphide hotspots and fractures, representing possible EBS failure mechanisms. The model results highlight that even with conservative assumptions the chosen EBS will effectively protect the UFC from microbiologically influenced corrosion.

  8. Finite element code FENIA verification and application for 3D modelling of thermal state of radioactive waste deep geological repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, U. N.

    2017-11-01

    The verification of the FENIA finite element code on some problems and an example of its application are presented in the paper. The code is being developing for 3D modelling of thermal, mechanical and hydrodynamical (THM) problems related to the functioning of deep geological repositories. Verification of the code for two analytical problems has been performed. The first one is point heat source with exponential heat decrease, the second one - linear heat source with similar behavior. Analytical solutions have been obtained by the authors. The problems have been chosen because they reflect the processes influencing the thermal state of deep geological repository of radioactive waste. Verification was performed for several meshes with different resolution. Good convergence between analytical and numerical solutions was achieved. The application of the FENIA code is illustrated by 3D modelling of thermal state of a prototypic deep geological repository of radioactive waste. The repository is designed for disposal of radioactive waste in a rock at depth of several hundred meters with no intention of later retrieval. Vitrified radioactive waste is placed in the containers, which are placed in vertical boreholes. The residual decay heat of radioactive waste leads to containers, engineered safety barriers and host rock heating. Maximum temperatures and corresponding times of their establishment have been determined.

  9. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects

  10. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  11. Preclosure seismic design methodology for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Topical report YMP/TR-003-NP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This topical report describes the methodology and criteria that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to use for preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) of the proposed geologic repository operations area that are important to safety. Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (10 CFR 60), Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories, states that for a license to be issued for operation of a high-level waste repository, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) must find that the facility will not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public. Section 60.131 (b)(1) requires that SSCs important to safety be designed so that natural phenomena and environmental conditions anticipated at the geologic repository operations area will not interfere with necessary safety functions. Among the natural phenomena specifically identified in the regulation as requiring safety consideration are the hazards of ground shaking and fault displacement due to earthquakes

  12. Geological repository layout for radioactive high level long lived waste in argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussen, JL

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high level long lived waste. This presentation is focussed on the underground facilities which constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout which has been elaborated is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in terms of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimization of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. The link between the surface and the underground is ensured by 4 shafts. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in

  13. Dissolution kinetics of smectite in geological repository system of TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Extensive use of cement for encapsulation, mine timbering, and grouting purposes is envisaged in geological repositories of TRU waste. Degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce a high pH pore fluid initially ranging from pH 13.0 to 13.5. The high pH pore fluids can migrate and react chemically with the host rock and bentonites which were employed to enhance repository's integrity. These chemical reactions can effect the capacity of the rocks and bentonites in retarding the migration of radionuclides. Smectite, main component of bentonite, can lose some of their desirable properties at the early stages of bentonite-cement fluid interaction. This has been a key research issue in performance assessment of TRU waste disposal. In this study, firstly, the factors affected on dissolution rate of smectite and equations describing dissolution rate were reviewed. Secondly, the effect of dissolved silica on the dissolution behavior of Na-montmorillonite was investigated. Bulk sample flow-through dissolution experiments at alkaline condition (pH 13.3) with different dissolved silica concentrations at different temperatures were performed. Titration experiments were also carried out at similar conditions. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) ex situ observations (i.e. on samples from flow-through experiments) was also performed to obtain the dissolution rate. Current results from bulk sample surface titration experiments indicate that dissolved silica has no pronounced effect on the surface titration behavior of Na-montmorillonite at any temperature. However, the trends for the surface titration behavior represent the averaged behavior of all particle sizes (i.e. including colloids) such that within an order of magnitude change cannot be quantified appreciably. Bulk flow-through dissolution experiments coupled with ex situ AFM observations indicate that there is also no effect of dissolved silica with comparatively low concentration of the reacting solution on

  14. On the Durability of Nuclear Waste Forms from the Perspective of Long-Term Geologic Repository Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifeng Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High solid/water ratios and slow water percolation cause the water in a repository to quickly (on a repository time scale reach radionuclide solubility controlled by the equilibrium with alteration products; the total release of radionuclides then becomes insensitive to the dissolution rates of primary waste forms. It is therefore suggested that future waste form development be focused on conditioning waste forms or repository environments to minimize radionuclide solubility, rather than on marginally improving the durability of primary waste forms.

  15. Shear-induced Fracture Slip and Permeability Change. Implications for Long-term Performance of a Deep Geological Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Ki-Bok; Stephansson, Ove

    2009-03-01

    Opening of fractures induced by shear dilation or normal deformation can be a significant source of fracture permeability change in jointed rock, which is important for the performance assessment of geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel. As the repository generates heat and later cools the fluid-carrying ability of the rocks becomes a dynamic variable during the lifespan of the repository. Heating causes expansion of the rock close to the repository and, at the same time, contraction close to the surface. During the cooling phase of the repository, the opposite takes place. Heating and cooling together with the virgin stress can induce shear dilation of fractures and deformation zones and change the flow field around the repository. The objectives of this project are to examine the contribution of thermal stress to the shear slip of fracture in mid- and far-field around a KBS-3 type of repository and to investigate the effect of evolution of stress on the rock mass permeability. The first part of the study is about the evolution of thermal stresses in the rock during the lifetime of the repository. Critical sections of heat generated stresses around the repository are selected and classified. Fracture data from Forsmark is used to establish fracture network models (DFN) and the models are subjected to the sum of virgin stress and thermal stresses and the shear slip and related permeability change are studied. In the first part of this study, zones of fracture shear slip were examined by conducting a three-dimensional, thermo-mechanical analysis of a spent fuel repository model. Stress evolutions of importance for fracture shear slip are: (1) comparatively high horizontal compressive thermal stress at the repository level, (2) generation of vertical tensile thermal stress right above the repository, (3) horizontal tensile stress near the surface, which can induce tensile failure, and generation of shear stresses at the corners of the repository. In the

  16. Whiskers and Localized Corrosion on Copper in Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter; Gillen, Peter

    2004-03-01

    that there is a localized attack on the metal surface beneath the whisker root. In the small diameter whisker case this attribution is quite clear, but it is less clear for the large diameter case. The results could have an implication on the integrity of the copper lining of the waste canister and possible release of radionuclei to the repository environment. The seriousness of this assumption should be evaluated by a study of the ability of whiskers to grow on copper in a bentonite environment

  17. Ontario Power Generation's proposed L and ILW deep geologic repository: geoscientific assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada); Raven, K. [Geofirma Engineering Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Leech, R. [AECOM Canada Ltd., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) recently completed geoscientific studies on behalf of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) to verify the suitability of the Bruce nuclear site, Municipality of Kincardine, Ontario, to host a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for OPG's Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Waste (L and ILW). The Bruce nuclear site is underlain by a ≈850 m thick Paleozoic sedimentary sequence comprised of near-horizontally layered Cambrian- to Devonian-age sediments occurring on the eastern flank of the Michigan Basin. As envisioned, the proposed DGR would be excavated at a depth of ≈680 m within the upper Ordovician argillaceous limestone Cobourg Formation. Multi-phase geoscientific studies conducted over 4-years indicate that the upper Ordovician formations proposed to host and enclose the DGR comprise a laterally traceable, stable, saline (TDS ≈200-350 g/L) and low permeability (≤10{sup -13} m/s) groundwater regime in which solute migration has been dominated by diffusive processes. This paper provides an overview of the coordinated site-specific and regional geoscientific studies and how they have provided a basis to understand both the current site conditions and, past and future site evolution as it relates to the assessment of long-term passive DGR safety. (author)

  18. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes

  19. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  20. Use of petrophysical data for siting of deep geological repository of radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Liliana; Shestopalov, Vyacheslav

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to analyzing the petrophysical properties and petrographical characteristics of Volyn region with the view to choosing the least permeable and so the most suitable geological formation for the radioactive waste disposal. On a basis of the petrophysical estimations of the granitoids properties the argumentation of permeability has been developed for the petrotypes of Volyn region. Also method of classification of the petrotypes with their relative rate of suitability for radioactive waste disposal was developed. As a result of studying the perspectives were shown of the zhytomyr and korosten types of the granitoids as host rock for the radioactive waste disposal. According to the results of investigations performed by Swedish researchers a comparative analysis of rocks based on the age of formation, composition, structural features and some petrophysical properties of granitoids as host rocks for repository of radioactive waste was performed. Detail comparison the data of the granitoids of the Forsmark site in Sweden and the data of the granitoids of the Volyn megablock can be one of the next steps in researching the host rocks for the development of the RW disposal system in Ukraine.

  1. Validation of TEMP: A finite line heat transfer code for geologic repositories for nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atterbury, W.G.; Hetteburg, J.R.; Wurm, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    TEMP is a FORTRAN computer code for calculating temperatures in a geologic repository for nuclear waste. A previous report discusses the structure, usage, verification, and benchmarking of TEMP V1.0 (Wurm et al., 1987). This report discusses modifications to the program in the development of TEMP V1.1 and documents the validation of TEMP. The development of TEMP V1.1 from TEMP V1.0 consisted of two major efforts. The first was to recode several of the subroutines to improve logic flow and to allow for geometry-independent temperature calculation routines which, in turn, allowed for the addition of the geometry-independent validation option. The validation option provides TEMP with the ability to model any geometry of temperature sources with any step-wise heat release rate. This capability allows TEMP to model the geometry and heat release characteristics of the validation problems. The validation of TEMP V1.1 consists of the comparison of TEMP to three in-ground heater tests. The three tests chosen were Avery Island, Louisiana, Site A; Avery Island, Louisiana, Site C; and Asse Mine, Federal Republic of Germany, Site 2. TEMP shows marginal comparison with the two Avery Island sites and good comparison with the Asse Mine Site. 8 refs., 25 figs., 14 tabs

  2. Reducing the likelihood of future human activities that could affect geologic high-level waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations provides a means of isolating the waste from people until the radioactivity has decayed to safe levels. However, isolating people from the wastes is a different problem, since we do not know what the future condition of society will be. The Human Interference Task Force was convened by the US Department of Energy to determine whether reasonable means exist (or could be developed) to reduce the likelihood of future human unintentionally intruding on radioactive waste isolation systems. The task force concluded that significant reductions in the likelihood of human interference could be achieved, for perhaps thousands of years into the future, if appropriate steps are taken to communicate the existence of the repository. Consequently, for two years the task force directed most of its study toward the area of long-term communication. Methods are discussed for achieving long-term communication by using permanent markers and widely disseminated records, with various steps taken to provide multiple levels of protection against loss, destruction, and major language/societal changes. Also developed is the concept of a universal symbol to denote Caution - Biohazardous Waste Buried Here. If used for the thousands of non-radioactive biohazardous waste sites in this country alone, a symbol could transcend generations and language changes, thereby vastly improving the likelihood of successful isolation of all buried biohazardous wastes.

  3. New developments in measurement technology relevant to the studies of deep geological repositories in domed salt and basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Mao, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    This report briefly describes recent geophysical and geotechnical instrumentation developments relevant to the studies of deep geologic repositories. Special emphasis has been placed on techniques that appear to minimize measurement problems associated with repositories constructed in basalt or domed salt. Included in the listing are existing measurement capabilities and deficiencies that have been identified by a few authors and instrumentation workshops that have assessed the capabilities of existing instrumentation with respect to repository applications. These deficiencies have been compared with the reported advantages and limitations of the new developments described. Based on these comparisons, areas that merit further research and development have been identified. The report is based on a thorough literature review and on discussions with several instrumentation specialists involved in instrumentation development

  4. Site selection process for a HLW geological repository in France. A convergence approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solente, N.; Ouzounian, G.; Miguez, R.; Tison, J-L. [ANDRA Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs, Chatenay-Malabry (France)

    2011-07-01

    On December 1991, the French National Assembly passed the French Waste Management Research Act, authorizing and initiating a 15 year research program along three options for HLW long term solution: separation and/or transmutation, long-term storage, and geologic disposal. On June 2006, the 'Planning Act on the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste' sets a new framework and new aims to the above mentioned options. This paper deals only with the geologic disposal research program. In a step by step approach, this program has been broken down into three phases, each having intermediate objectives: site selection for an Underground research Laboratory (URL), disposal feasibility demonstration, reversible disposal design. The first step of the research program aimed at URL site selection. From 1994 to 1996, Andra carried out geological characterization surveys in four French districts, leading to the Request for Licensing and Operation of laboratory facilities on three sites. During this phase, boreholes, 2D seismic campaigns and outcrops geologic studies were the main sources of data. The result was the selection of Bure area, the most suitable site for the implementation of an underground laboratory. Main results on Bure URL will be presented in the paper. In the second phase the research program targeted the safety and technical feasibility of a reversible disposal site, located in Meuse or Haute Marne districts, as selected by the government in 1998. Andra conducted geologic survey during the URL shaft sinking and experiments in drifts at depths of 445 and 490 m. This program allowed consolidating the knowledge already acquired: geological environment, stability of the rock and the regional geology, and containment properties. The 2005 Progress Report presents the results of this phase. The main conclusion is that a potential disposal facility may be safely constructed over a zone with geological characteristics similar to those

  5. Source-book of International Activities Related to the Development of Safety Cases for Deep Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    All national radioactive waste management authorities recognise today that a robust safety case is essential in developing disposal facilities for radioactive waste. To improve the robustness of the safety case for the development of a deep geological repository, a wide variety of activities have been carried out by national programs and international organisations over the past years. The Nuclear Energy Agency, since first introducing the modern concept of the 'safety case', has continued to monitor major developments in safety case activities at the international level. This Source-book summarises the activities being undertaken by the Nuclear Energy Agency, the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency concerning the safety case for the operational and post-closure phases of geological repositories for radioactive waste that ranges from low-level to high-level waste and for spent fuel. In doing so, it highlights important differences in focus among the three organisations

  6. Review of durability of cementitious engineered barriers in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, L.J.; Lawrence, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This report is concerned with the durability of cementitious engineered barriers in a repository for low and intermediate level nuclear waste. Following the introduction the second section of the review identifies the environmental conditions associated with a deep, hard rock repository for ILW and LLW that are relevant to the durability of cementitious barriers. Section three examines the microstructure and macrostructure of cementitious materials and considers the physical and chemical processes of radionuclide immobilization. Potential repository applications and compositions of cementitious materials are reviewed in Section four. The main analysis of durability is dealt with in Section five. The different types of cementitious barrier are considered separately and their most probable modes of degradation are analysed. Concluding remarks that highlight critical technical matters are given in Section six. (author)

  7. Results From an International Simulation Study on Coupled Thermal, Hydrological, and Mechanical (THM) Processes Near Geological Nuclear Waste Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Rutqvist; D. Barr; J.T. Birkholzer; M. Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; C. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing international DECOVALEX project, four research teams used five different models to simulate coupled thermal, hydrological, and mechanical (THM) processes near waste emplacement drifts of geological nuclear waste repositories. The simulations were conducted for two generic repository types, one with open and the other with back-filled repository drifts, under higher and lower postclosure temperatures, respectively. In the completed first model inception phase of the project, a good agreement was achieved between the research teams in calculating THM responses for both repository types, although some disagreement in hydrological responses is currently being resolved. In particular, good agreement in the basic thermal-mechanical responses was achieved for both repository types, even though some teams used relatively simplified thermal-elastic heat-conduction models that neglected complex near-field thermal-hydrological processes. The good agreement between the complex and simplified process models indicates that the basic thermal-mechanical responses can be predicted with a relatively high confidence level

  8. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 8. Repository preconceptual design studies: salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 8 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/9, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Salt.''

  9. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 10. Repository preconceptual design studies: granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 10 ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in granite. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/11, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Granite.''

  10. Application of Ga-Al discrimination plots in identification of high strength granitic host rocks for deep geological repository of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.; Narayan, P.K.; Trivedi, R.K.; Purohit, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    The permanent disposal of vitrified high level wastes and in some cases even spent fuel, is being planned in specifically designed and built deep geological repository located in the depth range of 500-600m in appropriate host rock at carefully selected sites. Such facilities are expected to provide very long term isolation and confinement to the disposed waste by means of long term mechanical stability of such structures that results from very high strength and homogeneity of the chosen rock, geochemical compatible environment around the disposed waste and general lack of groundwater. In Indian geological repository development programme, granites have been selected as target host rock and large scale characterization studies have been undertaken to develop database of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and rock mechanical characteristics. The paper proposes a new approach for demarcation of high strength homogeneous granite rocks from within an area of about 100 square kilometres wherein a cocktail of granites of different origins with varying rock mass characteristics co exists. The study area is characterised by the presence of A, S and I type granites toughly intermixed. The S type granites are derived from sedimentary parent material and therefore carry relics of parent fabric and at times undigested material with resultant reduction in their strength and increased inhomogeneity. On the other hand I type varieties are derived from igneous parents and are more homogeneous with sufficient strength. The A type granites are emplaced as molten mass in a complete non-tectonic setting with resultant homogeneous compositions, absence of tectonic fabric and very high strength. Besides they are silica rich with less vulnerability to alterations with time. Thus A type granites are most suited for construction of Deep Geological Repository. For developing a geochemical approach for establishing relation between chemical compositions and rock strength parameters, a

  11. Generic description of facilities at the shaft head (auxiliary entrance installations) of deep geological repositories; Generische Beschreibung von Schachtkopfanlagen (Nebenzugangsanlagen) geologischer Tiefenlager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-10-15

    In a deep geological repository, the access structures function as the link between the surface and the installations and structures at the disposal level. In the planned implementation scenarios, at least two access structures will be in operation up to the time of closure of the repository. The radioactive waste will be transported via the main access from the surface to the disposal level during emplacement operations. For the construction and operation of a deep geological repository, additional access structures are required. These auxiliary accesses and the associated surface infrastructure (e.g. shaft head installations) form the subject of this report. To provide as broad and comprehensive a description as possible, seven types of auxiliary access facilities are defined; these are characterised in line with the current status of planning and their functions and impacts are described. During construction, operation and dismantling of auxiliary access facilities, the usual conventional safety measures (inter alia) have to be observed (e.g. groundwater protection, fire prevention, facility security, accident prevention). Regarding the 'Ordinance on Protection against Major Accidents' no large quantities of hazardous materials, i.e. above the corresponding threshold quantities, are to be expected in the auxiliary access facilities. Proper handling and compliance with applicable regulations in all phases will ensure no hazard to humans and the environment. As no handling of radioactive materials is foreseen in the auxiliary access facilities, and because exhaust air and waste water from the controlled zones of a repository will, in principle, be removed via the main access and not the auxiliary accesses, a safety-relevant emission of radioactive substances and transport of contaminated material can be ruled out for the auxiliary access facilities during both normal operation and also in the case of an accident. Based on the information presented in

  12. Shales and geological waste repositories: from microstructure description to macro-scale properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournassat, C.; Steefel, C. I.; Gaboreau, S.

    2017-12-01

    The mineralogical and chemical properties of clays have been the subject of longstanding study for the long-term disposal of nuclear wastes in geological repositories. The low permeability of clay materials, including shales, provides at least part of the safety functions for radionuclide contaminants confinement. From a geochemical and mineralogical point of view, the high adsorption capacity of clay minerals adds to the effect of low hydraulic conductivities by greatly increasing the retardation of radionuclides and other contaminants, making clays ideal where isolation from the biosphere is desired. While their low permeability and high adsorption capacity are widely acknowledged, it is clear nonetheless that there is a need for an improved understanding of how the chemical and mineralogical properties of shales impact their macroscopic properties. It is at the pore-scale that the chemical properties of clay minerals become important since their electrostatic properties can play a large role. The negative electrostatic potential field at the clay mineral surfaces results in the presence of porosity domains where electroneutrality is not achieved: cations are attracted by the surfaces while anions are repulsed from them, resulting in the presence of a diffuse ion swarm - or diffuse layer. Numerical methods for modeling macroscopic properties of clay media with the consideration of the presence of a diffuse ion swarm have met a growing interest in diverse communities in the past years. In this presentation we will highlight the complex interplays of mineralogical, chemical and microstructural characteristics of clay materials that are ultimately responsible for a remarkable array of macro-scale properties such as specific adsorption, high swelling pressure, semi-permeable membrane properties, and non-Fickian diffusional behavior.

  13. Methodology for the biosphere analysis in the evaluation of deep geological repositories for high radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Pinedo, P.; Aguero, A.; Simon, I.; Torres, C.; Robles, B.; Smith, G.M.; Little, R.; Watkings, B.; Brice, A.; Jaen, J.A.; Coronado, S.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overal R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropiate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and proactical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better proactical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methologoy. This Methodology is widely based on an international working group on Reference Biospheres part national work for ENRESA has been supported under a collaborative agreement with QuantiSci Ltd. Specific software development have been carried out in collaboration with QuantiSci Ltd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. Most of the items included within the Methodology and moreover the Methodology as a whole, follows a continuos progressive development. It is increasinaly recognized that assessment capabilities, establisment of safety criteria and regulatory framework and the steps in a

  14. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O' Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  15. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain

  16. Modeling The Inhalation Exposure Pathway In Performance Assessment Of Geologic Radioactive Waste Repository At Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2006-01-01

    Inhalation exposure pathway modeling has recently been investigated as one of the tasks of the BIOPROTA Project (BIOPROTA 2005). BIOPROTA was set up to address the key uncertainties in long term assessments of contaminant releases into the environment arising from radioactive waste disposal. Participants of this international Project include national authorities and agencies, both regulators and operators, with responsibility for achieving safe and acceptable radioactive waste management. The objective of the inhalation task was to investigate the calculation of doses arising from inhalation of particles suspended from soils within which long-lived radionuclides, particularly alpha emitters, had accumulated. It was recognized that site-specific conditions influence the choice of conceptual model and input parameter values. Therefore, one of the goals of the task was to identify the circumstances in which different processes included in specific inhalation exposure pathway models were important. This paper discusses evaluation of processes and modeling assumptions specific to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain as compared to the typical approaches and other models developed for different assessments and project specific contexts. Inhalation of suspended particulates that originate from contaminated soil is an important exposure pathway, particularly for exposure to actinides such as uranium, neptunium and plutonium. Radionuclide accumulation in surface soil arises from irrigation of soil with contaminated water over many years. The level of radionuclide concentration in surface soil depends on the assumed duration of irrigation. Irrigation duration is one of the parameters used on biosphere models and it depends on a specific assessment context. It is one of the parameters addressed in this paper from the point of view of assessment context for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. The preferred model for the assessment of inhalation exposure uses

  17. Technical expertise on the safety of the proposed geological repository sites. Planning for geological deep repositories, step 1; Sicherheitstechnisches Gutachten zum Vorschlag geologischer Standortgebiete. Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager, Etappe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    On October 17, 2010, on request of those Swiss government institutions responsible for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the National Co-operative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) presented its project concerning geological sites for the foreseen disposal of radioactive wastes to the Federal Authorities. According to the present disposal concept, two types of repository are foreseen: one for highly radioactive wastes (HAA) and the other for low radioactive and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (SMA). If a site fulfils the necessary conditions for both HAA as well as for SMA, a combined site for both types of waste may be chosen. As a qualified control authority in Switzerland, the Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has to examine the quality of the NAGRA proposals from the point of view of the nuclear safety of the sites. The project for deep underground waste disposal first defines the process and the criteria according to which sites for the geological storage of all types of radioactive wastes in Switzerland have to be chosen. The choice is based on the actual knowledge of Swiss geology. After dividing the wastes into SMA and HAA, some large-scale areas are to be identified according to their suitability from the geological and tectonic points of view. NAGRA's division of waste into SMA and HAA is based on calculations of the long-term safety for a broad range of different rock types and geological situations and takes the different properties of all waste types into account. As a conclusion, a small portion of SMA has to be stored with {alpha}-toxic wastes in the HAA repository. The estimation of the total volume of wastes to be stored is based on 60 years of operation of the actual nuclear power plants, augmented with the wastes from possible replacement plants with a total power of 5 GW{sub e} during a further 60 years. The safety concept of the repository is based on passive systems using technical and natural barriers. The

  18. Environmental and health impacts of February 14, 2014 radiation release from the nation's only deep geologic nuclear waste repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P; Lemons, B G; Ballard, S; Hardy, R

    2015-08-01

    The environmental impact of the February 14, 2014 radiation release from the nation's only deep geologic nuclear waste repository, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was assessed using monitoring data from an independent monitoring program conducted by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC). After almost 15 years of safe and efficient operations, the WIPP had one of its waste drums rupture underground resulting in the release of moderate levels of radioactivity into the underground air. A small amount of radioactivity also escaped to the surface through the ventilation system and was detected above ground. It was the first unambiguous release from the WIPP repository. The dominant radionuclides released were americium and plutonium, in a ratio that matches the content of the breached drum. The accelerated air monitoring campaign, which began following the accident, indicates that releases were low and localized, and no radiation-related health effects among local workers or the public would be expected. The highest activity detected was 115.2 μBq/m(3) for (241)Am and 10.2 μBq/m(3) for (239+240)Pu at a sampling station located 91 m away from the underground air exhaust point and 81.4 μBq/m(3) of (241)Am and 5.8 μBq/m(3) of (239+240)Pu at a monitoring station located approximately one kilometer northwest of the WIPP facility. CEMRC's recent monitoring data show that the concentration levels of these radionuclides have returned to normal background levels and in many instances, are not even detectable, demonstrating no long-term environmental impacts of the recent radiation release event at the WIPP. This article presents an evaluation of almost one year of environmental monitoring data that informed the public that the levels of radiation that got out to the environment were very low and did not, and will not harm anyone or have any long-term environmental consequence. In terms of radiological risk at or in the vicinity of the

  19. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada--hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  20. Characterizing the proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: hydrology and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, John S.; Levich, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This hydrology and geochemistry volume is a companion volume to the 2007 Geological Society of America Memoir 199, The Geology and Climatology of Yucca Mountain and Vicinity, Southern Nevada and California, edited by Stuckless and Levich. The work in both volumes was originally reported in the U.S. Department of Energy regulatory document Yucca Mountain Site Description, for the site characterization study of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the proposed U.S. geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. The selection of Yucca Mountain resulted from a nationwide search and numerous committee studies during a period of more than 40 yr. The waste, largely from commercial nuclear power reactors and the government's nuclear weapons programs, is characterized by intense penetrating radiation and high heat production, and, therefore, it must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. The extensive, unique, and often innovative geoscience investigations conducted at Yucca Mountain for more than 20 yr make it one of the most thoroughly studied geologic features on Earth. The results of these investigations contribute extensive knowledge to the hydrologic and geochemical aspects of radioactive waste disposal in the unsaturated zone. The science, analyses, and interpretations are important not only to Yucca Mountain, but also to the assessment of other sites or alternative processes that may be considered for waste disposal in the future. Groundwater conditions, processes, and geochemistry, especially in combination with the heat from radionuclide decay, are integral to the ability of a repository to isolate waste. Hydrology and geochemistry are discussed here in chapters on unsaturated zone hydrology, saturated zone hydrology, paleohydrology, hydrochemistry, radionuclide transport, and thermally driven coupled processes affecting long-term waste isolation. This introductory chapter reviews some of the reasons for choosing to study Yucca Mountain as a

  1. Staff technical position on investigations to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, K.I.; Blackford, M.E.; Ibrahim, A.K.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this Staff Technical Position (STP) is to provide guidance to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on acceptable geologic repository investigations that can be used to identify fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards. ne staff considers that the approach this STP takes to investigations of fault displacement and seismic phenomena is appropriate for the collection of sufficient data for input to analyses of fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards, both for the preclosure and postclosure performance periods. However, detailed analyses of fault displacement and seismic data, such as those required for comprehensive assessments of repository performance, may identify the need for additional investigations. Section 2.0 of this STP describes the 10 CFR Part 60 requirements that form the basis for investigations to describe fault displacement hazards and seismic hazards at a geologic repository. Technical position statements and corresponding discussions are presented in Sections 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. Technical position topics in this STP are categorized thusly: (1) investigation considerations, (2) investigations for fault-displacement hazards, and (3) investigations for seismic hazards

  2. Modelling of radionuclide releases from the near field of the geological repository in crystalline rocks for RBMK-1500 spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazauskaite, A.; Poskas, P.

    2006-01-01

    During 2002-2005 the assessment of possibilities for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in Lithuania was performed with support of Swedish experts. Potential geological formations for disposal of SNF were selected, disposal concept was developed and preliminary generic safety assessment was performed. Performing safety assessment the analysis of radionuclides migration from the repository as well as their impact to human and environment were also very important issues. In this paper results on the analysis of the radionuclide releases from the near field of the geological repository for RBMK-1500 SNF in crystalline rocks in Lithuania are presented. Radionuclide migration in the near field region was assessed using computer code COMPULINK7 (SKB, Sweden) The results of analysis show that most of safety relevant radionuclides of RBMK-1500 SNF are effectively retarded in the near field region. The release is dominated by 129 I and 59 Ni firstly while after app. 50 thousand years 226 Ra is dominating. The sensitivity analysis was also performed for the parameters that have direct influence on releases. (author)

  3. Addressing issues raised by stakeholders in the development of a deep geological repository in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumberova, Vera

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) is to ensure the safe disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste. In order to fulfil this task RAWRA, in addition to the operation of radioactive waste repositories in the Czech Republic, coordinates all those activities relating to the construction of a deep geological repository. This long-term goal implies first creating and then building upon the public's confidence in the decision making process and the project as a whole as well as in RAWRA as a competent and efficient implementer since clearly public acceptance is an essential condition for a successful final outcome. Since its establishment in 1997 RAWRA has been looking for ways in which to inform the public about its activities and how to involve the various stakeholders in the development process. The communication tools employed to achieve this goal have, to date, depended on the specific stage of the process but RAWRA has aimed at a continuous improvement in its activities; consequently a large number of changes have been made to RAWRA's policy and approach in recent years. This paper, which aims to describe RAWRA's dialogue with stakeholders (mainly local communities), provides examples of the way in which issues raised by stakeholders concerning a repository are reflected in RAWRA's approach. (author)

  4. Redox processes in the safety case of deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes. Contribution of the European RECOSY Collaborative Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, L.; Bruno, J.; Grivé, M.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.; Altmaier, M.; Buckau, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The RECOSY project produced results relevant for the Safety Case of nuclear disposal. • We classify the safety related features where RECOSY has contributed. • Redox processes effect the retention of radionuclides in all repository subsystems. - Abstract: Redox processes influence key geochemical characteristics controlling radionuclide behaviour in the near and far field of a nuclear waste repository. A sound understanding of redox related processes is therefore of high importance for developing a Safety Case, the collection of scientific, technical, administrative and managerial arguments and evidence in support of the safety of a disposal facility. This manuscript presents the contribution of the specific research on redox processes achieved within the EURATOM Collaborative Project RECOSY (REdox phenomena COntrolling SYstems) to the Safety Case of nuclear waste disposal facilities. Main objectives of RECOSY were related to the improved understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release or retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to Performance Assessment and the Safety Case. The research developed during the project covered aspects of the near-field and the far-field aspects of the repository, including studies relevant for the rock formations considered in Europe as suitable for hosting an underground repository for radioactive wastes. It is the intention of this paper to highlight in which way the results obtained from RECOSY can feed the scientific process understanding needed for the stepwise development of the Safety Case associated with deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

  5. Propagation of a hyperalkaline plume into the geological barrier surrounding a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtner, P.C.; Eikenberg, J.

