WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic exploration model

  1. Geodiversity: Exploration of 3D geological model space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, M. D.; Jessell, M. W.; Ailleres, L.; Perrouty, S.; de Kemp, E.; Betts, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The process of building a 3D model necessitates the reconciliation of field observations, geophysical interpretation, geological data uncertainty and the prevailing tectonic evolution hypotheses and interpretations. Uncertainty is compounded when clustered data points collected at local scales are statistically upscaled to one or two points for use in regional models. Interpretation is required to interpolate between sparse field data points using ambiguous geophysical data in covered terranes. It becomes clear that multiple interpretations are possible during model construction. The various interpretations are considered as potential natural representatives, but pragmatism typically dictates that just a single interpretation is offered by the modelling process. Uncertainties are introduced into the 3D model during construction from a variety of sources and through data set optimisation that produces a single model. Practices such as these are likely to result in a model that does not adequately represent the target geology. A set of geometrical ‘geodiversity’ metrics are used to analyse a 3D model of the Gippsland Basin, southeastern Australia after perturbing geological input data via uncertainty simulation. The resulting sets of perturbed geological observations are used to calculate a suite of geological 3D models that display a range of geological architectures. The concept of biodiversity has been adapted for the geosciences to quantify geometric variability, or geodiversity, between models in order to understand the effect uncertainty has models geometry. Various geometrical relationships (depth, volume, contact surface area, curvature and geological complexity) are used to describe the range of possibilities exhibited throughout the model suite. End-member models geodiversity metrics are classified in a similar manner to taxonomic descriptions. Further analysis of the model suite is performed using principal component analysis (PCA) to determine

  2. Evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project and analysis of some technical problems in commercial negotiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenkai

    2012-01-01

    A composite evaluation model of commercial geological exploration and mining development project was discussed, this new model consists of polity-economy-technique (PET) synthetic evaluation sub-model and geology-mining-metallurgy (GMM) technique evaluation sub-model. Besides, some key technical problems in commercial negotiation, such as information screening, quoted price and analysis of deadline, were briefly analyzed. (author)

  3. Report on geologic exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslin, J.; Laughon, R.B.; Hall, R.J.; Voss, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is responsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. The ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed

  4. Report on geologic exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the geological exploration activities being carried out as part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, which has been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop the technology and provide the facilities for the safe, environmentally acceptable isolation of civilian high-level and transuranic nuclear wastes, including spent fuel elements, for which the Federal government is reponsible. The principal programmatic emphasis is on disposal in mined geologic repositories. Explorations are being conducted or planned in various parts of the country to identify potential sites for such repositories. The work is being undertaken by three separate but coordinated NWTS project elements. Under the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), basalt formations underlying DOE's Hanford Reservation are being investigated. Granite, tuff, and shale formations at the DOE Nevada Test Site (NTS) are being similarly studied in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI). The Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) is investigating domed salt formations in several Gulf Coast states and bedded salt formations in Utah and Texas. Th ONWI siting studies are being expanded to include areas overlying crystalline rocks, shales, and other geohydrologic systems. The current status of these NWTS efforts, including the projected budgets for FY 1981, is summarized, and the criteria and methodology being employed in the explorations are described. The consistency of the overall effort with the recommendations presented in the Report to the President by the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG), as well as with documents representing the national technical consensus, is discussed

  5. Geophysical investigation for 3D geological modelling and ore exploration in the Skellefte mining district

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, Saman

    2012-01-01

    The Skellefte mining district, northern Sweden, is regarded as one of the country’s richest mineral districts. Most of the outcropping deposits in this district or those deposits which are located at shallow depths (≤ 300 m) are likely to have already been discovered, which motivated the Swedish mining companies to expand their explorations at greater depths (e.g. ~5 km depth). Whereas previous explorations conducted in the central Skellefte district (CSD) contributed extensively to unveil VM...

  6. AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) is used by the AEGIS (Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems) program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to simulate the dynamic geology and hydrology of a geologic nuclear waste repository site over a million-year period following repository closure. The GSM helps to organize geologic/hydrologic data; to focus attention on active natural processes by requiring their simulation; and, through interactive simulation and calibration, to reduce subjective evaluations of the geologic system. During each computer run, the GSM produces a million-year geologic history that is possible for the region and the repository site. In addition, the GSM records in permanent history files everything that occurred during that time span. Statistical analyses of data in the history files of several hundred simulations are used to classify typical evolutionary paths, to establish the probabilities associated with deviations from the typical paths, and to determine which types of perturbations of the geologic/hydrologic system, if any, are most likely to occur. These simulations will be evaluated by geologists familiar with the repository region to determine validity of the results. Perturbed systems that are determined to be the most realistic, within whatever probability limits are established, will be used for the analyses that involve radionuclide transport and dose models. The GSM is designed to be continuously refined and updated. Simulation models are site specific, and, although the submodels may have limited general applicability, the input data equirements necessitate detailed characterization of each site before application

  7. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  8. 3D geological modelling of the Renard 2 kimberlite pipe, Québec, Canada: from exploration to extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Isabelle; Farrow, Darrell

    2018-04-01

    The Renard 2 kimberlite pipe is one of nine diamondiferous kimberlite pipes that form a cluster in the south-eastern portion of the Superior Province, Québec, Canada and is presently being extracted at the Renard Mine. It is interpreted as a diatreme-zone kimberlite consisting of two Kimberley-type pyroclastic units and related country rock breccias, all cross-cut by coherent kimberlite dykes and irregular intrusives. Renard 2 has been the subject of numerous diamond drilling campaigns since its discovery in 2001. The first two geological models modelled kimberlite and country rock breccia units separately. A change in modelling philosophy in 2009, which incorporated the emplacement envelope and history, modelled the entire intrusive event and projected the pipe shape to depth allowing for more targeted deep drilling where kimberlite had not yet been discovered. This targeted 2009 drilling resulted in a > 400% increase in the volume of the Indicated Resource. Modelling only the kimberlite units resulted in a significant underestimation of the pipe shape. Current open pit and underground mapping of the pipe shape corresponds well to the final 2015 geological model and contact changes observed are within the expected level of confidence for an Indicated Resource. This study demonstrates that a sound understanding of the geological emplacement is key to developing a reliable 3D geological and resource model that can be used for targeted delineation drilling, feasibility studies and during the initial stages of mining.

  9. Uranium geochemistry, mineralogy, geology, exploration and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vivo, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book comprises papers on the following topics: history of radioactivity; uranium in mantle processes; transport and deposition of uranium in hydrothermal systems at temperatures up to 300 0 C: Geological implications; geochemical behaviour of uranium in the supergene environment; uranium exploration techniques; uranium mineralogy; time, crustal evolution and generation of uranium deposits; uranium exploration; geochemistry of uranium in the hydrographic network; uranium deposits of the world, excluding Europe; uranium deposits in Europe; uranium in the economics of energy; role of high heat production granites in uranium province formation; and uranium deposits

  10. Muon radiography for exploration of Mars geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kedar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Muon radiography is a technique that uses naturally occurring showers of muons (penetrating particles generated by cosmic rays to image the interior of large-scale geological structures in much the same way as standard X-ray radiography is used to image the interior of smaller objects. Recent developments and application of the technique to terrestrial volcanoes have demonstrated that a low-power, passive muon detector can peer deep into geological structures up to several kilometers in size, and provide crisp density profile images of their interior at ten meter scale resolution. Preliminary estimates of muon production on Mars indicate that the near horizontal Martian muon flux, which could be used for muon radiography, is as strong or stronger than that on Earth, making the technique suitable for exploration of numerous high priority geological targets on Mars. The high spatial resolution of muon radiography also makes the technique particularly suited for the discovery and delineation of Martian caverns, the most likely planetary environment for biological activity. As a passive imaging technique, muon radiography uses the perpetually present background cosmic ray radiation as the energy source for probing the interior of structures from the surface of the planet. The passive nature of the measurements provides an opportunity for a low power and low data rate instrument for planetary exploration that could operate as a scientifically valuable primary or secondary instrument in a variety of settings, with minimal impact on the mission's other instruments and operation.

  11. Geological terrain models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.

    1981-01-01

    The initial phase of a program to determine the best interpretation strategy and sensor configuration for a radar remote sensing system for geologic applications is discussed. In this phase, terrain modeling and radar image simulation were used to perform parametric sensitivity studies. A relatively simple computer-generated terrain model is presented, and the data base, backscatter file, and transfer function for digital image simulation are described. Sets of images are presented that simulate the results obtained with an X-band radar from an altitude of 800 km and at three different terrain-illumination angles. The simulations include power maps, slant-range images, ground-range images, and ground-range images with statistical noise incorporated. It is concluded that digital image simulation and computer modeling provide cost-effective methods for evaluating terrain variations and sensor parameter changes, for predicting results, and for defining optimum sensor parameters.

  12. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Vogt

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M and O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in

  13. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  14. Geological evolution of clay sediments: the petroleum exploration vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive waste isolation capacity assessment for a clay sediment host rock is link: (1) to the understanding of their present state properties and 3-D repartition (from basin evolution, including sedimentary and diagenetic process); and (2) to the prediction of their future evolution during the next million years. For petroleum exploration, basin modelling aims at reconstructing the accumulation of hydrocarbons at basin scale, and at geological timescale, taking into account the effects of kinematics displacements, sedimentation, erosion, compaction, temperatures history, overpressures and fluids flows (water and hydrocarbons). Furthermore, explorationists wish to address overpressure reconstruction in order to estimate the risks of drilling. Clay sediments are of interest for petroleum exploration because source rocks and seal are generally composed of them. Nevertheless, in spite of their occurrence in nature their evolution at geological timescale is not well understood. And, most of the knowledge has been achieved by those working in the realms of soils mechanics and civil engineering until the present geological investigations for long term radioactive waste repositories. Application of this knowledge to clay sediment is considered to be valid within the first hundreds of meters at the top of the sedimentary pile, according to a repository depth. This paper is dedicated to the sedimentary rocks behaviour at geological timescale. This behaviour is characterised by: (1) the deposition of the sediment; (2) the loading path at geological timescale; (3) the constitutive law which includes the consolidation process and the rupture criteria; and (4) the parameters evolution related to consolidation. (author)

  15. Targeting of Gold Deposits in Amazonian Exploration Frontiers using Knowledge- and Data-Driven Spatial Modeling of Geophysical, Geochemical, and Geological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Lucíola Alves; Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto

    2012-03-01

    This paper reports the application of weights-of-evidence, artificial neural networks, and fuzzy logic spatial modeling techniques to generate prospectivity maps for gold mineralization in the neighborhood of the Amapari Au mine, Brazil. The study area comprises one of the last Brazilian mineral exploration frontiers. The Amapari mine is located in the Maroni-Itaicaiúnas Province, which regionally hosts important gold, iron, manganese, chromite, diamond, bauxite, kaolinite, and cassiterite deposits. The Amapari Au mine is characterized as of the orogenic gold deposit type. The highest gold grades are associated with highly deformed rocks and are concentrated in sulfide-rich veins mainly composed of pyrrhotite. The data used for the generation of gold prospectivity models include aerogeophysical and geological maps as well as the gold content of stream sediment samples. The prospectivity maps provided by these three methods showed that the Amapari mine stands out as an area of high potential for gold mineralization. The prospectivity maps also highlight new targets for gold exploration. These new targets were validated by means of detailed maps of gold geochemical anomalies in soil and by fieldwork. The identified target areas exhibit good spatial coincidence with the main soil geochemical anomalies and prospects, thus demonstrating that the delineation of exploration targets by analysis and integration of indirect datasets in a geographic information system (GIS) is consistent with direct prospecting. Considering that work of this nature has never been developed in the Amazonian region, this is an important example of the applicability and functionality of geophysical data and prospectivity analysis in regions where geologic and metallogenetic information is scarce.

  16. Exploring geological and socio-demographic factors associated with under-five mortality in the Wenchuan earthquake using neural network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Xiaohong; Ren, Dan; Driskell, Luke; Zhu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, a devastating earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, taking tens of thousands of lives and destroying the homes of millions of people. Among the large number of dead or missing were children, particularly children aged less than five years old, a fact which drew significant media attention. To obtain relevant information specifically to aid further studies and future preventative measures, a neural network model was proposed to explore some geological and socio-demographic factors associated with earthquake-related child mortality. Sensitivity analysis showed that topographic slope (mean 35.76%), geomorphology (mean 24.18%), earthquake intensity (mean 13.68%), and average income (mean 11%) had great contributions to child mortality. These findings could provide some clues to researchers for further studies and to policy makers in deciding how and where preventive measures and corresponding policies should be implemented in the reconstruction of communities.

  17. Neural Networks Technique, Lithofacies Classifications and Analysis and Depositional Environment Interpretation for 3-D Reservoir Geological Modeling and Exploration Studies (X Example)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloghalu, E.; Chin, A.; Ebong, U.

    2003-01-01

    The value of borehole geology in Petroleum Exploration and Production cannot be over-emphasized. Reservoir characterization in mature fields and indeed mature basins requires high-resolution and high precision tools to determine the Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the areas of interest. The aim of reservoir studies is usually to determine the heterogeneity and the internal architecture of the reservoirs and the resulting model is simulated to derive the reservoir engineering properties, which impacts on quality decisions for optimal exploitation of the hydrocarbon in place. The point issues or challenges usually encountered in reservoir studies and management are baffles, barriers to flow, thief zones and other uncertainties that come about due to inadequate understanding of the sedimentology of the reservoirs in question. (Issues like preferential flow direction which significantly impact on secondary recovery and affect the costs). Recent advancements in borehole geology image and dips data helps to effectively itemize these uncertainties, and significantly reduce them to the barrest minimum. This work shows processed and interpreted image and dips data from a field, integrated with other petrophysical data and then incorporated into a field-wide study in the X-field. This was done using the most recent technological advancements in logging tools and in interpretation processes. The achievements include cost saving, higher precision results and reduced time or interpretation

  18. Several issues of uranium geology exploration facilities decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lu; Lu Caixia; Sheng Qing; Zhuang Jingqi; Xie Shujun; Liao Yunxuan

    2013-01-01

    The environmental protection completion acceptance review work of uranium geology exploration facilities 'llth five-year plan' decommissioned and remediation projects is introduced. Some questions related to norms and standards for uranium geology exploration facilities decommissioning and remediation, scheme of decommissioning and remediation, process inspection and acceptance of project and so on are discussed, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward, Some references can be provided for the later development of uranium geological exploration facility '12th five-year plan' decommissioning and remediation projects. (authors)

  19. Use of Geological Lineaments Results in Groundwater Exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locating aquifiers in Precambrian crystalline rocks offers major problems unless areas of intense weathering or fracturing are targeted. These normally occur along geological lineaments which can be identified during groundwater exploration. Major geological lineaments were identified in the Zomba area, southern Malawi ...

  20. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Institue, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  1. Hydrogeological Properties of Geological Elements in Geological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    To develop site characterization technologies for a radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the geological and hydrogeological investigations have been carried out since 1997. In 2006, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to study a solute migration, a microbiology and an engineered barrier system as well as deeply to understand geological environments in in-situ condition. This study is performed as one of the site characterization works around KURT. Several investigations such as a lineament analysis, a borehole/tunnel survey, a geophyscial survey and logging in borehole, were used to construct the geological model. As a result, the geological model is constructed, which includes the lithological model and geo-structural model in this study. Moreover, from the results of the in-situ hydraulic tests, the hydrogeological properties of elements in geological model were evaluated.

  2. Scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration: evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linna; Lei, Yalin

    2013-01-01

    With the continued growth in demand for mineral resources and China's efforts in increasing investment in geological prospecting, fiscal investment in geological exploration becomes a research hotspot. This paper examines the yearly relationship among fiscal investment in geological exploration of the current term, that of the last term and prices of mining rights over the period 1999-2009. Hines and Catephores' investment acceleration model is applied to describe the scale determinants of fiscal investment in geological exploration which are value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights and fiscal investment in the last term. The results indicate that when value-added of mining rights, value of mining rights or fiscal investment in the last term moves at 1 unit, fiscal investment in the current term will move 0.381, 1.094 or 0.907 units respectively. In order to determine the scale of fiscal investment in geological exploration for the current year, the Chinese government should take fiscal investment in geological exploration for the last year and the capital stock of the previous investments into account. In practice, combination of government fiscal investment in geological exploration with its performance evaluation can create a virtuous circle of capital management mechanism.

  3. Signed distance function implicit geologic modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mentzingen Rolo

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to every geostatistical estimation or simulation study there is a need for delimiting the geologic domains of the deposit, which is traditionally done manually by a geomodeler in a laborious, time consuming and subjective process. For this reason, novel techniques referred to as implicit modelling have appeared. These techniques provide algorithms that replace the manual digitization process of the traditional methods by some form of automatic procedure. This paper covers a few well established implicit methods currently available with special attention to the signed distance function methodology. A case study based on a real dataset was performed and its applicability discussed. Although it did not replace an experienced geomodeler, the method proved to be capable in creating semi-automatic geological models from the sampling data, especially in the early stages of exploration.

  4. Geological exploration strategies and site characterisation methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1997-01-01

    Starting with a short overview of the Swiss HLW disposal programme the paper addresses the more general issue of how site characterisation programmes can better be matched to the acknowledged data requirements of safety analysts and repository designers. Swiss experience suggests that measures to promote mutual understanding between geologistsand quantitative modelers and advance planning of the GEO-data-synthesis can help to bridge the gap separating performance assessment input parameters and field measurements. This represents a step towards more effective and cost efficient field investigations. (author). 4 figs

  5. Geological exploration strategies and site characterisation methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprecher, C. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste, Wettingen (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Starting with a short overview of the Swiss HLW disposal programme the paper addresses the more general issue of how site characterisation programmes can better be matched to the acknowledged data requirements of safety analysts and repository designers. Swiss experience suggests that measures to promote mutual understanding between geologistsand quantitative modelers and advance planning of the GEO-data-synthesis can help to bridge the gap separating performance assessment input parameters and field measurements. This represents a step towards more effective and cost efficient field investigations. (author). 4 figs.

  6. The Ventersdorp Contact Reef model in the Kloof Gold Mine as derived from 3D seismics, geological mapping and exploration borehole datasets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manzi, MSD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A model of the Ventersdorp Contact Reef (VCR) orebody at Kloof Gold Mine was derived by integrating 3D reflection seismic data with information derived from underground mine mapping and exploration drilling. The study incorporated the depth...

  7. Risk assessment by the occupational safety and health at work in the process of geological exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletović Novica M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of risk assessment in terms of safety and health at work in the process of geological work/ drilling. Optimization model estimates OH & S risk for work place qualified driller, is in line with the provisions of the Mining and Geological exploration, the Law on Safety and Health at Work, the application of the requirements of ISO 31000 and criteria Kinny methods. Model estimates OH & S risks is the basis for the development and implementation of the management system of protection of health and safety at work according to BS OHSAS 18001: 2008 model is applied, checked and verified the approved exploration areas during execution and supervision applied geological exploration (of metals on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  8. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Clayton

    2000-12-19

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and the

  9. Geologic Framework Model Analysis Model Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Geologic Framework Model (GFM), Version 3.1 (GFM3.1) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.1 and previous versions. The GFM represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the stratigraphy and structural features of the location of the potential Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. The GFM encompasses an area of 65 square miles (170 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the GFM were chosen to encompass the most widely distributed set of exploratory boreholes (the Water Table or WT series) and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The GFM was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphy sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. This interim change notice (ICN) was prepared in accordance with the Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model Process Model Report Revision 01 (CRWMS M and O 2000). The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The GFM is one component of the Integrated Site Model (ISM) (Figure l), which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1) Geologic Framework Model (GFM); (2) Rock Properties Model (RPM); and (3) Mineralogic Model (MM). The ISM merges the detailed project stratigraphy into model stratigraphic units that are most useful for the primary downstream models and

  10. Geology of Mars after the first 40 years of exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Angelo Pio; Van Gasselt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge of Martian geology has increased enormously in the last 40 yr. Several missions orbiting or roving Mars have revolutionized our understanding of its evolution and geological features, which in several ways are similar to Earth, but are extremely different in many respects. The impressive dichotomy between the two Martian hemispheres is most likely linked to its impact cratering history, rather than internal dynamics such as on Earth. Mars' volcanism has been extensive, very long-lived and rather constant in its setting. Water was available in large quantities in the distant past of Mars, when a magnetic field and more vigorous tectonics were active. Exogenic forces have been shaping Martian landscapes and have led to a plethora of landscapes shaped by wind, water and ice. Mars' dynamical behavior continues, with its climatic variation affecting climate and geology until very recent times. This paper tries to summarize major highlights in Mars' Geology, and points to deeper and more extensive sources of important scientific contributions and future exploration. (invited reviews)

  11. Characteristics of Chinese petroleum geology. Geological features and exploration cases of stratigraphic, foreland and deep formation traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Chengzao [PetroChina Company Limited, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-01

    The first book of this subject in the recent 10 years. ''Characteristics of Chinese Petroleum Geology: Geological Features and Exploration Cases of Stratigraphic, Foreland and Deep Formation Traps'' systematically presents the progress made in petroleum geology in China and highlights the latest advances and achievements in oil/gas exploration and research, especially in stratigraphic, foreland and deep formation traps. The book is intended for researchers, practitioners and students working in petroleum geology, and is also an authoritative reference work for foreign petroleum exploration experts who want to learn more about this field in China.

  12. 50 CFR 37.45 - Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exploration by the U.S. Geological Survey... INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE....S. Geological Survey. Notwithstanding the requirement found in § 37.21(b) on when exploration plans...

  13. Modelling oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of oil exploration models in this paper is developed in four parts. The way in which exploration has been dealt with in oil supply models is first described. Five recent models are then looked at, paying particular attention to the explanatory variables used when modelling exploration activities. This is followed by a discussion of the factors which have been shown by several empirical studies to determine exploration in less developed countries. Finally, the interdependence between institutional factors, oil prices and exploration effort is analysed with a view to drawing conclusions for modelling in the future. (UK)

  14. Modeling Peak Oil and the Geological Constraints on Oil Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  15. Modeling peak oil and the geological constraints on oil production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynès, F.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model to reconcile the theory of inter-temporal non-renewable resource depletion with well-known stylized facts concerning the exploitation of exhaustible resources such as oil. Our approach introduces geological constraints into a Hotelling type extraction-exploration model. We show

  16. Quality control of geological voxel models using experts' gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Busschers, F.S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2015-01-01

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  17. Quality Control of Geological Voxel Models using Experts' Gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Peter-Paul; Busschers, Freek S.; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van der Meulendijk, Michiel J.; van Erp, Johannes Bernardus Fransiscus

    Due to an expected increase in geological voxel model data-flow and user demands, the development of improved quality control for such models is crucial. This study explores the potential of a new type of quality control that improves the detection of errors by just using gaze behavior of 12

  18. Helium and radon-emanation bibliography. Selected references of geologic interest to uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkisson, C.W.; Reimer, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Selected references on helium and radon gas emanations and geologically related topics are given. There are 172 references primarily related to helium geology, 129 to radon geology, and 171 to helium and radon. These references are of geologic interest to uranium exploration

  19. Shelf Projects: The Political Life of Exploration Geology in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn d'Avignon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the early 2000s, southeastern Senegal has emerged as a premier gold exploration and mining frontier. At present, the Sabodala gold mine, owned by the Canadian company Teranga Gold, is the only operational gold mine and mill in Senegal. But two more open-pit gold operations are scheduled to open this year, and several other companies have announced discoveries of industrial-scale deposits. By documenting the shifting ownership and exploration of the Sabodala deposit, this article draws attention to how the protracted phase of mineral research shapes the political life of mining operations in Africa and elsewhere in the global South. Geological exploration in colonial and post-colonial Senegal, as in much of Africa, has relied heavily on the expertise of indigenous miners and smelters. Mining Sabodala has thus unearthed multi-vocal and contested histories of gold discovery. Historians of science have established that field assistants and experts in Africa have produced agronomic and medical knowledge typically credited to “the West.” By extending this argument to gold exploration, the article brings African history into dialogue with an emergent anthropology of subterranean knowledge production.

  20. PROJECT MANAGEMENT FOR THE STATE-GOVERNED GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Lygin

    2018-03-01

    necessity of introducing the project management methods to improve the efficiency of the state management of exploration was proven. The essence of the project-oriented system of the exploration works state management is considered. The model of the geological industry management system with the allocation of sectoral projects was adduced. The organizational structure and the structure of the activities of project participants, including planned and unscheduled activities was also gi-ven. We defined the nature of the management processes divided into five groups, the content of the control units of the sectoral project and the geological exploration management matrix. This was determined in the framework of the sectoral project. The proposed project-oriented control system of hydraulic fracturing, which varies depending on the environment, will allow the most effective implementation of the functions of state regulation in the mineral sector.

  1. Quantifying uncertainty of geological 3D layer models, constructed with a-priori geological expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.J.; Maljers, D.; Hummelman, J.

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty quantification of geological models that are constructed with additional geological expert-knowledge is not straightforward. To construct sound geological 3D layer models we use a lot of additional knowledge, with an uncertainty that is hard to quantify. Examples of geological expert

  2. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  3. Geological and hydrological exploration of Gulf Coast Salt Domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughon, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    The geologic exploration program in the Gulf Coast Salt Dome Region is based on a screening process that includes a series of increasingly detailed studies. The screening procedure takes the following steps: (1) determination of regions for further study (in this case, the salt domes of the interior Gulf Coast); (2) regional surveys and the determination of areas within those regions which are thought to be most suitable and which are recommended for further evaluation (in this case, eight specific salt domes); (3) area characterizations and the determination of locations within the areas which are thought to have a high probability of suitability (in this case, two or three of the eight salt domes); (4) location studies and the determination of a potential repository site, which is thought to be suitable and licensable and which is recommended for completion of site characterization studies

  4. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  5. Deterministic geologic processes and stochastic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent outcrop sampling at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has produced significant new information regarding the distribution of physical properties at the site of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. consideration of the spatial variability indicates that her are a number of widespread deterministic geologic features at the site that have important implications for numerical modeling of such performance aspects as ground water flow and radionuclide transport. Because the geologic processes responsible for formation of Yucca Mountain are relatively well understood and operate on a more-or-less regional scale, understanding of these processes can be used in modeling the physical properties and performance of the site. Information reflecting these deterministic geologic processes may be incorporated into the modeling program explicitly using geostatistical concepts such as soft information, or implicitly, through the adoption of a particular approach to modeling

  6. Geological exploration of uranium ores at Burgos' basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera Valdez, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    The outcrop sediments of the Burgos river basin cover the complete Cenozoic sequence from the Pallaeocene to recent date, and are arranged in the form of parallel strips with a regional dip towards the east, in which direction the sediments become steadily younger. Generally speaking they correspond to a regressive process the lithology of which is an alternation of shales, sandstones, tuffaceous material and conglomerates. The explorations and evaluations of sedimentary uranium deposits so far carried out in the north-east of Mexico show close relationships between the mineralization and the sedimentary processes of the enclosing rock. Analysis of the sedimentary-type uranium ore bodies in Mexico indicates characteristics very similar to those found in the deposits of the same type which were first studied and described in southern Texas and were used as a standard for the first exploratory studies. The uranium ore in the State of Texas is found in sands belonging mainly to the Jackson group of the Eocene and, to a lesser extent, the Catahoula formation of Miocene-Oligocene age. In the Burgos basin the existence of uranium deposits in the non-marine Frio formation of Oligocene age, with geological characteristics similar to the Texan deposits, has been demonstrated. This comparative analysis suggests very good prospects for uranium exploration in the region; it is recommended that priority be given to intensive study of the sediments of the non-marine member of the Frio formation, and the Jackson and Catahoula formations. (author)

  7. Economic analysis of hydrocarbon exploration by simulation with geological uncertainties (exploratory wells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chungcharoen, E.

    1997-01-01

    A model was developed to help determine the future development of hydrocarbon reserves. The uncertainties of geological parameters were incorporated into the model in an effort to provide an assessment of the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries that are expected to be recovered as a result of exploration activity. The economic parameters were also incorporated into the model in an effort to determine the economic worth of multiple-wells exploration activity. The first part of this study included the geological parameters in the initial field size distribution and the number of fields distribution. Dry hole data was also considered to reflect the exploration risk. The distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries for a selected number of exploratory wells was determined. The second part of the study included the economic parameters such as the price of oil and gas and the cost of exploration, development and production. The distribution of the number of discoveries and the distribution of total hydrocarbon discoveries was compared to produce a probability distribution of the net present value of a proposed exploration program. The offshore Nova Scotia Shelf basin was chosen for testing the methodology. Several scenarios involving changes in economic parameters were shown. This methodology could help in determining future development programs for hydrocarbon reserves. The methodology can also help governments in policy making decisions regarding taxes and royalty regimes for exploration programs

  8. History Matching: Towards Geologically Reasonable Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melnikova, Yulia; Cordua, Knud Skou; Mosegaard, Klaus

    This work focuses on the development of a new method for history matching problem that through a deterministic search finds a geologically feasible solution. Complex geology is taken into account evaluating multiple point statistics from earth model prototypes - training images. Further a function...... that measures similarity between statistics of a training image and statistics of any smooth model is introduced and its analytical gradient is computed. This allows us to apply any gradientbased method to history matching problem and guide a solution until it satisfies both production data and complexity...

  9. Exploration methods for granitic natural stones – geological and topographical aspects from case studies in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olavi Selonen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional and local geological constraints for location of natural stone deposits in glaciated terrains of southern and central Finland have been studied and applied to practical exploration for natural stone. A list of geological and topographical aspects to be considered in exploration, is presented. Important aspects refer to: 1. Regional geology of the target area. 2. Magmatism (type and structure of intrusion, relative time of pluton emplacement. 3. Metamorphism (grade, mineral composition, parent material. 4. Deformation (lineaments, shear zones, folding, fault zones, fracture zones, shape preferred mineral orientations, and 5. Topography (relative elevation, micro topography. The proposed aspects can be used as geological guidelines in exploration for granitic natural stones.

  10. Quantitative geological modeling based on probabilistic integration of geological and geophysical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulbrandsen, Mats Lundh

    In order to obtain an adequate geological model of any kind, proper integration of geophysical data, borehole logs and geological expert knowledge is important. Geophysical data provide indirect information about geology, borehole logs provide sparse point wise direct information about geology...... entitled Smart Interpretation is developed. This semi-automatic method learns the relation between a set of data attributes extracted from deterministically inverted airborne electromagnetic data and a set of interpretations of a geological layer that is manually picked by a geological expert...

  11. D Geological Framework Models as a Teaching Aid for Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, H.; Ward, E.; Geological ModelsTeaching Project Team

    2010-12-01

    or educational material to incorporate it into an existing area of the syllabus such as a field trip, project work or a certain taxing geological concept such as dip and strike. ● can easily be utilised by students unable to attend university conventionally (illness or disability), distance learning students or for extra curricular activities and continuing professional development courses. ● can be used repeatedly and in such a way as to continually build on geoscience aspects - this practice will improve the student’s geospatial skills. ● can be compared with that seen directly in the field which aids the student in recognising particular patterns or sequences. It also demonstrates how different and complex geology looks in the field and thus how important it is not to rely on models alone. ● are interactive and the accompanying educational material is engaging, dealing with authentic, contemporary scientific problems meaning the student will have to ask questions, think critically and solve problems. ● can often be more practical and better financial alternatives to some teaching methods currently employed. ● incorporate strategies where students first explore, are then introduced to terminology and concepts, finally students apply their knowledge to different, but related problems. This can be further reinforced and explored with fellow students.

  12. Exploring the assessment of geological observation with design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, John Y.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the assessment of geological observation through the development and field testing of performance tasks. The study addressed a central challenge in geoscience education: for students to observe the world around them and make real-world connections. Yet, there existed no cohesive research approach for the study of observation in geoscience education. The research goal was to understand the assessment of geological observation. The design research of geological observation encountered the situation where few performance assessments existed and few domain-specific learning theories were available. Design research is suited to inquiries in which a domain of learning is unexplored and the phenomena needs to be supported in the classroom in order to study it. This dissertation addressed one general research question and four subquestions: (RQ) How should geological observation be assessed? (S1) What role did perception play in assessing students' geological observations? (S2) What role did explanation play in assessing students' geological observations? (S3) What role did gestures play in assessing students' geological observations? (S4) Were there performance differences between the first and second trial of the GO Inquire prototype with fourth graders? Students were supported in making geological observations with three performance tasks: GO Inquire stamp task, Cutting task, and Fieldguide task. The data set for this study consisted of student response data, videorecordings, and participant observations from seven field tests across one fourth and one fifth grade class. Three data-analytic methods, qualitative coding, item-difficulty analysis, and non-parametric comparisons, were utilized based on four mixed-method data analysis strategies: typology development, data transformation, extreme case analysis, and data consolidation. Analysis revealed that assessment should take into account the separation of visual from verbal

  13. Conduct of Geologic Field Work During Planetary Exploration: Why Geology Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2010-01-01

    The science of field geology is the investigative process of determining the distribution of rock units and structures on a planet fs surface, and it is the first-order data set that informs all subsequent studies of a planet, such as geochemistry, geochronology, geophysics, or remote sensing. For future missions to the Moon and Mars, the surface systems deployed must support the conduct of field geology if these endeavors are to be scientifically useful. This lecture discussed what field geology is all about.why it is important, how it is done, how conducting field geology informs many other sciences, and how it affects the design of surface systems and the implementation of operations in the future.

  14. Ontology-driven data integration and visualization for exploring regional geologic time and paleontological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbin; Ma, Xiaogang; Chen, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Initiatives of open data promote the online publication and sharing of large amounts of geologic data. How to retrieve information and discover knowledge from the big data is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we developed an ontology-driven data integration and visualization pilot system for exploring information of regional geologic time, paleontology, and fundamental geology. The pilot system (http://www2.cs.uidaho.edu/%7Emax/gts/)

  15. Summary on several key techniques in 3D geological modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Several key techniques in 3D geological modeling including planar mesh generation, spatial interpolation, and surface intersection are summarized in this paper. Note that these techniques are generic and widely used in various applications but play a key role in 3D geological modeling. There are two essential procedures in 3D geological modeling: the first is the simulation of geological interfaces using geometric surfaces and the second is the building of geological objects by means of various geometric computations such as the intersection of surfaces. Discrete geometric surfaces that represent geological interfaces can be generated by creating planar meshes first and then spatially interpolating; those surfaces intersect and then form volumes that represent three-dimensional geological objects such as rock bodies. In this paper, the most commonly used algorithms of the key techniques in 3D geological modeling are summarized.

  16. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Dragičević; Miroslav Andrić; Ivan Blašković

    1991-01-01

    The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary ...

  17. Prediction of Geological Subsurfaces Based on Gaussian Random Field Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Petter

    1997-12-31

    During the sixties, random functions became practical tools for predicting ore reserves with associated precision measures in the mining industry. This was the start of the geostatistical methods called kriging. These methods are used, for example, in petroleum exploration. This thesis reviews the possibilities for using Gaussian random functions in modelling of geological subsurfaces. It develops methods for including many sources of information and observations for precise prediction of the depth of geological subsurfaces. The simple properties of Gaussian distributions make it possible to calculate optimal predictors in the mean square sense. This is done in a discussion of kriging predictors. These predictors are then extended to deal with several subsurfaces simultaneously. It is shown how additional velocity observations can be used to improve predictions. The use of gradient data and even higher order derivatives are also considered and gradient data are used in an example. 130 refs., 44 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Previous geological exploration of antimony ore occurrences Krčeva Reka (eastern Serbia in terms of the potentiality of the epithermal gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukas Radoslav B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a previous geological exploration of antimony ore occurrences in the area Krčeva river. Data analysis of geological, geophysical, geochemical prospecting and appropriate methods of laboratory testing identified a series of similarities to epithermal gold mineralization Carline type and formed a preliminary model of its creation.

  19. Putting the geology back into Earth models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Kenneth; Holdsworth, Robert; Imber, Jonathan; Clegg, Phillip; De Paola, Nicola; Jones, Richard; Hobbs, Richard; Holliman, Nick; Trinks, Immo

    New digital methods for data capture can now provide photorealistic, spatially precise, and geometrically accurate three-dimensional (3-D) models of rocks exposed at the Earth's surface [Xu et al., 2000; Pringle et al., 2001; Clegg et al., 2005]. These “virtual outcrops” have the potential to create a new form of laboratory-based teaching aids for geoscience students, to help address accessibility issues in fieldwork, and generally to improve public awareness of the spectacular nature of geologic exposures from remote locations worldwide.This article addresses how virtual outcrops can provide calibration, or a quantitative “reality check,” for a new generation of high-resolution predictive models for the Earth's subsurface.

  20. Geologic Exploration of the Planets: The First 50 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Fifty years ago, on 14 December 1962, the Mariner 2 spacecraft flew by Venus and inaugurated the modern era of planetary exploration. Since that first Venus flyby, roughly 80 spacecraft have successfully probed, orbited, flown by, landed on, or roved on other planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets. As Carl Sagan used to say, only one generation of humankind can be the first explorers of the solar system, and we are that generation.

  1. Research of mining and geological conditions for geological exploration in Pre-Caucasian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. А. Гасумов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration natural depletion of reserves of hydrocarbons in Mesozoic deposits of the majority of operated deposits of North Caucasus and for the purpose of further development of oil and gas producing industry in the region it is necessary to involve a carbonaceous complex of Jura of West Pre-Caucasus with the burial depth of more than 5300 m in the development. When drafting engineering design for a construction of exploratory wells in complex mining and geological conditions driven by anomalously high overburden pressure and temperature, use of thoroughly studied field geological information and taking into consideration the experience of boring similar wells is important. The paper provides analysis of geophysical data, the results of complex studies of reservoir porosity and permeability features of rocks picked out of core-samples of the first exploratory well on Krupskaya zone (porosity, permeability, electrical, acoustic, lithological characteristics, pressure-and-temperature conditions. The information obtained allowed to specify technological parameters of boring and tailing-in and to give recommendations regarding the way of exploratory wells boring and use of borehole equipment. In order to avoid the development of significant hydrodynamic pressure in the borehole which provokes gas showings it is necessary to keep on a certain level of minimal values of mud rheology parameters (dynamic shear stress τ = 70¸135 dPa; plastic viscosity η = 25¸35 mPa·s. For the purpose of real-time keeping of overbalance with anomalously high overburden pressure, control and regulation of calculated head pressure a stripper head should be included into the equipment configuration. Furthermore well head equipment and blowout preventer equipment must be designed for expected gradient of overburden pressure.

  2. Integration of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection in an Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, L.; Comina, C.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Schill, E.; Mandrone, G.

    2013-11-01

    Thermal sources are common manifestations of geothermal energy resources in Alpine regions. The up-flow of the fluid is well-known to be often linked to cross-cutting fault zones providing a significant volume of fractures. Since conventional exploration methods are challenging in such areas of high topography and complicated logistics, 3D geological modeling based on structural investigation becomes a useful tool for assessing the overall geology of the investigated sites. Geological modeling alone is, however, less effective if not integrated with deep subsurface investigations that could provide a first order information on geological boundaries and an imaging of geological structures. With this aim, in the present paper the combined use of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection of a hydrothermal area in the western Alps was carried out on two sites located in the Argentera Massif (NW Italy). The geothermal activity of the area is revealed by thermal anomalies with surface evidences, such as hot springs, at temperatures up to 70 °C. Integration of gravity measurements and 3D modeling investigates the potential of this approach in the context of geothermal exploration in Alpine regions where a very complex geological and structural setting is expected. The approach used in the present work is based on the comparison between the observed gravity and the gravity effect of the 3D geological models, in order to enhance local effects related to the geothermal system. It is shown that a correct integration of 3D modeling and detailed geophysical survey could allow a better characterization of geological structures involved in geothermal fluids circulation. Particularly, gravity inversions have successfully delineated the continuity in depth of low density structures, such as faults and fractured bands observed at the surface, and have been of great help in improving the overall geological model.

  3. Geophysical exploration on the subsurface geology of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolós, Xavier; Barde-Cabusson, Stéphanie; Pedrazzi, Dario; Martí, Joan; Casas, Albert; Lovera, Raúl; Nadal-Sala, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    We applied self-potential (SP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to the exploration of the uppermost part of the substrate geology and shallow structure of La Garrotxa monogenetic volcanic field, part of the European Neogene-Quaternary volcanic province. The aim of the study was to improve knowledge of the shallowest part of the feeding system of these monogenetic volcanoes and of its relationship with the subsurface geology. This study complements previous geophysical studies carried out at a less detailed scale and aimed at identifying deeper structures, and together will constitute the basis to establish volcanic susceptibility in La Garrotxa. SP study complemented previous smaller-scale studies and targeted key areas where ERT could be conducted. The main new results include the generation of resistivity models identifying dykes and faults associated with several monogenetic cones. The combined results confirm that shallow tectonics controlling the distribution of the foci of eruptive activity in this volcanic zone mainly correspond to NNW-SSE and accessorily by NNE-SSW Neogene extensional fissures and faults and concretely show the associated magmatic intrusions. These structures coincide with the deeper ones identified in previous studies, and show that previous Alpine tectonic structures played no apparent role in controlling the loci of this volcanism. Moreover, the results obtained show that the changes in eruption dynamics occurring at different vents located at relatively short distances in this volcanic area are controlled by shallow stratigraphical, structural and hydrogeological differences underneath these monogenetic volcanoes.

  4. Prospective targets of geological exploration in the Siberian platform and criteria of their feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Milyaev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is due to the reducing number of prospective blocks remaining unlicensed in Eastern Siberia and the need for feasibility study of the remaining potentially attractive blocks. The aim of the study is evaluation of the resource potential and allocation of new prospective license blocks in Eastern Siberia based on geological and economic criteria. The methods and instruments used in the study. To perform the economic analysis of resources and to assess the efficiency and risks of subsoil exploration and development, the authors used the results of in-house regional geological and geophysical modelling and economic research. A feasibility study of each potential pool was conducted on the author’s automated complex GeoProfi. The authors used probabilistic analysis and the cash flow discounting method to draw up an expert forecast. The results of the study. The study covers the present state and development prospects of oil and gas fields in the Siberian Platform within the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Irkutsk Region, and the Sakha (Yakutia Republic. The top priority petroleum zones were analysed. A feasibility study of selected areas was conducted. The income density and feasible recoverable reserves density were mapped. The critical parameters that indicate unprofitable targets were calculated. The most feasible subsoil blocks were determined based on the correlation of economic and probability parameters.

  5. Study on the development of geological environmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Ueta, Shinzo; Saito, Shigeyuki; Kawamura, Yuji; Tomiyama, Shingo; Ohashi, Toyo

    2002-03-01

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in potential geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process form the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systemize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The purpose of the research is to support the development of the unified analysis system for geological disposal. The development technology for geological environmental model studied for the second progress report by JNC are organized and examined for the purpose of developing database system with considering the suitability for the deep underground research facility. The geological environmental investigation technology and building methodology for geological structure and hydro geological structure models are organized and systemized. Furthermore, the quality assurance methods in building geological environment models are examined. Information which is used and stored in the unified analysis system are examined to design database structure of the system based on the organized methodology for building geological environmental model. The graphic processing function for data stored in the unified database are examined. furthermore, future research subjects for the development of detail models for geological disposal are surveyed to organize safety performance system. (author)

  6. Use of structural geology in exploration for and mining of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2001-01-01

    Structural geology is an important component in regional-, district- and orebody-scale exploration and development of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits.Identification of timing of important structural events in an ore district allows analysis and classification of fluid conduits and construction of genetic models for ore formation.The most practical uses of structural geology deal with measurement and definition of various elements that comprise orebodies, which can then be directly applied to ore-reserve estimation,ground control,grade control, safety issues,and mine planning.District- and regional-scale structural studies are directly applicable to long-term strategic planning,economic analysis,and land ownership. Orebodies in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are discrete, hypogene, epigenetic masses usually hosted in a fault zone,breccia mass, or lithologic bed or unit. These attributes allow structural geology to be directly applied to the mining and exploration of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Internal constituents in orebodies reflect unique episodes relating to ore formation.The main internal constituents in orebodies are ore minerals, gangue, and alteration minerals that usually are mixed with one another in complex patterns, the relations among which may be used to interpret the processes of orebody formation and control.Controls of orebody location and shape usually are due to structural dilatant zones caused by changes in attitude, splays, lithologic contacts,and intersections of the host conduit or unit.In addition,conceptual parameters such as district fabric,predictable distances, and stacking also are used to understand the geometry of orebodies.Controls in ore districts and location and geometry of orebodies in ore districts can be predicted to various degrees by using a number of qualitative concepts such as internal and external orebody plunges,district plunge, district stacking, conduit classification, geochemical, geobarometric and

  7. Micro-XRF : Elemental Analysis for In Situ Geology and Astrobiology Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Abigail; Hodyss, Robert; Wade, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make close-up measurements of rock chemistry is one of the most fundamental tools for astrobiological exploration of Mars and other rocky bodies of the solar system. When conducting surface-based exploration, lithochemical measurements provide critical data that enable interpretation of the local geology, which in turn is vital for determining habitability and searching for evidence of life. The value of lithochemical measurements for geological interpretations has been repeatedly demonstrated with virtually every landed Mars mission over the past four decades.

  8. Industrial hygiene in geological exploration. Okhrana truda na geologo-razvedochnykg rabotakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This collection covers scientific research work of the VITR on work safety and industrial hygiene. Main requirements are presented for study of the design documents for safety of geological exploration equipment, diagnosing the technical state of the transmission of drilling machines, methods of normalizing the microclimate in the drilling buildings, sanitary-hygienic characteristics of the emulsion flushing fluids. Results are presented of studies of additional modes of work of the drilling brigades and sociopsychological prerequisites for production injury and differentiated evaluation of economic consequences of accidents in geological exploration are indicated.

  9. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  10. A Leadership Model for University Geology Department Teacher Inservice Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Daniel S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Provides geology departments and science educators with a leadership model for developing earth science inservice programs. Model emphasizes cooperation/coordination among departments, science educators, and curriculum specialists at local/intermediate/state levels. Includes rationale for inservice programs and geology department involvement in…

  11. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF THE BAUXITE DEPOSITS APPLICATION OF THE SHALLOW SEIZMIC REFLECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dragičević

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of bauxite deposits in the region of the carbonaceous Dinarides has been performed by using different geological and geophysical methods. Deposits laying shallower or deeper below the roof sediments have so far most often been discovered by expensive drilling methods in a corresponding grid. Complex geological explorations have led to a series of valuable data thus enabling the application of other much more economical methods as well. In the region of the bauxite sedimentary basin Mesihovina-Rakitno, western Herzegovina, at the site of Studena vrila - after extensive geological explorations - a conclusion was drawn that the shallow seismic reflection geophysical method as well might be successfully applied in locating new bauxite deposits. In the paper, the geological framework of the bauxite deposits occurrences, stipulating the selection of this methode, will be presented. Measurements were performed on a known deposit (L-84, Povaljenica, completely defined by exploration drilling. The obtained results justify the selection of the shallow seismic reflection method as one of the methods for exploring bauxite deposits beneath the roof beds.

  12. Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database is an Arc/Info implementation of the 1:500,000 scale Geology Map of Kansas, M­23, 1991. This work wasperformed by the Automated Cartography section of...

  13. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: the AEGIS geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1981-02-01

    Assessment of the post-closure performance of a nuclear waste repository has two basic components: the identification and analysis of potentially disruptive sequences and the pattern of geologic events and processes causing each sequence, and the identification and analysis of the environmental consequences of radionuclide transport and interactions subsequent to disruption of a repository. The AEGIS Scenario Analysis Task is charged with identifying and analyzing potenially disruptive sequences of geologic events and processes. The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) was developed to evaluate the geologic/hydrologic system surrounding an underground repository, and describe the phenomena that alone, or in concert, could perturb the system and possibly cause a loss of repository integrity. The AEGIS approach is described in this report. It uses an integrated series of models for repository performance analysis; the GSM for a low-resolution, long-term, comprehensive evaluation of the geologic/hydrologic system, followed by more detailed hydrogeologic, radionuclide transport, and dose models to more accurately assess the consequences of disruptive sequences selected from the GSM analyses. This approach is felt to be more cost-effective than an integrated one because the GSM can be used to estimate the likelihoods of different potentially disruptive future evolutionary developments within the geologic/hydrologic system. The more costly consequence models can then be focused on a few disruptive sequences chosen for their representativeness and effective probabilities

  14. Modelling geological uncertainty for mine planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, M

    1980-07-01

    Geosimplan is an operational gaming approach used in testing a proposed mining strategy against uncertainty in geological disturbance. Geoplan is a technique which facilitates the preparation of summary analyses to give an impression of size, distribution and quality of reserves, and to assist in calculation of year by year output estimates. Geoplan concentrates on variations in seam properties and the interaction between geological information and marketing and output requirements.

  15. Utilizing HyspIRI Prototype Data for Geological Exploration Applications: A Southern California Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Calvin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the value of the proposed Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI instrument for geological mapping applications. HyspIRI-like data were collected as part of the HyspIRI airborne campaign that covered large regions of California, USA, over multiple seasons. This work focused on a Southern California area, which encompasses Imperial Valley, the Salton Sea, the Orocopia Mountains, the Chocolate Mountains, and a variety of interesting geological phenomena including fumarole fields and sand dunes. We have mapped hydrothermal alteration, lithology and thermal anomalies, demonstrating the value of this type of data for future geologic exploration activities. We believe HyspIRI will be an important instrument for exploration geologists as data may be quickly manipulated and used for remote mapping of hydrothermal alteration minerals, lithology and temperature anomalies.

