WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic co2 storage

  1. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  2. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  3. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  4. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  5. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  6. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  7. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  8. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  9. CO2GeoNet, the unique role of the European scientific body on CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Arts, R.; Durand, D.; Durucan, S.; Johannessen, P.; May, F.; Olivier, M.-L.; Persoglia, S.; Riley, N.; Sohrabi, M.; Stokka, S.; Vercelli, S.; Vizika-Kavvadias, O.

    2009-01-01

    CO2GeoNet is a Network of Excellence on the geological storage of CO2, initiated by the EC's 6th research framework programme in 2004 and integrating Europe's key research institutes to create a scientific reference body dedicated to the development of CO2 geological storage as a viable option for m

  10. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  11. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2 geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO2 injection. CO2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number.

  12. Geologic Storage of CO2: Leakage Pathways and Environmental Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A.; Bachu, S.

    2002-05-01

    Geologic storage of CO2 appears to be an attractive option for carbon mitigation because it offers sufficient capacity to solve the problem, and it can be implemented with existing technology. Among the list of options for storage sites, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers are two major categories. While injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs offers immediate possibilities, especially in the context of enhanced oil recovery, it appears that deep saline aquifers provide the extensive capacity necessary to solve the problem over the decade to century time scale. Capacity and technology argue favorably for this option, but remaining obstacles to implementation include capture technologies, overall economic considerations, and potential environmental consequences of the injection. Of these, the environmental questions may be most difficult to solve. Experience from CO2 floods for enhanced oil recovery and from CO2 and acid gas disposal operations indicates that geological storage of CO2 is safe over the short term for comparatively small amounts of CO2. However, there is no experience to date regarding the long-term fate and safety of the large volumes of CO2 that must be injected to significantly reduce atmospheric emissions. In order to make proper evaluation of environmental risks, the full range of possible environmental consequences must be considered. Most of these environmental concerns involve migration and leakage of CO2 into shallow portions of the subsurface and eventually into the atmosphere. In shallow subsurface zones, elevated levels of carbon dioxide can cause pH changes, leading to possible mobilization of ground-water contaminants including metals. In the unsaturated zone, vegetation can be adversely affected, as can other ecosystem components. At the land surface, elevated levels of CO2 can lead to asphyxiation in humans and other animals. And finally, in the atmosphere, CO2 that leaks from underground diminishes the effectiveness

  13. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  14. Density-driven enhanced dissolution of injected CO2 during long-term CO2 geological storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations is increasingly seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, possible leakage of injected CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures, faults and abandoned wells is a huge challenge for CO2 geological storage projects. Thus, the density-driven fluid flow as a process that can accelerate the phase change of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase is receiving more and more attention. In this paper, we performed higher-resolution reactive transport simulations to investigate the possible density-driven fluid flow process under the ‘real’ condition of CO2 injection and storage. Simulation results indicated that during CO2 injection and geological storage in deep saline formations, the higher-density CO2-saturated aqueous phase within the lower CO2 gas plume migrates downward and moves horizontally along the bottom of the formation, and the higher-density fingers within the upper gas plume propagate downward. These density-driven fluid flow processes can significantly enhance the phase transition of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase, consequently enhancing the effective storage capacity and long-term storage security of injected CO2 in saline formations.

  15. Monitoring of CO2 geological storage based on the passive surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Kaoshan; Li Xiaofeng; Song Xuehang; Chen Gen; Pan Yongdong; Huang Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and geological storage (CCS) is one of promising technologies for greenhouse gas effect mitigation. Many geotechnical challenges remain during carbon dioxide storage field practices, among which effectively detecting CO2 from deep underground is one of engineering problems. This paper reviews monitoring techniques currently used during CO2 injection and storage. A method developed based on measuring seismic microtremors is of main interest. This method was first successfully used to characterize a site in this paper. To explore its feasibility in CO2 storage monitoring, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate detectable changes in elastic wave signatures due to injection and geological storage of CO2. It is found that, although it is effective for shallow earth profile estimation, the surface wave velocity is not sensitive to the CO2 layer physical parameter variations, especially for a thin CO2 geological storage layer in a deep underground reservoir.

  16. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Selecci0n de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-09-18

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs.

  17. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Seleccion de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-07-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in Heterogeneous Porous media for CO2 Geological Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, P.; Farajzadeh, R.; Bruining, J.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a modeling and numerical simulation study of density-driven natural convection during geological CO2 storage in heterogeneous formations. We consider an aquifer or depleted oilfield overlain by gaseous CO2, where the water density increases due to CO2 dissolution. The heterogeneity of the

  19. Our trial to develop a risk assessment tool for CO2 geological storage (GERAS-CO2GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    We will introduce our researches about to develop a risk assessment tool named 'GERAS-CO2GS' (Geo-environmental Risk Assessment System, CO2 Geological Storage Risk Assessment System) for 'Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage (Geological CCS)'. It aims to facilitate understanding of size of impact of risks related with upper migration of injected CO2. For gaining public recognition about feasibility of Geological CCS, quantitative estimation of risks is essential, to let public knows the level of the risk: whether it is negligible or not. Generally, in preliminary hazard analysis procedure, potential hazards could be identified within Geological CCS's various facilities such as: reservoir, cap rock, upper layers, CO2 injection well, CO2 injection plant and CO2 transport facilities. Among them, hazard of leakage of injected C02 is crucial, because it is the clue to estimate risks around a specific injection plan in terms of safety, environmental protection effect and economy. Our risk assessment tool named GERAS-CO2GS evaluates volume and rate of retention and leakage of injected CO2 in relation with fractures and/or faults, and then it estimates impact of seepages on the surface of the earth. GERAS-CO2GS has four major processing segments: (a) calculation of CO2 retention and leakage volume and rate, (b) data processing of CO2 dispersion on the surface and ambient air, (c) risk data definition and (d) evaluation of risk. Concerning to the injection site, we defined a model, which is consisted from an injection well and a geological strata model: which involves a reservoir, a cap rock, an upper layer, faults, seabed, sea, the surface of the earth and the surface of the sea. For retention rate of each element of CO2 injection site model, we use results of our experimental and numerical studies on CO2 migration within reservoirs and faults with specific lithological conditions. For given CO2 injection rate, GERAS-CO2GS calculates CO2 retention and leakage of each segment

  20. Numerical simulation of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers - case study of Utsira formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geological storage (CGS is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. In order to fully exploit the storage potential, numerical simulations can help in determining injection strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 geological storage in Utsira saline formation where the sequestration is currently underway. The effects of various hydrogeological and numerical factors on the CO2 distribution in the topmost hydrogeological layer of Utsira are discussed. The existence of multiple pathways for upward mobility of CO2 into the topmost layer of Utsira as well as the performance of the top seal are also investigated.

  1. Numerical simulation of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers – case study of Utsira formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CO2 geological storage (CGS) is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. In order to fully exploit the storage potential, numerical simulations can help in determining injection strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 geological storage in Utsira saline formation where the sequestration is currently underway. The effects of various hydrogeological and numerical factors on the CO2 distribution in the topmost hydrogeological layer of Utsira are discussed. The existence of multiple pathways for upward mobility of CO2 into the topmost layer of Utsira as well as the performance of the top seal are also investigated.

  2. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from aGeologic Storage Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-09

    The amounts of CO2 that would need to be injected intogeologic storage reservoirs to achieve a significant reduction ofatmospheric emissions are very large. A 1000 MWe coal-fired power plantemits approximately 30,000 tonnes of CO2 per day, 10 Mt per year(Hitchon, 1996). When injected underground over a typical lifetime of 30years of such a plant, the CO2 plume may occupy a large area of order 100km2 or more, and fluid pressure increase in excess of 1 bar(corresponding to 10 m water head) may extend over an area of more than2,500 km2 (Pruess, et al., 2003). The large areal extent expected for CO2plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered,such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape fromthe primary storage reservoir. Under most subsurface conditions oftemperature and pressure, CO2 is buoyant relative to groundwaters. If(sub-)vertical pathways are available, CO2 will tend to flow upward and,depending on geologic conditions, may eventually reach potablegroundwater aquifers or even the land surface. Leakage of CO2 could alsooccur along wellbores, including pre-existing and improperly abandonedwells, or wells drilled in connection with the CO2 storage operations.The pressure increases accompanying CO2 injection will give rise tochanges in effective stress that could cause movement along faults,increasing permeability and potential for leakage.Escape of CO2 from aprimary geologic storage reservoir and potential hazards associated withits discharge at the land surface raise a number of concerns, including(1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard whenleaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase inatmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy,eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In orderto gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address theseissues

  3. Developments since 2005 in understanding potential environmental impacts of CO2 leakage from geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, D.G.; Beaubien, S.E.; Blackford, J.C.; Foekema, E.M.; Lions, J.; Vittor, de C.; West, J.M.; Widdicombe, S.; Hauton, C.; Queiros, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research into the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological storage of CO2 since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in 2005. Possible impacts are considered on onshore (including drinking water aquifers) and offshore e

  4. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  5. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...

  6. The geological risks of drilling a borehole for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changyou; Wilkinson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A hydrocarbon exploration borehole may be unsuccessful because the target reservoir is of low porosity, is too thin or has no seal, even when drilled in an area of well-known geology, such as the North Sea. The same geological problems could cause a new CO2 storage borehole or project to be unsuccessful, especially when drilled into a previously untried structure in a saline aquifer. As experience worldwide of developing new CO2 storage projects is limited, hydrocarbon exploration provides a useful analogue to assess both the absolute range of risk factors, and their historical occurrence. In this study, we reviewed the results of 382 unsuccessful hydrocarbon boreholes in the UK North Sea to analyse the geological risks of drilling. We found that absence of the target reservoir (19 ± 3 % of cases), low reservoir quality (16 ± 5 %) and lack of trap (16 ± 3 %) are the most significant risk for a new borehole. We suggest that boreholes drilled for CO2 storage will have a similar risk profile, even when drilled into a highly explored area such as the North Sea. From the drilling records, we estimate that the probability of a reservoir having an effective caprock is 95 ± 2%; and for any bounding faults to provide an effective seal to be 82 ± 4 %. Based on the probability data, 48 ± 8 % of subsurface structures, which appear to be suitable for CO2 storage on pre-drill prognosis, are predicted to actually be suitable for the storage of CO2. For storage sites that have been penetrated by existing boreholes, then the geological risks are greatly reduced. The most significant remaining risk is reservoir compartmentalization.

  7. Considerations for monitoring, verification, and accounting for geologic storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monea, Mike; Knudsen, Ray; Worth, Kyle; Chalaturnyk, Rick; White, Don; Wilson, Malcolm; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G.; Srivastava, Rameshwar D.

    Growing concern over the impact of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere has led to suggested mitigation techniques. One proposal that is attracting widespread attention is carbon capture and storage (CCS). This mitigation approach involves capture of CO2 and permanent storage in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline formations, and unmineable coal seams. Critical to the successful implementation of this approach is the development of a robust monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program. Defining the site characteristics of a proposed geologic storage project is the first step in developing a monitoring program. Following site characterization, the second step involves developing hypothetical models describing important mechanisms that control the behavior of injected CO2. A wide array of advanced monitoring technologies is currently being evaluated by the Weyburn-Midale Project, the Frio Project, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program. These efforts are evaluating and determining which monitoring techniques are most effective and economic for specific geologic situations, information that will be vital in guiding future projects. Although monitoring costs can run into millions of dollars, they are typically only a small part of the overall cost of a CO2 storage project. Ultimately, a robust MVA program will be critical in establishing CCS as a viable GHG mitigation strategy.

  8. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  9. Southern Adriatic Sea as a Potential Area for CO2 Geological Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpi V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7 European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene. In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick caprock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emittor where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions.

  10. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  11. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-07-09

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Different scientific theories exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. The authors of this report reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of near surface environments such as potable water aquifers and the vadose zone. Experimental and modeling studies highlighted the potential for both beneficial (e.g., CO2 re sequestration or contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g., contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion in these systems. Current knowledge gaps, including the role of CO2-induced changes in redox conditions, the influence of CO2 influx rate, gas composition, organic matter content and microorganisms are discussed in terms of their potential influence on pertinent geochemical processes and the potential for beneficial or deleterious outcomes. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why closing these knowledge gaps are pivotal. A framework for studying and assessing consequences associated with each factor is also presented in Section 5.6.

  12. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide.

  13. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  14. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able to reduce the gap between the field and lab rates by about two orders of magnitude at elevated temperatures of 200-300 oC. Currently, we are using Si isotopes as a new tool to unravel the coupled reactions in ambient temperature laboratory experiments. These new experimental data, together with coupled reactive mass transport modeling

  15. Monetizing Leakage Risk of Geologic CO2 Storage using Wellbore Permeability Frequency Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Fitts, Jeffrey; Peters, Catherine; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) may be captured from large point sources (e.g., coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement manufacturers) and injected into deep sedimentary basins for storage, or sequestration, from the atmosphere. This technology—CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)—may be a significant component of the portfolio of technologies deployed to mitigate climate change. But injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the storage reservoir through a variety of natural and manmade pathways, including existing wells and wellbores. Such leakage will incur costs to a variety of stakeholders, which may affect the desirability of potential CO2 injection locations as well as the feasibility of the CCS approach writ large. Consequently, analyzing and monetizing leakage risk is necessary to develop CCS as a viable technological option to mitigate climate change. Risk is the product of the probability of an outcome and the impact of that outcome. Assessment of leakage risk from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs requires an analysis of the probabilities and magnitudes of leakage, identification of the outcomes that may result from leakage, and an assessment of the expected economic costs of those outcomes. One critical uncertainty regarding the rate and magnitude of leakage is determined by the leakiness of the well leakage pathway. This leakiness is characterized by a leakage permeability for the pathway, and recent work has sought to determine frequency distributions for the leakage permeabilities of wells and wellbores. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of leakage and monetized leakage risk for CO2 injection locations in the Michigan Sedimentary Basin (USA) using empirically derived frequency distributions for wellbore leakage permeabilities. To conduct this probabilistic risk analysis, we apply the RISCS (Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage) model (Bielicki et al, 2013a, 2012b) to injection into the Mt. Simon Sandstone. RISCS monetizes leakage risk

  16. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  17. Optimising geological storage of CO2 by development of multiple injection sites in regionally extensive storage sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhurst, Maxine; McDermott, Christopher; Williams, John; Mackay, Eric; Jin, Min; Tucker, Owain; Mallows, Tom; Hannis, Sarah; Pearce, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) is considered a key technology to provide secure, low-carbon energy supply and industrial processes to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to the adverse effects of climatic change. Geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), captured during hydrocarbon production at the Sleipner Field, in strata beneath the Norwegian sector of the North Sea has been in operation since 1996. Projects to store CO2 captured at power plants in strata underlying the North Sea are currently in design. Storage of the CO2 is planned in depleted hydrocarbon fields or regionally extensive sandstones containing brine (saline aquifer sandstones). The vast majority of the UK potential storage resource is within brine-saturated sandstone formations. The sandstone formations are each hundreds to thousands of square kilometres in extent and underlie all sectors of the North Sea. The immense potential to store CO2 in these rocks can only be fully achieved by the operation of more than one injection site within each formation. Here we report an investigation into the operation of more than one injection site within a storage formation using a UK North Sea case study of the Captain Sandstone and the included Goldeneye Field, which is part of the mature hydrocarbon province offshore Scotland. Research by the CO2MultiStore project was targeted to increase understanding and confidence in the operation of two sites within the Captain Sandstone. Methods were implemented to reduce the effort and resources needed to characterise the sandstone, and increase understanding of its stability and performance during operation of more than one injection site. Generic learning was captured throughout the research relevant to the characterisation of extensive storage sandstones, management of the planned injection operations and monitoring of CO2 injection at two (or more) sites within any connected sandstone formation. The storage of CO2 can be optimised

  18. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  19. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H.; Wigley, M.; Bickle, M.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Galy, A.; Ballentine, C.; Zhou, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines and reactions of the acid brines ultimately dissolving silicate minerals and precipitating carbonate minerals are the prime long-term mechanisms for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they are likely to depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. Noble gas isotopic spikes were detected at producing wells within days of initial CO2 injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretations are complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution as the lack of increase in S and Cl concentrations preclude additions of more saline waters. Early calcite dissolution was followed by re-precipitation. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the waters apparently exceed the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of acetic and hydrochloric acid leaches of carbonate fractions of the reservoir rocks and the silicate residues from the leaching. This may indicate incongruent dissolution of Sr or larger scale isotopic heterogeneity of the reservoir. This is being investigated

  20. How CO2 Leakage May Impact the Role of Geologic Carbon Storage in Climate Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. A.; Deng, H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Fitts, J. P.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Among CCUS technologies (Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration), geological storage of CO2 has a large potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but confidence in its deployment is often clouded by the possibility and cost of leakage. In this study, we took the Michigan sedimentary basin as an example to investigate the monetized risks associated with leakage, using the Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage (RISCS) model. The model accounts for spatial heterogeneity and variability of hydraulic properties of the subsurface system and permeability of potential leaking wells. In terms of costs, the model quantifies the financial consequences of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere as well as the costs incurred if CO2 or brine leaks into overlying formations and interferes with other subsurface activities or resources. The monetized leakage risks derived from the RISCS model were then used to modify existing cost curves by shifting them upwards and changing their curvatures. The modified cost curves were used in the integrated assessment model - GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model), which provides policy-relevant results to help inform the potential role of CCUS in future energy systems when carbon mitigation targets and incentives are in place. The results showed that the extent of leakage risks has a significant effect on the extent of CCUS deployment. Under more stringent carbon mitigation policies such as a high carbon tax, higher leakage risks can be afforded and incorporating leakage risks will have a smaller impact on CCUS deployment. Alternatively, if the leakage risks were accounted for by charging a fixed premium, similar to how the risk of nuclear waste disposal is treated, the contribution of CCUS in mitigating climate change varies, depending on the value of the premium.

  1. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  2. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad A.; Riaz, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions for decreasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. Though we focus on the effect of IFT in this study as a factor influencing sealing efficiency or storage capacity, other factors such as interfacial interactions, wettability, pore radius and interfacial mass transfer also affect the mobility and storage capacity of CO2 phase in the pore space. The study of the variation of IFT is however important because the pressure needed to penetrate a pore depends on both the pore size and the interfacial tension. Hence small variations in IFT can affect flow across a large population of pores. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the ternary systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a multi-variant non-linear regression of experimental data. The method uses a general empirical model for the quaternary system CO2/brine-salts that can be made to coincide with experimental data for a variety of solutions. We introduce correction parameters into the model, which compensates for uncertainties, and enforce agreement with experimental data. The results for IFT show a strong dependence on temperature, pressure, and salinity. The model has been found to describe the experimental data in the appropriate parameter space with reasonable precision. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity increases with reservoir depth.

  3. CO2地质储存的地震监测%A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF SEISMIC MONITORING IN CO2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由荣军; 李德春; 武俊文

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the basic idea of isolation technology of CO2and the main mode of isolation of CO2. On such a basis, the authors proposed the feasibility of seam separation and isolation of the mechanism for CO, and analyzed the key research questions and research ideas of geological storage of CO2 in seam, with emphasis placed on the availability of seismic monitoring in CO2 storage.%主要阐述了CO2隔离技术的基本思路和CO2地中隔离的主要方式,在此基础上提出了CO2煤层中隔离的可行性和隔离机制的分析方法,分析了CO2地质储存的重点研究问题及研究思路,评价了地震监测方法在CO2地质储存检测中的有效性.

  4. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noticed that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  5. Methods to Assess Geological CO2 Storage Capacity: Status and Best Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    To understand the emission reduction potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), decision makers need to understand the amount of CO2 that can be safely stored in the subsurface and the geographical distribution of storage resources. Estimates of storage resources need to be made using reliable and consistent methods. Previous estimates of CO2 storage potential for a range of countries and regions have been based on a variety of methodologies resulting in a correspondingly wide range of estimates. Consequently, there has been uncertainty about which of the methodologies were most appropriate in given settings, and whether the estimates produced by these methods were useful to policy makers trying to determine the appropriate role of CCS. In 2011, the IEA convened two workshops which brought together experts for six national surveys organisations to review CO2 storage assessment methodologies and make recommendations on how to harmonise CO2 storage estimates worldwide. This report presents the findings of these workshops and an internationally shared guideline for quantifying CO2 storage resources.

  6. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  7. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2015-08-19

    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  8. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on

  9. Caprock and overburden processes in geological CO2 storage: An experimental study on sealing efficiency and mineral alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wollenweber, J.; Alles, S.a.; Kronimus, A.; Busch, A.; Stanjek, H.; Krooss, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of experimental and analytical methods has been used to characterise the sealing and fluid -transport properties of fine-grained (pelitic) sedimentary rocks under the pressure and temperature conditions of geological CO2 storage. The flow experiments were carried out on cylindric

  10. Geological safety evaluation method for CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifer%深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁玉杰; 张森琦; 郭建强; 李旭峰; 张徽

    2011-01-01

    CO2地质储存工程属于环保型工程项目,地质安全性是影响CO2长期封存的首要因素.深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性影响因素主要包括盖层适宜性、场地地震安全性、水文地质条件、地面场地地质条件四个方面,其中盖层适宜性是CO2安全储存的最关键因素,场地地震安全性和水文地质条件次之,而地面场地地质条件也是影响工程施工的重要因素.本文基于CO2地质储存的地质安全性影响因素分析,建立了层次分析结构的地质安全性评价指标体系,并初步计算了评价指标的权重;提出可以利用模糊综合评价方法进行深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性综合评价,为中国深部咸水层CO2地质储存的地质安全性评价方法和安全选址指明了方向.%CO2 geological storage projects belong to environmental protection projects, and geological safety is the primary factor for CO2 sequestration for a long time.Geological safety influencing factors of CO2 geological storage include cap rock suitability, site safety for earthquake, hydrogeological condition and geological condition of the ground site, of which cap rock suitability is the most important factor, and geological condition of the ground site is the main factor influencing project construction.According to an analysis of CO2 geological storage safety influencing factors, the authors built geological safety evaluation indexes system on the basis of the AHP structure and tentatively calculated the weights.It is held that CO2 geological storage safety could be evaluated comprehensively by fuzzy synthetic evaluation method.In addition, the geological safety evaluation method of CO2 geological storage and the means for safe project site selection in China's deep saline aquifer are put forward in this paper.

  11. Risk assessment of geo-microbial assosicated CO2 Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Higashino, H.; Mayumi, D.; Sakata, S.; Kano, Y.; Nishi, Y.; Nakao, S.

    2014-12-01

    If we maintain preferable conditions for methanogenesis archaea during geological CCS, we will be able to abate greenhouse gas emission and produce natural gas as natural energy resource at the same time. Assuming Bio-CCS site, CO2 is injected from a well for to abate greenhouse gas emission and cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes, and CH4 is produced from another well. The procedure is similar to the Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery (EOR/EGR) operation, but in Bio-CCS, the target is generation and production of methane out of depleted oil/gas reservoir during CO2 abatement. Our project aims to evaluate the basic practicability of Bio-CCS that cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes within depleted oil/gas reservoirs for geological CCS, and produce methane gas as fuel resources on the course of CO2 abatement for GHG control. To evaluate total feasibility of Bio-CCS concept, we have to estimate: CH4 generation volume, environmental impact along with life cycle of injection well, and risk-benefit balance of the Bio-CCS. We are modifying the model step by step to include interaction of oil/gas-CO2-geomicrobe within reservoir more practically and alternation of geo-microbes generation, so that we will be able to estimate methane generation rate more precisely. To evaluate impacts of accidental events around Bio-CCS reservoir, we estimated CO2 migration in relation with geological properties, condition of faults and pathways around well, using TOUGH2-CO2 simulator. All findings will be integrated in to it: cultivation condition of methanogenic geo-microbes, estimation method of methane generation quantities, environmental impacts of various risk scenarios, and benefit analysis of schematic site of Bio-CCS.

  12. CO2 leakage up from a geological storage site to shallow fresh groundwater: CO2-water-rock interaction assessment and development of sensitive monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humez, Pauline; Audigane, Pascal; Lions, Julie; Négrel, Philippe; Lagneau, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    The assessment of environmental impacts of carbon dioxide storage in geological repository requires the investigation of the potential CO2 leakage back into fresh groundwater, particularly with respect to protected groundwater reserves. We are starting a new project with the aims of developing sensitive monitoring techniques in order to detect potential CO2 leaks and their magnitude as well as their geochemical impacts on the groundwater. In a predictive approach goal, a modelling study of the geochemical impact on fresh groundwaters of a CO2 intrusion during geological storage was performed and serves as a basis for the development of sensitive monitoring techniques (e.g. isotope tracing). Then, isotopic monitoring opportunities will be explored. A modeling study of the geochemical impact on fresh groundwaters of the ingress of CO2 during geological storage was conducted. The 3D model includes (i) storage saline aquifer, (ii) impacted overlying aquifer containing freshwater and (iii) a leakage path way up through an abandoned well represented as 1D porous medium and corresponding to the cement-rock formation interface. This model was used to simulate the supercritical CO2 migration path and the interaction between the fluid and the host rock. The model uses the carbonate saline Dogger aquifer in the Paris Basin as the storage reservoir and the Albian formation (located above the Dogger) as the fresh groundwater aquifer. The principal geochemical process simulated is the acidification of groundwaters due to CO2 dissolution, inducing the dissolution of minerals in the Albian formation. Knowing the mineralogical composition of the impacted aquifer is therefore crucial if we are to correctly determine which elements might be release during the arrival of CO2 in freshwater. Estimates of increases in element concentrations are proposed along with a direct control of the injection procedure. This predictive modeling approach impact of CO2 intrusion to fresh groundwaters

  13. 清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存%Clean coal technology and CO2 geological storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳迎红; 马丽

    2014-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of coal and speed up clean,efficiency and low carbonization of coal industry,provide that the tra-ditional coal conversion technologies should be replaced by efficient and clean technologies.Investigate the clean coal technologies and CO2 geological storage technologies,especially the technologies of CO2 storage in saline formation.The way stores large quantities of CO2 safely and stably.The method also solves the problems of CO2 emissions due to China̓s energy structure.%中国能源资源特点决定现在以煤为主的消费结构,但煤炭在消费过程中存在高污染和低效率的问题,因此为提高资源利用率,煤炭行业面临结构调整。煤炭行业的清洁化、高效化、低碳化将是产业发展方向,煤炭高效洁净转化将取代传统的转化技术,如何解决煤炭利用过程中产生的CO2是清洁煤技术面临的新问题。通过研究清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存技术,特别是深部盐水层封存技术,为煤炭利用中产生的CO2排放提供了一种大规模、安全、稳定的存储方式,从而解决目前中国能源结构造成的CO2排放问题。

  14. Dissolution of CO2 in Brines and Mineral Reactions during Geological Carbon Storage: AN Eor Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in formation brines is likely to be a major process which stabilises stored CO2 on longer time scales and mitigates CO2 migrating through storage complexes. However very little is known about the likely rates of CO2 dissolution as CO2 flows through natural heterogeneous brine filled reservoirs. Here we report the results of sampling fluids over 6 months after a phase of CO2 injection commenced for enhanced oil recovery coupled with injection of isotopically enriched 3He and 129Xe. Modelling of the changes in fluid chemistry has previously been interpreted to indicate significant dissolution of silicate minerals where fluids remained close to saturation with calcite. These calculations, which are based on modal decomposition of changes in cation concentrations, are supported by changes in the isotopic compositions of Sr, Li and Mg. Analysis of Sr-isotopic compositions of samples from outcrops of the Frontier Formation, which forms the reservoir sampled by the EOR experiment, reveals substantial heterogeneity. Silicate mineral compositions have 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.719 whereas carbonate cements have values around 0.7076. Calculation of CO2 dissolution based on simplified 2-D flow models shows that fluids likely sample reservoir heterogeneities present on a finer scale with CO2 fingers occupying the most permeable horizons and most water flow in the adjacent slightly less permeable zones. Smaller time scale variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios are interpreted to reflect variations in flow paths on small length scales driven by invading CO2.

  15. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Ian

    2014-08-31

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO₂; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO₂ will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO₂ will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases from pipelines or wells are arguably the highest risk aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), carbon capture

  16. The Baltic Basin: structure, properties of reservoir rocks, and capacity for geological storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaher, Rein

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Baltic countries are located in the limits of the Baltic sedimentary basin, a 700 km long and 500 km wide synclinal structure. The axis of the syneclise plunges to the southwest. In Poland the Precambrian basement occurs at a depth of 5 km. The Baltic Basin includes the Neoproterozoic Ediacaran (Vendian at the base and all Phanerozoic systems. Two aquifers, the lower Devonian and Cambrian reservoirs, meet the basic requirements for CO2 storage. The porosity and permeability of sandstone decrease with depth. The average porosity of Cambrian sandstone at depths of 80–800, 800–1800, and 1800–2300 m is 18.6, 14.2, and 5.5%, respectively. The average permeability is, respectively, 311, 251, and 12 mD. Devonian sandstone has an average porosity of 26% and permeability in the range of 0.5–2 D. Prospective Cambrian structural traps occur only in Latvia. The 16 largest ones have CO2 storage capacity in the range of 2–74 Mt, with total capacity exceeding 400 Mt. The structural trapping is not an option for Lithuania as the uplifts there are too small. Another option is utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR. The estimated total EOR net volume of CO2 (part of CO2 remaining in the formation in Lithuania is 5.6 Mt. Solubility and mineral trapping are a long-term option. The calculated total solubility trapping capacity of the Cambrian reservoir is as high as 11 Gt of CO2 within the area of the supercritical state of carbon dioxide.

  17. Geological characterization of Italian reservoirs and numerical 3D modelling of CO2 storage scenarios into saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are

  18. Probabilistic modeling and global sensitivity analysis for CO 2 storage in geological formations: a spectral approach

    KAUST Repository

    Saad, Bilal M.

    2017-09-18

    This work focuses on the simulation of CO2 storage in deep underground formations under uncertainty and seeks to understand the impact of uncertainties in reservoir properties on CO2 leakage. To simulate the process, a non-isothermal two-phase two-component flow system with equilibrium phase exchange is used. Since model evaluations are computationally intensive, instead of traditional Monte Carlo methods, we rely on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions for representation of the stochastic model response. A non-intrusive approach is used to determine the PC coefficients. We establish the accuracy of the PC representations within a reasonable error threshold through systematic convergence studies. In addition to characterizing the distributions of model observables, we compute probabilities of excess CO2 leakage. Moreover, we consider the injection rate as a design parameter and compute an optimum injection rate that ensures that the risk of excess pressure buildup at the leaky well remains below acceptable levels. We also provide a comprehensive analysis of sensitivities of CO2 leakage, where we compute the contributions of the random parameters, and their interactions, to the variance by computing first, second, and total order Sobol’ indices.

  19. Gas Membrane Sensor Technique for in-situ Downhole Detection of Gases Applied During Geological Storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, M.; Erzinger, J.; Kujawa, C.; Group, C.

    2008-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is regarded as a possible technology for the reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, comprehensive research is still needed to better understand the behaviour of CO2 during and after storage. Therefore, we developed and applied a new, innovative geochemical monitoring tool for the real time and in-situ determination of CO2 and other gases in the underground and in bore holes. The method uses a phase separating silicone membrane, permeable for gases, in order to separate gases dissolved in borehole fluids, water and brines. Argon is used as a carrier gas to conduct the collected gases through capillaries to the surface. Here, the gas phase is analyzed in real-time with a portable mass spectrometer for all permanent gases. In addition, gas samples may be collected for detailed investigations in the laboratory. Downhole extraction and on-line determination of gases dissolved in brines using this gas membrane sensor (GMS) technique was successful applied at the scientific CO2SINK test site in Ketzin, Germany (sandstone aquifer). GMSs together with temperature and pressure probes were installed in two approx. 700m deep observation holes, drilled in 50m and 100m distance from the CO2 injection well. Hydraulic pressure in the observation wells rose gradually during injection of CO2. Increasing reservoir gas concentrations of helium, hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen as well as the arrival of the added krypton tracer were determined shortly before the injected CO2 appeared. The breakthrough of CO2 into the observation well, in 50m distance, was recorded after 531.5 tons of CO2 were injected.