    1995-01-01

    A coupled geochemical transport model (MPATH) which includes chemical reaction kinetics is used to evaluate the alteration of Swiss argillaceous sediments in a high-pH environment and to predict the spatial propagation of the hyperalkaline plume with time. The calculations predict dissolution of quartz, clay minerals and chlorite, and precipitation of zeolite minerals such as analcime and natrolite as well as he feldspars K-feldspar and albite. In addition, Portland cement-hydrates such as calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates, ettringite and friedel-salt are also predicted to form, depending on the composition of the inlet fluid and the host rock. The dissolution of clay minerals reduces the pH of the hyperalkaline plume to levels between approximately 8 and 10, depending on the composition of the inlet fluid and the host rock. For pure advective transport through porous medium, neglecting changes in porosity and permeability, the migration velocity of the high-pH front is calculated to be approximately one to two orders of magnitude less than that of the infiltrating groundwater. However, due to precipitation of secondary phases, in the present model concept a rapid decrease in porosity of the marl occurs several meters from the repository. At the interface between the marl host rock and cement the porosity increases as a consequence of the low silica concentration of the cement pore fluid. (author) 10 figs., 7 tabs., refs

  6. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs

  7. Using geologic conditions and multiattribute decision analysis to determine the relative favorability of selected areas for siting a high-level radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Edgar, D.E.; Baker, C.H.; Buehring, W.A.; Whitfield, R.G.; Van Luik, A.E.J.; Sood, M.K.; Flower, M.F.J.; Warren, M.F.; Jusko, M.J.; Peerenboom, J.P.; Bogner, J.E.

    1988-05-01

    A method is presented for determining the relative favorability of geologically complex areas for isolating high-level radioactive wastes. In applying the method to the northeastern region of the United States, seismicity and tectonic activity were the screening criteria used to divide the region into three areas of increasing seismotectonic risk. Criteria were then used to subdivide the area of lowest seismotectonic risk into six geologically distinct subareas including characteristics, surface-water and groundwater hydrology, potential human intrusion, site geometry, surface characteristics, and tectonic environment. Decision analysis was then used to identify the subareas most favorable from a geologic standpoint for further investigation, with a view to selecting a site for a repository. Three subareas (parts of northeastern Vermont, northern New Hampshire, and western Maine) were found to be the most favorable, using this method and existing data. However, because this study assessed relative geologic favorability, no conclusions should be drawn concerning the absolute suitability of individual subareas for high-level radioactive waste isolation. 34 refs., 7 figs., 20 tabs.

  8. Geology and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitchenkov, German L; Antonov, Anton V; Luneov, Pavel I; Lipenkov, Vladimir Ya

    2016-01-28

    The reconstruction of the geological (tectonic) structure and environments of subglacial Lake Vostok is based on geophysical surveys and the study of mineral particles found in cores of accreted ice and frozen lake water (sampled after the lake was unsealed). Seismic reflection and refraction investigations conducted in the southern part of Lake Vostok show very thin (200-300 m) sedimentary cover overlying a crystalline basement. Most of this thin veneer is thought to have been deposited during temperate-glacial conditions in Oligocene to Middle Miocene time (ca 34-14 Ma). The composition of the lake-bottom sediments can be deduced from mineral inclusions found in cores of accreted ice. Inclusions are represented by soft aggregates consisting mainly of clay-mica minerals and micrometre-sized quartz grains. Some of these inclusions contain subangular to semi-rounded rock clasts (siltstones and sandstones) ranging from 0.3 to 8 mm in size. In total, 31 zircon grains have been identified in two rock clasts and dated using SHRIMP-II. The ages of the studied zircons range from 0.6 to 2.0 Ga with two distinct clusters between 0.8 and 1.15 Ga and between 1.6 and 1.8 Ga. Rock clasts obviously came from the western lake shore, which is thus composed of terrigenous strata with an age of not older than 600 Ma. The sedimentary nature of the western lake shore is also confirmed by seismic refraction data showing seismic velocities there of 5.4-5.5 km s(-1) at the bedrock surface. After Lake Vostok was unsealed, its water (frozen and sampled next season) was also studied with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microprobe analysis. This study showed the existence of calcium carbonate and silica microparticles (10-20 μm across) in frozen water. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Technical elements for the performance assessment of a high-level waste geologic repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, William Bradley

    Techniques for predicting various performance elements of a high level radioactive waste repository are developed and demonstrated. In the unsaturated Yucca Mountain repository site gaseous radionuclides traveling through open fractures will be retarded by absorption into pore-bound liquid. For small values of the modified Peclet number the fractured porous medium can be modeled as an equivalent continuum as demonstrated by discrete fracture analysis. The travel time for C-14(O2) from failed containers to the accessible environment is predicted to be hundreds to thousands of years and doses from above ground concentrations to be much lower than background radiation at sea level. A spent fuel source term is developed for episodic flooding of a partially-failed container. Solubility-limited, congruent, preferential and alteration-rate based release modes are considered. Transport is by advection with the mostly-intact container being credited with effectively blocking diffusive pathways. The possible benefits of limited oxygen entry into the container is also discussed. Calculated releases in response to assumed major flooding episodes are comparable to those of wet-drip models. A weapons-plutonium glass waste form might be driven to supercriticality by a flooding episode in the distant future if neutron poisons are first washed away as shown by a preliminary hydrodynamics-coupled reactor model. Criticality is approached from the undermoderated side as water enters the degraded waste form. Point neutronics equations track the event through self-shutdown by water expulsion. Calculated event magnitudes are comparable to those of documented criticality accidents. The fundamental problem of diffusion from a circular disc source at constant concentration located in the boundary of a semi-infinite media is solved numerically using coordinate transformation, grid scaling, and intelligent finite difference algorithms. The resulting time-dependent mass-transfer rate is

  10. Geology and hydrogeology of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the surrounding area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, S.R.; Broxton, D.E.; Buono, A.; Crowe, B.M.; Orkild, P.P.

    1989-01-01

    In late 1987 Congress issued an amendment to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 which directed the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the only remaining potential site for the Nation's first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. The evaluation of a potential underground repository is guided and regulated by policy established by the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and the US Congress. The Yucca Mountain Project is the responsibility of the DOE. The purpose of this field trip is to introduce the present state of geologic and hydrologic knowledge concerning this site. This report describes the field trip. 108 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. Geology and hydrogeology of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and the surrounding area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, S.R.; Broxton, D.E.; Crowe, B.M.; Buono, A.; Orkild, P.P.

    1989-07-01

    In late 1987 Congress issued an amendment to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 which directed the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada as the only remaining potential site for the Nation`s first underground high-level radioactive waste repository. The evaluation of a potential underground repository is guided and regulated by policy established by the Department of Energy (DOE), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Department of Transportation (DOT), and the US Congress. The Yucca Mountain Project is the responsibility of the DOE. The purpose of this field trip is to introduce the present state of geologic and hydrologic knowledge concerning this site. This report describes the field trip. 108 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Vitrification treatment options for disposal of greater-than-Class-C low-level waste in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullmer, K.S.; Fish, L.W.; Fischer, D.K.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in keeping with their responsibility under Public Law 99-240, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, is investigating several disposal options for greater-than-Class C low-level waste (GTCC LLW), including emplacement in a deep geologic repository. At the present time vitrification, namely borosilicate glass, is the standard waste form assumed for high-level waste accepted into the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System. This report supports DOE's investigation of the deep geologic disposal option by comparing the vitrification treatments that are able to convert those GTCC LLWs that are inherently migratory into stable waste forms acceptable for disposal in a deep geologic repository. Eight vitrification treatments that utilize glass, glass ceramic, or basalt waste form matrices are identified. Six of these are discussed in detail, stating the advantages and limitations of each relative to their ability to immobilize GTCC LLW. The report concludes that the waste form most likely to provide the best composite of performance characteristics for GTCC process waste is Iron Enriched Basalt 4 (IEB4)

  13. Evaluation of the heat transfer in a geological repository concept containing PWR, VHTR and hybrid ads-fission spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonusan, Raoni A.S.; Pereira, Fernando; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Salome, Jean A.D.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-11-01

    The investigation of the thermal behavior of spent fuel (SF) materials is essential to determining appropriate potential sites to accommodate geological repositories as well as the design of canisters, considering their potential risk to people health and of environmental contamination. This work presents studies of the temperature in a canister containing spent fuels discharged from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Very High-Temperature Reactor (VHTR) and Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor System (ADS) reactor systems in a geological repository concept. The thermal analyses were performed with the software ANSYS, which is widely used to solve engineering problems through the Finite Element Method. The ANSYS Transient Thermal module was used. The spent nuclear fuels were set as heat sources using data of previous studies derived from decay heat curves. The studies were based on comparison of the mean temperature on a canister surface along the time under geological disposal conditions, for a same amount of each type of spent nuclear fuel evaluated. The results conclude that fuels from VHTR and ADS systems are inappropriate to be disposed in a standardized PWR canister, demanding new studies to determine the optimal amount of spent fuel and new internal canister geometries. It is also possible to conclude that the hypothetical situation of a single type of canister being used to accommodate different types of spent nuclear fuels is not technically feasible. (author)

  14. Mass transfer and transport in a geologic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1985-04-01

    This report is in a continuing series of reports that present analytic solutions for the dissolution and hydrogeologic transport of radionuclides from geologic repositories of nuclear waste. Previous reports have dealt mainly with radionuclide transport in the far-field, away from the effects of the repository. In the present report, the emphasis is on near-field processes, the transfer and transport of radionuclides in the vicinity of the waste packages. The primary tool used in these analyses is mass transfer theory from chemical engineering. The thrust of our work is to develop methods for predicting the performance of geologic repositories. The subjects treated in the present report are: radionuclide transport from a spherical-equivalent waste form through a backfill; analysis of radionuclide transport through a backfill using a non-linear sorption isotherm; radionuclide transport from a prolate spheroid-equivalent waste form with a backfill; radionuclide transport from a spherical-equivalent waste form through a backfill, where the solubility, diffusivity and retardation coefficients are temperature dependent; a coupled near-field, far-field analysis where dissolution and migration rates are temperature dependent; transport of radionuclides from a point source in a three-dimensional flow field; and a general solution for the transport of radioactive chains in geologic media. There are several important results from the numerical evaluations. First, radioactive decay, higher sorption in the rock and the backfill steepens the gradient for mass transfer, and lead to higher dissolution rates. This is contrary to what was expected by some other workers, but is shown clearly in the analytical solutions. Second, the backfill serves to provide sorption sites so that there is a delay in the arrival of radionuclides in the rock, although this effect is not so important for the steady-state transport of long-lived radionuclides

  15. Cost Comparison for the Transfer of Select Calcined Waste Canisters to the Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael B. Heiser; Clark B. Millet

    2005-01-01

    This report performs a life-cycle cost comparison of three proposed canister designs for the shipment and disposition of Idaho National Laboratory high-level calcined waste currently in storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center to the proposed national monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concept A (2 x 10-ft) and Concept B (2 x 15-ft) canisters are comparable in design, but they differ in size and waste loading options and vary proportionally in weight. The Concept C (5.5 x 17.5-ft) canister (also called the ''super canister''), while similar in design to the other canisters, is considerably larger and heavier than Concept A and B canisters and has a greater wall thickness. This report includes estimating the unique life-cycle costs for the three canister designs. Unique life-cycle costs include elements such as canister purchase and filling at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, cask preparation and roundtrip consignment costs, final disposition in the monitored geologic repository (including canister off-loading and placement in the final waste disposal package for disposition), and cask purchase. Packaging of the calcine ''as-is'' would save $2.9 to $3.9 billion over direct vitrification disposal in the proposed national monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Using the larger Concept C canisters would use 0.75 mi less of tunnel space, cost $1.3 billion less than 10-ft canisters of Concept A, and would be complete in 6.2 years

  16. Role of waste packages in the safety of a high level waste repository in a deep geological formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretheau, F.; Lewi, J.

    1990-06-01

    The safety of a radioactive waste disposal facility lays on the three following barriers placed between the radioactive materials and the biosphere: the waste package; the engineered barriers; the geological barrier. The function assigned to each of these barriers in the performance assessment is an option taken by the organization responsible for waste disposal management (ANDRA in France), which must show that: expected performances of each barrier (confinement ability, life-time, etc.) are at least equal to those required to fulfill the assigned function; radiation protection requirements are met in all situations considered as credible, whether they be the normal situation or random event situations. The French waste management strategy is based upon two types of disposal depending on the nature and activity of waste packages: - surface disposal intended for low and medium level wastes having half-lives of about 30 years or less and alpha activity less than 3.7 MBq/kg (0.1 Ci/t), for individual packages and less than 0.37 MBq/kg (0.01 Ci/t) in the average. Deep geological disposal intended for TRU and high level wastes. The conditions of acceptance of packages in a surface disposal site are subject to the two fundamental safety rules no. I.2 and III.2.e. The present paper is only dealing with deep geological disposal. For deep geological repositories, three stages are involved: stage preceding definitive disposal (intermediate storage, transportation, handling, setting up in the disposal cavities); stage subsequent to definitive sealing of the disposal cavities but prior to the end of operation of the repository; stage subsequent to closure of the repository. The role of the geological barrier has been determined as the essential part of long term radioactivity confinement, by a working group, set up by the French safety authorities. Essential technical criteria relating to the choice of a site so defined by this group, are the following: very low permeability

  17. Status of LANL investigations of temperature constraints on clay in repository environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporuscio, Florie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheshire, Michael C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newell, Dennis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarney, Mary Kate [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign is presently evaluating various generic options for disposal of used fuel. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize and bound Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) conditions in high heat load repositories. The UFD now has the ability to evaluate multiple EBS materials, waste containers, and rock types at higher heat loads and pressures (including deep boreholes). The geologic conditions now available to the U.S.A. and the international community for repositories include saturated and reduced water conditions, along with higher pressure and temperature (P, T) regimes. Chemical and structural changes to the clays, in either backfill/buffer or clay-rich host rock, may have significant effects on repository evolution. Reduction of smectite expansion capacity and rehydration potential due to heating could affect the isolation provided by EBS. Processes such as cementation by silica precipitation and authigenic illite could change the hydraulic and mechanical properties of clay-rich materials. Experimental studies of these repository conditions at high P,T have not been performed in the U.S. for decades and little has been done by the international community at high P,T. The experiments to be performed by LANL will focus on the importance of repository chemical and mineralogical conditions at elevated P,T conditions. This will provide input to the assessment of scientific basis for elevating the temperature limits in clay barriers.

  18. Status of LANL investigations of temperature constraints on clay in repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporuscio, Florie A.; Cheshire, Michael C.; Newell, Dennis L.; McCarney, Mary Kate

    2012-01-01

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign is presently evaluating various generic options for disposal of used fuel. The focus of this experimental work is to characterize and bound Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) conditions in high heat load repositories. The UFD now has the ability to evaluate multiple EBS materials, waste containers, and rock types at higher heat loads and pressures (including deep boreholes). The geologic conditions now available to the U.S.A. and the international community for repositories include saturated and reduced water conditions, along with higher pressure and temperature (P, T) regimes. Chemical and structural changes to the clays, in either backfill/buffer or clay-rich host rock, may have significant effects on repository evolution. Reduction of smectite expansion capacity and rehydration potential due to heating could affect the isolation provided by EBS. Processes such as cementation by silica precipitation and authigenic illite could change the hydraulic and mechanical properties of clay-rich materials. Experimental studies of these repository conditions at high P,T have not been performed in the U.S. for decades and little has been done by the international community at high P,T. The experiments to be performed by LANL will focus on the importance of repository chemical and mineralogical conditions at elevated P,T conditions. This will provide input to the assessment of scientific basis for elevating the temperature limits in clay barriers.

  19. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 12. Repository preconceptual design studies: shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in shale. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area, and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/13, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Shale.''

  20. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 14. Repository preconceptual design studies: basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in basalt. The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/15, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: Basalt.''

  1. Investigation on repository layouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanai, Kenji [Tokai, Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Iwasa, Kengo; Hasegawa, Hiroshi [Head Office, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Gouke, Mitsuo; Horita, Masakuni [Shimizu Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Noda, Masaru [Ohbayashi Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    This report consists of three items : (1) Study of the repository configuration, (2) Study of the surface facilities configuration for construction, operation and backfilling, (3) Planning schedule. In the repository configuration, the basic factors influencing the design of the repository configuration are presented, and the results of studies of various possible repository configurations are presented for both hard and soft rock systems. Here, the minimum conditions regarding geological environment required to guide design are assumed, because it is difficult to determine the repository configuration without considering specific conditions of a disposal site. In the surface facility configuration, it is illustrated based on the results of construction, operation, backfilling studies for underground disposal facility and EIS report of CANADA. In the schedule, the overall schedule corresponding to the repository layout is outlined in link with the milestone of disposal schedule set forth in the government's basic policy. The assumptions and the basic conditions are summarized to examine the General Schedule from start of construction to closure of a repository. This summary is based on the technologies to be used for construction, operation and closure of a repository. The basic national policies form the framework for this review of the general schedule. (author)

  2. Proposed format and content of environmental reports for deep geologic terminal repositories for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrell, D.J.; Jones, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    As the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has not yet issued a format guide for the preparation of an environmental impact statement for radioactive waste repositories, Rockwell Hanford operations has developed an annotated outline which will serve as the basis for the environmental evaluation activities until replaced by an appropriate NRC regulatory guide. According to the outline, the applicant should summarize the major environmental effects that are expected to occur during the construction, operation, and terminal isolation phases of the radioactive material repository. Compare these environmental effects with the possible effect of continued use of interim storage facilities. Unless unforeseen environmental effects become apparent, the summary should be a positive statement indicating that the short-term environmental effects are outweighed by the long-term benefits of the repository

  3. Fundamental aspects of stress corrosion cracking of copper relevant to the Swedish deep geologic repository concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskaran, Ganesh; Carcea, Anatolie; Ulaganathan, Jagan; Wang, Shengchun; Huang, Yin; Newman, Roger C. [Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Univ. of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-03-15

    Phosphorus-doped oxygen-free copper will be used as the outer barrier in canisters that will contain spent nuclear fuel in the proposed Swedish underground repository. The possibility of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a concern, in view of isolated reports of cracking or intergranular corrosion of pure copper in sulfide solutions. This concern was addressed in the present work using copper tensile specimens provided by SKB. Methods included slow strain rate testing, constant strain tensile testing, electrochemical and surface analytical studies of corrosion products, and electron backscatter diffraction analysis of grain orientation effects on corrosion. The base solutions were prepared from NaCl or synthetic sea water with addition of varying amounts of sodium sulfide at room temperature and 80 degree Celsius. No SCC was found in any of the testing, for a range of sulfide concentrations from 5-50 mM at room temperature or 8 C, including tests where small anodic or cathodic potential displacements were applied from the open-circuit (corrosion) potential. Neither was SCC found in constant-strain immersion testing with very large strain. The Cu2S corrosion product is generally very coarse, fragile, and easily spalled off in severe corrosion environments, i.e. high sulfide concentration, high temperature, less perfect de aeration, etc. But it could also consist of very fine grains, relatively compact and adherent, on particular grain orientations when it was formed on an electro polished surface in a very well-deaerated solution. These orientations have not yet been identified statistically, although some preference for thin, adherent films was noted on orientations close to (100). The notion that the corrosion reaction is always controlled by inward aqueous-phase diffusion of sulfide may thus not be unconditionally correct for this range of sulfide concentrations; however it is hard to distinguish the role of diffusion within pores in the film. In the actual

  4. Technical position on items and activities in the high-level waste geologic repository program subject to quality assurance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.B.; Bilhorn, S.G.; Kennedy, J.E.

    1988-04-01

    This document provides guidance on how to identify items and activities subject to Quality Assurance in the high-level nuclear waste repository program for pre-closure and post-closure phases of the repository. In the pre-closure phase, structures, systems and components essential to the prevention or mitigation of an accident that could result in an off-site radiation dose of 0.5rem or greater are termed ''important to safety''. In the post-closure phase, the barriers which are relied on to meet the containment and isolation requirements are defined as ''important to waste isolation''. These structures, systems, components, and barriers, and the activities related to their characterization, design, construction, and operation are required to meet quality assurance (QA) criteria to provide confidence in the performance of the geologic repository. The list of structures, systems, and components important to safety and engineered barriers important to waste isolation is referred to as the ''Q-List'' and lies within the scope of the QA program. 10 refs

  5. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  6. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 22. Nuclear considerations for repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/22, ''Nuclear Considerations for Repository Design,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. Included in this volume are baseline design considerations such as characteristics of canisters, drums, casks, overpacks, and shipping containers; maximum allowable and actual decay-heat levels; and canister radiation levels. Other topics include safeguard and protection considerations; occupational radiation exposure including ALARA programs; shielding of canisters, transporters and forklift trucks; monitoring considerations; mine water treatment; canister integrity; and criticality calculations

  7. The use of laboratory adsorption data and models to predict radionuclide releases from a geological repository: A brief history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmuir, D.

    1997-01-01

    Radionuclide (RN) adsorption has long been recognized as important to assure the isolation of nuclear wastes in a geological repository. Laboratory measured RN adsorption data have generally been expressed as distribution coefficient (K d ) values or adsorption isotherms. The surface complexation (SC) adsorption models were introduced in the late 1970''s. The best known of these models incorporate electrical double layer (EDL) theory. Their use requires that the water chemistry and surface properties of adsorbing rocks and minerals be fully characterized. Because the SC models are relatively mechanistic, they may allow extrapolation of adsorption results to repository conditions that lie outside the limited experimental range used to parameterize a given model. Turner has shown that the diffuse layer model (the simplest SC model) fits a wide range of RN adsorption data as well as the more complex models. Others have suggested ways to generalize and estimate SC model parameters for a variety of minerals, rocks and engineered materials. Degueldre and Werlni and Degueldre et al. have proposed a simplified SC model for RN adsorption that avoids EDL theory, in which the adsorption of RN species is estimated from linear free energy relationships. It is appropriate to ask how accurately RN adsorption behavior must be known or understood for total system performance analysis (TSPA). In most geological settings now being considered for repository development globally, it may suffice to select bounding K d values for the different rock types. Use of the SC models to describe RN adsorption can provide one with increased confidence that minimum K d ''s and the distribution of K d values the author might propose for TSPA are in fact conservative. 68 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Proposed format and content of license applications for deep geologic terminal repositories for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following: introduction and general description; summary safety analysis; site characteristics; principal design criteria; repository design; operations systems; management of onsite generated waste; radiation protection; accident safety analysis; conduct of operations; operating controls and limits; and quality assurance

  9. Effects of shield brine on the safe disposal of waste in deep geologic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.-J.; Sudicky, E. A.; Sykes, J. F.

    2009-08-01

    The salinity of groundwater increases with depth in the Canadian Shield (up to 1.3 kg/L of density). The existence of brine can be critically important for the safe geologic disposal of radioactive wastes, as dense brine can significantly retard the upward migration of radionuclides released from repositories. Static and flushing conditions of the deep brine are analyzed using a U-tube analogy model. Velocity reduction due to the presence of dense brine is derived under flushing conditions. A set of illustrative numerical simulations in a two-dimensional cross section is presented to demonstrate that dense brine can significantly influence regional groundwater flow patterns in a shield environment. It is implied from the results that (1) the existence of Shield brine can be an indicator of a hydrogeologically stable environment, (2) activities near ground surface may not perturb the stable groundwater environment in the deep brine region, and thus, (3) the deep brine region can be considered as a candidate geologic site for the safe disposal of waste. In addition to brine, other issues associated with long-term waste disposal, such as geological, glacial and seismic events, may need to be considered for the safe storage of spent nuclear fuel in a shield environment.

  10. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  11. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

  12. Development Support Environment of Business ApplicationsBased on a Multi-Grain-Size Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Koichi; Izumi, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Takahira

    In order to build the Web-based application as a shopping site on the Web, various ideas from the different viewpoints are required, such as enterprise modeling, workflow modeling, software development, and so on. From the above standpoint, this paper proposes an integrated environment to support the whole development process of analysis, design and implementation of business application. In order to reuse know-hows of various ideas in the business application development, we device a multi-grain-size repository, which consists of coarse-, middle-, and fine-grain-size repositories that correspond to the enterprise models, workflow models, and software models, respectively. We also provide a methodology that rebuilds heterogeneous information resources required for the business applications development into a multi-grain-size repository based on ontologies. The contents of the repositories are modeled by the is-a, has-a, and E-R relations, and described by the XML language. We have implemented Java-based prototype environment with the tools dealing with the multi-layered repository and confirmed that it supports us in various phases of business application development including business model manifestation, detailed business model definition and an implementation of business software applications.

  13. Carbon-14 speciation during anoxic corrosion of activated steel in a repository environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E.; Cvetkovic, B.Z.; Kunz, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Waste Management; Salazar, G.; Szidat, S. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research

    2018-01-15

    Radioactive waste contains significant amounts of {sup 14}C which has been identified a key radionuclide in safety assessments. In Switzerland, the {sup 14}C inventory of a cement-based repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (L/ILW) is mainly associated with activated steel (∝85 %). {sup 14}C is produced by {sup 14}N activation in steel parts exposed to thermal neutron flux in light water reactors. Release of {sup 14}C occurs in the near field of a deep geological repository due to anoxic corrosion of activated steel. Although the {sup 14}C inventory of the L/ILW repository and the sources of {sup 14}C are well known, the formation of {sup 14}C species during steel corrosion is only poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify the {sup 14}C-bearing carbon species formed during the anoxic corrosion of iron and steel and further to determine the {sup 14}C speciation in a corrosion experiment with activated steel. All experiments were conducted in conditions similar to those anticipated in the near field of a cement-based repository.

  14. Embedding an Integrated Learning Environment and Digital Repository in Design Engineering Education: Lessons Learned for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Caroline; Nicol, David; Grierson, Hilary; Wodehouse, Andrew; Juster, Neal; Ion, William

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes how a system comprising a learning environment and digital repository is being embedded into the teaching and learning of Design Engineering at the University of Strathclyde. It then maps out the issues that have been encountered, how these have been overcome and how other departments or institutions would be affected if they…

  15. Development and implementation of an institutional repository within a Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, Adèle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available , alternatively, publishing of research articles in open-access journals. The purpose of an Institutional Repository (IR) is to provide a suitable archival environment for the self-archiving of digital items. This paper provides an understanding of the complexity...

  16. Radioactive waste disposal programme and siting regions for geological deep repositories. Executive summary. November 2008; Entsorgungsprogramm und Standortgebiete fuer geologische Tiefenlager. Zusammenfassung. November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-15

    There are radioactive wastes in Switzerland. Since many decades they are produced by the operation of the five nuclear power plants, by medicine, industry and research. Important steps towards the disposal of these wastes are already realized; the corresponding activities are practised. This particularly concerns handling and packaging of the radioactive wastes, their characterization and inventory, as well as the interim storage and the inferred transportations. Preparatory works in the field of scientific research on deep geological repositories have allowed to acquire high level of technical and scientific expertise in that domain. The feasibility of building long-term safe geological repositories in Switzerland was demonstrated for all types of radioactive wastes; the demonstration was accepted by the Federal Council. There is enough knowledge to propose geological siting regions for further works. The financial funds already accumulated guaranty the financing of the dismantling of the power plants as well as building deep geological repositories for the radioactive wastes. The regulations already exist and the organisational arrangements necessary for the fruitful continuation of the works already done have been taken. The programme of the disposal of radioactive wastes also describes the next stages towards the timely realization of the deep repositories as well as the level of the financial needs. The programme is updated every five years, checked by the regulatory bodies and accepted by the Federal Council who reports to the parliament. The process of choosing a site, which will be completed in the next years, is detailed in the conceptual part of the programme for deep geological repositories. The NAGRA proposals are based exclusively on technical and scientific considerations; the global evaluation taking into account also political considerations has to be performed by the authorities and the Federal Council. The programme states that at the beginning of

  17. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiatives: Records management for deep and near surface geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The international scientific community has long had an interest in determining methods by which information regarding nuclear waste repositories, and the inherent danger to humanity, could be passed from generation to generation and society to society. Because nuclear waste will remain radioactive for thousands of years future generations must be warned of the dangers thus eliminating intentional or inadvertent intrusion. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained so that this information remains accessible to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years; thus the retention of information continues beyond current societies, cultures and languages, and must be continually migrated to new retrieval technologies to assure access

  18. Geological environment of Gondwana coals of Mozambique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonso, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Coal deposition in the different Gondwana basins from Mozambique is discussed. The Productive Series position within the Gondwana Group and the Karoo System is determined. Coal seams of the different basins, as well as sedimentary environments and tectonics are also described. 52 refs.