  16. Synthetic Study on the Geological and Hydrogeological Model around KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Yong Kwon; Choi, Jong Won

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the site specific properties of a study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research in KAERI, the several geological investigations such as surface geological surveys and borehole drillings were carried out since 1997. Especially, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed to understand the further study of geological environments in 2006. As a result, the first geological model of a study area was constructed by using the results of geological investigation. The objective of this research is to construct a hydrogeological model around KURT area on the basis of the geological model. Hydrogeological data which were obtained from in-situ hydraulic tests in the 9 boreholes were estimated to accomplish the objective. And, the hydrogeological properties of the 4 geological elements in the geological model, which were the subsurface weathering zone, the log angle fracture zone, the fracture zones and the bedrock were suggested. The hydrogeological model suggested in this study will be used as input parameters to carry out the groundwater flow modeling as a next step of the site characterization around KURT area

  17. High resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changmin; Lin Kexiang; Liu Huaibo [Jianghan Petroleum Institute, Hubei (China)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    This is China`s first case study of high resolution reservoir geological modelling using outcrop information. The key of the modelling process is to build a prototype model and using the model as a geological knowledge bank. Outcrop information used in geological modelling including seven aspects: (1) Determining the reservoir framework pattern by sedimentary depositional system and facies analysis; (2) Horizontal correlation based on the lower and higher stand duration of the paleo-lake level; (3) Determining the model`s direction based on the paleocurrent statistics; (4) Estimating the sandbody communication by photomosaic and profiles; (6) Estimating reservoir properties distribution within sandbody by lithofacies analysis; and (7) Building the reservoir model in sandbody scale by architectural element analysis and 3-D sampling. A high resolution reservoir geological model of Youshashan oil field has been built by using this method.

  18. 75 FR 16830 - Geological and Geophysical Exploration (G&G) on the Mid- and South Atlantic Outer Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Geological and Geophysical Exploration (G&G..., geological and geochemical sampling, and remote sensing. These activities could support siting needs for... Continental Shelf (see http://www.mms.gov/ld/PDFs/GreenBook-LeasingDocument.pdf ) and MMS's Geological and...

  19. 76 FR 34656 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Geological and Geophysical Exploration of Mineral and Energy Resources on the Outer Continental Shelf in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... revised application from the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  20. Geological investigations for geological model of deep underground geoenvironment at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Tadahiko; Tagami, Masahiko; Amano, Kenji; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Arata; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Koike, Katsuaki

    2013-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is performing a geoscientific research project, the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) project, in order to establish scientific and technological basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The MIU is located in crystalline rock environment, in Mizunami City, central Japan. Field investigations include geological mapping, reflection seismic surveys, several borehole investigations and geological investigations in the research galleries to identify the distribution and heterogeneity of fractures and faults that are potential major flowpaths for groundwater. The results of these field investigations are synthesized and compiled for the purpose of geological modeling. The field investigations indicate that the Main Shaft at the MIU intersected low permeability NNW oriented faults. A high permeability fracture zone in the granite, a significant water inflow point, was observed in the Ventilation Shaft. Development of the geological model focusing 3D spatial relationships at different scales and evolution of the geoenvironment are underway. This paper describes geological investigations applied in the MIU project, focusing on the evaluation of their effectiveness to understand for deep underground geoenvironment. (author)

  1. Geological and thermal exploration for an evaluation of the geothermal potential of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schintgen, Tom; Förster, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    In 2010, work has commenced on the evaluation of the geothermal potential of Luxembourg. The concept of this evaluation comprises several steps. Given the limited amount of geological data and the lack of petrothermal data as well as on crustal heat flow, in-depth studies are needed that allow a comprehensive insight into the shallow as well as deep thermal subsurface structure and thus to make temperature prognoses for the use of geothermal energy. Here we report the geological structure of the Mesozoic Trier-Luxembourg Basin (TLB) with its various lithological units as well as the geology of the underlying basement units. The thickness of the Mesozoic section increases from 400-500 m in the northeastern part of the basin to a maximum of 1100 m in the southern part of Luxembourg. New data on thermal parameters, such as the thermal conductivity (TC), radiogenic heat production (RHP) and porosity are presented for the major lithotypes of the TLB as well as of the underlying Paleozoic basement. These data originated from core samples (Mesozoic formations) and from sampling of outcrops of Luxembourg's surroundings (Paleozoic formations). Thus data are now available for an up to 13-km-thick succession of the upper crust, comprising the Lower Cambrian to the Middle Ordovician, the relatively thick Lower Devonian and the Triassic to Liassic of the TLB. For the remainder of the crust down to the Moho thermal properties are determined by translating seismic velocities into rock types and using average values for TC and RHP for these metamorphic and igneous rocks. Based on the new values of TC and a temperature log measured under thermal equilibrium in a 300-m deep borehole, surface heat flow was determined. These data form the basis for modeling the subsurface temperatures along two regional crustal cross sections, which cover most of the Rhenohercynian Zone of the Variscan orogenic belt. They extend from the Lower Paleozoic Stavelot Massif in the Belgian Ardennes in the

  2. Study on the development of geological environmental model. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Keiichi; Shinohara, Yoshinori; Saito, Shigeyuki; Ueta, Shinzo; Ohashi, Toyo; Sasaki, Ryouichi; Tomiyama, Shingo

    2003-02-01

    The safety performance assessment was carried out in imaginary geological environment in the conventional research and development of geological disposal, but the importance of safety assessment based on the repository design and scenario considering the concrete geological environment will increase in the future. The research considering the link of the major three fields of geological disposal, investigation of geological environment, repository design, and safety performance assessment, is the contemporary worldwide research theme. Hence it is important to organize information flow that contains the series of information process from the data production to analysis in the three fields, and to systematize the knowledge base that unifies the information flow hierarchically. The information flow for geological environment model generation process is examined and modified base on the product of the research of 'Study on the development of geological environment model' that was examined in 2002. The work flow diagrams for geological structure and hydrology are modified, and those for geochemical and rock property are examined from the scratch. Furthermore, database design was examined to build geoclinal environment database (knowledgebase) based on the results of the systemisation of the environment model generation technology. The geoclinal environment database was designed and the prototype system is build to contribute databased design. (author)

  3. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyde, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium, base metals, and precious metals exploration is surveyed, and Government role in activities is scrutinized. A review of recent mineral discoveries reveals that several new discoveries can be credited to independent geologists and exploration organizations. Most of these groups develop the exploration programs and then operate them on a fee plus incentive basis for major companies. The high cost of maintaining a large exploration staff often cannot be justified by many large natural resources companies. As a result the exploration companies fulfill the function of a company exploration department at a much reduced cost

  4. Uranium resources evaluation model as an exploration tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, V.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluation of uranium resources, as conducted by the Uranium Resources Evaluation Section of the Geological Survey of Canada, comprises operations analogous with those performed during the preparatory stages of uranium exploration. The uranium resources evaluation model, simulating the estimation process, can be divided into four steps. The first step includes definition of major areas and ''unit subdivisions'' for which geological data are gathered, coded, computerized and retrieved. Selection of these areas and ''unit subdivisions'' is based on a preliminary appraisal of their favourability for uranium mineralization. The second step includes analyses of the data, definition of factors controlling uranium minearlization, classification of uranium occurrences into genetic types, and final delineation of favourable areas; this step corresponds to the selection of targets for uranium exploration. The third step includes geological field work; it is equivalent to geological reconnaissance in exploration. The fourth step comprises computation of resources; the preliminary evaluation techniques in the exploration are, as a rule, analogous with the simplest methods employed in the resource evaluation. The uranium resources evaluation model can be conceptually applied for decision-making during exploration or for formulation of exploration strategy using the quantified data as weighting factors. (author)

  5. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  6. Mud Volcanoes - A New Class of Sites for Geological and Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.C.; Oehler, D.Z.; Baker, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mud volcanoes provide a unique low-temperature window into the Earth s subsurface - including the deep biosphere - and may prove to be significant sources of atmospheric methane. The identification of analogous features on Mars would provide an important new class of sites for geological and astrobiological exploration. We report new work suggesting that features in Acidalia Planitia are most consistent with their being mud volcanoes.

  7. Assessment of effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems. The development and application of a geologic simulation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.

    1982-03-01

    The Geologic Simulation Model (GSM) developed under the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of a ground-water basin for a million years into the future. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach. The completed AEGIS GSM was used to generate 500 Monte Carlo simulations of the behavior of the geologic/hydrologic system affecting a hypothetical repository in the Pasco Basin over the next million years. These simulations used data which were not subjected to a review adequate to the needs of a real site performance assessment. However, the general care used in generating the data, and the overall behavior of the GSM suggest that the results are plausible at this time

  8. Exploration through Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knab, Sebastian; Rohrbeck, René

    2015-01-01

    With this research we aim to enhance our understanding about how incumbents can explore emerging opportunities through business model innovation. Using a multiple-case, longitudinal research design spanning 2008 to 2014 we investigate exploration activities of the four largest German energy...... utilities in the emerging virtual power plant market. Based on the behavioral theory of the firm, we study how the cognitive and physical elements of an incumbent’s strategy can be changed and how these changes affect its business model innovation activities in the exploration process. Our preliminary...... findings suggest that the use of synergies and probing can lead to changing physical elements and primarily increase business model maturity. CEO change and structural separation can lead to changing cognitive elements and primarily increase business model sophistication....

  9. The Search for Biosignatures on Mars: Using Predictive Geology to Optimize Exploration Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2011-01-01

    Predicting geologic context from satellite data is a method used on Earth for exploration in areas with limited ground truth. The method can be used to predict facies likely to contain organic-rich shales. Such shales concentrate and preserve organics and are major repositories of organic biosignatures on Earth [1]. Since current surface conditions on Mars are unfavorable for development of abundant life or for preservation of organic remains of past life, the chances are low of encountering organics in surface samples. Thus, focusing martian exploration on sites predicted to contain organic-rich shales would optimize the chances of discovering evidence of life, if it ever existed on that planet.

  10. Environmental impact assessments and geological repositories: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, S.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent study carried out for the European Commission, the scope and application of environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and current EIA practice in European Union Member States and applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe was investigated, specifically in relation to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. This paper reports the study's investigations into a model approach to EIA in the context of geological repositories, including the role of the assessment in the overall decision processes and public involvement. (author)

  11. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)] (eds.)

    2007-09-15

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  12. Geology - Background complementary studies. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Skagius, Kristina

    2007-09-01

    During Forsmark model stage 2.2, seven complementary geophysical and geological studies were initiated by the geological modelling team, in direct connection with and as a background support to the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. One of these studies involved a field control on the character of two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trends inside the target volume. The interpretation of these lineaments formed one of the late deliveries to SKB that took place after the data freeze for model stage 2.2 and during the initial stage of the modelling work. Six studies involved a revised processing and analysis of reflection seismic, refraction seismic and selected oriented borehole radar data, all of which had been presented earlier in connection with the site investigation programme. A prime aim of all these studies was to provide a better understanding of the geological significance of indirect geophysical data to the geological modelling team. Such essential interpretative work was lacking in the material acquired in connection with the site investigation programme. The results of these background complementary studies are published together in this report. The titles and authors of the seven background complementary studies are presented below. Summaries of the results of each study, with a focus on the implications for the geological modelling of deformation zones, are presented in the master geological report, SKB-R--07-45. The sections in the master report, where reference is made to each background complementary study and where the summaries are placed, are also provided. The individual reports are listed in the order that they are referred to in the master geological report and as they appear in this report. 1. Scan line fracture mapping and magnetic susceptibility measurements across two low magnetic lineaments with NNE and NE trend, Forsmark. Jesper Petersson, Ulf B. Andersson and Johan Berglund. 2. Integrated interpretation of surface and

  13. Seismically integrated geologic modelling: Guntong Field, Malay Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvert, Craig S.; Bhuyan, K.; Sterling, J. Helwick; Hill, Rob E.; Hubbard, R. Scott; Khare, Vijay; Wahrmund, Leslie A.; Wang, Gann-Shyong

    1998-12-31

    This presentation relates to a research project on offshore seismically reservoir modelling. The goal of the project was to develop and test a process for interpreting reservoir properties from 3-D seismic data and for integrating these data into the building of 3-D geologic models that would be suitable for use in flow simulation studies. The project produced a 3-D geologic model for three reservoir intervals and three predominantly non-reservoir intervals. Each reservoir interval was subdivided into faces that were determined by integrating core, well log, and seismic interpretations. predictions of porosity and lithology used in building the geologic model were made using seismic attributes calculated from acoustic impedance data. 8 figs.

  14. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; James Drahovzal; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Chris Laughery; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-04-01

    Private- and public-sector stakeholders formed the new ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' and began a two-year research effort that will lead to a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration throughout the Appalachian basin. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 gas exploration companies and 6 research team members, including the state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks are being conducted by basin-wide research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. More than 3400 miles of Appalachian basin digital seismic data have been quality checked. In addition, inquiries have been made regarding the availability of additional seismic data from government and industry partners in the consortium. Interpretations of the seismic data have begun. Error checking is being performed by mapping the time to various prominent reflecting horizons, and analyzing for any anomalies. A regional geological velocity model is being created to make time-to-depth conversions. Members of the stratigraphy task team compiled a generalized, basin-wide correlation chart, began the process of scanning geophysical logs and laid out lines for 16 regional cross sections. Two preliminary cross sections were constructed, a database of all available Trenton-Black River cores was created, and a basin-wide map showing these core locations was produced. Two cores were examined, described and photographed in detail, and were correlated to the network of geophysical logs. Members of the petrology team began the process of determining the original distribution of porous and permeable facies within a sequence stratigraphic framework. A detailed sedimentologic and petrographic study of the Union Furnace road cut in central Pennsylvania was completed. This effort will facilitate the calibration

  15. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Isaksson, Hans [GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-10-15

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  16. Geology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling Forsmark - stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-10-01

    The geological work during stage 2.2 has involved the development of deterministic models for rock domains (RFM) and deformation zones (ZFM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FFM) inside the candidate volume, i.e. the parts of rock domains that are not affected by deformation zones, and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network modelling or geological DFN modelling). The geological DFN model addresses brittle structures at a scale of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid within specific fracture domains inside the north-western part of the candidate volume, including the target volume. The geological modelling work has evaluated and made use of: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 21 cored boreholes and 33 percussion boreholes. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along nine excavations or large surface outcrops. Data bearing on the characterisation (including kinematics) of deformation zones. Complementary geochronological and other rock and fracture analytical data. Lineaments identified on the basis of airborne and high-resolution ground magnetic data. A reprocessing of both surface and borehole reflection seismic data. Seismic refraction data. The outputs of the deterministic modelling work are geometric models in RVS format and detailed property tables for rock domains and deformation zones, and a description of fracture domains. The outputs of the geological DFN modelling process are recommended parameters or statistical distributions that describe fracture set orientations, radius sizes, volumetric intensities

  17. Review on geological character and exploration methods of Daqiaowu volcanic-type uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jiangwei

    2009-01-01

    Through a new round of exploration work from 2006 to 2008 on exploration practice and studies, it is suggested that ore host rock in Daqiaowu volcanic rock-type uranium deposit is volcanic breccias which can be classified into two types, one is cryptoexplosion breccias of vent facies,the other is lens-like breccias of crater facies controlled by interlayer structure. Main ore-controlling structure is NW-trending faults, uranium ore bodies in all the mineralized belts of the deposit are mainly NW-trending. The layout of exploration projects in reconnaissance stage should be with flexible principles, so that project arrangement can be adjusted timely with the deepening and changes of geological understanding. (authors)

  18. Earth sciences: Uranium geology, exploration and mining, hydrology, 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with earth sciences and issued during the period of 1986-1996. These topics are mainly in the field of uranium geology, exploration and mining, isotope applications in hydrology, IAEA Yearbook 1996 on the developments in nuclear science and technology and meetings on atomic energy. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English but all of these papers have English abstracts. The prices of books are quoted in Austrian Schillings

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Students' Understanding of Conventional Time and Deep (Geologic) Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2013-07-01

    Many geologic processes occur in the context of geologic or deep time. Students of all ages demonstrate difficulty grasping this fundamental concept which impacts their ability to acquire other geoscience concepts. A concept of deep time requires the ability to sequence events on an immense temporal scale (succession) and to judge the durations of geologic processes based on the rates at which they occur. The twin concepts of succession and duration are the same ideas that underlie a concept of conventional time. If deep time is an extension of conventional time and not qualitatively different from it, students should display similar reasoning patterns when dealing with analogous tasks over disparate temporal periods. Thirty-five US students aged 13-24 years participated in individual task-based interviews to ascertain how they thought about succession and duration in conventional and deep time. This is the first attempt to explore this relationship in the same study in over 30 years. Most students successfully completed temporal succession tasks, but there was greater variability in responses on duration tasks. Conventional time concepts appear to impact how students reason about deep time. The application of spatial reasoning to temporal tasks sometimes leads to correct responses but in other instances does not. Implications for future research and teaching strategies are discussed.

  20. Three-dimensional geologic model of the southeastern Espanola Basin, Santa Fe County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantea, Michael P.; Hudson, Mark R.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Minor, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    This multimedia model and report show and describe digital three-dimensional faulted surfaces and volumes of lithologic units that confine and constrain the basin-fill aquifers within the Espanola Basin of north-central New Mexico. These aquifers are the primary groundwater resource for the cities of Santa Fe and Espanola, six Pueblo nations, and the surrounding areas. The model presented in this report is a synthesis of geologic information that includes (1) aeromagnetic and gravity data and seismic cross sections; (2) lithologic descriptions, interpretations, and geophysical logs from selected drill holes; (3) geologic maps, geologic cross sections, and interpretations; and (4) mapped faults and interpreted faults from geophysical data. Modeled faults individually or collectively affect the continuity of the rocks that contain the basin aquifers; they also help define the form of this rift basin. Structure, trend, and dip data not previously published were added; these structures are derived from interpretations of geophysical information and recent field observations. Where possible, data were compared and validated and reflect the complex relations of structures in this part of the Rio Grande rift. This interactive geologic framework model can be used as a tool to visually explore and study geologic structures within the Espanola Basin, to show the connectivity of geologic units of high and low permeability between and across faults, and to show approximate dips of the lithologic units. The viewing software can be used to display other data and information, such as drill-hole data, within this geologic framework model in three-dimensional space.

  1. 77 FR 19321 - Geological and Geophysical Exploration on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Geological and Geophysical... Statement (PEIS) to evaluate potential environmental effects of multiple Geological and Geophysical (G&G... limited to, seismic surveys, sidescan-sonar surveys, electromagnetic surveys, geological and geochemical...

  2. ROCK-CAD - computer aided geological modelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.

    1995-12-01

    The study discusses surface and solid modelling methods, their use and interfacing with geodata. Application software named ROCK-CAD suitable for geological bedrock modelling has been developed with support from Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO). It has been utilized in the Finnish site characterization programme for spent nuclear fuel waste disposal during the 1980s and 1990s. The system is based on the solid modelling technique. It comprises also rich functionality for the particular geological modelling scheme. The ROCK-CAD system provides, among other things, varying graphical vertical and horizontal intersections and perspective illustrations. The specially developed features are the application of the boundary representation modelling method, parametric object generation language and the discipline approach. The ROCK-CAD system has been utilized in modelling spatial distribution of rock types and fracturing structures in TVO's site characterization. The Olkiluoto site at Eurajoki serves as an example case. The study comprises the description of the modelling process, models and illustration examples. The utilization of bedrock models in site characterization, in tentative repository siting as well as in groundwater flow simulation is depicted. The application software has improved the assessment of the sites studied, given a new basis for the documentation of interpretation and modelling work, substituted hand-drawing and enabled digital transfer to numerical analysis. Finally, aspects of presentation graphics in geological modelling are considered. (84 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.)

  3. Development of the rational scheme of geological exploration process, its analysis and significance for prospecting and exploration of hydrocarbons at the russian sector of the Caspian sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bystrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To conduct a justified assessment of the perspective resources of the Caspian Sea and adjacent territories, the authors develop a rational scheme of the geological exploration process with its analysis and identification of significance for hydrocarbon exploration in the northern part of the Caspian Sea. The paper outlines the methodological approaches and concepts of introducing this scheme in search for oil and gas. This allows us to justify and select the optimal set of research methods at various stages of oil and gas production. The system of structure and principles of organization scheme of the geological prospecting process allow to identify the optimal complexes of methods of geological-geophysical and other studies for these stages. The article provides information confirming the necessity of developing and implementing this scheme in the geological exploration process of the studied territory. The necessary development of opportunities in carrying out this work fundamentally changes the qualitative aspect of the geological exploration process. The facts presented in the article allow to study in detail the structures of the shelf zone, the thicknesses and composition of productive subsalt deposits, and to trace their interrelation with continental structural elements. The paper shows the importance of providing, at different levels, a rationale and choice of an optimal set of research methods at different stages of oil and gas prospecting during the development of a rational geological exploration scheme for hydrocarbons in water areas. This paper presents a proposed block diagram of a marine geological prospecting process for hydrocarbons. It describes the sequence of performing the types of work at the regional, exploratory and exploration stages. For each stage of the study, the authors set the tasks, determine the objects of research, methods of geological and geophysical research and their results, and determine methods for

  4. Geologic modeling in risk assessment methodology for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, S.E.; Berbano, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of New Mexico is developing a computer based assessment methodology for evaluating public health and environmental impacts from the disposal of radioactive waste in geologic formations. Methodology incorporates a release or fault tree model, an environmental model, and an economic model. The release model and its application to a model repository in bedded salt is described. Fault trees are constructed to provide the relationships between various geologic and man-caused events which are potential mechanisms for release of radioactive material beyond the immediate environs of the repository. The environmental model includes: 1) the transport to and accumulations at various receptors in the biosphere, 2) pathways from these environmental concentrations, and 3) radiation dose to man. Finally, economic results are used to compare and assess various disposal configurations as a basis for formulatin

  5. Geologic Exploration of the Planets: A Personal Retrospective of the First 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. H.

    2013-12-01

    The modern era of exploration of planets and satellites beyond the Earth-Moon system began on 14 December 1962 when the Mariner 2 spacecraft flew by Venus. Since that time roughly 80 spacecraft have successfully visited other planets and their satellites. In 1962 we knew nothing of the geology of the non-terrestrial planets and satellites; they were just variously shaded discs and dots. Most of us entering the new field of planetary geology at the time did so in anticipation of the Apollo lunar landings. I was hired by Gene Shoemaker to work on lunar issues and to participate in the lunar geologic mapping program that he had initiated at the USGS. Lunar studies led naturally to planetary studies but none of us could have anticipated the geologic variety that exists within the Solar System as exemplified by the coronae of Venus, the canyons of Mars, the volcanoes of Io, the ice tectonics of Europa and Ganymede, the geysers of Enceladus and the methane-carved valleys of Titan. Although Mars appeared lunar-like in the first close-up images from the Mariner 4 (1965) and Mariners 6 and 7 (1969) fly-bys, the Mariner 9 (1971) orbiter soon revealed Mars' geologic variety. Planning imaging for Mariner 9 was challenging; aids were primitive and we essentially had a blank sheet to fill. By 1971, the Viking Project with its main objective to land on Mars and search for signs of life was well underway. In 1969 I was appointed leader of the Viking Orbiter imaging team. The main function of the cameras was to ensure that the landing sites were safe before landing. In 1976 when we acquired the first close-up images of the pre-chosen landing sites they were greeted with elation and horror, elation because of their quality, horror because of the roughness of the terrain that had seemed so smooth in the Mariner 9 images. There followed an intense period of searching for safer sites and ultimately the two landers did land safely. The search for life then followed with hopes soaring as

  6. Modeling of Geological Objects and Geophysical Fields Using Haar Wavelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dolgal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of application of the fast wavelet transform with basic Haar functions for modeling the structural surfaces and geophysical fields, characterized by fractal features. The multiscale representation of experimental data allows reducing significantly a cost of the processing of large volume data and improving the interpretation quality. This paper presents the algorithms for sectionally prismatic approximation of geological objects, for preliminary estimation of the number of equivalent sources for the analytical approximation of fields, and for determination of the rock magnetization in the upper part of the geological section.

  7. Predictive Modeling of Terrestrial Radiation Exposure from Geologic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchow, Russell L. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Haber, Daniel University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Burnley, Pamela [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Marsac, Kara [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Hausrath, Elisabeth [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; Adcock, Christopher [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2015-01-01

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are important for those working in nuclear security and industry for determining locations of both anthropogenic radiological sources and natural occurrences of radionuclides. During an aerial gamma ray survey, a low flying aircraft, such as a helicopter, flies in a linear pattern across the survey area while measuring the gamma emissions with a sodium iodide (NaI) detector. Currently, if a gamma ray survey is being flown in an area, the only way to correct for geologic sources of gamma rays is to have flown the area previously. This is prohibitively expensive and would require complete national coverage. This project’s goal is to model the geologic contribution to radiological backgrounds using published geochemical data, GIS software, remote sensing, calculations, and modeling software. K, U and Th are the three major gamma emitters in geologic material. U and Th are assumed to be in secular equilibrium with their daughter isotopes. If K, U, and Th abundance values are known for a given geologic unit the expected gamma ray exposure rate can be calculated using the Grasty equation or by modeling software. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport software (MCNP), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, is modeling software designed to simulate particles and their interactions with matter. Using this software, models have been created that represent various lithologies. These simulations randomly generate gamma ray photons at energy levels expected from natural radiologic sources. The photons take a random path through the simulated geologic media and deposit their energy at the end of their track. A series of nested spheres have been created and filled with simulated atmosphere to record energy deposition. Energies deposited are binned in the same manner as the NaI detectors used during an aerial survey. These models are used in place of the simplistic Grasty equation as they take into account absorption properties of the lithology which the

  8. New geological perspectives on earthquake recurrence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    In most areas of the world the record of historical seismicity is too short or uncertain to accurately characterize the future distribution of earthquakes of different sizes in time and space. Most faults have not ruptured once, let alone repeatedly. Ultimately, the ability to correctly forecast the magnitude, location, and probability of future earthquakes depends on how well one can quantify the past behavior of earthquake sources. Paleoseismological trenching of active faults, historical surface ruptures, liquefaction features, and shaking-induced ground deformation structures provides fundamental information on the past behavior of earthquake sources. These studies quantify (a) the timing of individual past earthquakes and fault slip rates, which lead to estimates of recurrence intervals and the development of recurrence models and (b) the amount of displacement during individual events, which allows estimates of the sizes of past earthquakes on a fault. When timing and slip per event are combined with information on fault zone geometry and structure, models that define individual rupture segments can be developed. Paleoseismicity data, in the form of timing and size of past events, provide a window into the driving mechanism of the earthquake engine--the cycle of stress build-up and release

  9. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-01-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  10. Study on high-level waste geological disposal metadata model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaobin; Wang Changhong; Zhu Hehua; Li Xiaojun

    2008-01-01

    This paper expatiated the concept of metadata and its researches within china and abroad, then explain why start the study on the metadata model of high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project. As reference to GML, the author first set up DML under the framework of digital underground space engineering. Based on DML, a standardized metadata employed in high-level nuclear waste deep geological disposal project is presented. Then, a Metadata Model with the utilization of internet is put forward. With the standardized data and CSW services, this model may solve the problem in the data sharing and exchanging of different data form A metadata editor is build up in order to search and maintain metadata based on this model. (authors)

  11. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Chris Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; James Drahovzal; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; John Bocan; Larry Wickstrom; Taury Smith; Katharine Lee Avary

    2004-10-01

    The ''Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Exploration Consortium'' has reached the mid-point in a two-year research effort to produce a play book for Trenton-Black River exploration. The final membership of the Consortium includes 17 exploration and production companies and 6 research team members, including four state geological surveys, the New York State Museum Institute and West Virginia University. Seven integrated research tasks and one administrative and technology transfer task are being conducted basin-wide by research teams organized from this large pool of experienced professionals. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined at least once. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 10 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York and Pennsylvania. In addition, three surfaces in that area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. In the Kentucky-Ohio-West Virginia portion of the study area, a velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Fifteen formation tops have been identified on seismic in that area. Preliminary conclusions based on the available seismic data do not support the extension of the Rome Trough into New York state. Members of the stratigraphy task team measured, described and photographed numerous cores from throughout the basin, and tied these data back to their network of geophysical log cross sections. Geophysical logs were scanned in raster files for use in detailed well examination and construction of cross sections. Logs on these cross sections that are only in raster format are being converted to vector format for final cross section displays. The petrology team measured and sampled one classic outcrop in Pennsylvania and ten cores in four states. More than 600 thin sections were prepared from samples in those four states. A seven-step procedure is being used to

  12. Multiscale Modeling of Poromechanics in Geologic Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelletto, N.; Hajibeygi, H.; Klevtsov, S.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a hybrid MultiScale Finite Element-Finite Volume (h-MSFE-FV) framework for the simulation of single-phase Darcy flow through deformable porous media that exhibit highly heterogeneous poromechanical properties over a wide range of length scales. In such systems, high resolution characterizations are a key requirement to obtain reliable modeling predictions and motivate the development of multiscale solution strategies to cope with the computational burden. A coupled two-field fine-scale mixed FE-FV discretization of the governing equations, namely conservation laws of linear momentum and mass, is first implemented based on a displacement-pressure formulation. After imposing a coarse-scale grid on the given fine-scale problem, for the MSFE displacement stage, the coarse-scale basis functions are obtained by solving local equilibrium problems within coarse elements. Such MSFE stage is then coupled with the MSFV method for flow, in which a dual-coarse grid is introduced to obtain approximate but conservative multiscale solutions. Robustness and accuracy of the proposed multiscale framework is demonstrated using a variety of challenging test problems.

  13. Study on geological environment model using geostatistics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Makoto; Suzuki, Makoto; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Iwasa, Kengo; Matsui, Hiroya

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the geostatistical procedure for modeling geological environments and to evaluate the quantitative relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model using the data sets obtained in the surface-based investigation phase (Phase 1) of the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. This study lasts for three years from FY2004 to FY2006 and this report includes the research in FY2005 as the second year of three-year study. In FY2005 research, the hydrogeological model was built as well as FY2004 research using the data obtained from the deep boreholes (HDB-6, 7 and 8) and the ground magnetotelluric (AMT) survey which were executed in FY2004 in addition to the data sets used in the first year of study. Above all, the relationship between the amount of information and the reliability of the model was demonstrated through a comparison of the models at each step which corresponds to the investigation stage in each FY. Furthermore, the statistical test was applied for detecting the difference of basic statistics of various data due to geological features with a view to taking the geological information into the modeling procedures. (author)

  14. Brief introduction to the geology of the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, and its exploration history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, the type locality of agpaitic nepheline syenites, is made up of three intrusive phases, 1) augite syenite, 2) alkali acid rocks and 3) agpaitic nepheline syenites which occupy the major part of the complex. The agpaitic phase comprises a roof series, a floor series and an intermediate sequence of rocks. The roof series crystallised from the roof downwards beginning with non-agpaitic pulaskite and ending with distinctly agpaitic naujaite. The exposed part of the floor series is made up of the layered agpaitic nepheline syenite kakortokite. The intermediate sequence consists of several types of distinctly agpaitic lujavrites which are accompanied by occurrences of uranium and other rare elements. The complex was first visited by K.L. Giesecke in 1806 and 1809. The first detailed mapping of the complex was carried out by N.V. Ussing in 1900 and 1908. He presented a precise description of the major rock types and an illuminating discussion of the petrology of the complex in his 1912 memoir. In the period 1912-1955 there was very limited activity in the complex. Exploration for radioactive minerals in Ilimaussaq was initiated in 1955 and in subsequent years followed by geological mapping carried out by the Geological Survey of Greenland. This led to a series of detailed studies of the occurrences of not only U, but also Be, Nb, REE and Zr, and to mineralogical, geochemical and petrological studies as well as commercial evaluation and drilling. (au)

  15. Modeling study on geological environment at Horonobe URL site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Hajime; Kumamoto, Sou; Fujiwara, Yasushi; Ono, Makoto

    2005-02-01

    The Horonobe underground research project has been operated by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute to study the geological environment of sedimentary rocks in deep underground. The objectives of this study are to develop a geological environment model, which incorporate the current findings and the data obtained through the geological, geophysical, and borehole investigations at Horonobe site, and to predict the hydrological and geochemical impacts caused by the URL shaft excavation to the surrounding area. A three-dimensional geological structure model was constructed, integrating a large-scale model (25km x 15km) and a high-resolution site-scale model (4km x 4km) that have been developed by JNC. The constructed model includes surface topography, geologic formations (such as Yuchi, Koetoi, Wakkanai, and Masuporo Formations), and two major faults (Ohomagari fault and N1 fault). In hydrogeological modeling, water-conductive fractures identified in Wakkanai Formation are modeled stochastically using EHCM (Equivalent Heterogeneous Continuum Model) approach, to represent hydraulic heterogeneity and anisotropy in the fractured rock mass. Numerical code EQUIV FLO (Shimo et al., 1996), which is a 3D unsaturated-saturated groundwater simulator capable of EHCM, was used to simulate the regional groundwater flow. We used the same model and the code to predict the transient hydrological changes caused by the shaft excavations. Geochemical data in the Horonobe site such as water chemistries, mineral compositions of rocks were collected and summarized into digital datasets. M3 (Multivariate, Mixing and Mass-balance) method developed by SKB (Laaksoharju et al., 1999) was used to identify waters of different origins, and to infer the mixing ratio of these end-members to reproduce each sample's chemistry. Thermodynamic code such as RHREEQC, GWB, and EQ3/6 were used to model chemical reactions that explain the present minerals and aqueous concentrations observed in the site

  16. Sculpting Mountains: Interactive Terrain Modeling Based on Subsurface Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonnier, Guillaume; Cani, Marie-Paule; Benes, Bedrich; Braun, Jean; Galin, Eric

    2018-05-01

    Most mountain ranges are formed by the compression and folding of colliding tectonic plates. Subduction of one plate causes large-scale asymmetry while their layered composition (or stratigraphy) explains the multi-scale folded strata observed on real terrains. We introduce a novel interactive modeling technique to generate visually plausible, large scale terrains that capture these phenomena. Our method draws on both geological knowledge for consistency and on sculpting systems for user interaction. The user is provided hands-on control on the shape and motion of tectonic plates, represented using a new geologically-inspired model for the Earth crust. The model captures their volume preserving and complex folding behaviors under collision, causing mountains to grow. It generates a volumetric uplift map representing the growth rate of subsurface layers. Erosion and uplift movement are jointly simulated to generate the terrain. The stratigraphy allows us to render folded strata on eroded cliffs. We validated the usability of our sculpting interface through a user study, and compare the visual consistency of the earth crust model with geological simulation results and real terrains.

  17. Three-dimensional Geological and Geo-mechanical Modelling of Repositories for Nuclear Waste Disposal in Deep Geological Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahland, Sandra; Hofmann, Michael; Bornemann, Otto; Heusermann, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To prove the suitability and safety of underground structures for the disposal of radioactive waste extensive geo-scientific research and development has been carried out by BGR over the last decades. Basic steps of the safety analysis are the geological modelling of the entire structure including the host rock, the overburden and the repository geometry as well as the geo-mechanical modelling taking into account the 3-D modelling of the underground structure. The geological models are generated using the special-construction openGEO TM code to improve the visualisation an d interpretation of the geological data basis, e.g. borehole, mine, and geophysical data. For the geo-mechanical analysis the new JIFE finite-element code has been used to consider large 3-D structures with complex inelastic material behaviour. To establish the finite-element models needed for stability and integrity calculations, the geological models are simplified with respect to homogenous rock layers with uniform material behaviour. The modelling results are basic values for the evaluation of the stability of the repository mine and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier. As an example of application, the results of geological and geo-mechanical investigations of the Morsleben repository based on 3-D modelling are presented. (authors)

  18. Digital Geological Model (DGM): a 3D raster model of the subsurface of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnink, J.L.; Maljers, D.; Gessel, S.F. van; Menkovic, A.; Hummelman, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A 3D geological raster model has been constructed of the onshore of the Netherlands. The model displays geological units for the upper 500 m in 3D in an internally consistent way. The units are based on the lithostratigraphical classification of the Netherlands. This classification is used to

  19. Predictive modeling of terrestrial radiation exposure from geologic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Daniel A.

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials in an area by creating a model using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low spatial resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas, referred to as background radiation units, homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by our partner National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), allowing for the refinement of the technique. High resolution radiation exposure rate models have been developed for two study areas in Southern Nevada that include the alluvium on the western shore of Lake Mohave, and Government Wash north of Lake Mead; both of these areas are arid with little soil moisture and vegetation. We determined that by using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide radiation background units of alluvium, regions of homogeneous geochemistry can be defined allowing for the exposure rate to be predicted. Soil and rock samples have been collected at Government Wash and Lake Mohave as well as a third site near Cameron, Arizona. K, U, and Th concentrations of these samples have been determined using inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laboratory counting using radiation detection equipment. In addition, many sample locations also have

  20. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Shale Reference Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-22

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level nuclear waste (HLW). Two high priorities for SFWST disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011, Table 6). These priorities are directly addressed in the SFWST Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, shale, and deep borehole disposal).

  1. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Petersson, Jesper (SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  2. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Description of the bedrock geological map at the ground surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Bergman, Torbjoern; Isaksson, Hans; Petersson, Jesper

    2008-12-01

    A description of the bedrock geological map of the ground surface at the Forsmark site is presented here. This map is essentially a 2D model for the distribution of different types of rock unit on this surface. Besides showing the distribution of these rock units, the bedrock geological map also displays the distribution of some deformation zones that intersect the ground surface. It also presents information bearing on the position and form of outcrops, the location and projection of boreholes drilled during the site investigation programme, subordinate rock types, the occurrence of abandoned mines or exploration prospects, measurements of ductile structures in outcrops, inferred form lines, key minerals, and the occurrence of mylonite and cataclastic rock. Bedrock data from outcrops and excavations, airborne and ground magnetic data and information from the uppermost part of boreholes have all been used in the construction of the geological map. The description has also made use of complementary analytical data bearing on the composition and age of the rocks as well gamma-ray spectrometry and gravity data. Uncertainty in the position of the boundaries between rock units over the mapped area are addressed in a qualitative manner. Four model versions of the bedrock geological map have been delivered to SKB's GIS database (bedrock geological map, Forsmark, versions 1.1, 1.2, 2.2 and 2.3) at different times during the site investigation programme. The Forsmark area is situated along the coast of the Baltic Sea in northern Uppland, Sweden, in a region where the overall level of ductile strain in the bedrock is high. This high-strain region extends several tens of kilometres across the WNW-ENE to NW-SE strike of the rocks in this part of the Fennoscandian Shield. At Forsmark, the coastal region is composed partly of high-strain belts, which formed under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions, and partly of tectonic lenses, where the bedrock is also affected by

  3. Application of Neural Networks Technique in depositional environment interpretation for the Niger Delta a Novel computer-Based methodology for 3-D reservoir geological modelling and exploration studies. (The pilot application in X-Field, Niger Delta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iloghalu, E.M.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial neural network is a virtual intelligence tool, which mimics the human brain to do analysis and come out with results. Its application in petroleum engineering is very recent and is gradually evolving and is set to dominate or take over other analytical tools used in the Exploration and Production industry.There are two types of neural network namely, unsupervised and supervised neural networks. A proper combination of these two types of neural networks produces high-resolution results.In this work, interpreted core data was depth matched to well logs and 5 genetic units were calibrated to define the combined log responses for each genetic unit. These combined log responses were then used to train the supervised neural networks to recognise and interpret these units elsewhere in the field. Thereafter, the unsupervised neural network was run to generate classes within the cored interval. The results were then compared with the supervised network output and were then extrapolated vertically and laterally to other parts of the field.This technique having been used successfully to perform automatic interpretation of genetic units and lithofacies associations in reservoir scale is also very useful and applicable in exploration. Specific reservoirs or stratigraphic units can be automatically interpreted across a wide area using well data controlled by one or a combination of lithostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy and biostratigraphy.Using this technique, well data cost and time are saved tremendously. It is the key to achieving computerised Basin-Scale Reservoir characterisation for the Niger Delta

  4. Exploring holographic Composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croon, Djuna [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex,BN1 9QH Brighton (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON (Canada); Dillon, Barry M.; Huber, Stephan J.; Sanz, Veronica [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex,BN1 9QH Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-13

    Simple Composite Higgs models predict new vector-like fermions not too far from the electroweak scale, yet LHC limits are now sensitive to the TeV scale. Motivated by this tension, we explore the holographic dual of the minimal model, MCHM{sub 5}, to try and alleviate this tension without increasing the fine-tuning in the Higgs potential. Interestingly, we find that lowering the UV cutoff in the 5D picture allows for heavier top partners and less fine-tuning. In the 4D dual this corresponds to increasing the number of “colours” N, thus increasing the decay constant of the Goldstone Higgs. This is essentially a ‘Little Randall-Sundrum Model’, which are known to reduce some flavour and electroweak constraints. Furthermore, in anticipation of the ongoing efforts at the LHC to put bounds on the top Yukawa, we demonstrate that deviations from the SM can be suppressed or enhanced with respect to what is expected from mere symmetry arguments in 4D. We conclude that the 5D holographic realisation of the MCHM{sub 5} with a small UV cutoff is not in tension with the current experimental data.

  5. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric; Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan; Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Drake, Henrik; Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans; Juhlin, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  6. Geology Laxemar. Site descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlgren, Carl-Henric (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Curtis, Philip; Hermanson, Jan; Forssberg, Ola; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Drake, Henrik (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Triumf, Carl-Axel; Mattsson, Haakan; Thunehed, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); Juhlin, Christopher (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-11-15

    The geological work during the SDM Site Laxemar modelling stage has involved the continued development of deterministic models for rock domains (RSM) and deformation zones (ZSM), the identification and deterministic modelling of fracture domains (FSM), and the development of statistical models for fractures and minor deformation zones (geological discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling). The geological DFN model addresses fractures/structures with a size of less than 1 km, which is the lower cut-off of structures included in the deterministic modelling of deformation zones. In order to take account of variability in data resolution, deterministic models for rock domains and deformation zones are presented in both regional and local scale model volumes, while the geological DFN model is valid only within specific fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model volume. The geological and geophysical data that constitute the basis for the SDM-Site Laxemar modelling work comprise all data that have been acquired from Laxemar, i.e. all data that were available at the data freeze for SDM-Site Laxemar at August 31, 2007. Selected quality controlled data from the complementary cored borehole KLX27A have also been utilised in the modelling work. Data from the following investigations were acquired during the complete site investigation between the data freezes for Laxemar 1.2 and SDM-Site Laxemar as defined above: A revised bedrock geological map at the ground surface. Geological and geophysical data from 40 new cored boreholes and 14 percussion boreholes. Sampling and subsequent modal and geochemical analytical work of bedrock samples taken in connection with excavations in southern Laxemar. Detailed mapping of fractures and rock units along 10 trench excavations and 2 large surface exposures (drill sites for KLX09 and KLX11A/KLX20A). Special studies involving more detailed characterisation of deformation zones identified in the geological single-hole interpretation

  7. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology. (Volume 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, J.J.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the second part is described below. HERODE (calculation of relief altitude under erosion process from 0 to 100000 years) is a weathering and erosion computerized simulation. The model describes materials and rocks transport and also substratum weathering process. FORTRAN 77 is the software language. 31 figs., 6 tabs., 40 refs

  8. A geoethical approach to the geological and astrobiological exploration and research of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Frias, Jesus; Horneck, Gerda; de La Torre Noetzel, Rosa; Rull, Fernando

    Lunar and Mars exploration and research require not only scientific and technological inter-disciplinary cooperation, but also the consideration of budding ethical and scientific integrity issues. COSPAR's planetary protection policy (in coordination with the United Nations Com-mittee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space as well as various other bilateral and multilateral organizations) serves as the consensus standard for biological contamination prevention under the 1967 Outer Space Treaty1 . Space agencies Planetary Protection Policies are mostly consis-tent with the COSPAR policy. Geoethics was formerly promoted in 1991 as a new discipline, involving scientific and societal aspects2 , and its institutionalization was officially established in 2004 with the backing of the Association of Geoscientists for International Development, AGID3 (IUGS/ICSU). Recently, it has been proposed that the integration of geoethical issues in studies on planetary geology and astrobiology would enrich their methodological and con-ceptual character4-6 . The incorporation through geoethics of new questions and approaches associated to the "abiotic world" would involve: 1) extrapolating to space the recently defined and approved IUCN/UNESCO guidelines and recommendations on geodiversity7 as "planetary geodiversity", and 2) widening the classical concept of Planetary Protection, giving an addi-tional "abiotic" dimension to the exploration and research of the Moon and Mars. Given the geological characteristics and planetary evolution of the Moon and Mars, it is obvious that they require tailored geoethical approaches. Some fundamental aspects include, among others: the interrelation with bioethics and organics vs. inorganic contamination in Planetary Protection, the appropriate regulations of some necessary natural disturbances (e.g. on the Moon) dur-ing robotic and manned planetary missions, wilderness/planetary parks8,9 , the correct use of mineralogical and geochemical analytical

  9. Evaluation of uncertainty in geological framework models at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Seida, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The first step towards determining compliance with the performance objectives for both the repository system and the geologic setting at Yucca Mountain requires the development of detailed geostratigraphic models. This paper proposes an approach for the evaluation of the degree of uncertainty inherent in geologic maps and associated three-dimensional geological models. Following this approach, an assessment of accuracy and completeness of the data and evaluation of conceptual uncertainties in the geological framework models can be performed

  10. Leverage and Delegation in Developing an Information Model for Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    GeoSciML is an information model and XML encoding developed by a group of primarily geologic survey organizations under the auspices of the IUGS CGI. The scope of the core model broadly corresponds with information traditionally portrayed on a geologic map, viz. interpreted geology, some observations, the map legend and accompanying memoir. The development of GeoSciML has followed the methodology specified for an Application Schema defined by OGC and ISO 19100 series standards. This requires agreement within a community concerning their domain model, its formal representation using UML, documentation as a Feature Type Catalogue, with an XML Schema implementation generated from the model by applying a rule-based transformation. The framework and technology supports a modular governance process. Standard datatypes and GI components (geometry, the feature and coverage metamodels, metadata) are imported from the ISO framework. The observation and sampling model (including boreholes) is imported from OGC. The scale used for most scalar literal values (terms, codes, measures) allows for localization where necessary. Wildcards and abstract base- classes provide explicit extensibility points. Link attributes appear in a regular way in the encodings, allowing reference to external resources using URIs. The encoding is compatible with generic GI data-service interfaces (WFS, WMS, SOS). For maximum interoperability within a community, the interfaces may be specialised through domain-specified constraints (e.g. feature-types, scale and vocabulary bindings, query-models). Formalization using UML and XML allows use of standard validation and processing tools. Use of upper-level elements defined for generic GI application reduces the development effort and governance resonsibility, while maximising cross-domain interoperability. On the other hand, enabling specialization to be delegated in a controlled manner is essential to adoption across a range of subdisciplines and

  11. Evaluating the potential economic effectiveness of scientific research in the area of geological exploration for oil and gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaynbaum, S Ya

    1979-01-01

    The category of ''potential effect'' is inherent to scientific developments in oil geology. This effect is associated with a quantity of labor in the sphere of scientific research which is embodied in the extracted information and stored until its complete use in production. The potential effect can be predicted. It is an indicator of economic effectiveness of scientific research. Distribution of the coefficient of creativity (innovation) for scientific research for geological exploration is suggested. The system of calculating the economic effect contains real stimuli for increasing economic efficiency. The most important of them are: establishment of the most promising trends for geological exploration which guarantee maximum increase in hydrocarbon reserves; decrease in net cost which will guarantee the obtaining of great profit; conducting of research on a higher level, in a large quantity of stages of work. This results in an increase in the percentage of participation of science in the production process, and this means, an increase in its economic effectiveness.

  12. Geologic characteristics of sediment- and volcanic-hosted disseminated gold deposits - Search for an occurrence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Donald E.; Fournier, Robert O.; Rytuba, James J.; Rye, Robert O.; Cunningham, Charles G.; Berger, Byron R.; Silberman, Miles L.; Bonham, Harold F.; Strachan, Donald G.; Birak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Robert J.; Tooker, Edwin W.; Tooker, Edwin W.

    1985-01-01

    The current expansion of resource information, particularly on "disseminated" gold, and the improved technologies now available for resource investigations should place us in an enhanced position for developing a better predictive methodology for meeting one of the important responsibilities of the U.S. Geological Survey-to examine and assess the mineral resources of the geologic terranes composing the public (and privately owned) lands of the United States. The first step is systematic organization of these data. Geologic-occurrence models are an effective systematic method by which to organize large amounts of resource information into a logical sequence facilitating its use more effectively in meeting several industry and Survey objectives, which include the exploration for resources and the assessment of resource potential for land-use decisions. Such models also provide a scientific basis for metallogenesis research, which considers the observable features or attributes of ore occurrence and their "fit" into the Earth's resource puzzle. The use of models in making resource assessments/appraisals was addressed by Shawe (1981), who reported the results of a workshop on methods for resource appraisal of Wilderness and Conterminous United States Mineral Appraisal Program (CUSMAP; 1:250,000-scale quadrangles) areas. The Survey's main objective in the 1982 workshop was to evaluate the status of knowledge about disseminated or very fine grained gold deposits and, if possible, to develop an occurrence model(s).This report on the workshop proceedings has three main objectives: (1) Education through the publication of a summary review and presentation of new thinking and observations about the scientific bases for those geologic processes and environments that foster disseminated gold-ore formation; (2) systematic organization of available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical information for a range of typical disseminated gold deposits (including recognition of gaps

  13. Main geologic characteristics of paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits and relevant prospecting and exploration policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zuyi

    1999-01-01

    The author summarizes main prospecting and exploration-related geologic characteristics of paleochannel-type sandstone-hosted uranium deposits such as the structural control over the spatial emplacement of the deposit, the near-source occurrence, the phreatic oxidation origin, the occurrence of the uranium mineralization mostly in one horizon etc. On the basis of analyzing the above characteristics the prospecting and exploration policy of such uranium deposits is proposed

  14. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  15. Reservoir architecture modeling: Nonstationary models for quantitative geological characterization. Final report, April 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, D.; Epili, D.; Kelkar, M.; Redner, R.; Reynolds, A.