  20. Review on the Present and Future Prospects for CO2 Geological Storage in the Foreign Countries%国外 CO2地质储存现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秀珍

    2012-01-01

      Emission of greenhouse gas CO2 have given the powerful impact on the global climate as environment as well, which has got the great attention of the countries all over the world. Mitigation of CO2 emission to the at-mosphere is extremely important for the sustainable development. CO2 geological storage is one of the effective methods to mitigate such emission. This article summarizes the present and future prospects of the CO2 geologi-cal storage in the foreign countries through the following respects:1) CO2 trapping mechanism, 2) CO2 geological storage, 3) current situation and future of the storage projects, 4) capacity estimation of the storage sites, 5) moni-toring techniques, 6) simulation tools and 7) cost of the storage.%  温室气体CO2的大量排放给全球气候和环境带来的巨大影响,受到了世界各国的关注.实现CO2的深度减排是人类可持续发展的必由之路.CO2地质储存是缓解碳排放行之有效的方法之一.本文通过以下几方面论述了国外CO2地质储存的现状以及对未来的展望:1)CO2捕集机理,2)CO2地质储存,3)CO2地质储存项目现状与未来预测,4) CO2地质储存场地储量评估,5)CO2地质储存监测技术,6)CO2地质储存模拟工具,7)CO2地质存储经费等.

  1. A contribution to risk analysis for leakage through abandoned wells in geological CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Andreas; Binning, Philip John; Johannsen, K.;

    2010-01-01

    reservoir database, holding data from over 1200 reservoirs An analytical risk equation is given, allowing the calculation of average risk due to multiple leaky wells with varying distance in the surrounding of the injection well. The reservoir parameters most affecting risk are identified. Using...... these results, the placement of an injection well can be optimized with respect to risk and uncertainty of leakage The risk and uncertainty assessment can be used to determine whether a site, compared to others, should be considered for further investigations or rejected for CO2 storage...

  2. Effect of modeling factors on the dissolution-diffusion-convection process during CO2 geological storage in deep saline formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that during CO2 geological storage,density-driven convective activity can significantly accelerate the dissolution of injected CO2 into water.This action could limit the escape of supercritical CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures,faults and abandoned wells,consequently increasing permanence and security of storage.First,we investigated the effect of numerical perturbation caused by time and grid resolution and the convergence criteria on the dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC) process.Then,using the model with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution,some uncertainty parameters investigated in our previous paper such as initial gas saturation and model boundaries,and other factors such as relative liquid permeability and porosity modification were used to examine their effects on the DDC process.Finally,we compared the effect of 2D and 3D models on the simulation of the DDC process.The above modeling results should contribute to clear understanding and accurate simulation of the DDC process,especially the onset of convective activity,and the CO2 dissolution rate during the convection-dominated stage.

  3. The Role of Water Activity and Capillarity in Partially Saturated Porous Media at Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J. E.; Bryan, C. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Wang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The activity of water in supercritical CO2 may affect performance of geologic CO2 storage, including CO2 injectivity, and shrink-swell properties and sealing efficiency of clayey caprocks. We present a pore-scale unit cell model of water film adsorption and capillary condensation as an explicit function of water activity in supercritical CO2. This model estimates water film configuration in slit to other pore shapes with edges and corners. With the model, we investigate water saturation in porous media in mineral-CO2-water systems under different water activities. Maximum water activities in equilibrium with an aqueous phase are significantly less than unity due to dissolution of CO2 in water (i.e., the mole fraction of water in the aqueous phase is much less than one) and variable dissolved salt concentration. The unit cell approach is used to upscale from the single pore to the core-sample-scale, giving saturation curves as a function of water activity in the supercritical phase and the texture of the porous media. We evaluate the model and the importance of water activity through ongoing small angle neutron scattering experiments and other column experiments, which investigate shrink-swell properties and capillarity under realistic in situ stresses. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Optimization System and Evaluation of CO2 Geological Storage Target Area%CO2地质埋存目标区优选体系与评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李武广; 杨胜来; 娄毅

    2011-01-01

    在中国对CO2地质埋存的研究已有10多年的历程,但至今尚未建立完善的CO2地质埋存目标区优选体系,这也制约了我国CO2地质埋存应用的发展步伐。在收集国内外大量的CO2埋存基础资料和借鉴前人研究成果的基础上,详细分析了盆地特征条件、盆地资源条件和储层特征条件等因素对CO2地质埋存的影响,建立了相应的CO2地质埋存评价指标体系。通过层次分析法确定权重,利用无量纲化指标处理方法对指标进行标准化处理,采用加权平均模型对目标区进行模糊综合评价。最后以中国部分CO2地质埋存试验区为例进行了综合评价、排序,实际应用效果良好,同时研究结果还能够有效地指导利用CO2地质埋存技术提高油气藏开采效率。%The study for geological storage of CO2 has been more than ten years in China,but the optimization system of CO2 geological storage target area is not established yet. This embarrass situation has been restricting the development of the applications of geological storage of CO2. Based on the references of CO2 geological storage and the previous research results, we analyze the effect of the geological background, basinal resource and reservoir characteristics upon the CO2 geological storage,and establish the evaluation system for the CO2 geological storage. By AHP to determine weights,we make the indicator standardization using dimensionless index approach, and evaluate the target areas using the weighted average model. Final- ly,we evaluate and sort some CO2 geological storage areas in China. The application results show optimization system can effectively guide the use of CO2 geological storage to improve the efficiency of reservoir exploitation.

  5. Geochemical Impact on the Caprock Porous Structure during CO2 Geological Storage : A Laboratory and Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhenals Garrido, D. R.; Lafortune, S.; Souli, H.; Dubujet, P.

    2013-12-01

    CO2 storage is envisioned as a technique which reduces large quantities of CO2 rejected in the atmosphere because of many human activities. The effectiveness of this technique is mainly related to the storage capacity as well as its safety. The safety of this operation is primarily based on the conservation of petro-physical properties of the caprock, which prevents the transport of CO2 towards the surface. However when CO2 reaches the reservoir/caprock interface due to buoyancy effects, the interaction between interstitial fluid and injected fluid creates a serie of dissolution/precipitation reactions affecting the properties of containment of the caprock, which is generally characterized by low transport properties. This study aims to assess the impact caused by CO2/interstitial fluid interaction on the nanostructure of a caprock under geological storage conditions. In order to do this, degradation experiments at high pressure of CO2 (88 bar) and isothermal (55°C) conditions have been conducted using batch reactors for 3.5 months. The sample used for these experiments is a well characterized shale, from the Tournemire formation (Aveyron-France). Porosity evolution has been followed by using volumetric adsorption at low pressure, from advanced NLFDT and classical theories based on the micropores filling, and capillary condensation phenomena. Results showed a slight variation in both mesopores and micropores size distributions, as a result of dissolution processes, which dominated at laboratoty time scale. Furthermore, chemical analysis from the water sampled showed an overall increase in Ca,Mg,K,Si,Na. The results obtained by physical adsorption and water chemistry analysis were consistent, with geochemical modeling, which suggested reaction paths with calcite dissolution as the main mineral, by producing porosity at short term and (clays, feldspars) dissolution of aluminosilicates dominating at long term.

  6. Interactions between CO2, minerals, and toxic ions: Implications for CO2 leakage from deep geological storage (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, F.; Montes-Hernandez, G.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term injection of carbon dioxide into geological underground reservoirs may lead to leakage events that will enhance fluid-rock interactions and question the safety of these repositories. If injection of carbon dioxide into natural reservoirs has been shown to mobilize some species into the pore fluid, including heavy metals and other toxic ions, the detailed interactions remain still debated because two main processes could interact and modify fluid composition: on the one hand dissolution/precipitation reactions may release/incorporate trace elements, and on the other hand adsorption/desorption reactions on existing mineral surfaces may also mobilize or trap these elements. We analyze here, through laboratory experiments, a scenario of a carbon dioxide reservoir that leaks into a fresh water aquifer through a localized leakage zone such as a permeable fault zone localized in the caprock and enhance toxic ions mobilization. Our main goal is to evaluate the potential risks on potable water quality. In a series of experiments, we have injected carbon dioxide into a fresh water aquifer-like medium that contained carbonate and/or iron oxide particles, pure water, and various concentrations of trace elements (copper, arsenic, cadmium, and selenium, in various states of oxidation). This analogue and simplified medium has been chosen because it contains two minerals (calcite, goethite) widespread found in freshwater aquifers. The surface charge of these minerals may vary with pH and therefore control how trace elements are adsorbed or desorbed, depending on fluid composition. Our experiments show that these minerals could successfully prevent the remobilization of adsorbed Cu(II), Cd(II), Se(IV), and As(V) if carbon dioxide is intruded into a drinking water aquifer. Furthermore, a decrease in pH resulting from carbon dioxide intrusion could reactivate the adsorption of Se(IV) and As(V) if goethite and calcite are sufficiently available in the aquifer. Our

  7. The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: A comprehensive approach to study the long term fate of CO2 geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, P.; Brown, S.; Dimier, A.; Pearce, J.; Frykman, P.; Maurand, N.; Le Gallo, Y.; Spiers, C. J.; Cremer, H.; Rutters, H.; Yalamas, T.

    2013-12-01

    The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project aims at significantly advance our knowledge of specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2: i) trapping mechanisms, ii) fluid-rock interactions and effects on mechanical integrity of fractured caprock and faulted systems and iii) leakage due to mechanical and chemical damage in the well vicinity, iv) brine displacement and fluid mixing at regional scale. A realistic framework is ensured through collaboration with two demonstration sites in deep saline sandstone formations: the onshore former NER300 West Lorraine candidate in France (ArcelorMittal GeoLorraine) and the offshore EEPR Don Valley (former Hatfield) site in UK operated by National Grid. Static earth models have been generated at reservoir and basin scale to evaluate both trapping mechanisms and fluid displacement at short (injection) and long (post injection) time scales. Geochemical trapping and reservoir behaviour is addressed through experimental approaches using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and through geochemical simulations. Collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland) (OPA), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose: - Characterization of elastic parameters in intact samples by measuring strain during an axial experiment, - A recording of hydraulic fracture flow properties by loading and shearing samples in order to create a 'realistic

  8. Experimental determination of trace element mobility in UK North Sea sandstones under conditions of geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Offshore UK geological formations have the capacity to store > 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation, if utilised for carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes. During CO2 storage or CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR), formation waters may be produced at the surface to be disposed of into the marine environment. Laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution. Of relevance to the UK context, eight of these elements are specifically identified as potentially hazardous to the marine environment: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn. Batch experiments using simple borosilicate flasks sat on heating mantles were used in this study to determine concentrations of these 8 elements which could be leached from selected North Sea sandstones with bubbled CO2 and saline solutions, at formation temperatures. These concentration data were compared with produced water data from current UK offshore hydrocarbon extraction activities. The comparison showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2. The origin of the increased trace element concentrations was investigated using sequential leaching experiments. A six step method of increasingly aggressive leaching was developed, based on modification of methods outlined by Tessier et al

  9. CO2地质封存工程的潜在地质环境灾害风险及防范措施%Potential Geological and Environmental Risks and Its Prevention Measures for CO2 Geological Storage Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔振东; 刘大安; 曾荣树; 牛晶蕊

    2011-01-01

    CO2地质封存技术虽是有效减排CO2和提高石油、天然气等能源采收率的技术手段,但目前该技术尚处于发展阶段.CO2地质封存工程可能诱发一些潜在的地质环境灾害风险,如浅层地表垂向差异变形、可能诱发的断层活化及地震事件、CO2逃逸导致淡水含水层的污染、CO2泄漏富集危害附近人类健康和局部生态系统等.本文分析了上述潜在地质环境灾害风险及灾害诱发模式,并从科学选址、风险评估、工程监管、监测预警、应急补救等角度提出了具体的防范措施和工程指导原则,对CO2地质封存技术的安全性评估和工程实施阶段的风险管理具有重要的现实意义.%The CO2 geological storage technology has been considered as a promising way to effectively reduce CO2 emission and enhance the recovery rate of oil or gas. However, this technology is still in a developing stage and CO2 geological storage project may induce some potential geological and environmental risks, such as vertical deformation differences of the shallow surface, fault activation for triggering earthquakes, the pollution of freshwater aquifers, harms for human health and local ecosystems, and so on. The mentioned potential risks and its induction modes have been analyzed respectively. Then corresponding prevention principles and measures are suggested from such aspects as scientific site selection, risk assessment, project supervision, monitoring and pre-warning, and emergency reliefs. And this provides important practical implications for risk assessment and management of CO2 geological storage project.

  10. Best practice guidance for environmental risk assessment for offshore CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallmann, K.; Haeckel, M.; Linke, P.; Haffert, L.; Schmidt, M.; Buenz, S.; James, R.; Hauton, C.; Tsimplis, M.; Widdicombe, S.; Blackford, J.; Queiros, A.M.; Connelly, D.; Lichtschlag, A.; Dewar, M.; Chen, B.; Baumberger, T.; Beaubin, S.; Vercelli, S.; Proells, A.; Wildenborg, A.F.B.; Mikunda, T.; Nepveu, M.; Maynard, C.; Finnerty, S.; Flach, T.; Ahmed, N.; Ulfsnes, A.; Brooks, L.; Moskeland, T.; Purcll, M.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from natural gas has been stored successfully below the seabed off Norway for almost two decades. Based on these experiences several demonstration projects supported by the EU and its member states are now setting out to store CO2 captured at power plants in offshore g

  11. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    For geological CO{sub 2} storage site selection, it is desirable to reduce the number of candidate sites through a screening process before detailed site characterization is performed. Screening generally involves defining a number of criteria which then need to be evaluated for each site. The importance of each criterion to the final evaluation will generally be different. Weights reflecting the relative importance of these criteria can be provided by experts. To evaluate a site, each criterion must be evaluated and scored, and then aggregated, taking into account the importance of the criteria. We propose the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores. The Choquet integral considers the interactions among criteria, i.e. whether they are independent, complementary to each other, or partially repetitive. We also evaluate the Shapley index, which demonstrates how the importance of a given piece of information may change if it is considered by itself or together with other available information. An illustrative example demonstrates how the Choquet integral properly accounts for the presence of redundancy in two site-evaluation criteria, making the screening process more defensible than the standard weighted-average approach.

  12. 3D Seismic Imaging of a Geological Storage of CO2 Site: Hontomín (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Juan; Martí, David; Juhlin, Christopher; Malehmir, Alireza; Sopher, Daniel; Marzán, Ignacio; Calahorrano, Alcinoe; Ayarza, Puy; Pérez-Estaún, Andrés; Carbonell, Ramon

    2013-04-01

    A 3D seismic reflection survey was acquired in the summer of 2010 over the Hontomín CO2 storage site (Spain), with the aim of imaging its internal structure and to provide a 3D seismic baseline model prior to CO2 injection. The 36 km2 survey utilised 25 m source and receiver point spacing and 5000 shotpoints recorded with mixed source (Vibroseis and explosives). The target reservoir is a saline aquifer located at approximately 1450 m, within Lower Jurassic carbonates (Lias). The main seal is formed by inter-layered marls and marly limestones of Early to Middle Jurassic age (Dogger and Lias). The relatively complex geology and the rough topography strongly influenced the selection of parameters for the data processing. Static corrections and post stack migration were shown to be the most important processes affecting the quality of the final image. The match between the differing source wavelets is also studied here. The resulting 3D image provides information of all the relevant geological features of the storage site, including position and shape of the main underground formations. The target structure is an asymmetric dome. The steepest flank of the structure was selected as the optimum location for CO2 injection, where the updip migration of the plume is anticipated. A major strike slip fault (the South fault), crossing the study area W-E, has been mapped through the whole seismic volume. The injection position and the expected migration plume are located to the north of this main fault and away from its influence.

  13. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements

  14. Rock Physics Analysis for the Characterization of the Geological CO2 Storage Prospect in Southwestern Ulleung Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, G.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We performed rock physical analysis for the characterization of the CO2 storage site in Ulleung basin, Korea. We obtained the characteristics of target formation from the previous work, which contains comprehensive analyses on key horizons and stratigraphy. After verifying the previous work with well-log data, we performed rock physics modeling to obtain the interrelations between reservoir properties and seismic property for key units, such as shale volume-impedance and porosity-impedance relations. We applied the relations to inverted acoustic impedance from 3D seismic data, and obtained 3D distribution maps for shale volume and porosity. We found around 10-meter-thick cap rock unit (Unit 2-3) and two reservoir units (Unit 3-1 & 3-2) with thickness of a few hundred meters. Unit 2-3 has consistently high shale volume throughout the study area, which implies that it can be a good cap rock. Unit 3-1 and 3-2 seem to be good reservoir layers and their average sand thicknesses are 60 m and 150 m, respectively. From this preliminary analysis, the pore volume of the sand intervals of two reservoirs units is estimated to be 20 billion cubic meters. If we assume that one percent of sand pore volume can be replaced by injected CO2, the injectable amount of CO2 would be 136 million metric tonne. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea (No. 20052004), and "Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant" funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & energy (No. 20132010201760).

  15. CO2地质封存和提高天然气采收率%Geological Storage of CO2 and Enhanced Gas Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓岭; 曾凡桂; 刘贺娟

    2012-01-01

    The CCS technology (CO2 capture and storage)that was addressed by developed countries , such as USA, Canada, Germany, Holland and so on demonstrating that the C02 can be injected underground or deep sea to reduce the emission of CO2 into atmosphere. These sites include saline aquifer, unmineral coal seam (CO2—ECBM), depleted oil or gas field (CO2-EOR/EGR). The CCS technology seems like become the most important way to solve the CO2 emission problem and at the same time, which can also produce some commercial belief. In this paper, as one kind of the CCS technology, CO2-EGR technology has been summarized, including the projects in the world, the critical issues, challenges and the prospect.%目前发达国家,如美国、加拿大、德国、荷兰等兴起的CCS(CO2 capture and storage)技术,即将CO2储存到地下或深海中,包括盐水层、不可开采煤层(CO2-ECBM)、废弃油田(CO2-EOR)、废弃气田(CO2-EGR),已成为解决CO2排放和保护环境的重要举措,而且也可能产生相应的商业利益.本文从CO2提高天然气的采收率角度就这一技术进行概括,研究世界上该类工程的开展情况、技术的关键问题、面临的挑战以及发展前景.

  16. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  17. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414; Swenner, Rudy

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a

  18. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-01-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a c

  19. Tagging CO2 to Enable Quantitative Inventories of Geological Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Klaus; Matter, Juerg; Park, Ah-Hyung; Stute, Martin; Carson, Cantwell; Ji, Yinghuang

    2014-06-30

    In the wake of concerns about the long term integrity and containment of sub-surface CO2 sequestration reservoirs, many efforts have been made to improve the monitoring, verification, and accounting methods for geo-sequestered CO2. Our project aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a system designed to tag CO2 with carbon isotope 14C immediately prior to sequestration to a level that is normal on the surface (one part per trillion). Because carbon found at depth is naturally free of 14C, this tag would easily differentiate pre-existing carbon from anthropogenic injected carbon and provide an excellent handle for monitoring its whereabouts in the subsurface. It also creates an excellent handle for adding up anthropogenic carbon inventories. Future inventories in effect count 14C atoms. Accordingly, we have developed a 14C tagging system suitable for use at the part-per-trillion level. This system consists of a gas-exchange apparatus to make disposable cartridges ready for controlled injection into a fast flowing stream of pressurized CO2. We built a high-pressure injection and tagging system, and a 14C detection system. The disposable cartridge and injection system have been successfully demonstrated in the lab with a high-pressure flow reactor, as well as in the field at the CarbFix CO2 sequestration site in Iceland. The laser-based 14C detection system originally conceived has been shown to possess inadequate sensitivity for ambient levels. Alternative methods for detecting 14C, such as saturated cavity absorption ringdown spectroscopy and scintillation counting, may still be suitable. KEYWORDS

  20. Technical method for selection of CO2 geological storage project sites in deep saline aquifers%规模化深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存选址方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森琦; 郭建强; 刁玉杰; 张徽; 贾小丰; 张杨

    2011-01-01

    According to the potential evaluation result of CO2 geological storage in China' s sedimentary basins, the authors consider that the deep saline aquifer is the main body for realizing CO2 geological storage. The properties of the appropriate CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifers are defined and analyzed. This paper presents principles of geological storage site selection in deep saline aquifers, and reasonably divide the stages of site selection. The evaluation index system can be established on the basis of four indicator layers and more than 60 special indicators from the conditions of location technology, security, economic suitability and land geology-social environment. Ranking multi- factor index method on the basis of AHP could be used for CO2 geological storage project site selection. The result of this study will provide a guidance for CO2 geological storage project site selection in deep saline aquifers of China .%本文依据中国沉积盆地CO2地质储存潜力评价结果,认为深部咸水含水层是实现规模化CO2地质储存的主体,进而对适宜CO2地质储存的深部咸水含水层属性进行了界定.提出了深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存选址原则,合理划分了选址工作阶段.建立了选址技术指标、安全性评价指标、经济适宜性和地面地质-社会环境选址指标4个指标层,60余个指标的选址指标体系,提出了基于层次分析(AHP)的多因子排序选址评价方法.本文的研究成果对中国深部咸水含水层CO2地质储存场地选址具有一定的指导意义.

  1. ULTimateCO2 project: Field experiment in an underground rock laboratory to study the well integrity in the context of CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manceau, J.C.; Audigane, P.; Claret, F.; Parmentier, M.; Tambach, T.J.; Wasch, L.; Gherardi, F.; Dimier, A.; Ukelis, O.; Jeandel, E.; Cladt, F.; Zorn, R.; Yalamas, T.; Nussbaum, C.; Laurent, A.; Fierz, T.; Pieedevache, M.

    2013-01-01

    Wells drilled through low-permeable caprock are potential connections between the CO2 storage reservoir and overlying sensitive targets like aquifers and targets located at the surface. The wellbore integrity can be compromised due to in situ operations, including drilling, completion, operations

  2. CO2地质储存泄露安全风险评价方法初探%Preliminary Research on CO2 Leakage Safety Risk Assessment Method of Geological Storage Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁玉杰; 张森琦; 郭建强; 任妹娟; 李旭峰

    2012-01-01

    CO2地质储存作为一项有效、直接的碳减排技术,本质上属于环保型工程项目.在总结国内外已有的风险评价方法的基础上,结合CO2地质储存机理及工作属性,借鉴国际风险评价经验,以及我国核废料、一般工业固体废弃物填埋等类似工程项目风险评价工作方法,对适用于我国的CO2地质储存安全风险评价的定义进行了探讨,并将CO2地质储存泄露风险评价分为风险评价、风险评估与风险控制三部分内容.通过CO2地质储存泄露通道及泄露后可能产生的环境危害分析,建立了由地质因素、工程单元因素、施工因素及其它因素四个风险因子指标层及其亚层组成的CO2地质储存泄露的安全风险层次指标体系,初步提出了风险评估方法以及CO2泄露可接受的安全风险标准;最后根据CO2地质储存泄露风险提出了不同风险的控制方法及建议,对CO2地质储存场地选址中的安全风险评价、工程实施及监测具有一定意义.%As a direct and effective carbon abatement technology, CO2 geological storage belongs to environmental protection projects. On the basis of generalization of the existing methods of CO2 geological storage risk assessment at home and abroad, the definition of CO2 geological storage safety risk assessment suitable for China was discussed in this paper, combined with CO2 geological storage mechanism and property, international experience as well as the risk assessment methods on engineering project such as the landfill of nuclear waste and industrial solid waste in China. The main contents of CO2 geological storage safety risk assessment were divided into risk identification, risk evaluation and risk control. On the basis of the research on CO2 leakage channels and possible environmental hazards, hierarchy indicators system for safety risk of CO2 leakage composed of four risk factors of index layers and its sublayers involved with geological, engineering

  3. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  4. 1:1 scale wellbore experiment and associated modeling for a better understanding of well integrity in the context of CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manceau, J.C.; Trémosa, J.; Audigane, P.; Claret, F.; Wasch, L.J.; Gherardi, F.; Ukelis, O.; Dimier, A.; Nussbaum, C.; Lettry, Y.; Fierz, T.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we present a new experiment for following the evolution of the well integrity over time due to different changes in well conditions (pressure, temperature and fluids in contact with the well) in the context of CO2 geological storage. A small section of a wellbore is reproduced in the

  5. Monitoring of injected CO2 at two commercial geologic storage sites with significant pressure depletion and/or re-pressurization histories: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand Saini

    2017-03-01

    The monitoring technologies that have been used/deployed/tested at both the normally pressured West Hastings and the subnormally pressured Bell Creek storage sites appear to adequately address any of the potential “out of zone migration” of injected CO2 at these sites. It would be interesting to see if any of the collected monitoring data at the West Hastings and the Bell Creek storage sites could also be used in future to better understand the viability of initially subnormally pressured and subsequently depleted and re-pressurized oil fields as secure geologic CO2 storage sites with relatively large storage CO2 capacities compared to the depleted and re-pressurized oil fields that were initially discovered as normally pressured.

  6. sRecovery Act: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, Michael

    2014-09-30

    This study focuses on evaluating the feasibility and suitability of using the Jurassic/Triassic (J/TR) sediments of the South Georgia Rift basin (SGR) for CO2 storage in southern South Carolina and southern Georgia The SGR basin in South Carolina (SC), prior to this project, was one of the least understood rift basin along the east coast of the U.S. In the SC part of the basin there was only one well (Norris Lightsey #1) the penetrated into J/TR. Because of the scarcity of data, a scaled approach used to evaluate the feasibility of storing CO2 in the SGR basin. In the SGR basin, 240 km (~149 mi) of 2-D seismic and 2.6 km2 3-D (1 mi2) seismic data was collected, process, and interpreted in SC. In southern Georgia 81.3 km (~50.5 mi) consisting of two 2-D seismic lines were acquired, process, and interpreted. Seismic analysis revealed that the SGR basin in SC has had a very complex structural history resulting the J/TR section being highly faulted. The seismic data is southern Georgia suggest SGR basin has not gone through a complex structural history as the study area in SC. The project drilled one characterization borehole (Rizer # 1) in SC. The Rizer #1 was drilled but due to geologic problems, the project team was only able to drill to 1890 meters (6200 feet) instead of the proposed final depth 2744 meters (9002 feet). The drilling goals outlined in the original scope of work were not met. The project was only able to obtain 18 meters (59 feet) of conventional core and 106 rotary sidewall cores. All the conventional core and sidewall cores were in sandstone. We were unable to core any potential igneous caprock. Petrographic analysis of the conventional core and sidewall cores determined that the average porosity of the sedimentary material was 3.4% and the average permeability was 0.065 millidarcy. Compaction and diagenetic studies of the samples determined there would not be any porosity or permeability at depth in SC. In Georgia there appears to be porosity in

  7. Stress history influence on sedimentary rock porosity estimates: Implications for geological CO2 storage in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jie Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We established a stress-history-dependent porosity model of potential target rocks for CO2 geosequestration based on rock sample porosity measurements under various effective stresses (5 - 120 MPa. The measured samples were collected from shallow boreholes (< 300 m depth drilled at the frontal fold in northern Taiwan. The lithology, density, and the stress-history-dependent porosity derived from shallow boreholes enabled us to predict the porosity-depth relationship of given rock formations at (burial depths of approximately 3170 - 3470 m potential sites for CO2 geosequestration located near the Taoyuan Tableland coastline. Our results indicate that the porosity of samples derived from laboratory tests under atmospheric pressure is significantly greater than the porosity measured under stress caused by sediment burial. It is therefore strongly recommended that CO2 storage capacity assessment not be estimated from the porosity measured under atmospheric pressure. Neglecting the stress history effect on the porosity of compacted and uplifted rocks may induce a percentage error of 7.7% at a depth of approximately 1000 m, where the thickness of the eroded, formerly overlying formation is 2.5 km in a synthetic case. The CO2 injection pressure effect on the porosity was also evaluated using the stress-history-dependent porosity model. As expected, the pore pressure buildup during CO2 injection will induce an increase in the rock porosity. For example, a large injection pressure of 13 MPa at a depth of approximately 1000 m will increase the rock porosity by a percentage error of 6.7%. Our results have implications for CO2 storage capacity injection pressure estimates.

  8. Research project on CO2 geological storage and groundwaterresources: Large-scale hydrological evaluation and modeling of impact ongroundwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin; Rutqvist, Jonny; Jordan,Preston; Zhang,K.; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2007-10-24

    If carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies areimplemented on a large scale, the amounts of CO2 injected and sequesteredunderground could be extremely large. The stored CO2 then replaces largevolumes of native brine, which can cause considerable pressureperturbation and brine migration in the deep saline formations. Ifhydraulically communicating, either directly via updipping formations orthrough interlayer pathways such as faults or imperfect seals, theseperturbations may impact shallow groundwater or even surface waterresources used for domestic or commercial water supply. Possibleenvironmental concerns include changes in pressure and water table,changes in discharge and recharge zones, as well as changes in waterquality. In compartmentalized formations, issues related to large-scalepressure buildup and brine displacement may also cause storage capacityproblems, because significant pressure buildup can be produced. Toaddress these issues, a three-year research project was initiated inOctober 2006, the first part of which is summarized in this annualreport.

  9. Risk Assessment and Management for Long-Term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations — United States Department of Energy R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Deel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Concern about increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG and their impact on the earth's climate has grown significantly over the last decade. Many countries, including the United States, wrestle with balancing economic development and meeting critical near-term environmental goals while minimizing long-term environmental risks. One promising solution to the buildup of GHGs in the atmosphere, being pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL and its industrial and academic partners, is carbon sequestration—a process of permanent storage of CO2 emissions in underground geologic formations, thus avoiding CO2 release to the atmosphere. This option looks particularly attractive for point source emissions of GHGs, such as fossil fuel fired power plants. CO2 would be captured, transported to a sequestration site, and injected into an appropriate geologic formation. However, sequestration in geologic formations cannot achieve a significant role in reducing GHG emissions unless it is acceptable to stakeholders, regulators, and the general public, i.e., unless the risks involved are judged to be acceptable. One tool that can be used to achieve acceptance of geologic sequestration of CO2 is risk assessment, which is a proven method to objectively manage hazards in facilities such as oil and natural gas fields, pipelines, refineries, and chemical plants. Although probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been applied in many areas, its application to geologic CO2 sequestration is still in its infancy. The most significant risk from geologic carbon sequestration is leakage of CO2. Two types of CO2 releases are possible—atmospheric and subsurface. High concentrations of CO2 caused by a release to the atmosphere would pose health risks to humans and animals, and any leakage of CO2 back into the atmosphere negates the effort expended to sequester the CO2

  10. Simulation of the crosshole ERT monitoring of the CO2 migration at the Research Laboratory on Geological Storage of CO2 in Hontomín (Burgos, Spain): assessing its feasibility and the optimal configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilamajó, Eloi; Bellmunt, Fabian; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Álex; Ledo, Juanjo

    2013-04-01

    The Research Laboratory on Geological Storage of CO2 located in Hontomín (Burgos, Spain) is a multidisciplinary Technological Demonstration Plant oriented to test the geological storage of carbon dioxide in an onshore saline reservoir. Due to its academic orientation, it will provide a wide set of data obtained with complementary geophysical techniques. In order to allow the integration of the respective results, several geophysical methods will be used on the monitoring process of the storage of CO2 into a deep saline aquifer. The resistivity of the storage formation will be one of the geophysical properties most affected by the replacement of the conductive brine by resistive carbon dioxide. As the electrical and electromagnetic methods are the techniques most sensitive to such change, their use on the monitoring process of the Hontomín TDP will provide important insights on the migration of CO2. The current work is integrated in the electric and electromagnetic monitoring of the CO2 storage at Hontomín, where two boreholes (injection and monitoring) will be drilled beneath the injection depth. A set of electrodes is planned to be installed at the two wells allowing advantageous experiments in order to determine the resistivity variation into the reservoir. Crosshole ERT and CSEM experiments will be carried out previously to the injection of carbon dioxide and repeated systematically once the storage has started. The feasibility of the crosshole ERT monitoring is evaluated in the current work. Realistic pre-injection and post-injection experiments have been modeled to assess the potentiality and benefits of the crosshole ERT in order to monitor the stored CO2. A geoelectrical model obtained from previous characterization works has been used to describe the geoelectrical structure. The metallic casings planned to be installed at the two wells are considered in the simulations, given their possible effect on the experiments. Sets of synthetic data are generated

  11. Monitoring subsurface CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthaegen, P.; Arts, R.; Schroot, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    An overview is given of various currently applied monitoring techniques for CO2 storage. Techniques are subdivided in correspondence to their applicability for monitoring three distinct realms. These are: - the atmosphere and the near-surface; - the overburden (including faults and wells); - the

  12. CO2的地质埋存与资源化利用进展%Geological Storage of CO2 and Commercial Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志刚; 陈代钊; 曾荣树

    2007-01-01

    CO2注入油气藏、煤层提高油气采收率的方法(CO2-EOR、CO2-EGR、CO2-ECBM),因其在提高石油、天然气和煤层气采收率的同时,又能使一部分CO2永久地埋存于地下,实现油气增产和CO2减排的双赢效果,而成为当今CO2减排最具潜力的现实选择.CO2-EOR(Enhanced Oil Recovery)方法适用于油田开发晚期,通过把CO2注入到比较稳定的油藏,一般可提高油藏采收率达10%~15%;另外把CO2注入到气田中,实施CO2-EGR(Enhanced Gas Recovery).一方面,接近枯竭的气田在没有地层水入侵之前具有巨大的埋存能力,为CO2提供巨大的埋存空间;另一方面注入CO2后,使地层重新增压保持储层中原始的压力,可以保持储层的完整性和安全性.同时,原有的油气圈闭可作为良好的埋存箱能有效地阻止CO2泄漏,使部分CO2能永久地埋存于地下.此外,也可以把CO2注入到煤层中,实施CO2-ECBM(Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery),利用煤层对CO2和煤层气(主要为甲烷)吸附能力的差异,实现CO2排替CH4,提高CH4的采收率.