  19. Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A proposed geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levich, R.A.; Stuckless, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain in Nevada represents the proposed solution to what has been a lengthy national effort to dispose of high-level radioactive waste, waste which must be isolated from the biosphere for tens of thousands of years. This chapter reviews the background of that national effort and includes some discussion of international work in order to provide a more complete framework for the problem of waste disposal. Other chapters provide the regional geologic setting, the geology of the Yucca Mountain site, the tectonics, and climate (past, present, and future). These last two chapters are integral to prediction of long-term waste isolation. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  20. Definition of the waste package environment for a repository located in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.E.; Bradley, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The expected environmental conditions for emplaced waste packages in a salt repository are simulated in the materials testing program to evaluate performance. Synthetic brines, based on the analyses of actual brines (both intrusion and inclusion), are used for corrosion and leach testing. Elevated temperatures (to 150 0 C) and radiation fields of up to 10 3 rad/h are employed as conservative conditions to bracket expected performance and provide data for worst case scenarios. Obtaining a precise definition of the waste package environment in a salt repository and its change with time is closely tied to detailed site characterization of the candidate salt repository horizon. It is expected that field testing can augment some of the materials testing currently under way and can provide increased confidence in the predicted site-specific near-field conditions. 17 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  1. Implications of one-year basalt weathering/reactivity study for a basalt repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory is testing the performance of the Defense Waste Processing Facility glass under conditions representing potential repository environments. For a basalt repository, one of the important issues is how rapidly reducing conditions are re-established after placement of the waste. The objective of this study was to examine the factors affecting the reactivity of the basalt. Construction of a nuclear waste repository in basalt will temporarily perturb the groundwater conditions, creating more oxidizing (air-saturated) conditions than an undisturbed repository system. Reducing conditions can be beneficial to the performance of waste glass and canisters, and may limit the transport of certain radionuclides. The Basalt Waste Isolation Project intends to use a backfill containing crushed basalt to re-establish the reducing conditions of the groundwater. The reactivity of the basalt has been found to be minimal once the fresh crushed surfaces have been weathered and the reactive intergranular glass component has been leached, e.g., by long-term surface storage. Crushing of the basalt for pneumatic emplacement of the backfill should, therefore, occur shortly before placement in the repository. This backfill must contain a minimum of 5 percent reactive fines (<100 mesh), to rapidly achieve reducing conditions. 23 refs., 21 figs., 18 tabs

  2. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G.S.; Kautsky, U.; Moren, L.; Wallroth, T.

    2001-05-01

    The radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel will decay over a period of time (100,000 years or longer) in which we expect major environmental change. Climatically driven changes such as glaciation, permafrost and changes in sea level will affect the subsurface environment and must therefore be considered in performance and safety assessments. We regard the state of climate to be determined by the climate system, comprising the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the ice sheets and the surface of the lithosphere. Climate can change as a consequence of external forcing or as a consequence of the internal dynamics. The changes in the past show a complex cyclical pattern with repetitive periodicities and magnitudes of change. On the relatively long time scale which is of concern in this report climate changes are believed to be triggered by changes in insolation due to cyclical changes in the earth's orbit around the sun. This is referred to as the Milankovitch theory or the astronomical climate theory. A brief review of our knowledge of the climate system, proxy records and observations of past climate change is presented in the report. The most extreme departures from modern environmental conditions in Sweden have occurred during the cold, glacial cycles with ice sheets covering the whole of Sweden. As part of SKB's palaeohydrogeological research programme a time-dependent, thermo-mechanically coupled model of ice sheet behaviour has been developed in order to simulate past fluctuations of the Scandinavian ice sheet and forecast its future. The ice sheet model can calculate the temperature field and isostatic response of the underlying bedrock, subglacial and proglacial permafrost and the subglacial melt rates. By connecting the glaciation model with hydrogeological and rock mechanical models, the response of the subsurface to climate change can be investigated. In this report the climate-driven environmental changes are represented as a series of successive climate

  3. Impact of long-term climate change on a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G.S. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom); Kautsky, U.; Moren, L. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wallroth, T. [Bergab Consulting Geologists (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    The radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel will decay over a period of time (100,000 years or longer) in which we expect major environmental change. Climatically driven changes such as glaciation, permafrost and changes in sea level will affect the subsurface environment and must therefore be considered in performance and safety assessments. We regard the state of climate to be determined by the climate system, comprising the atmosphere, the biosphere, the oceans, the ice sheets and the surface of the lithosphere. Climate can change as a consequence of external forcing or as a consequence of the internal dynamics. The changes in the past show a complex cyclical pattern with repetitive periodicities and magnitudes of change. On the relatively long time scale which is of concern in this report climate changes are believed to be triggered by changes in insolation due to cyclical changes in the earth's orbit around the sun. This is referred to as the Milankovitch theory or the astronomical climate theory. A brief review of our knowledge of the climate system, proxy records and observations of past climate change is presented in the report. The most extreme departures from modern environmental conditions in Sweden have occurred during the cold, glacial cycles with ice sheets covering the whole of Sweden. As part of SKB's palaeohydrogeological research programme a time-dependent, thermo-mechanically coupled model of ice sheet behaviour has been developed in order to simulate past fluctuations of the Scandinavian ice sheet and forecast its future. The ice sheet model can calculate the temperature field and isostatic response of the underlying bedrock, subglacial and proglacial permafrost and the subglacial melt rates. By connecting the glaciation model with hydrogeological and rock mechanical models, the response of the subsurface to climate change can be investigated. In this report the climate-driven environmental changes are represented as a series of successive

  4. Seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaláb Zdeněk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the seismic stability of the survey areas of potential sites for the deep geological repository of the spent nuclear fuel in the Czech Republic. The basic source of data for historical earthquakes up to 1990 was the seismic website [10]. The most intense earthquake described occurred on September 15, 1590 in the Niederroesterreich region (Austria in the historical period; its reported intensity is Io = 8-9. The source of the contemporary seismic data for the period since 1991 to the end of 2014 was the website [11]. It may be stated based on the databases and literature review that in the period from 1900, no earthquake exceeding magnitude 5.1 originated in the territory of the Czech Republic.

  5. Proposal for geological site selection for L/ILW and HLW repositories. Statement of requirements, procedure and results. Technical report 08-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Important steps in the process of managing radioactive wastes have already been implemented in Switzerland. These include the handing and packaging of the waste, waste characterisation and documentation of waste inventories and interim storage along with associated transport. In terms of preparing for deep geological disposal, the necessary scientific and technical work is well advanced and the feasibility of constructing geological repositories that provide the required long-term safety has been successfully demonstrated for all waste types arising in Switzerland. Sufficient knowledge is available to allow the next steps in the selection of repository sites to be defined. The legal framework is also in place and organisational measures have been provided that will allow the tasks to be performed in the coming years to be implemented efficiently. The selection of geological siting regions and sites for repositories in Switzerland will be conducted in three stages. Stage 1 ends with the definition of geological siting regions within which the repository projects will be elaborated in more detail in stages 2 and 3. This report documents and justifies the siting proposals prepared by Nagra for the repositories for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and high-level waste (HLW). Formulation of these proposals is conducted in five steps: 1) The waste inventory, which includes reserves for future developments, is allocated to the L/ILW and HLW repositories; 2) Based on this waste allocation, the second step involves defining the barrier and safety concepts for the two repositories. With a view to evaluating the geological siting possibilities, quantitative and qualitative guidelines and requirements on the geology are derived on the basis of these concepts. These relate to the time period to be considered, the space requirements for the repository, the properties of the host rock (depth, thickness, lateral extent, hydraulic conductivity), long-term stability

  6. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.D.; Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  7. The United States Polar Rock Repository: A geological resource for the Earth science community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunow, Annie M.; Elliot, David H.; Codispoti, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States Polar Rock Repository (USPRR) is a U. S. national facility designed for the permanent curatorial preservation of rock samples, along with associated materials such as field notes, annotated air photos and maps, raw analytic data, paleomagnetic cores, ground rock and mineral residues, thin sections, and microfossil mounts, microslides and residues from Polar areas. This facility was established by the Office of Polar Programs at the U. S. National Science Foundation (NSF) to minimize redundant sample collecting, and also because the extreme cold and hazardous field conditions make fieldwork costly and difficult. The repository provides, along with an on-line database of sample information, an essential resource for proposal preparation, pilot studies and other sample based research that should make fieldwork more efficient and effective. This latter aspect should reduce the environmental impact of conducting research in sensitive Polar Regions. The USPRR also provides samples for educational outreach. Rock samples may be borrowed for research or educational purposes as well as for museum exhibits.

  8. Shallow geological environment of Krishna–Godavari offshore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shallow geological environment of Krishna–Godavari offshore, eastern continental margin of India as inferred from the interpretation of high resolution sparker data. G Anitha1,2, M V Ramana1,∗. , T Ramprasad1,. P Dewangan1 and M Anuradha1,3. 1CSIR – National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, ...

  9. Favourable geological environment for uranium in Amazon State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenker, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    According to the synthesis of the Basic Projects of DNPM/CPRM in Amazon and in the creation of 1 : 2500000 scale map, it was possible to separate the several geological environments known in the region as for the favourableness to storage uraniferous mineralizations. (A.B.) [pt

  10. International Conference: Analyses for Geology and Environment '97. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this proceedings About 60 people from Albania, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Russia and Slovakia took part in the conference. 71 reports had been presented. The conference made an essential contribution into development of analytical methods for geology and environment. Twenty papers deals with the monitoring of uranium, thorium, lead-210 in soils, minerals and environmental samples

  11. Shallow geological environment of Krishna–Godavari offshore ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environments and its architecture are significantly important in assessing the gas hydrates potential of this area. In order to enhance the geological understanding, the newly acquired high resolution seismic. (HRS) reflection data in this gas hydrates prone area is interpreted. The processed seismic sections show.

  12. The impact of episodic nonequilibrium fracture-matrix flow on geological repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.; Chestnut, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Adequate representation of fracture-matrix interaction during episodic infiltration events is crucial in making valid hydrological predictions of repository performance at Yucca Mountain. Various approximations have been applied to represent fracture-matrix flow interaction, including the Equivalent Continuum Model (ECM), which assumes capillary equilibrium between fractures and matrix, and the Fracture-Matrix Model (FMM), which accounts for nonequilibrium fracture-matrix flow. We analyze the relative impact of matrix imbibition on episodic nonequilibrium fracture-matrix flow for the eight major hydrostratigraphic units in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. Comparisons are made between ECM and FMM predictions to determine the applicability of the ECM. The implications of nonequilibrium fracture-matrix flow on radionuclide transport are also discussed

  13. Multi-barrier system model of the geological repository for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barátová, D.; Necas, V.

    2016-01-01

    The results on the analysis of radionuclide release from the geosphere of hypothetical repository in crystalline rocks are presented. Radionuclides with poor retentive properties (C-14, I-129, Cl-36, Cs-135), represent the largest contribution to the total release rate from the geosphere. A sensitivity analysis of selected geosphere parameters was also performed to evaluate an impact of uncertainties on the total maximum release rate from the geosphere. The results show that the data uncertainty related to the transmissivity distribution of individual transport pathways has the greatest impact on the total maximum release rate from the geosphere. The calculations of release rates were carried out for one disposal container using the simulation software GoldSim. (authors)

  14. Mining and engineering aspects and variants for the underground construction of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milchev, M.; Michailov, B.; Nanovska, E.; Harizanov, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present report is to investigate and to describe systematically the foreign experience, scientific and technical achievements and stages of development concerning the mining and engineering aspects and variants for underground construction of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste (RAW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The ideal solution in managing the problems with harmful wastes seems to be either to remove them permanently from Earth (which is related with high risks and high costs) or to transform long-lived radionuclides to short-lived radionuclides using nuclear transmutation processes in a reactor or a particle accelerator. The latter is also a complex and immensely costly process and it can only reduce the quantities of some long-lived radionuclides, which can be then disposed in a geological repository. At present, the deep geological disposal remains the only solution for solving the problem with the hazard of storing radioactive wastes. The report submits a brief description and systematization of the performed investigations, accompanied by analysis of the scientific and technical level on world scale. The analysis is related with the particular geological conditions and the existing scientific studies available so far in Bulgaria. The main conclusions are that the complex scientific-technical and engineering problems related with the construction of a deep geological repository for RAW and SNF require long-term scientific investigations and preliminary complex works and it is high time to launch them in Bulgaria. (authors)

  15. Study to optimize a disposal tunnel layout taking into account heterogeneous characteristics of the geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Yasuhiro; Toida, Masaru; Yanagizawa, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    The geological environment has spatially heterogeneous characteristics with varied host rock types, fractures and so on. In this case the generic disposal tunnel layout, which has been designed by JNC, is not the most suitable for HLW disposal in Japan. The existence of spatially heterogeneous characteristics means that in the repository region there exist sub-regions that are more favorable from the perspective of long-term safety and ones that are less favorable. In order that the spatially heterogeneous environment itself may be utilized most effectively as an NBS, an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout is required. Focusing on the geological environment with spatially heterogeneous characteristics, the authors have developed an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout. The alternative design adopts an optimization approach using a 'variable disposal tunnel layout'. The optimization approach minimizes the number of locations where major water conducting fractures are intersected, and maximizes the number of emplacement locations for waste packages. This paper will outline the variable disposal tunnel layout and its applicability. (author)

  16. Geophysical investigation for the evaluation of the long-time safety of repositories and underground disposals in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, A.; Salinar Group

    2003-04-01

    The performance assessment of underground disposal facilities is an indispensable premise to ensure that repositories fulfil the requirements for permanent and safe disposal of hazardous waste. The geological barrier is supposed to be a virtually impermeable host formation like rock salt. The efficiency of the barrier is endangered by the presence of risk zones such as faults or fractures particularly with regard to water-bearing host rocks. Thus the evaluation of the long-time safety of the geological barrier has to be carried out with a minimum of invasion of the future host formation and a maximum of spatial coverage and resolution. Especially geophysical methods are suitable to investigate the geological barrier due to their non-destructive character and spatial information content. Three research projects supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) are engaged in the design and enhancement of a complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system for the investigation of problem zones of the geological barrier in rock salt. The benefit of the combination of high-performance geophysical measuring techniques as seismics, DC-geoelectrics, ground penetrating radar (GPR), electromagnetics and sonar together with strong knowledge of regional salt geology is to increase essentially the reliability of the interpretation of underground measurements. The measuring methods and interpretation tools for host rock characterisation were applied, developed and improved in a flat salt seam structure of an inoperative salt mine in the Lower Harz region. The joint interpretation of the underground geophysical measurements revealed a by-then unknown wet zone, which was tectonically affected. With the scope of refining the complex geophysical measuring and evaluation system and transferring the precedingly acquired experiences to another type of host formation, an operating potassium salt mine in the vicinity of Hannover/Germany was chosen as a new

  17. Evaluation of engineering aspects of backfill placement for high level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Kleppe, J.; Gonano, L.

    1984-04-01

    This report includes the identification and subjective evaluation of alternative schemes for backfilling around waste packages and within emplacement rooms. The aspects of backfilling specifically considered in this study include construction and testing; costs have not been considered. However, because construction and testing are simply implementation and verification of design, a design basis for backfill is required. A generic basis has been developed for this study by first identifying qualitative performance objectives for backfill and then weighting each with respect to its potential influence on achieving the repository system performance objectives. Alternative backfill materials and additives have been identified and evaluated with respect to the perceived extent to which each combination can be expected to achieve the backfill design basis. Several distinctly different combinations of materials and additives which are perceived to have the highest potential for achieving the backfill design basis have been selected for further study. These combinations include zeolite/clinoptilolite, bentonite, muck, and muck mixed with bentonite. Feasible alternative construction and testing procedures for each selected combination have been discussed. Recommendations have been made regarding appropriate backfill schemes for hard rock (i.e., basalt at Hanford, Washington, tuff at Nevada Test Site, and generic granite) and salt (i.e., domal salt on the Gulf Coast and generic bedded salt). 27 references, 8 figures, 31 tables

  18. Preclosure seismic design methodology for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This topical report is the second in a series of three reports being developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to document the preclosure seismic design of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) that are important to the radiological safety of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The first topical report, Methodology to Assess Fault Displacement and Vibratory Ground Motion Hazards at Yucca Mountain, YMP/TR-002-NP, was submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff for review and comment in 1994 and has been accepted by the staff. The DOE plans to implement this methodology in fiscal year 1997 to develop probabilistic descriptions of the vibratory ground motion hazard and the fault displacement hazard at the Yucca Mountain site. The second topical report (this report) describes the DOE methodology and acceptance criteria for the preclosure seismic design of SSCs important to safety. A third report, scheduled for fiscal year 1998, will document the results of the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (conducted using the methodology in the first topical report) and the development of the preclosure seismic design inputs. This third report will be submitted to NRC staff for review and comment as a third topical report or as a design study report

  19. Osmotic generation of 'anomalous' fluid pressures in geological environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzii, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Osmotic pressures are generated by differences in chemical potential of a solution across a membrane. But whether osmosis can have a significant effect on the pressure of fluids in geological environments has been controversial, because the membrane properties of geological media are poorly understood. 'Anomalous' pressures - large departures from hydrostatic pressure that are not explicable in terms of topographic or fluid-density effects are widely found in geological settings, and are commonly considered to result from processes that alter the pore or fluid volume, which in turn implies crustal changes happening at a rate too slow to observe directly. Yet if osmosis can explain some anomalies, there is no need to invoke such dynamic geological processes in those cases. Here I report results of a nine- year in situ measurement of fluid pressures and solute concentrations in shale that are consistent with the generation of large (up to 20 MPa) osmotic-pressure anomalies which could persist for tens of millions of years. Osmotic pressures of this magnitude and duration can explain many of the pressure anomalies observed in geological settings. The require, however, small shale porosity and large contrasts in the amount of dissolved solids in the pore waters - criteria that may help to distinguish between osmotic and crystal-dynamic origins of anomalous pressures.

  20. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 16. Repository preconceptual design studies: BPNL waste forms in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Volume 16, ''Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt,'' is one of a 23 volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provide a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This document describes a preconceptual design for a nuclear waste storage facility in salt. The waste forms assumed to arrive at the repository were supplied by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL). The facility design consists of several chambers excavated deep within a geologic formation together with access shafts and supportive surface structures. The facility design provides for: receiving and unloading waste containers; lowering them down shafts to the mine level; transporting them to the proper storage area and emplacing them in mined storage rooms. Drawings of the facility design are contained in TM-36/17, ''Drawings for Repository Preconceptual Design Studies: BPNL Waste Forms in Salt.''

  1. Report on Intact and Degraded Criticality for Selected Plutonium Waste Forms in a Geologic Repository, Volume I: MOX SNF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.A. McClure

    1998-09-21

    As part of the plutonium waste form development and down-select process, repository analyses have been conducted to evaluate the long-term performance of these forms for repository acceptance. Intact and degraded mode criticality analysis of the mixed oxide (MOX) spent fuel is presented in Volume I, while Volume II presents the evaluations of the waste form containing plutonium immobilized in a ceramic matrix. Although the ceramic immobilization development program is ongoing, and refinements are still being developed and evaluated, this analysis provides value through quick feed-back to this development process, and as preparation for the analysis that will be conducted starting in fiscal year (FY) 1999 in support of the License Application. While no MOX fuel has been generated in the United States using weapons-usable plutonium, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has conducted calculations on Westinghouse-type reactors to determine the expected characteristics of such a fuel. These spent nuclear fuel (SNF) characteristics have been used to determine the long-term potential for criticality in a repository environment. In all instances the methodology and scenarios used in these analyses are compatible with those developed and used for Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF) and Defense High Level Waste (DHLW), as tailored for the particular characteristics of the waste forms. This provides a common basis for comparison of the results. This analysis utilizes dissolution, solubility, and thermodynamic data that are currently available. Additional data on long-term behavior is being developed, and later analyses (FY 99) to support the License Application will use the very latest information that has been generated. Ranges of parameter values are considered to reflect sensitivity to uncertainty. Most of the analysis is focused on those parameter values that produce the worst case results, so that potential licensing issues can be identified.

  2. Considerations on pressure build-up in deep geological repositories for radioactive waste; Betrachtungen zum Druckaufbau in einem geologischen Tiefenlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, Hans-Frieder [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Gas formation caused by corrosion of metals is a pivotal point with respect to the safety analysis of deep geological repositories. Solid corrosion products are formed unavoidably during the gas formation. The volumes of these solid corrosion products are multiples of the original waste volume. These solid corrosion products are chemically extremely stable and result in a pressure increase inside the repository. This pressure is considerably higher than that of the overlaying rock. The question that arises is, why this aspect is not considered in the consulted documents.

  3. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  4. OPERATION OF A PUBLIC GEOLOGIC CORE AND SAMPLE REPOSITORY IN HOUSTON, TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott W. Tinker; Beverly Blakeney DeJarnett; Laura C. Zahm

    2005-04-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology's Houston Research Center (HRC) is well established as a premier regional research center for geologic research serving not only Houston, but geoscientists from around Texas, the U. S., and even the world. As reported in the 2003-2004 technical progress report to the DOE, the HRC provides a state-of-the-art core viewing facility, two fully equipped conference rooms, and a comprehensive technical library, all available for public use. In addition, the HRC currently houses over 500,000 boxes of rock material, and has space to hold approximately 400,000 more boxes. Use of the facility has continued to increase during this third year of operation; over the past twelve months the HRC has averaged approximately 200 patrons per month. This usage is a combination of individuals describing core, groups of geoscientists holding seminars and workshops, and various industry and government-funded groups holding short courses, workshops, and seminars. The BEG/HRC secured several substantial donations of rock materials and/or cash during this operating period. All of these funds went directly into the endowment. Outreach during 2004 and 2005 included many technical presentations and several publications on the HRC. Several field trips to the facility were held for geoscience professionals and grade school students alike. Goals for the upcoming year involve securing more donations of rock material and cash in order to fully fund the HRC endowment. BEG will also continue to increase the number of patrons using the facility, and we will strive to raise awareness of the HRC's 100,000-volume geoscience technical library.

  5. Operational procedures for receiving, packaging, emplacing, and retrieving high-level and transuranic waste in a geologic repository in TUFF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, A.W.; Mulkin, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project, directed by the Nevada Operations Office of the Department of Energy, is currently developing conceptual designs for a commercial nuclear waste repository. In this paper, the preliminary repository operating plans are identified and the proposed repository waste inventory is discussed. The receipt rates for truck and rail car shipments of waste are determined as are the required repository waste emplacement rates

  6. OPERATION OF A PUBLIC GEOLOGIC CORE AND SAMPLE REPOSITORY IN HOUSTON TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott W. Tinker

    2003-06-01

    In the spring of 2002, the Department of Energy provided an initial 1-year grant to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). The grant covered the one-year operational expenses of a worldclass core and cuttings facility located in Houston, Texas, that BP America donated to the BEG. The DOE investment of $300,000, matched by a $75,000 UT contribution, provided critical first-year funds that were heavily leveraged by the BP gift of $7.0 million in facilities and cash. DOE also provided a one-month extension and grant of $30,000 for the month of May 2003. A 5-year plan to grow a permanent endowment in order to manage the facility in perpetuity is well under way and on schedule. The facility, named the Houston Research Center, represents an ideal model for a strong Federal, university, and private partnership to accomplish a national good. This report summarizes the activities supported by the initial DOE grant during the first 13 months of operation and provides insight into the activities and needs of the facility in the second year of operation.

  7. Experiences from risk communication in the siting of a geological repository for high level waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thegerstroem, C.; Engstroem, S.

    1999-01-01

    SKB is planning in the year 2001 to designate two siting alternatives for further site characterisation. The work in the municipalities of Oesthammar, Nykoeping, Oskarshamn and Tierp is taking place in an atmosphere of constructive discussions. There is a growing feeling in Sweden among broad categories of the public that the nuclear waste exists and should be taken care of by our generation, without many of these people ever getting positive to the use of nuclear energy. While the NIMBY syndrome might still have a good grip on some, there has never been a more constructive debate about the nuclear waste than now, even though there still is a lot of work to do. Siting a geological repository for high level waste puts our democratic system under hard tests. The decision making process is about openness, skills in interacting with the public, respect of people's fears and concerns and at last but not the least independent, competent and visible participation by other stakeholders (politicians locally and nationally, regulatory bodies etc). Good skills in risk communication are important ingredients that might facilitate SKB's task as a developer. Far more important however, is the trust we might get from past and present record of handling the waste and from the way we work and behave in the feasibility studies in the municipalities where SKB is involved

  8. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  9. Modeling Hydrogen-Induced Cracking of Titanium Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, F.; Mon, K.; Pasupathi, P.; Gordon, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) of Ti Grade 7 and other relevant titanium alloys within the context of the current waste package design for the repository environmental conditions anticipated within the Yucca Mountain repository. The review concentrates on corrosion processes possible in the aqueous environments expected within this site. A brief background discussion of the relevant properties of titanium alloys, the hydrogen absorption process, and the properties of passive film on titanium alloys is presented as the basis for the subsequent discussion of model developments. The key corrosion processes that could occur are addressed individually. Subsequently, the expected corrosion performance of these alloys under the specific environmental conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain is considered. It can be concluded that, based on the conservative modeling approaches adopted, hydrogen-induced cracking of titanium alloys will not occur under nuclear waste repository conditions since there will not be sufficient hydrogen in the alloy after 10,000 years of emplacement

  10. Numerical investigation of high level nuclear waste disposal in deep anisotropic geologic repositories

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad

    2015-11-01

    One of the techniques that have been proposed to dispose high level nuclear waste (HLW) has been to bury them in deep geologic formations, which offer relatively enough space to accommodate the large volume of HLW accumulated over the years since the dawn of nuclear era. Albeit the relatively large number of research works that have been conducted to investigate temperature distribution surrounding waste canisters, they all abide to consider the host formations as homogeneous and isotropic. While this could be the case in some subsurface settings, in most cases, this is not true. In other words, subsurface formations are, in most cases, inherently anisotropic and heterogeneous. In this research, we show that even a slight difference in anisotropy of thermal conductivity of host rock with direction could have interesting effects on temperature fields. We investigate the effect of anisotropy angle (the angle the principal direction of anisotropy is making with the coordinate system) on the temperature field as well as on the maximum temperature attained in different barrier systems. This includes 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°in addition to the isotropic case as a reference. We also consider the effect of anisotropy ratio (the ratio between the principal direction anisotropies) on the temperature fields and maximum temperature history. This includes ratios ranging between 1.5 and 4. Interesting patterns of temperature fields and profiles are obtained. It is found that the temperature contours are aligned more towards the principal direction of anisotropy. Furthermore the peak temperature in the buffer zone is found to be larger the smaller the anisotropy angle and vice versa. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. INTEGRATION OF AN INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY ON INFORMATION AND EDUCATION ENVIRONMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olessia R. Oleksyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors of article analyze the concepts associated with the processes of integration of software for the learning. The article contains ways of the integration institutional repository into educational environment of the universities. Authors are describing the experience of integration of DSpace system with the popular learning tools such as CMS Joomla!, LMS Moodle, UFD «Library». Integration of the specified tools is possible at the level of content and unification of access for users. The article contains opportunities of the integration DSpace and documents flow systems (based on Microsoft SharePoint. It is provided effective use of DSpace system at scientific and research work of students.

  12. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a 'future repository site environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amcoff, Oe.; Holenyi, K.

    1996-04-01

    Since reducing conditions are expected much effort has been concentrated on Cu-sulfides and CuFe-sulfides. However, oxidizing conditions are also discussed. A list of copper minerals are included. It is concluded that mineral formation and mineral transitions on the copper canister surface will be governed by kinetics and metastabilities rather than by stability relations. The sulfides formed are less likely to form a passivating layer, and the rate of sulfide growth will probably be governed by the rate of transport of reacting species to the canister surface. A series of tests are recommended, in an environment resembling the initial repository site conditions. 82 refs, 8 figs

  13. On release of radionuclides from a near-surface radioactive waste repository to the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelis Arūnas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A closed near-surface radioactive waste repository is the source of various radionuclides causing the human exposure. Recent investigations confirm an effectiveness of the engineering barriers installed in 2006 to prevent the penetration of radionuclides to the environment. The tritium activity concentration in groundwater decreased from tens of kBq/l to below hundreds of Bq/l. The monitoring and groundwater level data suggest the leaching of tritium from previously contaminated layers of unsaturated zone by rising groundwater while 210Pb may disperse as a decay product of 226Ra daughters.

  14. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torudd, Jesper

    2010-12-01

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, provided by a separate modelling project. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software programme developed by an EU research project. In the ERICA Tool, dose rates for site specific organisms (i.e., occurring at the site) were calculated using input data such as size dimensions and masses of organisms, ecosystems and habitats, concentration ratios for the studied elements (i.e. the ratio of accumulated element concentration in the body compared with the element concentration in the surrounding environment) and maximum activity concentrations of radionuclides from the modelled future release. The results are provided in terms of final dose rates for each studied organism. In accordance with rationales of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ERICA project, Representative (site-specific) Organisms from the planned site of the future repository were studied. Ideally, the organisms selected would meet the criteria defined by both SSM (species worth protecting) and by ICRP and ERICA (so-called Reference Organisms). Since activity concentrations for a number of radionuclides were missing for some of the studied

  15. Long term radiological effects on plants and animals of a deep geological repository. SR-Site Biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torudd, Jesper (Facilia AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    This study is part of the safety assessment of the planned repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, called SR-Site. The purpose of the report is to clarify whether the environment is protected against harmful effects of ionizing radiation after a possible future release of radioactive matter from the planned repository. According to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), biological diversity and sustainable use of biological resources must be protected, and the evaluation should pay special attention to threatened and endemic species as well as economically and culturally valuable species. The report shows the approach to, and results of, calculations of dose rates to organisms other than man. The calculations are based on modelled activity concentrations from a potential future radioactive release, provided by a separate modelling project. Calculations were performed with the ERICA Tool, a software programme developed by an EU research project. In the ERICA Tool, dose rates for site specific organisms (i.e., occurring at the site) were calculated using input data such as size dimensions and masses of organisms, ecosystems and habitats, concentration ratios for the studied elements (i.e. the ratio of accumulated element concentration in the body compared with the element concentration in the surrounding environment) and maximum activity concentrations of radionuclides from the modelled future release. The results are provided in terms of final dose rates for each studied organism. In accordance with rationales of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the ERICA project, Representative (site-specific) Organisms from the planned site of the future repository were studied. Ideally, the organisms selected would meet the criteria defined by both SSM (species worth protecting) and by ICRP and ERICA (so-called Reference Organisms). Since activity concentrations for a number of radionuclides were missing for some of the studied

  16. Establishment of advanced integration technology for site characterization of deep geological repository. Development of information synthesis and interpretation system. Annual report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Hideaki; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Kunio; Iwatsuki, Teruki; Maekawa, Keisuke; Kunimaru, Takanori; Niizato, Tadafumi; Asamori, Koichi; Hiraga, Naoto; Yamanaka, Yoshiaki; Shigehiro, Michiko; Abe, Hironobu; Hama, Katsuhiro; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Tetsuo; Toyoda, Gakuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Shimada, Akiomi

    2008-11-01

    This project is planned as a five-year program aiming to develop an advanced integration technology for characterization of a site for radioactive waste geological disposal. It is carried out by the Geological Isolation Research and Development Directorate of Japan Atomic Energy Agency with the fund of Agency for Natural Resources and Energy of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. This report summarizes the outcome of the first year (FY 2007) activities of the project. The site characterization is a dynamic and complex process and needs close linkage with repository design and performance assessment (PA). A geosynthesis methodology has been developed for integrating site characterization information into design and PA, and applied for e.g. on-going JAEA's studies at two generic URLs at Mizunami and Horonobe. This methodology explicitly presents an information flow (often referred to as geosynthesis data flow diagram or data flow diagram, in short) from measurements by site investigation to generating data sets for design and PA. It is a useful tool for guiding the site characterization in a transparent and traceable manner. As site investigation proceeds and information being obtained on geological environments of the site increases, the site characterization plan is iteratively reviewed and modified reflecting the updated information. Such modification would also be needed when changes would occur on socio-political boundary conditions. In fact, the data flow diagrams for two generic URL projects have been revised several times so far due to the increase in the amount of information on geological environments and changes of societal conditions. An advanced technology aimed at in this project is therefore focused on developing flexible approach and tools, which is named as Information Synthesis and Interpretation System (ISIS), to support the stepwise 'optimization' of the site characterization plan. In FY 2007, a basic concept for ISIS has been developed

  17. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  18. External Criticality Risk of Immobilized Plutonium Waste Form in a Geologic Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McClure

    2001-03-12

    This purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive summary of the waste package (WP) external criticality-related risk of the Plutonium Disposition ceramic waste form, which is being developed and evaluated by the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Potential accumulation of the fissile materials, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U, in rock formations having a favorable chemical environment for such actions, requires analysis because autocatalytic configurations, while unlikely to form, never-the-less have consequences which are undesirable and require evaluation. Secondly, the WP design has evolved necessitating a re-evaluation of the internal WP degradation scenarios that contribute to the external source terms. The scope of this study includes a summary of the revised WP degradation calculations, a summary of the accumulation mechanisms in fractures and lithophysae in the tuff beneath the WP footprint, and a summary of the criticality risk calculations from any accumulated fissile material. Accumulations of fissile material external to the WP sufficient to pose a potential criticality risk require a deposition mechanism operating over sufficient time to reach required levels. The transporting solution concentrations themselves are well below critical levels (CRWMS 2001e). The ceramic waste form consists of Pu immobilized in ceramic disks, which would be embedded in High-Level Waste (HLW) glass in the standard HLW glass disposal canister. The ceramic disks would occupy approximately 12% of the HLW canister volume, while most of the remaining 88% of the volume would be occupied by HLW glass.