    1998-12-01

    The study was comprised of four investigations: facies architecture; seismic modeling and interpretation; Markov random field and Boolean models for geologic modeling of facies distribution; and estimation of geological architecture using the Bayesian/maximum entropy approach. This report discusses results from all four investigations. Investigations were performed using data from the E and F units of the Middle Frio Formation, Stratton Field, one of the major reservoir intervals in the Gulf Coast Basin.

  16. Be steadily on the progress, be in pursuit of brilliance. For deep understanding the development tendency of quality management in nuclear geologic exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiuying

    2006-01-01

    A new knowledge economy era driven by brings forth new ideas in science-technology and marked by quality innovation as an important element has come. At present, a great upsurge of quality management represented by outstanding quality management models such as Liuxigma management, outstanding achievement-effect evaluation and quality management system etc. are spreading throughout the world like a raging fire. Enterprises of nuclear geological exploration must be steadily on the progress, to strengthen quality management, to guarantee the successful fulfillment of tasks in uranium resources exploration by outstanding achievements. (authors)

  17. How to Recharge a Confined Aquifer: An Exploration of Geologic Controls on Groundwater Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decreased snowpack storage and groundwater overdraft in California has increased interest in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) of excess winter runoff to the Central Valley aquifer system, which has unused storage capacity that far exceeds the state's surface reservoirs. Recharge to the productive, confined aquifer system remains a challenge due to the presence of nearly-ubiquitous, multiple silt and clay confining units that limit recharge pathways. However, previous studies have identified interconnected networks of sand and gravel deposits that bypass the confining units and accommodate rapid, high-volume recharge to the confined aquifer system in select locations. We use the variably-saturated, fully-integrated groundwater/surface-water flow code, ParFlow, in combination with a high-resolution, transition probability Markov-chain geostatistical model of the subsurface geologic heterogeneity of the east side of the Sacramento Valley, CA, to characterize recharge potential across a landscape that includes these geologic features. Multiple 180-day MAR simulations show that recharge potential is highly dependent on subsurface geologic structure, with a several order-of-magnitude range of recharge rates and volumes across the landscape. Where there are recharge pathways to the productive confined-aquifer system, pressure propagation in the confined system is widespread and rapid, with multi-kilometer lateral pressure propagation. Although widespread pressure propagation occurs in the confined system, only a small fraction of recharge volume is accommodated there. Instead, the majority of recharge occurs by filling unsaturated pore spaces. Where they outcrop at land surface, high-K recharge pathways fill rapidly, accommodating the majority of recharge during early time. However, these features become saturated quickly, and somewhat counterintuitively, the low-K silt and clay facies accommodate the majority of recharge volume during most of the simulation. These findings

  18. Developing seismogenic source models based on geologic fault data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Kathleen M.; Basili, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Calculating seismic hazard usually requires input that includes seismicity associated with known faults, historical earthquake catalogs, geodesy, and models of ground shaking. This paper will address the input generally derived from geologic studies that augment the short historical catalog to predict ground shaking at time scales of tens, hundreds, or thousands of years (e.g., SSHAC 1997). A seismogenic source model, terminology we adopt here for a fault source model, includes explicit three-dimensional faults deemed capable of generating ground motions of engineering significance within a specified time frame of interest. In tectonically active regions of the world, such as near plate boundaries, multiple seismic cycles span a few hundred to a few thousand years. In contrast, in less active regions hundreds of kilometers from the nearest plate boundary, seismic cycles generally are thousands to tens of thousands of years long. Therefore, one should include sources having both longer recurrence intervals and possibly older times of most recent rupture in less active regions of the world rather than restricting the model to include only Holocene faults (i.e., those with evidence of large-magnitude earthquakes in the past 11,500 years) as is the practice in tectonically active regions with high deformation rates. During the past 15 years, our institutions independently developed databases to characterize seismogenic sources based on geologic data at a national scale. Our goal here is to compare the content of these two publicly available seismogenic source models compiled for the primary purpose of supporting seismic hazard calculations by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS); hereinafter we refer to the two seismogenic source models as INGV and USGS, respectively. This comparison is timely because new initiatives are emerging to characterize seismogenic sources at the continental scale (e.g., SHARE in the

  19. The application of geological computer modelling systems to the characterisation and assessment of radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Del Olmo, C.

    1996-01-01

    The deep disposal of radioactive waste requires the collection and analysis of large amounts of geological data. These data give information on the geological and hydrogeological setting of repositories and research sites, including the geological structure and the nature of the groundwater. The collection of these data is required in order to develop an understanding of the geology and the geological evolution of sites and to provide quantitative information for performance assessments. An integrated approach to the interpretation and provision of these data is proposed in this paper, via the use of computer systems, here termed geological modelling systems. Geological modelling systems are families of software programmes which allow the incorporation of site investigation data into integrated 3D models of sub-surface geology

  20. Pedo-geological activities with exploration of lignite deposits and their value for soil reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensche, M.; Richter, H.; Oehme, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A description is presented of geological conditions facilitating soil reclamation and of the overburden removal technologies to be applied. Pedo-geological pre-exploitation studies are indispensable for soil reclamation and their methods and results are described with a final reference to the value of land reclamation for national economy.

  1. Three-dimensional Subsurface Geological Modeling of the Western Osaka Plane based on Borehole Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonogaki, S.; Masumoto, S.; Nemoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) geological model of subsurface structure plays an important role in developing infrastructures. In particular, the 3D geological model in urban area is quite helpful to solve social problems such as underground utilization, environmental preservation, and disaster assessment. Over the past few years, many studies have been made on algorithms for 3D geological modeling. However, most of them have given little attention to objectivity of the model and traceability of modeling procedures. The purpose of this study is to develop an algorithm for constructing a 3D geological model objectively and for maintaining high-traceability of modeling procedures. For the purpose of our work, we proposed a new algorithm for 3D geological modeling using gridded geological boundary surfaces and the "logical model of geologic structure". The geological boundary surface is given by a form of Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The DEM is generated based on geological information such as elevation, strike and dip by using a unique spline-fitting method. The logical model of geological structure is a mathematical model that defines a positional relation between geological boundary surfaces and geological units. The model is objectively given by recurrence formula derived from a sequence of geological events arranged in chronological order. We applied the proposed algorithm into constructing a 3D subsurface geological model of the western Osaka Plane, southwest Japan. The data used for 3D geological modeling is a set of borehole data provided by Osaka City and Kansai Geoinformatics Agency. As a result, we constructed a 3D model consistent with the subjective model reported in other studies. In addition, all information necessary for modeling, such as the used geological information, the parameters of surface fitting, and the logical model, was stored in text files. In conclusion, we can not only construct 3D geological model objectively but also maintain high

  2. GIS Data Modeling of a Regional Geological Structure by Integrating Geometric and Semantic Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Handong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS, data models of geology via geometric descriptions and expressions are being developed. However, the role played by these data models in terms of the description and expression of geological structure phenomenon is limited. To improve the semantic information in geological GIS data models, this study adopts an object-oriented method that describes and expresses the geometric and semantic features of the geological structure phenomenon using geological objects and designs a data model of regional geological structures by integrating geometry and semantics. Moreover, the study designs a semantic "vocabulary-explanation-graph" method for describing the geological phenomenon of structures. Based on the semantic features of regional geological structures and a linear classification method, it divides the regional geological structure phenomenon into 3 divisions, 10 groups, 33 classes and defines the element set and element class. Moreover, it builds the basic geometric network for geological elements based on the geometric and semantic relations among geological objects. Using the ArcGIS Diagrammer Geodatabase, it considers the regional geological structure of the Ning-Zhen Mountains to verify the data model, and the results indicate a high practicability.

  3. Using digital databases to create geologic maps for the 21st century : a GIS model for geologic, environmental, cultural and transportation data from southern Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Knowledge of surface and subsurface geology is fundamental to the planning and development of new or modified transportation systems. Toward this : end, we have compiled a model GIS database consisting of important geologic, cartographic, environment...

  4. The geological model calibration - Learnings from integration of reservoir geology and field performance - Example from the upper carboniferous reservoirs of the Southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscariello, A.; Hoof, T.B. van; Kunakbayeva, G.; Veen, J.H. ten; Belt, F. van den; Twerda, A.; Peters, L.; Davis, P.; Williams, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Geological Model Calibration - Learnings from Integration of Reservoir Geology and Field Performance: example from the Upper Carboniferous Reservoirs of the Southern North Sea. Copyright © (2012) by the European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers All rights reserved.

  5. Stress field modelling from digital geological map data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Gáspár; Barancsuk, Ádám; Szentpéteri, Krisztián

    2016-04-01

    To create a model for the lithospheric stress a functional geodatabase is required which contains spatial and geodynamic parameters. A digital structural-geological map is a geodatabase, which usually contains enough attributes to create a stress field model. Such a model is not accurate enough for engineering-geological purposes because simplifications are always present in a map, but in many cases maps are the only sources for a tectonic analysis. The here presented method is designed for field geologist, who are interested to see the possible realization of the stress field over the area, on which they are working. This study presents an application which can produce a map of 3D stress vectors from a kml-file. The core application logic is implemented on top of a spatially aware relational database management system. This allows rapid and geographically accurate analysis of the imported geological features, taking advantage of standardized spatial algorithms and indexing. After pre-processing the map features in a GIS, according to the Type-Property-Orientation naming system, which was described in a previous study (Albert et al. 2014), the first stage of the algorithm generates an irregularly spaced point cloud by emitting a pattern of points within a user-defined buffer zone around each feature. For each point generated, a component-wise approximation of the tensor field at the point's position is computed, derived from the original feature's geodynamic properties. In a second stage a weighted moving average method calculates the stress vectors in a regular grid. Results can be exported as geospatial data for further analysis or cartographic visualization. Computation of the tensor field's components is based on the implementation of the Mohr diagram of a compressional model, which uses a Coulomb fracture criterion. Using a general assumption that the main principal stress must be greater than the stress from the overburden, the differential stress is

  6. Geological exploration for a high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) system: a case study from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterleitner, Gerd; Schütz, Felina; Huenges, Ernst

    2017-04-01

    A collaborative research programme between the German Research Centre for Geoscience, Potsdam (GFZ) and The Research Council of Oman (TRC) is underway, which aims to develop and implement an innovative concept of a sustainable thermally driven cooling system in combination with a HT-ATES in northern Oman. The system will use an absorption chiller for cold supply, which nominally requires water of around 100°C as energy source. Solar collectors will provide this thermal energy and energy surpluses during daytimes will be stored to ensure a continuous operation of the cooling system. An integral part of this project is, therefore, the development of an efficient HT-ATES (100°C), which is based on temporary storage and recovery of thermal energy through hot water injection in subsurface aquifer horizons. Thus, an accurate thermal and fluid flow characterisation of potential reservoir horizons is essential to ensure optimal efficiency of the cooling system. The study area is located in the Al Khwad area, approximately 40 km to the west of Muscat. The area is characterised by a thick Cenozoic mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentary succession, containing at least 3 aquifer horizons. We use a multidisciplinary approach for the initial ATES exploration and development phase, including traditional geological fieldwork dovetailed with virtual outcrop geology, thin-section analyses, geological modelling and reservoir fluid flow forecasting analyses. Our first results indicate two potential storage horizons: (1) a Miocene-aged clastic-dominated alluvial fan system and (2) an Eocene carbonate-dominated sequence. The alluvial fan system is characterised by a more than 300 m thick, coarse-clastic succession of coalesced individual fans. Thermal and hydraulic parameters are favourable for gravel and sandstone intervals but reservoir architecture is complex due to multiple generations of interconnecting fans with highly heterogeneous facies distributions. The Eocene carbonates

  7. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology (Volume 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbouleix, S.; Colleau, A.; Defaut, B.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To access the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the fourth part is described below. The purpose of this study is to find actual climates which can represent past climates in Europe, during Plio-Quaternary Palynology technics is the most adapted to restore ancient climates. A climatic index, Q n is defined as a function of yearly rainfalls, monthly extreme temperatures and aridity. A climatic diagram is built with climatic index Q n along X axis and a function of the yearly mean temperature along Y axis. This original method can ensure vegetation determination from climate and vice versa. Erosion and Weathering values may be determined after model calibration. 23 figs., 21 refs

  8. Uncertainty in mapped geological boundaries held by a national geological survey:eliciting the geologists' tacit error model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-06-01

    It is generally accepted that geological line work, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses, etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for geological boundaries mapped by geologists of the British Geological Survey (BGS) in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced BGS geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicited distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering line work or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of line work.

  9. Explorative methods in linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    The author has developed the H-method of mathematical modeling that builds up the model by parts, where each part is optimized with respect to prediction. Besides providing with better predictions than traditional methods, these methods provide with graphic procedures for analyzing different feat...... features in data. These graphic methods extend the well-known methods and results of Principal Component Analysis to any linear model. Here the graphic procedures are applied to linear regression and Ridge Regression....

  10. Preliminary discussion on the application of the geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guangzhong; Wei Mingji; Luo Yiyue

    1992-01-01

    The geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation is established on the basis of geological theory and apriorism. Variables are screened with the application of the method of mathematical geology to find out the variables which are more contributed. In combination with the practical situation in Xikang-Yunnan axis, the variables are compiled and graded so as to determine the optimal ore-controlling factor and to establish the statistical predictive model which is of geological significance. The resources evaluation work has been conducted in the Late Proterozoic geological terrain in Xikang-Yunnan axis

  11. Using geological information to develop new exploration project for uranium deposits in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Osamu

    1992-01-01

    Unconformity related uranium deposits which contain a large amount of resources with higher grades will be economically superior to other types of deposits. This paper presents the integrated use of geological information, which includes compilation data for the Precambrian geology in southern Africa and selected structural geologic data for some analogues of unconformity related uranium deposit in Canada (e.g. Key Lake deposit in Athabasca Basin) and the Precambrian rock hosted uranium deposit in Africa (e.g. Oklo-Munana, Rossing, Shinkolobwe and Dome deposits). Finally, some favourable geological terrains for unconformity related uranium deposit and the Precambrian rock hosted uranium deposit were selected on the basis of geological information. Further significant discoveries are likely in the following geological terrains. 1. Both the unconformity related and Oklo-Munana type deposits are favourable at (a) and (b). (a) the Lower Proterozoic Eburnian belts which are unconformably overlain by sequences of Kibaran and also the unmetamorphosed sequences in Pan-African. The age and paleoenvironment of the unmetamorphosed sequences in Pan-African is comparable to Kibaran. (b) the unmetamorphosed sequences in Eburnian. 2. The Rossing, Shinkolobwe and Dome type deposits are favourable at the Upper Proterozoic Pan-African Belts. (author)

  12. Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Mazen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and…

  13. Modelling of 3D fractured geological systems - technique and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, M.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Cherubini, Y.; Kaiser, B. O.; Bloecher, G.

    2011-12-01

    All rocks in the earth's crust are fractured to some extent. Faults and fractures are important in different scientific and industry fields comprising engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological applications. Many petroleum, gas and geothermal and water supply reservoirs form in faulted and fractured geological systems. Additionally, faults and fractures may control the transport of chemical contaminants into and through the subsurface. Depending on their origin and orientation with respect to the recent and palaeo stress field as well as on the overall kinematics of chemical processes occurring within them, faults and fractures can act either as hydraulic conductors providing preferential pathways for fluid to flow or as barriers preventing flow across them. The main challenge in modelling processes occurring in fractured rocks is related to the way of describing the heterogeneities of such geological systems. Flow paths are controlled by the geometry of faults and their open void space. To correctly simulate these processes an adequate 3D mesh is a basic requirement. Unfortunately, the representation of realistic 3D geological environments is limited by the complexity of embedded fracture networks often resulting in oversimplified models of the natural system. A technical description of an improved method to integrate generic dipping structures (representing faults and fractures) into a 3D porous medium is out forward. The automated mesh generation algorithm is composed of various existing routines from computational geometry (e.g. 2D-3D projection, interpolation, intersection, convex hull calculation) and meshing (e.g. triangulation in 2D and tetrahedralization in 3D). All routines have been combined in an automated software framework and the robustness of the approach has been tested and verified. These techniques and methods can be applied for fractured porous media including fault systems and therefore found wide applications in different geo-energy related

  14. Development of modelling and forecasting in geology. (Volume 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzali, H.; Fourniguet, J.; Peaudecerf, P.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal systems, validation of predictive models is essential and large efforts should be given to barriers, particularly geologic barriers. This work appears in the form of four volumes, the subject of the first part is described below. Soils and rocks erosion depends upon climate, relief, lithology and human activities (deforesting). In the world, mechanical erosion is evaluated from 5 to 8 cm per 1000 years (mean denudation ratio). Rocks weathering solubilize chemical elements in the running water and rocks fracturation becomes more easily under erosion effects. Alteration front progress is 0.3-3 cm per 1000 years in temperate zones and 4-7 cm per 1000 years in tropical zones. 5 figs., 14 tabs., 80 refs

  15. A Geological Model for the Evolution of Early Continents (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, P. F.; Coltice, N.; Flament, N. E.; Thébaud, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geochemical probing of ancient sediments (REE in black shales, strontium composition of carbonates, oxygen isotopes in zircons...) suggests that continents were a late Archean addition at Earth's surface. Yet, geochemical probing of ancient basalts reveals that they were extracted from a mantle depleted of its crustal elements early in the Archean. Considerations on surface geology, the early Earth hypsometry and the rheology and density structure of Archean continents can help solve this paradox. Surface geology: The surface geology of Archean cratons is characterized by thick continental flood basalts (CFBs, including greenstones) emplaced on felsic crusts dominated by Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite (TTG) granitoids. This simple geology is peculiar because i/ most CFBs were emplaced below sea level, ii/ after their emplacement, CFBs were deformed into relatively narrow, curviplanar belts (greenstone basins) wrapping around migmatitic TTG domes, and iii/ Archean greenstone belts are richly endowed with gold and other metals deposits. Flat Earth hypothesis: From considerations on early Earth continental geotherm and density structure, Rey and Coltice (2008) propose that, because of the increased ability of the lithosphere to flow laterally, orogenic processes in the Archean produced only subdued topography (model consistent with many of the peculiar attributes of Archean geology, can be proposed: 1/ Continents appeared at Earth's surface at an early stage during the Hadean/Archean. However, because they were i/ covered by continental flood basalts, ii/ below sea level, and iii/ deprived of modern-style mountain belts and orogenic plateaux, early felsic

  16. EFFECTS OF SECTORAL ANTI-RUSSIAN SANCTIONS ON THE POSSIBILITY OF GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION DRILLING IN THE ARCTIC SEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Sochneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the past and current situation of geological exploration drilling on the Arctic region continental shelf. Along with climate conditions, the strategy of drilling is greatly infl uenced by technical accessibility of licensed sites, the latter depending on achieved level of equipment and technologies. Since 2014 the USA, the European Union countries and a number of other states have imposed sanctions against Russia. Sectoral sanctions, prohibiting access to technologies employed in the Arctic region shelf projects, have become an important part of these sanctions. This research is aimed at assessing the infl uence of sectoral anti-Russian sanctions on geological exploration drilling in the Arctic seas. The choice of geological exploration drilling is not accidental as the majority of Russian Arctic projects are at this particular stage now.Over the recent forty years, the country has accumulated considerable practical experience of conducting geological exploration drilling and the Arctic region field development. Our analysis demonstrates that modern Russia has necessary technologies for exploration and field development in the Arctic region. In fact, Russia is the only country, which actually continues its operations in the Arctic region amid a sharp decline of oil prices. Imposing sectoral sanctions related to equipment and technologies of developing the Russian Arctic shelf is inefficient.It is forecasted that in the coming decade, the continuing global warming process will make the majority of regions of the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea – where a number of large and gigantic fields have already been discovered – more accessible for conducting geological exploration drilling. It is possible to use here the traditional types of off shore drilling units with a low ice rate. This will totally eliminate any technical and technological problems of drilling. The USA are expected to enter the market of arctic hydrocarbons from

  17. SITE-94. Development of a geological and a structural model of Aespoe, southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.; Beckholmen, M.; Askling, P.; Voss, C.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to construct three-dimensional geological and structural models to be used within the SKI SITE-94 project as a base for modelling hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and rock mechanical bedrock conditions, mass transport and layout of a hypothetical repository. The basic input data in the SITE-94 geological and structural models are restricted to geological and structural readings and geophysical measurements made prior to building the Hard Rock Laboratory. 114 refs, 82 figs, 28 tabs

  18. Technical know-how for modeling of geological environment. (1) Overview and groundwater flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Takeuchi, Shinji; Maekawa, Keisuke; Osawa, Hideaki; Semba, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    It is important for site characterization projects to manage the decision-making process with transparency and traceability and to transfer the technical know-how accumulated during the research and development to the implementing phase and to future generations. The modeling for a geological environment is to be used to synthesize investigation results. Evaluation of the impact of uncertainties in the model is important to identify and prioritize key issues for further investigations. Therefore, a plan for site characterization should be made based on the results of the modeling. The aim of this study is to support for the planning of initial surface-based site characterization based on the technical know-how accumulated from the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory Project and the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project. These projects are broad scientific studies of the deep geological environment that are a basis for research and development for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In this study, the work-flow of the groundwater flow modeling, which is one of the geological environment models, and is to be used for setting the area for the geological environment modeling and for groundwater flow characterization, and the related decision-making process using literature data have been summarized. (author)

  19. Magnetic mapping for structural geology and geothermal exploration in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier de Lépinay, jeanne; munschy, marc; geraud, yves; diraison, marc; navelot, vivien; verati, christelle; corsini, michel; lardeaux, jean marc; favier, alexiane

    2017-04-01

    This work is implemented through the GEOTREF program which benefits from the support of both the ADEME and the French public funds "Investments for the future". The program focuses on the exploration for geothermal resources in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, where a geothermal power plant is in production since 1986 (Bouillante, Basse Terre). In Les Saintes archipelago, in the south of Guadeloupe, the outcrop analysis of Terre-de-Haut Island allows to point out an exhumed geothermal paleo-system that is thought to be an analogue of the Bouillante active geothermal system. We show that a detailed marine magnetic survey with a quantitative interpretation can bring information about the offshore structures around Les Saintes archipelago in order to extend the geological limits and structural elements. A similar survey and workflow is also conducted offshore Basse-Terre where more geophysical data is already available. In order to correctly link the offshore and onshore structures, the magnetic survey must be close enough to the shoreline and sufficiently detailed to correctly outline the tectonic structures. An appropriate solution for such a survey is to use a three component magnetometer aboard a speedboat. Such a boat allows more navigation flexibility than a classic oceanic vessel towing a magnetometer; it can sail at higher speed on calm seas and closer to the shoreline. This kind of magnetic acquisition is only viable because the magnetic effect of the ship can be compensated using the same algorithms than those used for airborne magnetometry. The use of potential field transforms allows a large variety of structures to be highlighted, providing insights to build a general understanding of the nature and distribution of the magnetic sources. In particular, we use the tilt angle operator to better identify the magnetic lineaments offshore in order to compare them to the faults identified onshore during the outcrop analysis. All the major faults and fractures

  20. Exploring the "what if?" in geology through a RESTful open-source framework for cloud-based simulation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Robertson, Jess

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Our framework consist of two layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, and (b) a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can query the ground-truth for underlying properties and produce a simulated measurement to a control layer, which could be a database or LIMS, a machine learner or a companies' existing data infrastructure. Ground truth data are generated by an implicit geological model which serves as a host for nested models of geological processes as smaller scales. Our two layers are implemented using Flask and Gunicorn, which are open source Python web application framework and server, the PyData stack (numpy, scipy etc) and Rabbit MQ (an open-source queuing library). Sensor data is encoded using a JSON-LD version of the SensorML and Observations and Measurements standards. Containerisation of the synthetic sensors using Docker and CoreOS allows rapid and scalable deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as sensor discovery to form a self-organized dynamic network of sensors. Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the

  1. Explorations in Elementary Mathematical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Shahin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present the methodology and pedagogy of Elementary Mathematical Modeling as a one-semester course in the liberal arts core. We will focus on the elementary models in finance and business. The main mathematical tools in this course are the difference equations and matrix algebra. We also integrate computer technology and cooperative learning into this inquiry-based learning course where students work in small groups on carefully designed activities and utilize available software to support problem solving and understanding of real life situations. We emphasize the use of graphical and numerical techniques, rather than theoretical techniques, to investigate and analyze the behavior of the solutions of the difference equations.As an illustration of our approach, we will show a nontraditional and efficient way of introducing models from finance and economics. We will also present an interesting model of supply and demand with a lag time, which is called the cobweb theorem in economics. We introduce a sample of a research project on a technique of removing chaotic behavior from a chaotic system.

  2. Scenario exploration approach for performance assessment of geological disposal system (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyamada, Kiyoshi; Ikeda, Takao

    1999-02-01

    In order to underpin and defend the definition of calculation cases and simplified PA models, we discuss a complementary approach which reverses the standard procedure of scenario development and case definition described above. We design a set of extremely flexible mathematical tools called Shadow Models' for the particular purpose of 'scanning' the whole parameter/model space which has not yet been rejected by the experts rather than scrutinizing it. The SSTM was used extensively to generate an ensemble of stochastic realizations of the possible nuclide transport behaviour within the EBS. The principal component analysis on the ensemble and the analysis of the contribution of input parameter variations to the output variations reconstructed the existing knowledge concerning the sensitivity structure for the reference cases in a more formal and quantitative way. In addition, an analysis on the subset of realizations corresponding to high peak release rate revealed a critical combination and sequence of events that could potentially lead to a significantly higher release rate than that of the reference cases. In the current financial year, the objective of the study is: (1) To extend the methodology further and develop a shadow model for nuclide transport through near-field host rock which is represented as a time-dependent channel network with dual porosity; (2) To apply the near-field shadow transport model in the stochastic mode and explore the sensitivity structure; (3) To run the near-field shadow transport model in the deterministic mode to investigate effects of some physical events. (author)

  3. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron (Golder Associates Inc (United States)); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan (Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM{sub C}, FSM{sub E}W007, FSM{sub N}, FSM{sub N}E005, FSM{sub S}, and FSM{sub W}. The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the

  4. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Laxemar site. Site Descriptive Modelling. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, Paul; Fox, Aaron; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2008-10-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of the SDM-Site Laxemar geological discrete-fracture network (DFN) model. The DFN builds upon the work of other geological models, including the deformation zone and rock domain models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones at a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within six distinct fracture domains inside the Laxemar local model subarea: FSM C , FSM E W007, FSM N , FSM N E005, FSM S , and FSM W . The models are built using data from detailed surface outcrop maps, geophysical lineament maps, and the cored borehole record at Laxemar. The conceptual model for the SDM-Site Laxemar geological DFN model revolves around the identification of fracture domains based on relative fracture set intensities, orientation clustering, and the regional tectonic framework (including deformation zones). A single coupled fracture size/fracture intensity concept (the Base Model) based on a Pareto (power-law) distribution for fracture sizes was chosen as the recommended parameterisation. A slew of alternative size-intensity models were also carried through the fracture analyses and into the uncertainty and model verification analyses. Uncertainty is modelled by analysing the effects on fracture intensity (P32) that alternative model cases can have. Uncertainty is parameterised as a ratio between the P32 of the alternative model and the P

  5. Statistical models for optimizing mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, T.K.; DeGeoffroy, J.

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of mineral exploration is to discover ore deposits. The emphasis of this volume is on the mathematical and computational aspects of optimizing mineral exploration. The seven chapters that make up the main body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models. These chapters include: (1) the optimal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting selected areas, (2) designing airborne and ground field programs for the optimal coverage of prospecting areas, and (3) delineating and evaluating exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of statistical modeling. Many of these statistical programs are innovative and are designed to be useful for mineral exploration modeling. Examples of geomathematical models are applied to exploring for six main types of base and precious metal deposits, as well as other mineral resources (such as bauxite and uranium)

  6. Exploring the impact of big data in economic geology using cloud-based synthetic sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    In a market demanding lower resource prices and increasing efficiencies, resources companies are increasingly looking to the realm of real-time, high-frequency data streams to better measure and manage their minerals processing chain, from pit to plant to port. Sensor streams can include real-time drilling engineering information, data streams from mining trucks, and on-stream sensors operating in the plant feeding back rich chemical information. There are also many opportunities to deploy new sensor streams - unlike environmental monitoring networks, the mine environment is not energy- or bandwidth-limited. Although the promised efficiency dividends are inviting, the path to achieving these is difficult to see for most companies. As well as knowing where to invest in new sensor technology and how to integrate the new data streams, companies must grapple with risk-laden changes to their established methods of control to achieve maximum gains. What is required is a sandbox data environment for the development of analysis and control strategies at scale, allowing companies to de-risk proposed changes before actually deploying them to a live mine environment. In this presentation we describe our approach to simulating real-time scaleable data streams in a mine environment. Our sandbox consists of three layers: (a) a ground-truth layer that contains geological models, which can be statistically based on historical operations data, (b) a measurement layer - a network of RESTful synthetic sensor microservices which can simulate measurements of ground-truth properties, and (c) a control layer, which integrates the sensor streams and drives the measurement and optimisation strategies. The control layer could be a new machine learner, or simply a company's existing data infrastructure. Containerisation allows rapid deployment of large numbers of sensors, as well as service discovery to form a dynamic network of thousands of sensors, at a far lower cost than physically

  7. The prehistoric Vajont rockslide: An updated geological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    misinterpretations or even to erroneous engineering-geological and geotechnical models. Accurate fieldwork and modern technologies can be fundamental in solving such a very intriguing 'geological puzzle.'

  8. Review of uranium in Australia: its geology, exploration and world significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, J; Gaskell, J L; Spaargaren, F A; Butler, R D; Francis, T; Ross, J

    1973-01-01

    The aim of this report is to review and classify all known Australian uranium occurrences, to compare them with world-wide deposits and on this basis, derive conclusions on the uranium potential in various Australian geological environments. In an introductory section the properties, uses, chemistry, mineralogy and processing of uranium are summarised. An outline of modern prospecting techniques applicable in different geological environments is also presented. Foreign uranium deposits are classified and briefly discussed. World supply and demand to the year 2000 is analysed and the importance of Australia as a major uranium producer is considered. Uranium occurrences and deposits in all States are described in detail, and potential uraniferous geological environments are reviewed. A large scale map is presented which delineates these environments and indicates areas considered to be the most prospective. Conclusions are drawn and recommendations made concerning the selection of areas which are considered to hold the most promise for the discovery of further uranium deposits.

  9. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul; Simeonov, Assen; Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan

    2007-11-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  10. Statistical geological discrete fracture network model. Forsmark modelling stage 2.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Aaron; La Pointe, Paul [Golder Associates Inc (United States); Simeonov, Assen [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan; Oehman, Johan [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-11-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is performing site characterization at two different locations, Forsmark and Laxemar, in order to locate a site for a final geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. The program is built upon the development of Site Descriptive Models (SDMs) at specific timed data freezes. Each SDM is formed from discipline-specific reports from across the scientific spectrum. This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the geological modeling team with respect to a geological and statistical model of fractures and minor deformation zones (henceforth referred to as the geological DFN), version 2.2, at the Forsmark site. The geological DFN builds upon the work of other geological modelers, including the deformation zone (DZ), rock domain (RD), and fracture domain (FD) models. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor deformation zones as a scale of less than 1,000 m (the lower cut-off of the DZ models). The geological DFN is valid within four specific fracture domains inside the local model region, and encompassing the candidate volume at Forsmark: FFM01, FFM02, FFM03, and FFM06. The models are build using data from detailed surface outcrop maps and the cored borehole record at Forsmark. The conceptual model for the Forsmark 2.2 geological revolves around the concept of orientation sets; for each fracture domain, other model parameters such as size and intensity are tied to the orientation sets. Two classes of orientation sets were described; Global sets, which are encountered everywhere in the model region, and Local sets, which represent highly localized stress environments. Orientation sets were described in terms of their general cardinal direction (NE, NW, etc). Two alternatives are presented for fracture size modeling: - the tectonic continuum approach (TCM, TCMF) described by coupled size-intensity scaling following power law distributions

  11. Numerical modeling of regional stress distributions for geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Theophile; Peter-Borie, Mariane; Gentier, Sylvie; Blaisonneau, Arnold

    2017-04-01

    Any high-enthalpy unconventional geothermal projectcan be jeopardized by the uncertainty on the presence of the geothermal resource at depth. Indeed, for the majority of such projects the geothermal resource is deeply seated and, with the drilling costs increasing accordingly, must be located as precisely as possible to increase the chance of their economic viability. In order to reduce the "geological risk", i.e., the chance to poorly locate the geothermal resource, a maximum amount of information must be gathered prior to any drilling of exploration and/or operational well. Cross-interpretation from multiple disciplines (e.g., geophysics, hydrology, geomechanics …) should improve locating the geothermal resource and so the position of exploration wells ; this is the objective of the European project IMAGE (grant agreement No. 608553), under which the work presented here was carried out. As far as geomechanics is concerned, in situ stresses can have a great impact on the presence of a geothermal resource since they condition both the regime within the rock mass, and the state of the major fault zones (and hence, the possible flow paths). In this work, we propose a geomechanical model to assess the stress distribution at the regional scale (characteristic length of 100 kilometers). Since they have a substantial impact on the stress distributions and on the possible creation of regional flow paths, the major fault zones are explicitly taken into account. The Distinct Element Method is used, where the medium is modeled as fully deformable blocks representing the rock mass interacting through mechanically active joints depicting the fault zones. The first step of the study is to build the model geometry based on geological and geophysical evidences. Geophysical and structural geology results help positioning the major fault zones in the first place. Then, outcrop observations, structural models and site-specific geological knowledge give information on the fault

  12. Model metadata report for the Somerset Levels 3D geological model

    OpenAIRE

    Gow, H.; Cripps, C.; Thorpe, S.; Horabin, C.; Lee, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarises the data, information and methodology used in a 3D geological model of the Somerset Levels. The model was constructed using the GSI3D software package and comprises superficial deposits at 1:50,000 scale and lower resolution bedrock units.

  13. Geological model of supercritical geothermal reservoir related to subduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-04-01

    Following the Great East Japan Earthquake and the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear power station on 3.11 (11th March) 2011, geothermal energy came to be considered one of the most promising sources of renewable energy for the future in Japan. The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. Supercritical geothermal resources could be evaluated in terms of present volcanic activities, thermal structure, dimension of hydrothermal circulation, properties of fracture system, depth of heat source, depth of brittle factures zone, dimension of geothermal reservoir. On the basis of the GIS, potential of supercritical geothermal resources could be characterized into the following four categories. 1. Promising: surface manifestation d shallow high temperature, 2 Probability: high geothermal gradient, 3 Possibility: Aseismic zone which indicates an existence of melt, 4 Potential : low velocity zone which indicates magma input. Base on geophysical data for geothermal reservoirs, we have propose adequate tectonic model of development of the supercritical geothermal reservoirs. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550

  14. Contribution of the geology and geochemistry modelling to the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, B.

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of modelling and model interpretation in the domain of geology, geophysics and geochemistry applied to petroleum industry, is first summarized. Hydrocarbon geological formation modelling is then presented in details with examples of kinetic models such as the discrete distribution and the Gaussian distribution based models, and the kerogene to petroleum process modelling. Petroleum basin modelling is also discussed with methods such as back-stripping, conductive thermal transfers, etc. 14 figs., 26 refs

  15. Joint Interpretation of Geological, Magnetic, AMT, and ERT Data for Mineral Exploration in the Northeast of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Lü, Qing-Tian; Zhang, Gui-Bin; Lin, Ping-Rong; Jia, Zheng-Yuan; Suo, Kui

    2018-03-01

    The integrated interpretation of data from various technologies has the potential to obtain a more accurate estimate of subterranean earth properties. In this paper, we implement the joint interpretation of geological and geophysical data for mineral exploration in the northeastern region of Inner Mongolia, China. The joint application of several methodologies reduces the exploration risk. We first determined an approximate and large potential area for mineral exploration with geological data and magnetic data interpretation in Gaoerqi. Results from the two types of data analysis show that the ore deposit strikes roughly east in the northern part of the Gaoerqi mining area. Next, we employed the audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) method to study the subterranean electrical resistivity distribution and divide the earth into four layers. Inverted resistivity sections from the AMT data illustrate that the ore deposits are likely developed in the low-resistivity zone of the survey area from the land surface to 300-m depth. Finally, the high-resolution borehole-to-surface electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method was employed for further investigation of the location and attitude of the potential ore deposits. Inverted resistivity sections from the ERT data show that two prospective areas for mineral exploration were observed in the west of the survey area and that the eastern portion of the survey area warrants further investigation.

  16. A Bayesian Framework of Uncertainties Integration in 3D Geological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    3D geological model can describe complicated geological phenomena in an intuitive way while its application may be limited by uncertain factors. Great progress has been made over the years, lots of studies decompose the uncertainties of geological model to analyze separately, while ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties. Great progress has been made over the years, while lots of studies ignored the comprehensive impacts of multi-source uncertainties when analyzed them item by item from each source. To evaluate the synthetical uncertainty, we choose probability distribution to quantify uncertainty, and propose a bayesian framework of uncertainties integration. With this framework, we integrated data errors, spatial randomness, and cognitive information into posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. Uncertainties propagate and cumulate in modeling process, the gradual integration of multi-source uncertainty is a kind of simulation of the uncertainty propagation. Bayesian inference accomplishes uncertainty updating in modeling process. Maximum entropy principle makes a good effect on estimating prior probability distribution, which ensures the prior probability distribution subjecting to constraints supplied by the given information with minimum prejudice. In the end, we obtained a posterior distribution to evaluate synthetical uncertainty of geological model. This posterior distribution represents the synthetical impact of all the uncertain factors on the spatial structure of geological model. The framework provides a solution to evaluate synthetical impact on geological model of multi-source uncertainties and a thought to study uncertainty propagation mechanism in geological modeling.

  17. Diffusion Dominant Solute Transport Modelling in Fractured Media Under Deep Geological Environment - 12211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, S. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Jivkov, A.P. [Research Centre for Radwaste and Decommissioning and Modelling and Simulation Centre, University of Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high activity and long-lived radioactive waste is gaining increasing support in many countries, where suitable low permeability geological formation in combination with engineered barriers are used to provide long term waste contaminant and minimise the impacts to the environment and risk to the biosphere. This modelling study examines the solute transport in fractured media under low flow velocities that are relevant to a deep geological environment. In particular, reactive solute transport through fractured media is studied using a 2-D model, that considers advection and diffusion, to explore the coupled effects of kinetic and equilibrium chemical processes. The effects of water velocity in the fracture, matrix porosity and diffusion on solute transport are investigated and discussed. Some illustrative modelled results are presented to demonstrate the use of the model to examine the effects of media degradation on solute transport, under the influences of hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and microbially mediated chemical processes. The challenges facing the prediction of long term degradation such as cracks evolution, interaction and coalescence are highlighted. The potential of a novel microstructure informed modelling approach to account for these effects is discussed, particularly with respect to investigating multiple phenomena impact on material performance. The GRM code is used to examine the effects of media degradation for a geological waste disposal package, under the combined hydrogeological (diffusion dominant) and chemical effects in low groundwater flow conditions that are typical of deep geological disposal systems. An illustrative reactive transport modelling application demonstrates the use of the code to examine the interplay of kinetic controlled biogeochemical reactive processes with advective and diffusive transport, under the influence of media degradation. The initial model results are encouraging which show the

  18. Construction of the Geological Model around KURT area based on the surface investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyung Woo; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Jong Won

    2009-01-01

    To characterize the geological features in the study area for high-level radioactive waste disposal research, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has been performing several geological investigations such as geophysical surveys and borehole drillings since 1997. Especially, the KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) constructed to understand the deep geological environments in 2006. Recently, the deep boreholes, which have 500 m depth inside the left research module of the KURT and 1,000 m depth outside the KURT, were drilled to confirm and validate the results from a geological model. The objective of this research was to investigate hydrogeological conditions using a 3-D geological model around the KURT. The geological analysis from the surface and borehole investigations determined four important geological elements including subsurface weathered zone, low-angled fractures zone, fracture zones and bedrock for the geological model. In addition, the geometries of these elements were also calculated for the three-dimensional model. The results from 3-D geological model in this study will be beneficial to understand hydrogeological environment in the study area as an important part of high-level radioactive waste disposal technology.

  19. New Age of 3D Geological Modelling or Complexity is not an Issue Anymore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    Geological model has a significant value in almost all types of researches related to regional mapping, geodynamics and especially to structural and resource geology of mineral deposits. Well-developed geological model must take into account all vital features of modelling object without over-simplification and also should adequately represent the interpretation of the geologist. In recent years with the gradual exhaustion deposits with relatively simple morphology geologists from all over the world are faced with the necessity of building the representative models for more and more structurally complex objects. Meanwhile, the amount of tools used for that has not significantly changed in the last two-three decades. The most widespread method of wireframe geological modelling now was developed in 1990s and is fully based on engineering design set of instruments (so-called CAD). Strings and polygons representing the section-based interpretation are being used as an intermediate step in the process of wireframes generation. Despite of significant time required for this type of modelling, it still can provide sufficient results for simple and medium-complexity geological objects. However, with the increasing complexity more and more vital features of the deposit are being sacrificed because of fundamental inability (or much greater time required for modelling) of CAD-based explicit techniques to develop the wireframes of the appropriate complexity. At the same time alternative technology which is not based on sectional approach and which uses the fundamentally different mathematical algorithms is being actively developed in the variety of other disciplines: medicine, advanced industrial design, game and cinema industry. In the recent years this implicit technology started to being developed for geological modelling purpose and nowadays it is represented by very powerful set of tools that has been integrated in almost all major commercial software packages. Implicit

  20. Geological model of the ONKALO area version 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paananen, M.; Paulamaeki, S.; Gehoer, S.; Kaerki, A.

    2006-03-01

    The geological model of the ONKALO area is composed of four submodels: ductile deformation model, lithological model, brittle deformation model and alteration model. The ductile deformation model describes and models the products of polyphase ductile deformation, which facilitates the definition of dimensions and geometrical properties of individual lithological units determined in the lithological model. The lithological model describes the properties of rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The brittle deformation model describes the products of multiple phases of brittle deformation, and the alteration model describes the types, occurrence and the effects of the hydrothermal alteration. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to five stages of ductile deformation. This resulted in a pervasive, composite foliation which shows a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Based on observations in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, 3D modelling of the lithological units is carried out assuming that the contacts are quasiconcordant. Using this assumption, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool to correlate the lithologies between the drillholes, and from surface and tunnel outcrops to drillholes. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from surface to drillholes. The rocks at Olkiluoto can be divided into two major groups: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, homogeneous tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneisses, mica gneisses and quartzitic gneisses, and mafic gneisses, (2) igneous rocks, including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite

  1. Seismic and geological interpretation on petroleum exploration in the Cuban economic area in the Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sora Monroy, America; Lopez, Sofia; Dominguez, Rene; Socorro, Rafael; Sanchez, Jorge; Toucet, Sonia [Cupet -Companhia Cubana de Petroleo, Havana (Cuba)

    2004-07-01

    From the decade of the 50'up to now, many seismic survey were acquired in the Cuban Economic area in the Gulf of Mexico, both, deep water and near short along the littoral, which have contribute to prepare the structural model as well the evolutional one. During the period comprise from June to December 2000, 7330 Km. of seismic lines were acquired over 70 lines in an area of 110000 square Km. that covers the Exclusive Economic area of Cuba. In this area the water depth varies from 500 m to 3500 m. The biggest depth is located at the central part of the whole area. The depth decreases toward the shell and the island's littoral (up to less than 1000 m). Seismic data were processed at CGG' processing in France. Geovector Plus was used as seismic processing software. All the information was calibrate by the wells in the area. The principal wells were DP535 and DP540. The general featuring of seismic image let us to get the map from the main geological elements in this area. In the area we were following two principal horizons: the green one associated to the Middle Cretaceous and the blue one associated to the top of Jurassic. We made the structural maps from the Middle Cretaceous and the Top of Jurassic, and did the seism stratigraphic analysis. We found 16 sequences. We did the chronograph table in this area and we made six maps from different seismic sequences. This analysis let us to define the most important area to continue studying in the Cuban economic area in the Gulf of Mexico on the petroleum exploration. (author)

  2. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  3. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site Version O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Paananen, M.; Gehoer, S.

    2006-05-01

    The geological model of the Olkiluoto site consists of four submodels: the lithological model, the ductile deformation model, the brittle deformation model and the alteration model. The lithological model gives properties of definite rock units that can be defined on the basis the migmatite structures, textures and modal compositions. The ductile deformation model describes and models the products of polyphase ductile deformation, which enables to define the dimensions and geometrical properties of individual lithological units determined in the lithological model. The brittle deformation model describes the products of multiple phases of brittle deformation. The alteration model describes the types, occurrence and the effects of the hydrothermal alteration. The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subject to polyphased ductile deformation, including five stages. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result a polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock in the Olkiluoto site has been subject to extensive hydrothermal alteration

  4. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Michael B. (Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)); Simeonov, Assen (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Isaksson, Hans (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  5. Bedrock geology Forsmark. Modelling stage 2.3. Implications for and verification of the deterministic geological models based on complementary data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Michael B.; Simeonov, Assen; Isaksson, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is in the process of completing site descriptive modelling at two locations in Sweden, with the objective to site a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. At Forsmark, the results of the stage 2.2 geological modelling formed the input for downstream users. Since complementary ground and borehole geological and geophysical data, acquired after model stage 2.2, were not planned to be included in the deterministic rock domain, fracture domain and deformation zone models supplied to the users, it was deemed necessary to evaluate the implications of these stage 2.3 data for the stage 2.2 deterministic geological models and, if possible, to make use of these data to verify the models. This report presents the results of the analysis of the complementary stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data. Model verification from borehole data has been implemented in the form of a prediction-outcome test. The stage 2.3 geological and geophysical data at Forsmark mostly provide information on the bedrock outside the target volume. Additional high-resolution ground magnetic data and the data from the boreholes KFM02B, KFM11A, KFM12A and HFM33 to HFM37 can be included in this category. Other data complement older information of identical character, both inside and outside this volume. These include the character and kinematics of deformation zones and fracture mineralogy. In general terms, it can be stated that all these new data either confirm the geological modelling work completed during stage 2.2 or are in good agreement with the data that were used in this work. In particular, although the new high-resolution ground magnetic data modify slightly the position and trace length of some stage 2.2 deformation zones at the ground surface, no new or modified deformation zones with a trace length longer than 3,000 m at the ground surface have emerged. It is also apparent that the revision of fracture orientation data

  6. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J. [FINTACT Oy (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km{sup 3}. Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that

  7. Geological-structural models used in SR 97. Uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksa, P.; Nummela, J.

    1998-10-01

    The uncertainty of geological-structural models was studied for the three sites in SR 97, called Aberg, Beberg and Ceberg. The evaluation covered both regional and site scale models, the emphasis being placed on fracture zones in the site scale. Uncertainty is a natural feature of all geoscientific investigations. It originates from measurements (errors in data, sampling limitations, scale variation) and conceptualisation (structural geometries and properties, ambiguous geometric or parametric solutions) to name the major ones. The structures of A-, B- and Ceberg are fracture zones of varying types. No major differences in the conceptualisation between the sites were noted. One source of uncertainty in the site models is the non-existence of fracture and zone information in the scale from 10 to 300 - 1000 m. At Aberg the development of the regional model has been performed very thoroughly. At the site scale one major source of uncertainty is that a clear definition of the target area is missing. Structures encountered in the boreholes are well explained and an interdisciplinary approach in interpretation have taken place. Beberg and Ceberg regional models contain relatively large uncertainties due to the investigation methodology and experience available at that time. In site scale six additional structures were proposed both to Beberg and Ceberg to variant analysis of these sites. Both sites include uncertainty in the form of many non-interpreted fractured sections along the boreholes. Statistical analysis gives high occurrences of structures for all three sites: typically 20 - 30 structures/km 3 . Aberg has highest structural frequency, Beberg comes next and Ceberg has the lowest. The borehole configuration, orientations and surveying goals were inspected to find whether preferences or factors causing bias were present. Data from Aberg supports the conclusion that Aespoe sub volume would be an anomalously fractured, tectonised unit of its own. This means that the

  8. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poller, A.; Mayer, G.; Darcis M; Smith, P.

    2016-12-01

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  9. Modelling of gas generation in deep geological repositories after closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Darcis M [AF-Consult Switzerland Ltd, Baden-Dättwil, (Switzerland); Smith, P. [Safety Assessment Management Ltd, Henley-On-Thames, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-15

    In deep geological repositories for radioactive waste, significant quantities of gases will be generated in the long term as a result of various processes, notably the anaerobic corrosion of metals and the degradation of organic materials. Therefore, the impact of gas production on post-closure safety of the repositories needs to be assessed as part of a safety case. The present report provides a comprehensive description of the quantitative modelling of gas generation and associated water consumption during the post-closure phase of deep geological repositories in Opalinus Clay based on current scientific knowledge and on current preliminary repository designs. This includes a presentation of the modelling basis, namely the conceptual and mathematical models, the input data used, the computer tools developed, the relevant uncertainties and principal programme / design options, as well as the derivation, analysis and discussion of specific assessment cases. The modelling is carried out separately for the two main sources of gas, which are the emplaced waste including the disposal containers; and the construction materials. The contribution of construction materials to gas generation rates in emplacement tunnels for spent fuel (SF) and vitrified high-level waste (HLW) is significant during several thousand years after closure. In the long term, however, the corrosion of the disposal canisters, which are in the reference case assumed to be fabricated of carbon steel, accounts for the vast majority of the total gas produced in these tunnels. The contribution of construction materials in emplacement caverns for long lived intermediate-level waste (ILW) and low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) to gas generation is generally small. In ILW emplacement caverns, gas generation is generally dominated by hydrogen generation from the corrosion of cast iron Mosaik-II waste containers for PWR internals and from the corrosion of aluminium in operational waste from the

  10. Exploring the Freemium Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Reime, Erlend Vihovde

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is exploring the Freemium business model, answering how a Freemium model is defined and how it works in real-life. It discusses the original definition by Fred Wilson, and present the context where the Freemium business model is used, Internet services in the Web 2.0. It also looks at how customers react to free services and the Internet. After this, the three main directions within business strategy theory are explored: Industry-based competition, Firm-specific Resources and Capa...