  13. Comparison of Dry Gas Seasonal Storage with CO2 Storage and Re-Use Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Killerud, Marie

    2013-01-01

    To make large-scale CO2 storage economic, many groups have proposed using CO2in EOR projects to create value for CO2 storage. However, CO2 EOR projectsgenerally require a large and variable supply of CO2 and consequently may requiretemporary storage of CO2 in geological formations. In order to store CO2 atoffshore sites as a source for CO2 EOR projects, the CO2 needs to be extractedfrom a storage site to a certain extent. Alternatively, CO2 EOR projects maybe developed alongside saline aquife...

  14. Comparison of Dry Gas Seasonal Storage with CO2 Storage and Re-Use Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Killerud, Marie

    2013-01-01

    To make large-scale CO2 storage economic, many groups have proposed using CO2in EOR projects to create value for CO2 storage. However, CO2 EOR projectsgenerally require a large and variable supply of CO2 and consequently may requiretemporary storage of CO2 in geological formations. In order to store CO2 atoffshore sites as a source for CO2 EOR projects, the CO2 needs to be extractedfrom a storage site to a certain extent. Alternatively, CO2 EOR projects maybe developed alongside saline aquife...

  15. Risk Assessment-Led Characterisation of the SiteChar UK North Sea Site for the Geological Storage of CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhurst Maxine

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment-led characterisation of a site for the geological storage of CO2 in the UK northern North Sea was performed for the EU SiteChar research project as one of a portfolio of sites. Implementation and testing of the SiteChar project site characterisation workflow has produced a ‘dry-run’ storage permit application that is compliant with regulatory requirements. A site suitable for commercial-scale storage was characterised, compatible with current and future industrial carbon dioxide (CO2 sources in the northern UK. Pre-characterisation of the site, based on existing information acquired during hydrocarbon exploration and production, has been achieved from publicly available data. The project concept is to store captured CO2 at a rate of 5 Mt per year for 20 years in the Blake Oil Field and surrounding Captain Sandstone saline aquifer. This commercial-scale storage of 100 Mt CO2 can be achieved through a storage scenario combining injection of CO2 into the oil field and concurrent water production down-dip of the field. There would be no encroachment of supercritical phase CO2 for more than two kilometres beyond the field boundary and no adverse influence on operating hydrocarbon fields provided there is pressure management. Components of a storage permit application for the site are presented, developed as far as possible within a research project. Characterisation and technical investigations were guided by an initial assessment of perceived risks to the prospective site and a need to provide the information required for the storage permit application. The emphasis throughout was to reduce risks and uncertainty on the subsurface containment of stored CO2, particularly with respect to site technical performance, monitoring and regulatory issues, and effects on other resources. The results of selected risk assessment-led site characterisation investigations and the subsequent risk reassessments are described together with their

  16. Research Project on CO2 Geological Storage and Groundwater Resources: Water Quality Effects Caused by CO2 Intrusion into Shallow Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Apps, John; Zheng, Liange; Zhang, Yingqi; Xu, Tianfu; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2008-10-01

    One promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is injecting CO{sub 2} into suitable geologic formations, typically depleted oil/gas reservoirs or saline formations at depth larger than 800 m. Proper site selection and management of CO{sub 2} storage projects will ensure that the risks to human health and the environment are low. However, a risk remains that CO{sub 2} could migrate from a deep storage formation, e.g. via local high-permeability pathways such as permeable faults or degraded wells, and arrive in shallow groundwater resources. The ingress of CO{sub 2} is by itself not typically a concern to the water quality of an underground source of drinking water (USDW), but it will change the geochemical conditions in the aquifer and will cause secondary effects mainly induced by changes in pH, in particular the mobilization of hazardous inorganic constituents present in the aquifer minerals. Identification and assessment of these potential effects is necessary to analyze risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This report describes a systematic evaluation of the possible water quality changes in response to CO{sub 2} intrusion into aquifers currently used as sources of potable water in the United States. Our goal was to develop a general understanding of the potential vulnerability of United States potable groundwater resources in the event of CO{sub 2} leakage. This goal was achieved in two main tasks, the first to develop a comprehensive geochemical model representing typical conditions in many freshwater aquifers (Section 3), the second to conduct a systematic reactive-transport modeling study to quantify the effect of CO{sub 2} intrusion into shallow aquifers (Section 4). Via reactive-transport modeling, the amount of hazardous constituents potentially mobilized by the ingress of CO{sub 2} was determined, the fate and migration of these constituents in the groundwater was predicted, and the likelihood that drinking water

  17. CO2地质封存机理--从实验研究角度综述%A Review of Laboratory Investigation for Mechanisms of CO2 Capture and Geologic Storage (CCGS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢健; 赵可英; 曾小雪

    2016-01-01

    CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCGS) is regarded as an effective strategy for reduction of anthropogenic carbon release and mitigation of global warming. Typical methodologies and theories regarding CCGS laboratory investigation are reviewed. The coupled physical-geochemical processes in relation to four mechanisms of CO2 geologic sequestration are introduced. Findings from core flood experiments such as relationship between CO2 saturation and permeability are included. Multiphase flow apparatus with procedures for laboratory investigation are introduced. A collection of methodologies (equations) for calculation of CCGS-related physical parameters are presented, followed by a brief introduction of petrophysical characterization and geochemical tests. Problems or research opportunities are discussed regarding the current CCGS laboratory work. The paper ends up with suggestion remarks.%CO2地质封存是减少碳排放和减缓气候变暖的一种有效措施。本文综述了CO2地质封存研究的内容、方法、手段及其相关理论和研究成果。阐述 CO2地质封存的四种碳封存机制背后的物理、地球化学过程,CO2注入试验饱和度分布和渗透率的关系等;简要介绍了岩心驱替试验装置和岩石物理分析和化学分析方法及有关参数的计算。指出现有研究存在岩心–次岩心尺度的微观实验研究和反应性迁移模拟研究不足等问题。

  18. Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) with CO2 as heat transmission fluid--A scheme for combining recovery of renewable energy with geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Spycher, N.

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) may be operated with supercritical CO{sub 2} instead of water as heat transmission fluid (D.W. Brown, 2000). Such a scheme could combine recovery of geothermal energy with simultaneous geologic storage of CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas. At geothermal temperature and pressure conditions of interest, the flow and heat transfer behavior of CO{sub 2} would be considerably different from water, and chemical interactions between CO{sub 2} and reservoir rocks would also be quite different from aqueous fluids. This paper summarizes our research to date into fluid flow and heat transfer aspects of operating EGS with CO{sub 2}. (Chemical aspects of EGS with CO{sub 2} are discussed in a companion paper; Xu and Pruess, 2010.) Our modeling studies indicate that CO{sub 2} would achieve heat extraction at larger rates than aqueous fluids. The development of an EGS-CO{sub 2} reservoir would require replacement of the pore water by CO{sub 2} through persistent injection. We find that in a fractured reservoir, CO{sub 2} breakthrough at production wells would occur rapidly, within a few weeks of starting CO{sub 2} injection. Subsequently a two-phase water-CO{sub 2} mixture would be produced for a few years,followed by production of a single phase of supercritical CO{sub 2}. Even after single-phase production conditions are reached,significant dissolved water concentrations will persist in the CO{sub 2} stream for many years. The presence of dissolved water in the production stream has negligible impact on mass flow and heat transfer rates.

  19. Experimental Studies on the Interaction of scCO2 and scCO2-SO2 With Rock Forming Minerals at Conditions of Geologic Carbon Storages - First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzinger, J.; Wilke, F.; Wiersberg, T.; Vasquez Parra, M.

    2010-12-01

    Co-injection of SO2 (plus possibly NOx and O2) during CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers may cause stronger brine acidification than CO2 alone. Because of that, we investigate chemical corrosion of rocks and rock-forming minerals with impure supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at possible storage conditions of >73.7 bar and >31°C. Contaminates were chosen with respect to the composition of CO2 captured industrially from coal-fired power plants using the oxyfuel technology. The resulting data should build a base for the long-term prediction of the behavior of CO2 in geologic storage reservoirs. Experiments of up to 1000 hrs duration have been performed with 10 natural mineral concentrates (calcite, dolomite, siderite, anhydrite, hematite, albite, microcline, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite) in 3n NaCl solution and pure scCO2 or scCO2+SO2 (99.5+0.5 vol%). The NaCl reaction fluid resembles the average salinity of deep formation waters of the North German Basin and is not free of oxygen. To increase reaction rates all minerals were ground and the reagents agitated either by stirring or shaking in autoclaves of about one liter in volume. The autoclaves consist of Hastelloy™ or ferromagnetic stainless steel fully coated with PTFE. We used in average 15 g of solids, 700 ml liquid, and the vessels were pressurized up to 100 bars with CO2 or CO2-SO2 mixture. Experiments were run at temperatures up to 90°C. Before, during and after the experiments small amounts fluids were sampled and analyzed for dissolved constituents and pH. Solid phases were characterized by XRF, XRD, and EMPA before and after the experiments. Pure scCO2 corrodes all carbonates, reacts only slightly with anhydrite, albite, and microcline at a minimum pH of 4, and does not recognizably interact with the others. After the experiment, albite has gained in a, not yet fully identified, carbonate phase which might be dawsonite. Reaction fluids of the experiments with scCO2+SO2 have mostly lower pH than using scCO2

  20. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Methodology and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Bradshaw, J.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of CO2 capture and geological storage (CCGS) technology at the scale needed to achieve a significant and meaningful reduction in CO2 emissions requires knowledge of the available CO2 storage capacity. CO2 storage capacity assessments may be conducted at various scales-in decreasing order of size and increasing order of resolution: country, basin, regional, local and site-specific. Estimation of the CO2 storage capacity in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is straightforward and is based on recoverable reserves, reservoir properties and in situ CO2 characteristics. In the case of CO2-EOR, the CO2 storage capacity can be roughly evaluated on the basis of worldwide field experience or more accurately through numerical simulations. Determination of the theoretical CO2 storage capacity in coal beds is based on coal thickness and CO2 adsorption isotherms, and recovery and completion factors. Evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers is very complex because four trapping mechanisms that act at different rates are involved and, at times, all mechanisms may be operating simultaneously. The level of detail and resolution required in the data make reliable and accurate estimation of CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers practical only at the local and site-specific scales. This paper follows a previous one on issues and development of standards for CO2 storage capacity estimation, and provides a clear set of definitions and methodologies for the assessment of CO2 storage capacity in geological media. Notwithstanding the defined methodologies suggested for estimating CO2 storage capacity, major challenges lie ahead because of lack of data, particularly for coal beds and deep saline aquifers, lack of knowledge about the coefficients that reduce storage capacity from theoretical to effective and to practical, and lack of knowledge about the interplay between various trapping mechanisms at work in deep saline aquifers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd

  1. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  2. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along

  3. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part II: Impact of Geological CO2 Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some key points still prevent the full development of geological carbon sequestration in underground formations, especially concerning the assessment of the integrity of such storage. Indeed, the consequences of gas injection on chemistry and petrophysical properties are still much discussed in the scientific community, and are still not well known at either laboratory or field scale. In this article, the results of an experimental study about the mobilization of Trace Elements (TE during CO2 injection in a reservoir are presented. The experimental conditions range from typical storage formation conditions (90 bar, supercritical CO2 to shallower conditions (60 and 30 bar, CO2 as gas phase, and consider the dissolution of the two carbonates, coupled with the sorption of an initial concentration of 10−5 M of Zn(II, and the consequent release in solution of Mn(II and Sr(II. The investigation goes beyond the sole behavior of TE in the storage conditions: it presents the specific behavior of each element with respect to the pressure and the natural carbonate considered, showing that different equilibrium concentrations are to be expected if a fluid with a given concentration of TE leaks to an upper formation. Even though sorption is evidenced, it does not balance the amount of TE released by the dissolution process. The increase in porosity is clearly evidenced as a linear function of the CO2 pressure imposed for the St-Emilion carbonate. For the Lavoux carbonate, this trend is not confirmed by the 90 bar experiment. A preferential dissolution of the bigger family of pores from the preexisting porosity is observed in one of the samples (Lavoux carbonate while the second one (St-Emilion carbonate presents a newly-formed family of pores. Both reacted samples evidence that the pore network evolves toward a tubular network type.

  4. Shallow groundwater monitoring at the SACROC oilfield, Scurry County, TX: good news for geologic storage of CO2 despite a complex hydrogeologic and geochemical setting (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, R. C.; Romanak, K.; Yang, C.; Hovorka, S.

    2009-12-01

    The SACROC water study is the first comprehensive research project with application to geologic storage (GS) of CO2 that focuses on collection and interpretation of field measurements of groundwater (water level and water chemistry data). CO2 has been injected for enhanced oil recovery at the SACROC oilfield in Scurry County, TX since 1972. Hence, we have a perfect natural laboratory and an analog for monitoring future commercial CO2 sequestration sites. Kinder Morgan currently operates the SACROC oilfield where over 150 million metric tons (MMT) of CO2 has been injected for EOR at ~2 km depth; over 75 MMT of the CO2 has been produced and re-injected. CO2 is assumed to be trapped in the deep subsurface at SACROC. The goals of monitoring shallow groundwater over CO2 injection sites are to (1) confirm that CO2 has remained in the deep subsurface and (2) assess impacts to water quality if CO2 were to migrate upward along conduit flow paths (e.g. leaking well bores). We collected groundwater and stratigraphic data within an ~3,000 km2 area centered on SACROC to establish regional variability prior to assessing potential impacts to groundwater from CO2 injection. Groundwater data include results from five sampling trips between June 2006 and November 2008, and a compilation of historical data from the Texas Water Development Board database, dating back to 1936. Sources of complexity that contribute to data interpretation challenges include: (1) regional historic oilfield activity, (2) multiple freshwater-bearing strata in the regional Dockum aquifer, (3) sampled wells screened in shallowest (30 m), deepest (150 m), or across both water-bearing zones, (4) variable discharge rate of sampled wells (250 gpm), (5) groundwater flow divide that bisects SACROC, (6) variable aquifer recharge mechanisms, (7) temporal variability in groundwater levels and chemistry, (8) cation exchange, (9) presence of biogenically-produced CO2 in aquifer, and (10) incongruent dissolution of

  5. CO2 storage capacity calculations for the Dutch subsurface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Yavuz, F.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the capacity of a geological formation to store CO2 is not a straightforward or simple process. Bradshaw [1] has recently listed various estimations for both regional and global CO2 storage capacity. The estimations were quoted as "very large" with ranges for the estimates in the order of

  6. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  7. Pore-lining composition and capillary breakthrough pressure of mudstone caprocks : sealing efficiency at geologic CO2 storage sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, Jason E.; Nemer, Martin B.; McPherson, Brian J. O. L. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Dewers, Thomas A.; Kotula, Paul Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Subsurface containment of CO2 is predicated on effective caprock sealing. Many previous studies have relied on macroscopic measurements of capillary breakthrough pressure and other petrophysical properties without direct examination of solid phases that line pore networks and directly contact fluids. However, pore-lining phases strongly contribute to sealing behavior through interfacial interactions among CO2, brine, and the mineral or non-mineral phases. Our high resolution (i.e., sub-micron) examination of the composition of pore-lining phases of several continental and marine mudstones indicates that sealing efficiency (i.e., breakthrough pressure) is governed by pore shapes and pore-lining phases that are not identifiable except through direct characterization of pores. Bulk X-ray diffraction data does not indicate which phases line the pores and may be especially lacking for mudstones with organic material. Organics can line pores and may represent once-mobile phases that modify the wettability of an originally clay-lined pore network. For shallow formations (i.e., < {approx}800 m depth), interfacial tension and contact angles result in breakthrough pressures that may be as high as those needed to fracture the rock - thus, in the absence of fractures, capillary sealing efficiency is indicated. Deeper seals have poorer capillary sealing if mica-like wetting dominates the wettability. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, and the Southeast and Southwest Carbon Sequestration Partnerships for supporting this work.

  8. Assessing the short-term and long-term integrity of top seals in feasibility studies of geological CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Heege, J.H. ter; Wassing, B.B.T.

    2011-01-01

    The geomechanical effects of past hydrocarbon production and subsequent CO2 injection in depleted gas reservoirs were evaluated as a part of several recently accomplished feasibility studies of CO2 storage in the Netherlands. The objectives of geomechanical studies were to assess the mechanical

  9. A Comparative Review of Hydrologic Issues Involved in Geologic Storage of CO2 and Injection Disposal of Liquid Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.-F.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-04-15

    The paper presents a comparison of hydrologic issues and technical approaches used in deep-well injection and disposal of liquid wastes, and those issues and approaches associated with injection and storage of CO{sub 2} in deep brine formations. These comparisons have been discussed in nine areas: (1) Injection well integrity; (2) Abandoned well problems; (3) Buoyancy effects; (4) Multiphase flow effects; (5) Heterogeneity and flow channeling; (6) Multilayer isolation effects; (7) Caprock effectiveness and hydrogeomechanics; (8) Site characterization and monitoring; and (9) Effects of CO{sub 2} storage on groundwater resources There are considerable similarities, as well as significant differences. Scientifically and technically, these two fields can learn much from each other. The discussions presented in this paper should help to focus on the key scientific issues facing deep injection of fluids. A substantial but by no means exhaustive reference list has been provided for further studies into the subject.

  10. Calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, B. van der; Egberts, P.

    2008-01-01

    Often we need to know how much CO2 we can store in a certain underground space, or how much such space we need to store a given amount of CO2. In a recent attempt (Bradshaw et al., 2006) to list various regional and global estimates of CO2 storage capacity (Figure 1), the estimates reported are ofte

  11. Calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, B. van der; Egberts, P.

    2008-01-01

    Often we need to know how much CO2 we can store in a certain underground space, or how much such space we need to store a given amount of CO2. In a recent attempt (Bradshaw et al., 2006) to list various regional and global estimates of CO2 storage capacity (Figure 1), the estimates reported are

  12. State-of-the-art researches on CO2 geologic storage in deep saline aquifer%深部咸水层CO2地质封存研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 王媛

    2011-01-01

    从超临界CO2的物理性质出发,总结国内外深部咸水层封存CO2的机理研究、数值模拟、试验研究和工程应用方面所取得的主要成果.指出以往的研究主要集中于单一尺度研究均质地层封存CO2,较少考虑多尺度非均质性对咸水层封存CO2的影响.认为CO2在多尺度非均质深部咸水层中的运移与俘获特征将是碳捕捉封存技术的研究重点.%Based on the physical properties of supercritical CO2, the main achievements in the worldwide researches on CO2trapping in deep saline aquifer were summarized from the aspects of mechanism, numerical modeling, tests and projectapplications. The results show that the majority of the current researches focus on single-scale researches on CO2 trapping inhomogenous formation, and few researches refer to the effects of multi-scale heterogeneity on CO2 trapping. The future researcheson carbon storage technology should highlight the migration and trapping features of CO2 in multi-scale heterogonous deep salineaquifer.

  13. Near Surface Gas Simulator (NSGS): A Visual Basic program to improve the design of near-surface gas geochemistry surveys above CO2 geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, S. E.; Annunziatellis, A.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.

    2009-04-01

    If CO2 were to leak from a geological storage site and be released to the atmosphere, where would it occur and how large would the leak be in terms of dimension and flow rate? There are many options available to monitor storage sites, including deep and shallow geophysical or geochemical methods, biological markers, or remote sensing techniques, each with its advantages and disadvantages. However only the direct measurement of CO2 at the earth's surface, that is soil gas or gas flux analyses, can give a definitive answer to these questions. Considering that these methods involve point measurements, the question has be raised regarding the sampling density that would be needed to locate a leak above a storage site, or, conversely, to ensure that a leak does not exist. To address this issue we have written a program in Visual Basic which uses highly-detailed, gridded synthetic data (with user-defined gas leakage areas) to study the link between sampling density and anomaly size and to find a sampling strategy which minimises the number of samples collected while maximizing the probability that an anomaly (i.e. a leak) will be found. At the beginning of a run the user is asked to define the location, size, and intensity of leakage areas; these areas are then superimposed on a grid (1 x 1 m step size) of normally-distributed background CO2 flux values. Then the user is asked to provide a series of sampling densities (for example, x = 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 samples km-2) and the number of simulations that must be conducted for each sampling density (e.g. y = 100). The program then uses a nested loop structure whereby the synthetic dataset is randomly subsampled at the sampling density "x" for a total of "y" times - each of these smaller datasets is then analysed statistically and spatially using subroutines from the programs Statistica and Surfer, and the resultant data from each simulation for that "x" sampling density is combined to define its statistical

  14. Managing geological uncertainty in CO2-EOR reservoir assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, Kris; Piessens, Kris

    2014-05-01

    Recently the European Parliament has agreed that an atlas for the storage potential of CO2 is of high importance to have a successful commercial introduction of CCS (CO2 capture and geological storage) technology in Europe. CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is often proposed as a promising business case for CCS, and likely has a high potential in the North Sea region. Traditional economic assessments for CO2-EOR largely neglect the geological reality of reservoir uncertainties because these are difficult to introduce realistically in such calculations. There is indeed a gap between the outcome of a reservoir simulation and the input values for e.g. cost-benefit evaluations, especially where it concerns uncertainty. The approach outlined here is to turn the procedure around, and to start from which geological data is typically (or minimally) requested for an economic assessment. Thereafter it is evaluated how this data can realistically be provided by geologists and reservoir engineers. For the storage of CO2 these parameters are total and yearly CO2 injection capacity, and containment or potential on leakage. Specifically for the EOR operation, two additional parameters can be defined: the EOR ratio, or the ratio of recovered oil over injected CO2, and the CO2 recycling ratio of CO2 that is reproduced after breakthrough at the production well. A critical but typically estimated parameter for CO2-EOR projects is the EOR ratio, taken in this brief outline as an example. The EOR ratio depends mainly on local geology (e.g. injection per well), field design (e.g. number of wells), and time. Costs related to engineering can be estimated fairly good, given some uncertainty range. The problem is usually to reliably estimate the geological parameters that define the EOR ratio. Reliable data is only available from (onshore) CO2-EOR projects in the US. Published studies for the North Sea generally refer to these data in a simplified form, without uncertainty ranges, and are

  15. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Issues and development of standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, J.; Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Associated with the endeavours of geoscientists to pursue the promise that geological storage of CO2 has of potentially making deep cuts into greenhouse gas emissions, Governments around the world are dependent on reliable estimates of CO2 storage capacity and insightful indications of the viability of geological storage in their respective jurisdictions. Similarly, industry needs reliable estimates for business decisions regarding site selection and development. If such estimates are unreliable, and decisions are made based on poor advice, then valuable resources and time could be wasted. Policies that have been put in place to address CO2 emissions could be jeopardised. Estimates need to clearly state the limitations that existed (data, time, knowledge) at the time of making the assessment and indicate the purpose and future use to which the estimates should be applied. A set of guidelines for estimation of storage capacity will greatly assist future deliberations by government and industry on the appropriateness of geological storage of CO2 in different geological settings and political jurisdictions. This work has been initiated under the auspices of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (www.cslforum.org), and it is intended that it will be an ongoing taskforce to further examine issues associated with storage capacity estimation. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  16. Monitoring Options for CO2 Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.; Winthaegen, P.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of various monitoring techniques for CO2 storage that is structured into three categories-instrumentation in a well (monitoring well); instrumentation at the (near) surface (surface geophysical methods); and sampling at the (near) surface measuring CO2 concentration

  17. CO2 capture, transport, storage and utilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing CO2 emissions requires an integrated CO2 management approach. The dependency between the different industry sectors is higher than commonly acknowledged and covers all areas; capture, transport, storage and utilisation. TNO is one of Europe’s largest independent research organisations and p

  18. From Injectivity to Integrity Studies of CO2 Geological Storage Caractérisation de l’injectivité et de l’intégrité d’un stockage géologique de CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemer E.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The technical and economical success of a CO2 geological storage project requires the preservation of the site injectivity and integrity properties over its lifetime. Unlike conventional hydrocarbon gas injection, CO2 injection implies geochemical reactions between the reactive brine and the in situ formations (reservoir and cap rock leading to modifications of their petrophysical and geomechanical properties. This paper underlines the experimental difficulties raised by the low permeability of samples representative either of the cap rock itself or at least of transition zones between the reservoir and the effective cap rock. Acidification effects induced by CO2 injection have been studied using an experimental procedure of chemical alteration, which ensures a homogeneous dissolution pattern throughout the rock sample and especially avoids any wormholing process that would lead to erroneous measurements at the core scale. Porosity, permeability and geomechanical properties of outcrop and field carbonate samples of various permeability levels have been measured under their native state and different levels of alteration. The present work has been conducted within the framework of ANR GeoCarbone-INJECTIVITY and GeoCarbone-INTEGRITY projects. Each experimental step: chemical alteration, petrophysical measurements and geomechanical testing, is considered from the point of view of injectivity and integrity issues. The obtained experimental data show clear trends of chemically induced mechanical weakening. La réussite technique et économique d’un projet de stockage géologique de CO2 repose sur le maintien des propriétés d’injectivité et d’intégrité du site pendant sa durée de vie. Contrairement à l’injection d’un gaz d’hydrocarbure standard, l’injection de CO2 implique des réactions géochimiques entre la saumure réactive mobile et les roches en place (réservoir et couverture conduisant à des modifications de leurs propri

  19. Geological Sequestration of CO2 A Brief Overview and Potential for Application for Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  20. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  1. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  2. The Wettability of Shale by CO2 and Its Impact on Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered as a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. Wettability of fluids within reservoir materials is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of structural and residual trapping, two major mechanisms of geologic sequestration. Individual reservoir minerals are often targeted for wettability studies. Current practice applies these results, recorded under laboratory conditions, to in-situ reservoir rock; however the wide variety of measured contact angles reported in the literature calls this practice into question. To address these issues and to study the wettability of shale caprock, resedimentation techniques are employed. These techniques allow for the creation of synthetic shales with controlled, homogeneous mineralogies. In addition, the systematic variation of the mineralogy allows for the characterization of shale wettability as a function of mineralogical composition. A novel design has been developed and used to conduct wettability experiments at reservoir conditions using high resolution X-ray computer tomography. Using this technique the wettability of resedimented shales and natural shales are compared at different reservoir conditions. Next, Lattice Boltzmann modelling methods are used to simulate capillary entry pressure into a shale capillary. Adhesion parameters along the wall are tuned to the results of the synthetic shales and heterogeneity is incorporated to estimate the capillary entry pressure into a natural shale. Understanding the mineralogical components of shale wetting allows for the prediction of capillary entry pressure based on shale mineralogy which can be used to help select secure CO2 storage sites.

  3. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  5. Interfacial Interactions and Wettability Evaluation of Rock Surfaces for CO2 Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shojai Kaveh, N.

    2014-01-01

    To reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, different scenarios are proposed to capture and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in geological formations (CCS). Storage strategies include CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers, depleted gas and oil reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams. To identify a secure

  6. Strategic use of the underground for an energy mix plan, synergies among CO2 and CH4 Geological Storage and Geothermal Energy: Italian Energy review and Latium case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procesi, M.; Cantucci, B.; Buttinelli, M.; Armezzani, G.; Quattrocchi, F.

    2012-04-01

    Since the world-wide energy demand has been growing so much in the last years, it is necessary to develop a strategic mix-energy plan to supply low GHG (GreenHouseGas) emissions energy and solve the problem of CO2 emission increasing. A recent study published by European Commission shows that, if existing trends continue, by 2050 CO2 emissions will be unsustainably high: 900-1000 parts per million by volume. The European Commission in 2007 underline the necessity to elaborate, at European level, a Strategic Energy Technology Plan focused on non-carbon or reduced-carbon sources of energy, as renewable energies, CO2 capture and storage technologies, smart energy networks and energy efficiency and savings. Future scenarios for 2030 elaborated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) shows as a mix energy plan could reduce the global CO2 emissions from 27Gt to 23 Gt (about 15%). A strategic use of the underground in terms of: - development of CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) associated to fossil fuel combustion; - increase of CH4 geological storage sites; - use of renewable energies as geothermic for power generation; could open a new energy scenario, according to the climate models published by IPCC. Nowadays CCS market is mainly developed in USA and Canada, but still not much accounted in Europe. In Italy there aren't active CCS projects, even if potential areas have been already identified. Many CH4 storage sites are located in Northern America, while other are present in Europe and Italy, but the number of sites is limited despite the huge underground potentiality. In Italy the power generation from geothermal energy comes exclusively from Tuscany (Larderello-Travale and Mt. Amiata geothermal fields) despite the huge potentiality of other regions as Latium, Campania and Sicily (Central and South Italy). The energy deficit and the relevant CO2 emissions represent a common status for many Italian regions, especially for the Latium Region. This suggests that a

  7. Improved Criteria for Increasing CO2 Storage Potential with CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, J.; Pawar, R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years it has been found that deployment of CO2 capture and storage technology at large scales will be difficult without significant incentives. One of the technologies that has been a focus in recent years is CO2 enhanced oil/gas recovery, where additional hydrocarbon recovery provides an economic incentive for deployment. The way CO2 EOR is currently deployed, maximization of additional oil production does not necessarily lead to maximization of stored CO2, though significant amounts of CO2 are stored regardless of the objective. To determine the potential of large-scale CO2 storage through CO2 EOR, it is necessary to determine the feasibility of deploying this technology over a wide range of oil/gas field characteristics. In addition it is also necessary to accurately estimate the ultimate CO2 storage potential and develop approaches that optimize oil recovery along with long-term CO2 storage. This study uses compositional reservoir simulations to further develop technical screening criteria that not only improve oil recovery, but maximize CO2 storage during enhanced oil recovery operations. Minimum miscibility pressure, maximum oil/ CO2 contact without the need of significant waterflooding, and CO2 breakthrough prevention are a few key parameters specific to the technical aspects of CO2 enhanced oil recovery that maximize CO2 storage. We have developed reduced order models based on simulation results to determine the ultimate oil recovery and CO2 storage potential in these formations. Our goal is to develop and demonstrate a methodology that can be used to determine feasibility and long-term CO2 storage potential of CO2 EOR technology.

  8. Implications of Sub-Hydrostatic Pressures in the Bravo Dome Natural CO2 Reservoir for the Long-Term Security of Geological Carbon Dioxide Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbari, D.; Hesse, M. A.; Larson, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Bravo Dome field in northeast New Mexico is one of the largest gas accumulations worldwide and the largest natural CO2 accumulation in North America. The field is only 580-900 m deep and located in the Permian Tubb sandstone that unconformably overlies the granitic basement. Sathaye et al. (2014) estimated that 1.3 Gt of CO2 is stored at the reservoir. A major increase in the pore pressure relative to the hydrostatic pressure is expected due to the large amount of CO2 injected into the reservoir. However, the pre-production gas pressures indicate that most parts of the reservoir are approximately 5 MPa below hydrostatic pressure. Three processes could explain the under pressure in the Bravo Dome reservoir; 1) erosional unloading, 2) CO2 dissolution into the ambient brine, 3) cooling of CO2after injection. Analytical solutions suggest that an erosion rate of 180 m/Ma is required to reduce the pore pressures to the values observed at Bravo Dome. Given that the current erosion rate is only 5 m/Ma (Nereson et al. 2013); the sub-hydrostatic pressures at Bravo Dome are likely due to CO2dissolution and cooling. To investigate the impact of CO2 dissolution on the pore pressure we have developed new analytical solutions and conducted laboratory experiments. We assume that gaseous CO2 was confined to sandstones during emplacement due to the high entry pressure of the siltstones. After emplacement the CO2 dissolves in to the brine contained in the siltstones and the pressure in the sandstones declines. Assuming the sandstone-siltstone system is closed, the pressure decline due to CO2 dissolution is controlled by a single dimensionless number, η = KHRTVw /Vg. Herein, KH is Henry's constant, R is ideal gas constant, T is temperature, Vw is water volume, and Vg is CO2 volume. The pressure drop is controlled by the ratio of water volume to CO2 volume and η varies between 0.1 to 8 at Bravo Dome. This corresponds to pressure drops between 0.8-7.5 MPa and can therefore account

  9. Subsurface impact of CO2: Response of carbonate rocks and wellbore cement to supercritical CO2 injection and long-term storage. Geologica Ultraiectina (310)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liteanu, E.