  19. Performance assessment modelling for the geological siting regions for the L/ILW and HLW repositories in the context of the Swiss site selection plan - 59306

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poller, Andreas; Schneider, Juerg W.; Zuidema, Piet; Holocher, Johannes; Mayer, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    In Switzerland, the Nuclear Energy Law requires the disposal of all radioactive waste in deep geological repositories. The procedure for selecting the repository sites is defined in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories and consists of three stages. In Stage 1, the National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra) proposed geological siting regions based on criteria relating to safety and engineering feasibility. As part of Stage 2, Nagra has to select at least one site within each siting region, to carry out a provisional safety analysis for each site and a safety-based comparison of the sites. In order to achieve these objectives, the state of knowledge of the geological conditions in the siting regions has to be sufficient to perform the provisional safety analyses. In October 2010, Nagra submitted a report which documents Nagra's technical-scientific assessment of this precondition, based on a comprehensive list of processes and parameters relevant for safety and engineering feasibility. A part of this assessment consists of test calculations for the provisional safety analyses. This paper summarizes how the numerous test calculations have been identified, how the concepts of radionuclide release from the repository are implemented into numerical codes and how input data and results are organized in order to ensure transparency and traceability. In preparation for the provisional safety analyses in Stage 2 of the Swiss Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories, Nagra compiled all existing information on the proposed siting regions from many different sources and evaluated the overall state of knowledge with a formal analysis of which processes and parameters are relevant for long-term safety and engineering feasibility (Nagra 2010). The analysis was partly based on a large number of test calculations for the provisional safety analysis which were derived from the requirements for the provisional safety analyses specified by

  20. A Methodology to analyze the biosphere in the assessment of deep geological repositories for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Smith, G.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes the work done and the achievements reached within the R and D Project that IMA/CIEMAT has had with ENRESA during 1993-1995. The overall R and D Project has a wide radiological protection context, but the work reported here relates only to the development of a Methodology for considering the Biosphere sub-system in the assessments of deep geological repositories for high radioactive wastes (HLW). The main areas concerned within the Methodology have to do with the Biosphere structure and morphology in the long-term relevant to deep disposal of HLW: in the contexts of the assessment of these systems, and appropriate modelling of the behaviour of radionuclides released to the biosphere system and with the associated human exposure. This document first provides a review of the past and present international and national concerns about the biosphere modelling and its importance in relation to the definition of safety criteria. A joint ENRESA/ANDRA/IPSN/CIEMAT study about the definition and practical descriptions of the biosphere systems under different climatic states is then summarized. The Methodology developed by IMA/CIEMAT is outlined with an illustration of the way it works. Different steps and procedures are included for a better practical understanding of the software tools developed within the project to support the application of the Methodology. This methodology is widely based on an international working group on ''Reference Biospheres'', part of the BIOMOVS II Project. Specific software developments have been carried out in collaboration with Qunti Sci Itd and with the Polytechnical University of Madrid. (Author)

  1. Actinide partitioning-transmutation program final report. VII. Long-term risk analysis of the geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Conarty, R.L.; Ng, H.S.; Rahal, L.J.; Shirley, C.G.

    1980-09-01

    This report supports the overall assessment by Oak Ridge National Laboratory of actinide partitioning and transmutation by providing an analysis of the long-term risks associated with the terminal storage of wastes from a fuel cycle which incorporates partitioning and transmutation (P-T) and wastes from a cycle which does not. The system model and associated computer code, called AMRAW (Assessment Method for Radioactive Waste), are used for the analysis and are applied to the Los Medanos area in southeastern New Mexico. Because a conservative approach is used throughout, calculated results are believed to be consistently higher than reasonable expectations from actual disruptive incidents at the site and therefore are not directly suited for comparison with other analyses of the particular geologic location. The assessment is made with (1) the probabilistic, or risk, mode that uses combinations of reasonable possible release incidents with their probability of occurrence distributed and applied throughout the assessment period, and (2) the consequence mode that forces discrete release events to occur at specific times. An assessment period of 1 million years is used. The principal results are: (1) In all but the expulsive modes, 99 Tc and 129 I completely dominate cumulative effects based on their transport to man through leaching and movement with groundwater, effecting about 33,000 health effects (deaths) over the 1 million years; (2) P-T has only limited effectiveness in reducing long-term risk from a radionuclide waste repository under the conditions studied, and such effectiveness is essentially confined to the extremely unlikely (probability of occurrence 10 -12 /year) expulsive events; (3) Removal or immobilization of 99 Tc and 129 I might provide benefits sufficiently tangible to warrant special consideration

  2. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across Generations (RK and M). A Literature Survey on Markers and Memory Preservation for Deep Geological Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This study is an English translation and slight update of a previous study originally commissioned by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy between 2008 and 2010. The intention was to investigate the 'state of the art' on marking with a view to learning lessons for geological repositories. This is an edited and slightly updated English translation, published by the NEA as part of the RWMC project 'The Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across Generations'. The work is conceived as a literature study. It considers over 150 texts, published between 1928 and 2013. Texts published between the 1990 and 2010 form a majority, making the 1990's and 2000's the dominant era. The texts include technical reports, journal articles, conference proceedings, implementation plans, national regulations, and full-length books. Some publications are specifically about the concept, implementation and requirements for Markers. Others consider the geological disposal of radioactive from other points of view - for example, archiving, or intrusion scenarios. Others are publications on history or futurism, including histories of genocide and language, and the possibilities of communication far into the future. Authors of the texts include academies, international organisations, consultants commissioned by national organisations, regulators, implementers, and protest groups. It should be recognised that, whilst care has been taken to provide a wide and representative study, the concept of 'marking' a geological repository was first established in the USA. The available literature on Markers is still dominated by work carried out in the USA in the 1980's, 1990's and 2000's. The conclusions and points of view surveyed are therefore weighted towards this body of work. The study brings together the knowledge and experience from the field of marking and archiving from the last few decades and provides an overview of the present status of discussions on the topic. It is an

  3. The use of interaction matrices for identification, structuring and ranking of FEPs in a repository system. Application on the far-field of a deep geological repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.; Stroem, A.

    1995-11-01

    The basic device in the Rock Engineering Systems approach, the interaction matrix, has been used to identify, structure and rank Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) describing barrier performance and radionuclide behaviour in the far-field of a deep geologic repository for spent fuel. The result is a first version of the Process System (PS), for the far-field of a deep repository, structured in an interaction matrix with supporting documentation. The documentation is compiled in databases, one containing matrix specific information and one containing general FEP descriptions. The study has shown that an interaction matrix is feasible to use both for the structuring of the PS and for visualisation of the PS. The developed documentation system increases the transparency of the system description and makes it possible to trace back the judgements made during the construction of the matrix. This will facilitate review work and future revisions as well as consistent treatment of different issues in the system. This study is a first step in the application of a systematic method to establish a structured description of the PS for a deep repository for spent fuel. The work could be seen as a part of the preparation for the forthcoming performance and safety analysis. The next step would be to develop the PS for the remaining parts of the repository system to the same level as has been done for the far-field system. Before the PS is evaluated for different selected system premises, a scientific review of the contents of the PS for the whole repository system would be beneficial. 5 refs

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Rewarding Environment Culture Study, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Janis C.; Paradise-Tornow, Carol A.; Gray, Vicki K.; Griffin-Bemis, Sarah P.; Agnew, Pamela R.; Bouchet, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    In its 2001 review of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Research Council (NRC, p. 126) cautioned that ?high-quality personnel are essential for developing high-quality science information? and urged the USGS to ?devote substantial efforts to recruiting and retaining excellent staff.? Recognizing the importance of the NRC recommendation, the USGS has committed time and resources to create a rewarding work environment with the goal of achieving the following valued outcomes: ? USGS science vitality ? Customer satisfaction with USGS products and services ? Employee perceptions of the USGS as a rewarding place to work ? Heightened employee morale and commitment ? The ability to recruit and retain employees with critical skills To determine whether this investment of time and resources was proving to be successful, the USGS Human Resources Office conducted a Rewarding Environment Culture Study to answer the following four questions. ? Question 1: Does a rewarding work environment lead to the valued outcomes (identified above) that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 2: Which management, supervisory, and leadership behaviors contribute most to creating a rewarding work environment and to achieving the valued outcomes that the USGS is seeking? ? Question 3: Do USGS employees perceive that the USGS is a rewarding place to work? ? Question 4: What actions can and should be taken to enhance the USGS work environment? To begin the study, a conceptual model of a rewarding USGS environment was developed to test assumptions about a rewarding work environment. The Rewarding Environment model identifies the key components that are thought to contribute to a rewarding work environment and the valued outcomes that are thought to result from having a rewarding work environment. The 2002 Organizational Assessment Survey (OAS) was used as the primary data source for the study because it provided the most readily available data. Additional survey data were included as they

  5. Expected repository environments in granite: assessment of rock stability of the container drill hole region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandshaug, T.

    1983-10-01

    This report was prepared as part of a study on Expected Repository Environments in Granite (ERE-G). The repository regions considered in this report were the disposal room, the pillar between rooms, and the waste container drillhole. Three-dimensional analyses were performed to predict temperatures in the rock and to investigate the thermoelastic response and its effect on rock stability. Calculated factors-of-safety of intact rock identify zones of potential rock instability. The analyses were performed for three different types of waste: spent fuel (SF), commercial high-level waste (CHLW), and defense high-level waste (DHLW). The highest temperatures were predicted in the rock when considering CHLW and the lowest when considering DHLW. The analyses did not predict any rock instability as a consequence of excavating the room and the container drillhole. In all cases, relatively high tensile stresses develop in the upper part of the drillhole. The analyses give evidence of potential stability problems of the rock around the drillhole later in time for both the SF and the CHLW. In the case of DHLW, no instability of the rock was predicted during the time period considered in these analyses. 7 references, 24 figures

  6. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses

  7. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 2. Commercial waste forms, packaging and projections for preconceptual repository design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This volume, Y/OWI/TM-36/2, ''Commercial Waste Forms, Packaging and Projections for Preconceptual Repository Design Studies,'' is one of a 23-volume series, ''Technical Support for GEIS: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-36, which supplements the ''Contribution to Draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Commercial Waste Management: Radioactive Waste Isolation in Geologic Formations,'' Y/OWI/TM-44. The series provides a more complete technical basis for the preconceptual designs, resource requirements, and environmental source terms associated with isolating commercial LWR wastes in underground repositories in salt, granite, shale and basalt. Wastes are considered from three fuel cycles: uranium and plutonium recycling, no recycling of spent fuel and uranium-only recycling. This volume contains the data base for waste forms, packages, and projections from the commercial waste defined by the Office of Waste Isolation in ''Nuclear Waste Projections and Source Term Data for FY 1977,'' Y/OWI/TM-34. Also, as an alternative data base for repository design and analysis, waste forms, packages, and projections for commercial waste defined by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (BPNL) have been included. This data base consists of a reference case for use in the alternative design study and a definition of combustible wastes for use in mine fire and hydrogen generation analyses.

  8. Literature Survey of Copper Corrosion Modelling under Deep Geological Disposal Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Heui-Joo; Kook, Dong-Hak; Lee, Min-Soo; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2008-03-15

    As a one of the solution for the spent nuclear fuel problem, deep repository research have been under way in KAERI. To raise the resistance against repository cask corrosion, copper canister was adopted for the outer material of the cask. Duration of the repository with million year order makes the copper corrosion research under the repository environment very important and the corrosion modelling which could trace the real world precisely and predict the corrosion behavior very well is subsequently necessary. With in progress of plan to manufacture unique copper cask corresponding to our country repository system, survey for the preceding research papers in recent research direction and kernel points is expected to significant. This paper arranged the representative literatures for the important corrosion mechanism which are recently published.

  9. Report to Congress on the potential use of lead in the waste packages for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    In the Report of the Senate Committee on Appropriations accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriation Act for 1989, the Committee directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the use of lead in the waste packages to be used in geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The evaluation that was performed in response to this directive is presented in this report. This evaluation was based largely on a review of the technical literature on the behavior of lead, reports of work conducted in other countries, and work performed for the waste-management program being conducted by the DOE. The initial evaluation was limited to the potential use of lead in the packages to be used in the repository. Also, the focus of this report is post closure performance and not on retrievability and handling aspects of the waste package. 100 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs

  10. Systems study of the feasibility of high-level nuclear waste fractionation for thermal stress control in a geologic repository: appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.W.; Elder, H.K.; McCallum, R.F.; Silviera, D.J.; Swanson, J.L.; Wiles, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    This study assesses the benefits and costs of fractionating the cesium and strontium (Cs/Sr) components in commercial high-level waste (HLW) to a separate waste stream for the purpose of reducing geologic-repository thermal stresses in the region of the HLW. The major conclusion is that the Cs/Sr fractionation concept offers the prospect of a substantial total system cost advantage for HLW disposal if reduced HLW package temperatures in a basalt repository are desired. However there is no cost advantage if currently designated maximum design temperatures are acceptable. Aging the HLW for 50 to 100 years can accomplish similar results at equivalent or lower costs. Volume II contains appendices for: (1) thermal analysis supplement; (2) fractionation process experimental results supplement; (3) cost analysis supplement; and (4) radiological risk analysis supplement

  11. Report to Congress on the potential use of lead in the waste packages for a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    In the Report of the Senate Committee on Appropriations accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriation Act for 1989, the Committee directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the use of lead in the waste packages to be used in geologic repositories for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste. The evaluation that was performed in response to this directive is presented in this report. This evaluation was based largely on a review of the technical literature on the behavior of lead, reports of work conducted in other countries, and work performed for the waste-management program being conducted by the DOE. The initial evaluation was limited to the potential use of lead in the packages to be used in the repository. Also, the focus of this report is post closure performance and not on retrievability and handling aspects of the waste package. 100 refs., 8 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Initial results from dissolution rate testing of N-Reactor spent fuel over a range of potential geologic repository aqueous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Einziger, R.E.

    1998-04-01

    Hanford N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (HSNF) may ultimately be placed in a geologic repository for permanent disposal. To determine whether the engineered barrier system that will be designed for emplacement of light-water-reactor (LWR) spent fuel will also suffice for HSNF, aqueous dissolution rate measurements were conducted on the HSNF. The purpose of these tests was to determine whether HSNF dissolves faster or slower than LWR spent fuel under some limited repository-relevant water chemistry conditions. The tests were conducted using a flowthrough method that allows the dissolution rate of the uranium matrix to be measured without interference by secondary precipitation reactions that would confuse interpretation of the results. Similar tests had been conducted earlier with LWR spent fuel, thereby allowing direct comparisons. Two distinct corrosion modes were observed during the course of these 12 tests. The first, Stage 1, involved no visible corrosion of the test specimen and produced no undissolved corrosion products. The second, Stage 2, resulted in both visible corrosion of the test specimen and left behind undissolved corrosion products. During Stage 1, the rate of dissolution could be readily determined because the dissolved uranium and associated fission products remained in solution where they could be quantitatively analyzed. The measured rates were much faster than has been observed for LWR spent fuel under all conditions tested to date when normalized to the exposed test specimen surface areas. Application of these results to repository conditions, however, requires some comparison of the physical conditions of the different fuels. The surface area of LWR fuel that could potentially be exposed to repository groundwater is estimated to be approximately 100 times greater than HSNF. Therefore, when compared on the basis of mass, which is more relevant to repository conditions, the HSNF and LWR spent fuel dissolve at similar rates

  13. A Proposal for Geologic Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental Zero-State and Subsequent Monitoring Definition - First Lessons Learned from the French Environment Observatory - 13188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landais, Patrick; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Mariotti, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining a reference state of the environment before the beginning of construction work for a geological repository is essential as it will be useful for further monitoring during operations and beyond, thus keeping a memory of the original environmental state. The area and the compartments of the biosphere to be observed and monitored as well as the choice of the markers (e.g. bio-markers, biodiversity, quality of the environment, etc.) to be followed must be carefully selected. In parallel, the choice and selection of the environmental monitoring systems (i.e. scientific and technical criteria, social requirements) will be of paramount importance for the evaluation of the perturbations that could be induced during the operational phase of the repository exploitation. This paper presents learning points of the French environment observatory located in the Meuse/Haute-Marne that has been selected for studying the feasibility of the underground disposal of high level wastes in France. (authors)

  14. Proposed method for assigning metric tons of heavy metal values to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    A proposed method is described for assigning an equivalent metric ton heavy metal (eMTHM) value to defense high-level waste forms to be disposed of in a geologic repository. This method for establishing a curie equivalency between defense high-level waste and irradiated commercial fuel is based on the ratio of defense fuel exposure to the typical commercial fuel exposure, MWd/MTHM. application of this technique to defense high-level wastes is described. Additionally, this proposed technique is compared to several alternate calculations for eMTHM. 15 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  15. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available.

  16. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of borosilicate glass defense high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable specifically to the normal borosilicate glass product of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). They provide preliminary numerical values for the defense high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  17. Kansas energy, environment, and conservation: a geological overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Daniel F.

    2009-02-01

    The State of Kansas, as an energy-producing and agriculture-based state, faces problems in production of natural resources and potential pollution from their production. To coordinate information on the exploration, production, and use of coal, nuclear, petroleum, natural gas, hydro, wind, geothermal, coalbed methane, biofuel, solar, and other energy resources, the Kansas Energy Council and the University of Kansas Energy Research Center were created. Water, surface and subsurface, is the other important and maybe the most important natural resource in the welfare of the state. To ease the problems of contamination, situations are monitored by regulatory agencies: the Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, and Division of Water Resources of the Kansas Department of Agriculture. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kansas serves as the archive for energy and natural resource data and conducts research pertinent to the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources, including energy and water. The Kansas Energy Research Center coordinates and supports energy activities. The Kansas Water Office and the staff for the Kansas Water Authority are charged with water planning and preparing reports on water problems and possible solutions. The cost of preserving the environment in a relatively pristine state really is of no concern considering the possible consequences; living conditions should be preserved to assure future generations, a suitable, sustainable, stable environment. With all the dire predictions for the future and energy-producing and pollution problems, Kansas is a model state in this modern industrial age for protecting the environment and is a leader in conservation.

  18. Potential influence of organic compounds on the transport of radionuclides from a geologic repository. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silviera, D.J.

    1981-03-01

    This study identifies organic compounds that may be present in a repository and outlines plausible interactions and mechanisms that may influence the forms and chemical behavior of these compounds. A review of the literature indicates that large quantities of organic radioactive wastes are generated by the nuclear industry and if placed in a repository could increase or decrease the leach rate and sorption characteristics of waste radionuclides. The association of radionuclides with organic matter can render the nuclides soluble or insoluble depending on the particular nuclide and such parameters as the pH, Eh, and temperature of the hydrogeologic system as well as the properties of the organic compounds themselves. 44 references.

  19. Potential influence of organic compounds on the transport of radionuclides from a geologic repository. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silviera, D.J.

    1981-03-01

    This study identifies organic compounds that may be present in a repository and outlines plausible interactions and mechanisms that may influence the forms and chemical behavior of these compounds. A review of the literature indicates that large quantities of organic radioactive wastes are generated by the nuclear industry and if placed in a repository could increase or decrease the leach rate and sorption characteristics of waste radionuclides. The association of radionuclides with organic matter can render the nuclides soluble or insoluble depending on the particular nuclide and such parameters as the pH, Eh, and temperature of the hydrogeologic system as well as the properties of the organic compounds themselves. 44 references

  20. The Stability of Magnetite and its Significance as a Passivating Film in the Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, Hans-Peter

    2004-01-01

    A literature review was made in order to highlight if magnetite could be formed as a passivating film on iron in the expected repository environment. The possibility to form other types of passivating films has also been regarded, e.g. other iron oxides or mixed oxides of iron and copper and also sulfides. The conditions for the formation of different types of films have been discussed as well as their compositions and properties. It is concluded that magnetite could certainly be formed on iron at repository combinations of Eh and pH in the absence of sulphide and chloride. However, magnetite could easily be outnumbered by other solid phases that could be formed at the simultaneous presence of copper. CuFeO 2 is such a phase that could appear in a simple Fe-Cu-O-H system. As soon as sulphide and chloride are present other phases like CuFeS 2 could also be responsible for the passivation of iron. The probability that magnetite is the passivating film on cast iron at the actual conditions is therefore not very large. It is more likely that the passivating film instead consists of CuFeO 2 and/or CuFeS 2 , the latter depending on the concentration of sulphur in the system. The protective ability of the alternate compounds as passivating films could be discussed. A suggested ranking order of the protective ability is given in the discussion part. If magnetite is not stable, the integrity of the cast iron insert could therefore in such cases be dependent on the protection by less effective passivating substances. The hypothesis of the formation and nature of alternative passivating films should be tested at relevant conditions in laboratory experiments

  1. Long Term Behaviour of Cementitious Materials in the Korean Repository Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.-W.; Kim, C.-L.

    2013-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is a national task required for sustainable generation of nuclear power and for energy self-reliance in Korea. After the selection of the final candidate site for low- and intermediate-level waste (LILW) disposal in Korea, a construction and operation license was issued for the Wolsong LILW Disposal Center (WLDC) for the first stage of disposal. Underground silo type disposal has been determined for the initial phase. The engineered barrier system of the disposal silo consists of waste packages, disposal containers, backfills, and a concrete lining. Main objective of our study in this IAEA-CRP is to investigate closure concepts and cementitious backfill materials for the closure of silos. For this purpose, characterisation of cementitious materials, development of silo closure concept, and evaluation of long-term behaviour of cementitious materials, including concrete degradation in repository environment, have been carried out. The overall implementation plan for the CRP comprises performance testing for the physic-chemical properties of cementitious materials, degradation modelling of concrete structures, comparisons of performance for silo closure options, radionuclide transport modelling (considering concrete degradation in repository conditions), and the implementation of an input parameter database and quality assurance for safety/performance assessment. In particular, the concrete degradation modelling study has been focused on the corrosion of reinforcement steel induced by chloride attack, which was of primary concern in the safety assessment of the WLDC. A series of electrochemical experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen, pH, and Cl on the corrosion rate of reinforcing steel in a concrete structure saturated with groundwater. Laboratory-scale experiments and a thermodynamic modelling were performed to understand the porosity change of cement pastes, which were prepared using

  2. Selection of Corrosion Resistant Materials for Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.B. Rebak

    2006-08-28

    Several countries are considering geological repositories to dispose of nuclear waste. The environment of most of the currently considered repositories will be reducing in nature, except for the repository in the US, which is going to be oxidizing. For the reducing repositories, alloys such as carbon steel, stainless steels and titanium are being evaluated. For the repository in the US, some of the most corrosion resistant commercially available alloys are being investigated. This paper presents a summary of the behavior of the different materials under consideration for the repositories and the current understanding of the degradation modes of the proposed alloys in ground water environments from the point of view of general corrosion, localized corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking.

  3. Pre-construction geologic section along the cross drift through the potential high-level radioactive waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, C.J.; Day, W.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Juan, C.S.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Site Characterization effort for the US Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project, tunnels excavated by tunnel boring machines provide access to the volume of rock that is under consideration for possible underground storage of high-level nuclear waste beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Exploratory Studies Facility, a 7.8-km-long, 7.6-m-diameter tunnel, has been excavated, and a 2.8-km-long, 5-m-diameter Cross Drift will be excavated in 1998 as part of the geologic, hydrologic and geotechnical evaluation of the potential repository. The southwest-trending Cross Drift branches off of the north ramp of the horseshoe-shaped Exploratory Studies Facility. This report summarizes an interpretive geologic section that was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project as a tool for use in the design and construction of the Cross Drift

  4. Retention and radionuclide migration mechanisms in the environment of a radioactive waste repository in granitic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rancon, D.; Miara, P; Vinson, J.M.; Petronin, J.C.; Dozol, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A laboratory pre-determination of retention mechanisms of radionuclides migrating outside the primary waste containers in repository surroundings was started up. Backfillings materials (clay and sand) as well as granite and its weathering products are concerned here. A method allowing the evaluation of the sorption and desorption of radionuclides of the surfaces of fractures by measuring surface retention coefficients, had initially been started up as well as a laboratory device developed for experiments in a reducing environment. The experiments have consisted of studying the sorbing properties of granite minerals of Auriat and its weathering products and of determining the retention of Np, Pu, AM, CS and Sr on the surface fractures of this granite. The influence of a reducing environment on the behaviour of activities has been studied. Complementary percolation tests have also been carried out on clays, at raised temperature and under irradiation. These experiments have enabled a deeper knowledge of retention mechanisms, the taking of parametric sensitivity measurements and the preparation of elaborating more performing experimental devices which included the parameters needed for a realistic simulation of transfer phenomena

  5. Characterization of Swelling Clays as Components of the Engineered Barrier System for Geological Repositories. Results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project 2002-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    At the request of the Member States, the IAEA coordinates research into subjects of common interest in the context of the peaceful application of nuclear technology. The coordinated research projects (CRPs) are intended to promote knowledge and technology transfer between Member States and are largely focused on subjects of prime interest to the international nuclear community. This report presents the results of a CRP carried out between 2002 and 2007 on the subject of swelling clays proposed for use as a component in the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the multibarrier concept for disposal of radioactive waste. In 2002, under the auspices of the IAEA, a number of Member States came together to form a Network of Centres of Excellence on Training in and Demonstration of Waste Disposal Technologies in Underground Research Facilities (URF Network). This network identified the general subject of the application of high swelling clays to seal repositories for radioactive waste, with specific emphasis on the isolation of high level radioactive waste from the biosphere, as being suitable for a CRP. Existing concepts for geological repositories for high level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel require the use of EBSs to ensure effective isolation of the radioactive waste. There are two major materials proposed for use in the EBS, swelling clay based materials and cementitious/concrete materials. These materials will be placed between the perimeter of the excavation and the waste container to fill the existing gap and ensure isolation of the waste within the canister (also referred to as a container in some EBS concepts) by supporting safety through retardation and confinement. Cementitious materials are industrially manufactured to consistent standards and are readily available in most locations and therefore their evaluation is of less value to Member States than that of swelling clays. There exists a considerable range of programme development regarding

  6. The Use of Numerical Models in Support of Site Characterization and Performance Assessment Studies of Geological Repositories. Results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project 2005-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    The siting, development and operation of waste disposal facilities, and the related safety issues, have been described in many IAEA publications. The safe management and disposal of radioactive waste from the nuclear fuel cycle remains a necessary condition for future development of nuclear energy. In particular, the disposal of high level waste and spent nuclear fuel in geological repositories, despite having been studied worldwide over the past several decades, still requires full scale demonstration through safe implementation, as planned at the national level in Finland and Sweden by 2020 and 2023, respectively, and in France by 2025. Safety assessment techniques are currently applicable to potential facility location and development through a quite large range of approaches and methodologies. By implementing research activities through coordinated research projects (CRPs), the IAEA enables research institutes in both developing and developed Member States to collaborate on research topics of common interest. In response to requests by several Member States in different networks and platforms dealing with waste disposal, in 2005 a CRP on The Use of Numerical Models in Support of Site Characterization and Performance Assessment Studies of Geological Repositories was proposed and developed to transfer modelling expertise and numerical simulation technology to countries needing them for their national nuclear waste management programmes. All Member States involved in this CRP have acquired the scientific basis for, and expertise in, the site characterization process, including test design, data analysis, model calibration, model validation, predictive modelling, sensitivity analysis and uncertainty propagation analysis. This expertise is documented in this publication, in which numerical modelling is used to address the pertinent issue of site characterization and its impact on safety, using data and information from a potential repository site

  7. Impacts of new developments in partitioning and transmutation on the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramspott, L.D.; Jor-Shan Choi; Halsey, W.; Pasternak, A.; Cotton, T.; Burns, J.; McCabe, A.; Colglazier, W.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1992-03-01

    During the 1970s, the United States and other countries thoroughly evaluated the options for the safe and final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The worldwide scientific community concluded that deep geologic disposal was clearly the most technically feasible alternative. They also ranked the partitioning and transmutation (P-T) of radionuclides among the least favored options. A 1982 report by the International Atomic Energy Agency summarized the key reasons for that ranking: ''Since the long-term hazards are already low, there is little incentive to reduce them further by P-T. Indeed the incremental costs of introducing P-T appear to be unduly high in relation to the prospective benefits.'' Recently, the delays encountered by the US geologic disposal program for HLW, along with advanced in the development of P-T concepts, have led some to propose P-T as a means of reducing the long-term risks from the radioactive wastes that require disposal and thus making it easier to site, license, and build a geologic repository. This study examines and evaluates the effects that introducing P-T would have on the US geologic disposal program

  8. Development of geological disposal system; localization of element cost data and cost evaluation on the HLW repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Sik; Kim, Kil Jung; Yang, Young Jin; Kim, Sung Chun [KOPEC, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    To estimate Total Life Cycle Cost (TSLCC) for Korea HLW Repository through localization of element cost data, we review and re-organize each basic element cost data for reference repository system, localize various element cost and finally estimate TSLCC considering economic parameters. As results of the study, TSLCC is estimated as 17,167,689 million won, which includes costs for site preparation, surface facilities, underground facilities and management/integration. Since HLW repository Project is an early stage of pre-conceptual design at present, the information of design and project information are not enough to perform cost estimate and cost localization for the Project. However, project cost structure is re-organized based on the local condition and Total System Life Cycle Cost is estimated using the previous cost data gathered from construction experience of the local nuclear power plant. Project results can be used as basic reference data to assume total construction cost for the local HLW repository and should be revised to more reliable cost data with incorporating detail project design information into the cost estimate in a future. 20 refs. (Author)

  9. Study of an optimization approach for a disposal tunnel layout, taking into account the geological environment with spatially heterogeneous characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Yasuhiro; Toida, Masaru; Yanagizawa, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    The geological environment has spatially heterogeneous characteristics with varied host rock types, fractures and so on. In this case the generic disposal tunnel layout, which has been designed by JNC, is not the most suitable for HLW disposal in Japan. The existence of spatially heterogeneous characteristics means that in the repository region there exist sub-regions that are more favourable from the perspective of long-term safety and ones that are less favourable. In order that the spatially heterogeneous environment itself may be utilized most effectively as a natural barrier system, an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout is required. Focusing on the geological environment with spatially heterogeneous characteristics, the authors have developed an alternative design of disposal tunnel layout. The alternative design adopts an optimization approach using a variable disposal tunnel layout. The optimization approach minimizes the number of locations where major water-conducting fractures are intersected, and maximizes the number of emplacement locations for waste packages. This paper will outline the variable disposal tunnel layout and its applicability.