  11. Exploring Causal Models of Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkerson, Jo Ann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article evaluates five causal model of educational productivity applied to learning science in a sample of 882 fifth through eighth graders. Each model explores the relationship between achievement and a combination of eight constructs: home environment, peer group, media, ability, social environment, time on task, motivation, and…

  12. Radiometric geological exploration method used in the central part of the State of Sonora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco R, R.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to make known the importance of the radiometric data, the physical principles on which they are based and the geological interpretation which will permit in an indirect way to select important radioactive areas in order to carry out verification studies on the ground to see if there are sufficient reasons to show any interest in these areas. Till now this work has been realized in the State of Sonora (Mexico) in an area of 51,000 Km 2 subdivided in 14 zones, numbered from 201 to 214, and for the present work the zone 208 has been selected. This Zone is located at the north-west of the City of Hermosillo, and has a total area of 3400 Km 2 which has been the object of the study by plane through systematic flights in an east-west direction, in order to obtain the configuration and interpret it from a radiometrical point of view. The obtained isorads configuration plans of 4 channels of detection are the following: total counting, potassium, bismuth and thallium as well as their relations. From the 14 verified anomalies the anomaly Noche Buena was selected in order to carry out reconnaissance surveys and preliminary and detailed geological studies. The geology of the area is represented by extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks as well as sedimentary. The uraniferous mineralization is secondary and is represented by autunite, meta-autunite and torbenite which represent an average of 200 g to 3.08 Kg. of U 3 O 8 per ton. (author)

  13. Geological and radioactive study served for uranium exploration in the Palaeogene-Neogene sediments, Syrian Steppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, Y.; Kattaa, B.; Najjar, H.

    1988-01-01

    Paleo-Neogene terranes were geologically and radioactively surveyed over an area extends from T2-pump station to the east of As-Sukhneh, using 1/200000 satellite images and 1/25000 aerial photos. Five geological sheets and six major geological cross sections were performed. Rock facies were microscopically identified and the paleogeographical evolution of the immersed platform was extrapolated, which and due to the Palmyrdean Orogengy was undulated forming short and narrow depressions, some of them developed into isolated or semi-isolated basins by the Oligocene onset. Through out the Oligocene, two sedimentation regimes were dominant. The first, is marine-shallow platform one to the east becoming much shallower towards north-west with short swell in Wadi Slubi; the second, is subtidal-shoreline-deltaic westwards which turned lacustrine one in Rijm Al Qun by the end of Miocene persisting during the Palaeocene and Quaternary time. This facies differentiation is resulted by weak effect of Al-Rutbah - Al-Hamad uplift, which was once much stronger in the Senonian and Eocene, controlling phosphorite precipitation. Two very weak radioactive anomalies were registered. The first, was twice the intensity of normal field at the Upper Eocene chalky limestone. The second, was as much as four times the intensity of normal field. Some minor disperssed U-mineralizations were reported. The most favourable facies for hosting leached-U from the Eocene phosphorite in the south, which mobiled through lineaments-controlled drainage set, are the deltaic and shore line ones taking place in the isolated basins in north-west. The study of lateral and vertical facies changes, and the biophysiochemical conditions are very important to find out possible U-traps. The contribution of aerial and satellite images in surveying was too limited due to quality, scale and date of exposing. 6 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  14. Geological and economic factors governing the use of remote sensing techniques in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeber, L.; Kaiser, D.

    1984-01-01

    Remote sensing is an important method to be used in the first stage of an exploration program, depending on the type of uranium deposits. The benefit of the method is: coverage of large areas; quick selection of prospective areas; shortening of exploration time in the first stage; reduction of exploration risk and relatively low price. It is obvious that remote sensing is an inexpensive and time saving method for target definition. It will never substitute the other methods, but in combination with them it will have an essential place within the exploration scheme. (orig./PW)

  15. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 78 FR 27427 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Geological and Geophysical Exploration Activities in the Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... timeframe. The activities considered within this PEIS are associated with GOM OCS oil and gas exploration... and NMFS as the PEIS is developed. Background: A variety of G&G techniques are used to characterize... surveys are conducted to: (1) Obtain data for hydrocarbon exploration and production; (2) aid in siting...

  17. Network structure exploration via Bayesian nonparametric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y; Wang, X L; Xiang, X; Tang, B Z; Bu, J Z

    2015-01-01

    Complex networks provide a powerful mathematical representation of complex systems in nature and society. To understand complex networks, it is crucial to explore their internal structures, also called structural regularities. The task of network structure exploration is to determine how many groups there are in a complex network and how to group the nodes of the network. Most existing structure exploration methods need to specify either a group number or a certain type of structure when they are applied to a network. In the real world, however, the group number and also the certain type of structure that a network has are usually unknown in advance. To explore structural regularities in complex networks automatically, without any prior knowledge of the group number or the certain type of structure, we extend a probabilistic mixture model that can handle networks with any type of structure but needs to specify a group number using Bayesian nonparametric theory. We also propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric model, called the Bayesian nonparametric mixture (BNPM) model. Experiments conducted on a large number of networks with different structures show that the BNPM model is able to explore structural regularities in networks automatically with a stable, state-of-the-art performance. (paper)

  18. Enhancement of subsurface geologic structure model based on gravity, magnetotelluric, and well log data in Kamojang geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.

  19. Quantifying geological uncertainty for flow and transport modeling in multi-modal heterogeneous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyen, Luc; Caers, Jef

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we address the problem of characterizing the heterogeneity and uncertainty of hydraulic properties for complex geological settings. Hereby, we distinguish between two scales of heterogeneity, namely the hydrofacies structure and the intrafacies variability of the hydraulic properties. We employ multiple-point geostatistics to characterize the hydrofacies architecture. The multiple-point statistics are borrowed from a training image that is designed to reflect the prior geological conceptualization. The intrafacies variability of the hydraulic properties is represented using conventional two-point correlation methods, more precisely, spatial covariance models under a multi-Gaussian spatial law. We address the different levels and sources of uncertainty in characterizing the subsurface heterogeneity, and explore their effect on groundwater flow and transport predictions. Typically, uncertainty is assessed by way of many images, termed realizations, of a fixed statistical model. However, in many cases, sampling from a fixed stochastic model does not adequately represent the space of uncertainty. It neglects the uncertainty related to the selection of the stochastic model and the estimation of its input parameters. We acknowledge the uncertainty inherent in the definition of the prior conceptual model of aquifer architecture and in the estimation of global statistics, anisotropy, and correlation scales. Spatial bootstrap is used to assess the uncertainty of the unknown statistical parameters. As an illustrative example, we employ a synthetic field that represents a fluvial setting consisting of an interconnected network of channel sands embedded within finer-grained floodplain material. For this highly non-stationary setting we quantify the groundwater flow and transport model prediction uncertainty for various levels of hydrogeological uncertainty. Results indicate the importance of accurately describing the facies geometry, especially for transport

  20. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif; Stanfors, Roy; Milnes, Allan Geoffrey; Hermanson, Jan; Triumf, Carl-Axel

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be promoted. The

  1. Geological Site Descriptive Model. A strategy for the model development during site investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munier, Raymond; Stenberg, Leif [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Stanfors, Roy [Roy Stanfors Consulting, Lund (Sweden); Milnes, Allan Geoffrey [GEA Consulting, Uppsala (Sweden); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Triumf, Carl-Axel [Geovista, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) is at present conducting site investigations as a preliminary to building an underground nuclear waste disposal facility in Sweden. This report presents a methodology for constructing, visualising and presenting 3-dimensional geological models, based on data from the site investigations. The methodology integrates with the overall work-flow of the site investigations, from the collection of raw data to the complete site description, as proposed in several earlier technical reports. Further, it is specifically designed for interaction with SICADA - SKB's Site Characterisation Database - and RVS - SKB's Rock Visualisation System. This report is one in a series of strategy documents intended to demonstrate how modelling is to be performed within each discipline. However, it also has a wider purpose, since the geological site descriptive model provides the basic geometrical framework for all the other disciplines. Hence, the wider aim is to present a practical and clear methodology for the analysis and interpretation of input data for use in the construction of the geology-based 3D geometrical model. In addition to the various aspects of modelling described above, the methodology presented here should therefore also provide: guidelines and directives on how systematic interpretation and integration of geo-scientific data from the different investigation methods should be carried out; guidelines on how different geometries should be created in the geological models; guidelines on how the assignment of parameters to the different geological units in RVS should be accomplished; guidelines on the handling of uncertainty at different points in the interpretation process. In addition, it should clarify the relation between the geological model and other models used in the processes of site characterisation, repository layout and safety analysis. In particular, integration and transparency should be

  2. Geologic simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G.M.; Zellmer, J.T.; Lindberg, J.W.; Foley, M.G.

    1981-04-01

    This report describes the structure and operation of the Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Geologic Simulation Model, a computer simulation model of the geology and hydrology of an area of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. The model is used to study the long-term suitability of the Columbia Plateau Basalts for the storage of nuclear waste in a mined repository. It is also a starting point for analyses of such repositories in other geologic settings. The Geologic Simulation Model will aid in formulating design disruptive sequences (i.e. those to be used for more detailed hydrologic, transport, and dose analyses) from the spectrum of hypothetical geological and hydrological developments that could result in transport of radionuclides out of a repository. Quantitative and auditable execution of this task, however, is impossible without computer simulation. The computer simulation model aids the geoscientist by generating the wide spectrum of possible future evolutionary paths of the areal geology and hydrology, identifying those that may affect the repository integrity. This allows the geoscientist to focus on potentially disruptive processes, or series of events. Eleven separate submodels are used in the simulation portion of the model: Climate, Continental Glaciation, Deformation, Geomorphic Events, Hydrology, Magmatic Events, Meteorite Impact, Sea-Level Fluctuations, Shaft-Seal Failure, Sub-Basalt Basement Faulting, and Undetected Features. Because of the modular construction of the model, each submodel can easily be replaced with an updated or modified version as new information or developments in the state of the art become available. The model simulates the geologic and hydrologic systems of a hypothetical repository site and region for a million years following repository decommissioning. The Geologic Simulation Model operates in both single-run and Monte Carlo modes

  3. US Geological Survey uranium and thorium resource assessment and exploration research program, fiscal year 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offield, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) uranium-thorium program is continuing to emphasize multidisciplinary studies to define the settings and habitats of uranium deposits and to elucidate the processes by which the ore deposits formed. As with the uranium scene generally, some uncertainty characterizes the program's transition from FY 1980 to FY 1981. As of the beginning of the new fiscal year, a cut of 15% in base funding of the USGS uranium program has been effected by Congress. Such a cut parallels the major curtailment of the NURE program. The USGS in FY 1980 completed almost all of its commitment to the NURE program quadrangle-evaluation work, and only a relatively modest continuing involvement in the NURE world-class and intermediate-grade studies remains for FY 1981. Objectives and program scope, noteworthy results of FY 1980 research, and program activities for FY 1981 are presented in this report

  4. Risk measurement for oil and gas exploration: the marriage of geological and financial techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, T.

    2002-09-01

    A method is presented for fully risking projects, such as exploration ventures or the acquisition of undeveloped reserves. The expected value of an exploration project overstates the 'value', because it does not reflect the uncertainty in the project, as measured by its variance or standard deviation. if the expected value is calculable, then the risk-adjusted value (RAV) can also be calculated. The RAV depends additionally upon the size of the exploration budget, compared with the project, and also upon the 'price of risk'. That price is incorporated from the finance literature. The technique permits answering three related questions: 1) the risk-adjusted rate of return for a given project; 2) the risk-adjusted value of that project; or 3) the risk premium appropriate for a particular project, given the size of the firm's exploration budget. (author)

  5. Improvement of geological subsurface structure models for Kanto area, Japan, based on records of microtremor array and earthquake observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, A.; Senna, S.; Jin, K.; Cho, I.; Matsuyama, H.; Fujiwara, H.

    2017-12-01

    To estimate damage caused by strong ground motions from a large earthquake, it is important to accurately evaluate broadband ground-motion characteristics in wide area. For realizing that, it is one of the important issues to model detailed subsurface structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.Here, we focus on Kanto area, including Tokyo, where there are thicker sedimentary layers. We, first, have ever collected deep bore-hole data, soil physical properties obtained by some geophysical explorations, geological information and existing models for deep ground from top surface of seismic bedrock to that of engineering bedrock, and have collected a great number of bore-hole data and surficial geological ones for shallow ground from top surface of engineering bedrock to ground surface. Using them, we modeled initial geological subsurface structure for each of deep ground and shallow one. By connecting them appropriately, we constructed initial geological subsurface structure models from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface.In this study, we first collected a lot of records obtained by dense microtremor observations and earthquake ones in the whole Kanto area. About microtremor observations, we conducted measurements from large array with the size of hundreds of meters to miniature array with the size of 60 centimeters to cover both of deep ground and shallow one. And then, using ground motion characteristics such as disperse curves and H/V(R/V) spectral ratios obtained from these records, the initial geological subsurface structure models were improved in terms of velocity structure from top surface of seismic bedrock to ground surface in the area.We will report outlines on microtremor array observations, analysis methods and improved subsurface structure models.

  6. A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary three-dimensional geological framework model has been developed for the potential high-level radioactive waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain. The model is based on field data and was constructed using EarthVision (Version 2.0) software. It provides the basic geological framework in which variations in geological parameters and features in and adjacent to the repository block can be illustrated and analyzed. With further refinement and modification of the model through incorporation of additional data, it can be used by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to determine whether representation of subsurface geological features in Department of Energy models is reasonable. Consequently, NRC staff will be able to use the model during pre-licensing and licensing phases to assess models for analyses of site suitability, design considerations, and repository performance

  7. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  8. Subaqueous geology and a filling model for Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, M.; Bacon, C.R.; Ramsey, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a detailed bathymetric survey of Crater Lake conducted in 2000, combined with previous results of submersible and dredge sampling, form the basis for a geologic map of the lake floor and a model for the filling of Crater Lake with water. The most prominent landforms beneath the surface of Crater Lake are andesite volcanoes that were active as the lake was filling with water, following caldera collapse during the climactic eruption of Mount Mazama 7700 cal. yr B.P. The Wizard Island volcano is the largest and probably was active longest, ceasing eruptions when the lake was 80 m lower than present. East of Wizard Island is the central platform volcano and related lava flow fields on the caldera floor. Merriam Cone is a symmetrical andesitic volcano that apparently was constructed subaqueously during the same period as the Wizard Island and central platform volcanoes. The youngest postcaldera volcanic feature is a small rhyodacite dome on the east flank of the Wizard Island edifice that dates from 4800 cal. yr B.P. The bathymetry also yields information on bedrock outcrops and talus/debris slopes of the caldera walls. Gravity flows transport sediment from wall sources to the deep basins of the lake. Several debris-avalanche deposits, containing blocks up to 280 m long, are present on the caldera floor and occur below major embayments in the caldera walls. Geothermal phenomena on the lake floor are bacterial mats, pools of solute-rich warm water, and fossil subaqueous hot spring deposits. Lake level is maintained by a balance between precipitation and inflow versus evaporation and leakage. High-resolution bathymetry reveals a series of up to nine drowned beaches in the upper 30 m of the lake that we propose reflect stillstands subsequent to filling of Crater Lake. A prominent wave-cut platform between 4 m depth and present lake level that commonly is up to 40 m wide suggests that the surface of Crater Lake has been at this elevation for a very long time

  9. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ye [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2018-01-17

    equivalency, all the stratigraphic models were successfully upscaled from the reference heterogeneous model for bulk flow and transport predictions (Zhang & Zhang, 2015). GCS simulation was then simulated with all models, yielding insights into the level of parameterization complexity that is needed for the accurate simulation of reservoir pore pressure, CO2 storage, leakage, footprint, and dissolution over both short (i.e., injection) and longer (monitoring) time scales. Important uncertainty parameters that impact these key performance metrics were identified for the stratigraphic models as well as for the heterogeneous model, leading to the development of reduced/simplified models at lower characterization cost that can be used for the reservoir uncertainty analysis. All the CO2 modeling was conducted using PFLOTRAN – a massively parallel, multiphase, multi-component, and reactive transport simulator developed by a multi-laboratory DOE/SciDAC (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing) project (Zhang et al., 2017, in review). Within the uncertainty analysis framework, increasing reservoir depth were investigated to explore its effect on the uncertainty outcomes and the potential for developing gravity-stable injection with increased storage security (Dai et al., 20126; Dai et al., 2017, in review). Finally, to accurately model CO2 fluid-rock reactions and resulting long-term storage as secondary carbonate minerals, a modified kinetic rate law for general mineral dissolution and precipitation was proposed and verified that is invariant to a scale transformation of the mineral formula weight. This new formulation will lead to more accurate assessment of mineral storage over geologic time scales (Lichtner, 2016).

  10. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: model description and user manual for Pathways model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Kaestner, P.C.

    1981-03-01

    A model for the environmental movement and human uptake of radionuclides is presented. This model is designated the Pathways-to-Man Model and was developed as part of a project funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to design a methodology to assess the risk associated with the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The Pathways-to-Man Model is divided into two submodels. One of these, the Environmental Transport Model, represents the long-term distribution and accumulation of radionuclides in the environment. This model is based on a mixed-cell approach and describes radionuclide movement with a system of linear differential equations. The other, the Transport-to-Man Model, represents the movement of radionuclides from the environment to man. This model is based on concentration ratios. General descriptions of these models are provided in this report. Further, documentation is provided for the computer program which implements the Pathways Model

  11. A Corner-Point-Grid-Based Voxelization Method for Complex Geological Structure Model with Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiyu; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Liu, Gang

    2017-04-01

    3D voxelization is the foundation of geological property modeling, and is also an effective approach to realize the 3D visualization of the heterogeneous attributes in geological structures. The corner-point grid is a representative data model among all voxel models, and is a structured grid type that is widely applied at present. When carrying out subdivision for complex geological structure model with folds, we should fully consider its structural morphology and bedding features to make the generated voxels keep its original morphology. And on the basis of which, they can depict the detailed bedding features and the spatial heterogeneity of the internal attributes. In order to solve the shortage of the existing technologies, this work puts forward a corner-point-grid-based voxelization method for complex geological structure model with folds. We have realized the fast conversion from the 3D geological structure model to the fine voxel model according to the rule of isocline in Ramsay's fold classification. In addition, the voxel model conforms to the spatial features of folds, pinch-out and other complex geological structures, and the voxels of the laminas inside a fold accords with the result of geological sedimentation and tectonic movement. This will provide a carrier and model foundation for the subsequent attribute assignment as well as the quantitative analysis and evaluation based on the spatial voxels. Ultimately, we use examples and the contrastive analysis between the examples and the Ramsay's description of isoclines to discuss the effectiveness and advantages of the method proposed in this work when dealing with the voxelization of 3D geologic structural model with folds based on corner-point grids.

  12. Geological modeling by an indicator kriging approach applied to a limestone deposit in Indiara city - Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Elias Carneiro Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The mineral exploration activity consists of a set of successive stages that are interdependent on each other, in which the main goal is to discover and subsequently evaluate a mineral deposit for the feasibility of its extraction. This process involves setting the shape, dimensions and grades for eventual production. Geological modeling determines the orebody's possible format in subsoil, which can be done by two approaches: vertical sections (deterministic methods or geostatistical methods. The latter approach is currently being preferred, as it is a more accurate alternative and therefore, more reliable for establishing the physical format of orebodies, especially in instances where geologic boundaries are soft and/or with widely spaced sample information. This study uses the concept of indicator kriging (IK to model the geologic boundaries of a limestone deposit located at Indiara city, Goiás State, Brazil. In general, the results indicated a good adherence in relation to samples. However, there are reasonable differences, particularly in lithological domains with a small number of samples in relation to the total amount sampled. Therefore, the results showed that there is a need for additional sampling to better delineate the geological contacts, especially between carbonate and non-carbonate rocks. Uncertainty maps confirmed this necessity and also indicated potential sites for future sampling; information that would not be obtained by usage of deterministic methods.

  13. A geological model for the management of subsurface data in the urban environment of Barcelona and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Ángel Marazuela, Miguel; Velasco, Violeta; Diviu, Marc; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Álvarez-Marrón, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    The overdevelopment of cities since the industrial revolution has shown the need to incorporate a sound geological knowledge in the management of required subsurface infrastructures and in the assessment of increasingly needed groundwater resources. Additionally, the scarcity of outcrops and the technical difficulty to conduct underground exploration in urban areas highlights the importance of implementing efficient management plans that deal with the legacy of heterogeneous subsurface information. To deal with these difficulties, a methodology has been proposed to integrate all the available spatio-temporal data into a comprehensive spatial database and a set of tools that facilitates the analysis and processing of the existing and newly added data for the city of Barcelona (NE Spain). Here we present the resulting actual subsurface 3-D geological model that incorporates and articulates all the information stored in the database. The methodology applied to Barcelona benefited from a good collaboration between administrative bodies and researchers that enabled the realization of a comprehensive geological database despite logistic difficulties. Currently, the public administration and also private sectors both benefit from the geological understanding acquired in the city of Barcelona, for example, when preparing the hydrogeological models used in groundwater assessment plans. The methodology further facilitates the continuous incorporation of new data in the implementation and sustainable management of urban groundwater, and also contributes to significantly reducing the costs of new infrastructures.

  14. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  15. United States Geological Survey uranium and thorium resource assessment and exploration research program, fiscal year 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offield, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Research is being conducted by the USGS for the NURE program in six fields: geochemistry and mineralogy, sedimentary environments, igneous and metamorphic environments, geophysical exploration techniques, U resource assessment, and Th resource assessment. Some FY 1979 research results are reported and discussed

  16. Geological evidence for deep exploration in Xiazhuang uranium orefield and its periphery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhijun; Huang Hongkun; Zeng Wenwei; Wu Jiguang

    2011-01-01

    This paper first discussed the ore-controlling role of deep structure, the origin of metallogenic matter and fluid, the relation of diabase to silicification zone, then summarized the achievement of Geophysical survey and drilling, and finally analysed the potential for deep exploration in Xiazhuang uranium orefield.(authors)

  17. United States Geological Survey: uranium and thorium resource assessment and exploration research program, fiscal year 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offield, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Objectives and current plans are given for the following projects: uranium geochemistry and mineralogy; uranium in sedimentary environments; uranium in igneous and metamorphic environments; geophysical techniques in uranium and thorium exploration; and thorium investigations and resource assessment. Selected noteworthy results of FY 1978 research are given

  18. The construction of geological model using an iterative approach (Step 1 and Step 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Kumazaki, Naoki; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Sasaki, Keiichi; Endo, Yoshinobu; Amano, Kenji

    2005-03-01

    One of the main goals of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) Project is to establish appropriate methodologies for reliably investigating and assessing the deep subsurface. This report documents the results of geological modeling of Step 1 and Step 2 using the iterative investigation approach at the site-scale (several 100m to several km in area). For the Step 1 model, existing information (e.g. literature), and results from geological mapping and reflection seismic survey were used. For the Step 2 model, additional information obtained from the geological investigation using existing borehole and the shallow borehole investigation were incorporated. As a result of this study, geological elements that should be represented in the model were defined, and several major faults with trends of NNW, EW and NE trend were identified (or inferred) in the vicinity of the MIU-site. (author)

  19. Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, Leon; Cremers, David A.; Benelli, Katharine; Khoo, Cynthia; Harris, Ronny D.

    2005-01-01

    Several elements important to planetary geology (e.g. Br, C, Cl, P, S) and the human exploration of Mars (e.g. toxic elements such as As) have strong emission lines in the purge and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region (100-200 nm). This spectral region has not been extensively studied for space applications using geological samples. We studied emissions from the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasma in this region using a sample chamber filled with 7 torr (930 Pa) of CO 2 to simulate the Martian atmosphere. Pressures down to 0.02 torr were also used to evaluate the effect of the residual CO 2 on the spectra and to begin investigating the use of VUV-LIBS for airless bodies such as asteroids and the Moon. Spectra were recorded using a 0.3-m vacuum spectrometer with an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The effects of time delay and laser energy on LIBS detection at reduced pressure were examined. The effect of ambient CO 2 on the detection of C in soil was also evaluated. Lines useful for the spectrochemical analysis of As, Br, C, Cl, P, and S were determined and calibration curves were prepared for these elements. Although LIBS is being developed for stand-off analysis at many meters distance, the experiments reported here were aimed at in-situ (close-up) analysis

  20. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach

  1. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Geologic-simulation model for a hypothetical site in the Columbia Plateau. Volume 2: results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Petrie, G.M.; Baldwin, A.J.; Craig, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    This report contains the input data and computer results for the Geologic Simulation Model. This model is described in detail in the following report: Petrie, G.M., et. al. 1981. Geologic Simulation Model for a Hypothetical Site in the Columbia Plateau, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington. The Geologic Simulation Model is a quasi-deterministic process-response model which simulates, for a million years into the future, the development of the geologic and hydrologic systems of the ground-water basin containing the Pasco Basin. Effects of natural processes on the ground-water hydrologic system are modeled principally by rate equations. The combined effects and synergistic interactions of different processes are approximated by linear superposition of their effects during discrete time intervals in a stepwise-integration approach.

  2. Geological and hydrogeochemical explorations for geothermal resources in eastern Sabalan, NW Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Roohangiz

    2017-04-01

    Geological considerations in the east of Sabalan volcano indicate that the calc-alkaline volcanic-sedimentary units constitute the great volume of the geothermal reservoir in the study district. The rocks suffered argillic alteration acted as cap rocks for this reservoir. In some localities in the study district siliceous (chalcedony and opal) sinters were developed around the orifice of the hot springs. The geothermal fluids in the study district, in terms of physico-chemical parameters, have characteristics which differ from other geothermal fields around the Mount Sabalan particularly in the southern and northwestern districts. These differences are: (a) the measured pH values of the geothermal fluids range from approximately 4.5 to 8.8 signifying a variation from acidity to alkalinity; (b) the measured TDS values of these waters, in comparison with the average TDS values for most types of geothermal systems, are low and the minimum values were recorded in the Viladara area; (c) estimation of concentration values of anions and cations in the selected spring water samples indicate that they have chiefly chloride and bicarbonate anions however, samples from the Sardabeh area contain relatively high sulfate (SO42-) content. The concentration values of rare elements in these waters are noticeable. Selenium has the highest concentration value (170 mg/l) among the rare elements. The maximum concentration values of boron and arsenic were measured to be 7 mg/l and 10 mg/l, respectively. The rest of rare elements have relatively low concentration values in the studied samples. The calculation of solute-based geothermometry was done on the basis of Na-Li, Na-K, Na-K, Ca, and silica for the water samples. The results of all these procedures for estimation of temperature of the geothermal reservoir in the east of Mount Sabalan were relatively very close to one another. Nevertheless, the temperatures determined by the Na-Li and Na-K geothermometric methods are 225°C and 239

  3. Geomass: geological modelling analysis and simulation software for the characterisation of fractured hard rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.J.; Humm, J.P.; Todaka, N.; Takeuchi, S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the development and functionality of a suite of applications which are being developed to support the geological investigations in the Tono URL. GEOMASS will include 3D geological modelling, 3D fluid flow and solute transport and 3D visualisation capabilities. The 3D geological modelling in GEOMASS will be undertaken using a commercially available 3D geological modelling system, EarthVision. EarthVision provides 3D mapping, interpolation, analysis and well planning software. It is being used in the GEOMASS system to provide the geological framework (structure of the tectonic faults and stratigraphic and lithological contacts) to the 3D flow code. It is also being used to gather the geological data into a standard format for use throughout the investigation programme. The 3D flow solver to be used in GEOMASS is called Frac-Affinity. Frac-Affinity models the 3D geometry of the flow system as a hybrid medium, in which the rock contains both permeable, intact rock and fractures. Frac-Affinity also performs interpolation of heterogeneous rock mass property data using a fractal based approach and the generation of stochastic fracture networks. The code solves for transient flow over a user defined sub-region of the geological framework supplied by EarthVision. The results from Frac-Affinity are passed back to EarthVision so that the flow simulation can be visualized alongside the geological structure. This work-flow allows rapid assessment of the role of geological features in controlling flow. This paper will present the concepts and approach of GEOMASS and illustrate the practical application of GEOMASS using data from Tono

  4. Geostatistical simulation of geological architecture and uncertainty propagation in groundwater modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Xiulan

    parameters and model structures, which are the primary focuses of this PhD research. Parameter uncertainty was analyzed using an optimization tool (PEST: Parameter ESTimation) in combination with a random sampling method (LHS: Latin Hypercube Sampling). Model structure, namely geological architecture...... be compensated by model parameters, e.g. when hydraulic heads are considered. However, geological structure is the primary source of uncertainty with respect to simulations of groundwater age and capture zone. Operational MPS based software has been on stage for just around ten years; yet, issues regarding...... geological structures of these three sites provided appropriate conditions for testing the methods. Our study documented that MPS is an efficient approach for simulating geological heterogeneity, especially for non-stationary system. The high resolution of geophysical data such as SkyTEM is valuable both...

  5. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    the Ohio River Valley corridor in the Appalachian Basin, which underlies large concentrations of CO{sub 2} emission sources. In addition, some wells in the Michigan basin are included. Assessment of the geologic and petrophysical properties of zones of interest has been conducted. Although a large number of formations have been evaluated across the geologic column, the primary focus has been on evaluating the Cambrian sandstones (Mt. Simon, Rose Run, Kerbel) and carbonates layers (Knox Dolomite) as well as on the Silurian-Devonian carbonates (Bass Island, Salina) and sandstones (Clinton, Oriskany, Berea). Factors controlling the development of porosity and permeability, such as the depositional setting have been explored. In northern Michigan the Bass Islands Dolomite appears to have favorable reservoir development. In west central Michigan the St. Peter sandstone exhibits excellent porosity in the Hart and Feuring well and looks promising. In Southeastern Kentucky in the Appalachian Basin, the Batten and Baird well provided valuable data on sequestration potential in organic shales through adsorption. In central and eastern Ohio and western West Virginia, the majority of the wells provided an insight to the complex geologic framework of the relatively little known Precambrian through Silurian potential injection targets. Although valuable data was acquired and a number of critical data gaps were filled through this effort, there are still many challenges ahead and questions that need answered. The lateral extent to which favorable potential injection conditions exist in most reservoirs is still generally uncertain. The prolongation of the characterization of regional geologic framework through partnership would continue to build confidence and greatly benefit the overall CO{sub 2} sequestration effort.

  6. Geology and structure of major uranium-bearing zones in India and their exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagabhushana, J.C.; Vasudeva Rao, M.; Sahasrabudhe, G.H.; Krishnamoorthy, B.; Suryanarayana Rao, C.; Rama Rao, Y.N.

    1976-01-01

    Radiogeologic, lithostratigraphic, tectonic, and crustal evolutionary considerations have enabled the recognition of three major uranium provinces in India: the Singhbhum Province in the north-east; the Rajasthan Province in the north-west; and the Madhya Pradesh Province in central India. The paper describes the salient features of the three uranium provinces, with particular emphasis on their structural set-up, magmatectonics, and the controls of uranium mineralization, and presents a few recent case histories of individual deposits (Bagjata and Turamdih in Singhbhum, and Dhabi-Dumhat in Madhya Pradesh) discovered by integrated exploration techniques. The three uranium provinces are related to major deep-seated faults: the Singhbhum Province lies at the arcuate north-east end of the deep fault of the Eastern Ghats; the Rajasthan Province parallels the great boundary fault; and the Madhya Pradesh Province aligns with the Mahanadi-Son rift system. Some of the plausible explanations for these remarkable features are: localization of uranium ore during episodes of crustal fracturing in Precambrian times; reactivation and rejuvenation of favourable basement structures; and the role of local 'hot spots' (aided by compressional and vertical tectonics) in crustal zones anomalously enriched in the heat-producing elements. Uranium exploration strategy in India during the last three decades reveals two significant trends - the application of conventional radiometric techniques during the period 1950-65; and introduction of sophisticated methodology comprising non-radiometric geophysical techniques, emanometry, aerial and car-borne gamma-ray spectrometry, geochemical surveys, and photogeological techniques as supplements to conventional radiometry, during the period 1965-75. It is concluded that extension of such integrated exploration techniques to favourable virgin terrains in India would lead to newer and richer uranium ore discoveries. (author)

  7. Geological modeling of a fault zone in clay rocks at the Mont-Terri laboratory (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, M.; Guglielmi, Y.; Nussbaum, C.; Valley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Clay-rich formations are considered to be a natural barrier for radionuclides or fluids (water, hydrocarbons, CO2) migration. However, little is known about the architecture of faults affecting clay formations because of their quick alteration at the Earth's surface. The Mont Terri Underground Research Laboratory provides exceptional conditions to investigate an un-weathered, perfectly exposed clay fault zone architecture and to conduct fault activation experiments that allow explore the conditions for stability of such clay faults. Here we show first results from a detailed geological model of the Mont Terri Main Fault architecture, using GoCad software, a detailed structural analysis of 6 fully cored and logged 30-to-50m long and 3-to-15m spaced boreholes crossing the fault zone. These high-definition geological data were acquired within the Fault Slip (FS) experiment project that consisted in fluid injections in different intervals within the fault using the SIMFIP probe to explore the conditions for the fault mechanical and seismic stability. The Mont Terri Main Fault "core" consists of a thrust zone about 0.8 to 3m wide that is bounded by two major fault planes. Between these planes, there is an assembly of distinct slickensided surfaces and various facies including scaly clays, fault gouge and fractured zones. Scaly clay including S-C bands and microfolds occurs in larger zones at top and bottom of the Mail Fault. A cm-thin layer of gouge, that is known to accommodate high strain parts, runs along the upper fault zone boundary. The non-scaly part mainly consists of undeformed rock block, bounded by slickensides. Such a complexity as well as the continuity of the two major surfaces are hard to correlate between the different boreholes even with the high density of geological data within the relatively small volume of the experiment. This may show that a poor strain localization occurred during faulting giving some perspectives about the potential for

  8. Exploring Contextual Models in Chemical Patent Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir

    We explore the development of probabilistic retrieval models for integrating term statistics with entity search using multiple levels of document context to improve the performance of chemical patent search. A distributed indexing model was developed to enable efficient named entity search and aggregation of term statistics at multiple levels of patent structure including individual words, sentences, claims, descriptions, abstracts, and titles. The system can be scaled to an arbitrary number of compute instances in a cloud computing environment to support concurrent indexing and query processing operations on large patent collections.

  9. A Web-based Visualization System for Three Dimensional Geological Model using Open GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T.; Masumoto, S.; Nonogaki, S.

    2017-12-01

    A three dimensional geological model is an important information in various fields such as environmental assessment, urban planning, resource development, waste management and disaster mitigation. In this study, we have developed a web-based visualization system for 3D geological model using free and open source software. The system has been successfully implemented by integrating web mapping engine MapServer and geographic information system GRASS. MapServer plays a role of mapping horizontal cross sections of 3D geological model and a topographic map. GRASS provides the core components for management, analysis and image processing of the geological model. Online access to GRASS functions has been enabled using PyWPS that is an implementation of WPS (Web Processing Service) Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard. The system has two main functions. Two dimensional visualization function allows users to generate horizontal and vertical cross sections of 3D geological model. These images are delivered via WMS (Web Map Service) and WPS OGC standards. Horizontal cross sections are overlaid on the topographic map. A vertical cross section is generated by clicking a start point and an end point on the map. Three dimensional visualization function allows users to visualize geological boundary surfaces and a panel diagram. The user can visualize them from various angles by mouse operation. WebGL is utilized for 3D visualization. WebGL is a web technology that brings hardware-accelerated 3D graphics to the browser without installing additional software. The geological boundary surfaces can be downloaded to incorporate the geologic structure in a design on CAD and model for various simulations. This study was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number JP16K00158.

  10. Geological modeling of a stratified deposit with CAD-Based solid model automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Eser

    Full Text Available Abstract The planning stages of mining activities require many comprehensive and detailed analyses. Determining the correct orebody model is the first stage and one of the most important. Three-dimensional solid modeling is one of the significant methods that can examine the position and shape of the ore deposit. Although there are many different types of mining software for determining a solid model, many users try to build geological models in the computer without knowing how these software packages work. As researchers on the subject, we wanted to answer the question "How would we do it". For this purpose, a system was developed for generating solid models using data obtained from boreholes. Obtaining this model in an AutoCAD environment will be important for geologists and engineers. Developed programs were first tested with virtual borehole data belonging to a virtual deposit. Then the real borehole data of a cement raw material site were successfully applied. This article allows readers not only to see a clear example of the programming approach to layered deposits but also to produce more complicated software in this context. Our study serves as a window to understanding the geological modeling process.

  11. The Need for Medical Geology in Space Exploration: Implications for the Journey to Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, A. D.; Zeigler, R. A.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2018-01-01

    The previous manned missions to the Moon represent milestones in human ingenuity, perseverance, and intellectual curiosity. They also highlight a major hazard for future human exploration of the Moon and beyond: surface dust. Not only did the dust cause mechanical and structural integrity issues with the suits, the dust "storm" generated upon reentrance into the crew cabin caused "lunar hay fever" and "almost blindness". It was further reported that the allergic response to the dust worsened with each exposure. The lower gravity environment exacerbated the exposure, requiring the astronauts to wear their helmet within the module in order to avoid breathing the irritating particles. Due to the prevalence of these high exposures, the Human Research Roadmap developed by NASA identifies the Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure as an area of concern. Extended human exploration will further increase the probability of inadvertent and repeated exposures to celestial dusts. Going forward, hazard assessments of celestial dusts will be determined through sample return efforts prior to astronaut deployment. However, even then the returned samples could also put the Curators, technicians, and scientists at risk during processing and examination.

  12. Computer modeling of nuclide adsorption on geologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.J.; White, A.R.; Yee, A.W.

    1980-07-01

    A computer program, called MINEQL, has been developed and is being tested for use in predicting the distribution of radionuclides between solid and aqueous species for a variety of geologic materials and solution conditions. MINEQL is designed to accept a list of components of a system (electrolytes, solid substrates and radionuclides) and their total analytical concentrations, solve the appropriate set of mass balance and equilibrium expressions, and produce a list of the identities and concentrations of all species formed by interactions among the components and between them and/or water

  13. Advances in constructing regional geological voxel models, illustrated by their application in aggregate resource assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljers, D.; Stafleu, J.; Meulen, M.J. van der; Dambrink, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate resource assessments, derived from three subsequent generations of voxel models, were compared in a qualitative way to illustrate and discuss modelling progress. We compared the models in terms of both methodology and usability. All three models were produced by the Geological Survey of

  14. Exploring Digital News Publishing Business Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskow, Kasper

    News publishers in the industrialized world are experiencing a fundamental challenge to their business models because of the changing modes of consumption, competition, and production of their offerings that are associated with the emergence of the networked information society. The erosion...... of the traditional business models poses an existential threat to news publishing and has given rise to a continuing struggle among news publishers to design digital business models that will be sustainable in the future. This dissertation argues that a central and underresearched aspect of digital news publishing...... business models concerns the production networks that support the co-production of digital news offerings. To fill this knowledge gap, this dissertation explores the strategic design of the digital news publishing production networks that are associated with HTML-based news offerings on the open Web...

  15. From gold leaf to thermal neutrons: One hundred years of radioactivity and geological exploration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    down an oil well to make a down-hole radioactivity profile. Technical advances were rapidly reflected in prospecting on foot, by car, and in the air, with successive adoption of the electrometer (1927); the Geiger-Müller (1945), scintillation (1952) and Hare (1954) counters; and the gamma-spectrometer (1960). The modern era of well-logging began with the patenting by Fearon in 1937 of logs using gamma rays (discovered by Viellard, 1900; named by Rutherford, 1914) and neutrons (discovered by Chadwick, 1932), although the term ‘gamma ray log’ is reported as having first been used on 29 October 1938. A simultaneous gamma and neutron logging device was developed by Sherbatskoy in 1951. Neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logs followed in the next two years and, by the time it was possible to undertake this with a single instrument (Monaghan 1961), further tools had been developed to attempt detection of both hydrocarbons and salt water in the formations passed through. One-hundred years after Pearce’s discovery, the Thermal Neutron Decay Time Log was introduced; the marriage of radioactivity and geology had truly come of age.

  16. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton

    2013-12-13

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.

  17. Research on interactive genetic-geological models to evaluate favourability for undiscovered uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.; Granger, H.C.; Lupe, R.; McCammon, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    Current methods of evaluating favourability for undiscovered uranium resources are unduly subjective, quite possibly inconsistent and, as a consequence, of questionable reliability. This research is aimed at reducing the subjectivity and increasing the reliability by designing an improved method that depends largely on geological data and their statistical frequency of occurrence. This progress report outlines a genetic approach to modelling the geological factors that controlled uranium mineralization in order to evaluate the favourability for the occurrence of undiscovered uranium deposits of the type modelled. A genetic model is constructed from all the factors that describe the processes, in chronological sequence, that formed uranium deposits thought to have a common origin. The field and laboratory evidence for the processes constitute a geologic-occurrence base that parallels the chronological sequence of events. The genetic model and the geologic-occurrence base are portrayed as two columns of an interactive matrix called the ''genetic-geologic model''. For each column, eight chronological stages are used to describe the overall formation of the uranium deposits. These stages consist of (1) precursor processes; (2) host-rock formation; (3) preparation of host-rock; (4) uranium-source development; (5) transport of uranium; (6) primary uranium deposition; (7) post-deposition modification; and (8) preservation. To apply the genetic-geological model to evaluate favourability, a question is posed that determines the presence or absence of each attribute listed under the geologic-occurrence base. By building a logic circuit of the attributes according to either their essential or non-essential nature, the resultant match between a well-documented control area and the test area may be determined. The degree of match is a measure of favourability for uranium occurrence as hypothesized in the genetic model

  18. Geological-economic analysis on the exploration of backup resources for depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deping; Wang Zhicheng; Fan Shaoyun

    2006-01-01

    With the geological-economic evaluation program for pithead heap-leaching mining uranium deposits developed by the authors and the data of column-leaching tests and the geological reserve, the geological-economic evaluation is made to the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit, and the geological reserves of Yangjiaonao deposit of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field, central-southern China. The results of static analysis on these reserves show that the residual geological reserves of both Lujing and Huangfengling deposit belong to sub-profitable type, but the ones of Yangjiaonao deposit is profitable with 26.56% tax-before profit. 1 tU profitable type of ore from Yangjiaonao deposit can use 2.40-3.79 tU subprofitable type of ores from Lujing and Huangfengling deposit. In order to solving the problem on scarcity of backup resources of the depleted mines in Lujing uranium ore-field and using the existing sub-profitable type of geological reserves, it is suggested that the high grade of profitable type of deposits should be explored around the exhausting mines so that the production of the mines could be profitable by the pithead heap-leaching mining method with arrangement groups of both sub-profitable and profitable type of ores. (authors)

  19. Exploring Biological and Geological Age-related Changes through Variations in Intra- and Intertooth Proteomes of Ancient Dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, Noemi; Chamberlain, Andrew T; Buckley, Michael

    2018-03-02

    Proteomic analyses are becoming more widely used in archeology not only due to the greater preservation of proteins in ancient specimens than DNA but also because they can offer different information, particularly relating to compositional preservation and potentially a means to estimate biological and geological age. However, it remains unclear to what extent different burial environments impact these aspects of proteome decay. Teeth have to date been much less studied than bone but are ideal to explore how proteins decay with time due to the negligible turnover that occurs in dentine relative to bone. We investigated the proteome variability and deamidation levels of different sections of molar teeth from archeological bovine mandibles as well as their mandibular bone. We obtained a greater yield of proteins from the crown of the teeth but did not find differences between the different molars analyzed within each mandible. We also obtained the best variety of protein from a well-preserved mandible that was not the youngest one in terms of chronological age, showing the influence of the preservation conditions on the final proteomic outcome. Intriguingly, we also noticed an increase in abundance levels of fetuin-A in biologically younger mandibles as reported previously, but the opposite trend in tooth dentine. Interestingly, we observed higher glutamine deamidation levels in teeth from the geologically oldest mandible despite it being the biologically youngest specimen, showing that the archeological age strongly impacts on the level of deamidations observed, much more so than biological aging. This indicates that the glutamine deamidation ratio of selected peptides may act as a good predictor of the relative geochronological age of archeological specimens.

  20. Petroleum geological features and exploration prospect of deep marine carbonate rocks in China onshore: A further discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wenzhi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep marine carbonate rocks have become one of the key targets of onshore oil and gas exploration and development for reserves replacement in China. Further geological researches of such rocks may practically facilitate the sustainable, steady and smooth development of the petroleum industry in the country. Therefore, through a deep investigation into the fundamental geological conditions of deep marine carbonate reservoirs, we found higher-than-expected resource potential therein, which may uncover large oil or gas fields. The findings were reflected in four aspects. Firstly, there are two kinds of hydrocarbon kitchens which were respectively formed by conventional source rocks and liquid hydrocarbons cracking that were detained in source rocks, and both of them can provide large-scale hydrocarbons. Secondly, as controlled by the bedding and interstratal karstification, as well as the burial and hydrothermal dolomitization, effective carbonate reservoirs may be extensively developed in the deep and ultra-deep strata. Thirdly, under the coupling action of progressive burial and annealing heating, some marine source rocks could form hydrocarbon accumulations spanning important tectonic phases, and large quantity of liquid hydrocarbons could be kept in late stage, contributing to rich oil and gas in such deep marine strata. Fourthly, large-scale uplifts were formed by the stacking of multi-episodic tectonism and oil and gas could be accumulated in three modes (i.e., stratoid large-area reservoir-forming mode of karst reservoirs in the slope area of uplift, back-flow type large-area reservoir-forming mode of buried hill weathered crust karst reservoirs, and wide-range reservoir-forming mode of reef-shoal reservoirs; groups of stratigraphic and lithologic traps were widely developed in the areas of periclinal structures of paleohighs and continental margins. In conclusion, deep marine carbonate strata in China onshore contain the conditions for

  1. An Outcrop-based Detailed Geological Model to Test Automated Interpretation of Seismic Inversion Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, R.; Sharma, S.; Luthi, S.M.; Gisolf, A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, Tetyukhina et al. (2014) developed a geological and petrophysical model based on the Book Cliffs outcrops that contained eight lithotypes. For reservoir modelling purposes, this model is judged to be too coarse because in the same lithotype it contains reservoir and non-reservoir

  2. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...... generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM....

  3. A 3D geological and geomechanical model of the 1963 Vajont landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Francese, Roberto; Giorgi, Massimo; Chistolini, Filippo; Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; Frattini, Paolo; Agliardi, Federico; Frigerio, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Vajont rockslide has been the object of several studies because of its catastrophic consequences and particular evolution. Several qualitative or quantitative models have been presented in the last 50 years, but a complete explanation of all relevant geological and mechanical processes remains elusive. In order to better understand the mechanics and dynamics of the 1963 event, we have reconstructed the first 3D geological model of the rockslide, which allowed us to accurately investigate the rockslide structure and kinematics. The input data for the model consisted in: pre- and post-rockslide geological maps, pre- and post-rockslide orthophotos, pre- and post-rockslide digital elevation models, structural data, boreholes, and geophysical data (2D and 3D seismics and resistivity). All these data have been integrated in a 3D geological model implemented in Gocad®, using the implicit surface modelling method. Results of the 3D geological model include the depth and geometry of the sliding surface, the volume of the two lobes of the rockslide accumulation, kinematics of the rockslide in terms of the vector field of finite displacement, and high quality meshes useful for mechanical and hydrogeological simulations. The latter can include information about the stratigraphy and internal structure of the rock masses and allow tracing the displacement of different material points in the rockslide from the pre-1963-failure to the post-rockslide state. As a general geological conclusion, we may say that the 3D model allowed us to recognize very effectively a sliding surface, whose non-planar geometry is affected by the interference pattern of two regional-scale fold systems. The rockslide is partitioned into two distinct and internally continuous rock masses with a distinct kinematics, which were characterised by a very limited internal deformation during the slide. The continuity of these two large blocks points to a very localized deformation, occurring along a thin

  4. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  5. 3D geological and hydrogeological modeling as design tools for the Conawapa generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Sharif, S.; Smith, B. [KGS Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Cook, G.N.; Osiowy, B.J. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following the project's suspension in the early 1990s, part of Manitoba Hydro's recommitment study involved digital modeling of geological and hydrogeological data for the foundation design and analysis of the proposed Conawapa generating station in northern Manitoba. Three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological models have been developed to consolidate and improve the designer's ability to understand all of the information, and to assist in developing engineering alternatives which will improve the overall confidence of the design. The tools are also being leveraged for use in environmental studies. This paper provided an overview of the Conawapa site and 3-dimensional modeling goals. It described the geology and hydrogeology of the Conawapa site as well as the bedrock structure and Karst development. The paper also presented the central concepts of 3-dimensional modeling studies, including the flow of information from database to modeling software platforms. The construction of the Conawapa geological model was also presented, with particular reference to an overview of the MVS software; mesh design; and model buildup logic. The construction of the Conawapa hydrogeological model was discussed in terms of the finite element code FEFLOW software; conceptual model design; and initial observations of Conawapa groundwater flow modeling. It was concluded that recent advancement and application of 3-dimensional geological visualization software to engineering and environmental projects, including at the future Conawapa site using MVS and FEFLOW, have shown that complicated geological data can be organized, displayed, and analysed in a systematic way, to improve site visualization, understanding, and data relationships. 19 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Modeling Physarum space exploration using memristors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntinas, V; Sirakoulis, G Ch; Vourkas, I; Adamatzky, A I

    2017-01-01

    Slime mold Physarum polycephalum optimizes its foraging behaviour by minimizing the distances between the sources of nutrients it spans. When two sources of nutrients are present, the slime mold connects the sources, with its protoplasmic tubes, along the shortest path. We present a two-dimensional mesh grid memristor based model as an approach to emulate Physarum’s foraging strategy, which includes space exploration and reinforcement of the optimally formed interconnection network in the presence of multiple aliment sources. The proposed algorithmic approach utilizes memristors and LC contours and is tested in two of the most popular computational challenges for Physarum, namely maze and transportation networks. Furthermore, the presented model is enriched with the notion of noise presence, which positively contributes to a collective behavior and enables us to move from deterministic to robust results. Consequently, the corresponding simulation results manage to reproduce, in a much better qualitative way, the expected transportation networks. (paper)

  7. Potential uses of genetic geological modelling to identify new uranium provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.I.