    2009-01-01

    Capture of CO2 at fossil fuel power station coupled with geological storage in empty oil and gas reservoirs is widely viewed as the most promising option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, i.e. for climate change mitigation. Injection of CO2 into such reservoirs will change their chemical

  10. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO 2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO 2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mech

  11. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mechan

  12. Key site abandonment steps in CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M.; Wipki, M.; Durucan, S.; Deflandre, J.-P.; Lüth, S.; Wollenweber, J.; Chadwick, A.; Böhm, G.

    2012-04-01

    CO2CARE is an EU funded project within FP7-research, which started in January 2011 with a funding period of three years. The project objectives will be achieved through an international consortium consisting of 23 partners from Europe, USA, Canada, Japan, and Australia, belonging to universities, research institutes, and energy companies. According to the EC Guidance Document 3, the lifetime of a CO2 storage site can be generally subdivided into 6 phases: 1. assessment, 2. characterisation, 3. development, 4. operation, 5. post-closure/pre-transfer, and 6. post transfer. CO2CARE deals with phases 5 and 6. The main goals of the project are closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modelled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. CO2CARE aims to formulate robust procedures for site abandonment which will meet the regulatory requirements and ensure long-term integrity of the storage complex. We present key results from the first year of the project via a report on international regulatory requirements on CO2 geological storage and site abandonment that includes a general overview on the current state-of-the art in abandonment methodologies in the oil and gas industry worldwide. Due to the long time-frames involved in CO2 storage (in the range of several thousands of years), the behaviour of a system with respect to, for example, long-term well stability can be demonstrated only by using long-term predictive modelling tools to study potential leakage pathways. Trapping mechanisms for CO2 are of high interest concerning a quantitative estimation of physically captured, capillary

  13. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  14. The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  16. Techno-Economic Assessment of Four CO2 Storage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruson J.-F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA in their last projections (World Energy Outlook 2013 has considered only around 1% of global fossil fuel-fired power plants could be equipped with CCS by 2035. The SiteChar project funded by 7th Framework Programme of European Commission gives the opportunity to evaluate the most influential parameters of techno-economic evaluations of four feasible European projects for CO2 geological storage located onshore and offshore and related to aquifer storage or oil and gas reservoirs, at different stages of characterization. Four potential CO2 storage sites have been assessed in terms of storage costs per tonne of CO2 permanently stored (equivalent cost based. They are located offshore UK, onshore Denmark, offshore Norway and offshore Italy. The four SiteChar techno-economic evaluations confirm it is not possible to derive any meaningful average cost for a CO2 storage site. The results demonstrate that the structure of costs for a project is heterogeneous and the storage cost is consequently site dependent. The strategy of the site development is fundamental, the technical choices such as the timing, rate and duration of injection are also important. The way monitoring is managed, using observation wells and logging has a strong impact on the estimated monitoring costs. Options to lower monitoring costs, such as permanent surveys, exist and should be further investigated. Table 1 below summarizes the cost range in Euro per tonne (Discount Rate (DR at 8% for the different sites, which illustrates the various orders of magnitude due to the specificities of each site. These figures have how to be considered with care. In particular the Italian and Norwegian sites present very specific

  17. Influence of methane in CO2 transport and storage for CCS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sofía T; Rivas, Clara; Fernández, Javier; Artal, Manuela; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2012-12-04

    CO(2) Capture and Storage (CCS) is a good strategy to mitigate levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases. The type and quantity of impurities influence the properties and behavior of the anthropogenic CO(2), and so must be considered in the design and operation of CCS technology facilities. Their study is necessary for CO(2) transport and storage, and to develop theoretical models for specific engineering applications to CCS technology. In this work we determined the influence of CH(4), an important impurity of anthropogenic CO(2), within different steps of CCS technology: transport, injection, and geological storage. For this, we obtained new pressure-density-temperature (PρT) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) experimental data for six CO(2) + CH(4) mixtures at compositions which represent emissions from the main sources in the European Union and United States. The P and T ranges studied are within those estimated for CO(2) pipelines and geological storage sites. From these data we evaluated the minimal pressures for transport, regarding the density and pipeline's capacity requirements, and values for the solubility parameter of the mixtures, a factor which governs the solubility of substances present in the reservoir before injection. We concluded that the presence of CH(4) reduces the storage capacity and increases the buoyancy of the CO(2) plume, which diminishes the efficiency of solubility and residual trapping of CO(2), and reduces the injectivity into geological formations.

  18. A general method for calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past, lists of potential CO2 storage locations have been compiled purely on the basis of the capacity of the locations in terms of their CO2 solubility. However, in some of these locations, the injection of CO2 is commercially unfeasible because of their small average permeability. During the

  19. A general method for calculating subsurface CO2 storage capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H. van der; Egberts, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the past, lists of potential CO2 storage locations have been compiled purely on the basis of the capacity of the locations in terms of their CO2 solubility. However, in some of these locations, the injection of CO2 is commercially unfeasible because of their small average permeability. During the

  20. Formation dry-out and injectivity impairment during CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research concerns the geological storage of CO2 and in particular injectivity impairment problems related to salt precipitation. Drying and salt precipitation in geological formations can have serious consequences for upstream operations in terms of injectivity and productivity. This can negati

  1. Stress Path Evolution Associated With CO2 Storage Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, V.; Gheibi, S.; Holt, R. M.; Lavrov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Safe storage of CO2 in geological formations is an essential part of CO2 sequestration projects. Pressure changes inside the formation cause effective and total stress changes inside and outside of those formations. These changes can bring the reservoir or its surroundings to failure conditions. The existence of faults and weak zones increases the likelihood of failure in rock masses depending on the amount of the injection-induced changes and the formation properties. This paper discusses the stress changes in different reservoir and injection conditions. Numerical analysis indicates that the pressure buildup can significantly change the total and effective stress and these changes are more severe when faults are present in the formation. Also, the reservoir and caprock experience a greater decrease in the mean effective stress and increase in the deviatoric stress in the footwall and hanging wall of a fault in reverse and normal faulting stress regimes, respectively. The stress path depends on the size of the CO2 plume, the pressure distribution inside the reservoir, and fault and reservoir properties.

  2. AMESCO General Study Environmental Impacts CO2-storage. Public summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The AMESCO study aims to supply environmental background information on CO2-storage in the Netherlands for the broad group of initiators and other stakeholders. By bringing together the information from the scientific world, companies and authorities and by analysing relevant policies it is intended to eludicate: which are the possible environmental effects of CO2-injection and storage; which are the possibilities for risk reduction or mitigation; which existing legislation is of relevance for CO2-storage in the deep surface; where are the gaps in knowledge and legislation with regard to CO2-storage. The report produced during the AMESCO study should be seen as a broad answer to the four questions mentioned above. In specific projects the report can be used as a background document during permitting procedures. This background information has to be supplemented with location specific information. The report can also be used as input for an environmental impact assessment (EIA). For practical reasons the AMESCO study was performed with the following scope limitations: (1) Focus on potential impacts and risks resulting from the storage of CO2; (2) Only consider CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; (3) Only consider onshore projects; (4) Only consider permanent storage; (5) Consider alternative options for CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; but not other forms of CO2-emission reduction. The scope is limited to depleted gas fields, from which the economically recoverable resources have already been taken.

  3. BASALT CARBONATION AND ITS POTENTIAL USE IN CO2 STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Carneiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are indicated as a major contributor to the enhanced greenhouse effect. There are several options to reduce these levels and the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is identified as an effective way to decrease the concentration of this gas. In this work, it is present the indirect carbonation of basalt, as well as, a study of abundance and occurrence of this mineral and its proximity to emission sources of CO2 . After examining the map constructed by matching Brazilian regions with high emission and regions where there are basalt occurrences, one can conclude that the South and Southeast regions have a great potential for geological storage into basalt. This is due to the occurrence of emission sources very close to the basalt area. The carbonation reaction is efficient, as evidenced by atomic absorption analysis, showing a high rate of conversion of leached ions into carbonate. SEM and EDS analysis indicate the formation of precipitated ferrous calcite, which suggests an efficient indirect carbonation.

  4. Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Juerg M.; Takahashi, Taro; Goldberg, David

    2007-02-01

    Deep aquifers are potential long-term storage sites for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The retention time and environmental safety of the injected CO2 depend on geologic and physical factors and on the chemical reactions between the CO2, the aquifer water, and the host rocks. The pH buffer capacity of the aquifer water and the acid neutralization potential of the host rocks are important factors for the permanent stabilization of the injected CO2. Mafic rocks, such as basalt, which primarily consists of Ca, Mg silicate minerals, have a high acid neutralization capacity by providing alkaline earth elements that form stable carbonate minerals. The carbonate minerals formed thus sequester CO2 in a chemically stable and environmentally benign form. In this study, we present results from a small-scale CO2 injection test in mafic and metasedimentary rocks. The injection test was conducted using a single-well push-pull test strategy. CO2 saturated water (pH = 3.5) was injected into a hydraulically isolated and permeable aquifer interval to study the acid neutralization capacity of Ca, Mg silicate rocks and to estimate in situ cation release rates. Release rates for Ca, Mg, and Na were calculated by use of solute compositions of water samples retrieved after the CO2 injection, the incubation time of the injected solution within the aquifer, and geometric estimates of the reactive surface area of the host rocks. Our results confirm rapid acid neutralization rates and water-rock reactions sufficient for safe and permanent storage of CO2. Carbonic acid was neutralized within hours of injection into a permeable mafic aquifer by two processes: mixing between the injected solution and the aquifer water, and water-rock reactions. Calculated cation release rates decrease with increasing pH that is confirmed by laboratory-based experiments. Large differences between release rates obtained from the field and laboratory experiments may be mainly due to uncertainties in the estimation

  5. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2 migrates from the reservoir to the surface. Both leaking and non-leaking natural CO2 reservoirs offer insights into the long-term behaviour of CO2 in the subsurface and on the mechanisms that lead to either leakage or retention of CO2. Here we present the results of a study on leakage mechanisms of natural CO2 reservoirs worldwide. We compiled a global dataset of 49 well described natural CO2 reservoirs of which six are leaking CO2 to the surface, 40 retain CO2 in the subsurface and for three reservoirs the evidence is inconclusive. Likelihood of leakage of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface is governed by the state of CO2 (supercritical vs. gaseous) and the pressure in the reservoir and the direct overburden. Reservoirs with gaseous CO2 is more prone to leak CO2 than reservoirs with dense supercritical CO2. If the reservoir pressure is close to or higher than the least principal stress leakage is likely to occur while reservoirs with pressures close to hydrostatic pressure and below 1200 m depth do not leak. Additionally, a positive pressure gradient from the reservoir into the caprock averts leakage of CO2 into the caprock. Leakage of CO2 occurs in all cases along a fault zone, indicating that

  6. Intercomparison of numerical simulation codes for geologic disposal of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten; Garcia, Julio; Kovscek, Tony; Oldenburg, Curt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Steefel, Carl; Xu, Tianfu

    2002-11-27

    Numerical simulation codes were exercised on a suite of eight test problems that address CO2 disposal into geologic storage reservoirs, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and brine aquifers. Processes investigated include single- and multi-phase flow, gas diffusion, partitioning of CO2 into aqueous and oil phases, chemical interactions of CO2 with aqueous fluids and rock minerals, and mechanical changes due to changes in fluid pressures. Representation of fluid properties was also examined. In most cases results obtained from different simulation codes were in satisfactory agreement, providing confidence in the ability of current numerical simulation approaches to handle the physical and chemical processes that would be induced by CO2 disposal in geologic reservoirs. Some discrepancies were also identified and can be traced to differences in fluid property correlations, and space and time discretization.

  7. Cost implications of uncertainty in CO2 storage resource estimates: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven T.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon capture from stationary sources and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important option to include in strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the potential costs of commercial-scale CO2 storage are not well constrained, stemming from the inherent uncertainty in storage resource estimates coupled with a lack of detailed estimates of the infrastructure needed to access those resources. Storage resource estimates are highly dependent on storage efficiency values or storage coefficients, which are calculated based on ranges of uncertain geological and physical reservoir parameters. If dynamic factors (such as variability in storage efficiencies, pressure interference, and acceptable injection rates over time), reservoir pressure limitations, boundaries on migration of CO2, consideration of closed or semi-closed saline reservoir systems, and other possible constraints on the technically accessible CO2 storage resource (TASR) are accounted for, it is likely that only a fraction of the TASR could be available without incurring significant additional costs. Although storage resource estimates typically assume that any issues with pressure buildup due to CO2 injection will be mitigated by reservoir pressure management, estimates of the costs of CO2 storage generally do not include the costs of active pressure management. Production of saline waters (brines) could be essential to increasing the dynamic storage capacity of most reservoirs, but including the costs of this critical method of reservoir pressure management could increase current estimates of the costs of CO2 storage by two times, or more. Even without considering the implications for reservoir pressure management, geologic uncertainty can significantly impact CO2 storage capacities and costs, and contribute to uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. Given the current state of available information and the scarcity of (data from) long-term commercial-scale CO2

  8. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. CO2 mineralization-bridge between storage and utilization of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, Hans; Zevenhoven, Ron

    2013-01-01

    CO2 mineralization comprises a chemical reaction between suitable minerals and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The CO2 is effectively sequestered as a carbonate, which is stable on geological timescales. In addition, the variety of materials that can be produced through mineralization could find applications in the marketplace, which makes implementation of the technology more attractive. In this article, we review recent developments and assess the current status of the CO2 mineralization field. In an outlook, we briefly describe a few mineralization routes, which upon further development have the potential to be implemented on a large scale.

  10. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  11. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  12. Optimization geological sequestration of CO2 by capillary trapping mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenschild, D.; Harper, E.; Herring, A. L.; Armstrong, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration, as a method of atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, is at the technological forefront of the climate change movement. Sequestration is achieved by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas effluent from coal fired power plants and injecting it into saline aquifers. In an effort to fully understand and optimize CO2 trapping efficiency, the capillary trapping mechanisms that immobilize subsurface CO2 were analyzed at the pore scale. Pairs of analogous fluids representing the range of in situ supercritical CO2 and brine conditions were used during experimentation. The two fluids (identified as wetting and non wetting) were imbibed and drained from a flow cell apparatus containing a sintered glass bead column. Experimental and fluid parameters, such as interfacial tension, non-wetting fluid viscosity, and flow rate, were altered to characterize their impact on capillary trapping. Through the use of computed x-ray microtomography (CMT), we were able to quantify distinct differences between initial (post NW phase imbibition) and residual (post wetting fluid flood) non-wetting phase saturations. Alterations to the viscosity of the non-wetting and wetting fluid phases were made during experimentation; results indicate that the viscosity of the non-wetting fluid is the parameter of interest as residual saturations increased with increasing viscosity. These observed trends will be used to identify optimal conditions for trapping CO2 during subsurface sequestration.

  13. The environmental impact and risk assessment of CO2 capture, transport and storage - an evaluation of the knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Ramirez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we identify and characterize known and new environmental consequences associated with CO2 capture from power plants, transport by pipeline and storage in geological formations. We have reviewed (analogous) environmental impact assessment procedures and scientific literature on

  14. Selection and Characterization of Geological Sites able to Host a Pilot-Scale CO2 Storage in the Paris Basin (GéoCarbone-PICOREF Choix et caractérisation de sites géologiques propices à l’installation d’un pilote pour le stockage de CO2 dans le bassin de Paris (GéoCarbone-PICOREF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosse É.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the GéoCarbone-PICOREF project was to select and characterize geological sites where CO2 storage in permeable reservoir could be tested at the pilot scale. Both options of storage in deep saline aquifer and in depleted hydrocarbon field were considered. The typical size envisioned for the pilot was 100 kt CO2 per year. GéoCarbone-PICOREF initially focused on a “Regional Domain”, ca. 200 × 150 km, in the Paris Basin. It was attractive for the following reasons: detailed geological data is available, due to 50 years of petroleum exploration; basin-scale deep saline aquifers are present, with a preliminary estimate of storage capacity which is at the Gt CO2 level, namely the carbonate Oolithe Blanche Formation, of Middle Jurassic age, generally located between 1500 and 1800 m depths in the studied area, and several sandstone formations of Triassic age, located between 2000 and 3000 m; several depleted oil fields exist: although offering storage capacities at a much lower level, they do represent very well constrained geological environments, with proven sealing properties; several sources of pure CO2 were identified in the area, at a flow rate compatible with the pilot size, that would avoid capture costs. 750 km of seismic lines were reprocessed and organized in six sections fitted on well logs. This first dataset provided improved representations of: the gross features of the considered aquifers in the Regional Domain; the structural scheme; lateral continuity of the sealing cap rocks. An inventory of the environmental characteristics was also made, including human occupancy, protected areas, water resource, natural hazards, potential conflicts of use with other resources of the subsurface, etc. From all these criteria, a more restricted geographical domain named the “Sector”, ca. 70 × 70 km, was chosen, the most appropriate for further selection of storage site(s. The geological characterization of the Sector has

  15. Mixing and trapping of dissolved CO2 in deep geologic formations with shale layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agartan, Elif; Cihan, Abdullah; Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2017-07-01

    For dissolution trapping, the spatial variability of the geologic properties of naturally complex storage formations can significantly impact flow patterns and storage mechanisms of dissolved CO2. The significance of diffusive mixing that occurs in low permeability layers embedded between relatively higher permeability materials was highlighted by Agartan et al. (2015) using a highly controlled laboratory experimental study on trapping of dissolved CO2 in multilayered systems. In this paper, we present a numerical modeling study on the impacts of low permeability layers on flow and storage of dissolved CO2 in realistic field-scale settings. The simulator of variable-density flow used in this study was first verified using the experimental data in Agartan et al. (2015) to capture the observed processes. The simulator was then applied to a synthetic, field-scale multilayered system, with 19 sensitivity cases having variable permeability and thickness of the shale layers as well as the source strength and geometry of the source zone of dissolved CO2. Simulation results showed that the presence of continuous shale layers in the storage system disrupts the convective mixing by enhancing lateral spreading of dissolved CO2 in sandstone layers and retarding the vertical mixing of dissolved CO2. The effectiveness of trapping of dissolved CO2 depends on the physical properties of the shale layers and configurations of the source zone. The comparison to homogeneous cases with effective vertical permeability shows that it is important to capture these continuous thin shale layers in a storage formation and include them in the models to enhance dissolution trapping.

  16. Screening CO2 storage options in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez-Ramirez, A.; Hagedoorn, S.; Kramers, L.; Wildenborg, T.; Hendriks, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of a methodology to screen and rank Dutch reservoirs suitable for long-term large scale CO2 storage. The screening focuses on off- and on-shore individual aquifers, gas and oil fields. In total 176 storage reservoirs have been taken into considera

  17. Results of USGS Workshop on CO2 Storage in Coals, Shales, Basalts, and Ultramafic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K.; Corum, M.; Blondes, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic storage of anthropogenic CO2 is one possible approach to help mitigate global climate change. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently estimating the potential CO2 storage capacity of sandstones, limestones, and dolostones in major domestic sedimentary basins. Other "unconventional" lithologies—coals, organic-rich shales, basalts, and ultramafic rocks—are not currently included in the assessment, but could store significant additional CO2 by sorption and mineralization. In March 2012, the USGS held a workshop to support a possible future assessment of the capacity of unconventional rocks. Thirty-six participants from academia, industry, and government discussed 1) pilot projects, laboratory studies, and modeling of CO2 storage in unconventional rocks; 2) the feasibility of CO2 storage in these rocks; and 3) recommendations that could help build a USGS methodology to assess the CO2 storage capacity of these rocks, if such storage is feasible, and if this methodology is a USGS priority. Workshop participants recommended that the USGS proceed with developing separate methodologies to assess the storage potentials of coals and organic-rich shales. Other recommendations were 1) to assess all coals rather than only "unminable" coals, because minability depends on changeable economics and technology; 2) to require sealing formations above storage formations, thus reducing risk of leakage, even though sorbed CO2 is immobile; 3) to assess only formations deep enough for CO2 to be supercritical, allowing much greater storage efficiency; 4) to assess storage potential in tiers (3-10 and >10 g/L total dissolved solids in groundwater) based on CO2 injection restrictions from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; and 5) to establish vitrinite reflectance (0.5%) and total organic content (1%) minima for assessment of shales. Workshop participants recommended that the USGS also proceed with developing a methodology to assess potential CO2 storage in basalts

  18. GEOLOGICAL STORAGE OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Kolenković

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide geological storage represents a key segment of the carbon capture and storage system (CCS expected to significantly contribute to the reduction of its emissions, primarily in the developed countries and in those that are currently being industrialised. This approach to make use of the subsurface is entirely new meaning that several aspects are still in research phase. The paper gives a summary of the most important recent results with a short overview the possibilities in the Republic of Croatia. One option is to construct underground carbon dioxide storage facilities in deep coal seams or salt caverns. Another would be to use the CO2 in enhanced oil and gas recovery projects relying on the retention of the carbon dioxide in the deep reservoir because a portion of the injected gas is not going be produced together with hydrocarbons. Finally, the greatest potential estimated lies in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs with significantly reduced reservoir pressure, as well as in the large regional units - layers of deep saline aquifers that extend through almost all sedimentary basins (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Effects of CO2 adsorption on coal deformation during geological sequestration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan Yang; Xiancai Lu; Yangzheng Lin; Alexander V. Neimark

    2011-01-01

      CO2 adsorption capacity in coals is determined CO2 adsorption-induced coal deformation is evaluated Geological sequestration of CO2 is deeply discussed Adsorption-induced deformation of coal during...

  20. Development of Methods for Gaseous Phase Geochemical Monitoring on the Surface and in the Intermediate Overburden Strata of Geological CO2 Storage Sites Développement de méthodes de suivi géochimique en phase gazeuse à la surface et dans la couverture intermédiaire des sites de stockage géologique du CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokryszka Z.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The developments and results presented in this paper are taken from the work carried out as part of the GeoCarbon-Monitoring project, which was partly funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR. An important part of this project covers methods for gas monitoring on the surface as well as within the cap rock of geological CO2 storage sites. The work undertaken by INERIS was targeted at two specific approaches which are often recommended as essential for the monitoring of future storage sites: early detection (pre-alert, based on the sampling and analysis of gas at the bottom of the dedicated boreholes which are drilled from the surface into the intermediate cap rock strata; the detection and quantification of the gaseous flux of CO2 released from the ground into the atmosphere. These two approaches were developed in the laboratory successively and then applied and tested in-situ, under conditions that are as close as possible to those of the future storage sites. They offer the advantage of ensuring a direct measurement as well as providing real-time information on the presence or, on the contrary, the absence of CO2 leaks. The tests undertaken on a 200 meter deep borehole have shown that the detection of CO2 leaks passing through the intermediate overburden strata was possible thanks to the continuous sampling and analysis of the composition of the gas which accumulated at the bottom of the borehole. In particular, the detection of small releases of gas emanating from the surrounding rock gave rise to a number of good results. These releases may be a precursor to a larger leak. Likewise, it has been possible to take a sample and ensure the transit of gas over long distances, up to 1000 meters from the sampling point. This was done without causing any significant deformation or dilution of the initial gaseous signal, even for low amplitude leaks. These results allow us to envisage the implementation of a relatively simple system for

  1. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  2. Preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity in carbonate storage sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Raza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depleted gas reservoirs are used for a large-scale carbon dioxide (CO2 storage and reduction of the greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. To identify a suitable depleted reservoir, it is essential to do a preliminary and comprehensive assessment of key storage factors such as storage capacity, injectivity, trapping mechanisms, and containment. However, there are a limited number of studies providing a preliminary assessment of CO2 injectivity potential in depleted gas reservoirs prior to a CO2 storage operation. The aim of this study is to provide a preliminary assessment of a gas field located in Malaysia for its storage potential based on subsurface characterization prior to injection. Evaluation of the reservoir interval based on the facies, cores, and wireline log data of a well located in the field indicated that the pore type and fabrics analysis is very beneficial to identify suitable locations for a successful storage practice. Although the results obtained are promising, it is recommended to combine this preliminary assessment with the fluid-mineral interactions analysis before making any judgment about reliability of storage sites.

  3. CO2 Storage Feasibility: A Workflow for Site Characterisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nepveu Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an overview of the SiteChar workflow model for site characterisation and assessment for CO2 storage. Site characterisation and assessment is required when permits are requested from the legal authorities in the process of starting a CO2 storage process at a given site. The goal is to assess whether a proposed CO2 storage site can indeed be used for permanent storage while meeting the safety requirements demanded by the European Commission (EC Storage Directive (9, Storage Directive 2009/31/EC. Many issues have to be scrutinised, and the workflow presented here is put forward to help efficiently organise this complex task. Three issues are highlighted: communication within the working team and with the authorities; interdependencies in the workflow and feedback loops; and the risk-based character of the workflow. A general overview (helicopter view of the workflow is given; the issues involved in communication and the risk assessment process are described in more detail. The workflow as described has been tested within the SiteChar project on five potential storage sites throughout Europe. This resulted in a list of key aspects of site characterisation which can help prepare and focus new site characterisation studies.

  4. Potential evaluation of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery of tight oil reservoir in the Ordos Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Linsong; Cao, Renyi; Zhang, Miaoyi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Yimin; Zhang, Jian; Cui, Yu

    2015-07-01

    Carbon -di-oxide (CO2) is regarded as the most important greenhouse gas to accelerate climate change and ocean acidification. The Chinese government is seeking methods to reduce anthropogenic CO2 gas emission. CO2 capture and geological storage is one of the main methods. In addition, injecting CO2 is also an effective method to replenish formation energy in developing tight oil reservoirs. However, exiting methods to estimate CO2 storage capacity are all based on the material balance theory. This was absolutely correct for normal reservoirs. However, as natural fractures widely exist in tight oil reservoirs and majority of them are vertical ones, tight oil reservoirs are not close. Therefore, material balance theory is not adaptive. In the present study, a new method to calculate CO2 storage capacity is presented. The CO2 effective storage capacity, in this new method, consisted of free CO2, CO2 dissolved in oil and CO2 dissolved in water. Case studies of tight oil reservoir from Ordos Basin was conducted and it was found that due to far lower viscosity of CO2 and larger solubility in oil, CO2 could flow in tight oil reservoirs more easily. As a result, injecting CO2 in tight oil reservoirs could obviously enhance sweep efficiency by 24.5% and oil recovery efficiency by 7.5%. CO2 effective storage capacity of Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Longdong area was 1.88 x 10(7) t. The Chang 7 tight oil reservoir in Ordos Basin was estimated to be 6.38 x 10(11) t. As tight oil reservoirs were widely distributed in Songliao Basin, Sichuan Basin and so on, geological storage capacity of CO2 in China is potential.

  5. CO2 Utilization and Storage in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, T.; Glezakou, V.; Owen, T.; Miller, Q.; Loring, J.; Davidson, C.; McGrail, P.

    2013-12-01

    Surging natural gas production from fractured shale reservoirs and the emerging concept of utilizing anthropogenic CO2 for secondary recovery and permanent storage is driving the need for understanding fundamental mechanisms controlling gas adsorption and desorption processes, mineral volume changes, and impacts to transmissivity properties. Early estimates indicate that between 10 and 30 gigatons of CO2 storage capacity may exist in the 24 shale gas plays included in current USGS assessments. However, the adsorption of gases (CO2, CH4, and SO2) is not well understood and appears unique for individual clay minerals. Using specialized experimental techniques developed at PNNL, pure clay minerals were examined at relevant pressures and temperatures during exposure to CH4, CO2, and mixtures of CO2-SO2. Adsorbed concentrations of methane displayed a linear behavior as a function of pressure as determined by a precision quartz crystal microbalance. Acid gases produced differently shaped adsorption isotherms, depending on temperature and pressure. In the instance of kaolinite, gaseous CO2 adsorbed linearly, but in the presence of supercritical CO2, surface condensation increased significantly to a peak value before desorbing with further increases in pressure. Similarly shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms derived from natural shale samples and coal samples have been reported in the literature. Adsorption steps, determined by density functional theory calculations, showed they were energetically favorable until the first CO2 layer formed, corresponding to a density of ~0.35 g/cm3. Interlayer cation content (Ca, Mg, or Na) of montmorillonites influenced adsorbed gas concentrations. Measurements by in situ x-ray diffraction demonstrate limited CO2 diffusion into the Na-montmorillonite interlayer spacing, with structural changes related to increased hydration. Volume changes were observed when Ca or Mg saturated montmorillonites in the 1W hydration state were exposed to

  6. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    OpenAIRE

    Lions, Julie; Gale, Ian; Nygaard, Erik; Rütters, Heike; May, Franz; Beaubien, Stanley; Sohrabi, Mehran; Hatzignatiou, Dimitrios G.; Basava-Reddi, Ludmilla

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be u...

  7. Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Predicting and Confirming Performance in Oil Reservoirs and Saline Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. W.; Nitao, J. J.; Newmark, R. L.; Kirkendall, B. A.; Nimz, G. J.; Knauss, K. G.; Ziagos, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    Reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions ranks high among the grand scientific challenges of this century. In the near-term, significant reductions can only be achieved through innovative sequestration strategies that prevent atmospheric release of large-scale CO2 waste streams. Among such strategies, injection into confined geologic formations represents arguably the most promising alternative; and among potential geologic storage sites, oil reservoirs and saline aquifers represent the most attractive targets. Oil reservoirs offer a unique "win-win" approach because CO2 flooding is an effective technique of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), while saline aquifers offer immense storage capacity and widespread distribution. Although CO2-flood EOR has been widely used in the Permian Basin and elsewhere since the 1980s, the oil industry has just recently become concerned with the significant fraction of injected CO2 that eludes recycling and is therefore sequestered. This "lost" CO2 now has potential economic value in the growing emissions credit market; hence, the industry's emerging interest in recasting CO2 floods as co-optimized EOR/sequestration projects. The world's first saline aquifer storage project was also catalyzed in part by economics: Norway's newly imposed atmospheric emissions tax, which spurred development of Statoil's unique North Sea Sleipner facility in 1996. Successful implementation of geologic sequestration projects hinges on development of advanced predictive models and a diverse set of remote sensing, in situ sampling, and experimental techniques. The models are needed to design and forecast long-term sequestration performance; the monitoring techniques are required to confirm and refine model predictions and to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. We have developed a unique reactive transport modeling capability for predicting sequestration performance in saline aquifers, and used it to simulate CO2 injection at Sleipner; we are now

  8. Reaction and transport in wellbore interfaces under CO2 storage conditions: Experiments simulating debonded cement-casing interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, T.K.T.; Peach, C.J.; Spiers, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Debonding-defects at the interfaces between wellbore casing and cement are widely recognized as providing potential pathways for CO2 escape from geological storage systems. This study addresses how chemical reaction between CO2, cement and steel may affect the transport properties of such defects un

  9. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect ov

  10. Monitoring CO2 storage using seismic-interferometry ghost reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganov, D.S.; Heller, H.K.J.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    Time-lapse seismic monitoring is a fundamental part in most monitoring programmes involving CO2 storage. Even though the seismic method has proven its applicability for monitoring, there are two major causes of uncertainty in the estimation of changes in the reservoir properties: non-repeatability o

  11. Pitfalls in the communication about CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Gerdien de

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest environmental challenges the world is facing today is combating global warming. One of the solutions is the implementation of CO2 capture and storage (CCS). CCS is a controversial technology, and attitudes towards it are influenced by public communications. In this dissertation,

  12. European resource assessment for geothermal energy and CO2 storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wees, J.D. van; Neele, F.