  10. Development of a permanent geological environment model of Kazan city aimed to solve various engineering-geological problems (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, N.; Latypov, A.; Shevelev, A.; Khuzin, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article discusses the composition, structure and operation principles of a digital geological environment model for the urban area located in the valley of a large lowland river (the Volga). The model is implemented in ESRI (ArcView and ArcGis) and MapInfo software environments. The basis of the model is the data on the composition and physical and mechanical properties of soils, the information about ground waters and industrial loads. The model has been used to conduct zoning of soil conditions, groundwater aggressivity to the materials of underground structures. Also, the areas of existing and possible exogenous geological processes (flooding, karst, suffusion, erosion, landslides) have been identified. According to the model, it is offered to evaluate the stability of geological environment to human impact using typification on the soil conditions based on the pre-zoning of water content and the degree of drainage. A new monitoring system of dangerous exogenous geological processes has been developed, the impact of exogenous processes on the residential buildings has been estimated, and, also, the analysis and evaluation of geological risks have been performed. According to the data on the composition, density and water saturation of soils, the stability of the ground bases to a dynamic impact has been estimated.

  11. Nuclear waste repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloman, B.D.; Cameron, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the geopolitics of nuclear waste disposal in the USA. Constitutional choice and social equity perspectives are used to argue for a more open and just repository siting program. The authors assert that every potential repository site inevitably contains geologic, environmental or other imperfections and that the political process is the correct one for determining sites selected

  12. Literature study on the state-of-the-art for the marking of deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buser, M.

    2010-05-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the results of a literature study on the marking of repositories for radioactive wastes. Knowledge gained and ideas discussed in Switzerland on the subject are collated and discussed. Various associated topics such as safety, risk and marking technologies are examined. 28 topics in six thematic blocks are presented and discussed. Not only marking concepts are discussed, but also questions on human and society-related factors, traditionalising information transfer and susceptibility to wrong interpretation are examined. The author is of the opinion that no reusable materials be used either in the repositories themselves or for their marking in order to help prevent future generations coming into contact with the dangerous wastes

  13. Renewing UPEI’s Institutional Repository: New Features for an Islandora-based Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Moses

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In October of 2012, the University of Prince Edward Island (UPEI launched an updated version of IslandScholar, UPEI’s Institutional repository. The repository, available from http://www.islandscholar.ca, is built on Islandora 6 (http://islandora.ca. The repository includes a number of new features, including: CSL integration for ingest, site display, and export of user-specific bibliographies; MADS-based Authority integration for Departments and Authors (with authorities created automatically using LDAP; batch ingest from Refworks (crosswalked to MODS for storage in the repository; embargo and statistics functions. Features from the first version of IslandScholar were also migrated to the new site, including Sherpa/Romeo integration (which provides just-in-time information about open access policies.

  14. Estimation of the applicability on the disposal technology under real geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hiroya; Tanai, Kenji; Kawakami, Susumu

    2005-09-01

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Development Institute (JNC) published the possibility of the geological disposal independent geological environment in Japan and its scientific basis in H12 progress report. The overall research and development on geological disposal after FY2000 were planned based on the review results of H12 report and initiated the two major goals; Demonstration of applicability of disposal technology to specific geological environments, and further understanding of long-term system behavior. The approach to the first goal for the R and D program from FY2000 to FY2005 is to establish the methodology integrated with disposal technology and geoscientific research by the application of the technology developed until FY2000 on geological environment understood in surface based investigation phase in URL project. This report is described the applicability and future subject derived from the results to apply the design methods of geological disposal developed until FY2000 to 'Real' geological environments understood by the surface investigation phase in Horonobe and Mizunami URL projects. The design methods of geological disposal were reviewed based on the recent knowledge and the advertences were identified. Then, the parameters for virtual design of engineered barrier system, backfill, deposition hole and tunnel were set up based on the real geological environments in Horonobe and Mizunami. The applicability of the design methods and specification showed in the H12 progress report are estimated based on the results and future subjects are identified. (author)

  15. Selection of the situations taken into account for the safety demonstration of a repository in deep geological formations - French regulatory guidance and IPSN modelling experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.; Greneche, D.

    1993-01-01

    A regulatory guidance has been recently set up in France for the safety assessment of radwaste deep geological disposal: the present paper deals with the methodology related to the safety demonstration of such a disposal, particularly the situations to be taken into account to address the potential evolution of the repository under natural or human induced events. This approach, based on a selection of events considered as reasonably envisageable, relies on a reference scenario characterized by a great stability of the geological formation and on hypothetical situations corresponding to the occurrence of random events of natural origin or of conventional nature. The implementation of this methodology within the framework of the IPSN (Protection and Nuclear Safety Institute, CEA) participation in the CEC EVEREST project is addressed. This programme consists in the evaluation of the sensitivity of the radiological consequences associated to deep radwaste disposal systems to the different elements of the performance assessment (scenario characteristics, phenomena, physico-chemical parameters) in three types of geological formations (granite, salt and clay).(author). 11 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Initial design process of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the final disposal of high level wastes is to isolate the waste from the biosphere for extremely long periods of time by emplacement of wastes into deep stable geological formations. Several geological formations have been considered as candidate host environments for high level waste disposal and several techniques have been developed for repository design. In this study, interrelationships of main parameters of a general repository design have been defined and effective parameters are shown at each step. Initial design process is based on the long term stability of underground openings as disposal galleries. For this reason, this design process includes two main analyses: mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. Each of the analysis systems is directly related to each other by technical precautions. As a result of this design process, general information about the acceptable depth of the repository, layout and emplacement pattern can be taken. Final design study can be established on the result of initial design process. (author)

  17. A study on site characterization of the deep geological environment around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kw; Kim, Gy; Koh, Yk; Kim, Ks; Choi, Jw

    2009-01-01

    KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) is a small scale research tunnel which was constructed from 2005 to 2006 at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). To understand the deep geological environment around KURT area, the surface geological surveys such as lineaments analysis and geophysical survey and borehole investigation were performed. For this study, a 3 dimensional geological model has been constructed using the surface and borehole geological data. The regional lineaments were determined using a topographical map and the surface geophysical survey data were collected for the geological model. In addition, statistical methods were applied to fracture data from borehole televiewer loggings to identify fracture zones in boreholes. For a hydro geological modeling, fixed interval hydraulic tests were carried out for all boreholes. The results of the hydraulic tests were analyzed and classified by the fracture zone data of geological model. At result, the hydrogeological elements were decided and the properties of each element were assessed around the KURT area

  18. Final report on uncertainties in the detection, measurement, and analysis of selected features pertinent to deep geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Uncertainties with regard to many facets of repository site characterization have not yet been quantified. This report summarizes the state of knowledge of uncertainties in the measurement of porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and hydraulic gradient; uncertainties associated with various geophysical field techniques; and uncertainties associated with the effects of exploration and exploitation activities in bedded salt basins. The potential for seepage through a depository in bedded salt or shale is reviewed and, based upon the available data, generic values for the hydraulic conductivity and porosity of bedded salt and shale are proposed

  19. Finite element modeling of copper coated used fuel containers for long-term storage in a deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, C.; Meguid, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) is developing a Used Fuel Container (UFC) optimized for CANDU fuel with an integrally bonded copper coating corrosion barrier. This paper demonstrates a validated finite element coating model, which can accurately predict the response of the UFC's steel-copper coating composite. Tensile, adhesion, and three-point bend tests were conducted for copper cold spray and electrodeposited coatings. The nonlinear finite element model accurately predicted the response of three different coating types, including cracking and delamination failure mechanisms, beyond the design basis loadings. The model will further be utilized to evaluate alternative UFC designs under anticipated repository conditions to assess safety margins. (author)

  20. Conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements for disposal of glass commercial high-level waste forms in salt geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    The conceptual waste package interim product specifications and data requirements presented are applicable to the reference glass composition described in PNL-3838 and carbon steel canister described in ONWI-438. They provide preliminary numerical values for the commercial high-level waste form parameters and properties identified in the waste form performance specification for geologic isolation in salt repositories. Subject areas treated include containment and isolation, operational period safety, criticality control, waste form/production canister identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses and regulatory requirements become available. 13 references, 1 figure

  1. Monitoring of the land and geological environment condition in the Eupatorijska arroyo in Dnipropetrovsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogachenko L.D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the condition of the land and the geological environment in the Eupatorijska arroyo, engineering-geological estimation of the territory of the arroyo is carried out, negative engineering-geological processes and phenomena are defined. It was found that due to the negative technogenic impact in conjunction with natural and climatic factors, the slopes under study can be considered as those under the risk of landslides and therefore are in need of engineering protection.

  2. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs

  3. Information needs for characterization of high-level waste repository sites in six geologic media. Volume 1. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1985-05-01

    Evaluation of the geologic isolation of radioactive materials from the biosphere requires an intimate knowledge of site geologic conditions, which is gained through precharacterization and site characterization studies. This report presents the results of an intensive literature review, analysis and compilation to delineate the information needs, applicable techniques and evaluation criteria for programs to adequately characterize a site in six geologic media. These media, in order of presentation, are: granite, shale, basalt, tuff, bedded salt and dome salt. Guidelines are presented to assess the efficacy (application, effectiveness, and resolution) of currently used exploratory and testing techniques for precharacterization or characterization of a site. These guidelines include the reliability, accuracy and resolution of techniques deemed acceptable, as well as cost estimates of various field and laboratory techniques used to obtain the necessary information. Guidelines presented do not assess the relative suitability of media. 351 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  5. Swiss plans for deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes - Basics for communication at the localities affected; Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager. Forschungsprojekt 'Kommunikation mit der Gesellschaft': Grundlagen fuer die Kommunikation in den Standortregionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M.

    2009-06-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the concept of how information concerning deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes should be presented and communicated to those in the areas which have been designated as potential sites for the repositories. Communication basics based on scientific knowledge in this area are discussed. The importance of a concept for general communication and risk-communication as a particular challenge are discussed. Trust and transparency are quoted as being indispensable in this connection. Ways of dealing with various target audiences and the media are examined. The report is concluded with a check-list that deals with important questions arising from the process of communicating information on deep geological repositories for radioactive wastes

  6. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T

    2003-01-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  7. AN EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TITANIUM ALLOYS IN US HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. De; K. Mon; G. Gordon; D. Shoesmith; F. Hua

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of titanium alloys in environments anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository with particular emphasis on the. effect of the oxide passive film on the hydrogen absorption process of titanium alloys being evaluated. The titanium alloys considered in this review include Ti 2, 5 , 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24 and 29. In general, the concentration of hydrogen in a titanium alloy can increase due to absorption of atomic hydrogen produced from passive general corrosion of that alloy or galvanic coupling of it to a less noble metal. It is concluded that under the exposure conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain repository, the HIC of titanium drip shield will not occur because there will not be sufficient hydrogen in the metal even after 10,000 years of emplacement. Due to the conservatisms adopted in the current evaluation, this assessment is considered very conservative

  8. AN EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING SUSCEPTIBILITY OF TITANIUM ALLOYS IN US HIGH-LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. De; K. Mon; G. Gordon; D. Shoesmith; F. Hua

    2006-02-21

    This paper evaluates hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC) susceptibility of titanium alloys in environments anticipated in the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository with particular emphasis on the. effect of the oxide passive film on the hydrogen absorption process of titanium alloys being evaluated. The titanium alloys considered in this review include Ti 2, 5 , 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, 24 and 29. In general, the concentration of hydrogen in a titanium alloy can increase due to absorption of atomic hydrogen produced from passive general corrosion of that alloy or galvanic coupling of it to a less noble metal. It is concluded that under the exposure conditions anticipated in the Yucca Mountain repository, the HIC of titanium drip shield will not occur because there will not be sufficient hydrogen in the metal even after 10,000 years of emplacement. Due to the conservatisms adopted in the current evaluation, this assessment is considered very conservative.

  9. Radon in underground waters as a natural analogue to study the escape of CO2 in geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, A; Ruano Sánchez, A B; de la Torre Pérez, J; Jurado Vargas, M

    2015-11-01

    Activity concentrations of dissolved (222)Rn and (226)Ra were measured in several underground aquifers, which are candidates for repositories or for the study of analogue natural escapes of CO2. The concentration of both radionuclides in water was determined using liquid scintillation counting. The values obtained for the (222)Rn concentrations varied from 0 to 150 Bq l(-1), while the levels of (226)Ra were in general very low. This indicates that (222)Rn is coming from the decay of the undissolved (226)Ra existing in the rocks and deep layers of the aquifers, being later transported by diffusion in water. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. SOME ASPECTS OF THE STUDENTS' READINESS TO ACTIVITY IN AN ENVIRONMENT OF INSTITUTIONAL REPOSITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oleksyuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated the state of development of specific digital libraries – institutional repositories. In the article described the features of their use in scientific research work of the students. This research contains an interview. It identified the major trends of use e-information in the studying and scientific work.

  11. Development and implementation of an institutional repository within a science, engineering and technology environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, Adèle

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available of the policies that are required by an organization and its main stakeholders. These policies form an essential part of the development of an information system. Issues such as acceptance, usage, population, and management of the repository are reported on...

  12. Assessing the speciation and the biogeochemical processes affecting the mobility of selenium from a geological repository of radioactive wastes to the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seby, F.; Potin-Gautier, M.; Donard, O.F.X.

    1998-01-01

    In the scope of the studies carried out on the geological disposal of radioactive wastes, it is essential to assess the migration behaviour of long lived radionuclides as a function of the physicochemical conditions (pH, redox potential, temperature, pressure,...), the nature of the host rocks and the chemical composition of the underground waters. In this study, we have considered the case of selenium which is an element of importance because of its long lived under its 79 Se isotope. A review is first performed on the behaviour of selenium from available studies in natural systems in considering particularly the inorganic Se forms. Later on, these results are transposed to the physicochemical conditions occurring in the vicinity of a geological repository. The most stable forms in this context would be Se(-II), Se(-II), Se(IV) and Se(IV). Several parameters can govern the mobility of these Se species such as the pH, the potential of the water and the presence of solid phases containing iron, manganese or aluminium (oxy)hydroxides on which Se(IV) can be sorbed. Selenide and selenite mobility can also be retarded by precipitation reactions. This is particularly true for Se(-II) in presence of iron(II) and sulfides. The hypothetical presence of microorganisms is also considered because of its importance on the fate of the Se species. (authors)

  13. Regional and Site-Scale Hydrogeologic Analyses of a Proposed Canadian Deep Geologic Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.; Sykes, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface. This paper describes a regional-scale and linked site-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model. The work illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier and provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data. The structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock were defined by the Ontario Petroleum Institute's Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library borehole logs covering Southern Ontario and by site-specific data. The regional- scale domain encompasses an 18,500 km2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The site- scale spatial domain encompasses an area of approximately 361 km2 with the repository at its centre. Its boundary conditions are determined using both the nested model approach and an embedment approach. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing pore fluids with high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. Site-specific data indicate that the Ordovician is under-pressured relative to the surface elevation while the Cambrian is over-pressured. The computational sequence for the analyses involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density-dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Sensitivity

  14. The Influences of Geologic Depositional Environments on Sand Boil Development, Tara Wildlife Lodge Area in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 16 -7 The Influences of Geologic Depositional Environments on Sand Boil Development, Tara Wildlife Lodge Area in...client/default. ERDC/GSL TR-16-7 March 2016 The Influences of Geologic Depositional Environments on Sand Boil Development, Tara Wildlife Lodge...report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement

  15. Preparing for Construction and Operation of Geological Repositories - Challenges to the Regulator and the Implementer. Proceedings of the Joint RF/IGSC Workshop, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 25-27 January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    More radioactive waste management programmes are advancing to a new repository development phase and are preparing for the application of their construction license of a deep geological disposal facility. Such developmental progress brought along significant changes to repository development affecting both the waste management programme implementers and the regulators. New issues impacting both the regulatory authorities and the future facility operators include operational safety and reliability, increased demands on human resources, activities to ensure quality assurance, the additional requirements on information management system and management plans for construction work. To respond to new arising issues, the Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has agreed, as stated in the 2011-2016 Strategic Plan, that the Committee will focus on constituencies for the preparation of the construction and operation license of future deep geological repositories. In addition, the Committee will consider operational aspects of repository implementation, both connected to the operational safety and the impact on the post-closure long-term safety. In particular, the RWMC has approved the RWMC Regulator's Forum (RWMC-RF) and the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) to hold a joint workshop to explore challenging issues and practices in preparing for the application of the construction license of a geological repository. The joint workshop titled 'Preparing for Construction and Operation of Geological Repositories - Challenges to the Regulator and the Implementer' was held on January 25-27, 2012 at the NEA premises in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. The key objective of the workshop was to identify, and exchange experience on, the current and future challenges faced by the implementers and the regulators when preparing for their application of a construction license of a geological repository. The workshop gave a

  16. Operational safety of geological disposal: IRSN project 'EXREV' for developing a safety assessment strategy for the operation and reversibility of a geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichauer, M.; Pellegrini, D.; Serres, C.; Besnus, F.

    2014-01-01

    A high-level waste geological disposal facility is envisioned by the legislator in the French Planning Act no. 2006-739 of 28 June 2006. This act sets major milestones for the operator (Andra) in 2013 (public debate), 2015 (licensing) and 2025 (operation). In the framework of the regulatory review process, IRSN's mission is to conduct an assessment of the safety case provided by Andra at every stage of the process for the French regulator, namely the Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). In 2005, IRSN gathered more than twenty years of research and expertise in order to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the 'Dossier 2005' prepared by Andra, related to the feasibility of a geological disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation. At this time, the description of the operational phase was only at a preliminary stage, but this step paved the way for developing an assessment strategy of the operational phase. In this perspective, IRSN set up the EXREV project in 2008 in order to build up a doctrine and to identify key safety issues to be dealt with. (authors)

  17. Post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, I.C.S.; Rodwell, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    The post-closure resaturation of a deep radioactive waste repository has been modelled for a number of generic disposal concepts. A combination of numerical ground water flow simulations and analytical calculations has been used to investigate the variation of repository fluid pressure and degree of water saturation with time, and to determine the factors influencing resaturation times. The host rock permeability was found to be the most important determining factor. For geological environments regarded as likely for a waste repository, resaturation is predicted to be a short term process compared with gas generation and contaminant migration timescales. (author)

  18. Geologic considerations for urban planning in seismic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, R.C.

    1988-12-01

    Even though it is desirable to visualize the performance of an entire metropolitan centre during earthquake occurrences as part of local hazards mitigation programme, yet these centres still remain vulnerable to major seismic activity. Geological considerations lack in urban planning and do not account for hazards mitigation. This may also be due to the involvement of several interdependent activities, like services, functions, life line elements, etc. The failure of any one of these can make the entire metropolitan area inoperative. It is recommended that multidisciplinary teams should undertake zoning studies for use in the future growth areas of Indian urban centres. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories. Draft 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, D.C.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

    1984-11-01

    This report is concerned with evaluating the health and safety aspects of defense waste disposal during both the operational and the post-closure phase of a repository. In each case, the evaluation includes three aspects: (1) an identification and discussion of the various factors which are expected to influence the health and safety impacts of the different disposal options for defense high-level waste, (2) an identification of the general assumptions which were used in estimating potential health and safety effects and a selection of appropriate models for estimating the health and safety impacts of the various disposal options, and (3) an analysis of the health and safety impacts for each disposal option for defense high-level waste. This report describes our initial results in these areas. Based on the evaluations presented in this report, our initial conclusion is that the potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options that might be chosen for defense high-level waste, primarily because of the need to meet standards in all cases. The differences in estimated health and safety aspects for different options are in all cases much smaller than the uncertainties which will be associated with realistic estimates of these impacts.

  20. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research and education center for Michigan, implemented through the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education, part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, David A. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Harrison, William B. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States)

    2014-01-28

    The Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education (MGRRE), part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University (WMU) at Kalamazoo, Michigan, established MichCarb—a geological carbon sequestration resource center by: • Archiving and maintaining a current reference collection of carbon sequestration published literature • Developing statewide and site-specific digital research databases for Michigan’s deep geological formations relevant to CO2 storage, containment and potential for enhanced oil recovery • Producing maps and tables of physical properties as components of these databases • Compiling all information into a digital atlas • Conducting geologic and fluid flow modeling to address specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery, including compiling data for geological and fluid flow models, formulating models, integrating data, and running the models; applying models to specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery • Conducting technical research on CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery through basic and applied research of characterizing Michigan oil and gas and saline reservoirs for CO2 storage potential volume, injectivity and containment. Based on our research, we have concluded that the Michigan Basin has excellent saline aquifer (residual entrapment) and CO2/Enhanced oil recovery related (CO2/EOR; buoyant entrapment) geological carbon sequestration potential with substantial, associated incremental oil production potential. These storage reservoirs possess at least satisfactory injectivity and reliable, permanent containment resulting from associated, thick, low permeability confining layers. Saline aquifer storage resource estimates in the two major residual entrapment, reservoir target zones (Lower Paleozoic Sandstone and Middle Paleozoic carbonate and sandstone reservoirs) are in excess of 70-80 Gmt (at an overall 10% storage efficiency factor; an approximately

  1. The potential impact of geological environment on health status of residents of the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapant, S; Cvečková, V; Dietzová, Z; Fajčíková, K; Hiller, E; Finkelman, R B; Škultétyová, S

    2014-06-01

    In order to assess the potential impact of the geological environment on the health of the population of the Slovak Republic, the geological environment was divided into eight major units: Paleozoic, Crystalline, Carbonatic Mesozoic and basal Paleogene, Carbonatic-silicate Mesozoic and Paleogene, Paleogene Flysch, Neovolcanics, Neogene and Quaternary sediments. Based on these geological units, the databases of environmental indicators (chemical elements/parameters in groundwater and soils) and health indicators (concerning health status and demographic development of the population) were compiled. The geological environment of the Neogene volcanics (andesites and basalts) has been clearly documented as having the least favourable impact on the health of Slovak population, while Paleogene Flysch geological environment (sandstones, shales, claystones) has the most favourable impact. The most significant differences between these two geological environments were observed, especially for the following health indicators: SMRI6364 (cerebral infarction and strokes) more than 70 %, SMRK (digestive system) 55 %, REI (circulatory system) and REE (endocrine and metabolic system) almost 40 % and REC (malignant neoplasms) more than 30 %. These results can likely be associated with deficit contents of Ca and Mg in groundwater from the Neogene volcanics that are only about half the level of Ca and Mg in groundwater of the Paleogene sediments.

  2. Approaches for treating uncertainty in the long term performance assessment of a geological waste repository in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marivoet, J.; Volckaert, G.; Wemaere, I.; Mallants, D.

    1998-01-01

    In Belgium the current strategy for high-level waste disposal is the geological disposal in a plastic clay layer. The performance assessment approach consists of a systematic scenario selection based on the FEP (features, events and processes) methodology followed by consequence analyses for the selected scenarios. In these consequence analyses the different sources of uncertainty are systematically considered. For the normal evolution scenario, i.e. the scenario which includes all FEP's which are about certain to occur, a stochastic technique of the Monte Carlo type is applied for treating uncertainty. For the altered evolution scenarios a deterministic approach is generally used to evaluate the uncertainties on the long-term. In the case of altered evolution scenarios, comparisons of fluxes from the far field into the biosphere with those calculated for the normal evolution scenario are used, beside dose calculations, to evaluate the safety consequences. Some typical examples of the above approaches will be presented. (author)

  3. GIS for the needs of the Radioactive Waste Repository Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Mikšová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA is a state organisation responsible for the management of activities related to the disposal of all existing and future radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel classed as a waste in Czech Republic. Worldwide, a deep geological repository is considered the highest degree of safety for a nuclear waste disposal. Such a repository has to be built in a stable geological environment ensuring the isolation of the stored radioactive waste from the surrounding environment for a long period of time. The selection of suitable site for the deep geological repository construction is a complicated and long term process. Considering this fact and also in respect to an assumed volume of varied datasets the GIS RAWRA was established to ensure convenient management and availability of data containing spatial information.The system is based on ESRI (ArcInfo including extensions, ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Leica Geosystems (Image Analysis and Microsoft software (MS SQL Server. Resulting datasets from six recommended potentially suitable sites for the location of a geological repository have been incorporated into the geodatabase to date. The necessary analysis was made using ESRI software tools and, in addition, custom applications were developed including the metadata editor, etc. This analysis was carried out with respect to existing geological and non-geological criteria defined for a nuclear waste repository. Finally, all six investigated sites with a total area of 240 km2 were reduced in area, each of them resulting in an area of approximately 10km2 for further detailed characterisation.

  4. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Fraser (Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada)); Lilja, Christina (Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB (Sweden)); Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden)); Pitkaenen, Petteri; Vaehaenen, Marjut (Posiva Oy (Finland))

    2010-12-15

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid

  5. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F. [Integrity Corrosion Consulting Limited (Canada); Lilja, C. [Svensk Kaernbraenslehantering AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Molnlycke (Sweden); Pitkaenen, P.; Vaehaenen, M.

    2012-07-15

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  6. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Fraser; Lilja, Christina; Pedersen, Karsten; Pitkaenen, Petteri; Vaehaenen, Marjut

    2010-12-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid

  7. An update of the state-of-the-art report on the corrosion of copper under expected conditions in a deep geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Lilja, C.; Pedersen, K.; Pitkaenen, P.; Vaehaenen, M.

    2012-07-01

    Copper has been the corrosion barrier of choice for the canister in the Swedish and Finnish, nuclear waste disposal programmes for over 30 years. During that time many studies have been carried out on the corrosion behaviour of copper under conditions likely to exist in an underground nuclear waste repository located in the Fenno-Scandian bedrock. This review is a summary of what has been learnt about the long-term behaviour of the corrosion barrier during this period and what the implications of this knowledge are for the predicted service life of the canisters. The review is based on the existing knowledge from various nuclear waste management programs around the world and from the open literature. Various areas are considered: the expected evolution of the geochemical and microbiological conditions in the groundwater and of the repository environment, the thermodynamics of copper corrosion, corrosion during the operational phase and in the bentonite prior to saturation of the buffer by groundwater, general and localised corrosion following saturation of the compacted bentonite buffer, stress corrosion cracking, radiation effects, the implications of corrosion on the service life of the canister, and areas for further study. This report is an updated version of that originally published in 2001/2002. The original material has been supplemented by information from studies carried out over the last decade. The conclusion drawn from this review is that the original prediction made in 1978 of canister lifetimes exceeding 100,000 years remains valid. (orig.)

  8. Research and development of the geological environment data base management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kazuhiko

    1989-10-01

    PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation) has been carrying out investigation and research to understand characteristics of the geological environment throughout the country of Japan so as to prepare the fundamental data for evaluation of suitability of the entire geological environment. Being accumulated are a large quantity and variety of data on the geological environment which comprises the geology, lithology, geomechanics, geochemistry, geotectonic conditions and resource potential. It will be necessary hereafter to manage these data efficiently and apply them to comprehensive analysis to assess the framework of the geological environment of Japan. Thus it was decided that a computer aided data management system would be introduced to support extensively the task of experts in charge of investigation and evaluation of the geological environment of Japan. A basic design and a development plan of the system, named Geological Environment Data Base Management System, were made on the basis of task analysis and investigation on current technology of computer graphics which consists of the most important factor of the system development. The method of data management and the specification of functions to be realized were examined. The user-interface is designed in consideration of application of the system to presentation for public acceptance and operation by the unexperienced. The whole system is divided into seven subsystems and the entire program is compiled as an assembly of modules corresponding to each functions so that the system is applicable to partial reforming and functional expansion with the change of requirement to the system or the advance of computer technology in future. Only the input and output data format of each subsystems are standardized and unified to maintain the compatibility in the system. (author)

  9. The electrochemistry of carbon steel in simulated concrete pore water in boom clay repository environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas-Camacho O.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of corrosion damage of canisters to experimentally inaccessible times is vitally important in assessing various concepts for the disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste. Such prediction can only be made using deterministic models, whose predictions are constrained by the time-invariant natural laws. In this paper, we describe the measurement of experimental electrochemical data that will allow the prediction of damage to the carbon steel overpack of the super container in Belgium’s proposed Boom Clay repository by using the Point Defect Model (PDM. PDM parameter values are obtained by optimizing the model on experimental, wide-band electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data.