    1982-01-01

    Genetic-geological modelling is the placing of the various processes of the development of a uranium province into distinct stages that are ordered chronologically and made part of a matrix with corresponding geologic evidence. The models can be applied to a given region by using one of several methods to determine a numerical favorability rating. Two of the possible methods, geologic decision analysis and an oil-and-gas type of play analysis, are briefly described. Simplified genetic models are given for environments of the quartz-pebble conglomerate, unconformity-related vein, and sandstone types of deposits. Comparison of the genetic models of these three sedimentary-related environments reveals several common attributes that may define a general uranium province environment

  8. Model for CO2 leakage including multiple geological layers and multiple leaky wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordbotten, Jan M; Kavetski, Dmitri; Celia, Michael A; Bachu, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is likely to be an integral component of any realistic plan to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. In conjunction with large-scale deployment of carbon storage as a technology, there is an urgent need for tools which provide reliable and quick assessments of aquifer storage performance. Previously, abandoned wells from over a century of oil and gas exploration and production have been identified as critical potential leakage paths. The practical importance of abandoned wells is emphasized by the correlation of heavy CO2 emitters (typically associated with industrialized areas) to oil and gas producing regions in North America. Herein, we describe a novel framework for predicting the leakage from large numbers of abandoned wells, forming leakage paths connecting multiple subsurface permeable formations. The framework is designed to exploit analytical solutions to various components of the problem and, ultimately, leads to a grid-free approximation to CO2 and brine leakage rates, as well as fluid distributions. We apply our model in a comparison to an established numerical solverforthe underlying governing equations. Thereafter, we demonstrate the capabilities of the model on typical field data taken from the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta. This data set consists of over 500 wells and 7 permeable formations. Results show the flexibility and utility of the solution methods, and highlight the role that analytical and semianalytical solutions can play in this important problem.

  9. Interpretation and mapping of geological features using mobile devices for 3D outcrop modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Simon J.; Kehl, Christian; Mullins, James R.; Howell, John A.

    2016-04-01

    Advances in 3D digital geometric characterisation have resulted in widespread adoption in recent years, with photorealistic models utilised for interpretation, quantitative and qualitative analysis, as well as education, in an increasingly diverse range of geoscience applications. Topographic models created using lidar and photogrammetry, optionally combined with imagery from sensors such as hyperspectral and thermal cameras, are now becoming commonplace in geoscientific research. Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones) are maturing rapidly to become powerful field computers capable of displaying and interpreting 3D models directly in the field. With increasingly high-quality digital image capture, combined with on-board sensor pose estimation, mobile devices are, in addition, a source of primary data, which can be employed to enhance existing geological models. Adding supplementary image textures and 2D annotations to photorealistic models is therefore a desirable next step to complement conventional field geoscience. This contribution reports on research into field-based interpretation and conceptual sketching on images and photorealistic models on mobile devices, motivated by the desire to utilise digital outcrop models to generate high quality training images (TIs) for multipoint statistics (MPS) property modelling. Representative training images define sedimentological concepts and spatial relationships between elements in the system, which are subsequently modelled using artificial learning to populate geocellular models. Photorealistic outcrop models are underused sources of quantitative and qualitative information for generating TIs, explored further in this research by linking field and office workflows through the mobile device. Existing textured models are loaded to the mobile device, allowing rendering in a 3D environment. Because interpretation in 2D is more familiar and comfortable for users, the developed application allows new images to be captured

  10. A novel methodology improves reservoir characterization models using geologic fuzzy variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto B, Rodolfo [DIGITOIL, Maracaibo (Venezuela); Soto O, David A. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    One of the research projects carried out in Cusiana field to explain its rapid decline during the last years was to get better permeability models. The reservoir of this field has a complex layered system that it is not easy to model using conventional methods. The new technique included the development of porosity and permeability maps from cored wells following the same trend of the sand depositions for each facie or layer according to the sedimentary facie and the depositional system models. Then, we used fuzzy logic to reproduce those maps in three dimensions as geologic fuzzy variables. After multivariate statistical and factor analyses, we found independence and a good correlation coefficient between the geologic fuzzy variables and core permeability and porosity. This means, the geologic fuzzy variable could explain the fabric, the grain size and the pore geometry of the reservoir rock trough the field. Finally, we developed a neural network permeability model using porosity, gamma ray and the geologic fuzzy variable as input variables. This model has a cross-correlation coefficient of 0.873 and average absolute error of 33% compared with the actual model with a correlation coefficient of 0.511 and absolute error greater than 250%. We tested different methodologies, but this new one showed dramatically be a promiser way to get better permeability models. The use of the models have had a high impact in the explanation of well performance and workovers, and reservoir simulation models. (author)

  11. Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Operations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.

  12. Progress in 11th Five Year and the geneal idea for 12th Five Year of uranium exploration and geological science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jindai; Jian Xiaofei; Li Youliang; Du Jiannong; Guo Qinggen; Zhang Qiuying

    2011-01-01

    Since the 11th-Five Year, uranium exploration in China has retrieved obviously and some new resources have been identified. More detailed uranium exploration has been carried out in about 1 000 000 km 2 , exploration in large uranium resource bases, old orefields and focusing prospect areas has achieved important progress, several middle-large and extral-large deposits have been discovered, and one super-large deposit was submitted for the first time in China. In the science and technology of uranium exploration, the capability and platform of research has been reinforced, a number of key projects have been carried out such as national uranium potential evaluation, study of 'four types of uranium deposit', research for the enlargement of uranium resource bases, research of application foundation of uranium geology, research on exploratin techniques and method and technological standard. All these projects have obtained fruitful result and significantly raised the creative level in uranium science and technology. In the coming 12th Five Year, uranium exploration will follow the strategy of 'foundation research first with focus on resource base,systematical exploration and integral evaluation second' under the guideline of 'domestic foothold and oversea development' and set up large uranium resource bases, four major geological preosecting programs will be commence in the exploration for large uranium resource base, national uranium survey, regional evaluation of potential uranium resource and science and technology innovation of uranium geology, Ideas of 'Great uranium exploration system' should be set up to widely unite the localized prospecting teams and cooperate with the geologic research organization such as domestic and foreign university and college so as to make corespondent contribution to raise the supporting capability of uranium resources in China. (authors)

  13. ON DISCRETE STRUCTURE OF GEOLOGIC MEDIUM AND CONTINUAL APPROACH TO MODELING ITS MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. A. Mukhamediev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the structure of a geologic medium represented by accessible lithified rocks and provides an overview of methods used to describe its movements. Two basic opinions are considered in the framework of the discussion: (1 an initially homogeneous and continuous geologic medium acquires the structure composed of blocks in the process of the geologic medium’s deformation/destruction/degradation, and (2 a geologic medium is composed of blocks (and often has hierarchic, active, energy-saturated features, and the continuity model is thus not valid for describing the geologic medium’s deformation. Proponents of the first point of view actively apply the standard or modified continuum model of a solid deformed body (SDB in estimations of the stress-strain state, but the input parameters of this model do not contain any information on discreteness in principle. Authors who support the second opinion, either explicitly or implicitly assume that the block structure of the geologic medium, which is detectable by geological methods, makes a direct and unambiguous impact on all other mechanical properties of the geologic medium and, above all, on the nature of its movements.Based on results obtained by interpreting the data collected in our long-term field studies of rock fracturing, mathematical processing of GPS-measurements, and theoretical models, we agree with the concept of the geologic medium’s block structure, but argue that the geologic block-structure property is not acquired but congenital. Regarding sedimentary rocks, it means that the discrete structure has been already embodied in the rock before sediment lithification, regardless of the intensity of macroscopic deformations. A discrete structure is the form of the geologic medium existence and a cause of the congenital anisotropy of the geologic medium’s strength characteristics. Due to subsequent deformation of the geologic medium, some elements of the structure can

  14. A Hydromechanic-Electrokinetic Model for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Khoury, R.I.N.; Talebian, M.; Sluys, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, a finite element model for simulating coupled hydromechanic and electrokinetic flow in a multiphase domain is outlined. The model describes CO2 flow in a deformed, unsaturated geological formation and its associated streaming potential flow. The governing field equations are

  15. Rheology of petrolatum-paraffin oil mixtures : Applications to analogue modelling of geological processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Schellart, Wouter P.; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    Paraffins have been widely used in analogue modelling of geological processes. Petrolatum and paraffin oil are commonly used to lubricate model boundaries and to simulate weak layers. In this paper, we present rheological tests of petrolatum, paraffin oil and several homogeneous mixtures of the two.

  16. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  17. Reservoir management under geological uncertainty using fast model update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanea, R.; Evensen, G.; Hustoft, L.; Ek, T.; Chitu, A.; Wilschut, F.

    2015-01-01

    Statoil is implementing "Fast Model Update (FMU)," an integrated and automated workflow for reservoir modeling and characterization. FMU connects all steps and disciplines from seismic depth conversion to prediction and reservoir management taking into account relevant reservoir uncertainty. FMU

  18. The 3D geological model of the 1963 Vajont rockslide, reconstructed with implicit surface methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistacchi, Andrea; Massironi, Matteo; Francese, Roberto; Giorgi, Massimo; Taller, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    The Vajont rockslide has been the object of several studies because of its catastrophic consequences and of its particular evolution. Several qualitative or quantitative models have been presented in the last 50 years, but a complete explanation of all the relevant geological and mechanical processes remains elusive. In order to better understand the mechanics and dynamics of the 1963 event, we have reconstructed the first 3D geological model of the rockslide, which allowed us to accurately investigate the rockslide structure and kinematics. The input data for the model consisted in: pre- and post-rockslide geological maps, pre- and post-rockslide orthophotos, pre- and post-rockslide digital elevation models, structural data, boreholes, and geophysical data (2D and 3D seismics and resistivity). All these data have been integrated in a 3D geological model implemented in Gocad®, using the implicit surface modelling method. Results of the 3D geological model include the depth and geometry of the sliding surface, the volume of the two lobes of the rockslide accumulation, kinematics of the rockslide in terms of the vector field of finite displacement, and high quality meshes useful for mechanical and hydrogeological simulations. The latter can include information about the stratigraphy and internal structure of the rock masses and allow tracing the displacement of different material points in the rockslide from the pre-1963-failure to the post-rockslide state. As a general geological conclusion, we may say that the 3D model allowed us to recognize very effectively a sliding surface, whose non-planar geometry is affected by the interference pattern of two regional-scale fold systems. The rockslide is partitioned into two distinct and internally continuous rock masses with a distinct kinematics, which were characterised by a very limited internal deformation during the slide. The continuity of these two large blocks points to a very localized deformation, occurring along

  19. Electrical Resistivity Models in Geological Formations in the Southern Area of the East of Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio García-Gutiérrez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop electrical resistivity models in geological formations of greater interest for geological engineering in the southern area of the East of Cuba. A procedure for the generalization of the geo-electrical database was prepared to generate the referred geo-electrical models. A total of 38 works with 895 vertical electrical surveys, of which 317 (35.4% located near (parametrical drills. Three models for the Paso Real formation and one for the Capdevila, the most distributed in the region under investigation were defined. The surface quartz sands from the municipality of Sandino were identified to have higher electrical resistivity averages (1241 Ω•m, while they do not exceed 86 Ω•m in the lower horizons to resolve basic tasks of the geological engineering investigations. The assessment of the cover clayey sandy soils was satisfactory in both geological formations while the determination of the water table depth was unfavorable. The remaining tasks varied between relatively favorable to unfavorable according to the geological formations.

  20. Modeling Global Biogenic Emission of Isoprene: Exploration of Model Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Susan E.; Potter, Christopher S.; Coughlan, Joseph C.; Klooster, Steven A.; Lerdau, Manuel T.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation provides the major source of isoprene emission to the atmosphere. We present a modeling approach to estimate global biogenic isoprene emission. The isoprene flux model is linked to a process-based computer simulation model of biogenic trace-gas fluxes that operates on scales that link regional and global data sets and ecosystem nutrient transformations Isoprene emission estimates are determined from estimates of ecosystem specific biomass, emission factors, and algorithms based on light and temperature. Our approach differs from an existing modeling framework by including the process-based global model for terrestrial ecosystem production, satellite derived ecosystem classification, and isoprene emission measurements from a tropical deciduous forest. We explore the sensitivity of model estimates to input parameters. The resulting emission products from the global 1 degree x 1 degree coverage provided by the satellite datasets and the process model allow flux estimations across large spatial scales and enable direct linkage to atmospheric models of trace-gas transport and transformation.

  1. Three-Dimensional Geological Model of Quaternary Sediments in Walworth County, Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Lau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional (3D geologic model was developed for Quaternary deposits in southern Walworth County, WI using Petrel, a software package primarily designed for use in the energy industry. The purpose of this research was to better delineate and characterize the shallow glacial deposits, which include multiple shallow sand and gravel aquifers. The 3D model of Walworth County was constructed using datasets such as the U.S. Geological Survey 30 m digital elevation model (DEM of land surface, published maps of the regional surficial geology and bedrock topography, and a database of water-well records. Using 3D visualization and interpretation tools, more than 1400 lithostratigraphic picks were efficiently interpreted amongst 725 well records. The final 3D geologic model consisted of six Quaternary lithostratigraphic units and a bedrock horizon as the model base. The Quaternary units include in stratigraphic order from youngest to oldest: the New Berlin Member of the Holy Hill Formation, the Tiskilwa Member of the Zenda Formation, a Sub-Tiskilwa Sand/Gravel unit, the Walworth Formation, a Sub-Walworth Sand/Gravel unit, and a Pre-Illinoisan unit. Compared to previous studies, the results of this study indicate a more detailed distribution, thickness, and interconnectivity between shallow sand and gravel aquifers and their connectivity to shallow bedrock aquifers. This study can also help understand uncertainty within previous local groundwater-flow modeling studies and improve future studies.

  2. Approximate self-similarity in models of geological folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budd, C.J.; Peletier, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a model for the folding of rock under the compression of tectonic plates. This models an elastic rock layer imbedded in a viscous foundation by a fourth-order parabolic equation with a nonlinear constraint. The large-time behavior of solutions of this problem is examined and found to be

  3. Documenting of Geologic Field Activities in Real-Time in Four Dimensions: Apollo 17 as a Case Study for Terrestrial Analogues and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Niles, P. B.

    2018-01-01

    During the Apollo exploration of the lunar surface, thousands of still images, 16 mm videos, TV footage, samples, and surface experiments were captured and collected. In addition, observations and descriptions of what was observed was radioed to Mission Control as part of standard communications and subsequently transcribed. The archive of this material represents perhaps the best recorded set of geologic field campaigns and will serve as the example of how to conduct field work on other planetary bodies for decades to come. However, that archive of material exists in disparate locations and formats with varying levels of completeness, making it not easily cross-referenceable. While video and audio exist for the missions, it is not time synchronized, and images taken during the missions are not time or location tagged. Sample data, while robust, is not easily available in a context of where the samples were collected, their descriptions by the astronauts are not connected to them, or the video footage of their collection (if available). A more than five year undertaking to reconstruct and reconcile the Apollo 17 mission archive, from launch through splashdown, has generated an integrated record of the entire mission, resulting in searchable, synchronized image, voice, and video data, with geologic context provided at the time each sample was collected. Through www.apollo17.org the documentation of the field investigation conducted by the Apollo 17 crew is presented in chronologic sequence, with additional context provided by high-resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images and a corresponding digital terrain model (DTM) of the Taurus-Littrow Valley.

  4. Spectral rheology in a sphere. [for geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, M.

    1984-01-01

    An earth model is considered whose rheology is described by a stress train relation similar to that which seems to fit the laboratory data resulting from constant strain rate and creep experiments on polycrystalline halite and granite. The response of the model to a surface load is studied. It is found that the displacement and the creep are weakly dependent on the wavenumber and that the strain energy is concentrated in the low wavenumber and coherent over large regions.

  5. Geo3DML: A standard-based exchange format for 3D geological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhangang; Qu, Honggang; Wu, Zixing; Wang, Xianghong

    2018-01-01

    A geological model (geomodel) in three-dimensional (3D) space is a digital representation of the Earth's subsurface, recognized by geologists and stored in resultant geological data (geodata). The increasing demand for data management and interoperable applications of geomodelscan be addressed by developing standard-based exchange formats for the representation of not only a single geological object, but also holistic geomodels. However, current standards such as GeoSciML cannot incorporate all the geomodel-related information. This paper presents Geo3DML for the exchange of 3D geomodels based on the existing Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards. Geo3DML is based on a unified and formal representation of structural models, attribute models and hierarchical structures of interpreted resultant geodata in different dimensional views, including drills, cross-sections/geomaps and 3D models, which is compatible with the conceptual model of GeoSciML. Geo3DML aims to encode all geomodel-related information integrally in one framework, including the semantic and geometric information of geoobjects and their relationships, as well as visual information. At present, Geo3DML and some supporting tools have been released as a data-exchange standard by the China Geological Survey (CGS).

  6. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  7. An evaluation of the suitability of ERTS data for the purposes of petroleum exploration. [lithology and geological structure of Anadarko Basin of Oklahoma and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, R. J. (Principal Investigator); Mccown, F. P.; Stonis, L. P.; Petzel, G. J.; Everett, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 data give exploration geologists a new perspective for looking at the earth. The data are excellent for interpreting regional lithologic and structural relationships and quickly directing attention to areas of greatest exploration interest. Information derived from ERTS data useful for petroleum exploration include: linear features, general lithologic distribution, identification of various anomalous features, some details of structures controlling hydrocarbon accumulation, overall structural relationships, and the regional context of the exploration province. Many anomalies (particularly geomorphic anomalies) correlate with known features of petroleum exploration interest. Linears interpreted from the imagery that were checked in the field correlate with fractures. Bands 5 and 7 and color composite imagery acquired during the periods of maximum and minimum vegetation vigor are best for geologic interpretation. Preliminary analysis indicates that use of ERTS imagery can substantially reduce the cost of petroleum exploration in relatively unexplored areas.

  8. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  9. Technological geological and mathematical models of petroleum stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhumagulov, B.T.; Monakhov, V.N.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative analysis of different mathematical methods of petroleum stratum, the limit of their applicability and hydrodynamical analysis of numerical calculation's results is carried out. The problem of adaptation of the mathematical models and the identification of petroleum stratum parameters are considered. (author)

  10. Stochastic models of solute transport in highly heterogeneous geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, V.N.; Korotkin, I.A.; Pruess, K.; Goloviznin, V.M.; Sorokovikova, O.S.

    2009-09-15

    A stochastic model of anomalous diffusion was developed in which transport occurs by random motion of Brownian particles, described by distribution functions of random displacements with heavy (power-law) tails. One variant of an effective algorithm for random function generation with a power-law asymptotic and arbitrary factor of asymmetry is proposed that is based on the Gnedenko-Levy limit theorem and makes it possible to reproduce all known Levy {alpha}-stable fractal processes. A two-dimensional stochastic random walk algorithm has been developed that approximates anomalous diffusion with streamline-dependent and space-dependent parameters. The motivation for introducing such a type of dispersion model is the observed fact that tracers in natural aquifers spread at different super-Fickian rates in different directions. For this and other important cases, stochastic random walk models are the only known way to solve the so-called multiscaling fractional order diffusion equation with space-dependent parameters. Some comparisons of model results and field experiments are presented.

  11. The egg model - a geological ensemble for reservoir simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.D.; Fonseca, R.M.; Kahrobaei, S.; Siraj, M.M.; Essen, van G.M.; Hof, Van den P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘Egg Model’ is a synthetic reservoir model consisting of an ensemble of 101 relatively small three-dimensional realizations of a channelized oil reservoir produced under water flooding conditions with eight water injectors and four oil producers. It has been used in numerous publications to

  12. Main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of uranium deposits in Zhejiang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qitao

    2000-01-01

    Uranium resources in Zhejiang is abundant with numerous mineralization types. According to the genesis they can be classified into: sedimentary-reworking type, hydrothermal type and infiltration type. The author briefly describes main geologic characteristics and metallogenic models of different type uranium deposits

  13. Geological characterization and solute transport model investigations of contaminated sites in urban areas (Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Theis Raaschou; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Thomsen, Peter

    the two field sites includes only lithological profiles from boreholes. In order to increase the density of the field data, the two areas were mapped with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT). Based on the borehole information and the high-density geophysical data, detailed 3D geological models...

  14. Data to Support Development of Geologic Framework Models for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Frank Vinton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelley, Richard E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This report summarizes work conducted in FY2017 to identify and document publically available data for developing a Geologic Framework Model (GFM) for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). Data was collected for all four of the sites being considered in 2017 for a DBFT site.

  15. Geologic database for digital geology of California, Nevada, and Utah: an application of the North American Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, David R.; Ludington, Steve; Nutt, Constance M.; Stone, Paul A.; Miller, David M.; Miller, Robert J.; Wagner, David L.; Saucedo, George J.

    2003-01-01

    The USGS is creating an integrated national database for digital state geologic maps that includes stratigraphic, age, and lithologic information. The majority of the conterminous 48 states have digital geologic base maps available, often at scales of 1:500,000. This product is a prototype, and is intended to demonstrate the types of derivative maps that will be possible with the national integrated database. This database permits the creation of a number of types of maps via simple or sophisticated queries, maps that may be useful in a number of areas, including mineral-resource assessment, environmental assessment, and regional tectonic evolution. This database is distributed with three main parts: a Microsoft Access 2000 database containing geologic map attribute data, an Arc/Info (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) Export format file containing points representing designation of stratigraphic regions for the Geologic Map of Utah, and an ArcView 3.2 (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, California) project containing scripts and dialogs for performing a series of generalization and mineral resource queries. IMPORTANT NOTE: Spatial data for the respective stage geologic maps is not distributed with this report. The digital state geologic maps for the states involved in this report are separate products, and two of them are produced by individual state agencies, which may be legally and/or financially responsible for this data. However, the spatial datasets for maps discussed in this report are available to the public. Questions regarding the distribution, sale, and use of individual state geologic maps should be sent to the respective state agency. We do provide suggestions for obtaining and formatting the spatial data to make it compatible with data in this report. See section ‘Obtaining and Formatting Spatial Data’ in the PDF version of the report.

  16. Underground gas storage Lobodice geological model development based on 3D seismic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, L.

    2015-01-01

    Aquifer type underground gas storage (UGS) Lobodice was developed in the Central Moravian part of Carpathian foredeep in Czech Republic 50 years ago. In order to improve knowledge about UGS geological structure 3D seismic survey was performed in 2009. Reservoir is rather shallow (400 - 500 m below surface) it is located in complicated locality so limitations for field acquisition phase were abundant. This article describes process work flow from 3D seismic field data acquisition to geological model creation. The outcomes of this work flow define geometry of UGS reservoir, its tectonics, structure spill point, cap rock and sealing features of the structure. Improving of geological knowledge about the reservoir enables less risky new well localization for UGS withdrawal rate increasing. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of geological structure and uranium mineralization model in West Lemajung Sector, Kalan Basin, West Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Sularto, P.

    2000-01-01

    The fieldwork is based on the data of strike (S0) and schistosity (S1) of cores that could not penetrate the geological structure model and result of observation on some cores has shown that U mineralization veins are not always parallel to S1. The problems were encountered in core drill data to improve the estimation of U resources from indication category to measured category. The purpose of the evaluation is to establish the advisability of geological structure model and U mineralization model which was applied by this time. The research used remapping of geological structure with surface method in the scale of 1:1000. The result of remapping shows the difference of the dipping between new geological structure model and the old model. The dipping of the new model is to South East until vertical and the old model is to North West until vertical and to South East until vertical. Despite the difference between both of them, the substantive of folding system is identical so that the new and old models can be applied in drilling in West Lemajung sector. U mineralization model of remapping result consists of 3 types : type 1 U mineralization lens form with West-East direction and vertical dipping which is associated with tourmaline, type 2 U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East direction and 70 o to North dipping and parallel with S1, and type 3 U mineralization fill in opening fractures with N 110 o - 130 o E the direction and 60 o to North East until subvertical dipping while the old model is only one type. It is U mineralization filling in the open fractures with West-East the direction and 70 o to North the dipping and parallel with S1. Because of this significant difference, data collection of drill core must follow the new mineralization model. (author)

  18. Research on the evolution model and deformation mechanisms of Baishuihe landslide based on analyzing geologic process of slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, H.; Cai, Y.; Tan, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The landslide is a result of both inner and exterior geologic agents, and inner ones always have significant influences on the susceptibility of geologic bodies to the exterior ones. However, current researches focus more on impacts of exterior factors, such as precipitation and reservoir water, than that of geologic process. Baishuihe landslide, located on the south bank of Yangtze River and 56km upstream from the Three Gorges Project, was taken as the study subject with the in-situ investigation and exploration carried out for the first step. After the spatial analysis using the 3D model of topography built by ArcGIS (Fig.1), geologic characteristics of the slope that lies in a certain range near the Baishuihe landslide on the same bank were investigated for further insights into geologic process of the slope, with help of the geological map and structure outline map. Baishuihe landslide developed on the north limb of Baifuping anticline, a dip slope on the southwest margin of Zigui basin. The eastern and western boundaries are both ridges and in the middle a distinct slide depression is in process of deforming. Evolutionary process of Baishuihe landslide includes three steps below. 1) Emergence of Baifuping anticline leaded to interbedded dislocation, tension cracks and joint fractures in bedrocks. 2) Weathering continuously weakened strength of soft interlayers in the Shazhenxi Formation (T3s). 3) Rock slide caused by neotectonics happened on a large scale along the weak layers and joint planes, forming initial Baishuihe landslide. Although the landslide has undergone reconstruction for a long time, it could still be divided clearly into two parts, namely a) the rock landslide at the back half (south) and b) the debris landslide at the front half (north). a) The deformation mechanism for the rock landslide is believed to be deterioration in strength of weak bedding planes due to precipitation and free face caused by human activities or river incision. b

  19. Exploration of Caribbean Seamounts within the Greater and Lesser Antilles Transition Zone: Characterization of the Benthic Ecology and Geology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Within the Caribbean region, numerous unexplored seamounts punctuate the seafloor holding records of geologic, biologic and oceanographic processes over different...

  20. Automated pattern recognition to support geological mapping and exploration target generation: a case study from southern Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Eberle, D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a methodology for the automatic joint interpretation of high resolution airborne geophysical and space-borne remote sensing data to support geological mapping in a largely automated, fast and objective manner. At the request...

  1. Geological Model of the Olkiluoto Site. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, I.

    2010-10-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: 1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and 2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. In addition, the largest ductile deformation zones and tectonic units are described in 3D model. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: firstly, pervasive alteration and secondly fracturecontrolled alteration. Clay mineralisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the foliation and lithological trend. Kaolinite is also mainly located in the

  2. Advances in Geologic Disposal System Modeling and Application to Crystalline Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stein, Emily R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Frederick, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sevougian, S. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Glenn Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fascitelli, D. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-22

    The Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Office of Fuel Cycle Technology (OFCT) is conducting research and development (R&D) on geologic disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) and high-level nuclear waste (HLW). Two of the high priorities for UFDC disposal R&D are design concept development and disposal system modeling (DOE 2011). These priorities are directly addressed in the UFDC Generic Disposal Systems Analysis (GDSA) work package, which is charged with developing a disposal system modeling and analysis capability for evaluating disposal system performance for nuclear waste in geologic media (e.g., salt, granite, clay, and deep borehole disposal). This report describes specific GDSA activities in fiscal year 2016 (FY 2016) toward the development of the enhanced disposal system modeling and analysis capability for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. The GDSA framework employs the PFLOTRAN thermal-hydrologic-chemical multi-physics code and the Dakota uncertainty sampling and propagation code. Each code is designed for massively-parallel processing in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Multi-physics representations in PFLOTRAN are used to simulate various coupled processes including heat flow, fluid flow, waste dissolution, radionuclide release, radionuclide decay and ingrowth, precipitation and dissolution of secondary phases, and radionuclide transport through engineered barriers and natural geologic barriers to the biosphere. Dakota is used to generate sets of representative realizations and to analyze parameter sensitivity.

  3. Models of sorption and migration of radionuclides in geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Masami

    1987-01-01

    Full understanding of the transportation of nuclides by groundwater is essential in designing an underground radioactive waste disposal site. What is the most important is to clarify in detail the process of sorption of nuclides by rock and soil. This report outlines various theories and experimental data that are currently available. In addition, studies made in various countries are reviewed and some problems are pointed out. First, a review is made of studies that deal with adsorption and behaviors of contaminants in natural barriers (rock, soil). Next, migration models that have been developed in studying migration processes in the field of chemical engineering or behaviors of agricultural chemicals in the field of soil physics are examined to see if they can be applied to investigations of the migration of radioactive contaminants in a porous medium. Finally, a review is made of basic underground migration models that are used in various countries in studying deep underground disposal of long-life radionuclides. Some laboratory experiments on TRU nuclides in rock are also outlined. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  5. Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

    2010-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

  6. Geological model of the Olkiluoto site. Version 1.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, J.; Aaltonen, I.; Kemppainen, K.

    2008-01-01

    The rocks of Olkiluoto can be divided into two major classes: (1) supracrustal high-grade metamorphic rocks including various migmatitic gneisses, tonalitic-granodioriticgranitic gneisses, mica gneisses, quartz gneisses and mafic gneisses, and (2) igneous rocks including pegmatitic granites and diabase dykes. The migmatitic gneisses can further be divided into three subgroups in terms of the type of migmatite structure: veined gneisses, stromatic gneisses and diatexitic gneisses. On the basis of refolding and crosscutting relationships, the metamorphic supracrustal rocks have been subjected to polyphased ductile deformation, consisting of five stages, the D2 being locally the most intensive phase, producing thrust-related folding, strong migmatisation and pervasive foliation. In 3D modelling of the lithological units, an assumption has been made, on the basis of measurements in the outcrops, investigation trenches and drill cores, that the pervasive, composite foliation produced as a result of polyphase ductile deformation has a rather constant attitude in the ONKALO area. Consequently, the strike and dip of the foliation has been used as a tool, through which the lithologies have been correlated between the drillholes and from the surface to the drillholes. The bedrock at the Olkiluoto site has been subjected to extensive hydrothermal alteration, which has taken place at reasonably low temperature conditions, the estimated temperature interval being from slightly over 300 deg C to less than 100 deg C. Two types of alteration can be observed: (1) pervasive (disseminated) alteration and (2) fracture-controlled (veinlet) alteration. Kaolinisation and sulphidisation are the most prominent alteration events in the site area. Sulphides are located in the uppermost part of the model volume following roughly the lithological trend (slightly dipping to the SE). Kaolinite is also located in the uppermost part, but the orientation is opposite to the main lithological trend

  7. Bayesian inversion using a geologically realistic and discrete model space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeggli, C.; Julien, S.; Renard, P.

    2017-12-01

    Since the early days of groundwater modeling, inverse methods play a crucial role. Many research and engineering groups aim to infer extensive knowledge of aquifer parameters from a sparse set of observations. Despite decades of dedicated research on this topic, there are still several major issues to be solved. In the hydrogeological framework, one is often confronted with underground structures that present very sharp contrasts of geophysical properties. In particular, subsoil structures such as karst conduits, channels, faults, or lenses, strongly influence groundwater flow and transport behavior of the underground. For this reason it can be essential to identify their location and shape very precisely. Unfortunately, when inverse methods are specially trained to consider such complex features, their computation effort often becomes unaffordably high. The following work is an attempt to solve this dilemma. We present a new method that is, in some sense, a compromise between the ergodicity of Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) methods and the efficient handling of data by the ensemble based Kalmann filters. The realistic and complex random fields are generated by a Multiple-Point Statistics (MPS) tool. Nonetheless, it is applicable with any conditional geostatistical simulation tool. Furthermore, the algorithm is independent of any parametrization what becomes most important when two parametric systems are equivalent (permeability and resistivity, speed and slowness, etc.). When compared to two existing McMC schemes, the computational effort was divided by a factor of 12.

  8. An autochthonous geological model for the eastern Andes of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Warren T.; Duque, Pablo; Ponce, Miguel

    2005-04-01

    We describe a traverse across the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador, poorly known areas with very little detailed mapping and very little age control. The spine of the Cordillera comprises deeply eroded Triassic and Jurassic plutons, the roots of a major arc, emplaced into probable Palaeozoic pelites and metamorphosed volcanic rocks. The W flank comprises a Jurassic (?) submarine basaltic-andesitic volcanic sequence, which grades up into mixed Jurassic/Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Inter-Andean Valley. The sub-Andean Zone, on the E flank of the Cordillera, comprises a newly recognized Cretaceous basin of cleaved mudrocks, quartz arenites and limestones. East of the syndepositional Cosanga Fault, the Cretaceous basin thins into a condensed sequence that is indistinguishable from the rocks of the adjacent hydrocarbon-bearing Oriente Basin. The principal penetrative deformation of the Cordillera Real was probably latest Cretaceous/Palaeocene. It telescoped the magmatic belts, but shortening was largely partitioned into the pelites between plutons. The plutons suffered inhomogenous deformation; some portions completely escaped tectonism. The pelites conserve two foliations. The earliest comprises slaty cleavage formed under low- or sub-greenschist conditions. The later is a strong schistosity defined by new mica growth. It largely transposed and obliterated the first. Both foliations may have developed during a single progressive deformation. We find inappropriate recent terrane models for the Cordillera Real and sub-Andean Zone of Ecuador. Instead we find remarkable similarities from one side of the Cordillera to the other, including a common structural history. In place of sutures, we find mostly intrusive contacts between major plutons and pelites. Triassic to Cretaceous events occurred on the autochthonous western edge of the Archaean Guyana Shield. The latest Cretaceous-Paleocene deformation is interpreted as the progressive

  9. Development of a definition, classification system, and model for cultural geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lloyd W., III

    The concept for this study is based upon a personal interest by the author, an American Indian, in promoting cultural perspectives in undergraduate college teaching and learning environments. Most academicians recognize that merged fields can enhance undergraduate curricula. However, conflict may occur when instructors attempt to merge social science fields such as history or philosophy with geoscience fields such as mining and geomorphology. For example, ideologies of Earth structures derived from scientific methodologies may conflict with historical and spiritual understandings of Earth structures held by American Indians. Specifically, this study addresses the problem of how to combine cultural studies with the geosciences into a new merged academic discipline called cultural geology. This study further attempts to develop the merged field of cultural geology using an approach consisting of three research foci: a definition, a classification system, and a model. Literature reviews were conducted for all three foci. Additionally, to better understand merged fields, a literature review was conducted specifically for academic fields that merged social and physical sciences. Methodologies concentrated on the three research foci: definition, classification system, and model. The definition was derived via a two-step process. The first step, developing keyword hierarchical ranking structures, was followed by creating and analyzing semantic word meaning lists. The classification system was developed by reviewing 102 classification systems and incorporating selected components into a system framework. The cultural geology model was created also utilizing a two-step process. A literature review of scientific models was conducted. Then, the definition and classification system were incorporated into a model felt to reflect the realm of cultural geology. A course syllabus was then developed that incorporated the resulting definition, classification system, and model. This

  10. 3D geological to geophysical modelling and seismic wave propagation simulation: a case study from the Lalor Lake VMS (Volcanogenic Massive Sulphides) mining camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Khalid; Bellefleur, Gilles

    2014-05-01

    The global demand for base metals, uranium and precious metals has been pushing mineral explorations at greater depth. Seismic techniques and surveys have become essential in finding and extracting mineral rich ore bodies, especially for deep VMS mining camps. Geophysical parameters collected from borehole logs and laboratory measurements of core samples provide preliminary information about the nature and type of subsurface lithologic units. Alteration halos formed during the hydrothermal alteration process contain ore bodies, which are of primary interests among geologists and mining industries. It is known that the alteration halos are easier to detect than the ore bodies itself. Many 3D geological models are merely projection of 2D surface geology based on outcrop inspections and geochemical analysis of a small number of core samples collected from the area. Since a large scale 3D multicomponent seismic survey can be prohibitively expensive, performance analysis of such geological models can be helpful in reducing exploration costs. In this abstract, we discussed challenges and constraints encountered in geophysical modelling of ore bodies and surrounding geologic structures from the available coarse 3D geological models of the Lalor Lake mining camp, located in northern Manitoba, Canada. Ore bodies in the Lalor lake VMS camp are rich in gold, zinc, lead and copper, and have an approximate weight of 27 Mt. For better understanding of physical parameters of these known ore bodies and potentially unknown ones at greater depth, we constructed a fine resolution 3D seismic model with dimensions: 2000 m (width), 2000 m (height), and 1500 m (vertical depth). Seismic properties (P-wave, S-wave velocities, and density) were assigned based on a previous rock properties study of the same mining camp. 3D finite-difference elastic wave propagation simulation was performed in the model using appropriate parameters. The generated synthetic 3D seismic data was then compared to

  11. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H. [Khalifa Univ. of Science/Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2012-03-15

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research.

  12. Development of Spherical Near Field Model for Geological Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. Y.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.; Lee, K. J.; Chang, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling for geological radioactive waste repository can be divided into 3 parts. They are near field modeling related to engineered barrier, far field modeling related to natural barrier and biosphere modeling. In order to make the general application for safety assessment of geological waste repository, spherical geometry near field model has been developed. This model can be used quite extensively when users calculate equivalent spherical geometry for specific engineered barrier like equivalent waste radius, equivalent barrier radius and etc. Only diffusion was considered for general purpose but advection part can be updated. Goldsim and Goldsim Radionuclide Transport (RT) module were chosen and used as developing tool for the flexible modeling. Developer can freely make their own model with developer friendly graphic interface by using Goldsim. Furthermore, model with user friendly graphic interface can be developed by using Goldsim Dashboard Authoring module. The model has been validated by comparing the result with that of another model, inserting similar inputs and conditions. The model has been proved to be reasonably operating from the comparison result by validation process. Cylindrical model can be developed as a further work based on the knowledge and experience from this research

  13. Mathematical modelling of heat production in deep geological repository of high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanda, O.

    2017-01-01

    Waste produced by nuclear industry requires special handling. Currently, there is a research taking place, focused at possibilities of nuclear waste storage in deep geological repositories, hosted in stable geological environment. The high-level nuclear waste produces significant amount of heat for a long time, which can affect either environment outside of or within the repository in a negative way. Therefore to reduce risks, it is desirable to know the principles of such heat production, which can be achieved using mathematical modeling. This thesis comes up with a general model of heat production-time dependency, dependable on initial composition of the waste. To be able to model real situations, output of this thesis needs to be utilized in an IT solution. (authors)

  14. Geological model for Boulder 1 at Station 2, South Massif, Valley of Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    A possible geological model for the origin and history of the materials that make up Boulder 1 is proposed on the basis of firm and probable regional, local, and boulder geological constraints. These constraints are described in detail, unresolved questions are considered, and a model is presented which appears to satisfy all the firm constraints and most of the probable constraints. According to this model, the crystallization of plagioclase and other ANT-suite phases now present in the boulder as clasts and matrix materials took place during the melted-shell stage of lunar history; the original rocks were greatly modified during the cratered-highland stage; and the events that determined the major characteristics of the boulder occurred during the large-basin stage.

  15. A methodology for the geological and numerical modelling of CO2 storage in deep saline formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, R.; Moia, F.; Ciampa, G.; Cangiano, C.

    2009-04-01

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize and reduce the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 among which the most promising are the CCS technologies. The remedy proposed for large stationary CO2 sources as thermoelectric power plants is to separate the flue gas, capturing CO2 and to store it into deep subsurface geological formations. In order to support the identification of potential CO2 storage reservoirs in Italy, the project "Identification of Italian CO2 geological storage sites", financed by the Ministry of Economic Development with the Research Fund for the Italian Electrical System under the Contract Agreement established with the Ministry Decree of march 23, 2006, has been completed in 2008. The project involves all the aspects related to the selection of potential storage sites, each carried out in a proper task. The first task has been devoted to the data collection of more than 6800 wells, and their organization into a geological data base supported by GIS, of which 1911 contain information about the nature and the thickness of geological formations, the presence of fresh, saline or brackish water, brine, gas and oil, the underground temperature, the seismic velocity and electric resistance of geological materials from different logs, the permeability, porosity and geochemical characteristics. The goal of the second task was the set up of a numerical modelling integrated tool, that is the in order to allow the analysis of a potential site in terms of the storage capacity, both from solubility and mineral trapping points of view, in terms of risk assessment and long-term storage of CO2. This tool includes a fluid dynamic module, a chemical module and a module linking a geomechanical simulator. Acquirement of geological data, definition of simulation parameter, run control and final result analysis can be performed by a properly developed graphic user interface, fully integrated and calculation platform independent. The project is then

  16. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A.; La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H.

    2012-06-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  17. Geological discrete fracture network model for the Olkiluoto site, Eurajoki, Finland. Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, A.; Forchhammer, K.; Pettersson, A. [Golder Associates AB, Stockholm (Sweden); La Pointe, P.; Lim, D-H. [Golder Associates Inc. (Finland)

    2012-06-15

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modeling team in the production of the 2010 revision to the geological discrete fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 565m; deformation zones are expressly excluded from the DFN model. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modeling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is selected to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches, geological and structural data from cored drillholes, and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory. Unlike the initial geological DFN, which was focused on the vicinity of the ONKALO tunnel, the 2010 revisions present a model parameterization for the entire island. Fracture domains are based on the tectonic subdivisions at the site (northern, central, and southern tectonic units) presented in the Geological Site Model (GSM), and are further subdivided along the intersection of major brittle-ductile zones. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east that is subparallel to the mean bedrock foliation direction, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking approximately east-west. The subhorizontally-dipping fractures

  18. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, S.A.

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB's application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth

  19. Comparison of the SKI, SKB, and SKN geological and structural models of the Aespoe area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiren, S.A. [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-06-01

    Three sets of geological and structural models produced by three different groups are compared. The same set of basic data has been available to each of the groups. The models, all of which are 2 by 2 km by 1 km deep - or smaller, are based entirely on surface-based investigations. The modelled area is centered on the island of Aespoe, where SKB has built the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in plutonic bedrock at a depth of 500 m. SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) has recorded the basic data during the period 1986 to 1991, before starting the underground work. One of the main tasks in the SKB characterization of the HRL rock mass was to predict which of the geological structures will have the greatest rock-mechanical and hydraulic significance. The National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) constructed alternative models in 1992 to verify the SKB model. However, the SKN models were subsequently modified and converted into a hydrogeological model. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) chose Aespoe as a hypothetical site for storage of nuclear waste in their SITE 94 project. The objective of the project is to assist SKI in their future review of SKB`s application for a license to dispose of spent nuclear fuel underground. The agreement of the three models is found to be best where the density of information is greatest. The main difference between the two geological models is related to the inferred effects of block faulting on the rock type distribution. The correlation of moderately to gently inclined zones between the models is relatively poor at depth. 46 refs, 30 figs, 18 tabs.

  20. Multi-scale interactions of geological processes during mineralization: cascade dynamics model and multifractal simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relations between mineralization and certain geological processes are established mostly by geologist's knowledge of field observations. However, these relations are descriptive and a quantitative model of how certain geological processes strengthen or hinder mineralization is not clear, that is to say, the mechanism of the interactions between mineralization and the geological framework has not been thoroughly studied. The dynamics behind these interactions are key in the understanding of fractal or multifractal formations caused by mineralization, among which singularities arise due to anomalous concentration of metals in narrow space. From a statistical point of view, we think that cascade dynamics play an important role in mineralization and studying them can reveal the nature of the various interactions throughout the process. We have constructed a multiplicative cascade model to simulate these dynamics. The probabilities of mineral deposit occurrences are used to represent direct results of mineralization. Multifractal simulation of probabilities of mineral potential based on our model is exemplified by a case study dealing with hydrothermal gold deposits in southern Nova Scotia, Canada. The extent of the impacts of certain geological processes on gold mineralization is related to the scale of the cascade process, especially to the maximum cascade division number nmax. Our research helps to understand how the singularity occurs during mineralization, which remains unanswered up to now, and the simulation may provide a more accurate distribution of mineral deposit occurrences that can be used to improve the results of the weights of evidence model in mapping mineral potential.

  1. Geological modeling for methane hydrate reservoir characterization in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Takayama, T.; Fujii, T.

    2012-12-01

    The eastern Nankai trough, which is located offshore of central Japan, is considered as an attractive potential resource field of methane hydrates. Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough. The depositional environment of methane hydrate-bearing sediments around the production test site is a deep submarine-fan turbidite system, and it is considered that the reservoir properties should show lateral as well as vertical heterogeneity. Since the variations in the reservoir heterogeneity have an impact on the methane hydrate dissociation and gas production performance, precise geological models describing reservoir heterogeneity would be required for the evaluation of reservoir potentials. In preparation for the production test, 3 wells; two monitoring boreholes (AT1-MC and AT1-MT1) and a coring well (AT1-C), were newly acquired in 2012. In addition to a geotechnical hole drilling survey in 2011 (AT1-GT), totally log data from 2 wells and core data from 2 wells were obtained around the production test site. In this study, we conducted well correlations between AT1 and A1 wells drilled in 2003 and then, 3D geological models were updated including AT1 well data in order to refine hydrate reservoir characterization around the production test site. The results of the well correlations show that turbidite sand layers are characterized by good lateral continuity, and give significant information for the distribution morphology of sand-rich channel fills. We also reviewed previously conducted 3D geological models which consist of facies distributions and petrophysical properties distributions constructed from integration of 3D seismic data and a well data (A1 site) adopting a geostatistical approach. In order to test the practical validity of the previously generated models, cross-validation was conducted using AT1 well data. The

  2. Site descriptive modelling during characterization for a geological repository for nuclear waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroem, A.; Andersson, J.; Skagius, K.; Winberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish programme for geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is approaching major milestones in the form of permit applications for an encapsulation plant and a deep geologic repository. This paper presents an overview of the bedrock and surface modelling work that comprises a major part of the on-going site characterization in Sweden and that results in syntheses of the sites, called site descriptions. The site description incorporates descriptive models of the site and its regional setting, including the current state of the geosphere and the biosphere as well as natural processes affecting long-term evolution. The site description is intended to serve the needs of both repository engineering with respect to layout and construction, and safety assessment, with respect to long-term performance. The development of site-descriptive models involves a multi-disciplinary interpretation of geology, rock mechanics, thermal properties, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, transport properties and ecosystems using input in the form of available data for the surface and from deep boreholes

  3. Effects Of Hydrothermal Alteration On Magnetic Properties And Magnetic Signatures - Implications For Predictive Magnetic Exploration Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetics is the most widely used geophysical method in hard rock exploration and magnetic surveys are an integral part of exploration programs for many types of mineral deposit, including porphyry Cu, intrusive-related gold, volcanic-hosted epithermal Au, IOCG, VMS, and Ni sulfide deposits. However, the magnetic signatures of ore deposits and their associated mineralized systems are extremely variable and exploration that is based simply on searching for signatures that resemble those of known deposits and systems is rarely successful. Predictive magnetic exploration models are based upon well-established geological models, combined with magnetic property measurements and geological information from well-studied deposits, and guided by magnetic petrological understanding of the processes that create, destroy and modify magnetic minerals in rocks. These models are designed to guide exploration by predicting magnetic signatures that are appropriate to specific geological settings, taking into account factors such as tectonic province; protolith composition; post-formation tilting/faulting/ burial/ exhumation and partial erosion; and metamorphism. Patterns of zoned hydrothermal alteration are important indicators of potentially mineralized systems and, if properly interpreted, can provided vectors to ore. Magnetic signatures associated with these patterns at a range of scales can provide valuable information on prospectivity and can guide drilling, provided they are correctly interpreted in geological terms. This presentation reviews effects of the important types of hydrothermal alteration on magnetic properties within mineralized systems, with particular reference to porphyry copper and IOCG deposits. For example, an unmodified gold-rich porphyry copper system, emplaced into mafic-intermediate volcanic host rocks (such as Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina) exhibits an inner potassic zone that is strongly mineralized and magnetite-rich, which is surrounded by an outer

  4. U.S. Geological Survey: A synopsis of Three-dimensional Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Linda J.; Glynn, Pierre D.; Phelps, Geoff A.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Bawden, Gerald W.; Grauch, V.J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is a multidisciplinary agency that provides assessments of natural resources (geological, hydrological, biological), the disturbances that affect those resources, and the disturbances that affect the built environment, natural landscapes, and human society. Until now, USGS map products have been generated and distributed primarily as 2-D maps, occasionally providing cross sections or overlays, but rarely allowing the ability to characterize and understand 3-D systems, how they change over time (4-D), and how they interact. And yet, technological advances in monitoring natural resources and the environment, the ever-increasing diversity of information needed for holistic assessments, and the intrinsic 3-D/4-D nature of the information obtained increases our need to generate, verify, analyze, interpret, confirm, store, and distribute its scientific information and products using 3-D/4-D visualization, analysis, modeling tools, and information frameworks. Today, USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D tools to (1) visualize and interpret geological information, (2) verify the data, and (3) verify their interpretations and models. 3-D/4-D visualization can be a powerful quality control tool in the analysis of large, multidimensional data sets. USGS scientists use 3-D/4-D technology for 3-D surface (i.e., 2.5-D) visualization as well as for 3-D volumetric analyses. Examples of geological mapping in 3-D include characterization of the subsurface for resource assessments, such as aquifer characterization in the central United States, and for input into process models, such as seismic hazards in the western United States.