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal Energy and CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS) are both considered major contributors to the global energy transition. Their success critically depends on subsurface resource quality, which in turn depends on specific subsurface parameters. For CCS and Geothermal Energy these in some respect

  13. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  14. Increased N2O emission by inhibited plant growth in the CO2 leaked soil environment: Simulation of CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage (CCS) site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; He, Wenmei; Ko, Daegeun; Chung, Haegeun; Yoo, Gayoung

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is continuing to increase due to anthropogenic activity, and geological CO2 storage via carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can be an effective way to mitigate global warming due to CO2 emission. However, the possibility of CO2 leakage from reservoirs and pipelines exists, and such leakage could negatively affect organisms in the soil environment. Therefore, to determine the impacts of geological CO2 leakage on plant and soil processes, we conducted a greenhouse study in which plants and soils were exposed to high levels of soil CO2. Cabbage, which has been reported to be vulnerable to high soil CO2, was grown under BI (no injection), NI (99.99% N2 injection), and CI (99.99% CO2 injection). Mean soil CO2 concentration for CI was 66.8-76.9% and the mean O2 concentrations in NI and CI were 6.6-12.7%, which could be observed in the CO2 leaked soil from the pipelines connected to the CCS sites. The soil N2O emission was increased by 286% in the CI, where NO3(-)-N concentration was 160% higher compared to that in the control. This indicates that higher N2O emission from CO2 leakage could be due to enhanced nitrification process. Higher NO3(-)-N content in soil was related to inhibited plant metabolism. In the CI treatment, chlorophyll content decreased and chlorosis appeared after 8th day of injection. Due to the inhibited root growth, leaf water and nitrogen contents were consistently lowered by 15% under CI treatment. Our results imply that N2O emission could be increased by the secondary effects of CO2 leakage on plant metabolism. Hence, monitoring the environmental changes in rhizosphere would be very useful for impact assessment of CCS technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CO2 Sequestration Site Performance: Processes of Storage Seal Failure and Overburden Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, A. J.; Wilkinson, M.; Haszeldine, S.

    2006-12-01

    Climate models of ocean degassing require that sequestered carbon be removed from the atmosphere for at least 104 years for the planet to cool as a consequence of CO2 storage. Site monitoring over millennia is not an option. The best way to address robust site performance and fail-safe concerns over such a timescale is to model the movement of CO2 in the subsurface, quantifying rates of seepage and assessing the ambient geology to ensure minimal displacement of saline water to potable aquifers and low flux of CO2 to the atmosphere in the event of a failed storage facility. Hydrocarbon geologists routinely model subsurface fluid movement to identify migration pathways and flux rates. Petroleum geology has also identified critical pathways for trap and system failure with respect to oil and gas. Our studies of seal failure and regional flow regimes provide templates for testing CO2 behaviour in the subsurface and the likely pathways involved in storage-to-surface breaches. We consider three aspects of petroleum basin geology that interplay in the sealing of a hydrocarbon field, but within the unusual context of CO2 storage: 1) capillary entry pressure, 2) fluid pressure and 3) seal permeability. A combination of high buoyancy pressure and low interfacial tension values for fluid CO2 results in a low threshold failure for seals that typically retain methane gas. However, Darcy flow through mudrock-dominated overburden is sufficiently slow to prevent CO2 escape via the pore network. By contrast, sensitivity analysis of fracture-related flow infers that fracturing of the seal and overburden may play a significant role in storage failure and rapid vertical migration of CO2. We conclude that fracture-related migration is the most likely cause of storage-to-surface breaches on a millennial timescale, especially in regions of recent exhumation and glacial unloading. We are currently testing this hypothesis on case studies from the North Sea, UK, using seismic images of CO2

  16. Tracing the CO2 source and migration in natural analogues from different geological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battani, A.; Jean Luc, F.; Philippe, S.; Nadine, E.; Olivier, V.; Elodie, J.

    2009-12-01

    Naturally occurring CO2 fields allow studying long-term fluid-rock interactions, and the processes of CO2 migration, useful for the prediction of CO2 behavior in industrial storage sites. Two different provinces showing both leaking systems (hydrothermal areas) and well confined systems (stable sedimentary basins) have been studied. The first province concerns the French CO2 province of Massif Central (volcanic events, seismic activity, high geothermal gradient) and the stable Valence basin. The other study was devoted to the Basin and Range province, USA, with hydrothermal, high seismic and volcanic activity, a high geothermal gradient (Soda Springs; Idaho, Sevier basin), and the non-hydrothermal stable area of the Colorado plateau (Green River, San Rafael anticline and Springerville). The aim is to link the CO2 sources and its subsurface migration to the geological context. In hydrothermal areas, the mesured helium isotopic ratio (R/Ra) is high (close to the mantle ratio), while the CO2/3He ratios move dramatically towards crustal values. In this context, isotopic and elemental noble gas data show that the gas migrates very fast from depth. In more confined areas (natural CO2 fields), the CO2 shows a more important proportion of radiogenic gases (4He) (crustal helium isotopic ratios) and the associated CO2/3He ratios are in the MORB range, or “mantle derived”. We try to explain the apparent discrepancy between the CO2/3He and the R/Ra values in both areas. As a primary assumption, the source of CO2 could be localized in the extensional zones of high geothermal gradient with important seismicity. We suggest that the pseudotachylites formed by frictional melting associated with each seismic event supply an instantaneous crustal CO2.amount to the initial magmatic CO2. This justifies the coeval increase of the CO2/3He ratios without any significant modification in the helium isotopic ratios (instantaneous, no time for 4He production). Moreover, the contact

  17. Alleged Leakage of CO2 from the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project: Preliminary Findings from Implementation of the IPAC-CO2 Incident Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, G. W.; Romanak, K.; Gilfillan, S. M.; Dale, J. E.; Wolaver, B. D.; Yang, C.

    2011-12-01

    In January of 2011, the owners of property located in the southwest portion of the Weyburn-Midale Unit in Saskatchewan, Canada, alleged that CO2 injected as part of the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project was leaking from their property. Prior to the property owners' allegations, the International Performance Assessment Centre for Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide (IPAC-CO2) had initiated development of an incident response protocol to be implemented when allegations arose of unintentional releases of anthropogenic CO2 from carbon capture and storage projects. IPAC-CO2 implemented this protocol to determine if CO2 concentrations as high as 11% result from an unintentional release of anthropogenic CO2 or if they form naturally from microbial CO2 production in the organic-rich wet environment that characterizes the property. This paper presents preliminary findings resulting from implementation of the IPAC-CO2 incident response protocol. Particular attention is paid to the results of both soil-gas and noble gas analyses.

  18. Vertically integrated approaches to large scale CO2 storage: Evaluating long-term storage security of CO2 injection in saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J.; Celia, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. During the injection and early post-injection periods, CO2 leakage may occur along faults and leaky wells, but this risk may be partly managed by proper site selection and sensible deployment of monitoring and remediation technologies. On the other hand, long-term storage security is an entirely different risk management problem—one that is dominated by a mobile CO2 plume that may travel over very large spatial and temporal scales before it is trapped by different physical and chemical processes. The primary trapping mechanisms are capillary and solubility trapping, which evolve over thousands to tens of thousands of years and can immobilize a significant portion of the mobile, free-phase CO2 plume. However, these processes are complex, involving a combination of small and large spatial scales over varying time scales. Solubility trapping is a prime example of this complexity, where small-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO2 region leads to convective mixing that has that has a significant effect on the large-scale dissolution process over very long time scales. Using appropriate models that can capture both large and small-scale effects is essential for understanding the role of dissolution and convective mixing on the long-term storage security of CO2 sequestration operations. There are several approaches to modeling long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms. One modeling option is the use of traditional numerical methods, which are often highly sophisticated models that can handle multiple complex phenomena with high levels of accuracy. However, these complex models quickly become prohibitively expensive for the type of large-scale, long-term modeling that is necessary for risk assessment applications such as the late post-injection period. We present an alternative modeling option, the VESA model, that combines

  19. Did dead animals really spew from the IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 monitoring and storage project?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, B. J.; IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project, T.; Theme Leaders: IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring; Storage Project

    2011-12-01

    The IEA-GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 monitoring and storage project was initiated in 2000 to study the geological storage of CO2 as part of a CO2-EOR project in the Weyburn Field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Initial injection of CO2 began in October 2000, and continues to date, with more than 18 Mtonnes of anthropogenic CO2 stored in the Weyburn reservoir. In January 2011, a local landowner supported by a consultant's soil gas survey, claimed they had conclusive proof that the "source of the high concentrations of CO2 in soils ... is clearly the anthropogenic CO2 injected into the Weyburn reservoir". These claims quickly attracted local, provincial, national, and international media attention alerting the world to the "leakage" at the Weyburn CO2-EOR project and furthermore calling into question the safety of geological CO2 sequestration in general. A careful look at the data reveals a different story. Twenty six soil gas samples were collected in August 2010, from shallow (Weyburn-Midale research project, do not support the claim(s) of anthropogenic CO2 leakage from the Weyburn reservoir. A comprehensive geological, geophysical, hydrogeological, and geochemical site characterization combined with background and on-site soil gas monitoring, integrated with numerical simulations of CO2 movement has not detected any evidence of migration of CO2 above the regional subsurface seal. Shallow soil gas monitoring near the Weyburn field, and in the CO2-EOR area, have detected transient elevated CO2 concentrations of similar magnitudes. Previously published 13C/12C data from shallow aquifers in Saskatchewan match those obtained by the consultant. None of the observed geochemical parameter values fall outside the background ranges expected for this area. Phenomena observed at this site can be explained by near surface processes including microbial generation of soil CO2 and methane. This talk will highlight relevant data collected by the research project and contrast it with claims of

  20. 3rd Sino-German Conference “Underground Storage of CO2 and Energy”

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Heping; Were, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and sustainability are three of the greatest contemporary global challenges today. This year the Sino-German Cooperation Group “Underground Storage of CO2 and Energy”, is meeting on the 21-23 May 2013 for the second time in Goslar, Germany, to convene its 3rd Sino-German conference on the theme “Clean Energy Systems in the Subsurface: Production, Storage and Conversion”.   This volume is a collection of diverse quality scientific works from different perspectives elucidating on the current developments in CO2 geologic sequestration research to reduce greenhouse emissions including measures to monitor surface leakage, groundwater quality and the integrity of caprock, while ensuring a sufficient supply of clean energy. The contributions herein have been structured into 6 major thematic research themes: Integrated Energy and Environmental Utilization of Geo-reservoirs: Law, Risk Management & Monitoring CO2 for Enhanced Gas and Oil Recovery, Coa...

  1. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  2. Environmental Assessment for Potential Impacts of Ocean CO2 Storage on Marine Biogeochemical Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, N.; Tsurushima, N.; Suzumura, M.; Shibamoto, Y.; Harada, K.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean CO2 storage that actively utilizes the ocean potential to dissolve extremely large amounts of CO2 is a useful option with the intent of diminishing atmospheric CO2 concentration. CO2 storage into sub-seabed geological formations is also considered as the option which has been already put to practical reconnaissance in some projects. Direct release of CO2 in the ocean storage and potential CO2 leakage from geological formations into the bottom water can alter carbonate system as well as pH of seawater. It is essential to examine to what direction and extent chemistry change of seawater induced by CO2 can affect the marine environments. Previous studies have shown direct and acute effects by increasing CO2 concentrations on physiology of marine organisms. It is also a serious concern that chemistry change can affect the rates of chemical, biochemical and microbial processes in seawater resulting in significant influences on marine biogeochemical cycles of the bioelements including carbon, nutrients and trace metals. We, AIST, have conducted a series of basic researches to assess the potential impacts of ocean CO2 storage on marine biogeochemical processes including CaCO3 dissolution, and bacterial and enzymatic decomposition of organic matter. By laboratory experiments using a special high pressure apparatus, the improved empirical equation was obtained for CaCO3 dissolution rate in the high CO2 concentrations. Based on the experimentally obtained kinetics with a numerical simulation for a practical scenario of oceanic CO2 sequestration where 50 Mton CO2 per year is continuously injected to 1,000-2,500 m depth within 100 x 333 km area for 30 years, we could illustrate precise 3-D maps for the predicted distributions of the saturation depth of CaCO3, in situ Ω value and CaCO3 dissolution rate in the western North Pacific. The result showed no significant change in the bathypelagic CaCO3 flux due to chemistry change induced by ocean CO2 sequestration. Both

  3. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  4. Modelling CO2 flow in naturally fractured geological media using MINC and multiple subregion upscaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Flemisch, Bernd; Class, Holger; Helmig, Rainer; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Geological storage of CO2 represents one viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere. Potential leakage of CO2 storage can occur through networks of interconnected fractures. The geometrical complexity of these networks is often very high involving fractures occurring at various scales and having hierarchical structures. Such multiphase flow systems are usually hard to solve with a discrete fracture modelling (DFM) approach. Therefore, continuum fracture models assuming average properties are usually preferred. The multiple interacting continua (MINC) model is an extension of the classic double porosity model (Warren and Root, 1963) which accounts for the non-linear behaviour of the matrix-fracture interactions. For CO2 storage applications the transient representation of the inter-porosity two phase flow plays an important role. This study tests the accuracy and computational efficiency of the MINC method complemented with the multiple sub-region (MSR) upscaling procedure versus the DFM. The two phase flow MINC simulator is implemented in the free-open source numerical toolbox DuMux (www.dumux.org). The MSR (Gong et al., 2009) determines the inter-porosity terms by solving simplified local single-phase flow problems. The DFM is considered as the reference solution. The numerical examples consider a quasi-1D reservoir with a quadratic fracture system , a five-spot radial symmetric reservoir, and a completely random generated fracture system. Keywords: MINC, upscaling, two-phase flow, fractured porous media, discrete fracture model, continuum fracture model

  5. Effect of salinity and pressure on the rate of mass transfer in aquifer storage of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosrokhavar, R.; Eftekhari, A.A.; Farajzadeh, R.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2015-01-01

    The growing concern about global warming has increased interest in improving the technology for the geological storage of CO2 in aquifers. One important aspect for aquifer storage is the rate of transfer between the overlying gas layer and the aquifer below. It is generally accepted that density dri

  6. Breaking it into pieces for storage: An engineering approach to enhancing supercritical CO2 entrapment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Bryan, C. R.; Dewers, T. A.; Heath, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration and storage (CSS) is a possible option for the mitigation of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions to the atmosphere. Residual trapping of a non-wetting liquid phase in a brine reservoir is considered as an important mechanism for long-term CSS, because similar processes have been observed in a variety of fields such as oil recovery and groundwater remediation of non-aqueous phase liquids. Residual trapping can potentially relax stringent requirements for the integrity of cap rocks and allow utilization of open or dipping structures for carbon storage. Here, we propose an engineering approach to enhancing the immobilization of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in a brine reservoir. This approach is based on the concept of viscous instability of immiscible flow and the dynamics of the movement of scCO2 ganglia in porous media. The movement of a non-wetting ganglion is inversely dependent on its dimension: the smaller the ganglion, the more difficult to move. The critical size (lc) for a ganglion to become immobilized, given its buoyancy, is determined by: lc=2βσ/(rkrw Δρg) where β is the geometric factor characterizing the grain size and pore neck radius (r), σ is the interfacial tension between scCO2 and water, rkrw is the relative permeability to water, Δρ is the density difference between water and scCO2, and g is the gravity. This suggests that, by dispersing injected scCO2 into small ganglia, we can potentially immobilize the injected scCO2 for very long times. The dispersal of scCO2 into small ganglia could be accomplished by controlling the injection rate and the alternating injection of scCO2 and water. The injection rate is required to be high enough to ensure the scCO2 at the advancing front to be broken into pieces, small enough for immobilization, through viscous instability: v>(2π2 r2 krkrw Δρ2 g2)/(μβ2 σ) where v is the velocity of the advancement of scCO2 front, k is the permeability of water and μ is the viscosity of

  7. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  8. Evolution of the Petrophysical and Mineralogical Properties of Two Reservoir Rocks Under Thermodynamic Conditions Relevant for CO2 Geological Storage at 3 km Depth Évolution des propriétés physiques et minéralogiques de deux roches réservoirs dans des conditions thermodynamiques correspondant à un stockage géologique de CO2 à 3 km de profondeur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimmelé G.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Injection of carbon dioxide (CO2 underground, for long-term geological storage purposes, is considered as an economically viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The chemical interactions between supercritical CO2 and the potential reservoir rock need to be thoroughly investigated under thermodynamic conditions relevant for geological storage. In the present study, 40 samples of Lavoux limestone and Adamswiller sandstone, both collected from reservoir rocks in the Paris basin, were experimentally exposed to CO2 in laboratory autoclaves specially built to simulate CO2-storage-reservoir conditions. The two types of rock were exposed to wet supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated water for one month, at 28 MPa and 90°C, corresponding to conditions for a burial depth approximating 3 km. The changes in mineralogy and microtexture of the samples were measured using X-ray diffraction analyses, Raman spectroscopy, scanning-electron microscopy, and energy-dispersionspectroscopy microanalysis. The petrophysical properties were monitored by measuring the weight, density, mechanical properties, permeability, global porosity, and local porosity gradients through the samples. Both rocks maintained their mechanical and mineralogical properties after CO2 exposure despite an increase of porosity and permeability. Microscopic zones of calcite dissolution observed in the limestone are more likely to be responsible for such increase. In the sandstone, an alteration of the petrofabric is assumed to have occurred due to clay minerals reacting with CO2. All samples of Lavoux limestone and Adamswiller sandstone showed a measurable alteration when immersed either in wet supercritical CO2 or in CO2-saturated water. These batch experiments were performed using distilled water and thus simulate more severe conditions than using formation water (brine. L’injection de dioxyde de carbone (CO2 en sous-sol pour un stockage géologique à long terme

  9. Next generation of CO2 enhanced water recovery with subsurface energy storage in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Kühn, Michael; Ma, Jianli; Niu, Zhiyong

    2017-04-01

    ., Nakaten N., Kempka T., Kühn M. (2013) Analysis of an integrated carbon cycle for storage of renewables. Energy Procedia 40, 202-211. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.024. [3] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Liu G, Lin Q (2014) Combination of CO2 Geological Storage with Deep Saline Water Recovery in Western China: Insights from Numerical Analyses. Applied Energy 116:101-110. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.11.050 [4] Wei N, Li X, Fang Z, Bai B, Li Q, Liu S, Jia Y (2015) Regional Resource Distribution of Onshore Carbon Geological Utilization in China. Journal of CO2 Utilization 11:20-30. doi:10.1016/j.jcou.2014.12.005 [5] Li Q, Wei Y-N, Chen Z-A (2016) Water-CCUS Nexus: Challenges and Opportunities of China's Coal Chemical Industry. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 18 (3):775-786. doi:10.1007/s10098-015-1049-z

  10. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  11. Your View or Mine: Spatially Quantifying CO2 Storage Risk from Various Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Pollak, M.; Wilson, E.; Elliot, T. R.; Guo, B.; Nogues, J. P.; Peters, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    CO2 capture and storage involves injecting captured CO2 into geologic formations, such as deep saline aquifers. This injected CO2 is to be "stored" within the rock matrix for hundreds to thousands of years, but injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the target reservoir. Such leakage could interfere with other subsurface activities-water production, energy production, energy storage, and waste disposal-or migrate to the surface. Each of these interferences will incur multiple costs to a variety of stakeholders. Even if injected or displaced fluids do not interfere with other subsurface activities or make their way to the surface, costs will be incurred to find and fix the leak. Consequently, the suitability of a site for CO2 storage must therefore include an assessment of the risk of leakage and interference with various other activities within a three-dimensional proximity of where CO2 is being injected. We present a spatial analysis of leakage and interference risk associated with injecting CO2 into a portion of the Mount Simon sandstone in the Michigan Basin. Risk is the probability of an outcome multiplied by the impact of that outcome (Ro=po*Io). An outcome is the result of the leakage (e.g., interference with oil production), and the impact is the cost associated with the outcome. Each outcome has costs that will vary by stakeholder. Our analysis presents CO2 storage risk for multiple outcomes in a spatially explicit manner that varies by stakeholder. We use the ELSA semi-analytical model for estimating CO2 and brine leakage from aquifers to determine plume and pressure front radii, and CO2 and brine leakage probabilities for the Mount Simon sandstone and multiple units above it. Results of ELSA simulations are incorporated into RISCS: the Risk Interference Subsurface CO2 Storage model. RISCS uses three-dimensional data on subsurface geology and the locations of wells and boreholes to spatially estimate risks associated with CO2 leakage from

  12. Assessing European capacity for geological storage of carbon dioxide-the EU GeoCapacity project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangkilde-Pedersen, T.; Anthonsen, K.L.; Smith, N.; Kirk, K.; Neele, F.; Meer, B. van der; Le Gallo, Y. le; Bossie-Codreanu, D.; Wojcicki, A.; Nindre, Y.-M. le; Hendriks, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Peter Christensen, N.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the GeoCapacity project is GIS mapping of CO2 point sources, infrastructure and geological storage in Europe. The main objective is to assess the European capacity for geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers, oil and gas structures and coal beds. Other priorities are further d

  13. SUBTASK 2.19 – OPERATIONAL FLEXIBILITY OF CO2 TRANSPORT AND STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Melanie; Schlasner, Steven; Sorensen, James; Hamling, John

    2014-12-31

    experts represented a range of disciplines and hailed from North America and Europe. Major findings of the study are that compression and transport of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) purposes in the United States has shown that impurities are not likely to cause transport problems if CO2 stream composition standards are maintained and pressures are kept at 10.3 MPa or higher. Cyclic, or otherwise intermittent, CO2 supplies historically have not impacted in-field distribution pipeline networks, wellbore integrity, or reservoir conditions. The U.S. EOR industry has demonstrated that it is possible to adapt to variability and intermittency in CO2 supply through flexible operation of the pipeline and geologic storage facility. This CO2 transport and injection experience represents knowledge that can be applied in future CCS projects. A number of gaps in knowledge were identified that may benefit from future research and development, further enhancing the possibility for widespread application of CCS. This project was funded through the Energy & Environmental Research Center–U.S. Department of Energy Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme.

  14. Soil Surface Leak Detection From Carbon Storage Sites Using ∆(CO2:O2) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. M.; Norman, A. L.; Layzell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The early detection and remediation of CO2 leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites is essential for the safety and public support of the technology. A model that integrates gas diffusion, mass flow and biological processes in soils was developed and used to predict the ∆CO2 and ∆O2 concentration differential between the soil surface and the bulk atmosphere under a wide range of environmental conditions that include temperature, soil gas and water content, soil respiratory quotient and rate of O2 uptake, soil porosity and CO2 leakage rate. The results predicted that measurement of ∆(CO2:O2) measurements at the soil surface relative to air should be able to detect a CCS leak as low as 2 µmol/m2/sec. To test this hypothesis, a gas analysis system was designed and constructed. It should allow a series of experiments under controlled conditions to test all aspects of the model. It is hoped that the results from this work will ultimately lead to the development of a new instrument and protocol for the early detection of CO2 leaks from a geological storage sites.

  15. CO2 pressurisation of a storage reservoir does not lead to salinization of shallower aquifers through intact caprocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Current world-wide scientific activities addressing geological CO2 storage highlight one question of utmost importance for the general feasibility of CO2 storage in saline aquifers: What is the risk for freshwater reservoirs by potential upward brine migration from saline aquifers as a result of pressure elevation in CO2 storage formations? Within the scope of the present study, we applied coupled numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, water and salt) simulations to identify the impact of pressure elevation on brine migration through caprocks for a specific geological setting. The study area is a prospective CO2 storage site in in the Northeast German Basin [1]. A vertical 1D model from reservoir depth to the surface was applied to study the sealing capacity of a multi barrier system with an over pressure of around 30% due to the potential injection of CO2. Three sandstone formations situated in the Middle Bunter are identified as potential CO2 storage formations at depths between about 1,050 and 1,500 m with a cumulative thickness of about 50 m. In addition to the 180 m thick Upper Bunter primary caprock mainly consisting of anhydrite, salt, clay and silt stones, each of the target storage formations itself provide additional caprocks composed of clay and silt stones with average thicknesses of 30 m to 60 m. The model comprises the multi barrier sequence of caprocks and secondary reservoirs (monitoring horizons) above the storage formation. Results emphasize that saltwater does not reach into the groundwater resources through the existing caprock formations. [1] Tillner E., Kempka T., Nakaten B., Kühn M. (2013) Brine migration through fault zones: 3D numerical simulations for a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeast Germany. Int. Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 19, 689-703. doi: 10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.03.012

  16. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing for CO2 Storage Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, W; Cover, W

    2004-05-14

    This project's goal is to develop remote sensing methods for early detection and spatial mapping, over whole regions simultaneously, of any surface areas under which there are significant CO2 leaks from deep underground storage formations. If large amounts of CO2 gas percolated up from a storage formation below to within plant root depth of the surface, the CO2 soil concentrations near the surface would become elevated and would affect individual plants and their local plant ecologies. Excessive soil CO2 concentrations are observed to significantly affect local plant and animal ecologies in our geothermal exploration, remote sensing research program at Mammoth Mountain CA USA. We also know from our geothermal exploration remote sensing programs, that we can map subtle hidden faults by spatial signatures of altered minerals and of plant species and health distributions. Mapping hidden faults is important because in our experience these highly localized (one to several centimeters) spatial pathways are good candidates for potentially significant CO2 leaks from deep underground formations. The detection and discrimination method we are developing uses primarily airborne hyperspectral, high spatial (3 meter) with 128 band wavelength resolution, visible and near infrared reflected light imagery. We also are using the newly available ''Quickbird'' satellite imagery that has high spatial resolution (0.6 meter for panchromatic images, 2.4 meters for multispectral). We have a commercial provider, HyVista Corp of Sydney Australia, of airborne hyperspectral imagery acquisitions and very relevant image data post processing, so that eventually the ongoing surveillance of CO2 storage fields can be contracted for commercially. In this project we have imaged the Rangely Colorado Oil field and surrounding areas with an airborne hyperspectral visible and near infrared reflected light sensor. The images were analyzed by several methods using the suite of

  17. WEB-GIS Decision Support System for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanaru, Dragos; Leonard, Anghel; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Le Guen, Yvi; Scradeanu, Daniel; Pagnejer, Mihaela

    2013-04-01

    Environmental decision support systems (DSS) paradigm evolves and changes as more knowledge and technology become available to the environmental community. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be used to extract, assess and disseminate some types of information, which are otherwise difficult to access by traditional methods. In the same time, with the help of the Internet and accompanying tools, creating and publishing online interactive maps has become easier and rich with options. The Decision Support System (MDSS) developed for the MUSTANG (A MUltiple Space and Time scale Approach for the quaNtification of deep saline formations for CO2 storaGe) project is a user friendly web based application that uses the GIS capabilities. MDSS can be exploited by the experts for CO2 injection and storage in deep saline aquifers. The main objective of the MDSS is to help the experts to take decisions based large structured types of data and information. In order to achieve this objective the MDSS has a geospatial objected-orientated database structure for a wide variety of data and information. The entire application is based on several principles leading to a series of capabilities and specific characteristics: (i) Open-Source - the entire platform (MDSS) is based on open-source technologies - (1) database engine, (2) application server, (3) geospatial server, (4) user interfaces, (5) add-ons, etc. (ii) Multiple database connections - MDSS is capable to connect to different databases that are located on different server machines. (iii)Desktop user experience - MDSS architecture and design follows the structure of a desktop software. (iv)Communication - the server side and the desktop are bound together by series functions that allows the user to upload, use, modify and download data within the application. The architecture of the system involves one database and a modular application composed by: (1) a visualization module, (2) an analysis module, (3) a guidelines module

  18. Discussion of the influence of CO and CH4 in CO2 transport, injection, and storage for CCS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sofía T; Rivas, Clara; Bravo, Ramón; Fernández, Javier; Artal, Manuela; Velasco, Inmaculada

    2014-09-16

    This paper discusses the influence of the noncondensable impurities CO and CH4 on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. We calculated and drew conclusions about the impact of both impurities in the CO2 on selected transport, injection, and storage parameters (pipeline pressure drop, storage capacity, etc.), whose analysis is necessary for the safe construction and operation of CO2 pipelines and for the secure long-term geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. To calculate these parameters, it is necessary to acquire data on the volumetric properties and the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the fluid being subjected to CCS. In addition to literature data, we used new experimental data, which are presented here and were obtained for five mixtures of CO2+CO with compositions characteristic of the typical emissions of the E.U. and the U.S.A. Temperatures and pressures are based on relevant CO2 pipeline and geological storage site values. From our experimental results, Peng-Robinson, PC-SAFT, and GERG Equations of State for were validated CO2+CO under the conditions of CCS. We conclude that the concentration of both impurities strongly affects the studied parameters, with CO being the most influential and problematic. The overall result of these negative effects is an increase in the difficulties, risks, and overall costs of CCS.

  19. CO2 reaction with hydrated class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions: effects of flyash admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchko, Barbara G; Strazisar, Brian R; Huerta, Nicolas; Lowry, Gregory V; Dzombak, David A; Thaulow, Niels

    2009-05-15

    The rate and mechanism of reaction of pozzolan-amended Class H cement exposed to both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine were determined under geologic sequestration conditions to assess the potential impact of cement degradation in existing, wells on CO2 storage integrity. The pozzolan additive chosen, Type F flyash, is the most common additive used in cements for well sealing in oil-gas field operations. The 35:65 and 65:35 (v/v) pozzolan-cement blends were exposed to supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine and underwent cement carbonation. Extrapolation of the carbonation rate for the 35:65 case suggests a penetration depth of 170-180 mm for both the CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2 after 30 years. Despite alteration in both pozzolan systems, the reacted cement remained relatively impermeable to fluid flow after exposure to brine solution saturated with CO2, with values well below the American Petroleum Institute recommended maximum well cement permeability of 200 microD. Analyses of 50: 50 pozzolan-cement cores from a production well in a sandstone reservoir exhibited carbonation and low permeability to brine solution saturated with CO2, which are consistent with our laboratory findings.

  20. CO2 Capture and Storage in Coal Gasification Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Anand B.; Phadke, Pranav C.

    2017-07-01

    In response to the global climate change problem, the world community today is in search for an effective means of carbon mitigation. India is a major developing economy and the economic growth is driven by ever-increasing consumption of energy. Coal is the only fossil fuel that is available in abundance in India and contributes to the major share of the total primary energy supply (TPES) in the country. Owing to the large unmet demand for affordable energy, primarily driven by the need for infrastructure development and increasing incomes and aspirations of people, as well as the energy security concerns, India is expected to have continued dependence on coal. Coal is not only the backbone of the electric power generation, but many major industries like cement, iron and steel, bricks, fertilizers also consume large quantities of coal. India has very low carbon emissions (˜ 1.5 tCO2 per capita) as compared to the world average (4.7 tCO2 per capita) and the developed world (11.2 tCO2 per capita). Although the aggregate emissions of the country are increasing with the rising population and fossil energy use, India has a very little contribution to the historical GHG accumulation in the atmosphere linked to the climate change problem. However, a large fraction of the Indian society is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change - due to its geographical location, large dependence on monsoon-based agriculture and limited technical, financial and institutional capacity. Today, India holds a large potential to offer cost-effective carbon mitigation to tackle the climate change problem. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the process of extraction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy related sources, transport to storage locations and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. It is a technology that has been developed in recent times and is considered as a bridging technology as we move towards carbon-neutral energy sources in response to the growing

  1. Feasibility Study for The Setting Up of a Safety System for Monitoring CO2 Storage at Prinos Field, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Lymperopoulos, Panagiotis; Tasianas, Alexandros; Shariatipour, Seyed

    2016-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in subsurface geological structures can mitigate global warming. A comprehensive safety and monitoring system for CO2 storage has been undertaken for the Prinos hydrocarbon field, offshore northern Greece; a system which can prevent any possible leakage of CO2. This paper presents various monitoring strategies of CO2 subsurface movement in the Prinos reservoir, the results of a simulation of a CO2 leak through a well, an environmental risk assessment study related to the potential leakage of CO2 from the seafloor and an overall economic insight of the system. The results of the simulation of the CO2 leak have shown that CO2 reaches the seabed in the form of gas approximately 13.7 years, from the beginning of injection. From that point onwards the amount of CO2 reaching the seabed increases until it reaches a peak at around 32.9 years. During the injection period, the CO2 plume develops only within the reservoir. During the post-injection period, the CO2 reaches the seabed and develops side branches. These correspond to preferential lateral flow pathways of the CO2 and are more extensive for the dissolved CO2 than for the saturated CO2 gas. For the environmental risk assessment, we set up a model, using ArcGIS software, based on the use of data regarding the speeds of the winds and currents encountered in the region. We also made assumptions related to the flow rate of CO2. Results show that after a period of 10 days from the start of CO2 leakage the CO2 has reached halfway to the continental shores where the “Natura” protected areas are located. CO2 leakage modelling results show CO2 to be initially flowing along a preferential flow direction, which is towards the NE. However, 5 days after the start of leakage of CO2, the CO2 is also flowing towards the ENE. The consequences of a potential CO2 leak are considered spatially limited and the ecosystem is itself capable of recovering. We have tried to determine the costs necessary for the

  2. The Value of CO2-Geothermal Bulk Energy Storage to Reducing CO2 Emissions Compared to Conventional Bulk Energy Storage Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland-Hand, J.; Bielicki, J. M.; Buscheck, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    Sedimentary basin geothermal resources and CO2 that is captured from large point sources can be used for bulk energy storage (BES) in order to accommodate higher penetration and utilization of variable renewable energy resources. Excess energy is stored by pressurizing and injecting CO2 into deep, porous, and permeable aquifers that are ubiquitous throughout the United States. When electricity demand exceeds supply, some of the pressurized and geothermally-heated CO2 can be produced and used to generate electricity. This CO2-BES approach reduces CO2 emissions directly by storing CO2 and indirectly by using some of that CO2 to time-shift over-generation and displace CO2 emissions from fossil-fueled power plants that would have otherwise provided electricity. As such, CO2-BES may create more value to regional electricity systems than conventional pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) or compressed air energy storage (CAES) approaches that may only create value by time-shifting energy and indirectly reducing CO2 emissions. We developed and implemented a method to estimate the value that BES has to reducing CO2 emissions from regional electricity systems. The method minimizes the dispatch of electricity system components to meet exogenous demand subject to various CO2 prices, so that the value of CO2 emissions reductions can be estimated. We applied this method to estimate the performance and value of CO2-BES, PHES, and CAES within real data for electricity systems in California and Texas over the course of a full year to account for seasonal fluctuations in electricity demand and variable renewable resource availability. Our results suggest that the value of CO2-BES to reducing CO2 emissions may be as much as twice that of PHES or CAES and thus CO2-BES may be a more favorable approach to energy storage in regional electricity systems, especially those where the topography is not amenable to PHES or the subsurface is not amenable to CAES.