  10. Integrated modelling approach to simulate the long-term chemical evolution of cementitious materials in radioactive waste repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elakneswaran, Y.; Ishida, T.

    2015-01-01

    A multi-scale chemo-physics model called Durability Concrete Model (DuCOM) and the geochemical transport code PHREEQC were coupled to predict the long-term performance of cementitious materials in nuclear waste repository environment. The coupled model retains all the capability of each model and allows the prediction of the spatio-temporal variation of cement hydrate composition, pore water concentration, other hydration and pore structure properties, etc. simultaneously. In contrast to existing models, DuCOM-PHREEQC does not require physical or chemical properties of cementitious materials in advance as input parameters because these are calculated automatically in the model. The simulation result from DuCOM-PHREEQC system was verified with reported experimental data for total calcium content in cement paste exposed to pure water. The good agreement between the calculation and the experimental data indicates that the important features and processes have been included in the model for the assessment of cementitious materials in radioactive waste repository environment. Finally, the importance of the strong coupling among various processes and mechanisms in the DuCOM-PHREEQC system is discussed

  11. Geologic feasibility of selected chalk-bearing sequences within the conterminous United States with regard to siting of radioactive-waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzales, S.

    1975-11-01

    Various geologic and hydrologic parameters are evaluated in relation to assessing the potential for repository storage of high-level radioactive wastes within several stratigraphic sequences dominated by chalks and chalky limestones. The former lithology is defined as a carbonate rock consisting mainly of very fine-grained particles of micritic calcite. Although chalks also contain coarser-grained particles such as shells of fossil foraminifera and non-calcitic minerals like quartz, most contain more than 90 percent micritic material. The latter represents broken fossil coccolith plates. The chalk-dominated formations discussed are exposed and underlie two different physiographic provinces which nevertheless display a general similarity in both being regions of extensive plains. The Niobrara Formation occurs mainly within the Great Plains province, while the Austin Chalk of Texas and the Selma Group of Alabama and Mississippi are located in the western and eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, respectively. The preliminary assessment is that chalk-bearing sequences show some promise and are deserving of added consideration and evaluation. Containment for hundreds of thousands of years would seem possible given certain assumptions. The most promising units from the three studied are the Niobrara Formation and Selma Group. Regional and local conditions make the Austin more suspect.

  12. Geologic feasibility of selected chalk-bearing sequences within the conterminous United States with regard to siting of radioactive-waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.

    1975-11-01

    Various geologic and hydrologic parameters are evaluated in relation to assessing the potential for repository storage of high-level radioactive wastes within several stratigraphic sequences dominated by chalks and chalky limestones. The former lithology is defined as a carbonate rock consisting mainly of very fine-grained particles of micritic calcite. Although chalks also contain coarser-grained particles such as shells of fossil foraminifera and non-calcitic minerals like quartz, most contain more than 90 percent micritic material. The latter represents broken fossil coccolith plates. The chalk-dominated formations discussed are exposed and underlie two different physiographic provinces which nevertheless display a general similarity in both being regions of extensive plains. The Niobrara Formation occurs mainly within the Great Plains province, while the Austin Chalk of Texas and the Selma Group of Alabama and Mississippi are located in the western and eastern Gulf Coastal Plain, respectively. The preliminary assessment is that chalk-bearing sequences show some promise and are deserving of added consideration and evaluation. Containment for hundreds of thousands of years would seem possible given certain assumptions. The most promising units from the three studied are the Niobrara Formation and Selma Group. Regional and local conditions make the Austin more suspect

  13. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Wong

    2004-11-05

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M&O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes.

  14. Numerical model to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere from a geological repository of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo Lopez, A.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research is to simulate the isotopic and heat release and transport through the geosphere, from a geological repository of high level nuclear waste. in order to achieve it, different physical processes, that have to do with the problem, are considered: groundwater flow, radioactive decay, nuclide dissolution in groundwater, heat generation, mass and heat transport. Some of these phenomena are related among the, which allows to build a coupled model,which is the starting point to generate a FORTRAN code. The flow and transport models are developed in two spatial dimensions and are integrated in space by means of a finite volume method. The time integration is fulfilled by a θ-method. Moreover, the advection-diffusion equation is solved by two finite volume techniques. In the first one a linear interpolation is used whereas in the second it is used a quadratic one. Also, a consistency an stability study of both methods is carried out in order to compare their stability zones and the errors appearing. Stability is analysed by applying the von Neumann method, which is based upon Fourier series. Although it is a classical technique when dealing with finite-difference schemes, it is here applied to two finite volume schemes. (Author)

  15. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberid, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  16. FEBEX project: full-scale engineered barriers experiment for a deep geological repository for high level radioactive waste in crystalline host rock. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Barcala, J. M.; Campos, R.; Cuevas, A. M.; Fernandez, E.

    2000-01-01

    FEBEX has the multiple objective of demonstrating the feasibility of manufacturing, handling and constructing the engineered barriers and of developing codes for the thermo-hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-geochemical performance assessment of a deep geological repository for high level radioactive wastes. These objectives require integrated theoretical and experimental development work. The experimental work consists of three parts: an in situ test, a mock-up test and a series of laboratory tests. The experiments is based on the Spanish reference concept for crystalline rock, in which the waste capsules are placed horizontally in drifts surround by high density compacted bentonite blocks. In the two large-scale tests, the thermal effects of the wastes were simulated by means of heaters; hydration was natural in the in situ test and controlled in the mock-up test. The large-scale tests, with their monitoring systems, have been in operation for more than two years. the demonstration has been achieved in the in situ test and there are great expectation that numerical models sufficiently validated for the near-field performance assessment will be achieved. (Author)

  17. Status report on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes and geologic repository disposal of high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browning, R.E.; Bell, M.J.; Dragonette, K.S.; Johnson, T.C.; Roles, G.W.; Lohaus, P.H.; Regnier, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    On 27 December 1982, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended its regulations to provide specific requirements for licensing the land disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. The regulations establish performance objectives for land disposal of waste; technical requirements for the siting, design, operations, and closure activities for a near-surface disposal facility; technical requirements concerning waste form and classification that waste generators must meet for the land disposal of waste; institutional requirements; financial assurance requirements; and administrative and procedural requirements for licensing a disposal facility. Waste generators must comply with the waste form and classification provisions of the new rule, on 27 December 1983, one year later. During this implementation period, licensees must develop programmes to ensure compliance with the new waste form and classification provisions. The NRC is also promulgating regulations specifying the technical criteria for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological repositories. The proposed rule was published for public comment in July 1981. Public comments have been received and considered by the Commission staff. The Commission will soon approve and publish a revised final rule. While the final rule being considered by the Commission is fundamentally the same as the proposed rule, provisions have been added to permit flexibility in the application of numerical criteria, some detailed design requirements have been deleted, and other changes have been made in response to comments. The rule is consistent with the recently enacted Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. (author)

  18. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  19. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  20. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 1: Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  1. Development of Earthquake Ground Motion Input for Preclosure Seismic Design and Postclosure Performance Assessment of a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, NV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I. Wong

    2004-01-01

    This report describes a site-response model and its implementation for developing earthquake ground motion input for preclosure seismic design and postclosure assessment of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The model implements a random-vibration theory (RVT), one-dimensional (1D) equivalent-linear approach to calculate site response effects on ground motions. The model provides results in terms of spectral acceleration including peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and dynamically-induced strains as a function of depth. In addition to documenting and validating this model for use in the Yucca Mountain Project, this report also describes the development of model inputs, implementation of the model, its results, and the development of earthquake time history inputs based on the model results. The purpose of the site-response ground motion model is to incorporate the effects on earthquake ground motions of (1) the approximately 300 m of rock above the emplacement levels beneath Yucca Mountain and (2) soil and rock beneath the site of the Surface Facilities Area. A previously performed probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) (CRWMS M and O 1998a [DIRS 103731]) estimated ground motions at a reference rock outcrop for the Yucca Mountain site (Point A), but those results do not include these site response effects. Thus, the additional step of applying the site-response ground motion model is required to develop ground motion inputs that are used for preclosure and postclosure purposes

  2. Migration of fluids as a tool to evaluate the feasibility of the implantation of geological radioactive wastes repositories (RARN) in granitoid rocks: tests on granites submitted to natural deformation vs. not deformed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Nilo Henrique Balzani; Barbosa, Pedro Henrique Silva; Santos, Alanna Leite dos; Amorim, Lucas Eustáquio Dias; Freitas, Mônica Elizetti de; Rios, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Fluid composition and migration studies in granitoid rocks subjected to deformation events are a factor that should be considered in the selection of geologically favorable areas for RANR construction, and may be an excellent complement to engineering barrier designs. The research objective was to develop an academic approach, comparing the behavior of deformed and non-deformed granites, not being related to any CNEN project of deploying repositories. It is concluded that in the choice of suitable sites for the construction of repositories, granite bodies that are submitted to metamorphic / deformation / hydrothermal events or that are very fractured should be disregarded. The domes of granite batholith that have undergone hydraulic billing should also be discarded. It has been found that, because of the warming caused by radioactive decay reactions, there is a real possibility that the release of potentially abrasive fluids contained in the minerals can reach and corrode the walls of the repositories and / or packaging

  3. Technical know-how for modeling of geological environment. (1) Overview and groundwater flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Osawa, Hideaki; Semba, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    It is important for site characterization projects to manage the decision-making process with transparency and traceability and to transfer the technical know-how accumulated during the research and development to the implementing phase and to future generations. The modeling for a geological environment is to be used to synthesize investigation results. Evaluation of the impact of uncertainties in the model is important to identify and prioritize key issues for further investigations. Therefore, a plan for site characterization should be made based on the results of the modeling. The aim of this study is to support for the planning of initial surface-based site characterization based on the technical know-how accumulated from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment that are a basis for research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, the work-flow of the groundwater flow modeling, which is one of the geological environment models, and is to be used for setting the area for the geological environment modeling and for groundwater flow characterization, and the related decision-making process using literature data have been summarized. (author)

  4. Long-term observation of the geological environment: needs and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For site characterization programmes aimed at determining the suitability of sites for the disposal of radioactive waste, attention must be given to collecting data over long periods of time for adequate understanding of certain processes in the geological environment (hydrologic conditions, seismicity etc.). It is important for all national projects to carefully plan and implement programmes to observe the long-term behaviour of the geological environment in order to secure high-quality, reliable data for use in safety assessments. These proceedings present the results of a workshop organized to discuss the needs and techniques related to the planning and implementation of such programmes. 13 papers have been presented

  5. Application of hydro-geochemical simulator to the issues on geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Satoru; Miura, Toshihiko; Tajima, Takatoshi; Kimura, Yukinobu

    2009-01-01

    Recently, it has become clear that the chemical circumstances under which long-term geological evolution occurs must be properly evaluated in order to develop effective remediation programs for contaminated soil, landfills, radioactive waste repositories, and carbon dioxide capture and storage. The issue of acidic leakage from excavated rock stuck was assessed using a hydro-geochemical simulator, TOUGHREACT. We concluded that in order to properly investigate the phenomenon of acidic leakage from excavated pyrite-containing rock stuck, it is important to obtain accurate information about the following factors: intensity of rainfall, unsaturated flow properties of the excavated rock stuck, specific surfaces for oxidation reaction of pyrite, the species and the quantity of other minerals contained in the rock, and secondary minerals produced. (author)

  6. Alteration of isolating properties of dense smectite clay in repository environment as exemplified by seven pre-quaternary clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Boergesson, L.; Erlstroem, M.

    1987-12-01

    Seven pre-quaternary clays with a smectite content ranging between zero and about 25% were taken as possible reaction products resulting from chemical alteration of dense sodium bentonite. They were characterized with respect to the mineral composition and microstructural constitution and tested with reference to their hydraulic conductivity, swelling ability and creep properties. It was found that since they were all less permeable than a typical large granitic rock mass they would serve as flow barriers in a repository. Thus, even rather extreme chemical attack is not expected to eliminate the most important barrier function of Na bentonite in repository environment. However, slight mechanical disturbance of a heterogeneously altered smectite clay buffer or seal, may be critical. Thus, the investigated, less smectitic clays experienced a rather dramatic increase in hydraulic conductivity on expansion and remolding. This is explained by the inability of a microstructurally discontinuous smectite component - particularly in the Ca-form - to swell and fill voids. The minimum content of Na smectite to preserve the self-healing capacity is estimated at 15-25%. Slight or moderate cementation was indicated by two of the clays by the creep tests. At a smectite content of 15-25% it is probable that self-healing will take place after a mechanically induced breakage of the cementing bonds. The tests gave a good basis for future development of rational, routine tests as well as for a relevant characterization of buffer material candidates. (orig.)

  7. Planning geological underground repositories - Communicating with society; Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager - Forschungsprojekt 'Kommunikation mit der Gesellschaft': Wissenschaftlicher Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, W. [synergo, Mobilitaet-Politik-Raum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gallego Carrera, D.; Renn, O.; Dreyer, M. [Dialogik gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Kommunikations- und Kooperationsforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The project 'Planning geological underground repositories: Communicating with society', financed by the Swiss Federal Office for Energy, aimed at identifying basic principles for an appropriate information and communication strategy in the process of finding an underground site to store radioactive wastes. The topic concerns an issue increasingly discussed in modern societies: How to improve the dialogue between science, infrastructure operators, public authorities, groups in civil society and the population to answer complex problems? Against this background, in the project the following questions were taken into account: (i) How can the dialogue between science, politics, economy, and the (non-)organised public be arranged appropriately? Which principles are to be considered in organising this process? How can distrust within the population be reduced and confidence in authorities and scientific expertise be increased? (ii) How can society be integrated in the process of decision-making so that this process is perceived as comprehensible, acceptable and legitimate? To answer these questions, an analysis method based on scientific theory and methodology was developed, which compares national participation and communication processes in finding underground storage sites in selected countries. Case studies have been carried out in Germany, Sweden, Belgium, and Switzerland. By using specific criteria to evaluate communication processes, the strong points as well as the drawbacks of the country-specific concepts of information, communication and participation have been analysed in a comparing dimension. By taking into account the outcomes, prototypical scenarios have been deduced that can serve as a basis for compiling a reference catalogue of measures, which is meant to support the Swiss communication strategy in the finding of an appropriate site for a nuclear waste repository. Following conclusions can be drawn from the international comparison: (i) Open

  8. Study on geological environment in the Tono area. An approach to surface-based investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    Mizunami Underground Research (MIU) Project has aimed at preparation of basis of investigation, analysis and evaluation of geology of deep underground and basis of engineering technologies of ultra deep underground. This report stated an approach and information of surface-based investigation for ground water flow system and MIU Project by the following contents, 1) objects and preconditions, 2) information of geological environment for analysis of material transition and design of borehole, 3) modeling, 4) tests and investigations and 5) concept of investigation. The reference data consists of results of studies such as the geological construction model, topography, geologic map, structural map, linear structure and estimated fault, permeability, underground stream characteristics, the quality of underground water and rock mechanics. (S.Y.)

  9. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 1. Geological environment of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 1 of the progress report, describes first in detail the role of geological environment in high-level radioactive wastes disposal, the features of Japanese geological environment, and programs to proceed the investigation in geological environment. The following chapter summarizes scientific basis for possible existence of stable geological environment, stable for a long period needed for the HLW disposal in Japan including such natural phenomena as volcano and faults. The results of the investigation of the characteristics of bed-rocks and groundwater are presented. These are important for multiple barrier system construction of deep geological disposal. The report furthermore describes the present status of technical and methodological progress in investigating geological environment and finally on the results of natural analog study in Tono uranium deposits area. (Ohno, S.)

  10. Conceptualization and software development of a simulation environment for probalistic safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghofrani, Javad

    2016-05-26

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of complex simulation models are prominent issues, both in scientific research and education. ReSUS (Repository Simulation, Uncertainty propagation and Sensitivity analysis) is an integrated platform to perform such analysis with numerical models that simulate the THMC (Thermal Hydraulical Mechanical and Chemical) coupled processes via different programs, in particular in the context of safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. This thesis presents the idea behind the software platform ReSUS and its working mechanisms. Apart from the idea and the working mechanisms, the thesis describes applications related to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In this thesis, previous simulation tools (including the preceding version of ReSUS) are analyzed in order to provide a comprehensive view of the state of the art. In comparison to this state, a more sophisticated software tool is developed here, which provides features which are not offered by previous simulation tools. To achieve this objective, the software platform ReSUS provides a framework for handling probabilistic data uncertainties using deterministic external simulation tools, thus enhancing uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. This platform performs probabilistic simulations of various models, in particular THMC coupled processes, using stand-alone deterministic simulation software tools. The complete software development process of the ReSUS Platform is discussed in this thesis. ReSUS components are developed as libraries, which are capable of being linked to other code implementations. In addition, ASCII template files are used as means for uncertainty propagation into the input files of deterministic simulation tools. The embedded input sampler and analysis tools allow for sensitivity analysis in several kinds of simulation designs. The novelty of the ReSUS platform consists in the flexibility to assign external stand-alone software

  11. Conceptualization and software development of a simulation environment for probalistic safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghofrani, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of complex simulation models are prominent issues, both in scientific research and education. ReSUS (Repository Simulation, Uncertainty propagation and Sensitivity analysis) is an integrated platform to perform such analysis with numerical models that simulate the THMC (Thermal Hydraulical Mechanical and Chemical) coupled processes via different programs, in particular in the context of safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories. This thesis presents the idea behind the software platform ReSUS and its working mechanisms. Apart from the idea and the working mechanisms, the thesis describes applications related to the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal systems. In this thesis, previous simulation tools (including the preceding version of ReSUS) are analyzed in order to provide a comprehensive view of the state of the art. In comparison to this state, a more sophisticated software tool is developed here, which provides features which are not offered by previous simulation tools. To achieve this objective, the software platform ReSUS provides a framework for handling probabilistic data uncertainties using deterministic external simulation tools, thus enhancing uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. This platform performs probabilistic simulations of various models, in particular THMC coupled processes, using stand-alone deterministic simulation software tools. The complete software development process of the ReSUS Platform is discussed in this thesis. ReSUS components are developed as libraries, which are capable of being linked to other code implementations. In addition, ASCII template files are used as means for uncertainty propagation into the input files of deterministic simulation tools. The embedded input sampler and analysis tools allow for sensitivity analysis in several kinds of simulation designs. The novelty of the ReSUS platform consists in the flexibility to assign external stand-alone software

  12. Evaluation of repository safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Patrick, W.; Dasgupta, B.; Mohanty, S.

    2002-01-01

    The United States high-level waste program requires evaluation of radiological safety during two distinct time intervals. The first interval, commonly referred to as the preclosure period, deals with receipt of waste at the site, transfer into disposal containers, if needed, emplacement in the underground openings, monitoring and maintenance activities, backfill and closure of the underground openings, and decontamination and decommissioning of the surface facilities of the geologic repository. The preclosure period may extend from a few tens of years to as long as a few hundred of years, depending on repository design and societal norms regarding a final decision to permanently seal the repository. During the preclosure or operational period, performance confirmation studies are conducted to provide a basis for updating and reevaluating estimates of postclosure performance and, finally, to provide a basis for a closure decision. The postclosure period during which expected repository performance must meet certain standards may range from ten thousands years, as it does in the United States, to millions of years, as it does in some European nations. Waste handling operations in the preclosure period are to be evaluated in relation to their potential effect on workers, members of general public, and the general environment. During this period, releases of radioactivity are to be monitored and appropriate actions taken whenever established limits are approached or exceeded. Preclosure safety is highly dependent on facility design, operational hardware and automated systems, operational sequences, and reliability of humans involved in operations. Preclosure safety analyses conducted before operations begin play a major role in the design process, selection of equipment, and development of operational procedures. Because of the complexity, duration, and spatial scales of the operations, analyses are conducted using mathematical models implemented in computer codes

  13. State of the art for fabricating and emplacing concrete containers into large horizontal disposal caverns in the french geological repository - 59267

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel; Guariso, Maurice; Pineau, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The research and development work presented in this paper was initialized by Andra in 2007. The work necessary for manufacturing and testing a full scale demonstrator is presently implemented. The case story is twofold. The first part is related to the initial development of a high performance concrete formulation used for fabricating concrete storage containers (containing Intermediate Level and Long Lived Waste primary canisters) to be stacked and emplaced into 400-m long concrete lined horizontal disposal vaults (also called cavern), excavated in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay host formation at a 550 to 600-m depth, with an inside diameter of approximately 8-m. The fabrication of the concrete boxes is illustrated. The second part presents the outcome at the end of the detailed design phase, for a system which is now being manufactured (for further test and assembly), for the emplacement of the concrete containers inside the vault. The application was engineered for remote emplacing a pile of 2 concrete containers (the containers are preliminarily stacked in a pile of 2, inside a hot cell, thanks to a ground travelling gantry crane). The emplacement process is justified and the related emplacement synoptic is illustrated. The test campaign is scheduled in 2011-2012. The successful completion of the technical trials is mandatory to confirm the mechanical feasibility of remotely emplacing concrete containers into large horizontal disposal caverns over long distances. The later display of the machinery at work in Andra's showroom will be instrumental for the confidence building process involving the various stakeholders concerned by the public enquiry period (mid-2013) preceding the deep geological repository license application (2014-2015). (authors)

  14. Crevice Corrosion Behavior of Candidate Nuclear Waste Container Materials in Repository Environment Paper Number 02529

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, F.; Sarver, J.; Mohn, W.

    2001-01-01

    Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) have been proposed as the corrosion resistant materials for fabricating the waste package outer barrier and the drip shield, respectively for the proposed nuclear waste repository Yucca Mountain Project. In this work, the susceptibility of welded and annealed Alloy 22 (N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) to crevice corrosion was studied by the Multiple Crevice Assembly (ASTM G78) method combined with surface morphological observation after four and eight weeks of exposure to the Basic Saturated Water (BSW-12) in a temperature range from 60 to 105 C. The susceptibility of the materials to crevice corrosion was evaluated based on the appearance of crevice attack underneath the crevice formers and the weight loss data. The results showed that, after exposed to BSW-12 for four and eight weeks, no obvious crevice attack was observed on these materials. The descaled weight loss increased with the increase in temperature for all materials. The weight loss, however, is believed to be caused by general corrosion, rather than crevice corrosion. There was no significant difference between the annealed and welded materials either. On the other hand, to conclude that these materials are immune to crevice corrosion in BSW-12 will require longer term testing

  15. Crevice Corrosion Behavior of Candidate Nuclear Waste Container Materials in Repository Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; J. Sarver; W. Mohn

    2001-11-08

    Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) have been proposed as the corrosion resistant materials for fabricating the waste package outer barrier and the drip shield, respectively for the proposed nuclear waste repository Yucca Mountain Project. In this work, the susceptibility of welded and annealed Alloy 22 (N06022) and Ti Grade 7 (UNS R52400) to crevice corrosion was studied by the Multiple Crevice Assembly (ASTM G78) method combined with surface morphological observation after four and eight weeks of exposure to the Basic Saturated Water (BSW-12) in a temperature range from 60 to 105 C. The susceptibility of the materials to crevice corrosion was evaluated based on the appearance of crevice attack underneath the crevice formers and the weight loss data. The results showed that, after exposed to BSW-12 for four and eight weeks, no obvious crevice attack was observed on these materials. The descaled weight loss increased with the increase in temperature for all materials. The weight loss, however, is believed to be caused by general corrosion, rather than crevice corrosion. There was no significant difference between the annealed and welded materials either. On the other hand, to conclude that these materials are immune to crevice corrosion in BSW-12 will require longer term testing.

  16. Conference on Early Mars: Geologic and Hydrologic Evolution, Physical and Chemical Environments, and the Implications for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Treiman, A. H. (Editor); Newsom, H. E. (Editor); Farmer, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Geology alteration and life in an extreme environment; developing a chemical code to identify magnetic biominerals; effect of impacts on early Martin geologic evolution; spectroscopic identification of minerals in Hematite-bearing soils and sediments; exopaleontology and the search for a Fossil record on Mars; geochemical evolution of the crust of Mars; geological evolution of the early earth;solar-wind-induced erosion of the Mars atmosphere. Also included geological evolution of the crust of Mars.

  17. Corrosion of copper and copper alloys in a basaltic repository environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehm, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    Corrosion testing done on copper and copper alloys in support of the basalt repository program is discussed. Tests were performed under anoxic conditions at 50C, 100C, 150C and 200C in the presence of a saturated basalt-bentonite packing. Tests were also performed in an air/steam mixture at temperatures between 150C and 200C. Some tests, particularly those in air/steam mixtures, were done in the presence of radiation fields of 10 2 , 10 3 or 10 4 rad/h. Exposure periods were up to 28 months. A synthetic groundwater, Grande Ronde ≠4, was used. The materials studied were ASTM B402μm·a for copper and 17 μm·a for cupronickel, but the average rates were muμm·a was obtained. The rates at longer times were less than a third of this value. Corrosion increased monotonically with time and temperature. Chalcocite (Cu 2 S) was the corrosion product at 200C. There was no detectable radiation effect, and no pitting was observed. In air/steam corrosion was uniform with no pitting. Linear corrosion was observed for pure copper. The maximum corrosion penetration after 25 months was 0.13 mm at 300C; cupronickel corroded more slowly, with a maximum penetration of 0.045mm after 25 months. Cuprite (Cu 2 O) and tenorite (CuO) were identified on cupronickel, but only Cu 2 O on copper. A pronounced radiation effect was seen at 250C, but not at 150C; the surface film morphology was different under irradiation. In the short term the presence of packing increased the corrosion rate. 5 refs

  18. Instrument reliability for high-level nuclear waste repository applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, F.; Armantrout, G.A.; Binnall, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation will be needed to evaluate the characteristics of proposed high-level nuclear waste repository sites and to monitor the performance of selected sites during the operational period and into repository closure. A study has been done to assess the reliability of instruments used in Department of Energy (DOE) waste repository related experiments and in other similar geological applications. The study included experiences with geotechnical, hydrological, geochemical, environmental, and radiological instrumentation and associated data acquisition equipment. Though this paper includes some findings on the reliability of instruments in each of these categories, the emphasis is on experiences with geotechnical instrumentation in hostile repository-type environments. We review the failure modes, rates, and mechanisms, along with manufacturers modifications and design changes to enhance and improve instrument performance; and include recommendations on areas where further improvements are needed

  19. Effects of radiation on the chemical environment surrounding waste canisters in proposed repository sites and possible effects on the corrosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.S.

    1981-12-01

    This report explores the interaction of ionizing radiation with various environments. In particular, worst case (aqueous) environments for the proposed nuclear waste repository sites are considered. Emphasis is on the fundamental chemical and physical processes involved. The identities of possible radiolysis products (both transient and stable) have been sought through a literature search. The effect of radiation on corrosion processes is discussed. The radiation-induced chemical environment in the worst case repository sites is not well defined. Attention should therefore be given to fundamental studies exploring the interaction of such environments with components of the nuclear waste package, including the canister materials and backfills. Identification and quantification of radiolysis products would be helpful in this regard

  20. Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory across generations. An International Project of the NEA/RWMC. Foundations and guiding principles for the preservation of records, knowledge and memory across generations: A focus on the post-closure phase of geological repositories. A Collective Statement of the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-11-01

    Preservation of Records, Knowledge and Memory (RK and M) across generations is needed to support lengthy and complex decision-making processes across long operational and post-operational lifetimes of radioactive waste repositories. It is a recognised management task that spans unprecedented time-horizons in which technical, scientific, societal and cultural information is interwoven. Experience indicates that RK and M need to be actively managed from the start of the waste management programmes. Several radioactive waste disposal programmes are now approaching implementation. The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) has created an international project addressing the preservation of RK and M across generations. This collective statement summarises the current understanding of the relevant needs and challenges to be faced. It underscores the willingness of the RWMC member organisations to work together and support national programmes to move forward in this area. Research and development underway on the disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in engineered facilities or repositories located in deep geological formations has confirmed this form of disposal as the ultimate solution for the long-term protection of human beings and the environment, eliminating the need for human intervention and maintenance. While the intention is not to abandon repositories for geological disposal of radioactive waste, either before or after closure, as with many long-term projects, it is a question of minimising the risks of losing records, knowledge and memory (RK and M). The international community of radioactive waste professionals is leading advanced work in this important area. At the end of its first phase of RK and M work, the RWMC observed that the context has changed considerably since the 1980's, when RK and M preservation was thought to serve the sole function of deterring intrusion into a repository. The goal today is to preserve information for future

  1. The Swedish radiological environmental protection regulations applied in a review of a license application for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pål; Stark, Karolina; Xu, Shulan; Nordén, Maria; Dverstorp, Björn

    2017-11-01

    For the first time, a system for specific consideration of radiological environmental protection has been applied in a major license application in Sweden. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, which in accordance with regulatory requirements includes an assessment of environmental consequences. SKB's environmental risk assessment uses the freely available ERICA Tool. Environmental media activity concentrations needed as input to the tool are calculated by means of complex biosphere modelling based on site-specific information gathered from site investigations, as well as from supporting modelling studies and projections of future biosphere conditions in response to climate change and land rise due to glacial rebound. SKB's application is currently being reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). In addition to a traditional document review with an aim to determine whether SKB's models are relevant, correctly implemented and adequately parametrized, SSM has performed independent modelling in order to gain confidence in the robustness of SKB's assessment. Thus, SSM has used alternative stylized reference biosphere models to calculate environmental activity concentrations for use in subsequent exposure calculations. Secondly, an alternative dose model (RESRAD-BIOTA) is used to calculate doses to biota that are compared with SKB's calculations with the ERICA tool. SSM's experience from this review is that existing tools for environmental dose assessment are possible to use in order to show compliance with Swedish legislation. However, care is needed when site representative species are assessed with the aim to contrast them to generic reference organism. The alternative modelling of environmental concentrations resulted in much lower

  2. Archive of information about geological samples available for research from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Polar Rock Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar Rock Repository (PRR) operated by the Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) at the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  3. Thermal impact of waste emplacement and surface cooling associated with geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.S.Y.; Mangold, D.C.; Spencer, R.K.; Tsang, C.F.