  5. Modeling in low-level radioactive waste management from the US Geological Survey perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.B.

    1980-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a long-standing proponent of using models as tools in geohydrologic investigations. These models vary from maps and core samples to elaborate digital computer algorithms, depending on the needed application and resources available. Being a non-regulatory scientific agency, the USGS uses models primarily for: improving modeling technology, testing hypotheses, management of water resources, providing technical advice to other agencies, parameter sensitivity analysis, and determination of parameter values (inverse problems). At low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, we are most interested in developing better capabilities for understanding the groundwater flor regime within and away from burial trenches, geochemical factors affecting nuclide concentration and mobility in groundwater, and the effects that various changes in the geohydrologic conditions have on groundwater flow and nuclide migration. Although the Geological Survey has modeling capabilities in a variety of complex problems, significant deficiencies and limitations remain in certain areas, such as fracture flow conditions and solute transport in the unsaturated zone. However, even more serious are the deficiencies in measuring or estimating adequate input data for models and verification of model utility on real problems. Flow and transport models are being used by the USGS in several low-level disposal site studies, with varying degrees of sucess

  6. Business Model Exploration for Software Defined Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yudi; Jansen, Slinger; España, Sergio; Zhang, Dong; Gao, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    Business modeling is becoming a foundational process in the information technology industry. Many ICT companies are constructing their business models to stay competitive on the cutting edge of the technology world. However, when comes to new technologies or emerging markets, it remains difficult

  7. Exploring the Standard Model of Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K. E.; Watkins, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a new particle at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) the Higgs boson could be about to be discovered. This paper provides a brief summary of the standard model of particle physics and the importance of the Higgs boson and field in that model for non-specialists. The role of Feynman diagrams in making predictions for…

  8. Utilization of Integrated Assessment Modeling for determining geologic CO2 storage security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been extensively studied as a potential technology to mitigate atmospheric concentration of CO2. Multiple international research & development efforts, large-scale demonstration and commercial projects are helping advance the technology. One of the critical areas of active investigation is prediction of long-term CO2 storage security and risks. A quantitative methodology for predicting a storage site's long-term performance is critical for making key decisions necessary for successful deployment of commercial scale projects where projects will require quantitative assessments of potential long-term liabilities. These predictions are challenging given that they require simulating CO2 and in-situ fluid movements as well as interactions through the primary storage reservoir, potential leakage pathways (such as wellbores, faults, etc.) and shallow resources such as groundwater aquifers. They need to take into account the inherent variability and uncertainties at geologic sites. This talk will provide an overview of an approach based on integrated assessment modeling (IAM) to predict long-term performance of a geologic storage site including, storage reservoir, potential leakage pathways and shallow groundwater aquifers. The approach utilizes reduced order models (ROMs) to capture the complex physical/chemical interactions resulting due to CO2 movement and interactions but are computationally extremely efficient. Applicability of the approach will be demonstrated through examples that are focused on key storage security questions such as what is the probability of leakage of CO2 from a storage reservoir? how does storage security vary for different geologic environments and operational conditions? how site parameter variability and uncertainties affect storage security, etc.

  9. Exploring RNA structure by integrative molecular modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masquida, Benoît; Beckert, Bertrand; Jossinet, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    RNA molecular modelling is adequate to rapidly tackle the structure of RNA molecules. With new structured RNAs constituting a central class of cellular regulators discovered every year, the need for swift and reliable modelling methods is more crucial than ever. The pragmatic method based...... on interactive all-atom molecular modelling relies on the observation that specific structural motifs are recurrently found in RNA sequences. Once identified by a combination of comparative sequence analysis and biochemical data, the motifs composing the secondary structure of a given RNA can be extruded...

  10. Application of modeling methods for an estimation of a specific activity 137Cs geologic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinovskij, A.K.; Batij, V.G.; Pravdivyj, A.A.; Krasnov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The manual application of methods of mathematical and physical modeling for an estimation of the specific activity 137 Cs in soils composing a geological profile of site of object 'Ukryttya' is demonstrated. The calculations are executed by the software packages of Micro Shield, CYCLON, MCNP5. The experimental measurements are carried out by logging radiometers of different type on the borehole models. The value of a conversion coefficient of infinite environment for quantitative interpretation of gamma-ray logging data is determined over calculations outcomes and experimental measurements. The calculated and experimental values have agreement among themselves. the error estimation of the obtained outcomes is executed. 26 refs., 3 tab., 10 figs

  11. Modeling the degradation of a metallic waste form intended for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Morris, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear reactors operating with metallic fuels have led to development of robust metallic waste forms intended to immobilize hazardous constituents in oxidizing environments. Release data from a wide range of tests where small waste form samples have been immersed in a variety of oxidizing solutions have been analyzed and fit to a mechanistically-derived 'logarithmic growth' form for waste form degradation. A bounding model is described which plausibly extrapolates these fits to long-term degradation in a geologic repository. The resulting empirically-fit degradation model includes dependence on solution pH, temperature, and chloride concentration as well as plausible estimates of statistical uncertainty. (authors)

  12. Geologic and geophysical models for Osage County, Oklahoma, with implications for groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Smith, David V.; Pantea, Michael P.; Becker, Carol J.

    2016-06-16

    This report summarizes a three-dimensional (3-D) geologic model that was constructed to provide a framework to investigate groundwater resources of the Osage Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. This report also presents an analysis of an airborne electromagnetic (AEM) survey that assessed the spatial variation of electrical resistivity to depths as great as 300 meters in the subsurface. The report and model provide support for a countywide assessment of groundwater resources, emphasizing the Upper Pennsylvanian rock units in the shallow subsurface of central and eastern Osage County having electrical resistivity properties that may indicate aquifers.

  13. Eliciting geologists' tacit model of the uncertainty of mapped geological boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. M.; Lawley, R. S.; Barron, A. J. M.; Aldiss, D. T.; Ambrose, K.; Cooper, A. H.; Lee, J. R.; Waters, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that geological linework, such as mapped boundaries, are uncertain for various reasons. It is difficult to quantify this uncertainty directly, because the investigation of error in a boundary at a single location may be costly and time consuming, and many such observations are needed to estimate an uncertainty model with confidence. However, it is also recognized across many disciplines that experts generally have a tacit model of the uncertainty of information that they produce (interpretations, diagnoses etc.) and formal methods exist to extract this model in usable form by elicitation. In this paper we report a trial in which uncertainty models for mapped boundaries in six geological scenarios were elicited from a group of five experienced geologists. In five cases a consensus distribution was obtained, which reflected both the initial individually elicted distribution and a structured process of group discussion in which individuals revised their opinions. In a sixth case a consensus was not reached. This concerned a boundary between superficial deposits where the geometry of the contact is hard to visualize. The trial showed that the geologists' tacit model of uncertainty in mapped boundaries reflects factors in addition to the cartographic error usually treated by buffering linework or in written guidance on its application. It suggests that further application of elicitation, to scenarios at an appropriate level of generalization, could be useful to provide working error models for the application and interpretation of linework.

  14. Public perceptions of geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  15. VLF surface-impedance modelling techniques for coal exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.; Thiel, D.; O' Keefe, S. [Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Faculty of Engineering and Physical Systems

    2000-10-01

    New and efficient computational techniques are required for geophysical investigations of coal. This will allow automated inverse analysis procedures to be used for interpretation of field data. In this paper, a number of methods of modelling electromagnetic surface impedance measurements are reviewed, particularly as applied to typical coal seam geology found in the Bowen Basin. At present, the Impedance method and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method appear to offer viable solutions although both have problems. The Impedance method is currently slightly inaccurate, and the FDTD method has large computational demands. In this paper both methods are described and results are presented for a number of geological targets. 17 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-01

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto's rocks are

  17. Geological 3D model of the investigation niche in ONKALO, Olkiluoto, southwestern Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koittola, N.

    2014-07-15

    The main goal of this Master of Science Thesis was to create a geological 3D-model of the investigation niche 3 and its surroundings. The model were created for the needs of the rock mechanical back analysis. This study is a part of Posiva's regional studies for characterization of the bedrock. Totally 4 models were created: lithological model, foliation model, fracture model, and physical rock property model. Besides the modeling, there was also made a study of the migmatite structures in the niche. Used geological and geophysical methods were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, ground penetration radar, mise-a-la-masse and drill hole geophysics. Four rock types exist at the niche area: veined gneiss, pegmatite granite, diatexitic gneiss and quartz gneiss. The lithological units were modeled primary with the drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and ground penetrating radar. The major lithological units followed the main foliation direction (south dipping). So the continuations were fairly easy to model in the walls and roof, where the data was lacking. Foliation and fractures were modeled as discs, with mid-points at the measurement points of the structure. There were two main foliation directions 164/46 and 62/39. Fractures were more scattered but three fracture sets can be separated: 156/34, 270/85 and 342/83. The first set is mainly from the drill core loggings, second and third from tunnel mapping. Used methods in foliation model were drill core loggings, tunnel mapping and drill hole geophysics. In fracture model used data was from drill core loggings, tunnel mapping, mise-a-la-masse measurements and drill core geophysic. Four anomalous zones were detected with the drill hole geophysics. Three of these zones were associated with intensely fractured zones and one was connected to exceptionally high mica content in the gneiss. Rocks of Olkiluoto are divided into gneisses and magmatic rocks in the geological mapping. Actually almost all Olkiluoto

  18. Possibilities of water run-off models by using geological information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeverland, H.; Kleeberg, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    The movement of water in a given region is determined by a number of regional factors, e.g. land use and topography. However, the available precipitation-runoff models take little account of this regional information. Geological information systems, on the other hand, are instruments for efficient management, presentation and evaluation of local information, so the best approach would be a combination of the two types of models. The requirements to be met by such a system are listed; they result from the processes to be modelled (continuous runoff, high-water runoff, mass transfer) but also from the available data and their acquisition and processing. Ten of the best-known precipitation-runoff models are presented and evaluated on the basis of the requirements listed. The basic concept of an integrated model is outlined, and additional modulus required for modelling are defined. (orig./BBR) [de

  19. New exploration on TMSR: modelling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, S.; Chen, Q.; Bei, H.; Zhao, J., E-mail: ssy@snerdi.com.cn [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research & Design Inst., Shanghai (China)

    2015-07-01

    A tightly coupled multi-physics model for MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) system involving the reactor core and the rest of the primary loop has been developed and employed in an in-house developed computer code TANG-MSR. In this paper, the computer code is used to simulate the behavior of steady state operation and transient for our redesigned TMSR. The presented simulation results demonstrate that the models employed in TANG-MSR can capture major physics phenomena in MSR and the redesigned TMSR has excellent performance of safety and sustainability. (author)

  20. Carbonatites of the World, Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.; Orris, Greta J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on published tonnage and grade data on 58 Nb- and rare-earth-element (REE)-bearing carbonatite deposits that are mostly well explored and are partially mined or contain resources of these elements. The deposits represent only a part of the known 527 carbonatites around the world, but they are characterized by reliable quantitative data on ore tonnages and grades of niobium and REE. Grade and tonnage models are an important component of mineral resource assessments. Carbonatites present one of the main natural sources of niobium and rare-earth elements, the economic importance of which grows consistently. A purpose of this report is to update earlier publications. New information about known deposits, as well as data on new deposits published during the last decade, are incorporated in the present paper. The compiled database (appendix 1; linked to right) contains 60 explored Nb- and REE-bearing carbonatite deposits - resources of 55 of these deposits are taken from publications. In the present updated grade-tonnage model we have added 24 deposits comparing with the previous model of Singer (1998). Resources of most deposits are residuum ores in the upper part of carbonatite bodies. Mineral-deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types vary significantly, and (2) deposits of different types are present in distinct geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models combine the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features and demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed deposit models allow geologists to deduce possible mineral-deposit types in a given geologic environment, and the grade and tonnage models allow economists to

  1. Exploring Yellowstone National Park with Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstrom, Megan H.; Carr, Ruth; Lackey, Dacia

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical modeling, a practice standard in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010), is a process by which students develop and use mathematics as a tool to make sense of the world around them. Students investigate a real-world situation by asking mathematical questions; along the way, they need to decide how to use…

  2. Modeling geologic storage of carbon dioxide: Comparison of non-hysteretic and hysteretic characteristic curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Numerical models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent the interactions of non-wetting-phase CO 2 and wetting-phase brine. When a problem includes both injection of CO 2 (a drainage process) and its subsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage and wetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctly capture the behavior of the CO 2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation, capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on the current grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturation in the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or only wetting, a non-hysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure and relative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-block saturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robust computationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability of the characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-point saturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Two example problems involving geologic CO 2 storage are simulated with TOUGH2, a multiphase, multicomponent code for flow and transport through geological media. Both non-hysteretic and hysteretic formulations are used, to illustrate the applicability and limitations of non-hysteretic methods. The first application considers leakage of CO 2 from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the second examines the role of heterogeneity within the storage formation

  3. Geodatabase model for global geologic mapping: concept and implementation in planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    One aim of the NASA Dawn mission is to generate global geologic maps of the asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. To accomplish this, the Dawn Science Team followed the technical recommendations for cartographic basemap production. The geological mapping campaign of Vesta was completed and published, but mapping of the dwarf planet Ceres is still ongoing. The tiling schema for the geological mapping is the same for both planetary bodies and for Ceres it is divided into two parts: four overview quadrangles (Survey Orbit, 415 m/pixel) and 15 more detailed quadrangles (High Altitude Mapping HAMO, 140 m/pixel). The first global geologic map was based on survey images (415 m/pixel). The combine 4 Survey quadrangles completed by HAMO data served as basis for generating a more detailed view of the geologic history and also for defining the chronostratigraphy and time scale of the dwarf planet. The most detailed view can be expected within the 15 mapping quadrangles based on HAMO resolution and completed by the Low Altitude Mapping (LAMO) data with 35 m/pixel. For the interpretative mapping process of each quadrangle one responsible mapper was assigned. Unifying the geological mapping of each quadrangle and bringing this together to regional and global valid statements is already a very time intensive task. However, another challenge that has to be accomplished is to consider how the 15 individual mappers can generate one homogenous GIS-based project (w.r.t. geometrical and visual character) thus produce a geologically-consistent final map. Our approach this challenge was already discussed for mapping of Vesta. To accommodate the map requirements regarding rules for data storage and database management, the computer-based GIS environment used for the interpretative mapping process must be designed in a way that it can be adjusted to the unique features of the individual investigation areas. Within this contribution the template will be presented that uses standards

  4. Understanding brittle deformation at the Olkiluoto site. Literature compilation for site characterization and geological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millnes, A.G.

    2006-07-01

    The present report arose from the belief that geological modelling at Olkiluoto, Finland, where an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel is at present under construction, could be significantly improved by an increased understanding of the phenomena being modelled, in conjunction with the more sophisticated data acquisition and processing methods which are now being introduced. Since the geological model is the necessary basis for the rock engineering and hydrological models, which in turn provide the foundation for identifying suitable rock volumes underground and for demonstrating longterm safety, its scientific basis is of critical importance. As a contribution to improving this scientific basis, the literature on brittle deformation in the Earth's crust has been reviewed, and key references chosen and arranged, with the particular geology of the Olkiluoto site in mind. The result is a compilation of scientific articles, reports and books on some of the key topics, which are of significance for an improved understanding of brittle deformation of hard, crystalline rocks, such as those typical for Olkiluoto. The report is subdivided into six Chapters, covering (1) background information, (2) important aspects of the fabric of intact rock, (3) fracture mechanics and brittle microtectonics, (4) fracture data acquisition and processing, for the statistical characterisation and modelling of fracture systems, (5) the characterisation of brittle deformation zones for deterministic modelling, and (6) the regional geological framework of the Olkiluoto site. The Chapters are subdivided into a number of Sections, and each Section into a number of Topics. The citations are mainly collected under each Topic, embedded in a short explanatory text or listed chronologically without comment. The systematic arrangement of Chapters, Sections and Topics is such that the Table of Contents can be used to focus quickly on the theme of interest without the necessity of looking

  5. The Effects of Realistic Geological Heterogeneity on Seismic Modeling: Applications in Shear Wave Generation and Near-Surface Tunnel Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Christopher Scott

    Naturally occurring geologic heterogeneity is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of seismic wave propagation. This dissertation presents a strategy for modeling the effects of heterogeneity using a combination of geostatistics and Finite Difference simulation. In the first chapter, I discuss my motivations for studying geologic heterogeneity and seis- mic wave propagation. Models based upon fractal statistics are powerful tools in geophysics for modeling heterogeneity. The important features of these fractal models are illustrated using borehole log data from an oil well and geomorphological observations from a site in Death Valley, California. A large part of the computational work presented in this disserta- tion was completed using the Finite Difference Code E3D. I discuss the Python-based user interface for E3D and the computational strategies for working with heterogeneous models developed over the course of this research. The second chapter explores a phenomenon observed for wave propagation in heteroge- neous media - the generation of unexpected shear wave phases in the near-source region. In spite of their popularity amongst seismic researchers, approximate methods for modeling wave propagation in these media, such as the Born and Rytov methods or Radiative Trans- fer Theory, are incapable of explaining these shear waves. This is primarily due to these method's assumptions regarding the coupling of near-source terms with the heterogeneities and mode conversion. To determine the source of these shear waves, I generate a suite of 3D synthetic heterogeneous fractal geologic models and use E3D to simulate the wave propaga- tion for a vertical point force on the surface of the models. I also present a methodology for calculating the effective source radiation patterns from the models. The numerical results show that, due to a combination of mode conversion and coupling with near-source hetero- geneity, shear wave energy on the order of 10% of the

  6. Bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin for marine geological investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Brothers, Daniel S.; Gardner, James V.; Lobecker, Elizabeth A.; Calder, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    A bathymetric terrain model of the Atlantic margin covering almost 725,000 square kilometers of seafloor from the New England Seamounts in the north to the Blake Basin in the south is compiled from existing multibeam bathymetric data for marine geological investigations. Although other terrain models of the same area are extant, they are produced from either satellite-derived bathymetry at coarse resolution (ETOPO1), or use older bathymetric data collected by using a combination of single beam and multibeam sonars (Coastal Relief Model). The new multibeam data used to produce this terrain model have been edited by using hydrographic data processing software to maximize the quality, usability, and cartographic presentation of the combined 100-meter resolution grid. The final grid provides the largest high-resolution, seamless terrain model of the Atlantic margin..

  7. MAJOR SOURCE OF SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR IMAGERY FOR RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION: THE U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Allan N.; Jones, John Edwin; ,

    1985-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) instituted a program in 1980 to acquire side-looking airbore radar (SLAR) data and make these data readily available to the public in a mosaic format comparable to the USGS 1:250,000-scale topographic map series. The SLAR data are also available as strip images at an acquisition scale of 1:250,000 or 1:400,000 (depending on the acquisition system), as a variety of print products and indexes, and in a limited amount in digital form on computer compatible tapes. Three different commercial X-band (3-cm) systems were used to acquire the imagery for producing the mosaics.

  8. Geological discrete-fracture network model (version 1) for the Olkiluoto site, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, A.; Buoro, A.; Dahlbo, K.; Wiren, L.

    2009-10-01

    This report describes the methods, analyses, and conclusions of the modelling team in the production of a discrete-fracture network (DFN) model for the Olkiluoto Site in Finland. The geological DFN is a statistical model for stochastically simulating rock fractures and minor faults at a scale ranging from approximately 0.05 m to approximately 500 m; an upper scale limit is not expressly defined, but the DFN model explicitly excludes structures at deformation-zone scales (∼ 500 m) and larger. The DFN model is presented as a series of tables summarizing probability distributions for several parameters necessary for fracture modelling: fracture orientation, fracture size, fracture intensity, and associated spatial constraints. The geological DFN is built from data collected during site characterization (SC) activities at Olkiluoto, which is currently planned to function as a final deep geological repository for spent fuel and nuclear waste from the Finnish nuclear power program. Data used in the DFN analyses include fracture maps from surface outcrops and trenches (as of July 2007), geological and structural data from cored boreholes (as of July 2007), and fracture information collected during the construction of the main tunnels and shafts at the ONKALO laboratory (January 2008). The modelling results suggest that the rock volume at Olkiluoto surrounding the ONKALO tunnel can be separated into three distinct volumes (fracture domains): an upper block, an intermediate block, and a lower block. The three fracture domains are bounded horizontally and vertically by large deformation zones. Fracture properties, such as fracture orientation and relative orientation set intensity, vary between fracture domains. The rock volume at Olkiluoto is dominated by three distinct fracture sets: subhorizontally-dipping fractures striking north-northeast and dipping to the east, a subvertically-dipping fracture set striking roughly north-south, and a subverticallydipping fracture set

  9. Geologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayland, T.E.; Rood, A.

    1983-01-01

    The modern Great Divide Basin is the end product of natural forces influenced by the Green River lake system, Laramide tectonism, and intermittent volcanic events. It ranks as one of the most complex structural and stratigtaphic features within the Tertiary basins of Wyoming. Portions of the Great Divide Basin and adjoining areas in Wyoming have been investigated by applying detailed and region exploration methods to known uranium deposits located within the Red Desert portions of the basin. Geologic field investigations conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporaton (Bendix) were restricted to reconnaissance observations made during infrequent visits to the project area by various Bendix personnel. Locations of the most comprehensive field activities are shown in Figure II-1. The principal source fo data for geologic studies of the Red Desert project area has been information and materials furnished by industry. Several hundred holes have been drilled by various groups to delineate the uranium deposits. Results from Bendix-drilled holes at selected locations within the project area are summarized in Table II-1. Additional details and gross subsurface characteristics are illustrated in cross sections; pertinent geologic features are illustrated in plan maps. Related details of continental sedimentation that pertain to the Wyoming Basins generally, and the project area specificially, are discussed in subsections of this Geologic Studies section

  10. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  11. Analytical Solution of Interface Effect on the Strength of Combined Model Composed of Different Geologic Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the special combined structure of surrounding rock in western mining area of China, a micromechanical model with variable parameters containing contact interface was proposed firstly. Then, the derived stresses in coal and rock near the interface were analyzed on the basis of the harmonized strain relation, and the analytical solutions with respect to stress states near the interface were drawn up. The triaxial compressive strength of coal and rock was further determined in case the contact interface was in the horizontal position. Moreover, effects of stiffness ratio, interface angle, and stress level on the strength of two bodies near the contact area were expounded in detail. Results indicate that additional stresses which have significant effect on the strength of combined model are derived due to the adhesive effect of contact interface and lithological differences between geologic bodies located on both sides. The interface effect on the strength of combined body is most associated with the stiffness, interface angle, and the stress level. These conclusions are also basically valid for three-body model and even for the multibody model and lay important theory foundation to guide the stability study of soft strata composed of different geologic bodies.

  12. Mercury's Early Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Klima, R. L.; Robinson, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    A combination of geologic mapping, compositional information, and geochemical models are providing a better understanding of Mercury's early geologic history, and allow us to place it in the context of the Moon and the terrestrial planets.

  13. Further Interpretation of the Relationship between Faunal Community and Seafloor Geology at Southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin: Exploring Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, K.; Kelley, D. S.; Marburg, A.; Delaney, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    In 2011, high-resolution, georeferenced photomoasiacs were taken of Einstein's Grotto, an active methane hydrate seep within the field at Southern Hydrate Ridge located 90 km west of Newport, Oregon at a water depth of 800 m. Methods used to analyze the relationships between the seep site, seafloor geology, and the spatial distribution and abundances of microbial and macrofaunal communities at Einstein's Grotto were expanded to three other sites over the 200 by 300 m active seep field. These seeps were documented in the same survey in 2011 conducted by the remotely operated vehicle ROPOS on board the R/V Thompson. Over 10,000 high definition images allowed for the further quantification and characterization of the diversity and structure of the faunal community at this seep field. The new results support the study's initial findings of high variability in the distribution and abundance of seep organisms across the field, with correlation to seafloor geology. The manual classification of organisms was also used to train a series of convolutional neural networks in Nvidia DIGITS and Google Tensorflow environments for automated identification. The developed networks proved highly accurate at background/non-background segmentation ( 96%) and slightly less reliable for fauna identification ( 89%). This study provides a baseline for the faunal community at the Southern Hydrate Ridge methane seeps and a more efficient computer assisted method for processing follow on studies.

  14. Two concepts of uranium geology in the United States of America that may be useful in Latin American uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curry, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Two concepts of the origin and deposition of uranium are described that are somewhat different from the conventional sandstone deposits of the United States of America. The first concept relates to granites as source and host rocks. Work done in the Granite Mountains of Wyoming provides considerable support for a granitic source. Calculations indicate that between 50 and 75% of the uranium has been leached from the granite to depths of nearly 400 m, and could have been source rocks for deposits in the Tertiary sandstones in adjacent basins. Areas of intense fracturing are also hosts for redeposition and concentration of uranium in granites of the Granite Mountains. The second concept describes resurgent cauldrons as source and host rocks. The development of resurgent cauldrons provides a variety of geological settings favourable for both intra-caldera deposits and deposits forming in adjacent basins. A collapsed caldera may contain a lake into which sediments from ejected material carrying uranium could be carried and into which direct contributions of uranium could come from the underlying magma. Weathering of uranium-bearing material deposited outside the caldera could provide uranium to be redeposited in conventional deposits such as roll fronts. Geological investigations carried out in the Great Basins of Utah and Nevada are cited. (author)

  15. Precambrian uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: exploration model and United States resource potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    Uranium has been discovered in fluvial quartz-pebble conglomerates in most of the Precambrian shield areas of the world, including the Canadian, African, South American, Indian, Baltic, and Australian shields. Occurrences in these and other areas are shown. Two of these occurrences, the Huronian supergroup of Canada and the Witwatersrand deposit of South Africa contain 20 to 30 percent of the planet's known uranium reserves. Thus it is critical that we understand the origin of these deposits and develop exploration models that can aid in finding new deposits. Inasmuch as these uranium-bearing conglomerates are confined almost entirely to rocks of Precambrian age, Part I of this review begins with a discussion of Precambrian geology as it applies to the conglomerates. This is followed by a discussion of genetic concepts, a discussion of unresolved problems, and finally a suggested exploration model. Part II summarizes known and potential occurrences of Precambrian fossil placers in the world and evaluates them in terms of the suggested exploration model. Part III discusses the potential for important Precambrian fossil-placer uranium deposits in the United States and includes suggestions that may be helpful in establishing an exploration program in this country. Part III also brings together new (1975-1978) data on uranium occurrences in the Precambrian of the Wyoming Province. Part IV is a complete bibliography of Precambrian fossil placers, divided according to geographical areas. In total, this paper is designed to be a comprehensive review of Precambrian uranium-bearing fossil placers which will be of use to uranium explorationists and to students of Precambrian geology

  16. Precambrian uranium-bearing quartz-pebble conglomerates: exploration model and United States resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.

    1979-11-01

    Uranium has been discovered in fluvial quartz-pebble conglomerates in most of the Precambrian shield areas of the world, including the Canadian, African, South American, Indian, Baltic, and Australian shields. Occurrences in these and other areas are shown. Two of these occurrences, the Huronian supergroup of Canada and the Witwatersrand deposit of South Africa contain 20 to 30 percent of the planet's known uranium reserves. Thus it is critical that we understand the origin of these deposits and develop exploration models that can aid in finding new deposits. Inasmuch as these uranium-bearing conglomerates are confined almost entirely to rocks of Precambrian age, Part I of this review begins with a discussion of Precambrian geology as it applies to the conglomerates. This is followed by a discussion of genetic concepts, a discussion of unresolved problems, and finally a suggested exploration model. Part II summarizes known and potential occurrences of Precambrian fossil placers in the world and evaluates them in terms of the suggested exploration model. Part III discusses the potential for important Precambrian fossil-placer uranium deposits in the United States and includes suggestions that may be helpful in establishing an exploration program in this country. Part III also brings together new (1975-1978) data on uranium occurrences in the Precambrian of the Wyoming Province. Part IV is a complete bibliography of Precambrian fossil placers, divided according to geographical areas. In total, this paper is designed to be a comprehensive review of Precambrian uranium-bearing fossil placers which will be of use to uranium explorationists and to students of Precambrian geology.

  17. A model for the transport of radionuclides and their decay products through geological media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkholder, H.C.; Rosinger, E.L.J.

    1979-09-01

    The one-dimensional trasport of radionuclides and their decay products from an underground nuclear waste isolation site through the surrounding geologic media to a surface environment is modeled. An ambiguity in the application of the previously-reported mathematical solution for this problem has been clarified. The results of applying the solution described here compare favorably with those of the former solution, but the present solution is computatonally more efficient and less subject to numerical errors. This solution is being used by the authors and others to evaluate the sensitivity of potential radoactivity releases into the environment to the characteristics of various nuclear waste isolation systems. (author)

  18. Semi-Infinite Geology Modeling Algorithm (SIGMA): a Modular Approach to 3D Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. C.; Crain, K.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional 3D gravity computations can take up to days, weeks, and even months, depending on the size and resolution of the data being modeled. Additional modeling runs, due to technical malfunctions or additional data modifications, only compound computation times even further. We propose a new modeling algorithm that utilizes vertical line elements to approximate mass, and non-gridded (point) gravity observations. This algorithm is (1) magnitudes faster than conventional methods, (2) accurate to less than 0.1% error, and (3) modular. The modularity of this methodology means that researchers can modify their geology/terrain or gravity data, and only the modified component needs to be re-run. Additionally, land-, sea-, and air-based platforms can be modeled at their observation point, without having to filter data into a synthesized grid.

  19. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems: geostatistical modeling of pore velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devary, J.L.; Doctor, P.G.

    1981-06-01

    A significant part of evaluating a geologic formation as a nuclear waste repository involves the modeling of contaminant transport in the surrounding media in the event the repository is breached. The commonly used contaminant transport models are deterministic. However, the spatial variability of hydrologic field parameters introduces uncertainties into contaminant transport predictions. This paper discusses the application of geostatistical techniques to the modeling of spatially varying hydrologic field parameters required as input to contaminant transport analyses. Kriging estimation techniques were applied to Hanford Reservation field data to calculate hydraulic conductivity and the ground-water potential gradients. These quantities were statistically combined to estimate the groundwater pore velocity and to characterize the pore velocity estimation error. Combining geostatistical modeling techniques with product error propagation techniques results in an effective stochastic characterization of groundwater pore velocity, a hydrologic parameter required for contaminant transport analyses

  20. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B G; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...... available through open-source policies, to standardize documentation and technical implementation of models, and to compare models through ensemble modelling and interdisciplinary approaches. We end with our perspective on how the field of aquatic ecosystem modelling might develop in the next 5–10 years...

  1. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.

    2015-06-01

    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  2. Prospectivity Modeling of Karstic Groundwater Using a Sequential Exploration Approach in Tepal Area, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Fereydoun; Arab-Amiri, Ali Reza; Kamkar-Rouhani, Abolghasem; Yousefi, Mahyar; Davoodabadi-Farahani, Meysam

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is water prospectivity modeling (WPM) for recognizing karstic water-bearing zones by using analyses of geo-exploration data in Kal-Qorno valley, located in Tepal area, north of Iran. For this, a sequential exploration method applied on geo-evidential data to delineate target areas for further exploration. In this regard, two major exploration phases including regional and local scales were performed. In the first phase, indicator geological features, structures and lithological units, were used to model groundwater prospectivity as a regional scale. In this phase, for karstic WPM, fuzzy lithological and structural evidence layers were generated and combined using fuzzy operators. After generating target areas using WPM, in the second phase geophysical surveys including gravimetry and geoelectrical resistivity were carried out on the recognized high potential zones as a local scale exploration. Finally the results of geophysical analyses in the second phase were used to select suitable drilling locations to access and extract karstic groundwater in the study area.

  3. A coalescence model for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart-Williams, V.; Taylor, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Uranium mineralization was found in the Pristerognathus-Diictodon Assemblage Zone of the Teekloof Formation, Beaufort Group, west of Beaufort West, Cape Province, South Africa. All the anomalies can be related to a single mineralization model. Mineralization is found at the termination of a silt parting between two coalescing sandstones and lies in the lower sandstone as an inclined zone dipping downflow from the termination of the silt parting. The existence of primary Eh-pH gradient is indicated by a uranium-molybdenum zonation, the molybdenum lying above the uranium mineralization. The upper sandstone was an oxidizing fluvial channel in an arid environment through which uranyl carbonate was being transported in solution. Carbonaceous material undergoing anaerobic bacterial breakdown generated a weakly reducing fluid in the lower sandstone. Carbonaceous material at the REDOX front developed between the two mixing fluids at the point of sandstone coalescence reduced uranyl carbonates in solution. Once reduced the uranium minerals remained stable because the conditions in the REDOX front were only very weakly oxidizing. As floodplain aggradation continued, the upper sandstone was buried and the entire sandstone couplet became reducing, permanently stabilizing the uranium mineralization

  4. Study on fine geological modelling of the fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oilfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhoa Han-Qing [Daqing Research Institute, Helongjiang (China)

    1997-08-01

    These paper aims at developing a method for fine reservoir description in maturing oilfields by using close spaced well logging data. The main productive reservoirs in Daqing oilfield is a set of large fluvial-deltaic deposits in the Songliao Lake Basin, characterized by multi-layers and serious heterogeneities. Various fluvial channel sandstone reservoirs cover a fairly important proportion of reserves. After a long period of water flooding, most of them have turned into high water cut layers, but there are considerable residual reserves within them, which are difficult to find and tap. Making fine reservoir description and developing sound a geological model is essential for tapping residual oil and enhancing oil recovery. The principal reason for relative lower precision of predicting model developed by using geostatistics is incomplete recognition of complex distribution of fluvial reservoirs and their internal architecture`s. Tasking advantage of limited outcrop data from other regions (suppose no outcrop data available in oilfield) can only provide the knowledge of subtle changing of reservoir parameters and internal architecture. For the specific geometry distribution and internal architecture of subsurface reservoirs (such as in produced regions) can be gained only from continuous infilling logging well data available from studied areas. For developing a geological model, we think the first important thing is to characterize sandbodies geometries and their general architecture`s, which are the framework of models, and then the slight changing of interwell parameters and internal architecture`s, which are the contents and cells of the model. An excellent model should possess both of them, but the geometry is the key to model, because it controls the contents and cells distribution within a model.

  5. Contribution of geological and geophysical 3D models to the development of the polymetallic deposit of Draa Sfar (Hercinian Massif of Central Jebilets, Morocco); Apport du modele geologique et geophysique 3D dans le developpement du gisement polymetallique de Draa Sfar (Massif hercynien des Jebilet centrales, Maroc)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rziki, S.; Alansari, A.; Mouguina, E. M.; Simard, J.; Zouhair, M.; Maacha, L.

    2012-11-01

    The compilation of geological and geophysical (magnetic and gravity) data and the development of the corresponding three-dimensional models have allowed the recognition of the deep mineralized structures, and helped the reopening of the mining after 23 years of inactivity. Geological resources were increased tenfold in three years to reach 10Mt at 5.39% Zn, 1.94% Pb and 0.34% Cu. This exploration methodology based on three-dimensional geological and geophysical models becomes increasingly used in mining exploration strategy after the improvement in the computing capacities of the modelling tools. The results from this study could be helpful for the development of mining massive sulphide deposits in the Jebilet province of Guemassa and by extension to other deposits with similar geological and metallogenic characteristics. (Author) 17 refs.

  6. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainties simulation of the migration of radionuclide in the system of geological disposal-CRP-GEORC model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Rui; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming; Zong Zihua; Zhao Honggang

    2008-01-01

    CRP-GEORC concept model is an artificial system of geological disposal for High-Level radioactive waste. Sensitivity analysis and uncertainties simulation of the migration of radionuclide Se-79 and I-129 in the far field of this system by using GoldSim Code have been conducted. It can be seen from the simulation results that variables used to describe the geological features and characterization of groundwater flow are sensitive variables of whole geological disposal system. The uncertainties of parameters have remarkable influence on the simulation results. (authors)

  7. Study on experimental models to analyze radionuclide migration behaviors through porous geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2012-08-01

    The migration phenomenon of radionuclide through geological media such as soils and porous rocks, which is important in underground disposal of radioactive wastes, can be described by the advection-dispersion of groundwater and the interactions of radionuclide with geological media. On the other hand, to understand the migration phenomenon, actual migration data are experimentally acquired by a batch test, a column test and field trial. In the present study, experimental models about the interactions of radionuclide between the solid phase and the liquid phase were discussed systematically to interpret the migration data acquired by the various techniques and conditions. Equilibrium, reversibility, linearity, mechanism and chemistry in the interactions were considered in discussion of the experimental models. A calculation program, which can analyze migration data obtained under various conditions by applying the selected 9 types of experimental models, was maintained. The calculation program makes it be able to predict the migration behavior of radionuclide under various conditions and to decide the important parameter by a fitting analysis of the migration data. (author)

  8. Detailed geologic modeling of a turbidity reservoir interval at the Mars discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahaffie, M.J.; Chapin, M.A. [Shell Exploration and Production Technology Co. (United States); Henry, W.A. [Shell Offshore, Inc. (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Detailed reservoir architecture studies using high resolution seismic data coupled with geologic and seismic inversion modeling have been used to evaluate a major hydrocarbon bearing turbidite reservoir found within Prospect Mars. Early interpretations of this interval, based on lower frequency (40 Hz) seismic data, indicated the presence of a single, laterally continuous event covering an area nearly 3 miles square ({approx} 5200 acres). Correlations from well control supported the notion that this seismic event comprised a series of continuous sheet sands exhibiting a high degree of lateral continuity and connectivity. However pressure data taken during fluid sampling of the reservoir suggested the possibility of discontinuities not observed within the resolution of the seismic data. Seismic reprocessing enhancements to increase frequency content revealed the presence of multiple stratigraphic features not previously recognized. Detailed seismic mapping using loop-level seismic attributes and seismic inversion studies constrained by geologic models provide a more realistic depiction of the environment of deposition and improve reservoir simulation modeling for this stratigraphic interval. (author). 3 figs

  9. Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.

  10. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  11. Research on geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aims of this research are to develop criteria for reviewing reliability and suitability of the result from Preliminary Investigations to be submitted by the implementer, and to establish a basic policy for safety review. For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Preliminary Investigations, we evaluated the uncertainties and their influence from limited amount of investigations, as well as we identified important procedures during investigations and constructions of models, as follows: (1) uncertainties after limited amount of geological exploration and drilling, (2) influence of uncertainties in regional groundwater flow model, (3) uncertainties of DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models in the fractured rock, (4) analyzed investigation methods described in implementer's report, and (5) identified important aspects in investigation which need to be reviewed and follow QA (Quality Assurance). For development of reliability and suitability criteria for reviewing the result of Detailed Investigations, we analyzed important aspects in investigation which supplies data to design and safety assessment, as well as studied the applicability of pressure interference data during excavation to verify hydrogeological model. Regarding the research for safety review, uncertainties of geologic process in long time-scale was studied. In FY2012, we started to evaluate the structural stabilities of concrete and bentonite in disposal environment. Finally, we continued to accumulate the knowledge on geological disposal into the database system. (author)

  12. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noted that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  13. Parameterizing sub-surface drainage with geology to improve modeling streamflow responses to climate in data limited environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Tague

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic models are one of the core tools used to project how water resources may change under a warming climate. These models are typically applied over a range of scales, from headwater streams to higher order rivers, and for a variety of purposes, such as evaluating changes to aquatic habitat or reservoir operation. Most hydrologic models require streamflow data to calibrate subsurface drainage parameters. In many cases, long-term gage records may not be available for calibration, particularly when assessments are focused on low-order stream reaches. Consequently, hydrologic modeling of climate change impacts is often performed in the absence of sufficient data to fully parameterize these hydrologic models. In this paper, we assess a geologic-based strategy for assigning drainage parameters. We examine the performance of this modeling strategy for the McKenzie River watershed in the US Oregon Cascades, a region where previous work has demonstrated sharp contrasts in hydrology based primarily on geological differences between the High and Western Cascades. Based on calibration and verification using existing streamflow data, we demonstrate that: (1 a set of streams ranging from 1st to 3rd order within the Western Cascade geologic region can share the same drainage parameter set, while (2 streams from the High Cascade geologic region require a different parameter set. Further, we show that a watershed comprised of a mixture of High and Western Cascade geologies can be modeled without additional calibration by transferring parameters from these distinctive High and Western Cascade end-member parameter sets. More generally, we show that by defining a set of end-member parameters that reflect different geologic classes, we can more efficiently apply a hydrologic model over a geologically complex landscape and resolve geo-climatic differences in how different watersheds are likely to respond to simple warming scenarios.

  14. Constructing a large-scale 3D Geologic Model for Analysis of the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J; Myers, S

    2008-04-09

    We have constructed a regional 3D geologic model of the southern Great Basin, in support of a seismic wave propagation investigation of the 1993 Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The model is centered on the NPE and spans longitude -119.5{sup o} to -112.6{sup o} and latitude 34.5{sup o} to 39.8{sup o}; the depth ranges from the topographic surface to 150 km below sea level. The model includes the southern half of Nevada, as well as parts of eastern California, western Utah, and a portion of northwestern Arizona. The upper crust is constrained by both geologic and geophysical studies, while the lower crust and upper mantle are constrained by geophysical studies. The mapped upper crustal geologic units are Quaternary basin fill, Tertiary deposits, pre-Tertiary deposits, intrusive rocks of all ages, and calderas. The lower crust and upper mantle are parameterized with 5 layers, including the Moho. Detailed geologic data, including surface maps, borehole data, and geophysical surveys, were used to define the geology at the NTS. Digital geologic outcrop data were available for both Nevada and Arizona, whereas geologic maps for California and Utah were scanned and hand-digitized. Published gravity data (2km spacing) were used to determine the thickness of the Cenozoic deposits and thus estimate the depth of the basins. The free surface is based on a 10m lateral resolution DEM at the NTS and a 90m lateral resolution DEM elsewhere. Variations in crustal thickness are based on receiver function analysis and a framework compilation of reflection/refraction studies. We used Earthvision (Dynamic Graphics, Inc.) to integrate the geologic and geophysical information into a model of x,y,z,p nodes, where p is a unique integer index value representing the geologic unit. For seismic studies, the geologic units are mapped to specific seismic velocities. The gross geophysical structure of the crust and upper mantle is taken from regional surface

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Non-Fickian Diffusional Mass Exchange of Radioactive Contaminants in Geological Disposal Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Suzuki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes consist of both engineered and natural geologic barriers to isolate the radioactive material from the human environment. Inappropriate repositories of nuclear waste would cause severe contamination to nearby aquifers. In this complex environment, mass transport of radioactive contaminants displays anomalous behaviors and often produces power-law tails in breakthrough curves due to spatial heterogeneities in fractured rocks, velocity dispersion, adsorption, and decay of contaminants, which requires more sophisticated models beyond the typical advection-dispersion equation. In this paper, accounting for the mass exchange between a fracture and a porous matrix of complex geometry, the universal equation of mass transport within a fracture is derived. This equation represents the generalization of the previously used models and accounts for anomalous mass exchange between a fracture and porous blocks through the introduction of the integral term of convolution type and fractional derivatives. This equation can be applied for the variety of processes taking place in the complex fractured porous medium, including the transport of radioactive elements. The Laplace transform method was used to obtain the solution of the fractional diffusion equation with a time-dependent source of radioactive contaminant.

  16. Engineering-Geological Data Model - The First Step to Build National Polish Standard for Multilevel Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżyński, Grzegorz; Nałęcz, Tomasz

    2016-10-01

    The efficient geological data management in Poland is necessary to support multilevel decision processes for government and local authorities in case of spatial planning, mineral resources and groundwater supply and the rational use of subsurface. Vast amount of geological information gathered in the digital archives and databases of Polish Geological Survey (PGS) is a basic resource for multi-scale national subsurface management. Data integration is the key factor to allow development of GIS and web tools for decision makers, however the main barrier for efficient geological information management is the heterogeneity of data in the resources of the Polish Geological Survey. Engineering-geological database is the first PGS thematic domain applied in the whole data integration plan. The solutions developed within this area will facilitate creation of procedures and standards for multilevel data management in PGS. Twenty years of experience in delivering digital engineering-geological mapping in 1:10 000 scale and archival geotechnical reports acquisition and digitisation allowed gathering of more than 300 thousands engineering-geological boreholes database as well as set of 10 thematic spatial layers (including foundation conditions map, depth to the first groundwater level, bedrock level, geohazards). Historically, the desktop approach was the source form of the geological-engineering data storage, resulting in multiple non-correlated interbase datasets. The need for creation of domain data model emerged and an object-oriented modelling (UML) scheme has been developed. The aim of the aforementioned development was to merge all datasets in one centralised Oracle server and prepare the unified spatial data structure for efficient web presentation and applications development. The presented approach will be the milestone toward creation of the Polish national standard for engineering-geological information management. The paper presents the approach and methodology

  17. ON DISCRETE STRUCTURE OF GEOLOGIC MEDIUM AND CONTINUAL APPROACH TO MODELING ITS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sh. A. Mukhamediev

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the structure of a geologic medium represented by accessible lithified rocks and provides an overview of methods used to describe its movements. Two basic opinions are considered in the framework of the discussion: (1) an initially homogeneous and continuous geologic medium acquires the structure composed of blocks in the process of the geologic medium’s deformation/destruction/degradation, and (2) a geologic medium is composed of blocks (and often has hierarchic, active,...

  18. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    To meet the EU's ambitious targets for carbon emission reduction, renewable energy production has to be strongly upgraded and made more efficient for grid energy storage. Alpine Foreland Basins feature a unique geological inventory which can contribute substantially to tackle these challenges. They offer a geothermal potential and storage capacity for compressed air, as well as space for underground storage of CO2. Exploiting these natural subsurface resources will strongly compete with existing oil and gas claims and groundwater issues. The project GeoMol will provide consistent 3-dimensional subsurface information about the Alpine Foreland Basins based on a holistic and transnational approach. Core of the project GeoMol is a geological framework model for the entire Northern Molasse Basin, complemented by five detailed models in pilot areas, also in the Po Basin, which are dedicated to specific questions of subsurface use. The models will consist of up to 13 litho-stratigraphic horizons ranging from the Cenozoic basin fill down to Mesozoic and late Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and the crystalline basement. More than 5000 wells and 28 000 km seismic lines serve as input data sets for the geological subsurface model. The data have multiple sources and various acquisition dates, and their interpretations have gone through several paradigm changes. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the data with regards to technical parameters and content prior to further analysis (cf. Capar et al. 2013, EGU2013-5349). Each partner will build its own geological subsurface model with different software solutions for seismic interpretation and 3d-modelling. Therefore, 3d-modelling follows different software- and partner-specific workflows. One of the main challenges of the project is to ensure a seamlessly fitting framework model. It is necessary to define several milestones for cross border checks during the whole modelling process. Hence, the main input data set of the

  19. Fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow model for nonliner geologic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    A single model is presented which describes fully coupled thermal-mechanical-fluid flow behavior of highly nonlinear, dynamic or quasistatic, porous geologic systems. The mathematical formulation for the model utilizes the continuum theory of mixtures to describe the multiphase nature of the system, and incremental linear constitutive theory to describe the path dependency of nonlinear material behavior. The model, incorporated in an explicit finite difference numerical procedure, was implemented in two different computer codes. A special-purpose one-dimensional code, SNEAKY, was written for initial validation of the coupling mechanisms and testing of the coupled model logic. A general purpose commercially available code, STEALTH, developed for modeling dynamic nonlinear thermomechanical processes, was modified to include fluid flow behavior and the coupling constitutive model. The fully explicit approach in the coupled calculation facilitated the inclusion of the coupling mechanisms and complex constitutive behavior. Analytical solutions pertaining to consolidation theory for soils, thermoelasticity for solids, and hydrothermal convection theory provided verification of stress and fluid flow, stress and conductive heat transfer, and heat transfer and fluid flow couplings, respectively, in the coupled model. A limited validation of the adequacy of the coupling constitutive assumptions was also performed by comparison with the physical response from two laboratory tests. Finally, the full potential of the coupled model is illustrated for geotechnical applications in energy-resource related areas. Examples in the areas of nuclear waste isolation and cut-and-fill mining are cited

  20. Modeling of container failure and radionuclide release from a geologic nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Lak; Kim, Jhin Wung; Choi, Kwang Sub; Cho, Chan Hee

    1989-02-01

    Generally, two processes are involved in leaching and dissolution; (1) chemical reactions and (2) mass transfer by diffusion. The chemical reaction controls the dissolution rates only during the early stage of exposure to groundwater. The exterior-field mass transfer may control the long-term dissolution rates from the waste solid in a geologic repository. Masstransfer analyses rely on detailed and careful application of the governing equations that describe the mechanistic processes of transport of material between and within phases. We develop analytical models to predict the radionuclide release rate into the groundwater with five different approaches: a measurement-based model, a diffusion model, a kinetics model, a diffusion-and-kinetics model, and a modified diffusion model. We also collected experimental leaching data for a partial validation of the radionuclide release model based on the mass transfer theory. Among various types of corrosions, pitting is the most significant because of its rapid growth. The failure time of the waste container, which also can be interpreted as the containment time, is a milestone of the performance of a repository. We develop analytical models to predict the pit growth rate on the container surface with three different approaches: an experimental method, a statistical method, and a mathematical method based on the diffusion theory. (Author)

  1. The evolution, approval and implementation of the U.S. Geological Survey Science Data Lifecycle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.; Hutchison, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    This paper details how the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Community for Data Integration (CDI) Data Management Working Group developed a Science Data Lifecycle Model, and the role the Model plays in shaping agency-wide policies. Starting with an extensive literature review of existing data Lifecycle models, representatives from various backgrounds in USGS attended a two-day meeting where the basic elements for the Science Data Lifecycle Model were determined. Refinements and reviews spanned two years, leading to finalization of the model and documentation in a formal agency publication . The Model serves as a critical framework for data management policy, instructional resources, and tools. The Model helps the USGS address both the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) for increased public access to federally funded research, and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2013 Open Data directives, as the foundation for a series of agency policies related to data management planning, metadata development, data release procedures, and the long-term preservation of data. Additionally, the agency website devoted to data management instruction and best practices (www2.usgs.gov/datamanagement) is designed around the Model’s structure and concepts. This paper also illustrates how the Model is being used to develop tools for supporting USGS research and data management processes.