  3. The Géocarbone-Monitoring Project: Main Results and Recommendations for Monitoring Deep Geological CO2 Storage in the Paris Basin Le projet de recherche Géocarbone-Monitoring : principaux résultats et recommandations pour le monitoring des stockages géologiques profonds de CO2 dans le bassin Parisien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabriol H.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the Géocarbone-Monitoring research project was the evaluation and testing, as far as possible, of the different monitoring methods that might be applied in the specific context of the Paris Basin. Their main objectives are to: detect and map CO2 in the reservoir rocks; detect and quantify possible leaks between the reservoir and the surface. The partners developed several thoughts and research concerning the various monitoring methods. This enabled drawing up a critical overview of existing methods and proposing leads for further work. At the end of the project, recommendations were made for the stakeholders of CO2 storage, i.e. the government departments regulating storage, decision-makers, and future site operators. In addition, a proposal was made for the general design and implementation of a monitoring programme of an injection test in the Paris Basin, within a depleted reservoir or a deep aquifer. Le projet de recherche Géocarbone-Monitoring avait pour but principal d’évaluer et de tester, le cas échéant, les différentes méthodes de surveillance qui pourraient être appliquées au contexte géologique spécifique du Bassin Parisien. Les objectifs principaux de celles-ci sont de : détecter et cartographier le CO2 dans le réservoir ; détecter les fuites éventuelles entre le réservoir et la surface et être en mesure de les quantifier. Les recherches et les réflexions menées par les partenaires sur les méthodes de surveillance et de monitoring ont permis de dresser une vision critique des méthodologies existantes et de proposer des pistes de progrès. À l’issue du projet, des recommandations ont été rédigées à l’intention des parties prenantes du stockage de CO2 (administration chargée de mettre en oeuvre la réglementation des stockages, décideurs et futurs opérateurs de site et un schéma général pour la conception et la mise en oeuvre d’un programme de monitoring pour un test d’injection dans

  4. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs to Unconfined and Confined Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Wang, Guohui; Sullivan, E. C.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Harvey, Omar R.; Bowden, Mark

    2013-04-15

    Experimental research work has been conducted and is undergoing at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to address a variety of scientific issues related with the potential leaks of the carbon dioxide (CO2) gas from deep storage reservoirs. The main objectives of this work are as follows: • Develop a systematic understanding of how CO2 leakage is likely to influence pertinent geochemical processes (e.g., dissolution/precipitation, sorption/desorption and redox reactions) in the aquifer sediments. • Identify prevailing environmental conditions that would dictate one geochemical outcome over another. • Gather useful information to support site selection, risk assessment, policy-making, and public education efforts associated with geological carbon sequestration. In this report, we present results from experiments conducted at PNNL to address research issues related to the main objectives of this effort. A series of batch and column experiments and solid phase characterization studies (quantitative x-ray diffraction and wet chemical extractions with a concentrated acid) were conducted with representative rocks and sediments from an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer, i.e., Edwards aquifer in Texas, and a confined aquifer, i.e., the High Plains aquifer in Kansas. These materials were exposed to a CO2 gas stream simulating CO2 gas leaking scenarios, and changes in aqueous phase pH and chemical composition were measured in liquid and effluent samples collected at pre-determined experimental times. Additional research to be conducted during the current fiscal year will further validate these results and will address other important remaining issues. Results from these experimental efforts will provide valuable insights for the development of site-specific, generation III reduced order models. In addition, results will initially serve as input parameters during model calibration runs and, ultimately, will be used to test model predictive capability and

  5. Transport Mechanisms for CO2-CH4 Exchange and Safe CO2 Storage in Hydrate-Bearing Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Arne Birkedal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 injection in hydrate-bearing sediments induces methane (CH4 production while benefitting from CO2 storage, as demonstrated in both core and field scale studies. CH4 hydrates have been formed repeatedly in partially water saturated Bentheim sandstones. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and CH4 consumption from pump logs have been used to verify final CH4 hydrate saturation. Gas Chromatography (GC in combination with a Mass Flow Meter was used to quantify CH4 recovery during CO2 injection. The overall aim has been to study the impact of CO2 in fractured and non-fractured samples to determine the performance of CO2-induced CH4 hydrate production. Previous efforts focused on diffusion-driven exchange from a fracture volume. This approach was limited by gas dilution, where free and produced CH4 reduced the CO2 concentration and subsequent driving force for both diffusion and exchange. This limitation was targeted by performing experiments where CO2 was injected continuously into the spacer volume to maintain a high driving force. To evaluate the effect of diffusion length multi-fractured core samples were used, which demonstrated that length was not the dominating effect on core scale. An additional set of experiments is presented on non-fractured samples, where diffusion-limited transportation was assisted by continuous CO2 injection and CH4 displacement. Loss of permeability was addressed through binary gas (N2/CO2 injection, which regained injectivity and sustained CO2-CH4 exchange.

  6. CO2 Storage Mechanism in Deep Saline Aquifers%CO2在深部咸水层中的埋存机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海燕; 彭仕宓; 许明阳; 罗超; 高阳

    2013-01-01

    The storage of CO2 into saline aquifers is the best way to mitigate the green house effect. The storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers mainly concerns the water storage, the residual gas storage, the dissolved storage and the mineral storage. The hydrodynamic trap is formed by the upward movement of CO2 to dense layers, which is trapped and aggregated in the geological body. The hydrodynamic traps include the open and the enclosed traps. The advantage of an enclosed trap is that the migration of CO2 is confined both horizontally and vertically, and the disadvantage is that the dissolution is restricted by the limited gas-water contact area. The advantage of an open trap is the significant quantity of CO2 dissolution caused by a large area of gas-water contact, and the disadvantage is the need of fine characterization of a large area to determine the possible gas leakage path and the need of regional monitoring. Due to the lag of the displacement and sucking phase permeability, a part of CO2 is stored as the residual gas to form the residual gas trap. The CO2 dissolved in water reacts with the ions of calcium, magnesium and iron, to generate carbonate minerals, and to form the dissolved storage. The mineral storage formed by the slow chemical reactions between CO2 and reservoirs rocks would generate carbonate minerals or bicarbonate ions. With different storage durations, the various storage methods play different roles, and the storage security levels also vary. The study of the storage mechanism of CO2 in saline aquifers will provide some guidance for China's CO2 sequestration project.%目前,在深部咸水层中实施CO2地质埋存的减排处理,是减缓温室效应最有效的现实选择.CO2在咸水层中的埋存机制主要包括构造圈闭埋存、残余气埋存、溶解埋存和矿物埋存4种基本方式.构造圈闭埋存是CO2向上运动到致密隔层受到遮挡后,在地质体中聚集,形成CO2气相埋存,构造圈闭埋存包括闭合构

  7. Physicochemical effects of discrete CO2-SO2 mixtures on injection and storage in a sandstone aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldmann, S.; Hofstee, C.; Koenen, M.; Loeve, D.

    2016-01-01

    Geological storage of captured CO2, which typically will contain certain amounts of impurities, in salineaquifers is of potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. The co-injection of theimpurity SO2has an effect on the chemical reactivity of the fluid and solid phases as well

  8. Potential impacts on groundwater resources of deep CO2 storage: natural analogues for assessing potential chemical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, J.; Gale, I.; May, F.; Nygaard, E.; Ruetters, H.; Beaubien, S.; Sohrabi, M.; Hatzignatiou, D. G.; CO2GeoNet Members involved in the present study Team

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is considered as one of the promising options for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2 related to human activities. One of the main concerns associated with the geological storage of CO2 is that the CO2 may leak from the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment and, eventually, escape from the ground. This is a concern because such leakage may affect aquifers overlying the storage site and containing freshwater that may be used for drinking, industry and agriculture. The IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG) recently commissioned the CO2GeoNet Association to undertake a review of published and unpublished literature on this topic with the aim of summarizing 'state of the art' knowledge and identifying knowledge gaps and research priorities in this field. Work carried out by various CO2GeoNet members was also used in this study. This study identifies possible areas of conflict by combining available datasets to map the global and regional superposition of deep saline formations (DSF) suitable for CO2 storage and overlying fresh groundwater resources. A scenario classification is developed for the various geological settings where conflict could occur. The study proposes two approaches to address the potential impact mechanisms of CO2 storage projects on the hydrodynamics and chemistry of shallow groundwater. The first classifies and synthesizes changes of water quality observed in natural/industrial analogues and in laboratory experiments. The second reviews hydrodynamic and geochemical models, including coupled multiphase flow and reactive transport. Various models are discussed in terms of their advantages and limitations, with conclusions on possible impacts on groundwater resources. Possible mitigation options to stop or control CO2 leakage are assessed. The effect of CO2 pressure in the host DSF and the potential effects on shallow aquifers are also examined. The study provides a review of

  9. CO2 Injectivity in Geological Storages: an Overview of Program and Results of the GeoCarbone-Injectivity Project Injectivité du CO2 dans les stockages géologiques : programme et principaux résultats du projet ANR GéoCarbone-Injectivité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombard J.M.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the GeoCarbone-Injectivity project was to develop a methodology to study the complex phenomena involved in the near wellbore region during CO2 injection. This paper presents an overview of the program and results of the project, and some further necessary developments. The proposed methodology is based on experiments and simulations at the core scale, in order to understand (physical modelling and definition of constitutive laws and quantify (calibration of simulation tools the mechanisms involved in injectivity variations: fluid/rock interactions, transport mechanisms, geomechanical effects. These mechanisms and the associated parameters have then to be integrated in the models at the wellbore scale. The methodology has been applied for the study of a potential injection of CO2 in the Dogger geological formation of the Paris Basin, in collaboration with the other ANR GeoCarbone projects. L’objectif du projet GéoCarbone-Injectivité était de définir une méthodologie pour étudier les phénomènes complexes intervenant aux abords des puits lors de l’injection de CO2. La méthodologie proposée s’appuie sur des expérimentations interprétées numériquement à l’échelle de la carotte afin de comprendre (modélisation physique et lois de comportement et de quantifier (paramétrisation des outils de simulation les différents mécanismes susceptibles de modifier l’injectivité : les interactions roche/fluide, les mécanismes de transport aux abords du puits d’injection et les effets géomécaniques. Ces mécanismes et les paramètres associés devront ensuite être intégrés dans une modélisation à l’échelle métrique à décamétrique des abords du puits d’injection. Cette approche a été appliquée pour l’étude d’une injection potentielle de CO2 dans la formation géologique du Dogger du Bassin Parisien, en relation avec les projets ANR GéoCarbone.

  10. Change in cap rock porosity triggered by pressure and temperature dependent CO2–water–rock interactions in CO2 storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hemme

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage in deep geological formations is a method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Supercritical CO2 is injected into a reservoir and dissolves in the brine. Under the impact of pressure and temperature (P–T the aqueous species of the CO2-acidified brine diffuse through the cap rock where they trigger CO2–water–rock interactions. These geochemical reactions result in mineral dissolution and precipitation along the CO2 migration path and are responsible for a change in porosity and therefore for the sealing capacity of the cap rock. This study focuses on the diffusive mass transport of CO2 along a gradient of decreasing P–T conditions. The process is retraced with a one-dimensional hydrogeochemical reactive mass transport model. The semi-generic hydrogeochemical model is based on chemical equilibrium thermodynamics. Based on a broad variety of scenarios, including different initial mineralogical, chemical and physical parameters, the hydrogeochemical parameters that are most sensitive for safe long-term CO2 storage are identified. The results demonstrate that P–T conditions have the strongest effect on the change in porosity and the effect of both is stronger at high P–T conditions because the solubility of the mineral phases involved depends on P–T conditions. Furthermore, modeling results indicate that the change in porosity depends strongly on the initial mineralogical composition of the reservoir and cap rock as well as on the brine compositions. Nevertheless, a wide range of conditions for safe CO2 storage is identified.

  11. Self-Potential Monitoring for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y.; Tosha, T.; Ishido, T.

    2009-12-01

    To appraise the utility of geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 injected into aquifers, we carried out numerical simulations of an aquifer system underlying a portion of Tokyo Bay and calculated the temporal changes in geophysical observables caused by changing underground conditions as computed by the reservoir simulation. We used the STAR general-purpose reservoir simulator with the CO2SQS equation-of-state package (Pritchett, 2005) which treats three fluid phases (liquid- and gaseous-phase CO2 and an aqueous liquid phase) to calculate the evolution of reservoir conditions, and then used various “geophysical postprocessors” to calculate the resulting temporal changes in the earth-surface distributions of microgravity, apparent resistivity (from either DC or MT surveys), seismic observables and electrical self-potential (SP). The applicability of any particular method is likely to be highly site-specific, but these calculations indicate that none of these techniques should be ruled out altogether. In case of SP, CO2 injection does not create large electric signals through electrokinetic coupling within the saline aquifer owing to small coupling coefficients under the high salinity conditions. However, if a substantial pressure disturbance is induced to shallower levels where the interface between shallower fresh- and deeper saline-waters (which works as the boundary between regions of differing streaming potential coefficient) is present, obvious SP changes can appear on the ground surface. Continuous and/or repeat SP measurements are thought to be a promising geophysical technique to monitor pressure changes in shallower levels than the saline aquifer where CO2 is injected. In addition to SP measurements in a relatively wide area like covering the horizontal extent of CO2 plume, SP monitoring in a local area around a deep well is thought to be worthwhile from a different angle. SP anomalies of negative polarity are frequently observed near deep wells

  12. Wettability-Water/brine Film Thickness Relationship and the Effect of Supercritical CO2 Pre-contact for CO2/brine/mineral Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Song, Y.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    Injection CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the main options for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A successful GCS in saline aquifers requires full knowledge about CO2/brine/mineral systems under sequestration conditions to reduce uncertainties during subsurface storage of CO2. Adsorbed water film thickness and wettability on mineral surfaces are two key characteristics for CO2/brine/mineral systems. Wettability and water/brine film thickness have been measured experimentally and predicted by molecular simulation (MD) studies. However, these studies only consider the films apart from contact angles. Investigations on wettability for CO2/brine/mineral systems only consider contact angles without measurements on film thickness. The relationship between film thicknesses with water contact angles is open to questions. In this paper, MD simulations have been performed to investigate the interrelationship between water film thicknesses and water contact angles. Three silica surfaces with different silanol group number densities (Q3, Q3-50%, Q3/Q4) were selected to represent silica surfaces with different wettabilities. We found that as water contact angle increases, the film thickness decreases. We also studied the effect of CO2-mineral pre-contact and found that: on Q3 surface, if a CO2 bubble was pre-contacted with the surface, it can remain on the surface without forming a water film; however, if a CO2 bubble was placed certain distances away from the surface, it formed a water film. Wettability analysis revealed that on the same surface, water contact angle was larger when there was no water film. These findings show that on some silica surfaces, water film may be destroyed by supercritical CO2 even the silica surfaces are hydrophilic. A water film rupture mechanism was propsed for CO2 adhesion on mineral surfaces [Wang (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 11858; Zhang (2016) Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00359]. The rupture of water film

  13. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune N.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2014-12-01

    A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2 concentration in the flowing water, the distance between the heterogeneity and the leakage location, and some fundamental properties of the porous media. Results also show that interfaces where a less permeable material overlies a more permeable material affect gas phase evolution more significantly than interfaces with the opposite layering.

  14. Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm (1965-1967) as a Natural Analogue of CO2 Storage and Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Koide, H.; Tosha, T.; Todaka, N.; Nakanishi, S.; Aoyagi, R.; Benson, S.; Rutqvist, J.; Lewicki, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Matsushiro basin, Nagano city, Central Japan, is a unique natural analogue site of the CO2 storage and leakage through fault. From May 1966 to February 1967, ten million tons of CO2-bearing water discharged through surface ruptures and springs midst an earthquake swarm. The swarm began in August 1965 and the active period lasted two years followed by three-year relatively silent term. The location of water and CO2 discharge was concentrated in a narrow strip along the main focal fault. Weak seismic activities, CO2 bearing hot spa, and bubbles in rice paddy are observed, so the low intensity activities seem to continue. The fault is a left-lateral strike-slip fault striking NW-SE. Surface upheaval up to 90 cm and lateral motion corresponding to the strike-slip fault were observed. Based on this and additional geophysical evidence, some past studies adopted the idea that the upward water migration in the fault played a major role in the occurrence of the earthquake through the dilatancy mechanism. In this model, the earthquakes are assumed to follow the preceding hydrological and hydraulic phenomena such as water migration to the fractures in rock mass, reducing effective stress, and shear failures with increasing permeability. The authors anticipate that also CO2 played some vital roles in the phenomena observed at Matsushiro, and we could learn the CO2 behaviour in the underground condition. We assume that the fault and CO2 bearing water interacted through chemo-physical (precipitation/dissolution of carbonate and phase change) and mechanical (CO2 pressure induced stress and permeability change in the fault) processes, and affected the flow characters, seismicity, and the initiation and termination of the activities. For the investigation, geochemical surveys were carried out in the area to characterize present day surface CO2 flux. Geochemical and geomechanical modelling are being conducted for the quantitative understanding of the mechanisms. Also, water

  15. Lessons from Natural CO2 Leakage Analogue Site Studies and their Application to Secure CO2 Storage and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; McPherson, B. J.; Kim, K.; Chae, G.; Yum, B.

    2011-12-01

    At CO2 injection sites, CO2 leakage from the storage formation could be catastrophic. CO2 is a highly compressible fluid, typically injected at high pressure and temperature conditions. If this compressed CO2 reaches highly permeable conduits such as faults and fractures, CO2 could leak unabated to other formations (e.g. fresh water aquifers) and/or to the surface. Assuming a fast-flow path to the surface, CO2 escaping from the storage formation instantaneously reaches the surface while experiencing adiabatic expansion, which results in Joule-Thomson cooling. The addressed eruptive mechanisms are analogues to natural CO2 eruption mechanisms, which are found in CO2-driven cold-water geysers around the world. A notable example of a CO2-driven cold-water geyser is the Crystal Geyser in central Utah. The fluid mechanics of this regularly erupting geyser was investigated by instrumenting its conduit with pressure, temperature, pH, EC, and dissolved oxygen sensors, measuring every 1 minute during and between eruptions. Results of these measurements suggest that the time-scale of a single-eruption cycle is composed of four successive eruption types with two recharge periods ranging from 30 to 40 hours. Current eruption patterns exhibit a bimodal distribution although previous measurements and anecdotal evidence suggests that this pattern was different prior to recent seismic activity. This cold geyser's eruptions are regular and predictable, and reflect pressure, temperature, EC, pH, and dissolved oxygen changes resulting from Joule-Thomson cooling, endothermic CO2 exsolution, and exothermic CO2 dissolution. Specifically, the perturbation of pressure and temperature data observed at the Crystal Geyser suggested the possibility of using temperature sensing technology within the observation well at the engineered CO2 sequestration site. With the lessons learned from the Crystal Geyser studies, we established the theoretical framework of temperature changes caused by CO2

  16. Model calibration on cement experiments at realistic CO2 storage conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasch, L.J.; Koenen, M.; Wollenweber, J.; Heege, J.H. ter; Tambach, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    Large scale implementation of CO2 storage can significantly reduce emission of greenhouse gasses into the atmosphere. However, safe and long-term containment of CO2 in storage reservoirs must be ensured. Wellbores in the subsurface present possible leakage pathways for CO2 to the surface and hence w

  17. A vertically integrated model with vertical dynamics for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bo; Bandilla, Karl W.; Doster, Florian; Keilegavlen, Eirik; Celia, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    Conventional vertically integrated models for CO2 storage usually adopt a vertical equilibrium (VE) assumption, which states that due to strong buoyancy, CO2 and brine segregate quickly, so that the fluids can be assumed to have essentially hydrostatic pressure distributions in the vertical direction. However, the VE assumption is inappropriate when the time scale of fluid segregation is not small relative to the simulation time. By casting the vertically integrated equations into a multiscale framework, a new vertically integrated model can be developed that relaxes the VE assumption, thereby allowing vertical dynamics to be modeled explicitly. The model maintains much of the computational efficiency of vertical integration while allowing a much wider range of problems to be modeled. Numerical tests of the new model, using injection scenarios with typical parameter sets, show excellent behavior of the new approach for homogeneous geologic formations.

  18. Fault reactivation and ground uplift assessment at a prospective German CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhmann, Lina; Tillner, Elena; Kempka, Thomas; Magri, Fabien; Kühn, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is seen as a promising measure for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. However, generally large-scale pressure build-up as a result of CO2 injection may impact the mechanical behaviour of reservoir, caprock and existing faults. Caprock fracturing, ground uplift, reactivation of faults or induced seismicity are inherent risks that may pose potential health, security and environmental hazards. Within the frame of the present study we investigated the geomechanical response of a deep saline aquifer and the surrounding rocks to CO2 storage at a prospective German CO2 storage site by coupled hydromechanical simulations. Changes in the initial stress field due to pressure build-up as a result of CO2 injection allow assessment of potential fault reactivation and magnitude of ground uplift. For this purpose, a 3D geological structural model covering an area of about 100 km x 100 km in the southeastern part of the State of Brandenburg was implemented. In a first step, stratigraphic contour lines and major fault lines were digitised based on the GeotIS online cartography of the Northeast German Basin as well as geological maps of the German State of Brandenburg, using the Petrel software package [1-3]. The 3D regional-scale model comprises several stratigraphic units down to the Zechstein. Afterwards, a stratigraphic correlation, depth adjustment and thickness correction of the different units were performed based on existing borehole data from the study area. Borehole and literature data were further used for model parameterisation. Subsequently, the model was gridded in Petrel and transferred into the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP to perform large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations. Furthermore, the gridded model was applied in the geomechanical simulator FLAC3D to identify changes in the recent stress field and deformation resulting from the

  19. Are we looking for the 'right' substances to mitigate CO2-leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvassnes, A. J.; Sweetman, A. K.; Hellevang, H.

    2013-12-01

    Major research efforts are underway for the possible detection of CO2 leaks from sub-seafloor CO2 storage deposits. The studies are often concentrating on the detection of CO2 at the seafloor, migration of CO2 in the reservoirs as measured in bore-holes, or modeling thereof. But will CO2 be the first sign of an imminent leak from the storage site? The mixing of CO2 with the aquifer waters is becoming increasingly understood. Furthermore, it is well known that CO2 maybe used for Enhanched Oil Recovery. The mixture makes the hydrocarbons less viscous, allowing the fractional parts of hydrocarbon accumulations to be mobilized. Unintended mobilization may possibly also happen during CO2 storage. Substances, such as metals (Wang and Jaffe, 2004) and trace gases in the sediments may follow the more acidic CO2-stream in an acid rock drainage fashion. Some evidence is found in natural analogues on land (Keating et al., 2010). Dissolution of organic compounds and trace gases in supercritical CO2 causes a reduction of the Gibbs free energy and properties, such as the viscosity, density, and critical point may change. Phase transitions in these mixtures should also be explored extensively. Precursors of CO2 leakages that are the results of CO2 - fluid mixtures and porous flow through already fluid-saturated sediments may include methane- or brine plumes (Kharaka et al., 2006) in sediments, methane-seeps or brine-pools on the seafloor, metals mixing in the brines (Wang and Jaffe, 2004) or even temperature-changes due to endothermic reactions. With this in mind, it is imperative to understand the mixing and Pressure Temperature - time path of this CO2-injection induced mixture in order to find what a leak would look like. This is particularly important for submarine storage sites that are harder to monitor, but also in at the water-table for on-land storage. This knowledge will make it possible to undertake new experiments to identify functional and practical bio-indicators for

  20. Comparison of geomechanical deformation induced by megatonne-scale CO2 storage at Sleipner, Weyburn, and In Salah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, James P; Kendall, J-Michael; Stork, Anna L; Chadwick, R Andy; White, Don J; Bissell, Rob C

    2013-07-23

    Geological storage of CO2 that has been captured at large, point source emitters represents a key potential method for reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. However, this technology will only be viable if it can be guaranteed that injected CO2 will remain trapped in the subsurface for thousands of years or more. A significant issue for storage security is the geomechanical response of the reservoir. Concerns have been raised that geomechanical deformation induced by CO2 injection will create or reactivate fracture networks in the sealing caprocks, providing a pathway for CO2 leakage. In this paper, we examine three large-scale sites where CO2 is injected at rates of ~1 megatonne/y or more: Sleipner, Weyburn, and In Salah. We compare and contrast the observed geomechanical behavior of each site, with particular focus on the risks to storage security posed by geomechanical deformation. At Sleipner, the large, high-permeability storage aquifer has experienced little pore pressure increase over 15 y of injection, implying little possibility of geomechanical deformation. At Weyburn, 45 y of oil production has depleted pore pressures before increases associated with CO2 injection. The long history of the field has led to complicated, sometimes nonintuitive geomechanical deformation. At In Salah, injection into the water leg of a gas reservoir has increased pore pressures, leading to uplift and substantial microseismic activity. The differences in the geomechanical responses of these sites emphasize the need for systematic geomechanical appraisal before injection in any potential storage site.

  1. Pore-scale Modeling on the Characterization of Kyeongsang Basin, South Korea for the Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is a green-house gas and is believed to be responsible for global warming and climate change. Many countries are looking for various techniques for effective storage of CO2 and the geological sequestration is regarded as the most economical and efficient option. For successful geological sequestration, accurate evaluation of physical properties of the target formation and their changes when CO2 is injected, is essential. Since physical property changes during CO2 injection are strongly dependent on the pore-scale details of the target formation, we used a series of pore-scale simulation techniques including CO2 injection simulation to estimate physical properties of CO2 bearing formations. The study area, Kyeongsang basin is located in southeastern part of Korea, which has many industrial complexes including power plants. We first obtained high-resolution 3D microstructures from core samples of the prospective formation. We performed a set of pore-scale simulation and estimated physical properties, such as porosity, permeability, electrical conductivity and velocity. Then we used lattice-Boltzmann two-phase flow simulation to mimic CO2 injection into the formation. During this simulation, a variety of microstructures with different CO2 saturation were obtained and we again performed pore-scale simulation to estimate the changes of physical properties as CO2 saturation increases. These quantitative interrelations between physical properties and CO2 saturation would be a valuable piece of information to evaluate the performance of the target formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2010201020001A)

  2. Spatial Persistence of Macropores and Authigenic Clays in a Reservoir Sandstone: Implications for Enhanced Oil Recovery and CO2 Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Multiphase flow in clay-rich sandstone reservoirs is important to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and the geologic storage of CO2. Understanding geologic controls on pore structure allows for better identification of lithofacies that can contain, storage, and/or transmit hydrocarbons and CO2, and may result in better designs for EOR-CO2 storage. We examine three-dimensional pore structure and connectivity of sandstone samples from the Farnsworth Unit, Texas, the site of a combined EOR-CO2 storage project by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). We employ a unique set of methods, including: robotic serial polishing and reflected-light imaging for digital pore-structure reconstruction; electron microscopy; laser scanning confocal microscopy; mercury intrusion-extrusion porosimetry; and relative permeability and capillary pressure measurements using CO2 and synthetic formation fluid. Our results link pore size distributions, topology of porosity and clay-rich phases, and spatial persistence of connected flow paths to multiphase flow behavior. The authors gratefully acknowledge the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory for sponsoring this project through the SWP under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. CO2 for enhanced oil recovery and secure storage of CO2 in reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yunhang

    2015-01-01

    CO2-EOR(Enhanced Oil Recovery) is an effective and useful technology that can not only increase the oil production to meet the increasing need for energy around the world, but also mitigate the negtive influence of global green house effect. Different categories of oil recovery methods including primary recovery, secondary recovery, and EOR technologies are introduced at first. Then the history, global distribution, screening criteria, mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages of CO2-EOR are d...

  4. The Status, Potential and Research Progress of CO2 Storage Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basava-Reddi, L.; Camps, A.

    2012-04-01

    , potable groundwater and geothermal energy, as well as potential use of pore space for the disposal of waste or natural gas storage. We present the recent results of research studies of the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme in key geological storage areas identified to advance the knowledge base for the development of CO2 Storage projects, in relation to progress in CCS research. These studies include consideration of potential effects of impurities in the CO2 stream, potential impacts on groundwater resources, monitoring techniques and, quantification techniques for ETS requirements; in addition to potential capacity and pressure management through brine abstraction. These studies highlight that though technical questions remain, such will be significantly reduced with continued experience, project operation and further understanding. Increase in large scale integrated CCS projects is imperative to fully comprehend the potential of CCS to meet carbon dioxide emissions reduction targets. 1IEA. 2009. Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage. 2IEAGHG. 2011. Global Storage Resource Gap Analysis for Policy Makers, 2011/10, September, 2011. 3GCCSI. 2011. Global Status of CCS: 2011.

  5. Simulating CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage to determine metal toxicity on marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Alejandra; Borrero-Santiago, Ana R; Ángel DelValls, T; Riba, Inmaculada

    2017-03-15

    CO2 storage in sub-seabed marine geological formations has been proposed as an adequate strategy to mitigate high CO2 concentration from the atmosphere. The lack of knowledge about the potential risks of this technology on marine bacteria population in presence of metals has lead us to perform laboratory-scale experiments in order to evaluate its consequences. Thus, the effects of Zn and Cd were studied under acid conditions on Roseobacter sp. and Pseudomonas litoralis. Bacterial abundance (cellsmL(-1)), growth rates (μ, h(-1)), relative inhibitory effects of CO2 (RICO2), and production of Extracellular Polysaccharides Substances (EPS) (μgGlucosecells(-1)) were evaluated. A decreasing exopolysaccharides (EPS) production was found under low pH. Bacterial abundance as well as growth rates showed negative effects. Data obtained in this work are useful to determine the potential effects associated with enrichment of CO2 and metals on the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization, Monitoring, and Risk Assessment at the IEA GHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, R.; Chalaturnyk, R.; Gardner, C.; Hawkes, C.; Johnson, J.; White, D.; Whittaker, S.

    2008-12-01

    In July 2000, a major research project was initiated to study the geological storage of CO2 as part of a 5000 tonnes/day EOR project planned for the Weyburn Field in Saskatchewan, Canada. Major objectives of the IEA GHG Weyburn CO2 monitoring and storage project included: assessing the integrity of the geosphere encompassing the Weyburn oil pool for effective long-term storage of CO2; monitoring the movement of the injected CO2, and assessing the risk of migration of CO2 from the injection zone (approximately 1500 metres depth) to the surface. Over the period 2000-2004, a diverse group of 80+ researchers worked on: geological, geophysical, and hydrogeological characterizations at both the regional (100 km beyond the field) and detailed scale (10 km around the field); conducted time-lapse geophysical surveys; carried out surface and subsurface geochemical surveys; and undertook numerical reservoir simulations. Results of the characterization were used for a performance assessment that concluded the risk of CO2 movement to the biosphere was very small. By September 2007, more than 14 Mtonnes of CO2 had been injected into the Weyburn reservoir, including approximately 3 Mtonnes recycled from oil production. A "Final Phase" research project was initiated (2007- 2011) to contribute to a "Best Practices" guide for long-term CO2 storage in EOR settings. Research objectives include: improving the geoscience characterization; further detailed analysis and data collection on the role of wellbores; additional geochemical and geophysical monitoring activities; and an emphasis on quantitative risk assessments using multiple analysis techniques. In this talk a review of results from Phase I will be presented followed by plans and initial results for the Final Phase.