    1982-01-01

    The age of nuclear waste - the length of time between its removal from the reactor cores and its emplacement in a repository - is a significant factor in determining the thermal loading of a repository. The surface cooling period as well as the density and sequence of waste emplacement affects both the near-field repository structure and the far-field geologic environment. To investigate these issues, a comprehensive review was made of the available literature pertaining to thermal effects and thermal properties of mined geologic repositories. This included a careful evaluation of the effects of different surface cooling periods of the wastes, which is important for understanding the optimal thermal loading of a repository. The results led to a clearer understanding of the importance of surface cooling in evaluating the overall thermal effects of a radioactive waste repository. The principal findings from these investigations are summarized in this paper

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Science at the Intersection of Health and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, S. M.; Plumlee, G. S.

    2016-12-01

    People worldwide worry about how their environment affects their health, and expect scientists to help address these concerns. The OneHealth concept recognizes the crucial linkages between environment, human health, and health of other organisms. Many US Geological Survey science activities directly examine or help inform how the Earth and the environment influence toxicological and infectious diseases. Key is our ability to bring to bear a collective expertise in environmental processes, geology, hydrology, hazards, microbiology, analytical chemistry, ecosystems, energy/mineral resources, geospatial technologies, and other disciplines. Our science examines sources, environmental transport and fate, biological effects, and human exposure pathways of many microbial (e.g. bacteria, protozoans, viruses, fungi), inorganic (e.g. asbestos, arsenic, lead, mercury) and organic (e.g. algal toxins, pesticides, pharmaceuticals) contaminants from geologic, anthropogenic, and disaster sources. We develop new laboratory, experimental, and field methods to analyze, model, and map contaminants, to determine their baseline and natural background levels, and to measure their biological effects. We examine the origins, environmental persistence, wildlife effects, and potential for transmission to humans of pathogens that cause zoonotic or vector-borne diseases (e.g., avian influenza or West Nile virus). Collaborations with human health scientists from many organizations are essential. For example, our work with epidemiologists and toxicologists helps understand the exposure pathways and roles of geologically sourced toxicants such as arsenic (via drinking water) and asbestos (via dusts) in cancer. Work with pulmonologists and pathologists helps clarify the sources and fate of inhaled mineral particles in lungs. Wildlife health scientists help human health scientists assess animals as sentinels of human disease. Such transdisciplinary science is essential at the intersection of health

  5. 40 CFR 124.33 - Information repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information repository. 124.33 Section... FOR DECISIONMAKING Specific Procedures Applicable to RCRA Permits § 124.33 Information repository. (a... basis, for an information repository. When assessing the need for an information repository, the...

  6. Mineral formation on metallic copper in a `Future repository site environment`: Textural considerations based on natural analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amcoff, Oe. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Earth Sciences

    1998-01-01

    Copper mineral formation in the Swedish `repository site environment` is discussed. Special attention is given to ore mineral textures (=the spatial relation among minerals), with examples given from nature. It is concluded: By analogy with observations from natural occurrences, an initial coating of Cu-oxide on the canister surface (because of entrapped air during construction) will probably not hinder a later sulphidation process. Early formation of Cu-sulphides on the canister surface may be accompanied by formation of CuFe-sulphides. The latter phase(s) may form through replacement of the Cu-sulphides or, alternatively, by means of reaction between dissolved copper and fine-grained iron sulphide (pyrite) in the surrounding bentonite. Should for some reason the bentonite barrier fail and the conditions become strongly oxidizing, we can expect crustifications and rhythmic growths of Cu(II)-phases, like malachite (Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}). A presence of Fe{sup 2} in the clay minerals making up the bentonite might prove to have an adverse effect on the canister stability, since, in this case, the bentonite might be expected to act as a sink for dissolved copper. The mode of mineral growth along the copper - bentonite interface remains an open question.

  7. Human activities and threats of chronic epidemics in a fragile geologic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhuwa, D. C. W.

    The quality of groundwater in the Lusaka aquifer is becoming matter of great concern to the city’s inhabitants. Access to good quality water in sufficient quantities to support life is becoming increasingly scarce, while waterborne diseases are becoming rife and on the increase. As a result of rapid urbanisation and a proportionate increase in human activities, there has been increased use of the ground to dispose of different types of solid and liquid wastes. Usually, this has been with no due consideration of the underlying geology. Such unsatisfactory management of wastes over a fragile geologic environment has heightened threats of aquifer pollution through unhindered access of components of the wastes to the groundwater store. Consumption of such water may be responsible for the near-endemic outbreaks of diarrhoeal and dysentery cases in parts of the city. As the demand for water continues to heighten, current trends of aquifer pollution of the meagre available water resources threaten to exacerbate this scenario. Consequently, this will impose further restrictions on the city environment’s ability to sustain human life. This paper highlights some of Lusaka’s typical and pertinent water supply problems. It also implicitly expresses the urgent need for reconciliation between human activities and the underlying geology and hydrogeology in order to preserve an environment that promotes and perpetuates good human health.

  8. Context of ancient aqueous environments on Mars from in situ geologic mapping at Endeavour Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Farrand, W. H.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Guinness, E.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Parker, T.; Rice, J. W.; Squyres, S. W.; Sullivan, R.; Yen, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, we have compiled one of the first field geologic maps on Mars while traversing the Noachian terrain along the rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour Crater (Latitude −2°16′33″, Longitude −5°10′51″). In situ mapping of the petrographic, elemental, structural, and stratigraphic characteristics of outcrops and rocks distinguishes four mappable bedrock lithologic units. Three of these rock units predate the surrounding Burns formation sulfate-rich sandstones and one, the Matijevic Formation, represents conditions on early Mars predating the formation of Endeavour Crater. The stratigraphy assembled from these observations includes several geologic unconformities. The differences in lithologic units across these unconformities record changes in the character and intensity of the Martian aqueous environment over geologic time. Water circulated through fractures in the oldest rocks over periods long enough that texturally and elementally significant alteration occurred in fracture walls. These oldest pre-Endeavour rocks and their network of mineralized and altered fractures were preserved by burial beneath impact ejecta and were subsequently exhumed and exposed. The alteration along joints in the oldest rocks and the mineralized veins and concentrations of trace metals in overlying lithologic units is direct evidence that copious volumes of mineralized and/or hydrothermal fluids circulated through the early Martian crust. The wide range in intensity of structural and chemical modification from outcrop to outcrop along the crater rim shows that the ejecta of large (>8 km in diameter) impact craters is complex. These results imply that geologic complexity is to be anticipated in other areas of Mars where cratering has been a fundamental process in the local and regional geology and mineralogy.

  9. Bilingual encyclopedic dictionary English-Spanish in sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgic and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, R.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment if they find it necessary to have an English-Spanish encyclopedia for their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation In this work has been stablished a relation betwwen geological units and mineralizations related with the aim to understand the hydrochemistry in this area for future environmental impact

  10. Scientific data necessary to predict radionuclide migration within or near a mined nuclear repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downs, W.F.

    1983-03-01

    The National Waste Terminal Storage Program was created to develop a system to isolate radioactive wastes from the biosphere. It has been determined that the most reasonable means for accomplishing this task is to place the high-level and transuranic wastes in mined geologic repositories. Three geologic environments have been selected for further study and evaluation: (1) domed or bedded salt formations, (2) thick basalt flows fo the Columbia River Plateau and (3) alkali igneous rocks, both tuffs and granites, of the Nevada Test Site. Each of these candidate geologies will present a different physical-chemical environment to the waste package. The physical environments have been estimated based on depth of repository, radionuclide loading, and spacing of canisters. The chemical environments are based on initial host-rock mineralogy, native ground-water geochemistry, and likely alteration assemblages. The latter sections of this report discuss the mechanisms of radionuclide release, transport, and retention on the host rocks or their alteration products

  11. Comparison of potential radiological consequences from a spent-fuel repository and natural uranium deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, O.J.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-09-01

    A general criterion has been suggested for deep geological repositories containing spent fuel - the repositories should impose no greater radiological risk than due to naturally occurring uranium deposits. The following analysis investigates the rationale of that suggestion and determines whether current expectations of spent-fuel repository performance are consistent with such a criterion. In this study, reference spent-fuel repositories were compared to natural uranium-ore deposits. Comparisons were based on intrinsic characteristics, such as radionuclide inventory, depth, proximity to aquifers, and regional distribution, and actual and potential radiological consequences that are now occurring from some ore deposits and that may eventually occur from repositories and other ore deposits. The comparison results show that the repositories are quite comparable to the natural ore deposits and, in some cases, present less radiological hazard than their natural counterparts. On the basis of the first comparison, placing spent fuel in a deep geologic repository apparently reduces the hazard from natural radioactive materials occurring in the earth's crust by locating the waste in impermeable strata without access to oxidizing conditions. On the basis of the second comparison, a repository constructed within reasonable constraints presents no greater hazard than a large ore deposit. It is recommended that if the naturally radioactive environment is to be used as a basis for a criterion regarding repositories, then this criterion should be carefully constructed. The criterion should be based on the radiological quality of the waters in the immediate region of a specific repository, and it should be in terms of an acceptable potential increase in the radiological content of those waters due to the existence of the repository.

  12. Comparison of potential radiological consequences from a spent-fuel repository and natural uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wick, O.J.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1980-09-01

    A general criterion has been suggested for deep geological repositories containing spent fuel - the repositories should impose no greater radiological risk than due to naturally occurring uranium deposits. The following analysis investigates the rationale of that suggestion and determines whether current expectations of spent-fuel repository performance are consistent with such a criterion. In this study, reference spent-fuel repositories were compared to natural uranium-ore deposits. Comparisons were based on intrinsic characteristics, such as radionuclide inventory, depth, proximity to aquifers, and regional distribution, and actual and potential radiological consequences that are now occurring from some ore deposits and that may eventually occur from repositories and other ore deposits. The comparison results show that the repositories are quite comparable to the natural ore deposits and, in some cases, present less radiological hazard than their natural counterparts. On the basis of the first comparison, placing spent fuel in a deep geologic repository apparently reduces the hazard from natural radioactive materials occurring in the earth's crust by locating the waste in impermeable strata without access to oxidizing conditions. On the basis of the second comparison, a repository constructed within reasonable constraints presents no greater hazard than a large ore deposit. It is recommended that if the naturally radioactive environment is to be used as a basis for a criterion regarding repositories, then this criterion should be carefully constructed. The criterion should be based on the radiological quality of the waters in the immediate region of a specific repository, and it should be in terms of an acceptable potential increase in the radiological content of those waters due to the existence of the repository

  13. Experimental methodology to study radionuclide sorption and migration in geological formations and engineered barriers of waste repositories; Metodologia experimental para estudios de sorcion y migracion de radionucleidos en formaciones geologicas y barreras de almacenamientos de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo Sanz, H.

    2010-07-01

    In Spain, the waste management options include either the possibility of a final storage in a deep geological repository (DGR) or the centralized temporal surface disposal (CTS). DGRs are based in a multi-barrier concept with the geological barrier and including the vitrified waste, the metal containers and engineered barriers such as compacted bentonite and cement-based materials. On the other hand, CTS mainly considers concrete and cement to confine the metal canisters containing the waste. Radionuclide migration will mainly take place by the existence of chemical concentration gradients being thus diffusion the main transport mechanism or by the existence of hydraulic gradients due to the existence of water-conductive fractures. Radionuclide sorption/retention on the materials composing the natural and engineered barriers is the fundamental process controlling contaminant migration. The evaluation of sorption parameters and the understanding of the different mechanisms leading to radionuclide retention are very important issues. The study of diffusion processes is very relevant as well. This paper describes the main experimental methodologies applied to analyse radionuclide transport in the different barriers of radioactive repositories. Particularly we focused on obtaining of retention parameters as distribution coefficients, kd, or retardation factors, Rf, and diffusion coefficients of radionuclides. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Student Scientific Conference, 2008. Collection of contributions. Vol. 2 - Sections of geography, geology, environment, chemistry and didactics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    The conference included the following sections: (i) Biology (114 contributions); (ii) Geography (37 contributions); (iii) Geology (24 contributions); (iv) Environment (16 contributions); (v) Chemistry (11 contributions); (vi) Didactics (8 contributions). Contributions relevant to INIS interest have been inputted to INIS.

  15. Improving the process of geological mapping in sedimentary terrain by using high-resolution topography in 3D environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chang; Shih, Nai-Cih; Chiu, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2017-04-01

    Traditional geologic maps were basically produced by field geologists through direct field investigations and interpretations from 2D topographic maps. However, the quality of traditional geologic maps was knowingly compromised by field conditions, particularly, when the mapping area is largely inaccessible or covered by heavy forest canopies. Recent advancement in airborne LiDAR technology can virtually remove trees or buildings, thus, providing a useful high-resolution topographic data set for the bare ground surface. The high-resolution topography still needs to be interpreted in terms of geology, and fundamental questions regarding how to apply the high-resolution topography remain to be answered for improving the process and quality of geological mapping. In this study, we aim to test the quality and reliability of high-resolution geologic maps produced by recently developed methods by an example from the fold-and-thrust belt in northern Taiwan. We performed the geological mapping by applying the LiDAR-derived DEM, self-developed Python program tools and many layers of relevant information at interactive 3D environments on a computer. Our mapping results indicate that the proposed mapping methods will significantly raise the quality and consistency of the geologic maps. Our study also shows that in order to gain consistent mapping results, future high-resolution geologic maps should be produced in 3D environments based on existing geologic maps and a few field checks for verification.

  16. Application of modeling methods for an estimation of a specific activity 137Cs geologic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskij, A.K.; Batij, V.G.; Pravdivyj, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The manual application of methods of mathematical and physical modeling for an estimation of the specific activity 137 Cs in soils composing a geological profile of site of object 'Ukryttya' is demonstrated. The calculations are executed by the software packages of Micro Shield, CYCLON, MCNP5. The experimental measurements are carried out by logging radiometers of different type on the borehole models. The value of a conversion coefficient of infinite environment for quantitative interpretation of gamma-ray logging data is determined over calculations outcomes and experimental measurements. The calculated and experimental values have agreement among themselves. the error estimation of the obtained outcomes is executed. 26 refs., 3 tab., 10 figs

  17. Conceptual design of repository facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, H.; Engelmann, H.J.; Souquet, G.; Mayence, M.; Hamstra, J.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the European Economic Communities programme of research into underground disposal of radioactive wastes repository design studies have been carried out for application in salt deposits, argillaceous formations and crystalline rocks. In this paper the design aspects of repositories are reviewed and conceptual designs are presented in relation to the geological formations under consideration. Emphasis has been placed on the disposal of vitrified high level radioactive wastes although consideration has been given to other categories of radioactive waste

  18. Small County: Development of a Virtual Environment for Instruction in Geological Characterization of Petroleum Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, B.; Bohling, G.; Doveton, J.

    2008-12-01

    Traditional programs of geological education continue to be focused primarily on the evaluation of surface or near-surface geology accessed at outcrops and shallow boreholes. However, most students who graduate to careers in geology work almost entirely on subsurface problems, interpreting drilling records and petrophysical logs from exploration and production wells. Thus, college graduates commonly find themselves ill-prepared when they enter the petroleum industry and require specialized training in drilling and petrophysical log interpretation. To aid in this training process, we are developing an environment for interactive instruction in the geological aspects of petroleum reservoir characterization employing a virtual subsurface closely reflecting the geology of the US mid-continent, in the fictional setting of Small County, Kansas. Stochastic simulation techniques are used to generate the subsurface characteristics, including the overall geological structure, distributions of facies, porosity, and fluid saturations, and petrophysical logs. The student then explores this subsurface by siting exploratory wells and examining drilling and petrophysical log records obtained from those wells. We are developing the application using the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, which allows for the rapid development of a platform-agnostic application while providing an immersive graphical interface. The application provides an array of views to enable relevant data display and student interaction. One such view is an interactive map of the county allowing the student to view the locations of existing well bores and select pertinent data overlays such as a contour map of the elevation of an interesting interval. Additionally, from this view a student may choose the site of a new well. Another view emulates a drilling log, complete with drilling rate plot and iconic representation of examined drill cuttings. From here, students are directed to stipulate subsurface lithology and

  19. Anticipated Degradation Modes of Metallic Engineered Barriers for High-Level Nuclear Waste Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Martín A.

    2014-03-01

    Metallic engineered barriers must provide a period of absolute containment to high-level radioactive waste in geological repositories. Candidate materials include copper alloys, carbon steels, stainless steels, nickel alloys, and titanium alloys. The national programs of nuclear waste management have to identify and assess the anticipated degradation modes of the selected materials in the corresponding repository environment, which evolves in time. Commonly assessed degradation modes include general corrosion, localized corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, hydrogen-assisted cracking, and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Laboratory testing and modeling in metallurgical and environmental conditions of similar and higher aggressiveness than those expected in service conditions are used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the materials. This review focuses on the anticipated degradation modes of the selected or reference materials as corrosion-resistant barriers in nuclear repositories. These degradation modes depend not only on the selected alloy but also on the near-field environment. The evolution of the near-field environment varies for saturated and unsaturated repositories considering backfilled and unbackfilled conditions. In saturated repositories, localized corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking may occur in the initial aerobic stage, while general corrosion and hydrogen-assisted cracking are the main degradation modes in the anaerobic stage. Unsaturated repositories would provide an oxidizing environment during the entire repository lifetime. Microbiologically influenced corrosion may be avoided or minimized by selecting an appropriate backfill material. Radiation effects are negligible provided that a thick-walled container or an inner shielding container is used.

  20. Probabilistic safety assessment for a generic deep geological repository for high-level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resele, G.; Holocher, J.; Mayer, G.; Hubschwerlen, N.; Niemeyer, M.; Beushausen, M.; Wollrath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the selection procedure for the search of a final site location for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the comparison and evaluation of different potentially suitable repository systems in different types of host rocks will be an essential and crucial step. Since internationally accepted guidelines on how to perform such quantitative comparisons between repository systems with regard to their long-term safety behaviour are still lacking, in 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection launched the project 'VerSi' (Vergleichende Sicherheitsanalysen - Comparing Safety Assessments) that aims at the development of a methodology for the comparison of long-term safety assessments. A vital part of the VerSi project is the performance of long-term safety assessments for the comparison of two repository systems. The comparison focuses on a future repository for heat-generating, i.e. high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Germany. Rock salt is considered as a potential host rock for such a repository, and one repository system in VerSi is defined similarly to the potential site located in the Gorleben salt dome. Another suitable host rock formation may be clay. A generic location within the lower Cretaceous clays in Northern Germany is therefore chosen for the comparison of safety assessments within the VerSi project. The long-term safety assessment of a repository system for heat-generating radioactive waste at the generic clay location comprises different steps, amongst others: - Identifying the relevant processes in the near-field, in the geosphere and in the biosphere which are relevant for the long-term safety behaviour. - Development of a safety concept for the repository system. - Deduction of scenarios of the long-term evolution of the repository system. - Definition of statistic weights, i. e. the likelihood of occurrence of the scenarios. - Performance of a

  1. Preparing for construction and operation of geological repositories - Challenges to the regulator and the implementer. Main findings of a joint RF/IGSC workshop Held in Issy-les-Moulineaux, France. 23-25 January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, Philippe; Kwong, Gloria; Pescatore, Claudio; Arens, Georg; Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen

    2012-01-01

    A key challenge for some national radioactive waste management programmes and an important learning opportunity for many others will be the licensing of the construction and operation of the first deep geological repositories for high level waste and spent fuel over the next decade. This document describes the main findings of the international workshop on this topic organised jointly by the Regulators' Forum (RF) and the Integration Group for the Safety Case (IGSC) of the NEA/RWMC. The main objective of the workshop was to identify, and share experience on, the challenges that implementers and regulators are facing or will face when preparing for the license for the implementation of a deep geological repository. Additional objectives were to: listen to viewpoints from representatives of governments and local communities, increase awareness of the actual challenges/issues and of the state of the art in dealing with them, identify areas of commonalities and differences amongst parties and explanation of the different views, create a record of the current thinking, inform future work at the international level. The first session introduced the workshop, its aims, the challenges to be faced and the expected achievements. The following sessions were divided into three parts: presentations, in plenary, of national case studies from both the regulators' and implementers' viewpoints and focusing on issues and practices in construction and operation of geological disposal facilities; round table discussions led by a moderator and recorded by a round-table spoke-person; presentation by spoke-persons in plenary followed by wrap up of the session by the session Rapporteur. The main findings concerned licensing regimes, challenges for construction (implementer), challenges for construction (regulator), challenges for operation (implementer and regulator), optimisation

  2. A review of degradation behavior of container materials for disposal of high-level nuclear waste in tuff and alternative repository environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiya, P.S.

    1989-06-01

    Corrosion resistance of materials in aqueous system is reviewed from the perspective of their suitability as container materials for nuclear waste. A discussion of the chemistry and characterization of repository environments, namely, tuff and alternative environments (shale, limestone, and carbonate), is followed by a description of corrosion mechanisms. In this review, emphasis is placed on localized corrosion (e.g., stress corrosion cracking, crevice corrosion, and pitting) because localized corrosion is difficult to account for in design of components, but it is the life-limiting factor for many metallic and nonmetallic systems. The physical metallurgy and microstructure of the potential alloys are briefly described because they provide insight into both the mechanisms of various localized corrosion processes and possible solutions to corrosion problems. A survey of localized corrosion behavior of potential candidate materials as determined by both corrosion and mechanical test in a large number of repository-related environments is presented in order to determine the most promising materials for a given environment. These studies include the effects of various environmental factors (such as pH, temperature, and electrochemical potentials), as well as alloying elements and other microstructural parameters, on corrosion. The modifications of the environment induced by gamma radiation and the stability of the microstructure under gamma irradiation are also described. Although in the majority of cases the tests and the environments used are severe, they point out that metallic materials are generally more promising than nonmetallic materials (ceramic and polymeric materials). 122 refs., 61 figs., 19 tabs

  3. 2005 dossier: clay. Tome: phenomenological evolution of the geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the phenomenological processes taking place in an argilite-type geologic disposal facility for high-level and long-lived (HLLL) radioactive wastes. Content: 1 - introduction: goal, input data, time and space scales, long-time forecasting of the phenomenological evolution; 2 - the Meuse/Haute-Marne site, the HLLL wastes and the disposal concepts: impact of the repository architecture; 3 - initial state of the geologic environment prior to the building up of the repository: general framework, geologic formations, tectonics and fractures, surface environment, geologic synthesis; 4 - phenomenological processes: storage-related processes, geodynamics-related processes, time scales of processes and of radionuclides migration, independence and evolution similarities of the repository and of the geologic environment; 5 - heat loads: heat transfers between containers and geologic formations, spatial organization of the thermal load, for C-type wastes and spent fuels, for B-type wastes, synthesis of the repository thermal load; 6 - flows and liquid solution and gas transfers: hydraulic behaviour of surrounding Jurassic formations (Tithonian, Kimmeridgian, Callovian, Oxfordian); 7 - chemical phenomena: chemical evolution of ventilated facilities (alveoles, galleries, boreholes), chemical evolution of B-type waste alveoles and of gallery and borehole sealing after closure, far field chemical evolution of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites and of other surrounding formations; 8 - mechanical evolution of the disposal and of the surrounding geologic environment: creation of an initial excavated damaged zone (EDZ), mechanical evolution of ventilated galleries, alveoles and sealing before and after closure, large-scale mechanical evolution; 9 - geodynamical evolution of the Callovo-Oxfordian and other surrounding formations and of the surface environment: internal

  4. Preparation of information bases on long-term stability of geological environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Koji; Nohara, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Osamu; Asamori, Koichi; Kinoshita, Hirohisa; Nakatuka, Noboru

    2004-09-01

    From a point of clear grasp of change of thermal and dynamic properties of rock, and flow and geochemical characteristics of groundwater, the special phenomena in Japan such as upheaval, submergence, erosion, igneous activity, seismicity and fault and change of climate and seawater were investigated. Some figures and databases are prepared by collecting information and knowledge related. They contained seven databases: active faults map of Japan, structural map of sea region in Japan and its environs, quaternary volcanoes in Japan, well temperature database, spring geochemistry database, marine terrace in Japan and distribution of landslide configuration, and four figures: geothermal gradient, marine terrace, distribution of upheaval velocity and distribution of erosion velocity in Japan. These databases and figures are explained. The characteristics of diastrophism and igneous activity in Japan are discussed from the viewpoint of long-term stability of geological environment. (S.Y.)

  5. State and forecast of radioactive contamination of geological environment in the region of 'Shelter' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestopalov, V.M.; Boguslavskij, A.S.; Kukharenko, D.E.; Onishchenko, I.P.; Panasyuk, N.I.

    2001-01-01

    Chornobyl NPP and especially the surroundings of the 'Shelter' object are the epicenter of radioactive impact of Chornobyl accident on geological environment, including groundwater. The two data sets- north from the 'Shelter' where groundwater from under the 'Shelter' moves, and south from the 'Shelter' characterizing the groundwater flow in the up-stream direction from the 'Shelter'. After data processing the generalized models of present distribution of 3 H, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in groundwater around the 'Shelter' were obtained. They reflect the major role of the 'Shelter' in access of tritium and Strontium-90 into groundwater and main influence of the buned active layer on groundwater contamination with Cesium-137. The result obtained corresponds to high migrational activity of these isotopes. Along with this, the significantly higher migrational activity of Tritium, as compared to Strontium-90, has been proved. Obtained model schematic maps were used for onented assessment of accumulated amounts of radionuclides sorbed by rocks of geological environment around the 'Shelter' object. In watered zone of Quaternary deposits they reach more than 4000 Ci of 137 Cs, and about 6000 Ci of 90 Sr

  6. In-situ test programs related to design and construction of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) deep geologic repositories. Final report (Task 2), June 1981-November 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, W.; Bauhof, F.; Gonano, L.

    1983-03-01

    The media and sites considered include (1) basalt at Hanford, Washington; (2) tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site; (3) domal salt at specific Gulf Coast sites; (4) bedded salt at an unspecified site; and (5) granite at an unspecified site. A licensing perspective is outlined and a defensible rationale developed and utilized for the test selection process. This rationale essentially consists of: establishing the information needs for construction authorization; assessing the relevant capabilities of available tests; and matching the capabilities of specific tests to the perceived information needs. The information needs at any time consist of the additional information (if any) needed in order to predict satisfactory repository system performance with the required level of confidence, and thus are a function of: the significance of the repository engineered components and site characteristics to system performance; the currently available information, which may be supplemented with time; and the acceptable level of confidence in satisfactory performance for each licensing step. Determination of the acceptable levels of confidence and the significance of repository system components is outside the scope of this report. Suitable assumptions have thus been made regarding the development of information needs for construction authorization by the time of initial site submittals. Tests which are available and respond to the perceived media/site specific information needs, either by simulation or assessment of site characteristics, are identified and their capabilities assessed. Specific in situ tests are investigated and described in detail. Research and development which might be effective in improving test capabilities have been recommended

  7. Scientific bases for decision making after a radioactive contamination of an urban environment: The design of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranjan Filho, A.

    2000-01-01

    The paper to be presented will discuss, specifically, technical aspects of the Repository design in case of urban contamination. It will be emphasise what to decide, how to decide and what are the difficulties to decide. The case of Goiania it will be used as demonstration, in some cases, as a practical example. (author)

  8. A virtual environment for the accurate geologic analysis of Martian terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Christoph; Paar, Gerhard; Gupta, Sanjeev; Hesina, Gerd; Sander, Kathrin; Barnes, Rob; Nauschnegg, Bernhard; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Remote geology on planetary surfaces requires immersive presentation of the environment to be investigated. Three-dimensional (3D) processing of images from rovers and satellites enables to reconstruct terrain in virtual space on Earth for scientific analysis. In this paper we present a virtual environment that allows to interactively explore 3D-reconstructed Martian terrain and perform accurate measurements on the surface. Geologists do not only require line-of-sight measurements between two points but much more the projected line-of-sight on the surface between two such points. Furthermore the tool supports to define paths of several points. It is also important for geologists to annotate the terrain they explore, especially when collaborating with colleagues. The path tool can also be used to separate geological layers or surround areas of interest. They can be linked with a text label directly positioned in 3D space and always oriented towards the viewing direction. All measurements and annotations can be maintained by a graphical user interface and used as landmarks, i.e. it is possible to fly to the corresponding locations. The virtual environment is fed with 3D vision products from rover cameras, placed in the 3D context gained from satellite images (digital elevations models and corresponding ortho images). This allows investigations in various scales from planet to microscopic level in a seamless manner. The modes of exploitation and added value of such an interactive means are manifold. The visualisation products enable us to map geological surfaces and rock layers over large areas in a quantitative framework. Accurate geometrical relationships of rock bodies especially for sedimentary layers can be reconstructed and the relationships between superposed layers can be established. Within sedimentary layers, we can delineate sedimentary faces and other characteristics. In particular, inclination of beds which may help ascertain flow directions can be

  9. Cigeo. The French deep geological repository for radioactive waste. Excavation techniques and technologies tested in underground laboratory and forecasted for the future construction of the project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvet, Francois; Bosgiraud, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Cigeo is the French project for the repository of the high activity and intermediate long-lived radioactive waste. It will be situated at a depth of 500 m, In a clayish rock formation. An underground laboratory was built in the year 2000 and numerous tests are performed since 15 years, in order to know in detail the behavior of the rock and its ability to confine radioactive elements. In addition, this underground laboratory has brought and will continue to bring many lessons on the excavation methods to be chosen for the construction of Cigeo.

  10. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E.