  2. 3D Geological modelling of the Monfrague synform: a value added to the geologic heritage of the National Park; Modelo geologico 3D de la estructura en sinforme de Monfrague: un valor anadido al patrimonio geologico del Parque Nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumiel, P.; Arias, M.; Monteserin, V.; Segura, M.

    2010-07-01

    3D geological modelling of a tectonic structure called the Monfrague synform has been carried out to obtain a better insight into the geometry of this folding structure. It is a kilometric variscan WNW-ESE trending fold verging towards north and made up by a Palaeozoic sequence (Ordovician-Silurian).This structure with its lithology make up the morphology and the relief of the Park. The Monfrague synform is an asymmetrical folding structure showing southern limb dipping steeply to the south (reverse limb) what is well observed in the Armorican Quartzite at the Salto del Gitano. However, northern limb dips gently (less than 40 degree centigrade) to the south (normal limb). 3D geological modelling has been built on the basis of the geological knowledge and the structural interpretation, using 3D GeoModeller. (www.geomodeller.com). In this software, lithological units are described by a stratigraphic pile. A major original feature of this software is that the 3D description of the geological space is achieved through a potential field formulation in which geological boundaries are isopotential surfaces, and their dips are represented by gradients of the potential. Finally, it is emphasized the idea that a 3D geologic model of these characteristics, with its three-dimensional representation, together with suitable geological sections that clarify the structure in depth, represents a value added to the Geologic Heritage of the National Park and besides it supposes an interesting academic exercise which have a great didactic value. (Author)

  3. A user interface for the Kansas Geological Survey slug test model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esling, Steven P; Keller, John E

    2009-01-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) developed a semianalytical solution for slug tests that incorporates the effects of partial penetration, anisotropy, and the presence of variable conductivity well skins. The solution can simulate either confined or unconfined conditions. The original model, written in FORTRAN, has a text-based interface with rigid input requirements and limited output options. We re-created the main routine for the KGS model as a Visual Basic macro that runs in most versions of Microsoft Excel and built a simple-to-use Excel spreadsheet interface that automatically displays the graphical results of the test. A comparison of the output from the original FORTRAN code to that of the new Excel spreadsheet version for three cases produced identical results.

  4. Probabilistic modelling of rock damage: application to geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, N.

    2010-01-01

    The storage of CO 2 in deep geological formations is considered as a possible way to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The condition of the rocks constituting the reservoir is a key parameter on which rely both storage safety and efficiency. The objective of this thesis is to characterize the risks generated by a possible change of mechanical and transfer properties of the material of the basement after an injection of CO 2 . Large-scale simulations aiming at representing the process of injection of CO 2 at the supercritical state into an underground reservoir were performed. An analysis of the obtained stress fields shows the possibility of generating various forms of material degradation for high injection rates. The work is devoted to the study of the emergence of opened cracks. Following an analytical and simplified study of the initiation and growth of opened cracks based on a probabilistic model, it is shown that the formation of a crack network is possible. The focus is then to develop in the finite element code Code Aster a numerical tool to simulate the formation of crack networks. A nonlocal model based on stress regularization is proposed. A test on the stress intensity factor is used to describe crack propagation. The initiation of new cracks is modeled by a Poisson-Weibull process. The used parameters are identified by an experimental campaign conducted on samples from an actual geological site for CO 2 storage. The model developed is then validated on numerical cases, and also against experimental results carried out herein. (author)

  5. Subsurface geological modeling using GIS and remote sensing data: a case study from Platanos landslide, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavoura, K.; Kordouli, M.; Nikolakopoulos, K.; Elias, P.; Sykioti, O.; Tsagaris, V.; Drakatos, G.; Rondoyanni, Th.; Tsiambaos, G.; Sabatakakis, N.; Anastasopoulos, V.

    2014-08-01

    Landslide phenomena constitute a major geological hazard in Greece and especially in the western part of the country as a result of anthropogenic activities, growing urbanization and uncontrolled land - use. More frequent triggering events and increased susceptibility of the ground surface to instabilities as consequence of climate change impacts (continued deforestation mainly due to the devastating forest wildfires and extreme meteorological events) have also increased the landslide risk. The studied landslide occurrence named "Platanos" has been selected within the framework of "Landslide Vulnerability Model - LAVMO" project that aims at creating a persistently updated electronic platform assessing risks related with landslides. It is a coastal area situated between Korinthos and Patras at the northwestern part of the elongated graben of the Corinth Gulf. The paper presents the combined use of geological-geotechnical insitu data, remote sensing data and GIS techniques for the evaluation of a subsurface geological model. High accuracy Digital Surface Model (DSM), airphotos mosaic and satellite data, with a spatial resolution of 0.5m were used for an othophoto base map compilation of the study area. Geological - geotechnical data obtained from exploratory boreholes were digitized and implemented in a GIS platform with engineering geological maps for a three - dimensional subsurface model evaluation. This model is provided for being combined with inclinometer measurements for sliding surface location through the instability zone.

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Mathematical Modelling and Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Trevor; Sheehy, Joanne; Brown, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the notion that the discourse of the mathematics classroom impacts on the practices that students engage when modelling mathematics. Using excerpts of a Year 12 student's report on modelling Newton's law of cooling, this paper argues that when students engage with the discourse of their mathematics classroom in a manner that…

  7. Identification of mineralized zones in the Zardu area, Kushk SEDEX deposit (Central Iran, based on geological and multifractal modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahooei Ahmad Heidari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to delineate the different lead–zinc mineralized zones in the Zardu area of the Kushk zinc–lead stratabound SEDEX deposit, Central Iran, through concentration–volume (C–V modeling of geological and lithogeochemical drillcore data. The geological model demonstrated that the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types as main rock types hosting mineralization. The C–V fractal modeling used lead, zinc and iron geochemical data to outline four types of mineralized zones, which were then compared to the mineralized rock types identified in the geological model. ‘Enriched’ mineralized zones contain lead and zinc values higher than 6.93% and 19.95%, respectively, with iron values lower than 12.02%. Areas where lead and zinc values were higher than 1.58% and 5.88%, respectively, and iron grades lower than 22% are labelled “high-grade” mineralized zones, and these zones are linked to massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite lithologies of the geological model. Weakly mineralized zones, labelled ‘low-grade’ in the C– V model have 0–0.63% lead, 0–3.16% zinc and > 30.19% iron, and are correlated to those lithological units labeled as gangue in the geological model, including shales and dolomites, pyritized dolomites. Finally, a log-ratio matrix was employed to validate the results obtained and check correlations between the geological and fractal modeling. Using this method, a high overall accuracy (OA was confirmed for the correlation between the enriched and high-grade mineralized zones and two lithological units — the massive sulfide and pyrite+dolomite ore types.

  8. Advances in the exploration model for Athabasca unconformity uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, K.; Murphy, J.; Leppin, M.; Cutts, C.; Climie, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper covers the genetic model of ore formation and exploration techniques Uranerz Exploration and Mining is presently using to explore for unconformity uranium deposits in the deeper parts of the Athabasca Basin. The main objectives of this paper are: 1) to present a genetic model for unconformity uranium deposits which is being used in our current exploration strategy, and 2) to present the sequence of exploration techniques used by Uranerz to explore for uranium in areas of the Athabasca Basin with up to 1000 m of sandstone cover. The Athabasca unconformity deposits are located in northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Within the Precambrian Athabasca Basin, exploration companies have discovered 18 uranium deposits. These contain more than 500 million kilograms of uranium, with average grades ranging from 0.3 to 12%. Uranerz discovered the Key Lake deposits in 1975, currently the largest and richest open pit uranium mine in the world. Uranerz also holds interests in the Rabbit Lake, Midwest Lake and McArthur River deposits, all in Saskatchewan, and is also actively exploring for uranium worldwide. The first discovery in the eastern Athabasca Basin was in 1968 at Rabbit Lake, followed by Key Lake in 1975. Both deposits had surficial indicators, such as radioactive boulders, strong geochemical anomalies in the surrounding lakes and swamps, and well-defined geophysical signatures. After the Key Lake discovery, an exploration model was devised which incorporated the underlying graphitic horizon and its strong electro-magnetic signature. Since then, there have been numerous new discoveries made by systematically drilling along these electro-magnetic conductors. The advancements in geophysical and geochemical techniques have led to discoveries at increasing depths. In 1988, the McArthur River deposit was discovered at a depth of 500 m. (author). 6 refs

  9. Modelling of radionuclide transport along the underground access structures of deep geological repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poller, A. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); Smith, P. [SAM Switzerland GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mayer, G.; Hayek, M. [AF-Consult Switzerland AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    The arrangement and sealing of the access routes to a deep geological repository for radioactive waste should ensure that any radionuclide release from the emplacement rooms during the post closure phase does not by-pass the geological barriers of the repository system to a significant extent. The base case of the present study, where realistic values for the hydraulic properties of the seals and the associated excavation damage zones were assumed, assesses to what extent this is actually the case for different layout variants (ramp and shaft access and shaft access only). Furthermore, as a test of robustness of system performance against uncertainties related to such seals and the associated excavation damage zones, the present study also considers a broad spectrum of calculation cases including the hypothetical possibility that the seals perform much more poorly than expected and to check whether, consequently, the repository tunnel system and the access structures may provide significant release pathways. The study considers a generic repository system for high-level waste (HLW repository) and for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW repository), both with Opalinus Clay as the host rock. It also considers the alternative possibilities of a ramp or a shaft as the access route for material transport (waste packages, etc.) to the underground facilities. Additional shafts, e.g. for the transport of persons and for ventilation, are included in both cases. The overall modelling approach consists of three broad steps: (a) the network of tunnels and access structures is implemented in a flow model, which serves to calculate water flow rates along the tunnels and through the host rock; (b) all relevant transport paths are implemented in a radionuclide release and transport model, the water flow rates being obtained from the preceding flow model calculations; (c) individual effective dose rates arising from the radionuclides released from the considered repository

  10. A three-dimensional model of the Pyrenees and their foreland basins from geological and gravimetric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehr, H.; Chevrot, S.; Courrioux, G.; Guillen, A.

    2018-06-01

    We construct a three-dimensional geological model of the Pyrenees and their foreland basins with the Geomodeller. This model, which accounts for different sources of geological and geophysical informations, covers the whole Pyrenees, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, and from the Iberian range to the Massif Central, down to 70 km depth. We model the geological structure with a stratigraphic column composed of a superposition of layers representing the mantle, lower, middle, and upper crusts. The sedimentary basins are described by two layers which allow us to make the distinction between Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments, which are characterized by markedly different densities and seismic velocities. Since the Pyrenees result from the convergence between the Iberian and European plates, we ascribe to each plate its own stratigraphic column in order to be able to model the imbrication of Iberian and European crusts along this fossile plate boundary. We also introduce two additional units which describe the orogenic prism and the water column in the Bay of Biscay and in the Mediterranean Sea. The last ingredient is a unit that represents bodies of shallow exhumed and partly serpentinized lithospheric mantle, which are assumed to produce the positive Bouguer gravity anomalies in the North Pyrenean Zone. A first 3D model is built using only the geological information coming from geological maps, drill-holes, and seismic sections. We use the potential field method implemented in Geomodeller to interpolate these geological data. This model is then refined in order to better explain the observed Bouguer anomalies by adding new constraints on the main crustal interfaces. The final model explains the observed Bouguer anomalies with a standard deviation less than 3.4 mGal, and reveals anomalous deep structures beneath the eastern Pyrenees.

  11. Geological significance of paleo-aulacogen and exploration potential of reef flat gas reservoirs in the Western Sichuan Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Confirming thick hydrocarbon generation center and discovering thick porous reservoirs are two key factors to start the Permian gas exploration of the Western Sichuan Depression. In this paper, the Sinian-Cambrian structures of this area were studied by adopting the layer-flattening technology and the Lower Paleozoic thickness map was prepared in order to describe the Permian hydrocarbon generation center. Then, combined with seismic facies analysis and field outcrop bioherm discovery, the distribution of Middle Permian reef flat reservoirs were predicted. Finally, the favorable conditions for reef flat reservoir dolomitization were analyzed based on fault features. The study indicates that: (1 Sinian top represents a huge depression in the profile flatted by the reflecting interface of Permian bottom, with normal faults filled by thick Lower Paleozoic sediments at both sides, revealing that a aulacogen formed during the Khanka taphrogeny exists in the Western Sichuan Depression, where very thick Cambrian strata may contain hydrocarbon generation center, making Permian strata have the material conditions for the formation of large gas pools; (2 the Middle Permian strata in the Western Sichuan Depression exhibit obvious abnormal response in reef flat facies, where three large abnormal bands are developed, which are predicted as bioherm complex combined with the Middle Permian bioherm outcrop discoveries in surface; and (3 deep and large extensional faults are developed in reef flat margin, manifesting as favorable conditions for the development of dolomite reservoirs. The results show that the Middle Permian traps in the Western Sichuan Depression contain resources up to 7400 × 108 m3, showing significant natural gas exploration prospects. By far, one risk exploration well has been deployed.

  12. Simplified models of rates of CO2 mineralization in Geologic Carbon Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolo, D. J.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) reverses the flow of carbon to the atmosphere, returning the carbon to long-term geologic storage. Models suggest that most of the injected CO2 will be "trapped" in the subsurface by physical means, but the most risk-free and permanent form of carbon storage is as carbonate minerals (Ca,Mg,Fe)CO3. The transformation of CO2 to carbonate minerals requires supply of divalent cations by dissolution of silicate minerals. Available data suggest that rates of transformation are difficult to predict. We show that the chemical kinetic observations and experimental results, when reduced to a single timescale that describes the fractional rate at which cations are released to solution by mineral dissolution, show sufficiently systematic behavior that the rates of mineralization can be estimated with reasonable certainty. Rate of mineralization depends on both the abundance (determined by the reservoir rock mineralogy) and the rate at which cations are released by dissolution into pore fluid that has been acidified with dissolved CO2. Laboratory-measured rates and field observations give values spanning 8 to 10 orders of magnitude, but when evaluated in the context of reservoir-scale reactive transport simulations, this range becomes much smaller. Reservoir scale simulations indicate that silicate mineral dissolution and subsequent carbonate mineral precipitation occur at pH 4.5 to 6, fluid flow velocity less than 5m/yr, and 50-100 years or more after the start of injection. These constraints lead to estimates of 200 to 2000 years for conversion of 60-90% of injected CO2 when the reservoir rock has a sufficient volume fraction of divalent cation-bearing silicate minerals (ca. 20%), and confirms that when reservoir rock mineralogy is not favorable the fraction of CO2 converted to carbonate minerals is minimal over 104 years. A sufficient amount of reactive minerals represents the condition by which the available cations per volume of rock plus pore

  13. Topography and geology site effects from the intensity prediction model (ShakeMap) for Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Puy Papí Isaba, María; Jia, Yan; Weginger, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The seismicity in Austria can be categorized as moderated. Despite the fact that the hazard seems to be rather low, earthquakes can cause great damage and losses, specially in densely populated and industrialized areas. It is well known, that equations which predict intensity as a function of magnitude and distance, among other parameters, are useful tool for hazard and risk assessment. Therefore, this study aims to determine an empirical model of the ground shaking intensities (ShakeMap) of a series of earthquakes occurred in Austria between 1000 and 2014. Furthermore, the obtained empirical model will lead to further interpretation of both, contemporary and historical earthquakes. A total of 285 events, which epicenters were located in Austria, and a sum of 22.739 reported macreoseismic data points from Austria and adjoining countries, were used. These events are enclosed in the period 1000-2014 and characterized by having a local magnitude greater than 3. In the first state of the model development, the data was careful selected, e.g. solely intensities equal or greater than III were used. In a second state the data was adjusted to the selected empirical model. Finally, geology and topography corrections were obtained by means of the model residuals in order to derive intensity-based site amplification effects.

  14. Structural geology and geophysics as a support to build a hydrogeologic model of granite rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesús; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Gómez, Paloma; Bajos, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    A method developed for low-permeability fractured media was applied to understand the hydrogeology of a mine excavated in a granitic pluton. This method includes (1) identifying the main groundwater-conducting features of the medium, such as the mine, dykes, and large fractures, (2) implementing this factors as discrete elements into a three-dimensional numerical model, and (3) calibrating these factors against hydraulic data . A key question is how to identify preferential flow paths in the first step. Here, we propose a combination of several techniques. Structural geology, together with borehole sampling, geophysics, hydrogeochemistry, and local hydraulic tests aided in locating all structures. Integration of these data yielded a conceptual model of the site. A preliminary calibration of the model was performed against short-term (Model validity was tested by blind prediction of a long-term (4 months) large-scale (1 km) pumping test from the mine, which yielded excellent agreement with the observations. Model results confirmed the sparsely fractured nature of the pluton, which has not been subjected to glacial loading-unloading cycles and whose waters are of Na-HCO3 type.

  15. Tidal Simulations of an Incised-Valley Fluvial System with a Physics-Based Geologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayour, K.; Sun, T.

    2012-12-01

    Physics-based geologic modeling approaches use fluid flow in conjunction with sediment transport and deposition models to devise evolutionary geologic models that focus on underlying physical processes and attempt to resolve them at pertinent spatial and temporal scales. Physics-based models are particularly useful when the evolution of a depositional system is driven by the interplay of autogenic processes and their response to allogenic controls. This interplay can potentially create complex reservoir architectures with high permeability sedimentary bodies bounded by a hierarchy of shales that can effectively impede flow in the subsurface. The complex stratigraphy of tide-influenced fluvial systems is an example of such co-existing and interacting environments of deposition. The focus of this talk is a novel formulation of boundary conditions for hydrodynamics-driven models of sedimentary systems. In tidal simulations, a time-accurate boundary treatment is essential for proper imposition of tidal forcing and fluvial inlet conditions where the flow may be reversed at times within a tidal cycle. As such, the boundary treatment at the inlet has to accommodate for a smooth transition from inflow to outflow and vice-versa without creating numerical artifacts. Our numerical experimentations showed that boundary condition treatments based on a local (frozen) one-dimensional approach along the boundary normal which does not account for the variation of flow quantities in the tangential direction often lead to unsatisfactory results corrupted by numerical artifacts. In this talk, we propose a new boundary treatment that retains all spatial and temporal terms in the model and as such is capable to account for nonlinearities and sharp variations of model variables near boundaries. The proposed approach borrows heavily from the idea set forth by J. Sesterhenn1 for compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The methodology is successfully applied to a tide-influenced incised

  16. Geological Model of Supercritical Geothermal Reservoir on the Top of the Magma Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, N.

    2017-12-01

    We are conducting supercritical geothermal project, and deep drilling project named as "JBBP: Japan Beyond Brittle Project" The temperatures of geothermal fields operating in Japan range from 200 to 300 °C (average 250 °C), and the depths range from 1000 to 2000 m (average 1500 m). In conventional geothermal reservoirs, the mechanical behavior of the rocks is presumed to be brittle, and convection of the hydrothermal fluid through existing network is the main method of circulation in the reservoir. In order to minimize induced seismicity, a rock mass that is "beyond brittle" is one possible candidate, because the rock mechanics of "beyond brittle" material is one of plastic deformation rather than brittle failure. To understand the geological model of a supercritical geothermal reservoir, granite-porphyry system, which had been formed in subduction zone, was investigated as a natural analog of the supercritical geothermal energy system. Quartz veins, hydrothermal breccia veins, and glassy veins are observed in a granitic body. The glassy veins formed at 500-550 °C under lithostatic pressures, and then pressures dropped drastically. The solubility of silica also dropped, resulting in formation of quartz veins under a hydrostatic pressure regime. Connections between the lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure regimes were key to the formation of the hydrothermal breccia veins, and the granite-porphyry system provides useful information for creation of fracture clouds in supercritical geothermal reservoirs. A granite-porphyry system, associated with hydrothermal activity and mineralization, provides a suitable natural analog for studying a deep-seated geothermal reservoir where stockwork fracture systems are created in the presence of supercritical geothermal fluids. I describe fracture networks and their formation mechanisms using petrology and fluid inclusion studies in order to understand this "beyond brittle" supercritical geothermal reservoir, and a geological

  17. Styles in business process modeling: an exploration and a model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinggera, J.; Soffer, P.; Fahland, D.; Weidlich, M.; Zugal, S.; Weber, B.; Reijers, H.A.; Mendling, J.

    2015-01-01

    Business process models are an important means to design, analyze, implement, and control business processes. As with every type of conceptual model, a business process model has to meet certain syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic quality requirements to be of value. For many years, such quality

  18. Advantages of integration of uranium exploration data in GIS and models as tools for decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusveld, M.C.L.

    1997-01-01

    In many areas where uranium has been or is explored, an enormous amount of data on geology and hydrogeology is available. When these uranium exploration data are stored in a structured way, they can be made useful for other purposes dm uranium exploration only. For instance, in case of environmental pollution, which is often a side-effect of uranium activities such as mining and leaching, the data can be used to develop a computer model of the environment. With such a model impacts can be calculated of different scenarios for cleaning up or isolation of the pollution. A GIS can be used to store the data, to visualize the data (map production) and to analyse the data, but also to calculate input for the models. The advantages of using GIS and models as tools for decision support are explained with the Contaminant Transport Information System (CTIS) as a case study. The CTIS has been developed for remediation operations in the uranium mining area Straz pod Ralskem and Hamr in the Czech Republic. The CTIS consists of a GIS database, a regional groundwater flow model and a local contaminant transport model as well as interfaces for data transfer between the components of the information system. The power of the CTIS lies in the fact that the modelling necessary for the design of a remediation operation can be carried out efficiently by using one of the two models, depending on the specific question. Thus alternative remediation scenarios can be judged easily and fairly on their consequences and effectiveness. (author)

  19. Modeling the Population-Level Processes of Biodiversity Gain and Loss at Geological Timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortelius, Mikael; Geritz, Stefan; Gyllenberg, Mats; Raia, Pasquale; Toivonen, Jaakko

    2015-12-01

    The path of species diversification is commonly observed by inspecting the fossil record. Yet, how species diversity changes at geological timescales relate to lower-level processes remains poorly understood. Here we use mathematical models of spatially structured populations to show that natural selection and gradual environmental change give rise to discontinuous phenotype changes that can be connected to speciation and extinction at the macroevolutionary level. In our model, new phenotypes arise in the middle of the environmental gradient, while newly appearing environments are filled by existing phenotypes shifting their adaptive optima. Slow environmental change leads to loss of phenotypes in the middle of the extant environmental range, whereas fast change causes extinction at one extreme of the environmental range. We compared our model predictions against a well-known yet partially unexplained pattern of intense hoofed mammal diversification associated with grassland expansion during the Late Miocene. We additionally used the model outcomes to cast new insight into Cope's law of the unspecialized. Our general finding is that the rate of environmental change determines where generation and loss of diversity occur in the phenotypic and physical spaces.

  20. Risk methodology for geologic disposal of radioactive waste: asymptotic properties of the environmental transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Brown, J.B.; Iman, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Environmental Transport Model is a compartmental model developed to represent the surface movement of radionuclides. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the model and to acquire insight with respect to such behavior and the variables which influence it. For four variations of a hypothetical river receiving a radionuclide discharge, the following properties are considered: predicted asymptotic values for environmental radionuclide concentrations and time required for environmental radionuclide concentrations to reach 90% of their predicted asymptotic values. Independent variables of two types are used to define each variation of the river: variables which define physical properties of the river system (e.g., soil depth, river discharge and sediment resuspension) and variables which summarize radionuclide properties (i.e., distribution coefficients). Sensitivity analysis techniques based on stepwise regression are used to determine the dominant variables influencing the behavior of the model. This work constitutes part of a project at Sandia National Laboratories funded by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to develop a methodology to assess the risk associated with geologic disposal of radioactive waste

  1. Constraining climate sensitivity and continental versus seafloor weathering using an inverse geological carbon cycle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2017-05-22

    The relative influences of tectonics, continental weathering and seafloor weathering in controlling the geological carbon cycle are unknown. Here we develop a new carbon cycle model that explicitly captures the kinetics of seafloor weathering to investigate carbon fluxes and the evolution of atmospheric CO 2 and ocean pH since 100 Myr ago. We compare model outputs to proxy data, and rigorously constrain model parameters using Bayesian inverse methods. Assuming our forward model is an accurate representation of the carbon cycle, to fit proxies the temperature dependence of continental weathering must be weaker than commonly assumed. We find that 15-31 °C (1σ) surface warming is required to double the continental weathering flux, versus 3-10 °C in previous work. In addition, continental weatherability has increased 1.7-3.3 times since 100 Myr ago, demanding explanation by uplift and sea-level changes. The average Earth system climate sensitivity is  K (1σ) per CO 2 doubling, which is notably higher than fast-feedback estimates. These conclusions are robust to assumptions about outgassing, modern fluxes and seafloor weathering kinetics.

  2. Fluid-rock geochemical interaction for modelling calibration in geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deon, Fiorenza; Barnhoorn, Auke; Lievens, Caroline; Ryannugroho, Riskiray; Imaro, Tulus; Bruhn, David; van der Meer, Freek; Hutami, Rizki; Sibarani, Besteba; Sule, Rachmat; Saptadij, Nenny; Hecker, Christoph; Appelt, Oona; Wilke, Franziska

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia with its large, but partially unexplored geothermal potential is one of the most interesting and suitable places in the world to conduct geothermal exploration research. This study focuses on geothermal exploration based on fluid-rock geochemistry/geomechanics and aims to compile an overview on geochemical data-rock properties from important geothermal fields in Indonesia. The research carried out in the field and in the laboratory is performed in the framework of the GEOCAP cooperation (Geothermal Capacity Building program Indonesia- the Netherlands). The application of petrology and geochemistry accounts to a better understanding of areas where operating power plants exist but also helps in the initial exploration stage of green areas. Because of their relevance and geological setting geothermal fields in Java, Sulawesi and the sedimentary basin of central Sumatra have been chosen as focus areas of this study. Operators, universities and governmental agencies will benefit from this approach as it will be applied also to new green-field terrains. By comparing the characteristic of the fluids, the alteration petrology and the rock geochemistry we also aim to contribute to compile an overview of the geochemistry of the important geothermal fields in Indonesia. At the same time the rock petrology and fluid geochemistry will be used as input data to model the reservoir fluid composition along with T-P parameters with the geochemical workbench PHREEQC. The field and laboratory data are mandatory for both the implementation and validation of the model results.

  3. A regional multi-scale 3-D geological model of the Eastern Sub-Athabasca Basement, Canada: Implications for vectoring towards unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, I.; Reilkoff, B.; Takacs, E.; Hajnal, Z.; Pandit, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Proterozoic Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan is one of the most important mining districts in Canada; hosting the world’s highest grade uranium deposits and prospects. In the basin, many of the near-surface deposits have been discovered; hence new ore deposits at greater depths need to be discovered. To help make new discoveries, 3D geological modelling is being carried out. Here, we present our multidisciplinary approach, whereby a 3D geological model of the eastern sub- Athabasca basement of northern Saskatchewan (i.e. the eastern and western Wollaston domains, the Wollaston-Mudjatik Transition Zone (WMTZ), and the Mudjatik Domain) was developed in the common earth environment. The project was directed towards building a robust 3D model(s) of the upper 3-5 km of the Earth’s crust in three different scales: deposit-, district-, and regional-scale, using the GOCAD software platform (Paradigm). Our eastern sub-Athabasca basement model is constrained by both geological studies and geophysical techniques, such as topographic, outcrop, drill hole, petrophysical, and petrological data, along with geophysical potential field, electrical, and highresolution regional seismic data, in order to better understand the regional- to district-scale tectonics and controls on the uranium mineral system(s) operating pre-, syn-, and post-Athabasca deposition. The resulting data were interpreted and visualized as 3D-surfaces and bodies in GOCAD. This model reveals a framework of key lithological contacts, major high-strain zones, and the setting of unconformity-type uranium deposits. As a result, this new knowledge is being used to identify key exploration vectoring criteria for unconformity-type, magmatic, and metamorphic/ metasomatic uranium deposits and to delineate new exploration targets in the basin. Hence, this regional-scale 3D GOCAD model can be utilized as a guide for exploration activities within the region (e.g. picking new drill targets). As well, this 3D

  4. 3D numerical modelling of the thermal state of deep geological nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butov, R. A.; Drobyshevsky, N. I.; Moiseenko, E. V.; Tokarev, Yu. N.

    2017-09-01

    One of the important aspects of the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal in deep geological repositories is ensuring the integrity of the engineered barriers which is, among other phenomena, considerably influenced by the thermal loads. As the HLW produce significant amount of heat, the design of the repository should maintain the balance between the cost-effectiveness of the construction and the sufficiency of the safety margins, including those imposed on the thermal conditions of the barriers. The 3D finite-element computer code FENIA was developed as a tool for simulation of thermal processes in deep geological repositories. Further the models for mechanical phenomena and groundwater hydraulics will be added resulting in a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) solution. The long-term simulations of the thermal state were performed for two possible layouts of the repository. One was based on the proposed project of Russian repository, and another features larger HLW amount within the same space. The obtained results describe the spatial and temporal evolution of the temperature filed inside the repository and in the surrounding rock for 3500 years. These results show that practically all generated heat was ultimately absorbed by the host rock without any significant temperature increase. Still in the short time span even in case of smaller amount of the HLW the temperature maximum exceeds 100 °C, and for larger amount of the HLW the local temperature remains above 100 °C for considerable time. Thus, the substantiation of the long-term stability of the repository would require an extensive study of the materials properties and behaviour in order to remove the excessive conservatism from the simulations and to reduce the uncertainty of the input data.

  5. United States geological survey's reserve-growth models and their implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    The USGS has developed several mathematical models to forecast reserve growth of fields both in the United States (U.S.) and the world. The models are based on historical reserve growth patterns of fields in the U.S. The patterns of past reserve growth are extrapolated to forecast future reserve growth. Changes of individual field sizes through time are extremely variable, therefore, the reserve growth models take on a statistical approach whereby volumetric changes for populations of fields are used in the models. Field age serves as a measure of the field-development effort that is applied to promote reserve growth. At the time of the USGS World Petroleum Assessment 2000, a reserve growth model for discovered fields of the world was not available. Reserve growth forecasts, therefore, were made based on a model of historical reserve growth of fields of the U.S. To test the feasibility of such an application, reserve growth forecasts were made of 186 giant oil fields of the world (excluding the U.S. and Canada). In addition, forecasts were made for these giant oil fields subdivided into those located in and outside of Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The model provided a reserve-growth forecast that closely matched the actual reserve growth that occurred from 1981 through 1996 for the 186 fields as a whole, as well as for both OPEC and non-OPEC subdivisions, despite the differences in reserves definition among the fields of the U.S. and the rest of the world. ?? 2005 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  6. Comparison of INTERA and WISAP consequence model application. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) is being conducted to develop, for the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI), the methodology necessary to perform long-term safety assessments of deep geologic repositories. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program is developing a nuclear waste storage facility and is performing assessments of that site. WISAP and WIPP have similar, though independent, methodologies for assessing the consequences of a repository breach subsequent to closure. Intera Environmental Consultants are under contract to Sandia Laboratories to conduct the hydrologic and transport modeling for the WIPP Site Release Consequence Analysis (WIPP EIS/ER 1978). To provide a mutual benchmark check of the radionuclide and ground-water transport models of these two programs, ONWI has requested WISAP to perform a release consequence analysis based on the WIPP site, utilizing the same data and conceptual model which the WIPP program used for its environmental assessments. Therefore, only a portion of the WISAP methodology was used; specifically, only WISAP geotransport models were exercised. The other important parts of WISAP assessment methodology were not used, so that WISAP did not develop the scenario nor did WISAP interpret the field data to develop the conceptual model of the geohydrology of the WIPP site. The results of the comparative assessment are presented. Although the different models required slightly different input parameters, the results of the hydrologic simulations show a very close correspondence between the WISAP and WIPP predictions. This was as expected, since the various hydrologic codes available essentially utilize and solve the same basic flow equations. In addition, this report presents the results of the WISAP radionuclide transport model simulations. These results will provide the basis for comparison with WIPP results when these become available

  7. Study of parental models: building an instrument for their exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Martínez Licona

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research presents the construction of an attributional questionnaire concerning the different parental models and factors that are involved in family interactions. Method: A mixed methodology was used as a foundation to develop items and respective pilots that allowed checking the validity and internal consistency of the instrument using expert judgment. Results: An instrument of 36 statements was organized into 12 categories to explore the parental models according to the following factors: parental models, breeding patterns, attachment bonds and guidelines for success, and promoted inside family contexts. Analyzing these factors contributes to the children’s development within the familiar frown, and the opportunity for socio-educational intervention. Conclusion: It is assumed that the family context is as decisive as the school context; therefore, exploring the nature of parental models is required to understand the features and influences that contribute to the development of young people in any social context.

  8. Trip report: workshop on risk analysis and geologic modeling in relation to the disposal of radioactive wastes into geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Workshop was co-sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), with primary object being to promote international cooperation in developing and using risk assessment techniques for the long-term safety assessment of waste disposal. The attendance was restricted to specialists in the field and a few observers; 43 people were in attendance representing 14 different countries. Nothing particularly new or novel was presented nor any formal cooperation agreed upon. However, there was a feeling that continued informal cooperation was helpful and should be continued. Greater or lesser degrees of formality could be decided later. The U.S. program was definitely more advanced and larger in scope than the others that were discussed. Countries that seemed to have significant programs include the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Canada, Sweden, and the CEC. Abstracts of papers are presented together with consensus reports on containment failure modes and geosphere transport modeling

  9. A compositional modelling framework for exploring MPSoC systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compositional framework for system level performance estimation and exploration of Multi-Processor System On Chip (MPSoC) based systems. The main contributions are the definition of a compositional model which allows quantitative performance estimation to be carried ou...

  10. Trans-Hudsonian far-field deformation effects in the Rae foreland: An integrated geological-3D magnetic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, J. A.; Tschirhart, V.

    2017-03-01

    The intracratonic Rae cover sequence, deposited ca. 2.2-1.9 Ga, forms a useful marker for unravelling tectonic events that affected the Archean Rae Province at ca.2.0, 1.9 and 1.85 Ga. Polyphase deformation is recognized within the Rae cover rocks, including the 70 × 10 km Montresor belt, and attributed to distal effects of the ca. 1.85 Ga Trans-Hudson orogeny. In this contribution we explore the 3D geometry and structural history of the Montresor belt, previously considered to be a simple syncline lying unconformably on Archean basement. New geological, geophysical and geochronological results define a more complex history in which lower Montresor units were thrust-imbricated with basement gneisses and metamorphosed to the amphibolite facies. Mid-to upper greenschist facies upper Montresor units, exposed in an open synform, are superficially less deformed. However, using high-resolution aeromagnetic data and distinct magnetic marker units considered proxies for bedding, we constructed a set of forward models to explore the three-dimensional geometry of the belt. The re-analysis outlines a set of pre-synform structures defined by low-angle truncations of the magnetic markers. Geometric relationships indicate the presence of at least three faults at low angles to bedding, interpreted as D1 piggy-back thrusts, and bracketed by available geochronology between 1.924 and 1.87 Ga. D1 strain in the upper Montresor strata is significantly less intense than that further south in Rae cover rocks, consistent with a more distal foreland setting during the Trans-Hudson orogeny. The Montresor belt preserves a record of the Trans-Hudson tectonic style at relatively shallow crustal levels as a result of its foreland setting and structural history including a syn-orogenic extensional detachment event.

  11. Strong exploration of a cast iron pipe failure model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moglia, M.; Davis, P.; Burn, S.

    2008-01-01

    A physical probabilistic failure model for buried cast iron pipes is described, which is based on the fracture mechanics of the pipe failure process. Such a model is useful in the asset management of buried pipelines. The model is then applied within a Monte-Carlo simulation framework after adding stochasticity to input variables. Historical failure rates are calculated based on a database of 81,595 pipes and their recorded failures, and model parameters are chosen to provide the best fit between historical and predicted failure rates. This provides an estimated corrosion rate distribution, which agrees well with experimental results. The first model design was chosen in a deliberate simplistic fashion in order to allow for further strong exploration of model assumptions. Therefore, first runs of the initial model resulted in a poor quantitative and qualitative fit in regards to failure rates. However, by exploring natural additional assumptions such as relating to stochastic loads, a number of assumptions were chosen which improved the model to a stage where an acceptable fit was achieved. The model bridges the gap between micro- and macro-level, and this is the novelty in the approach. In this model, data can be used both from the macro-level in terms of failure rates, as well as from the micro-level such as in terms of corrosion rates

  12. Adaptable Authentication Model: Exploring Security with Weaker Attacker Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    suffer because of the identified vulnerabilities. Therefore, we may need to analyze a protocol for weaker notions of security. In this paper, we present a security model that supports such weaker notions. In this model, the overall goals of an authentication protocol are broken into a finer granularity......; for each fine level authentication goal, we determine the “least strongest-attacker” for which the authentication goal can be satisfied. We demonstrate that this model can be used to reason about the security of supposedly insecure protocols. Such adaptability is particularly useful in those applications...

  13. Rapid Calibration of High Resolution Geologic Models to Dynamic Data Using Inverse Modeling: Field Application and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil Datta-Gupta

    2008-03-31

    Streamline-based assisted and automatic history matching techniques have shown great potential in reconciling high resolution geologic models to production data. However, a major drawback of these approaches has been incompressibility or slight compressibility assumptions that have limited applications to two-phase water-oil displacements only. We propose an approach to history matching three-phase flow using a novel compressible streamline formulation and streamline-derived analytic sensitivities. First, we utilize a generalized streamline model to account for compressible flow by introducing an 'effective density' of total fluids along streamlines. Second, we analytically compute parameter sensitivities that define the relationship between the reservoir properties and the production response, viz. water-cut and gas/oil ratio (GOR). These sensitivities are an integral part of history matching, and streamline models permit efficient computation of these sensitivities through a single flow simulation. We calibrate geologic models to production data by matching the water-cut and gas/oil ratio using our previously proposed generalized travel time inversion (GTTI) technique. For field applications, however, the highly non-monotonic profile of the gas/oil ratio data often presents a challenge to this technique. In this work we present a transformation of the field production data that makes it more amenable to GTTI. Further, we generalize the approach to incorporate bottom-hole flowing pressure during three-phase history matching. We examine the practical feasibility of the method using a field-scale synthetic example (SPE-9 comparative study) and a field application. Recently Ensemble Kalman Filtering (EnKF) has gained increased attention for history matching and continuous reservoir model updating using data from permanent downhole sensors. It is a sequential Monte-Carlo approach that works with an ensemble of reservoir models. Specifically, the method

  14. The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Emmerich, Christopher; Talbert, Marian

    2017-05-03

    The U.S. Geological Survey Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal (https://my.usgs.gov/mows/) is a user-friendly interface that summarizes monthly historical and simulated future conditions for seven hydrologic and meteorological variables (actual evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, precipitation, runoff, snow water equivalent, atmospheric temperature, and streamflow) at locations across the conterminous United States (CONUS).The estimates of these hydrologic and meteorological variables were derived using a Monthly Water Balance Model (MWBM), a modular system that simulates monthly estimates of components of the hydrologic cycle using monthly precipitation and atmospheric temperature inputs. Precipitation and atmospheric temperature from 222 climate datasets spanning historical conditions (1952 through 2005) and simulated future conditions (2020 through 2099) were summarized for hydrographic features and used to drive the MWBM for the CONUS. The MWBM input and output variables were organized into an open-access database. An Open Geospatial Consortium, Inc., Web Feature Service allows the querying and identification of hydrographic features across the CONUS. To connect the Web Feature Service to the open-access database, a user interface—the Monthly Water Balance Model Futures Portal—was developed to allow the dynamic generation of summary files and plots  based on plot type, geographic location, specific climate datasets, period of record, MWBM variable, and other options. Both the plots and the data files are made available to the user for download 

  15. Depth geological model building: application to the 3D high resolution 'ANDRA' seismic block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, J.L.; Yven, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. 3D seismic blocks and logging data, mainly acoustic and density logs, are often used for geological model building in time. The geological model must be then converted from time to depth. Geostatistical approach for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is often used in many geo-modelling projects. From a geostatistical point of view, the time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons is a classical estimation problem involving one or more secondary variables. Bayesian approach [1] provides an excellent estimator which is more general than the traditional kriging with external drift(s) and fits very well to the needs for time-to-depth conversion of seismic horizons. The time-to-depth conversion of the selected seismic horizons is used to compute a time-to-depth conversion model at the time sampling rate (1 ms). The 3D depth conversion model allows the computation of an interval velocity block which is compared with the acoustic impedance block to estimate a density block as QC. Non realistic density values are edited and the interval velocity block as well as the depth conversion model is updated. The proposed procedure has been applied on a 3D data set. The dataset comes from a High Resolution 3D seismic survey recorded in France at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments in the vicinity of the Andra Center (National radioactive waste management Agency). The 3D design is a cross spread. The active spread is composed of 12 receiver lines with 120 stations each. The source lines are perpendicular to the receiver lines. The receiver and source line spacings are respectively 80 m and 120 m. The receiver and source point spacings are 20 m. The source is a Vibroseis source generating a signal in the 14 - 140 Hz frequency bandwidth.. The bin size is 10 x 10 m 2 . The nominal fold is 60. A conventional seismic sequence was applied to the data set. It includes amplitude recovery, deconvolution and wave

  16. Integration of NURE and other data sets with emphasis on their utilization in generating exploration models in the Lubbock, TX 10 x 20 Quadrangle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankston, M.M.; Lankston, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    The study reviewed the geology of the region covered by the Lubbock, Texas 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS Quadrangle. The geology was integrated with NURE aerial radiometric data that had been recorded before the study was undertaken. The integration indicates that several of the geologic units in the area have recognizable radiometric signatures. These signatures were checked and substantiated by two ground radiometric survey systems, one truck-mounted and one hand-held. Numerous areas were seen which suggested that areas had been mismapped, that recent wind or stream action had modified the surface exposure of units, or that the radiometric data acquisition systems were able to detect surface units which were too small to be presented at the scale of the published geologic map. Two exploration models for the Lubbock region are proposed. The first and most obvious model involves basal Dockum (Triassic) sandstone which has been known for twenty years as a potentially economic uranium zone. The second model is more speculative. By integrating subsurface geologic data, NURE HSSR data, and ground and airborne radiometric data, a band of anomalies is seen extending in a generally north-south direction at the edge of the maximum eastern subsurface extent of Cretaceous rocks. Related to this band of anomalies is the group of very high radiometric anomalies over the Pleistocene lake basins in the southwestern corner of the study area. The basins also may be potential exploration targets

  17. Digital Model of the Basic Geological Map of the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrov, Blagoj; Panovska, Sanja; Delipetrov, Marjan; Dimov, Gjorgji

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the process of digitalisation of the Basic Geological Map of the Republic of Macedonia in software package Maplnfo professional 8.0. It shows the procedure of design and implementation of a GIS project for the Basic Geological Map of the Republic of Macedonia. Design of the database table, selecting attributes and drawing graphical objects are also given. (Author)

  18. Deep geological isolation of nuclear waste: numerical modeling of repository scale hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettinger, M.D.

    1980-04-01

    The Scope of Work undertaken covers three main tasks, described as follows: (Task 1) CDM provided consulting services to the University on modeling aspects of the study having to do with transport processes involving the local groundwater system near the repository and the flow of fluids and vapors through the various porous media making up the repository system. (Task 2) CDM reviewed literature related to repository design, concentrating on effects of the repository geometry, location and other design factors on the flow of fluids within the repository boundaries, drainage from the repository structure, and the eventual transport of radionucldies away from the repository site. (Task 3) CDM, in a joint effort with LLL personnel, identified generic boundary and initial conditions, identified processes to be modeled, and recommended a modeling approach with suggestions for appropriate simplifications and approximations to the problem and identifiying important parameters necessary to model the processes. This report consists of two chapters and an appendix. The first chapter (Chapter III of the LLL report) presents a detailed description and discussion of the modeling approach developed in this project, its merits and weaknesses, and a brief review of the difficulties anticipated in implementing the approach. The second chapter (Chapter IV of the LLL report) presents a summary of a survey of researchers in the field of repository performance analysis and a discussion of that survey in light of the proposed modeling approach. The appendix is a review of the important physical processes involved in the potential hydrologic transport of radionuclides through, around and away from deep geologic nuclear waste repositories

  19. Active Exploration of Large 3D Model Repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Cao, Yan-Pei; Lai, Yu-Kun; Huang, Hao-Zhi; Kobbelt, Leif; Hu, Shi-Min

    2015-12-01

    With broader availability of large-scale 3D model repositories, the need for efficient and effective exploration becomes more and more urgent. Existing model retrieval techniques do not scale well with the size of the database since often a large number of very similar objects are returned for a query, and the possibilities to refine the search are quite limited. We propose an interactive approach where the user feeds an active learning procedure by labeling either entire models or parts of them as "like" or "dislike" such that the system can automatically update an active set of recommended models. To provide an intuitive user interface, candidate models are presented based on their estimated relevance for the current query. From the methodological point of view, our main contribution is to exploit not only the similarity between a query and the database models but also the similarities among the database models themselves. We achieve this by an offline pre-processing stage, where global and local shape descriptors are computed for each model and a sparse distance metric is derived that can be evaluated efficiently even for very large databases. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by interactively exploring a repository containing over 100 K models.

  20. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  1. Geology and Conceptual Model of the Domuyo Geothermal Area, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, A. S.; Ferrari, L.; Norini, G.

    2017-12-01

    Cerro Domuyo is the highest mountain in Patagonia and its western slope is characterized by thermal springs with boiling fluids as well as silicic domes and pyroclastic deposits that suggest the existence of a geothermal reservoir. Early studies proposed that the thermal springs were fault-controlled and the reservoir was located in a graben bounded by E-W normal faults. A recent geochemical study estimated a temperature of 220ºC for the fluid reservoir and a thermal energy release of 1.1 GW, one of the world largest advective heat flux from a continental volcanic center. We carried out a geologic survey and U-Pb and U-Th geochronologic study to elaborate an updated conceptual model for the Domuyo geothermal area. Our study indicates that the Domuyo Volcanic Complex (DVC) is a dome complex overlying an older, Middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic sequence widely exposed to the southwest and to the north, which in turn covers: 1) the Jurassice-Early Creteacoeus Neuquen marine sedimentary succession, 2) silicic ignimbrites dated at 186.7 Ma and, 3) the Paleozoic metamorphic basement intruded by 288 Ma granite bodies. These pre-Cenozoic successions are involved in dominantly N-S trending folds and thrust faults later displaced by E-W striking normal faults with a right lateral component of motion that underlie the DVC. The volcanic cycle forming the DVC is distinctly bimodal with the emplacement of massive silicic domes but also less voluminous olivine basalts on its southern slope. The central dome underwent a major collapse that produced 0.35 km3 of ash and block flow and associated pyroclastic flows that filled the valley to the southwest up to 30 km from the source. This was followed by a voluminous effusive activity that formed silicic domes dated between 254-322 Ky, which is inferred to overlain a partially molten silicic magma chamber. Integrating the geologic model with magnetotelluric and gravity surveys we developed a conceptual model of the geothermal system

  2. The Application of Architecture Frameworks to Modelling Exploration Operations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Developments in architectural frameworks and system-of-systems thinking have provided useful constructs for systems engineering. DoDAF concepts, language, and formalisms, in particular, provide a natural way of conceptualizing an operations cost model applicable to NASA's space exploration vision. Not all DoDAF products have meaning or apply to a DoDAF inspired operations cost model, but this paper describes how such DoDAF concepts as nodes, systems, and operational activities relate to the development of a model to estimate exploration operations costs. The paper discusses the specific implementation to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) operational functions/activities currently being developed and presents an overview of how this powerful representation can apply to robotic space missions as well.

  3. Geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States (excluding California) national seismic hazard maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Haller, Kathleen M.; McCaffrey, Robert; Hammond, William C.; Bird, Peter; Moschetti, Morgan; Shen, Zhengkang; Bormann, Jayne; Thatcher, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 National Seismic Hazard Maps for the conterminous United States incorporate additional uncertainty in fault slip-rate parameter that controls the earthquake-activity rates than was applied in previous versions of the hazard maps. This additional uncertainty is accounted for by new geodesy- and geology-based slip-rate models for the Western United States. Models that were considered include an updated geologic model based on expert opinion and four combined inversion models informed by both geologic and geodetic input. The two block models considered indicate significantly higher slip rates than the expert opinion and the two fault-based combined inversion models. For the hazard maps, we apply 20 percent weight with equal weighting for the two fault-based models. Off-fault geodetic-based models were not considered in this version of the maps. Resulting changes to the hazard maps are generally less than 0.05 g (acceleration of gravity). Future research will improve the maps and interpret differences between the new models.

  4. Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Summary of results - an updated impact model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avermann, M.; Bischoff, L.; Brockmeyer, P.; Buhl, D.; Deutsch, A.; Dressler, B. O.; Lakomy, R.; Mueller-Mohr, V.; Stoeffler, D.