  7. The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation: An analogue for CO2 storage in depleted oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Pieter; Busch, Andreas; Hangx, Suzanne; Kampman, Niko; Nover, Georg; Stanjek, Helge; Weniger, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    The Werkendam natural CO2 accumulation is hosted in the Röt (Early Triassic) sandstone of the West Netherlands Basin, at a depth of 2.8 km, about 20 km south-east of Rotterdam (NL). This reservoir, in a fault-bound structure, was oil-filled prior to charging with magmatic CO2 in the early Cretaceous. It therefore offers a unique opportunity to study long-term CO2-water-rock interactions in the presence of oil. This contribution will present the results of a detailed mineralogical and geochemical characterisation of core sections from the Werkendam CO2 reservoir and an adjacent, stratigraphically equivalent aquifer. X-ray diffraction combined with X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the reservoir samples contain substantially more feldspar and more barite and siderite than those from the aquifer, while the latter have higher hematite contents. These differences are attributed to the effects hydrocarbons and related fluids on diagenesis in the closed system of the CO2 reservoir versus the open-system of the aquifer. Petrophysical analyses yielded overall higher and more anisotropic permeability for the reservoir samples, while the porosity is overall not significantly different from that of their aquifer equivalents. The differences are most pronounced in coarse-grained sandstones. These have low anhydrite contents and contain traces of calcite, while all other analyzed samples contain abundant anhydrite, dolomite/ankerite and siderite, but no calcite. Detailed petrography revealed mm-sized zones of excessive primary porosity. These are attributed to CO2-induced dissolution of precompactional, grain-replacive anhydrite cement. Diagenetic dolomite/ankerite crystals are covered by anhedral, epitaxial ankerite, separated from the crystals by bitumen coats. Since these carbonates were oil-wet before CO2-charging, the overgrowths are interpreted to have grown after CO2-charging. Their anhedral habit suggests growth in a 2-phase water-CO2 system. Isotopic

  8. The CO2 Geological Sealing Conditions and Potential Evaluation in Coal Seams in Jiangsu Province%江苏省CO2煤层地质封存条件与潜力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚素平; 汤中一; 谭丽华; 裴文明

    2012-01-01

    The geological conditions of CO2 sequestration in coal seams in Jiangsu Province contain the distribution of Carboniferous-Permian coal measures,coal resources and coal seam reservoir conditions. According to the comprehensive research about the geological conditions of CO2 sequestration in coal seams, the preliminary assessments of the storage potential are made for the coal fields in southern Jiangsu, Xuzhou and Fengpei, respectively. The results show that the coal seams in these coal fields have considerable potential and disposal prospect for CO2 sequestration. The estimate of CO2 storage resources in coal seams in Jiangsu Province is over three hundred million tons of CO2. Among these coal seams .southern Jiangsu coal area could sequester 81 million tons of CO2,Xuzhou coal area of nearly 150 million tons of CO2 and Fengpei coal area of 87 million tons of CO2. The prospect of typical coal-seam CO2 sequestration can be divided into three categories : suitable storage area( Class A), less suitable storage area ( B), and poor storage area ( Class C).%根据江苏省石炭—二叠纪煤系的分布、煤炭资源量和煤层的储集条件等煤封存CO2地质条件的综合研究,分别对苏南煤田、徐州煤田、丰沛煤田煤层封存CO2的潜力进行了初步评估,认为该区CO2煤层封存具有一定的潜力和前景.评估结果表明江苏省煤层可存储CO2总量超过3×108t,其中苏南含煤区可存储CO2容量为8.1×107 t,徐州煤矿区可存储容量近1.5×108t,丰沛煤矿区为8.7× 107t.并对各典型含煤区块CO2煤封存前景进行分类:适合存储区(A类)、较适合存储区(B类)和较差存储区(C类).

  9. Measurements of capillary pressure and electric permittivity of gas-water systems in porous media at elevated pressures: application to geological storage of CO2 in aquifers and wetting behavior in coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plug, W.-J.

    2007-01-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in aquifers and coal layers is a promising technique to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Considering the reservoir properties, e.g. wettability, heterogeneity and the caprocks sealing capacity, the capillary pressure is an important measure to evaluate the efficiency, the

  10. Laboratory measurements of density-driven convection in analogy with solubility trapping of geologically sequestered CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmusson, Maria; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Rasmusson, Kristina; Niemi, Auli

    2016-04-01

    Density-driven convection is of interest to several areas of groundwater-science: nuclear waste storage, industrial waste disposal, deep geothermal energy extraction, and seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Lately it has been identified to accelerate the rate of CO2 solubility trapping for geological CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers. We present an experimental method based on the light transmission technique and an analogue system design that enable comprehensive study of solutally induced density-driven convection in saturated porous media. The system design affords an examination of the convective process in general as well as a two-dimensional laboratory analogue for field phenomena. Furthermore, the method can be used to verify numerical results from density-driven flow simulation codes as part of benchmarking. With application to geological CO2 storage, we show how the method is used to measure density-driven convection in both homogenous and heterogeneous porous media and for different Rayleigh numbers. The results demonstrate that the solute concentration distribution in the system can be accurately determined with high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, the onset time of convection, mass flux and flow dynamics can be quantified for different systems under well-controlled conditions.

  11. Assessment of CO2 storage performance of the Enhanced Coalbed Methane pilot site in Kaniow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Winthaegen, P.; Pagnier, H.; Krzystolik, P.; Jura, B.; Skiba, J.; Wageningen, N. van

    2009-01-01

    A pilot site for CO2 storage in coal seams was set-up in Poland, as has been reported on previous GHGT conferences. This site consisted of one injection and one production well. About 760 ton of CO2 has been injected into the reservoir from August 2004 to June 2005. Breakthrough of the injected CO2

  12. Assessment of CO2 storage performance of the Enhanced Coalbed Methane pilot site in Kaniow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergen, F. van; Winthaegen, P.; Pagnier, H.; Krzystolik, P.; Jura, B.; Skiba, J.; Wageningen, N. van

    2009-01-01

    A pilot site for CO2 storage in coal seams was set-up in Poland, as has been reported on previous GHGT conferences. This site consisted of one injection and one production well. About 760 ton of CO2 has been injected into the reservoir from August 2004 to June 2005. Breakthrough of the injected CO2

  13. Storage of CO2 at low temperature as liquid or solid gas hydrate - Application to the Biscay deep zone in the French EEZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnol, André; Thinon, Isabelle; Audigane, Pascal; Leynet, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    Amongst the various CO2 geological storage options currently under consideration, the deep saline aquifers (beyond 800-m depth) were considered to present the most interesting storage capacity due to the density of CO2 in its supercritical state. However, at lower temperature, another form of storage is possible, either in the state of CO2 hydrates or liquid CO2 (1, 2). In Alaska, a first demonstrator showed recently the possibility of exchange of CO2 and CH4 in natural gas hydrates. At higher pressures common in deep-sea sediments, liquid CO2 can be denser than the overlying seawater and therefore be trapped in the marine sediments (2). We explored in this work the storage capacity at the Biscay deep zone in the French Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). A local bathymetry of the zone (abyssal plain and continental margin) was used to define a potential interesting zone for the CO2 storage, considering different safety criteria. A sensitivity analysis on the geothermal gradient was carried out using two extreme scenarios (Low and High gradient) based on the available Ocean Drilling Program's data. In both cases, the Negative Buoyancy Zone (NBZ) and the CO2 Hydrate Formation Zone (HFZ) were calculated using the GERG-2008 Equation of State for liquid CO2 and the CSMGem code for CO2 hydrate, respectively. Following this sensitivity analysis, a CO2 injection depth is proposed and the French "deep offshore" storage capacity is quantitatively evaluated and compared to the "onshore" storage capacity in deep saline aquifers. References 1. Le Nindre Y., Allier D., Duchkov A., Altunina L. K., Shvartsev S., Zhelezniak M. and Klerkx J. (2011) Storing CO2 underneath the Siberian Permafrost: A win-win solution for long-term trapping of CO2 and heavy oil upgrading. Energy Procedia4, 5414-5421 2. House K. Z., Schrag D. P., Harvey C. F. and Lackner K. S. (2006) Permanent carbon dioxide storage in deep-sea sediments. PNAS

  14. Dehydrated Prussian Blues for CO2 Storage and Separation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; McGrail, B. Peter; Ghorishi, Behrooz S.

    2010-08-13

    Adsorption isotherms of pure gases present in flue and natural gas including CO2, N2, CH4 and water were studied using prussian blues of chemical formula M3[Co(CN)6]2 (M = Cu, Ni, Mn). These materials adsorbed 8-12 wt % of CO2 at room temperature and 1 bar of pressure with heats of adsorption ranging from 6 to 16 kcal/mol.

  15. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  16. CO2 storage capacity of campos Basin’s oil field in Brazi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camboim Rockett, G.; Medina Ketzer, M.; Ramirez, C.A.; van den Broek, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large potentials for CO2 storage were demonstrated in previous studies in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the CO2 storage capacity in the Campos Basin , Southeast Brazil, in order to provide refined values to support CCS planning in the country. The results, based on field/reservoir level data s

  17. Impact of chemical and mechanical processes on wellbore integrity in CO2 storage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterbeek, T.K.T.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), involving the capture of CO2 at large point sources, such as power plants, followed by long-term storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers remains a key option for reducing CO2 emissions while fossil fuel use continues. For CCS to be effective, t

  18. CO2 storage capacity of campos Basin’s oil field in Brazi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camboim Rockett, G.; Medina Ketzer, M.; Ramirez, C.A.; van den Broek, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large potentials for CO2 storage were demonstrated in previous studies in Brazil. This study aims to estimate the CO2 storage capacity in the Campos Basin , Southeast Brazil, in order to provide refined values to support CCS planning in the country. The results, based on field/reservoir level data s

  19. Integrated infrastructure for CO2 transport and storage in the west Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boavida, D.; Carneiro, J.F.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Tosato, G.; Rimi, A.; Zarhloule, Y.; Simöes, S.; Cabal, H.

    2011-01-01

    COMET–Integrated infrastructure for CO2 transport and storage in the west Mediterranean–is a join research Project co-financed by the European Seventh Framework Programme (FP7), which started on January 2010. Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is a CO2 abatement option that can contribute subs

  20. Atmospheric monitoring for fugitive emissions from geological carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Z. M.; Etheridge, D.; Luhar, A.; Leuning, R.; Jenkins, C.

    2013-12-01

    We present a multi-year record of continuous atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements, flask sampling (for CO2, CH4, N2O, δ13CO2 and SF6) and CO2 flux measurements at the CO2CRC Otway Project (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/), a demonstration site for geological storage of CO2 in south-western Victoria, Australia. The measurements are used to develop atmospheric methods for operational monitoring of large scale CO2 geological storage. Characterization of emission rates ideally requires concentration measurements upwind and downwind of the source, along with knowledge of the atmospheric turbulence field. Because only a single measurement location was available for much of the measurement period, we develop techniques to filter the record and to construct a ';pseudo-upwind' measurement from our dataset. Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations were filtered based on wind direction, downward shortwave radiation, atmospheric stability and hour-to-hour changes in CO2 flux. These criteria remove periods of naturally high concentration due to the combined effects of biogenic respiration, stable atmospheric conditions and pre-existing sources (both natural and anthropogenic), leaving a reduced data set, from which a fugitive leak from the storage reservoir, the ';(potential) source sector)', could more easily be detected. Histograms of the filtered data give a measure of the background variability in both CO2 and CH4. Comparison of the ';pseudo-upwind' dataset histogram with the ';(potential) source sector' histogram shows no statistical difference, placing limits on leakage to the atmosphere over the preceding two years. For five months in 2011, we ran a true pair of up and downwind CO2 and CH4 concentration measurements. During this period, known rates of gas were periodically released at the surface (near the original injection point). These emissions are clearly detected as elevated concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in the filtered data and in the measured

  1. CO2 storage. An internet study by order of the city of Barendrecht, Netherlands; CO2 opslag. Een internet onderzoek in opdracht van Gemeente Barendrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2010-06-15

    The Dutch cabinet has decided that a pilot for CO2 storage will be conducted in the city of Barendrecht. This study has examined how the inhabitants of municipalities that quality for CO2 storage feel about this. [Dutch] Het kabinet heeft besloten dat in Barendrecht een proef wordt uitgevoerd met CO2 opslag. In dit onderzoek is nagegaan hoe inwoners van gemeenten die potentieel in aanmerking komen voor CO2 opslag daarover denken.

  2. 中国陆上油藏CO2封存潜力评估%Assessment of CO2 Geo-storage Potential in Onshore Oil Reservoirs, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亮; 陈文颖

    2012-01-01

    CO2捕集与封存是减缓气候变化的一种关键的碳减排选择方案.将CO2注入油藏作为一种碳埋存方式引起广泛关注.作为判断某一国家、某一区域或某一具体储层是否适合CO2地质封存开展的重要依据之一,有必要在规划碳捕集与封存(CCS)项目前,对潜在的封存库进行封存潜力评估.本文在已有可公开的地质资料的基础上,评估了中国陆上216个油田实施CO2地质封存的潜力,并与相关研究结果进行了比较.结果表明:在满足埋存深度大于800m的筛选条件下,当假设我国陆上油田全部用于CO2 - EOR时,CO2封存潜力约3.6Gt;当陆上油田全部税为废弃油藏处理时,CO2理论封存潜力约4.6 Gt.其中,东北和华北地区油藏封存CO2潜力巨大,占陆上油田CO2封存总量的60%以上;同时这里CO2集中排放源分布密集,排放源和封存地间的匹配性良好,可以减少CO2运输和封存成本.在这两个地区可以优先考虑实施油藏封存CO2项目.%CO2 Capture and Storage(CCS)is a key carbon abatement option to mitigate climate change. As one of the important CO2 storage strategies, injection of CO2 into oil reservoirs, has drawn wide attention. At the beginning of a CCS project, storage capability of potential reservoirs should be estimated, which is important to determine whether a specific nation, area or storage unit is suitable for CO2 sequestration. In this study, 216 onshore oil fields are assessed on their CO2 storage potential, based on published geological materials. Then the assessment results are compared with the results of associated researches. At last, the following conclusions can be obtained: under the conditions that the storage units are deeper than 800 m, the theoretical CO2 storage capacity is about 3.6 Gt when the onshore oil reservoirs of China are all used for EOR, and about 4. 6 Ct when the reservoirs are all treated as depleted ones; CO2 storage potential of Northeast China and

  3. Integrated underground gas storage of CO2 and CH4 for renewable energy storage for a test case in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Michael; Li, Qi; Nakaten, Natalie, Christine; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Integration and further development of the energy supply system in China is a major challenge for the years to come. Part of the strategy is the implementation of a low carbon energy system based on carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS). The innovative idea presented here is based on an extension of the power-to-gas-to-power (PGP) technology by establishing a closed carbon dioxide cycle [1]. Thereto, hydrogen generated from excess renewable energy is transformed into methane for combustion in a combined cycle gas power plant. To comply with the fluctuating energy demand, carbon dioxide produced during methane combustion and required for the methanation process as well as excess methane are temporarily stored in two underground reservoirs located close to each other [2]. Consequently, renewable energy generation units can be operated even if energy demand is below consumption, while stored energy can be fed into the grid as energy demand exceeds production [3]. We studied a show case for Xinjiang in China [4] to determine the energy demand of the entire process chain based on numerical computer simulations for the operation of the CO2 and CH4 storage reservoirs, and to ascertain the pressure regimes present in the storage formations during the injection and production phases of the annual cycle. [1] Streibel M., Nakaten N., Kempka T., Kühn M. (2013) Analysis of an integrated carbon cycle for storage of renewables. Energy Procedia 40, 202-211. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.08.024. [2] Kühn M., Streibel M., Nakaten N.C., Kempka T. (2014) Integrated Underground Gas Storage of CO2 and CH4 to Decarbonise the "Power-to-gas-to-gas-to-power" Technology. Energy Procedia 59, 9-15. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.342 [3] Kühn M., Nakaten N.C., Streibel M., Kempka T. (2014) CO2 Geological Storage and Utilization for a Carbon Neutral "Power-to-gas-to-power" Cycle to Even Out Fluctuations of Renewable Energy Provision. Energy Procedia 63, 8044-8049. doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014

  4. Simulation of muon radiography for monitoring CO$_2$ stored in a geological reservoir

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, J; Coleman, M; Gluyas, J G; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lincoln, D L; Pal, S; Paling, S M; Spooner, N J C; Telfer, S; Thompson, L F; Woodward, D

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO$_2$, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to acquire the data. Simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon radiography could be automated to continuously monitor CO$_2$ injection and migration, in addition to reducing the overall cost of monitoring. In this paper, we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO$_2$ plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon radiography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of a nominal test facility is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO$_2$ plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m$^2$ is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO$_2$ injection leads to changes in the column density of $\\lesssim 1\\%$, and that the CO$_2$ plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days.

  5. Monitoring CO2 invasion processes at the pore scale using geological labs on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S; Liu, N; Diouf, A; Bernard, D; Lecoutre, C; Garrabos, Y; Marre, S

    2016-09-21

    In order to investigate at the pore scale the mechanisms involved during CO2 injection in a water saturated pore network, a series of displacement experiments is reported using high pressure micromodels (geological labs on chip - GLoCs) working under real geological conditions (25 < T (°C) < 75 and 4.5 < p (MPa) < 8). The experiments were focused on the influence of three experimental parameters: (i) the p, T conditions, (ii) the injection flow rates and (iii) the pore network characteristics. By using on-chip optical characterization and imaging approaches, the CO2 saturation curves as a function of either time or the number of pore volume injected were determined. Three main mechanisms were observed during CO2 injection, namely, invasion, percolation and drying, which are discussed in this paper. Interestingly, besides conventional mechanisms, two counterintuitive situations were observed during the invasion and drying processes.

  6. A feasibility study of geological CO2 sequestration in the Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Z.; Surdam, R.C.; Zhou, L.; Stauffer, P.H.; Luo, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Shaanxi Province/Wyoming CCS Partnership (supported by DOE NETL) aims to store commercial quantities of CO2 safely and permanently in the Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the northern Ordos Basin, Shaanxi Province, China. This objective is imperative because at present, six coal-to-liquid facilities in Shaanxi Province are capturing and venting significant quantities of CO2. The Wyoming State Geological Survey and the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Energy Resource and Chemical Engineering conducted a feasibility study to determine the potential for geological CO2 sequestration in the northern Ordos Basin near Yulin. The Shaanbei Slope of the Ordos Basin is a huge monoclinal structure with a high-priority sequestration reservoir (Majiagou Formation) that lies beneath a 2,000+ meter-thick sequence of Mesozoic rocks containing a multitude of lowpermeability lithologies. The targeted Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the location of interest is more than 700 meters thick. The carbonate reservoir is located at depths where pressures and temperatures are well above the supercritical point of CO2. The targeted reservoir contains high-salinity brines (20,000-50,000 ppm) that have little or no economic value. The targeted reservoir is continuous as inferred from well logs, and cores show that porosity ranges from 1 to 15% with average measured porosity of 8%, and that permeability ranges from 1-35 md. This paper focuses on calculations that will help evaluate the capacity estimates through the use of high-resolution multiphase numerical simulation models, as well as a more simple volumetric approach. The preliminary simulation results show that the Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the Ordos Basin has excellent potential for geological CO2 sequestration and could store the CO2 currently emitted by coal-to-liquid facilities in Shaanxi Province for hundreds of years (i.e., 9 Mt/year CO2; 450 Mt over a 50-year period at one injection site). ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT - AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Helen Kerr

    2003-08-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (1) European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), (2) Norway (Klimatek) and (3) the U.S.A. (Department of Energy). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre -Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies are making

  8. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 STORAGE AND SINK ENHANCEMENT OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert Bock; Richard Rhudy; Howard Herzog; Michael Klett; John Davison; Danial G. De La Torre Ugarte; Dale Simbeck

    2003-02-01

    This project developed life-cycle costs for the major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} storage and sink enhancement. The technologies evaluated included options for storing captured CO{sub 2} in active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of carbon sequestration in forests and croplands. The capture costs for a nominal 500 MW{sub e} integrated gasification combined cycle plant from an earlier study were combined with the storage costs from this study to allow comparison among capture and storage approaches as well as sink enhancements.

  9. First results of geodetic deformation monitoring after commencement of CO2 injection at the Aquistore underground CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, M.; White, D.; Piraszewski, M.; Zhao, Y.; Henton, J.; Silliker, J.; Samsonov, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aquistore is a demonstration project for the underground storage of CO2 at a depth of ~3350 m near Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada. An objective of the project is to design, adapt, and test non-seismic monitoring methods that have not been systematically utilized to date for monitoring CO2 storage projects, and to integrate the data from these various monitoring tools to obtain quantitative estimates of the change in subsurface fluid distributions, pressure changes and associated surface deformation. Monitoring methods being applied include satellite-, surface- and wellbore-based monitoring systems and comprise natural- and controlled-source electromagnetic methods, gravity monitoring, continuous GPS, synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR), tiltmeter array analysis, and chemical tracer studies. Here we focus on the GPS, InSAR and gravity monitoring. Five monitoring sites were installed in 2012 and another six in 2013, each including GPS and InSAR corner reflector monuments (some collocated on the same monument). The continuous GPS data from these stations have been processed on a daily basis in both baseline processing mode using the Bernese GPS Software and precise point positioning mode using CSRS-PPP. Gravity measurements at each site have also been performed in fall 2013, spring 2014 and fall 2015, and at two sites in fall 2014. InSAR measurements of deformation have been obtained for a 5 m footprint at each site as well as at the corner reflector point sources. Here we present the first results of this geodetic deformation monitoring after commencement of CO2 injection on April 14, 2015. The time series of these sites are examined, compared and analyzed with respect to monument stability, seasonal signals, longer term trends, and any changes in motion and mass since CO2 injection.

  10. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Damage evaluation for crops exposed to a simulated leakage of geologically stored CO2 using hyperspectral imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burud, Ingunn; Moni, Christophe; Flø, Andreas; Rolstad Denby, Cecilie; Rasse, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a simulated CO2 leak might have on the hyperspectral signature of a Norwegian oats crop. In order to test the effects of different intensity of leakage, a CO2 exposure field experiment was designed to create a longitudinal CO2 gradient. For this purpose a gas supply pipe was inserted at one end of a 6m by 3m experimental plot at the base of a 45 cm thick layer of sand buried 40 cm below the surface under a silt loam plough layer. CO2 was then injected at a rate of 2l.min-1 just after the oats had germinated at the end of June, and Facilities for the geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) as part of carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes will be designed to prevent any leakage from the defined 'storage complex'. However, even though the risk is of low probability, the precautionary principle requires that near surface environments that might be at risk be thoroughly monitored to detect a leak, were it to happen. Among all currently proposed monitoring methods, only hyperspectral imaging of vegetation stress response allows one to scan large areas rapidly and in detail. Until now, however, only a handful of studies have been carried out on using this novel technology. The aim of the present communication was to characterize the impacts that a

  12. Numerical modeling of CO2 mineralisation during storage in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, P.; Van Hemert, P.; Rudolph, S.J.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are performed to evaluate the feasibility of a potential site within the Rotliegend sandstone formation in the Dutch subsurface at a depth of around 3000 m for CO2 sequestration using the numerical simulator CMG-GEM. Three CO2 storage trapping mechanisms are studied: (1) mobility trappin

  13. Second Generation CO2 FEP Analysis: CASSIF - Carbon Storage Scenario Identification Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yavuz, F.; Tilburg, T. van; David, P.; Spruijt, M.; Wildenborg, T.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS) is a promising contribution to reduce further increase of atmospheric CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. The CCS concept anticipates that large amounts of CO2 are going to be stored in the subsurface for the long term. Since CCS is a rather new technology, unce

  14. Numerical modeling of CO2 mineralisation during storage in deep saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, P.; Van Hemert, P.; Rudolph, S.J.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Simulations are performed to evaluate the feasibility of a potential site within the Rotliegend sandstone formation in the Dutch subsurface at a depth of around 3000 m for CO2 sequestration using the numerical simulator CMG-GEM. Three CO2 storage trapping mechanisms are studied: (1) mobility

  15. Natural analogues for CO2 storage sites - analysis of a global dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, R. Stuart

    2013-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage is the only industrial scale technology currently available to reduce CO2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants and large industrial source to the atmosphere and thus mitigate climate change. CO2 is captured at the source and transported to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. In order to have an effect on emissions and to be considered safe it is crucial that the amount of CO2 leaking from storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface remains very low (characterizing a storage site. Additionally, it appears that overpressure of the overburden and the state of CO2 in the reservoir influence the likelihood of migration and hence the safety of a reservoir.

  16. Reactive transport modeling of the long-term effects of CO2 storage in the P18 depleted gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambach, T. J.; Koenen, M.; Wasch, L. J.; Loeve, D.; Maas, J. G.

    2012-04-01

    Depleted gas fields are an import CO2 storage sink for The Netherlands, with a total storage capacity of more than 3 Gtonne. The CO2 sources are located at relatively short distances from potential storage reservoirs and an infrastructure for (cross-border) gas transport over large distances already exists. Several depleted gas fields in the subsurface of the Netherlands have yet been evaluated as potential locations for CO2 storage (for example the K12-B field). The P18 gas field is located in the offshore of The Netherlands and is currently evaluated as potential CO2 storage reservoir. The aim of this study is to predict the long-term effects of CO2 injection into the P18 field using reactive transport modeling (TOUGHREACT). The storage reservoir is described using the mineralogy and petrophysical characteristics of three geological layers in a radial (R,Z) reservoir model with top depth of 3456 m, a thickness of 98 m, and 3300 grid cells. The initial reservoir temperature was defined as 90 degrees C with an initial (depletion) pressure of 20.0 bars. Capillary pressure curves are based on empirical relations. The CO2 is injected uniformly distributed over the model height, at a constant rate of 35 kg/s (1.1 Mton/year), and a temperature of 40 degrees C for 30 years. The well is then shut-in with a reservoir pressure of approximately 375 bar. The simulations are continued up to 10,000 years for computing the long-term effects in the reservoir. The results show that the near-well area is dried out during injection, leading to salt precipitation and reduced permeability during injection. Condensation of the evaporated water occurs outside the near-well area. Water imbibition is modelled after shut in of the well, leading to rewetting of the near-well area and redissolution of the salt. Most geochemical reactions need water to occur, including well-cement minerals, and therefore predictions of water flow after well shut-ins are important to take into account

  17. CO2 Leakage, Storage and Injection Monitoring by Using Experimental, Numerical and Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namdar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The maintaining environment is priority to any plan in human life. It is planned for monitoring CO2 injection, storage and leakage by using geophysical, numerical and analytical methods in seismic zone. In this regard the mineralogy, chemical composite, lithology, seismic wave propagation, small earthquake, accelerating natural earthquake, thermal stress-strain modeling, ground movement level and fault activation will be consider. It is expected to better understand CO2 leakage, storage and injection process and problems.

  18. Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment (SOSRA): Evaluation of CO2 Storage Potential on the Continental Shelf from North Carolina to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.; Brantley, D.; Lakshmi, V.; Howard, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment (SOSRA) project is part of a major new program, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy for the next two and a half years, to evaluate the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico offshore margins of the United States for geologic storage capacity of CO2. Collaborating organizations include the Southern States Energy Board, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, University of South Carolina, Oklahoma State University, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy, South Carolina Geological Survey, and Geological Survey of Alabama. Team members from South Carolina are focused on the Atlantic offshore, from North Carolina to Florida. Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a major research focus globally, and requires robust knowledge of the porosity and permeability distribution in upper crustal sediments. Using legacy seismic reflection, refraction, and well data from a previous phase of offshore petroleum exploration on the Atlantic margin, we are analyzing the rock physics characteristics of the offshore Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphy on a regional scale from North Carolina to Florida. Major features of the margin include the Carolina Trough, the Southeast Georgia Embayment, the Blake Plateau basin, and the Blake Outer Ridge. Previous studies indicate sediment accumulations on this margin may be as thick as 12-15 km. The study will apply a diverse suite of data analysis techniques designed to meet the goal of predicting storage capacity to within ±30%. Synthetic seismograms and checkshot surveys will be used to tie well and seismic data. Seismic interpretation and geophysical log analysis will employ leading-edge software technology and state-of-the art techniques for stratigraphic and structural interpretation and the definition of storage units and their physical and chemical properties. This approach will result in a robust characterization of offshore CO2 storage opportunities, as well as a volumetric analysis that is

  19. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, is working with Denbury Onshore LLC to determine the effect of a large-scale injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep clastic reservoir for the purpose of simultaneous CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and to study incidental CO2 storage at the Bell Creek oil field located in southeastern Montana. This project will reduce CO2 emissions by more than 1 million tons a year while simultaneously recovering an anticipated 30 million barrels of incremental oil. The Bell Creek project provides a unique opportunity to use and evaluate a comprehensive suite of technologies for monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) of CO2 on a large-scale. The plan incorporates multiple geophysical technologies in the presence of complementary and sometimes overlapping data to create a comprehensive data set that will facilitate evaluation and comparison. The MVA plan has been divided into shallow and deep subsurface monitoring. The deep subsurface monitoring plan includes 4-D surface seismic, time-lapse 3-D vertical seismic profile (VSP) surveys incorporating a permanent borehole array, and baseline and subsequent carbon-oxygen logging and other well-based measurements. The goal is to track the movement of CO2 in the reservoir, evaluate the recovery/storage efficiency of the CO2 EOR program, identify fluid migration pathways, and determine the ultimate fate of injected CO2. CO2 injection at Bell Creek began in late May 2013. Prior to injection, a monitoring and characterization well near the field center was drilled and outfitted with a distributed temperature-monitoring system and three down-hole pressure gauges to provide continuous real-time data of the reservoir and overlying strata. The monitoring well allows on-demand access for time-lapse well-based measurements and borehole seismic instrumentation. A 50-level permanent borehole array of 3-component geophones was installed in a

  20. SiteChar – Methodology for a Fit-for-Purpose Assessment of CO2 Storage Sites in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delprat-Jannaud F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The FP7-funded SiteChar project examined the entire CO2 geological storage site characterisation process, from the initial feasibility studies through to the final stage of application for a CO2 storage permit based on criteria defined by the relevant European legislation. The SiteChar workflow for CO2 geological storage site characterisation provides a description of all elements of a site characterisation study, as well as guidance to streamline the site characterisation process and make sure that the output covers the aspects mentioned in the European Community (EC Storage Directive. Five potential European storage sites, representative of prospective geological contexts, were considered as test sites for the research work: a North Sea multi-store site (hydrocarbon field and aquifer offshore Scotland; an onshore aquifer in Denmark; an onshore gas field in Poland; an aquifer offshore in Norway; and an aquifer in the Southern Adriatic Sea. This portfolio combines complementary sites that allowed to encompass the different steps of the characterisation workflow. A key innovation was the development of internal ‘dry-run’ permit applications at the Danish and Scottish sites and their review by relevant regulatory authorities. This process helped to refine the site characterisation workflow, and aimed to identify remaining gaps in site-specific characterisation, needed to secure storage permits under the EC Storage Directive as implemented in ‘host’ Member States. SiteChar considered the important aspect of the public awareness and public opinions of these new technologies, in parallel to technical issues, on the onshore Polish and offshore Scottish sites. A new format to assist public opinion-forming processes was tested involving a small sample of local communities. Generic as well as site-specific information was made available to the general and local public via the internet and at information meetings. These exercises provide insight

  1. Status of CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers with emphasis on modeling approaches and practical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Nordbotten, J. M.; Bandilla, K. W.