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  11. Investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain high level nuclear waste repository. Part A: Geology at Yucca Mountain. Part B: Modeling of hydro-tectonic phenomena relevant to Yucca Mountain. Annual report - Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymanski, J.S.; Schluter, C.M.; Livingston, D.E. [and others

    1993-05-01

    This document is an annual report describing investigations of natural groundwater hazards at the proposed Yucca Mountain, Nevada High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository.This document describes research studies of the origin of near surface calcite/silica deposits at Yucca Mountain. The origin of these deposits is controversial and the authors have extended and strengthened the basis of their arguments for epigenetic, metasomatic alteration of the tuffs at Yucca Mountain. This report includes stratigraphic, mineralogical, and geochronological information along with geochemical data to support the conclusions described by Livingston and Szymanski, and others. As part of their first annual report, they take this opportunity to clarify the technical basis of their concerns and summarize the critical geological field evidence and related information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic-geochemical coupled processes around disposed high level nuclear waste in deep granite hosted geological repositories: frontier areas of advanced groundwater research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajpai, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Indian policy for permanent disposal of high level nuclear wastes with radionuclide having very long half lives include their immobilization in a stable matrix i.e. glasses of suitable composition, its storage in high integrity steel canisters and subsequent disposal in suitable host rock like granites at a depth of 400-500m in stable geological set up. The site for such disposal facilities are selected after vigorous assessment of their stability implying an exhaustive site selection methodology based on a large number of criteria and attributes. In India, an area of about 70000 square kilometers occupied by granites has been subjected to such evaluation for generating comprehensive database on host rock parameters. The sites selected after such intensive analysis are expected to remain immune to processes like seismicity, volcanism, faulting, uplift, erosion, flooding etc. even in distant future spanning over tens of thousands of years. Nevertheless, groundwater has emerged as the only credible pathway through which disposed waste can eventually find its way to accessible biosphere. Hence groundwater research constitutes one of the most important aspects in demonstration of safety of such disposal. The disposed waste due to continuous emission of decay heat creates high temperature field around them with resultant increase in groundwater temperature in the vicinity. Hot groundwater on reacting with steel canisters, backfill clays and cement used around the disposed canister, produces geochemical environment characterized by altered Ph, Eh and groundwater compositions. Acceleration in geochemical interaction among waste-groundwater-clay-cement-granite often results in dissolution or precipitation reactions along the groundwater flow paths i.e. fractures with resultant increase or decrease in their permeability. Thus thermal, hydraulic and geochemical processes work interdependently around the disposed waste. These coupled processes also control the release and

  13. Summary of Geophysical Field Investigations to Constrain the Geologic Structure and Hydrologic Characteristics of Fortymile Wash Essential for Assessing the Performance of the Proposed High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D. A.; La Femina, P.; Winterle, J.; Hill, M.; Sims, D.; Smith, M.; Green, R.; Illman, W.; Sandberg, S.; Rogers, N.

    2001-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating Yucca Mountain, located in southwestern Nevada, as a possible geologic high-level nuclear waste repository with a performance period of 10,000 years. Groundwater flow and possible radionuclide transport from Yucca Mountain within the saturated zone will be influenced by the geologic structure and the hydrogeologic characteristics of the subsurface in the vicinity of the site. An understanding of these characteristics is essential to evaluating the performance of the repository. South of Yucca Mountain, along the anticipated radionuclide transport pathway, uncertainties in structural geology, hydrogeologic models, and supporting data (for example, the location of the watertable transition from tuff to valley-fill, and the architecture of the basin) impact site performance assessment calculations. Some of these uncertainties will be reduced by the point information provided by the well drilling program currently being carried out by Nye County, Nevada. However, geologic and hydrologic uncertainties remain within inter-well regions which extend over several tens of square kilometers. In recognition of the uncertainties inherent in analyses based upon relatively sparse point data available for Fortymile Wash, the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission have developed a surface geophysics program that targets the inter-well regions utilizing gravity, magnetic, electrical resistivity, and electromagnetic measurements to support confirmatory analyses and performance assessment calculations. This presentation describes various aspects of these surveys and their results. In particular, the presentation presents new models for the structure of the Fortymile Wash (including an improved mapping of the tuff valley-fill interface) based on the integrated geophysical approach and provides an independent basis for the watertable configuration over the region. By combining the

  14. Fiscal report on long-term stability of geological environment The 2003 fiscal year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    Tono Geoscience Center reported research process and results on upheaval, erosion, clime and sea level change, volcanic activity, active fault, seismicity, long-term estimation of geological environment, and underground structure in land. The upheaval and erosion velocity data were collected and change of topography during 120.000 years was simulated. The resistivity structure in deep ground was estimated by measurement of geomagnetism and earth current by the magneto telluric (MT) method. Database of the well temperature and the spring geochemistry is prepared. The hypocentral region of Tottori earthquake (in 2000) was agreed with distribution of monogenetic volcano group in Yokota. Diastrophism analysis program was developed. Accurately controlled routinely operated signal system (ACROSS) has been developed and measured seismic phase. (S.Y.)

  15. Encyclopedic dictionary bilingual English-Spanish of sciences: mining, chemistry, geology, metallurgy and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Maradona, M.; Bellini, M.; Busleiman, M.

    2007-01-01

    This dictionary has been designed to satisfy scientists, researchers, technicians, interpreters, translators and students' needs in the areas of chemistry, geology, mining, metallurgy and environment for they find it necessary to have an English- Spanish encyclopedia on their sciences. It is a reliable book when looking for words that are normally not included in everyday dictionaries. It is now reaching the final revision stage with more than 15,000 entries. It includes scientific terms, chemical formulas of minerals and other elements, noticeable scientists' biographies, tables, graphics, and images so as to help readers' understanding. It is divided into three columns: the first one presents the English term and its area of concern; the second, the corresponding Spanish equivalent, and in the third, a suitable explanation.(author)

  16. Evaluation of behaviour and Safety in a geologic deep repository; Evaluacion del comportamiento y de la seguridad de un almacenamiento geologico profundo en granito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This report presents a comprehensive description of the post-closure radiological safety assessment of a repository for the spent fuel arisings resulting from the Spanish nuclear program. This Safety Assessment constitutes a first step within a systematical process that will permit, thorough successive approximations, to predict the performance of the different barriers of the disposal system, and its capability to comply with the assigned safety functions and with the established safety criteria. The primary bases for this Safety Assessment are the following: The disposal concept considers the storage of the fuel assemblies in carbon steel canisters of 10 cm of thickness, emplaced horizontally in galleries excavated in granite of 2,4 m of diameter and 500 m of length, using a bentonite thickness of 75 cm around canisters as buffer material. The repository is located in a granitic site defined with available data about surface characteristics of Spanish granites. The exercise uses a probabilistic approximation in order to cope with the uncertainties associated with the different imputs parameters. (Author)

  17. Corrosion of magnesium alloys in disposal drifts of a deep geological repository: modelling of the hydrogen generation and the water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croise, J.; Mayer, G.; Talandier, J.; Wendling, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Intermediate-level waste packages originated from the reprocessing of ends and hulls of fuel used in former gas cooled reactors, contain magnesium alloys. The corrosion of this metal under reduced chemical conditions will lead to the production of hydrogen gas as well as the consumption of water during the post-closure phase of the repository. According to ANDRA, 2005, the period of concern covers several 1,000 years after closure of the repository. The limited transport efficiency of the host rock (Callovo- Oxfordian Clay) with its low permeability and high capillary resistance might cause, among other things, significant desaturation and significant pressure build-up within the emplacement drifts. On the other hand, the water availability is limited as a result of 1) the low permeability of the host rock and 2) the desaturation due to the ventilation of the drifts during the operational phase of the repository. In former numerical simulations of the two-phase flow and hydrogen transport in the repository system, it was assumed that under the reducing chemical conditions prevailing in the repository, the corrosion rate would be a function of the available metal surface and temperature only. In the simulations presented, the following additional processes were taken into account: i) a saturation dependency of the hydrogen-gas generation rate and ii) the water consumption due to the corrosion process. These features of a simplified 'corrosion-gas generation' model were implemented into the software TOUGH2. A series of 1D radial and 2D vertical simulations of the gas flow in a disposal drift with the waste packages and its concrete backfill, and including the surrounding clay host rock. The simulations provide insight into the system behavior from the construction of the drift, through the operation under ventilated conditions and to post-closure conditions: Evolution of the pressure and the saturation

  18. Regional Geologic Evaluations for Disposal of HLW and SNF: The Pierre Shale of the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    The DOE Spent Fuel and Waste Technology (SWFT) R&D Campaign is supporting research on crystalline rock, shale (argillite) and salt as potential host rocks for disposal of HLW and SNF in a mined geologic repository. The distribution of these three potential repository host rocks is limited to specific regions of the US and to different geologic and hydrologic environments (Perry et al., 2014), many of which may be technically suitable as a site for mined geologic disposal. This report documents a regional geologic evaluation of the Pierre Shale, as an example of evaluating a potentially suitable shale for siting a geologic HLW repository. This report follows a similar report competed in 2016 on a regional evaluation of crystalline rock that focused on the Superior Province of the north-central US (Perry et al., 2016).

  19. Engineering Review Group (ERG) and Geologic Review Group (GRG) report on brine migration at the Deaf Smith County site salt repository horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    In April 1986, ONWI requested the ERG and GRG to jointly address the status of current knowledge of, and ONWI approach to further characterization of, the geohydrology of the candidate repository horizon of the potential site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Specifically, the ERG-GRG was asked to evaluate the status of understanding of the hydrogeology of the Lower San Andres Unit 4 (LSA-4) evaporite section and identify any major gaps in the data; evaluate the current understanding of the chemistry and movement of brines in the LSA-4 salt and associated interbeds; develop recommendations for estimating the upper limit quantity of brines, and modeling the brine movement, with respect to the emplaced HLW packages; and identify questions concerning the chemistry of the brines and recommend a technical approach to addressing these questions. 19 refs

  20. Analysis simulation of tectonic earthquake impact to the lifetime of radioactive waste container and equivalent dose rate predication in Yucca Mountain geologic repository, Nevada test site, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, I.S.; Imardjoko, Y.U.; Karnawati, Dwikorita

    2003-01-01

    US policy not to recycle her spent nuclear fuels brings consequence to provide a nuclear waste repository site Yucca Mountain in Nevada, USA, considered the proper one. High-level radioactive waste to be placed into containers and then will be buried in three hundred meter underground tunnels. Tectonic earthquake is the main factor causing container's damage. Goldsim version 6.04.007 simulates mechanism of container's damage due to a great devastating impact load, the collapse of the tunnels. Radionuclide inventories included are U-234, C-14, Tc-99, I-129, Se-79, Pa-231, Np-237, Pu-242, and Pu-239. Simulation carried out in 100,000 years time span. The research goals are: 1). Estimating tunnels stan-up time, and 2). Predicting the equivalent dose rate contributed by the included radionuclides to the human due to radioactive polluted drinking water intake. (author)

  1. Repository design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogg, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a deep hard rock repository design from an initial generic approach through to a Sellafield site-specific preferred concept. As in the development of any engineering project, certain key requirements have been defined. For the repository these are that the design shall be robust in terms of safety, both during the construction and operational periods, providing maximum protection for the workforce and general public. It shall satisfy the requirements for long-term radiological safety laid down by the Department of the Environment and, as far as possible, incorporate technology and equipment which is already in use elsewhere. This will minimize the risks associated with new developments and provide opportunity to draw on expertise acquired by existing users. The repository project will inevitably involve engineering challenges not encountered in the design of other types of nuclear facility. (Author)

  2. Research Into the Role of Students’ Affective Domain While Learning Geology in Field Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Existing research programs in field-based geocognition include assessment of cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains. Assessment of the affective domain often involves the use of instruments and techniques uncommon to the geosciences. Research regarding the affective domain also commonly results in the collection and production of qualitative data that is difficult for geoscientists to analyze due to their lack of familiarity with these data sets. However, important information about students’ affective responses to learning in field environments can be obtained by using these methods. My research program focuses on data produced by students’ affective responses to field-based learning environments, primarily among students at the introductory level. For this research I developed a Likert-scale Novelty Space Survey, which presents student ‘novelty space’ (Orion and Hofstien, 1993) as a polygon; the larger the polygons, the more novelty students are experiencing. The axises for these polygons correspond to novelty domains involving geographic, social, cognitive, and psychological factors. In addition to the Novelty Space Survey, data which I have collected/generated includes focus group interviews on the role of recreational experiences in geology field programs. I have also collected data concerning the motivating factors that cause students to take photographs on field trips. The results of these studies give insight to the emotional responses students have to learning in the field and are important considerations for practitioners of teaching in these environments. Collaborative investigations among research programs that cross university departments and include multiple institutions is critical at this point in development of geocognition as a field due to unfamiliarity with cognitive science methodology by practitioners teaching geosciences and the dynamic nature of field work by cognitive scientists. However, combining the efforts of cognitive

  3. Instrument reliability for high-level nuclear-waste-repository applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogue, F.; Binnall, E.P.; Armantrout, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    Reliable instrumentation will be needed to evaluate the characteristics of proposed high-level nuclear-wasted-repository sites and to monitor the performance of selected sites during the operational period and into repository closure. A study has been done to assess the reliability of instruments used in Department of Energy (DOE) waste repository related experiments and in other similar geological applications. The study included experiences with geotechnical, hydrological, geochemical, environmental, and radiological instrumentation and associated data acquisition equipment. Though this paper includes some findings on the reliability of instruments in each of these categories, the emphasis is on experiences with geotechnical instrumentation in hostile repository-type environments. We review the failure modes, rates, and mechanisms, along with manufacturers modifications and design changes to enhance and improve instrument performance; and include recommendations on areas where further improvements are needed

  4. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations

  5. 1972 preliminary safety analysis report based on a conceptual design of a proposed repository in Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1977-08-01

    This preliminary safety analysis report is based on a proposed Federal Repository at Lyons, Kansas, for receiving, handling, and depositing radioactive solid wastes in bedded salt during the remainder of this century. The safety analysis applies to a hypothetical site in central Kansas identical to the Lyons site, except that it is free of nearby salt solution-mining operations and bore holes that cannot be plugged to Repository specifications. This PSAR contains much information that also appears in the conceptual design report. Much of the geological-hydrological information was gathered in the Lyons area. This report is organized in 16 sections: considerations leading to the proposed Repository, design requirements and criteria, a description of the Lyons site and its environs, land improvements, support facilities, utilities, different impacts of Repository operations, safety analysis, design confirmation program, operational management, requirements for eventually decommissioning the facility, design criteria for protection from severe natural events, and the proposed program of experimental investigations. (DLC)

  6. Geoscience data base handbook for modeling a nuclear waste repository. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isherwood, D.

    1979-12-01

    This handbook contains reference information on parameters that should be considered in analyzing or modeling a proposed nuclear waste repository site. Only those parameters and values that best represent the natural environment are included. Rare extremes are avoided. Where laboratory and field data are inadequate, theoretical treatments and informed engineering judgements are presented. Volume 1 contains a data base on salt as a repository medium. Chapters on the geology of bedded and dome salt, the geomechanics of salt, hydrology, geochemistry, natural and man-made features, and seismology provide compiled data and related information useful for studying a proposed repository in salt. These and other data will be needed to derive generic deep geologic modeling parameters and will also serve as background for the verification of source data that may be presented in licensing applications for nuclear waste repositories. Volume 2 is the result of a scoping study for a data base on the geology, geomechanics, and hydrology of shale, granite, and basalt as alternative repository media. Except for the geomechanics of shale, most of the sections contain relatively complete compilations of the available data, as well as discussions of the properties that are unique to each rock type

  7. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  8. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood

  9. Reference repository design concept for bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.W.; Martin, R.W.

    1980-10-08

    A reference design concept is presented for the subsurface portions of a nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. General geologic, geotechnical, hydrologic and geochemical data as well as descriptions of the physical systems are provided for use on generic analyses of the pre- and post-sealing performance of repositories in this geologic medium. The geology of bedded salt deposits and the regional and repository horizon stratigraphy are discussed. Structural features of salt beds including discontinuities and dissolution features are presented and their effect on repository performance is discussed. Seismic hazards and the potential effects of earthquakes on underground repositories are presented. The effect on structural stability and worker safety during construction from hydrocarbon and inorganic gases is described. Geohydrologic considerations including regional hydrology, repository scale hydrology and several hydrological failure modes are presented in detail as well as the hydrological considerations that effect repository design. Operational phase performance is discussed with respect to operations, ventilation system, shaft conveyances, waste handling and retrieval systems and receival rates of nuclear waste. Performance analysis of the post sealing period of a nuclear repository is discussed, and parameters to be used in such an analysis are presented along with regulatory constraints. Some judgements are made regarding hydrologic failure scenarios. Finally, the design and licensing process, consistent with the current licensing procedure is described in a format that can be easily understood.

  10. Design studies on the engineered barrier system and on the in-situ experiments under the conditions of geological environment in Horonobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yuji; Yui, Mikazu; Tanai, Kenji

    2004-04-01

    Following studies have been done in this papers in order to apply the technologies based on H12 report to the actual geological conditions of Horonobe underground research laboratory. 1) Reconsidering the process of repository design, the design process charts of a repository were presented. In the H12 report, the design process of the engineering barrier system was followed by the facility design process. In this paper, the both processes were placed in parallel position. 2) The relation between geological conditions and the performance of engineering barrier systems and the specifications of engineering barrier systems was arranged and the geological information needed for design of engineering barrier were selected. 3) The appropriate form of geological information as input-data for design were showed and the procedure for setting input-data was presented. 4) Based on the state of geological investigations at Horonobe, mechanical input-data were arranged for the design of the in-situ experiments on engineered barrier system at HORONOBE. 5) The stability of the hall for the in-situ experiments was studied by numerical analysis and the results indicated that there are difference in stability between the depth of 500 m and 570 m. (author)

  11. Monte-Carlo based comparison of the personal dose for emplacement scenarios of spent nuclear fuel casks in generic deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, Hector Sauri; Becker, Franz; Metz, Volker [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE); Pang, Bo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal (INE); Shenzhen Univ. (China). College of Physics and Energy

    2017-06-15

    In the operational phase of a deep geological disposal facility for high-level nuclear waste, the radiation field in the vicinity of a waste cask is influenced by the backscattered radiation of the surrounding walls of the emplacement drift. For a comparison of disposal of spent nuclear fuel in various host rocks, it is of interest to investigate the influence of the surrounding materials on the radiation field and the personal radiation exposure. In this generic study individual dosimetry of personnel involved in emplacement of casks with spent nuclear fuel in drifts in rock salt and in a clay formation was modelled.

  12. An overview of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory's Sensor Information Testbed for Collaborative Research Environment (SITCORE) and Automated Online Data Repository (AODR) capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dennis W.; Bennett, Kelly W.

    2017-05-01

    The Sensor Information Testbed COllaberative Research Environment (SITCORE) and the Automated Online Data Repository (AODR) are significant enablers of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL)'s Open Campus Initiative and together create a highly-collaborative research laboratory and testbed environment focused on sensor data and information fusion. SITCORE creates a virtual research development environment allowing collaboration from other locations, including DoD, industry, academia, and collation facilities. SITCORE combined with AODR provides end-toend algorithm development, experimentation, demonstration, and validation. The AODR enterprise allows the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL), as well as other government organizations, industry, and academia to store and disseminate multiple intelligence (Multi-INT) datasets collected at field exercises and demonstrations, and to facilitate research and development (R and D), and advancement of analytical tools and algorithms supporting the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) community. The AODR provides a potential central repository for standards compliant datasets to serve as the "go-to" location for lessons-learned and reference products. Many of the AODR datasets have associated ground truth and other metadata which provides a rich and robust data suite for researchers to develop, test, and refine their algorithms. Researchers download the test data to their own environments using a sophisticated web interface. The AODR allows researchers to request copies of stored datasets and for the government to process the requests and approvals in an automated fashion. Access to the AODR requires two-factor authentication in the form of a Common Access Card (CAC) or External Certificate Authority (ECA)

  13. Natural Analogues - One Way to Help Build Public Confidence in the Predicted Performance of a Mined Geologic Repository for Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2002-02-26

    The general public needs to have a way to judge the predicted long-term performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The applicability and reliability of mathematical models used to make this prediction are neither easily understood nor accepted by the public. Natural analogues can provide the average person with a tool to assess the predicted performance and other scientific conclusions. For example, hydrologists with the Yucca Mountain Project have predicted that most of the water moving through the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will move through the host rock and around tunnels. Thus, seepage into tunnels is predicted to be a small percentage of available infiltration. This hypothesis can be tested experimentally and with some quantitative analogues. It can also be tested qualitatively using a variety of analogues such as (1) well-preserved Paleolithic to Neolithic paintings in caves and rock shelters, (2) biological remains preserved in caves and rock shelters, and (3) artifacts and paintings preserved in man-made underground openings. These examples can be found in materials that are generally available to the non-scientific public and can demonstrate the surprising degree of preservation of fragile and easily destroyed materials for very long periods of time within the unsaturated zone.

  14. Fundamentals of the NEA Thermochemical Database and its influence over national nuclear programs on the performance assessment of deep geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragoussi, Maria-Eleni; Costa, Davide

    2017-03-14

    For the last 30 years, the NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project (www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/) has been developing a chemical thermodynamic database for elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste repositories, providing data that are vital to support the geochemical modeling of such systems. The recommended data are selected on the basis of strict review procedures and are characterized by their consistency. The results of these efforts are freely available, and have become an international point of reference in the field. As a result, a number of important national initiatives with regard to waste management programs have used the NEA TDB as their basis, both in terms of recommended data and guidelines. In this article we describe the fundamentals and achievements of the project together with the characteristics of some databases developed in national nuclear waste disposal programs that have been influenced by the NEA TDB. We also give some insights on how this work could be seen as an approach to be used in broader areas of environmental interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  16. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data

  17. REPOSITORY RADIATION SHIELDING DESIGN GUIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Haas; E.M. Fortsch

    1997-09-12

    The scope of this document includes radiation safety considerations used in the design of facilities for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The purpose of the Repository Radiation Shielding Design Guide is to document the approach used in the radiological design of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface and subsurface facilities for the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. This document is intended to ensure that a common methodology is used by all groups that may be involved with Radiological Design. This document will also assist in ensuring the long term survivability of the information basis used for radiological safety design and will assist in satisfying the documentation requirements of the licensing body, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This design guide provides referenceable information that is current and maintained under the YMP Quality Assurance (QA) Program. Furthermore, this approach is consistent with maintaining continuity in spite of a changing design environment. This approach also serves to ensure common inter-disciplinary interpretation and application of data.

  18. Performance monitoring of an improved disposal trench in a humid environment in a fractured geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Razor, J.

    1988-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of an improved disposal trench at the Maxey Flats Waste Disposal Site is being conducted in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a burial trench suitable for use at a site in a humid environment and underlain by complex and fractured geologic media. This demonstration is one of several proposed final site stabilization alternatives which will have to be evaluated prior to final site closure. Due to requirements in the Central Midwest Compact Commission, no waste generated as a result of the site closure may be disposed in the Commission's disposal site. Hence, the waste will be disposed on-site. The demonstration trench was constructed and filled with waste during the fall of 1985 with final trench capping being completed in July 1986. Since that time the trench has been evaluated utilizing trench settlement monument elevations, leachate production measurements, leachate radionuclide analysis, chemical tracer analysis and trench water balance. Measurements performed to date indicated that the trench lower infiltration barrier has a permeability of about 1E-7 cm/sec. Water balance measurements indicated that less than one percent of the total rainfall crossed the trench capillary barrier. No settlement of the trench cap has been observed. No liquid has appeared in the leachate collection and monitoring sumps

  19. Characterisation and modelling of mixing processes in groundwaters of a potential geological repository for nuclear wastes in crystalline rocks of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Javier B; Gimeno, María J; Auqué, Luis F; Acero, Patricia

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents the mixing modelling results for the hydrogeochemical characterisation of groundwaters in the Laxemar area (Sweden). This area is one of the two sites that have been investigated, under the financial patronage of the Swedish Nuclear Waste and Management Co. (SKB), as possible candidates for hosting the proposed repository for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. The classical geochemical modelling, interpreted in the light of the palaeohydrogeological history of the system, has shown that the driving process in the geochemical evolution of this groundwater system is the mixing between four end-member waters: a deep and old saline water, a glacial meltwater, an old marine water, and a meteoric water. In this paper we put the focus on mixing and its effects on the final chemical composition of the groundwaters using a comprehensive methodology that combines principal component analysis with mass balance calculations. This methodology allows us to test several combinations of end member waters and several combinations of compositional variables in order to find optimal solutions in terms of mixing proportions. We have applied this methodology to a dataset of 287 groundwater samples from the Laxemar area collected and analysed by SKB. The best model found uses four conservative elements (Cl, Br, oxygen-18 and deuterium), and computes mixing proportions with respect to three end member waters (saline, glacial and meteoric). Once the first order effect of mixing has been taken into account, water-rock interaction can be used to explain the remaining variability. In this way, the chemistry of each water sample can be obtained by using the mixing proportions for the conservative elements, only affected by mixing, or combining the mixing proportions and the chemical reactions for the non-conservative elements in the system, establishing the basis for predictive calculations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Motivation, Classroom Environment, and Learning in Introductory Geology: A Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. A.; Hilpert, J. C.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Budd, D.; Jones, M. H.; Matheney, R.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J. A.; Wirth, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior research has indicated that highly motivated students perform better and that learning increases in innovative, reformed classrooms, but untangling the student effects from the instructor effects is essential to understanding how to best support student learning. Using a hierarchical linear model, we examine these effects separately and jointly. We use data from nearly 2,000 undergraduate students surveyed by the NSF-funded GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research NETwork) project in 65 different introductory geology classes at research universities, public masters-granting universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges across the US. Student level effects were measured as increases in expectancy and self-regulation using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991). Instructor level effects were measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, (RTOP; Sawada et al., 2000), with higher RTOP scores indicating a more reformed, student-centered classroom environment. Learning was measured by learning gains on a Geology Concept Inventory (GCI; Libarkin and Anderson, 2005) and normalized final course grade. The hierarchical linear model yielded significant results at several levels. At the student level, increases in expectancy and self-regulation are significantly and positively related to higher grades regardless of instructor; the higher the increase, the higher the grade. At the instructor level, RTOP scores are positively related to normalized average GCI learning gains. The higher the RTOP score, the higher the average class GCI learning gains. Across both levels, average class GCI learning gains are significantly and positively related to student grades; the higher the GCI learning gain, the higher the grade. Further, the RTOP scores are significantly and negatively related to the relationship between expectancy and course grade. The lower the RTOP score, the higher the correlation between change in

  1. Staff analysis of public comments on proposed rule 10 CFR Part 60, Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Wastes in Geologic Repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    On February 25, 1981, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published rules which establish procedures for the licensing of geologic disposal, by the US Department of Energy, of high-level radioactive wastes. On July 8, 1981, proposed technical criteria which would be used in the evaluation of license applications under those procedural rules were published in the Federal Register. The Commission received 93 comment letters on the proposed technical criteria, 89 of which were received in time for the Commission to consider in preparing the final technical criteria which were published on June 21, 1983. This document presents a detailed analysis of the comments received on the proposed rule by the Commission's staff and also contains the Rationale for the Performance Objectives of 10 CFR Part 60

  2. Overview of the current CRWMS repository design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.B.; Teraoka, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current design for a potential geologic repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of the paper is to present the key design features of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) surface facilities and MGDS subsurface facilities. The paper describes the following: surface layout; waste handling operations design; subsurface design; and the underground transport and emplacement design. A more detailed presentation of key features is provided in the ''Reference design description for a geologic repository'' which is located on the YMP Homepage at www.ymp.gov

  3. Characterisation and modelling of mixing processes in groundwaters of a potential geological repository for nuclear wastes in crystalline rocks of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez, Javier B., E-mail: jgomez@unizar.es; Gimeno, María J., E-mail: mjgimeno@unizar.es; Auqué, Luis F., E-mail: lauque@unizar.es; Acero, Patricia, E-mail: patriace@unizar.es

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the mixing modelling results for the hydrogeochemical characterisation of groundwaters in the Laxemar area (Sweden). This area is one of the two sites that have been investigated, under the financial patronage of the Swedish Nuclear Waste and Management Co. (SKB), as possible candidates for hosting the proposed repository for the long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel. The classical geochemical modelling, interpreted in the light of the palaeohydrogeological history of the system, has shown that the driving process in the geochemical evolution of this groundwater system is the mixing between four end-member waters: a deep and old saline water, a glacial meltwater, an old marine water, and a meteoric water. In this paper we put the focus on mixing and its effects on the final chemical composition of the groundwaters using a comprehensive methodology that combines principal component analysis with mass balance calculations. This methodology allows us to test several combinations of end member waters and several combinations of compositional variables in order to find optimal solutions in terms of mixing proportions. We have applied this methodology to a dataset of 287 groundwater samples from the Laxemar area collected and analysed by SKB. The best model found uses four conservative elements (Cl, Br, oxygen-18 and deuterium), and computes mixing proportions with respect to three end member waters (saline, glacial and meteoric). Once the first order effect of mixing has been taken into account, water–rock interaction can be used to explain the remaining variability. In this way, the chemistry of each water sample can be obtained by using the mixing proportions for the conservative elements, only affected by mixing, or combining the mixing proportions and the chemical reactions for the non-conservative elements in the system, establishing the basis for predictive calculations. - Highlights: • Laxemar (Sweden) groundwater is the combined result

  4. Rock support for nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, L.W.; Schmidt, B.

    1984-01-01

    The design of rock support for underground nuclear waste repositories requires consideration of special construction and operation requirements, and of the adverse environmental conditions in which some of the support is placed. While repository layouts resemble mines, design, construction and operation are subject to quality assurance and public scrutiny similar to what is experienced for nuclear power plants. Exploration, design, construction and operation go through phases of review and licensing by government agencies as repositories evolve. This paper discusses (1) the various stages of repository development; (2) the environment that supports must be designed for; (3) the environmental effects on support materials; and (4) alternative types of repository rock support

  5. NF-Pro: an integrated project on key-processes and their couplings in the near-field of a repository for the geological disposal of vitrified high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Volckaert, G.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1984, the European Commission has supported R and D activities related to the management of radioactive waste. Community-supported R and D projects have been funded through the EURATOM programme by means of multi-annual framework programmes. In 2002, the Commission launched the Sixth Framework Programme (FP6), which is now in force and which represents a major change compared with previous Community-supported Programmes. In particular, the scope and ambition of research supported within FP6 as well as the average level of funding of individual projects have substantially increased. In addition, the European Commission has introduced two new instruments in the Sixth Framework Programme: - Networks of Excellence (NoEs) aim at progressively integrating the activities of partners through 'virtual' centres of excellence; - Integrated Projects (IPs) are large-scale projects that aim at bringing together a critical mass in research activities focusing on clearly defined scientific and technological objectives. In the Sixth Framework Programme, the Commission has attributed high priority to R and D on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. One of the Integrated Projects that has been accepted for funding as part of the FP6 EURATOM programme is NF-PRO. NF-PRO integrates European research on the near-field of geological repositories for high-level waste disposal. The present paper gives an overview of the scope, objectives and content of NF-PRO and outlines composition of the consortium. Particular emphasis is on the role of modelling in connection with the integration of results from detailed process studies into assessments on the overall performance of the near-field system. (authors)

  6. Geomass: geological modelling analysis and simulation software for the characterisation of fractured hard rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Humm, J.P.; Todaka, N.; Takeuchi, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the development and functionality of a suite of applications which are being developed to support the geological investigations in the Tono URL. GEOMASS will include 3D geological modelling, 3D fluid flow and solute transport and 3D visualisation capabilities. The 3D geological modelling in GEOMASS will be undertaken usi