    1992-01-01

    In 1984 the Ontario Geological Survey initiated a research project on the Sudbury structure (SS) in cooperation with the University of Muenster. The project included field mapping (1984-1989) and petrographic, chemical, and isotope analyses of the major stratigraphic units of the SS. Four diploma theses and four doctoral theses were performed during the project (1984-1992). Specific results of the various investigations are reported. Selected areas of the SS were mapped and sampled: Footwall rocks; Footwall breccia and parts of the sublayer and lower section of the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC); Onaping Formation and the upper section of the SIC; and Sudbury breccia and adjacent Footwall rocks along extended profiles up to 55 km from the SIC. All these stratigraphic units of the SS were studied in substantial detail by previous workers. The most important characteristic of the previous research is that it was based either on a volcanic model or on a mixed volcanic-impact model for the origin of the SS. The present project was clearly directed toward a test of the impact origin of the SS without invoking an endogenic component. In general, our results confirm the most widely accepted stratigraphic division of the SS. However, our interpretation of some of the major stratigraphic units is different from most views expressed. The stratigraphy of the SS and its new interpretation is given as a basis for discussion.

  5. Solute transport in crystalline rocks at Aspö--I: geological basis and model calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Martin; Jakob, Andreas; Bossart, Paul

    2003-03-01

    Water-conducting faults and fractures were studied in the granite-hosted Aspö Hard Rock Laboratory (SE Sweden). On a scale of decametres and larger, steeply dipping faults dominate and contain a variety of different fault rocks (mylonites, cataclasites, fault gouges). On a smaller scale, somewhat less regular fracture patterns were found. Conceptual models of the fault and fracture geometries and of the properties of rock types adjacent to fractures were derived and used as input for the modelling of in situ dipole tracer tests that were conducted in the framework of the Tracer Retention Understanding Experiment (TRUE-1) on a scale of metres. After the identification of all relevant transport and retardation processes, blind predictions of the breakthroughs of conservative to moderately sorbing tracers were calculated and then compared with the experimental data. This paper provides the geological basis and model calibration, while the predictive and inverse modelling work is the topic of the companion paper [J. Contam. Hydrol. 61 (2003) 175]. The TRUE-1 experimental volume is highly fractured and contains the same types of fault rocks and alterations as on the decametric scale. The experimental flow field was modelled on the basis of a 2D-streamtube formalism with an underlying homogeneous and isotropic transmissivity field. Tracer transport was modelled using the dual porosity medium approach, which is linked to the flow model by the flow porosity. Given the substantial pumping rates in the extraction borehole, the transport domain has a maximum width of a few centimetres only. It is concluded that both the uncertainty with regard to the length of individual fractures and the detailed geometry of the network along the flowpath between injection and extraction boreholes are not critical because flow is largely one-dimensional, whether through a single fracture or a network. Process identification and model calibration were based on a single uranine breakthrough

  6. Motivation, Classroom Environment, and Learning in Introductory Geology: A Hierarchical Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. A.; Hilpert, J. C.; Van Der Hoeven Kraft, K.; Budd, D.; Jones, M. H.; Matheney, R.; Mcconnell, D. A.; Perkins, D.; Stempien, J. A.; Wirth, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Prior research has indicated that highly motivated students perform better and that learning increases in innovative, reformed classrooms, but untangling the student effects from the instructor effects is essential to understanding how to best support student learning. Using a hierarchical linear model, we examine these effects separately and jointly. We use data from nearly 2,000 undergraduate students surveyed by the NSF-funded GARNET (Geoscience Affective Research NETwork) project in 65 different introductory geology classes at research universities, public masters-granting universities, liberal arts colleges and community colleges across the US. Student level effects were measured as increases in expectancy and self-regulation using the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ; Pintrich et al., 1991). Instructor level effects were measured using the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol, (RTOP; Sawada et al., 2000), with higher RTOP scores indicating a more reformed, student-centered classroom environment. Learning was measured by learning gains on a Geology Concept Inventory (GCI; Libarkin and Anderson, 2005) and normalized final course grade. The hierarchical linear model yielded significant results at several levels. At the student level, increases in expectancy and self-regulation are significantly and positively related to higher grades regardless of instructor; the higher the increase, the higher the grade. At the instructor level, RTOP scores are positively related to normalized average GCI learning gains. The higher the RTOP score, the higher the average class GCI learning gains. Across both levels, average class GCI learning gains are significantly and positively related to student grades; the higher the GCI learning gain, the higher the grade. Further, the RTOP scores are significantly and negatively related to the relationship between expectancy and course grade. The lower the RTOP score, the higher the correlation between change in

  7. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  8. Geologically based model of heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity in an alluvial setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg, Graham E.; Noyes, Charles D.; Carle, Steven F.

    Information on sediment texture and spatial continuity are inherent to sedimentary depositional facies descriptions, which are therefore potentially good predictors of spatially varying hydraulic conductivity (K). Analysis of complex alluvial heterogeneity in Livermore Valley, California, USA, using relatively abundant core descriptions and field pumping-test data, demonstrates a depositional-facies approach to characterization of subsurface heterogeneity. Conventional textural classifications of the core show a poor correlation with K; however, further refinement of the textural classifications into channel, levee, debris-flow, and flood-plain depositional facies reveals a systematic framework for spatial modeling of K. This geologic framework shows that most of the system is composed of very low-K flood-plain materials, and that the K measurements predominantly represent the other, higher-K facies. Joint interpretation of both the K and geologic data shows that spatial distribution of K in this system could not be adequately modeled without geologic data and analysis. Furthermore, it appears that K should not be assumed to be log-normally distributed, except perhaps within each facies. Markov chain modeling of transition probability, representing spatial correlation within and among the facies, captures the relevant geologic features while highlighting a new approach for statistical characterization of hydrofacies spatial variability. The presence of fining-upward facies sequences, cross correlation between facies, as well as other geologic attributes captured by the Markov chains provoke questions about the suitability of conventional geostatistical approaches based on variograms or covariances for modeling geologic heterogeneity. Résumé Les informations sur la texture des sédiments et leur continuité spatiale font partie des descriptions de faciès sédimentaires de dépôt. Par conséquent, ces descriptions sont d'excellents prédicteurs potentiels des

  9. Exploring the Dimensions of E-learning Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maher Iskander

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the highlighting on e-learning, it was obvious that models for successful deployment have not yet been recognized. Even with the huge quantities of money being spent, it is not clear that any enhancement in student learning outcomes has been recognized. To address this issue, this qualitative research aimed to explore and understand dimensions of E-learning Maturity Model (ELMM. An inductive approach, using qualitative methods, was used in this research. Fifty interviewees suggested five dimensions: Students' Attitudes, University attitudes from students’ perspectives, E-learning features, E-learning implementation and Effects of E-learning on students. Students from different majors and levels participated in this study. Findings of this study show that, there are significant five factors which formulate ELMM. Moreover, the study demonstrates that e-learning features have significant effects on student. It also highlights the relevance of using qualitative research in exploring maturity concept in e- learning.

  10. Geological modeling and infiltration pattern of a karstic system based upon crossed geophysical methods and image-guided inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Lea; Jardani, Abderrahim; Fournier, Matthieu; Massei, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Karstic aquifers represent an important part of the water resources worldwide. Though they have been widely studied on many aspects, their geological and hydrogeological modeling is still complex. Geophysical methods can provide useful subsurface information for the characterization and mapping of karstic systems, especially when not accessible by speleology. The site investigated in this study is a sinkhole-spring system, with small diameter conduits that run within a chalk aquifer (Norville, in Upper Normandy, France). This site was investigated using several geophysical methods: electrical tomography, self-potential, mise-à-la-masse methods, and electromagnetic method (EM34). Coupling those results with boreholes data, a 3D geological model of the hydrogeological basin was established, including tectonic features as well as infiltration structures (sinkhole, covered dolines). The direction of the karstic conduits near the main sinkhole could be established, and the major fault was shown to be a hydraulic barrier. Also the average concentration of dolines on the basin could be estimated, as well as their depth. At last, several hypotheses could be made concerning the location of the main conduit network between the sinkhole and the spring, using previous hydrodynamic study of the site along with geophysical data. In order to validate the 3D geological model, an image-guided inversion of the apparent resistivity data was used. With this approach it is possible to use geological cross sections to constrain the inversion of apparent resistivity data, preserving both discontinuities and coherences in the inversion of the resistivity data. This method was used on the major fault, enabling to choose one geological interpretation over another (fault block structure near the fault, rather than important folding). The constrained inversion was also applied on covered dolines, to validate the interpretation of their shape and depth. Key words: Magnetic and electrical

  11. THE TECTONICS STRESS AND STRAIN FIELD MODELING ADJUSTED FOR EVOLUTION OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES (SAILAG INTRUSION, EASTERN SAYAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voytenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a tectonophysical model showing evolution of structures in the Sailag granodiorite massif in relation to its gold-bearing capacity. The model takes into account the load patterns according to geological data, accumulated deformation, and gravity stresses. This model provides for updating the structural-geological model showing development of the intrusion body and the ore field. Forecasted are destruction patterns in the apical and above-dome parts of the massif  in the intrusion and contraction phase, formation of the long-term shear zone at the steeply dipping slope of the intrusion body, and subvertical fractures associated with the long-term shear zone and vertical mechanical ‘layering’ of the intrusive body.  

  12. The Carancas meteorite impact crater, Peru: Geologic surveying and modeling of crater formation and atmospheric passage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkmann, T.; Artemieva, N. A.; Wünnemann, K.; Poelchau, M. H.; Elbeshausen, D.; Núñez Del Prado, H.

    2009-08-01

    The recent Carancas meteorite impact event caused a worldwide sensation. An H4-5 chondrite struck the Earth south of Lake Titicaca in Peru on September 15, 2007, and formed a crater 14.2 m across. It is the smallest, youngest, and one of two eye-witnessed impact crater events on Earth. The impact violated the hitherto existing view that stony meteorites below a size of 100 m undergo major disruption and deceleration during their passage through the atmosphere and are not capable of producing craters. Fragmentation occurs if the strength of the meteoroid is less than the aerodynamic stresses that occur in flight. The small fragments that result from a breakup rain down at terminal velocity and are not capable of producing impact craters. The Carancas cratering event, however, demonstrates that meter-sized stony meteoroids indeed can survive the atmospheric passage under specific circumstances. We present results of a detailed geologic survey of the crater and its ejecta. To constrain the possible range of impact parameters we carried out numerical models of crater formation with the iSALE hydrocode in two and three dimensions. Depending on the strength properties of the target, the impact energies range between approximately 100-1000 MJ (0.024- 0.24 t TNT). By modeling the atmospheric traverse we demonstrate that low cosmic velocities (12- 14 kms-1) and shallow entry angles (<20°) are prerequisites to keep aerodynamic stresses low (<10 MPa) and thus to prevent fragmentation of stony meteoroids with standard strength properties. This scenario results in a strong meteoroid deceleration, a deflection of the trajectory to a steeper impact angle (40-60°), and an impact velocity of 350-600 ms-1, which is insufficient to produce a shock wave and significant shock effects in target minerals. Aerodynamic and crater modeling are consistent with field data and our microscopic inspection. However, these data are in conflict with trajectories inferred from the analysis of

  13. Data assimilation using Bayesian filters and B-spline geological models

    KAUST Repository

    Duan, Lian; Farmer, Chris; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo, Xiaodong; Moroz, Irene

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to problems of data assimilation, also known as history matching, of oilfield production data by adjustment of the location and sharpness of patterns of geological facies. Traditionally, this problem has been

  14. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.; Nordbotten, Jan M.; Celia, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act

  15. Assessment of microbiological development in nuclear waste geological disposal: a geochemical modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esnault, Loic [ECOGEOSAFE, Technopole de l' Environnement Arbois-Mediterranee, 13545 Aix en Provence (France); Libert, Marie; Bildstein, Olivier [CEA, DEN, DTN/SMTM/LMTE - 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-07-01

    Deep geological environments are very often poor or devoid of biodegradable organic molecules, but hydrogen could be an efficient energetic source to replace organic matter and promote redox processes such as reduction of O{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, Fe{sup 3+}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and CO{sub 2}. Moreover, the accessibility and availability of H{sub 2} and nutrients depend on gas/liquid permeability and their migration in the clay-stone porosity through the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). This study evaluates the spatial and temporal evolution of the geochemical conditions with regard to microbial development. The corrosion process in the argillite is investigated using numerical modeling over a period of 100,000 years. The development of bacterial biomass is estimated using potential redox reactions catalyzed by microorganisms and available nutrients. The simulations show that after the thermal peak (ca. 100-1000 years), physico-chemical conditions are favourable to support bacterial life. Relevant amounts of H{sub 2} and nutrients are released and migrate over the first 2 m of the argillite. Most of the biological redox process are localised close to the container where a high amount of magnetite is produced, providing Fe(III) (electron acceptor) that favours the development of iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). (authors)

  16. Hierarchical modeling of indoor radon concentration: how much do geology and building factors matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgoni, Riccardo; De Francesco, Davide; De Bartolo, Daniela; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2014-12-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and only second to smoking as major leading cause of lung cancer. The main concern is in indoor environments where the gas tends to accumulate and can reach high concentrations. The primary contributor of this gas into the building is from the soil although architectonic characteristics, such as building materials, can largely affect concentration values. Understanding the factors affecting the concentration in dwellings and workplaces is important both in prevention, when the construction of a new building is being planned, and in mitigation when the amount of Radon detected inside a building is too high. In this paper we investigate how several factors, such as geologic typologies of the soil and a range of building characteristics, impact on indoor concentration focusing, in particular, on how concentration changes as a function of the floor level. Adopting a mixed effects model to account for the hierarchical nature of the data, we also quantify the extent to which such measurable factors manage to explain the variability of indoor radon concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hierarchical modeling of indoor radon concentration: how much do geology and building factors matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgoni, Riccardo; De Francesco, Davide; De Bartolo, Daniela; Tzavidis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Radon is a natural gas known to be the main contributor to natural background radiation exposure and only second to smoking as major leading cause of lung cancer. The main concern is in indoor environments where the gas tends to accumulate and can reach high concentrations. The primary contributor of this gas into the building is from the soil although architectonic characteristics, such as building materials, can largely affect concentration values. Understanding the factors affecting the concentration in dwellings and workplaces is important both in prevention, when the construction of a new building is being planned, and in mitigation when the amount of Radon detected inside a building is too high. In this paper we investigate how several factors, such as geologic typologies of the soil and a range of building characteristics, impact on indoor concentration focusing, in particular, on how concentration changes as a function of the floor level. Adopting a mixed effects model to account for the hierarchical nature of the data, we also quantify the extent to which such measurable factors manage to explain the variability of indoor radon concentration. - Highlights: • It is assessed how the variability of indoor radon concentration depends on buildings and lithologies. • The lithological component has been found less relevant than the building one. • Radon-prone lithologies have been identified. • The effect of the floor where the room is located has been estimated. • Indoor radon concentration have been predicted for different dwelling typologies

  18. Modeling non-isothermal multiphase multi-species reactive chemical transport in geologic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianfu Xu; Gerard, F.; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1997-07-01

    The assessment of mineral deposits, the analysis of hydrothermal convection systems, the performance of radioactive, urban and industrial waste disposal, the study of groundwater pollution, and the understanding of natural groundwater quality patterns all require modeling tools that can consider both the transport of dissolved species as well as their interactions with solid (or other) phases in geologic media and engineered barriers. Here, a general multi-species reactive transport formulation has been developed, which is applicable to homogeneous and/or heterogeneous reactions that can proceed either subject to local equilibrium conditions or kinetic rates under non-isothermal multiphase flow conditions. Two numerical solution methods, the direct substitution approach (DSA) and sequential iteration approach (SIA) for solving the coupled complex subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes, are described. An efficient sequential iteration approach, which solves transport of solutes and chemical reactions sequentially and iteratively, is proposed for the current reactive chemical transport computer code development. The coupled flow (water, vapor, air and heat) and solute transport equations are also solved sequentially. The existing multiphase flow code TOUGH2 and geochemical code EQ3/6 are used to implement this SIA. The flow chart of the coupled code TOUGH2-EQ3/6, required modifications of the existing codes and additional subroutines needed are presented.

  19. Challenges in conditioning a stochastic geological model of a heterogeneous glacial aquifer to a comprehensive soft data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Julian; He, Xin; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2014-01-01

    In traditional hydrogeological investigations, one geological model is often used based on subjective interpretations and sparse data availability. This deterministic approach usually does not account for any uncertainties. Stochastic simulation methods address this problem and can capture......TEM data set are derived from a histogram probability matching method, where resistivity is paired with the corresponding lithology from the categorized borehole data. This study integrates two distinct data sources into the stochastic modeling process that represent two extremes of the conditioning...

  20. Three-dimensional geological modelling of anthropogenic deposits at small urban sites: a case study from Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, C; Cundy, A B; Royse, K R; Smith, M; Moles, N R

    2013-11-15

    Improvements in computing speed and capacity and the increasing collection and digitisation of geological data now allow geoscientists to produce meaningful 3D spatial models of the shallow subsurface in many large urban areas, to predict ground conditions and reduce risk and uncertainty in urban planning. It is not yet clear how useful this 3D modelling approach is at smaller urban scales, where poorly characterised anthropogenic deposits (artificial/made ground and fill) form the dominant subsurface material and where the availability of borehole and other geological data is less comprehensive. This is important as it is these smaller urban sites, with complex site history, which frequently form the focus of urban regeneration and redevelopment schemes. This paper examines the extent to which the 3D modelling approach previously utilised at large urban scales can be extended to smaller less well-characterised urban sites, using a historic landfill site in Sheepcote Valley, Brighton, UK as a case study. Two 3D models were generated and compared using GSI3D™ software, one using borehole data only, one combining borehole data with local geological maps and results from a desk study (involving collation of available site data, including ground contour plans). These models clearly delimit the overall subsurface geology at the site, and allow visualisation and modelling of the anthropogenic deposits present. Shallow geophysical data collected from the site partially validate the 3D modelled data, and can improve GSI3D™ outputs where boundaries of anthropogenic deposits may not be clearly defined by surface, contour or borehole data. Attribution of geotechnical and geochemical properties to the 3D model is problematic without intrusive investigations and sampling. However, combining available borehole data, shallow geophysical methods and site histories may allow attribution of generic fill properties, and consequent reduction of urban development risk and

  1. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Auken, Esben; Bamberg, Charlotte A.; Christensen, Britt S.B.; Clausen, Thomas; Dalgaard, Esben; Effersø, Flemming; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Gertz, Flemming; Hansen, Anne Lausten; He, Xin; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt; Koch, Julian; Nilsson, Bertel; Petersen, Christian; De Schepper, Guillaume; Schamper, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  2. Nitrate reduction in geologically heterogeneous catchments — A framework for assessing the scale of predictive capability of hydrological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refsgaard, Jens Christian, E-mail: jcr@geus.dk [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Auken, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Bamberg, Charlotte A. [City of Aarhus (Denmark); Christensen, Britt S.B. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Clausen, Thomas [DHI, Hørsholm (Denmark); Dalgaard, Esben [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); Effersø, Flemming [SkyTEM Aps, Beder (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Gertz, Flemming [Knowledge Center for Agriculture, Skejby (Denmark); Hansen, Anne Lausten [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); He, Xin [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Jacobsen, Brian H. [Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jensen, Karsten Høgh [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Jørgensen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Koch, Julian [Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Nilsson, Bertel [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) (Denmark); Petersen, Christian [City of Odder (Denmark); De Schepper, Guillaume [Université Laval, Québec (Canada); Schamper, Cyril [Department of Earth Sciences, Aarhus University (Denmark); and others

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfil the requirements of the EU Water Framework Directive nitrate load from agricultural areas to surface water in Denmark needs to be reduced by about 40%. The regulations imposed until now have been uniform, i.e. the same restrictions for all areas independent of the subsurface conditions. Studies have shown that on a national basis about 2/3 of the nitrate leaching from the root zone is reduced naturally, through denitrification, in the subsurface before reaching the streams. Therefore, it is more cost-effective to identify robust areas, where nitrate leaching through the root zone is reduced in the saturated zone before reaching the streams, and vulnerable areas, where no subsurface reduction takes place, and then only impose regulations/restrictions on the vulnerable areas. Distributed hydrological models can make predictions at grid scale, i.e. at much smaller scale than the entire catchment. However, as distributed models often do not include local scale hydrogeological heterogeneities, they are typically not able to make accurate predictions at scales smaller than they are calibrated. We present a framework for assessing nitrate reduction in the subsurface and for assessing at which spatial scales modelling tools have predictive capabilities. A new instrument has been developed for airborne geophysical measurements, Mini-SkyTEM, dedicated to identifying geological structures and heterogeneities with horizontal and lateral resolutions of 30–50 m and 2 m, respectively, in the upper 30 m. The geological heterogeneity and uncertainty are further analysed by use of the geostatistical software TProGS by generating stochastic geological realisations that are soft conditioned against the geophysical data. Finally, the flow paths within the catchment are simulated by use of the MIKE SHE hydrological modelling system for each of the geological models generated by TProGS and the prediction uncertainty is characterised by the variance between the

  3. Use of ERS-2 Sar and Landsat TM Images for Geological Mapping and Mineral Exploration Of Sol Hamid Area, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Sol hamid area is chiefy occupied by neo proterozoic rocks, partly covered by miocene sediments and recent sand sheets and dunes. The neo proterozoic rocks include ophiolitic ultramafic to mafic rocks, meta volcano-sedimentary rocks, meta volcanics, gabbros-diorite rocks, granodiorites, biotite granites and alkali granites. Magnesite, chromite, iron ores, manganese and barite ore deposits are hosted in different at the study area. ERS-2 SAR data enabled to obtain an image that reveals some buried fluvial features beneath the surface cover of desert sand. These features are not observable in Landsat TM image of similar resolution. In this work, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used for merging ERS-2 SAR and Landsat TM images to make use of the potential of data fusion technique of image processing in the interpretation of geological features. This procedure has resulted in enhancing subsurface structure such as faults that control distribution of several deposits in the study area. This study represents an example to demonstrate the utility of merging various remote sensing data for exploring mineral deposits in arid region

  4. Research on isotope geology. Assessment of heat production potential of granitic rocks and development of geothermal exploration techniques using radioactive/stable isotopes and fission track 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Cheon; Chi, Se Jung [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Radioelements and heat production rates of granitic rocks and stable isotopes of groundwaters were analyzed to investigate the geothermal potential of Wolchulsan granite complex in the southern Yeongam area. Wolchulsan granite complex is composed mainly by Cretaceous pink alkali-feldspar granite and partly Jurassic biotite granite. The main target for the geothermal exploration is the alkali-feldspar granite that is known in general to be favorable geothermal reservoir(e.g., Shap granite in UK). To develop exploration techniques for geothermal anomalies, all geochemical data were compared to those from the Jeonju granite complex. Heat production rates(HPR) of the alkali-feldspar granite is 1.8 - 10.6 {mu}Wm{sup -3}. High radio-thermal anomalies were revealed from the central western and northern parts of the granite body. These are relatively higher than the Caledonian hot dry granites in the UK. The integrated assessment of Wolchulsan granite complex suggests potential of the Cretaceous alkali-feldspar granite as a geothermal targets. Groundwater geochemistry of the Yeongam area reflects simple evaporation process and higher oxidation environment. Stable isotope data of groundwaters are plotted on or close to the Meteoric Water Line(MWL). These isotopic data indicate a significant meteoric water dominance and do not show oxygen isotope fractionation between groundwater and wall rocks. In despite of high HPR values of the Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite, groundwater samples do not show the same geochemical properties as a thermal water in the Jeonju area. This reason can be well explained by the comparison with geological settings of the Jeonju area. The Yeongam alkali-feldspar granite does not possess any adjacent heat source rocks despite its high radio-thermal HPR. While the Jeonju granite batholith has later heat source intrusive and suitable deep fracture system for water circulation with sedimentary cap rocks. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. FY 2000 report on the survey of the overseas geological structure. Japan-China joint coal exploration - Yu Xian project; 2000 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa hokokusho. Nippon Chugoku sekitan kyodo tansa Yu Xian project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The geological survey was carried out which is needed for coal mine design in the Yu Xian coal mine area, Yu Xian coal field, Hebei province, China. The term of survey was 5 years from 1996 to 2000. Activities are mainly for seismic survey and boring survey. Japan was in charge of the seismic survey, and China in charge of the boring survey. Both attained the goal. The results of the activities were summed up in the following 7 items: 1) outline of the survey; 2) general investigation; 3) state of the exploration related materials/machinery; 4) field survey; 5) items of survey; 6) results of the survey; 7) conclusion. In 6), the geological analysis, coal quality survey and coal amount survey were conducted. In the geological analysis, analyzed were the succession of strata, geological structure, and the situation of existence of coal seams. In 7), the following were made clear: geological structure of the survey area, coal seam, coal quality, hydrological geology, other conditions of drilling technology, and coal amount. The coal amount was 328.34 million tons in a total of A/B/C class coals. The total coal amount of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams was 259.79 million tons, which was 79.1% of the total coal amount in all area. The average thickness of Nos. 1 and 5 coal seams, which are the main minable coal seams, was 3.10m and 2.66m, respectively. (NEDO)

  6. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  7. The role of GIS in spatial modeling of multi-disciplinary geoscientific data for uranium exploration over the Kunjar-Darjing basin, Odisha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Anand Kumar; Veldi, Ramesh Babu; Amulotu, Markandeyulu; Chaki, Anjan; Pavanaguru, R.

    2015-01-01

    Application of Geographical Information System (GIS) for identifying the spatial locations of uranium exploration target areas using multi-disciplinary geoscientific data is presented in this paper. The data sets used in this study are Airborne Gamma Ray Spectrometric (AGRS), Aeromagnetic (AM), Satellite images, regional ground gravity and geochemical surveys over one of the promising mobile Proterozoic Kunjar-Darjing Basins to the west of Singhbum Uranium Province (SUP), Odisha, India. Analysis of the geochemical data indicated unconformity related uranium mineralization along the unconformity between Kunjar-Darjing sediments and the S-type per-aluminous Tamparkola granite with labile uranium. All the data sets are processed and interpreted independently in terms of geology based on characteristics such as intensity, frequency and texture of the images generated. Various ratio maps generated from AGRS data were used as training points for spatial modeling by building relationships (topology) with the structures and geology interpreted from the magnetic and gravity datasets. Index overlay method is adapted in spatial modeling. The study shows that integrating the geological, geophysical, geochemical and other geodata in a GIS environment provides valuable guidelines for geological mapping as well as identifying target areas for uranium exploration. The GIS study facilitated in identifying potential target areas for uranium exploration along the regional faults D1 and D2 around the villages Kelo, Tarnra, northeast of Kunjar, Nuarali and Betajharan. (author)

  8. Workshop on geologic data requirements for radioactive waste management assessment models, Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28--July 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    Exchange of information is needed among persons working in two broad categories of studies concerned with terminal storage of radioactive waste. These two categories are: (1) investigations of several types of geologic formations in a number of locations to determine suitability for use with various emplacement techniques, and (2) development of models for the ERDA, NRC, and EPA, for the general purpose of assessing the long term safety of terminal storage facilities. The Workshop held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, June 28-July 1, 1976, sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation and arranged by The University of New Mexico addressed this need. Presentations covered background topics of: geologic studies being made, methods for risk analysis, assessment models being developed, and descriptions of field observations of radionuclide migration. During vigorous discussion periods, a list of items to be jointly attacked by geologists and modelers was worked out

  9. Lakshmi Planum, Venus: Assessment of models using observations from geological mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, J. W.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Lakshmi Planum is a highstanding plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus [1-6]. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 [7-10, 5,11] and Magellan data [12-14], resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling [10,15-18] due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction [19,11,20-29]. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50- 75N, 300-360E; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi. Material units: Eleven material units make up the V-7 quadrangle. (1) Tessera (t), exposed inside and outside Lakshmi appears to be the oldest material. (2) Densely lineated plains (pdl) postdate tessera and form one of the oldest units; patches occur outside Lakshmi Planum. (3) Ridged plains (pr) postdate pdl and occur outside Lakshmi. (4) Shield plains (psh) display abundant small shields

  10. Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene warm period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M.; Dowsett, Harry J.; Dolan, Aisling M.

    2016-01-01

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of numerical climate models. Environmental reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate environmental synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change. PMID:26879640

  11. Integrating geological archives and climate models for the mid-Pliocene warm period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, Alan M; Dowsett, Harry J; Dolan, Aisling M

    2016-02-16

    The mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP) offers an opportunity to understand a warmer-than-present world and assess the predictive ability of numerical climate models. Environmental reconstruction and climate modelling are crucial for understanding the mPWP, and the synergy of these two, often disparate, fields has proven essential in confirming features of the past and in turn building confidence in projections of the future. The continual development of methodologies to better facilitate environmental synthesis and data/model comparison is essential, with recent work demonstrating that time-specific (time-slice) syntheses represent the next logical step in exploring climate change during the mPWP and realizing its potential as a test bed for understanding future climate change.

  12. Canada in 3D - Toward a Sustainable 3D Model for Canadian Geology from Diverse Data Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaric, B.; Pilkington, M.; Snyder, D. B.; St-Onge, M. R.; Russell, H.

    2015-12-01

    Many big science issues span large areas and require data from multiple heterogeneous sources, for example climate change, resource management, and hazard mitigation. Solutions to these issues can significantly benefit from access to a consistent and integrated geological model that would serve as a framework. However, such a model is absent for most large countries including Canada, due to the size of the landmass and the fragmentation of the source data into institutional and disciplinary silos. To overcome these barriers, the "Canada in 3D" (C3D) pilot project was recently launched by the Geological Survey of Canada. C3D is designed to be evergreen, multi-resolution, and inter-disciplinary: (a) it is to be updated regularly upon acquisition of new data; (b) portions vary in resolution and will initially consist of four layers (surficial, sedimentary, crystalline, and mantle) with intermediary patches of higher-resolution fill; and (c) a variety of independently managed data sources are providing inputs, such as geophysical, 3D and 2D geological models, drill logs, and others. Notably, scalability concerns dictate a decentralized and interoperable approach, such that only key control objects, denoting anchors for the modeling process, are imported into the C3D database while retaining provenance links to original sources. The resultant model is managed in the database, contains full modeling provenance as well as links to detailed information on rock units, and is to be visualized in desktop and online environments. It is anticipated that C3D will become the authoritative state of knowledge for the geology of Canada at a national scale.

  13. Statistical modeling of the long-range-dependent structure of barrier island framework geology and surface geomorphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Weymer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Shorelines exhibit long-range dependence (LRD and have been shown in some environments to be described in the wave number domain by a power-law characteristic of scale independence. Recent evidence suggests that the geomorphology of barrier islands can, however, exhibit scale dependence as a result of systematic variations in the underlying framework geology. The LRD of framework geology, which influences island geomorphology and its response to storms and sea level rise, has not been previously examined. Electromagnetic induction (EMI surveys conducted along Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS, Texas, United States, reveal that the EMI apparent conductivity (σa signal and, by inference, the framework geology exhibits LRD at scales of up to 101 to 102 km. Our study demonstrates the utility of describing EMI σa and lidar spatial series by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA process that specifically models LRD. This method offers a robust and compact way of quantifying the geological variations along a barrier island shoreline using three statistical parameters (p, d, q. We discuss how ARIMA models that use a single parameter d provide a quantitative measure for determining free and forced barrier island evolutionary behavior across different scales. Statistical analyses at regional, intermediate, and local scales suggest that the geologic framework within an area of paleo-channels exhibits a first-order control on dune height. The exchange of sediment amongst nearshore, beach, and dune in areas outside this region are scale independent, implying that barrier islands like PAIS exhibit a combination of free and forced behaviors that affect the response of the island to sea level rise.

  14. Statistical modeling of the long-range-dependent structure of barrier island framework geology and surface geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymer, Bradley A.; Wernette, Phillipe; Everett, Mark E.; Houser, Chris

    2018-06-01

    Shorelines exhibit long-range dependence (LRD) and have been shown in some environments to be described in the wave number domain by a power-law characteristic of scale independence. Recent evidence suggests that the geomorphology of barrier islands can, however, exhibit scale dependence as a result of systematic variations in the underlying framework geology. The LRD of framework geology, which influences island geomorphology and its response to storms and sea level rise, has not been previously examined. Electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys conducted along Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS), Texas, United States, reveal that the EMI apparent conductivity (σa) signal and, by inference, the framework geology exhibits LRD at scales of up to 101 to 102 km. Our study demonstrates the utility of describing EMI σa and lidar spatial series by a fractional autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process that specifically models LRD. This method offers a robust and compact way of quantifying the geological variations along a barrier island shoreline using three statistical parameters (p, d, q). We discuss how ARIMA models that use a single parameter d provide a quantitative measure for determining free and forced barrier island evolutionary behavior across different scales. Statistical analyses at regional, intermediate, and local scales suggest that the geologic framework within an area of paleo-channels exhibits a first-order control on dune height. The exchange of sediment amongst nearshore, beach, and dune in areas outside this region are scale independent, implying that barrier islands like PAIS exhibit a combination of free and forced behaviors that affect the response of the island to sea level rise.

  15. Business model pretotyping: exploring pre-commercialisation opportunities in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Jakobsen, Henning Sejer

    2015-01-01

    Most practitioners working with innovation agree that business modelling is imperative for their organisations’ survival. Nonetheless, the same practitioners still spend the majority of the time devoted for innovation on their product/process, and only limited time – if any – on exploring new...... or complementing business models. This myopic ‘product/process’ focus is no longer enough for organisations to create new radical breakthroughs in the market(s). Thus, to assist practitioners in changing this behaviour, our paper prescribes a directly implementable method named the vertical innovation process (VIP......) framework. The VIP framework can be used to create different alternatives and variations of business models (pretotypes) when practitioners find themselves between the discovery of a breakthrough and the commercialisation of it....

  16. Presumption of the distribution of the geological structure based on the geological survey and the topographic data in and around the Horonobe area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshihiro; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    The Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory (URL) Project, a comprehensive research project investigating the deep underground environment in sedimentary rock, is being pursued by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) at Horonobe-cho in Northern Hokkaido, Japan. One of the main goals of the URL project is to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of the deep geological environment. JAEA constructed the geologic map and the database of geological mapping in Horonobe-cho in 2005 based on the existing literatures and 1/200,000 geologic maps published by Geological Survey of Japan, and then updated the geologic map in 2007 based on the results of various investigations which were conducted around the URL as the surface based investigation phase of the URL project. On the other hand, there are many geological survey data which are derived from natural resources (petroleum, natural gas and coal, etc.) exploration in and around Horonobe-cho. In this report, we update the geologic map and the database of the geological mapping based on these geological survey and topographical analysis data in and around the Horonobe area, and construct a digital geologic map and a digital database of geological mapping as GIS. These data can be expected to improve the precision of modeling and analyzing of geological environment including its long-term evaluation. The digital data is attached on CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)

  17. Measurement and modeling of flow through unsaturated heterogeneous rock in the context of geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.; Bagtzoglou, A.C.; Green, R.T.; Stothoff, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Deep geologic disposal of high-level and transuranic waste is currently being pursued vigorously. Assessing long-term performance of such repositories involves laboratory and field measurements, and numerical modeling. There exist two primary characteristics, associated with assessing repository performance, that define problems of modeling and measurement of non-isothermal flow through geologic media exposed to variable boundary conditions (e.g., climatic changes). These are: (1) the large time scale (tens of thousands of years) and highly variable space scale (from one meter to 10 5 meters); and (2) the hierarchy of heterogeneities and discontinuities characterizing the medium. This paper provides an overview of recent work, conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), related to laboratory experiments, consideration of similitude, and numerical modeling of flow through heterogeneous media under non-homogeneous boundary conditions. As discussed, there exist neither good methods of measuring flows at these scales nor are there adequate similitude analyses that would allow reasonable scaling up of laboratory-scale experiments. Reliable assessment of long-term geologic repositories will require sophisticated geostatistical models capable of addressing variables scales of heterogeneities conditioned with observed results from adequately sized field-scale experiments conducted for sufficiently long durations

  18. Estimation of the statistical distribution of faulting in selected areas and the design of an exploration model to detect these faults. Final research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.P.

    1977-11-01

    Selected sites in the United States have been analyzed geomathematically as a part of the technical support program to develop site suitability criteria for High Level Nuclear Waste (HLW) repositories. Using published geological maps and other information, statistical evaluations of the fault patterns and other significant geological features have been completed for 16 selected localities. The observed frequency patterns were compared to theoretical patterns in order to obtain a predictive model for faults at each location. In general, the patterns approximate an exponential distribution function with the exception of Edinburgh, Scotland--the control area. The fault pattern of rocks at Edinburgh closely approximate a negative binominal frequency distribution. The range of fault occurrences encountered during the investigation varied from a low of 0.15 to a high of 10 faults per square mile. Faulting is only one factor in the overall geological evaluation of HLW sites. A general exploration program plan to aid in investigating HLW respository sites has been completed using standard mineral exploration techniques. For the preliminary examination of the suitability of potential sites, present economic conditions indicate the scanning and reconnaissance exploration stages will cost approximately $1,000,000. These would proceed in a logical sequence so that the site selected optimizes the geological factors. The reconnaissance stage of mineral exploration normally utilizes ''saturation geophysics'' to obtain complete geological information. This approach is recommended in the preliminary HLW site investigation process as the most economical and rewarding. Exploration games have been designed for potential sites in the eastern and the western U.S. The game matrix approach is recommended as a suitable technique for the allocation of resources in a search problem during this preliminary phase

  19. Geological evidence and sediment transport modelling for the 1946 and 1960 tsunamis in Shinmachi, Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Catherine; Sugawara, Daisuke; Goto, Kazuhisa; Goff, James; Dudley, Walter; Gadd, Patricia

    2018-02-01

    The Japanese community of Shinmachi, established on low-lying land between downtown Hilo and Waiakea, Hawaii, was obliterated by the 1946 Aleutian tsunami but was rebuilt, only to be destroyed again by the 1960 Chilean tsunami. The aim of this study was to find out if any geological evidence of these well documented events had been preserved in the sedimentary record in Wailoa River State Park, which replaced Shinmachi after the 1960 tsunami. This was achieved by collecting cores in the park and performing sedimentological, chronological and geochemical analyses, the latter also processed by principal component analysis. Sediment transport modelling was carried out for both tsunamis, to infer the source of the sediment and areas of deposition on land. The field survey revealed two distinct units within peat and soil, a thin lower unit composed of weathered basalt fragments within mud (Unit 1) and an upper unit dominated by fine volcanic sand within fine silt exhibiting subtle upward fining and coarsening (Unit 2, consisting of Unit 2A and Unit 2B), although these two anomalous units only occur on the western shore of Waiakea Mill Pond. Analysis with an ITRAX core scanner shows that Unit 1 is characterised by high Mn, Fe, Rb, La and Ce counts, combined with elevated magnetic susceptibility. Based on its chemical and sedimentological characteristics, Unit 1 is attributed to a flood event in Wailoa River that occurred around 1520-1660 CE, most probably as a result of a tropical storm. The sharp lower contact of Unit 2 coincides with the appearance of arsenic, contemporaneous with an increase in Ca, Sr, Si, Ti, K, Zr, Mn, Fe, La and Ce. In this study, As is used as a chronological and source material marker, as it is known to have been released into Wailoa River Estuary and Waiakea Mill Pond by the Canec factory between 1932 and 1963. Thus, not only the chemical and sedimentological evidence but also sediment transport modelling, corroborating the historical record

  20. Exploring education for digital librarians meaning, modes and models

    CERN Document Server

    Myburgh, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Exploring Education for Digital Librarians provides a refreshing perspective on the discipline and profession of Library and Information Science (LIS), with a focus on preparing students for careers as librarians who can deal with present and future digital information environments. A re-examination of the knowledge base of the field, combined with a proposed theoretical structure for LIS, provide the basis for this work, which also examines competencies for practice as well as some of the international changes in the nature of higher education. The authors finally suggest a model that could b

  1. Exploration of Disease Markers under Translational Medicine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients' requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.

  2. Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawley, Russell; Barron, Mark; Lee, Katy

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in geological linework: communicating the expert's tacit model to the data user(s) by expert elicitation. R. Lawley, M. Barron and K. Lee. NERC - British Geological Survey, Environmental Science Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK, NG12 5GG The boundaries mapped in traditional field geological survey are subject to a wide range of inherent uncertainties. A map at a survey-scale of 1:10,000 is created by a combination of terrain interpretation, direct observations from boreholes and exposures (often sparsely distributed), and indirect interpretation of proxy variables such as soil properties, vegetation and remotely sensed images. A critical factor influencing the quality of the final map is the skill and experience of the surveyor to bring this information together in a coherent conceptual model. The users of geological data comprising or based on mapped boundaries are increasingly aware of these uncertainties, and want to know how to manage them. The growth of 3D modelling, which takes 2D surveys as a starting point, adds urgency to the need for a better understanding of survey uncertainties; particularly where 2D mapping of variable vintage has been compiled into a national coverage. Previous attempts to apply confidence on the basis of metrics such as data density, survey age or survey techniques have proved useful for isolating single, critical, factors but do not generally succeed in evaluating geological mapping 'in the round', because they cannot account for the 'conceptual' skill set of the surveyor. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is using expert elicitation methods to gain a better understanding of uncertainties within the national geological map of Great Britain. The expert elicitation approach starts with the assumption that experienced surveyors have an intuitive sense of the uncertainty of the boundaries that they map, based on a tacit model of geology and its complexity and the nature of the surveying process. The objective of

  3. Application of underwater radon measurements in geology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varhegyi, A.; Baranyi, I.; Gerzson, I. (Mecsek Ore Mining Enterprise, Pecs (Hungary)); Somogyi, G.; Hakl, J.; Hunyadi, I. (Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen (Hungary). Atommag Kutato Intezete)

    1988-01-01

    Based on the observed phenomenon of geogas migration in microbubble form from deeper regions, the authors have developed a new model for the vertical transport of radon released from deeper sources. The physical properties of the rock relating to the upflow of microbubbles below the groundwater level are considered and the radon transport parameter of rocks is introduced. The vertical distribution of radon concentration in the case of a multi-layered geological model is given and the penetration depth of underwater radon measurements is examined. Aspects of underwater radon detection by the nuclear track detector technique are analyzed. The radon transport model gives a new theoretical basis for several applications of radon measurements in geology. The advantages of underwater radon detection have already been proved in uranium exploration. Further geological applications are proposed in earthquake prediction, in volcanology, in the survey of active faults and thermal waters. (author).

  4. A Dynamic Programming Model for Optimizing Frequency of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring in Geological CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjya, D.; Mukerji, T.; Mascarenhas, O.; Weyant, J.

    2005-12-01

    Designing a cost-effective and reliable monitoring program is crucial to the success of any geological CO2 storage project. Effective design entails determining both, the optimal measurement modality, as well as the frequency of monitoring the site. Time-lapse seismic provides the best spatial coverage and resolution for reservoir monitoring. Initial results from Sleipner (Norway) have demonstrated effective monitoring of CO2 plume movement. However, time-lapse seismic is an expensive monitoring technique especially over the long term life of a storage project and should be used judiciously. We present a mathematical model based on dynamic programming that can be used to estimate site-specific optimal frequency of time-lapse surveys. The dynamics of the CO2 sequestration process are simplified and modeled as a four state Markov process with transition probabilities. The states are M: injected CO2 safely migrating within the target zone; L: leakage from the target zone to the adjacent geosphere; R: safe migration after recovery from leakage state; and S: seepage from geosphere to the biosphere. The states are observed only when a monitoring survey is performed. We assume that the system may go to state S only from state L. We also assume that once observed to be in state L, remedial measures are always taken to bring it back to state R. Remediation benefits are captured by calculating the expected penalty if CO2 seeped into the biosphere. There is a trade-off between the conflicting objectives of minimum discounted costs of performing the next time-lapse survey and minimum risk of seepage and its associated costly consequences. A survey performed earlier would spot the leakage earlier. Remediation methods would have been utilized earlier, resulting in savings in costs attributed to excessive seepage. On the other hand, there are also costs for the survey and remedial measures. The problem is solved numerically using Bellman's optimality principal of dynamic

  5. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    KTH Royal Institute of Technology was founded in 1827 and it is the largest technical university in Sweden with five campuses and Around 15,000 students. KTH-dESA combines an outstanding knowledge in the field of energy systems analysis. This is demonstrated by the successful collaborations with many (UN) organizations. Regional Scale Modelling for Exploring Energy Strategies for Africa include Assessing renewable energy potentials; Analysing investment strategies; ) Assessing climate resilience; Comparing electrification options; Providing web-based decision support; and Quantifying energy access. It is conclude that Strategies required to ensure a robust and flexible energy system (-> no-regret choices); Capacity investments should be in line with national & regional strategies; Climate change important to consider, as it may strongly influence the energy flows in a region; Long-term models can help identify robust energy investment strategies and pathways that Can help assess future markets and profitability of individual projects

  6. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  7. Formation and Evolution of Lakshmi Planum (V-7), Venus: Assessment of Models using Observations from Geological Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Lakshmi Planum is a high-standing plateau (3.5-4.5 km above MPR) surrounded by the highest mountain ranges on Venus. Lakshmi represents a unique type of elevated region different from dome-shaped and rifted rises and tessera-bearing crustal plateaus. The unique characteristics of Lakshmi suggest that it formed by an unusual combination of processes and played an important role in Venus geologic history. Lakshmi was studied with Venera-15/16 and Magellan data, resulting in two classes of models, divergent and convergent, to explain its unusual topographic and morphologic characteristics. Divergent models explain Lakshmi as a site of mantle upwelling due to rising and subsequent collapse of a mantle diapir; such models explain emplacement of a lava plateau inside Lakshmi and, in some circumstances, formation of the mountain ranges. The convergent models consider Lakshmi as a locus of mantle downwelling, convergence, underthrusting, and possible subduction. Key features in these models are the mountain ranges, high topography of Lakshmi interior, and the large volcanic centers in the plateau center. These divergent and convergent models entail principally different mechanisms of formation and suggest different geodynamic regimes on Venus. Almost all models make either explicit or implicit predictions about the type and sequence of major events during formation and evolution of Lakshmi and thus detailed geological mapping can be used to test them. Here we present the results of such geological mapping (the V-7 quadrangle, 50-75degN, 300-360degE; scale 1:5M) that allows testing the proposed models for Lakshmi.

  8. Designing tools for oil exploration using nuclear modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauborgne Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When designing nuclear tools for oil exploration, one of the first steps is typically nuclear modeling for concept evaluation and initial characterization. Having an accurate model, including the availability of accurate cross sections, is essential to reduce or avoid time consuming and costly design iterations. During tool response characterization, modeling is benchmarked with experimental data and then used to complement and to expand the database to make it more detailed and inclusive of more measurement environments which are difficult or impossible to reproduce in the laboratory. We present comparisons of our modeling results obtained using the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII cross section data bases, focusing on the response to a few elements found in the tool, borehole and subsurface formation. For neutron-induced inelastic and capture gamma ray spectroscopy, major obstacles may be caused by missing or inaccurate cross sections for essential materials. We show examples of the benchmarking of modeling results against experimental data obtained during tool characterization and discuss observed discrepancies.

  9. Designing tools for oil exploration using nuclear modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauborgne, Marie-Laure; Allioli, Françoise; Manclossi, Mauro; Nicoletti, Luisa; Stoller, Chris; Evans, Mike

    2017-09-01

    When designing nuclear tools for oil exploration, one of the first steps is typically nuclear modeling for concept evaluation and initial characterization. Having an accurate model, including the availability of accurate cross sections, is essential to reduce or avoid time consuming and costly design iterations. During tool response characterization, modeling is benchmarked with experimental data and then used to complement and to expand the database to make it more detailed and inclusive of more measurement environments which are difficult or impossible to reproduce in the laboratory. We present comparisons of our modeling results obtained using the ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII cross section data bases, focusing on the response to a few elements found in the tool, borehole and subsurface formation. For neutron-induced inelastic and capture gamma ray spectroscopy, major obstacles may be caused by missing or inaccurate cross sections for essential materials. We show examples of the benchmarking of modeling results against experimental data obtained during tool characterization and discuss observed discrepancies.

  10. Physical Modeling in the Geological Sciences: An Annotated Bibliography. CEGS Programs Publication No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, L. J., Jr.; Passero, Richard Nicholas

    The bibliography identifies, describes, and evaluates devices and techniques discussed in the world's literature to demonstrate or stimulate natural physical geologic phenomena in classroom or laboratory teaching or research situations. The aparatus involved ranges from the very simple and elementary to the highly complex, sophisticated, and…

  11. Uranium exploration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  12. A modelling approach for exploring muscle dynamics during cyclic contractions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A Ross

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hill-type muscle models are widely used within the field of biomechanics to predict and understand muscle behaviour, and are often essential where muscle forces cannot be directly measured. However, these models have limited accuracy, particularly during cyclic contractions at the submaximal levels of activation that typically occur during locomotion. To address this issue, recent studies have incorporated effects into Hill-type models that are oftentimes neglected, such as size-dependent, history-dependent, and activation-dependent effects. However, the contribution of these effects on muscle performance has yet to be evaluated under common contractile conditions that reflect the range of activations, strains, and strain rates that occur in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a modelling framework to evaluate modifications to Hill-type muscle models when they contract in cyclic loops that are typical of locomotor muscle function. Here we present a modelling framework composed of a damped harmonic oscillator in series with a Hill-type muscle actuator that consists of a contractile element and parallel elastic element. The intrinsic force-length and force-velocity properties are described using Bézier curves where we present a system to relate physiological parameters to the control points for these curves. The muscle-oscillator system can be geometrically scaled while preserving dynamic and kinematic similarity to investigate the muscle size effects while controlling for the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator. The model is driven by time-varying muscle activations that cause the muscle to cyclically contract and drive the dynamics of the harmonic oscillator. Thus, this framework provides a platform to test current and future Hill-type model formulations and explore factors affecting muscle performance in muscles of different sizes under a range of cyclic contractile conditions.

  13. Field reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars, based on Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and MRO HiRISE observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, K.W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhfer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity

  14. MUFITS Code for Modeling Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide at Sub- and Supercritical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Two-phase models are widely used for simulation of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. These models support gaseous phase mainly saturated with CO2 and liquid phase mainly saturated with H2O (e.g. TOUGH2 code). The models can be applied to analysis of CO2 stor