    2015-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is the only viable technology to mitigate carbon emissions while allowing continued large-scale use of fossil fuels. The storage part of CCS involves injection of carbon dioxide, captured from large stationary sources, into deep geological formations. Deep saline aquifers have the largest identified storage potential, with estimated storage capacity sufficient to store emissions from large stationary sources for at least a century. This makes CCS a potentially important bridging technology in the transition to carbon-free energy sources. Injection of CO2 into deep saline aquifers leads to a multicomponent, multiphase flow system, in which geomechanics, geochemistry, and nonisothermal effects may be important. While the general system can be highly complex and involve many coupled, nonlinear partial differential equations, the underlying physics can sometimes lead to important simplifications. For example, the large density difference between injected CO2 and brine may lead to relatively fast buoyant segregation, making an assumption of vertical equilibrium reasonable. Such simplifying assumptions lead to a range of simplified governing equations whose solutions have provided significant practical insights into system behavior, including improved estimates of storage capacity, easy-to-compute estimates of CO2 spatial migration and pressure response, and quantitative estimates of leakage risk. When these modeling studies are coupled with observations from well-characterized injection operations, understanding of the overall system behavior is enhanced significantly. This improved understanding shows that, while economic and policy challenges remain, CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers appears to be a viable technology and can contribute substantially to climate change solutions.

  2. Using pressure and volumetric approaches to estimate CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers

    OpenAIRE

    Thibeau, S.; Bachu, S.; Birkholzer, J.; Holloway, S; Neele, F.P.; Zou, Q

    2014-01-01

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation ...

  3. IN SITU MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING NMR FOR STUDYING GEOLOGICAL CO(2) SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-03-27

    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases (1-3). Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly in low-water supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof (4,5). However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor (6,7), where non-metal materials must be used. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures.

  4. Why capture CO2 from the atmosphere?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, David W

    2009-01-01

    Air capture is an industrial process for capturing CO2 from ambient air; it is one of an emerging set of technologies for CO2 removal that includes geological storage of biotic carbon and the acceleration of geochemical weathering...

  5. Evidence of pressure enhanced CO2 storage in ZIF-8 probed by FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Liu, Zhenxian; Xu, Jun; Huang, Yining; Song, Yang

    2013-06-26

    Due to the large porosity and unique framework stability, ZIF-8, a representative zeolitic imidazolate based member of metal-organic framework (MOF) family exhibited excellent adsorption capacities for a wide range of gases, including greenhouse gases. Using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, ZIF-8 framework was investigated when loaded with CO2 in a diamond anvil cell at high pressures far beyond the conventional gas adsorption pressure. The IR profile of CO2 as well as the ZIF-8 shows direct evidence of the interactions between CO2 and ZIF-8, indicating enhanced storage of CO2 in the framework. In addition, the storage behavior was found to be strongly pressure dependent, and the interaction mechanism was explored. These findings demonstrated great potential in the greenhouse gases storage applications using MOF based materials.

  6. Regional Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in China: A Comprehensive CO2 Storage Cost Curve and Analysis of the Potential for Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the People’s Republic of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Li, Xiaochun; Davidson, Casie L.; Wei, Ning; Dooley, James J.

    2009-12-01

    This study presents data and analysis on the potential for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies to deploy within China, including a survey of the CO2 source fleet and potential geologic storage capacity. The results presented here indicate that there is significant potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China at a level sufficient to deliver deep, sustained and cost-effective emissions reductions for China over the course of this century.

  7. Techno-Economic Assessment of a Biomass-Based Cogeneration Plant with CO2 Capture and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, N

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of CO2 emissions from energy systems could be achieved through: CO2 capture and storage, energy savings, fuel switching among fossil fuels, increased use of renewable energy sources, and nuclear power. In addition, atmospheric CO2 reduction could also be achieved through increasing the carbon stock in soils and standing biomass. The CO2 capture and storage option for mitigating CO2 emissions from biomass-based cogeneration plants, considering critical aspects such future development...

  8. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Mechanisms for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations and Enhanced Gas Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosrokhavar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with a variety of aspects related to the storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. In particular we focus on the transfer between the gas phase to a fluid (liquid) or solid phase. This thesis limits its interest to study the sequestration capacity of

  10. National Geologic Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sequestration Assessment Project: Bighorn Basin (C5034) Well Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Drilling-density cell maps show the number of wells that have been drilled into the storage assessment unit (SAU). Each 1-square-mile cell has a count for the number...

  11. Mechanisms for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations and Enhanced Gas Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosrokhavar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with a variety of aspects related to the storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. In particular we focus on the transfer between the gas phase to a fluid (liquid) or solid phase. This thesis limits its interest to study the sequestration capacity of

  12. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.

  13. Co-location of air capture, sub-ocean CO2 storage and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D.; Han, P.; Lackner, K.; Wang, T.

    2011-12-01

    How can carbon capture and storage activities be sustained from an energy perspective while keeping the entire activity out of sight and away from material risk and social refrain near populated areas? In light of reducing the atmospheric CO2 level to mitigate its effect on climate change, the combination of new air-capture technologies and large offshore storage reservoirs, supplemented by carbon neutral renewable energy, could address both of these engineering and public policy concerns. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture scrubbers could be located anywhere in the world. Although the power requirements for this technology may reduce net efficiencies, the local availability of carbon-neutral renewable energy for this purpose would eliminate some net energy loss. Certain locations where wind speeds are high and steady, such as those observed at high latitude and across the open ocean, appeal as carbon-neutral energy sources in close proximity to immense and secure reservoirs for geological sequestration of captured CO2. In particular, sub-ocean basalt flows are vast and carry minimal risks of leakage and damages compared to on-land sites. Such implementation of a localized renewable energy source coupled with carbon capture and storage infrastructure could result in a global impact of lowered CO2 levels. We consider an extreme location on the Kerguelen plateau in the southern Indian Ocean, where high wind speeds and basalt storage reservoirs are both plentiful. Though endowed with these advantages, this mid-ocean location incurs clear material and economic challenges due to its remoteness and technological challenges for CO2 capture due to constant high humidity. We study the wind energy-air capture power balance and consider related factors in the feasibility of this location for carbon capture and storage. Other remote oceanic sites where steady winds blow and near large geological reservoirs may be viable as well, although all would require

  14. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO

  15. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO

  16. Surface-downhole and crosshole geoelectrics for monitoring of brine injection at the Ketzin CO2 storage site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippe, Dennis; Bergmann, Peter; Labitzke, Tim; Wagner, Florian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    et al., 2012). During the brine injection, usage of a new data acquisition unit allowed the daily collection of an extended crosshole data set. This data set was complemented by an alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometry, which for the first time allowed for regular current injections from three permanent surface electrodes into the existing electrical resistivity downhole array without the demand of an extensive field survey. This alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometry is expected to be characterized by good data quality and well confined sensitivity to the target storage zone. Time-lapse geoelectrical tomographies have been derived from both surface-downhole and crosshole data and show a conductive signature around the injection well associated with the displacement of CO2 by the injected brine. In addition to the above mentioned objectives of this brine injection experiment, comparative analysis of the surface-downhole and crosshole data provides the opportunity to evaluate the alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometry with respect to its resolution within the target storage zone and its ability to quantitatively constrain the displacement of CO2 during the brine injection. These results will allow for further improvement of the deployed alternative surface-downhole acquisition geometries. References Bergmann, P., Schmidt-Hattenberger, C., Kiessling, D., Rücker, C., Labitzke, T., Henninges, J., Baumann, G., Schütt, H. (2012). Surface-Downhole Electrical Resistivity Tomography applied to Monitoring of the CO2 Storage Ketzin (Germany). Geophysics, 77, B253-B267. Kiessling, D., Schmidt-Hattenberger, C., Schuett, H., Schilling, F., Krueger, K., Schoebel, B., Danckwardt, E., Kummerow, J., CO2SINK Group (2010). Geoelectrical methods for monitoring geological CO2 storage: First results from cross-hole and surface-downhole measurements from the CO2SINK test site at Ketzin (Germany). International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 4(5), 816

  17. CO2 capture and storage in Greece: A case study from komotini ngcc power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koukouzas Nikolaos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the possibilities for the abatement of CO2 emissions in the Greek fossil fuel power generation sector. An overview of CO2 capture, transportation, and storage concepts, on which the R&D community is focused, is presented. The implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture options in an existing fossil fuel power plant is then examined and the consequences on the overall plant performance are determined. Finally, the possibilities of transportation and then underground storage of the pure CO2 stream are analyzed taking into account both technical and economical factors. The results of this analysis show that CO2 sequestration is technically feasible for existing fossil fuel fired power plants in Greece. However, substantial reduction in plant efficiency is observed due to increased energy demand of the technologies used as well as in electricity production cost due to capital and operation costs of capture, transport, and storage of CO2. .

  18. Microbial monitoring during CO2 storage in deep subsurface saline aquifers in Ketzin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerdemann, H.; Wandrey, M.; Fischer, S.; Zemke, K.; Let, D.; Zettlitzer, M.; Morozova, D.

    2010-12-01

    Investigations on subsurface saline aquifers have shown an active biosphere composed of diverse groups of microorganisms in the subsurface. Since microorganisms represent very effective geochemical catalysts, they may influence the process of CO2 storage significantly. In the frames of the EU Project CO2SINK a field laboratory to study CO2 storage into saline aquifer was operated. Our studies aim at monitoring of biological and biogeochemical processes and their impact on the technical effectiveness of CO2 storage technique. The interactions between microorganisms and the minerals of both the reservoir and the cap rock may cause changes to the structure and chemical composition of the rock formations, which may influence the reservoir permeability locally. In addition, precipitation and corrosion may be induced around the well affecting the casing and the casing cement. Therefore, analyses of the composition of microbial communities and its changes should contribute to an evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the long-term CO2 storage technique. In order to investigate processes in the deep biosphere caused by the injection of supercritical CO2, genetic fingerprinting (PCR SSCP Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and FISH (Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation) were used for identification and quantification of microorganisms. Although saline aquifers could be characterised as an extreme habitat for microorganisms due to reduced conditions, high pressure and salinity, a high number of diverse groups of microorganisms were detected with downhole sampling in the injection and observation wells at a depth of about 650m depth. Of great importance was the identification of the sulphate reducing bacteria, which are known to be involved in corrosion processes. Microbial monitoring during CO2 injection has shown that both quantity and diversity of microbial communities were strongly influenced by the CO2 injection. In addition, the indigenous microbial

  19. S-CO2 for efficient power generation with energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Cerio Vera, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 (s-CO2) power cycle has gained interest for concentrating solar power (CSP) application in the last decade to overcome the current low efficiency and high costs of the plants. This cycle is a potential option to replace the steam Rankine cycle due to its higher efficiency, more compact turbomachinery and possibility of including heat storage and direct heating. The purpose of this project is to determine the suitability of integrating s-CO2 power cycle into CSP plants with e...

  20. Risk assessment of CO_2 injection processes and storage in carboniferous formations:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades,people from almost all over the world have realized that it is necessary to quickly develop strategies for the control and reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions.Among various GHGs,carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant GHG.Its underground storage involves less risk and lower levels of dangerousness.The paper briefly describes the most effective technologies available in the market for background processes to storage (capture and transport) CO2,as well as the more secure solu...

  1. [CO2 storage in various organs during chronic experimental hypercapnia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, E; Claudon, F; Sablière, S

    1976-01-01

    The total CO2 is titrated in liver, abdominal and leg's muscles, brain and thigh-bone of rats exposed to 8 +/- 1% of carbon dioxide under normoxic (20-23% of O2) and normobaric conditions during zero, two, four or six weeks. Total (H2Ot) and extracellular (H2Oe) water is measured in these organs by the 3H-inulin method. The CO2 storage in organs is expressed in relation to the PaCO2 increase (mmol-kg-1 fresh tissue-torr-1). During a four week hypercapnia, this CO2 increase is very important in bone and brain compared with that of other organs and of the whole body. With regard to the whole body, the bone CO2 content is still increasing after four weeks. The increase in extracellular bicarbonate (delta[HCO3-e]/delta PaCO2) is negligible (1/100 th) in comparison with the whole carbonic increase (delta CO2/delta PaCO2). The bone extracellular compartment diminishes in relation with the experimentation duration, without any significant change in H2Oi (Student's analysis). A factorial analysis (BENZECRI) shows that the weight of H2Oe in the information diminishes for all organs, both with the duration of normal subjects observation (ageing) and with the hypercapnia duration.

  2. Geomechanical behavior of the reservoir and caprock system at the In Salah CO2 storage project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joshua A; Chiaramonte, Laura; Ezzedine, Souheil; Foxall, William; Hao, Yue; Ramirez, Abelardo; McNab, Walt

    2014-06-17

    Almost 4 million metric tons of CO2 were injected at the In Salah CO2 storage site between 2004 and 2011. Storage integrity at the site is provided by a 950-m-thick caprock that sits above the injection interval. This caprock consists of a number of low-permeability units that work together to limit vertical fluid migration. These are grouped into main caprock units, providing the primary seal, and lower caprock units, providing an additional buffer and some secondary storage capacity. Monitoring observations at the site indirectly suggest that pressure, and probably CO2, have migrated upward into the lower portion of the caprock. Although there are no indications that the overall storage integrity has been compromised, these observations raise interesting questions about the geomechanical behavior of the system. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the measured pressure, seismic, and surface deformation behavior. These include fault leakage, flow through preexisting fractures, and the possibility that injection pressures induced hydraulic fractures. This work evaluates these hypotheses in light of the available data. We suggest that the simplest and most likely explanation for the observations is that a portion of the lower caprock was hydrofractured, although interaction with preexisting fractures may have played a significant role. There are no indications, however, that the overall storage complex has been compromised, and several independent data sets demonstrate that CO2 is contained in the confinement zone.

  3. Technology Analysis of CO2 Capture and Storage in Firing Power Plant%火电厂CO2 CCS技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡月红

    2012-01-01

    After introducing the CO2 emission characteristics from firing power plant,this paper discussed two parts in both CO2 capture and storage,and put forward four main technological lines for CO2 capture in firing power plants.The paper also analyzed and compared the features and appliances of every capture measures,and pointed out some problems needed to be solved for using the existing capture methods to firing power plant in China.Finally it analyzed and summarized CO2 storage technology and comprehensive utilization.%介绍了火电厂CO2排放特点,将CO2减排技术分为捕集与封存两个部分进行讨论,提出了火电厂CO2捕集的4种主要技术路线;比较分析了几种主要捕集方法的技术特点和火力发电适用性,CO2应用于我国火电厂需解决的问题;综述了CO2的封存技术和综合利用。

  4. Microbial community response to the CO2 injection and storage in the saline aquifer, Ketzin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, Daria; Zettlitzer, Michael; Vieth, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    The concept of CO2 capture and storage in the deep underground is currently receiving great attention as a consequence of the effects of global warming due to the accumulation of carbon dioxide gas in the atmosphere. The EU funded CO2SINK project is aimed as a pilot storage of CO2 in a saline aquifer located near Ketzin, Germany. One of the main aims of the project is to develop efficient monitoring procedures for assessing the processes that are triggered in the reservoir by CO2 injection. This study reveals analyses of the composition and activity of the microbial community of a saline CO2 storage aquifer and its response to CO2 injection. The availability of CO2 has an influence on the metabolism of both heterotrophic microorganisms, which are involved in carbon cycle, and lithoautotrophic microorganisms, which are able to use CO2 as the sole carbon source and electron acceptor. Injection of CO2 in the supercritical state (temperature above 31.1 °C, pressure above 72.9 atm) may induce metabolic shifts in the microbial communities. Furthermore, bacterial population and activity can be strongly influenced by changes in pH value, pressure, temperature, salinity and other abiotic factors, which will be all influenced by CO2 injection into the deep subsurface. Analyses of the composition of microbial communities and its changes should contribute to an evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the long-term CO2 storage technique. The interactions between microorganisms and the minerals of both the reservoir and the cap rock may cause major changes to the structure and chemical composition of the rock formations, which would influence the permeability within the reservoir. In addition, precipitation and corrosion may occur around the well affecting the casing and the casing cement. By using Fluorescence in situ Hybridisation (FISH) and molecular fingerprinting such as Polymerase-Chain-Reaction Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and Denaturing

  5. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  6. Application of numerical simulation to pilot project of CO2 geological sequestration%数值模拟在CO2地质封存示范项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The geological sequestration of CO2 in deep saline aquifer is an effective countermeasure for reducing global warming and greenhouse effect. Based on the Shenhua Ordos CO2 capture and storage (CCS) pilot project, the behavior of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is investigated. The transport process of CO2 fluid, the pressure buildup of system and the reserves potential of sequestration are analyzed. This model can provide technological support and save human and financial resources for Shenhua CCS engineering project. First, the model is calibrated by comparing simulated results and measured pressure values. The suitable pressure curve is obtained and the main hydrological parameters are determined at this stage. Then an assumption of CO2 continuing injection for 3 years is simulated based on the former model. The CO2 diffusion, solution behavior, pressure variation and total reserves of strata are analyzed. The conclusions are drawn as follows: the largest distance of CO2 migration is about 350 m; hydraulic fracturing can improve CO2 injectivity obviously; cap rock can effectively prevent the escape of CO2. Simulation results demonstrate that even though the deep saline aquifers of Ordos basin has low penetrability, it is also suitable for CO2 sequestration.%  CO2深部咸水层地质封存被认为是减缓温室效应的一种有效的工程技术手段。针对神华鄂尔多斯105 t/a CO2捕集与封存(CCS)示范项目,用数值模拟方法对CO2在地层中的运移过程进行了详细地刻画,分析了CO2的流动迁移、地层压力积聚过程及地层封存潜力。数值模型不但可以为工程的顺利进行提供技术支撑,而且可以节省人力财力。首先,根据实际监测数据对模拟参数进行校准,得到了合适的压力拟合曲线,确定了主要的水文地质参数。然后,对为期3 a的CO2续注工程进行预测,详细分析了CO2的晕扩散、溶解情况、地层压力变化情况、储层封存潜

  7. Uptake and Storage of Anthropogenic CO2 in the Pacific Ocean Estimated Using Two Modeling Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yangchun; XU Yongfu

    2012-01-01

    A basin-wide ocean general circulation model (OGCM) of the Pacific Ocean is employed to estimate the uptake and storage of anthropogenic CO2 using two different simulation approaches.The simulation (named BIO) makes use of a carbon model with biological processes and full thermodynamic equations to calculate surface water partial pressure of CO2,whereas the other simulation (named PTB) makes use of a perturbation approach to calculate surface water partial pressure of anthropogenie CO2.The results from the two simulations agree well with the estimates based on observation data in most important aspects of the vertical distribution as well as the total inventory of anthropogenic carbon.The storage of anthropogenic carbon from BIO is closer to the observation-based estimate than that from PTB.The Revelle factor in 1994 obtained in BIO is generally larger than that obtained in PTB in the whole Pacific,except for the subtropical South Pacific.This,to large extent,leads to the difference in the surface anthropogenic CO2 concentration between the two runs.The relative difference in the annual uptake between the two runs is almost constant during the integration processes after 1850.This is probably not caused by dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC),but rather by a factor independent of time.In both runs,the rate of change in anthropogenic CO2 fluxes with time is consistent with the rate of change in the growth rate of atmospheric partial pressure of CO2.

  8. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  9. Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery, offshore North Sea: carbon accounting, residual oil zones and CO2 storage security

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Robert Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, projects have maximised oil recovery and not CO2 storage. While the majority of onshore CO2EOR projects to date have used CO2 from natural sources, CO2EOR is now more and more being considered as a storage option for captured anthropogenic CO2. In the N...

  10. On the Role of Multi-Scale Processes in CO2 Storage Security and Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruess, K.; Kneafsey, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Consideration of multiple scales in subsurface processes is usually referred to the spatial domain, where we may attempt to relate process descriptions and parameters from pore and bench (Darcy) scale to much larger field and regional scales. However, multiple scales occur also in the time domain, and processes extending over a broad range of time scales may be very relevant to CO2 storage and containment. In some cases, such as in the convective instability induced by CO2 dissolution in saline waters, space and time scales are coupled in the sense that perturbations induced by CO2 injection will grow concurrently over many orders of magnitude in both space and time. In other cases, CO2 injection may induce processes that occur on short time scales, yet may affect large regions. Possible examples include seismicity that may be triggered by CO2 injection, or hypothetical release events such as "pneumatic eruptions" that may discharge substantial amounts of CO2 over a short time period. This paper will present recent advances in our experimental and modeling studies of multi-scale processes. Specific examples that will be discussed include (1) the process of CO2 dissolution-diffusion-convection (DDC), that can greatly accelerate the rate at which free-phase CO2 is stored as aqueous solute; (2) self- enhancing and self-limiting processes during CO2 leakage through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells; and (3) porosity and permeability reduction from salt precipitation near CO2 injection wells, and mitigation of corresponding injectivity loss. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and by the Zero Emission Research and Technology project (ZERT) under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. 3D inversion of land-based CSEM data from the Ketzin CO2 storage formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayver, Alexander; Streich, Rita; Ritter, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    We present 3D inversion of land controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data collected across the CO2 storage test site at Ketzin, Germany. The CSEM data were generated by injecting currents into the earth at eight locations using a newly developed transmitter equipped with three grounded electrodes. Electric and magnetic field responses were recorded by 39 receivers along a line approximately perpendicular to the main geological trend. The survey aimed at imaging large-scale resistivity structure beyond the near-well region monitored by higher-resolution electrical techniques. Infrastructure present in the survey area, such as pipelines with impressed-current cathodic protection systems, power lines, and wind power plants cause strong noise in the data. The noise is effectively suppressed by adopting statistically robust processing techniques known from passive magnetotellurics. A newly developed Gauss-Newton type parallel distributed inversion scheme, which is based on a direct forward solver and explicitly calculates the full sensitivity matrix, is applied to recover subsurface conductivity images. As 3D inversion is demanding on computer time and memory, we run inversions on parallel distributed machines. We achieve good scalability by distributing computations and memory uniformly among the processes involved. We carry out cumulative sensitivity and resolution analyses for the sparse CSEM acquisition geometry. These studies indicate reasonable spatial coverage along the main survey line. Synthetic studies calculated for the real survey layout and representative conductivity models indicate that the magnetic field components are practically insensitive to resistive structures, whereas the electric field components resolve resistors and conductors similarly well. Because the magnetic field contributes little subsurface information, we concentrate on inverting the electric field, which is also more computer-efficient than inverting all components. We test

  12. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also

  13. Keynote speech - Corrective measures for CO2 storage - The MiReCOL project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.

    2014-01-01

    CO2 capture, transport and storage (CCS) has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon emission that follows from the use of fossil fuels in power production and industry. Integrated demo-scale projects are currently being developed to demonstrate the feasibility of CCS and the first such pro

  14. An innovative European integrated project: Castor-CO2 from capture to storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiez, P.L.; Mosditchian, G.; Torp, T.; Feron, P.; Ritsema, I.; Zweigel, P.; Lindeberg, E.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the CASTOR (CO2, from Capture to Storage) R and D project, funded by the European Union (EU) under the 6th Framework Program. With a partnership involving Industry and Research organizations, CASTOR aims at developing new technologies for post-combustion capture and

  15. An innovative European integrated project: Castor-CO2 from capture to storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiez, P.L.; Mosditchian, G.; Torp, T.; Feron, P.; Ritsema, I.; Zweigel, P.; Lindeberg, E.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the CASTOR (CO2, from Capture to Storage) R and D project, funded by the European Union (EU) under the 6th Framework Program. With a partnership involving Industry and Research organizations, CASTOR aims at developing new technologies for post-combustion capture and

  16. Sensitivity of CO2 storage performance to varying rates and dynamic injectivity in the Bunter Sandstone, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolster, C.; Mac Dowell, N.; Krevor, S. C.; Agada, S.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is needed for meeting legally binding greenhouse gas emissions targets in the UK (ECCC 2016). Energy systems models have been key to identifying the importance of CCS but they tend to impose few constraints on the availability and use of geologic CO2 storage reservoirs. Our aim is to develop simple models that use dynamic representations of limits on CO2 storage resources. This will allow for a first order representation of the storage reservoir for use in systems models with CCS. We use the ECLIPSE reservoir simulator and a model of the Southern North Sea Bunter Sandstone saline aquifer. We analyse reservoir performance sensitivities to scenarios of varying CO2 injection demand for a future UK low carbon energy market. With 12 injection sites, we compare the impact of injecting at a constant 2MtCO2/year per site and varying this rate by a factor of 1.8 and 0.2 cyclically every 5 and 2.5 years over 50 years of injection. The results show a maximum difference in average reservoir pressure of 3% amongst each case and a similar variation in plume migration extent. This suggests that simplified models can maintain accuracy by using average rates of injection over similar time periods. Meanwhile, by initiating injection at rates limited by pressurization at the wellhead we find that injectivity steadily increases. As a result, dynamic capacity increases. We find that instead of injecting into sites on a need basis, we can strategically inject the CO2 into 6 of the deepest sites increasing injectivity for the first 15 years by 13%. Our results show injectivity as highly dependent on reservoir heterogeneity near the injection site. Injecting 1MTCO2/year into a shallow, low permeability and porosity site instead of into a deep injection site with high permeability and porosity reduces injectivity in the first 5 years by 52%. ECCC. 2016. Future of Carbon Capture and Storage in the UK. UK Parliament House of Commons, Energy and Climate Change

  17. Science in bullet points: How to compile scientific results to underpin guidelines for CO2 storage for the German transposition of the European CCS Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibel, Martin

    2015-04-01

    In 2012 the German Parliament passed the transposition of the EC Directive 2009/31/EC the "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). The law focuses on the demonstration of the CO2 storage technology and mainly regulates the storage part of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) chain. As the law has a conceptual character, appendix 1 provides a description of criteria for the characterisation and assessment of a potential CO2 storage site starting with field data ending with requirements for dynamic modelling of the storage complex. Appendix 2 describes the expected monitoring system during all relevant phases of a life cycle of a CO2 storage site. The criteria given in the appendices are of general nature, which reflects on one hand that the CO2 storage technology is still being developed and on the other hand that site specific aspects needs to be considered. In 2004 the Federal Ministry of Education and Research of Germany launched the programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN with one key aspect being the development of technologies for a sustainable storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. Within this research field more than 30 projects in three phases have been funded until the end of 2014. In order to benefit from the gathered knowledge and use the experiences for the policy/law making process the umbrella project AUGE has been launched in October 2012 with a life time of three years. The aim of the project is to review and compile all results of projects funded during the three phases to underpin the appendices of the KSpG. In the first part of the paper the most important findings of the project with regard to the overall risk of a geological CO2 storage and the procedure of compiling the guidance document will be discussed. Milestones of this project were • the compilation of the results of national, European and international projects; • interviews with stakeholders; • a workshops to define state of the art for certain involved technologies and existing gaps

  18. A Field Study on Simulation of CO2 Injection and ECBM Production and Prediction of CO2 Storage Capacity in Unmineable Coal Seam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 sequestration into a coal seam project was studied and a numerical model was developed in this paper to simulate the primary and secondary coal bed methane production (CBM/ECBM and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection. The key geological and reservoir parameters, which are germane to driving enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM and CO2 sequestration processes, including cleat permeability, cleat porosity, CH4 adsorption time, CO2 adsorption time, CH4 Langmuir isotherm, CO2 Langmuir isotherm, and Palmer and Mansoori parameters, have been analyzed within a reasonable range. The model simulation results showed good matches for both CBM/ECBM production and CO2 injection compared with the field data. The history-matched model was used to estimate the total CO2 sequestration capacity in the field. The model forecast showed that the total CO2 injection capacity in the coal seam could be 22,817 tons, which is in agreement with the initial estimations based on the Langmuir isotherm experiment. Total CO2 injected in the first three years was 2,600 tons, which according to the model has increased methane recovery (due to ECBM by 6,700 scf/d.

  19. The SiteChar approach to efficient and focused CO2 storage site characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neele, F.; Nepveu, M.; Hofstee, C.; Wollenweber, J. [TNO, P.O. Box 80015, NL-3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Delprat-Jannaud, F.; Vincke, O.; Battani, A.; Baroni, A.; Garcia, B. [IFPEN, Rueil-Malmaison (France); Volpi, V. [OGS, Trieste (Italy); Lothe, A. [SINTEF Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway); Brunsting, S. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pearce, J. [BGS, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the solutions that can significantly reduce CO2 during the transition from fossil fuel-based energy to an energy system based on renewable energy sources. Recent studies point out that sufficient storage capacity in saline aquifers and depleted gas fields is available to permanently store several decades worth of current CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, a significant hurdle for the post-demonstration phase of CCS development is the lack of proven and tested storage reservoirs. One of the goals of the EU FP7 SiteChar project is to develop an efficient site characterisation workflow, to support the development of the numerous storage sites that will be needed for large-scale deployment of CCS. The workflow is designed to address all aspects of safe and secure storage required by the EU Storage Directive. The links between the Storage Directive requirements and the site characterisation workflow are described in detail. The workflow is currently being applied to five sites suitable for CCS across Europe. A final version of the workflow will be published early 2014.

  20. Molecular screening of metal-organic frameworks for CO2 storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarao, Ravichandar; Jiang, Jianwen

    2008-06-17

    We report a molecular simulation study for CO2 storage in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). As compared to the aluminum-free and cation-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites and carbon nanotube bundle, IRMOF1 exhibits remarkably higher capacity. Incorporation of Na(+) cations into zeolite increases the capacity only at low pressures. By variation of the metal oxide, organic linker, functional group, and framework topology, a series of isoreticular MOFs (IRMOF1, Mg-IRMOF1, Be-IRMOF1, IRMOF1-(NH2)4, IRMOF10, IRMOF13, and IRMOF14) are systematically examined, as well as UMCM-1, a fluorous MOF (F-MOF1), and a covalent-organic framework (COF102). The affinity with CO2 is enhanced by addition of a functional group, and the constricted pore is formed by interpenetration of the framework; both lead to a larger isosteric heat and Henry's constant and subsequently a stronger adsorption at low pressures. The organic linker plays a critical role in tuning the free volume and accessible surface area and largely determines CO2 adsorption at high pressures. As a combination of high capacity and low framework density, IRMOF10, IRMOF14, and UMCM-1 are identified from this study to be the best for CO2 storage, even surpass the experimentally reported highest capacity in MOF-177. COF102 is a promising candidate with high capacity at considerably low pressures. Both gravimetric and volumetric capacities at 30 bar correlate well with the framework density, free volume, porosity, and accessible surface area. These structure-function correlations are useful for a priori prediction of CO2 capacity and for the rational screening of MOFs toward high-efficacy CO2 storage.

  1. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology: The case of CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Reilly, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2-trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that

  2. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO2 abatement technology: The case of CO2 capture and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, V.M.; Reilly, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO2-trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO2 abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that

  3. Characterization of carbonate reservoir property changes due to dissolution for far-field conditions of CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangane, P. O.; Gouze, P.; Luquot, L.

    2012-12-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in reservoir pore fluid (e.g. deep saline aquifers), is one of the diverse technologies being explored for deacreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. After injecting the CO2 as a supercritical fluid at depth, it will slowly dissolve into the pore water producing low pH fluids with a high capacity for dissolving carbonates and consequently changing irreversibly the hydrodynamical properties of the reservoir. Characterizing these changes is essential for modelling flow and CO2 transport during and after the CO2 injection. Here we report experimental results from the injection of the CO2-saturated brine into two distinct limestone cores (a bioclastic carbonate and an oolitic carbonate) of 9 mm diameter, 18 mm length. 3D high-resolution X-ray microtomography (XRMT) of the rock sample have been performed before and after the experiments. The experiments were performed using in-situ sequestration conditions (P = 12MPa and T = 100°C), and notably, under chemical conditions given at the position far away from the well injection site (i.e area where the volume of dissolved CO2 into the brine is low, due to CO2 consumption by the dissolution processes occured during its transport from the well injection site). Permeability k is calculated from the pressure drop across the sample and porosity Φ is deduced from chemical concentration of the outlet fluid. The change of the pore structure is analysed in terms of connectivity, tortuosity and fluid-rock interface from processing the XRMT images. These experiments show that far from the well injection site, dissolution processes are characterized by slow mass tranfer including, in the case of carbonate rock, transport of fine particles, which locally clog the porous space. Then, that leads to the damage of the carbonate reservoir both in terms of connectivity of the porous space and CO2 hydrodynamical storage capacity. In fact, the results of the two experiments show that the porosity decreased locally

  4. Dynamic Entangled Porous Framework for Hydrocarbon (C2-C3) Storage, CO2 Capture, and Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikdar, Nivedita; Bonakala, Satyanarayana; Haldar, Ritesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Maji, Tapas Kumar

    2016-04-18

    Storage and separation of small (C1-C3) hydrocarbons are of great significance as these are alternative energy resources and also can be used as raw materials for many industrially important materials. Selective capture of greenhouse gas, CO2 from CH4 is important to improve the quality of natural gas. Among the available porous materials, MOFs with permanent porosity are the most suitable to serve these purposes. Herein, a two-fold entangled dynamic framework {[Zn2 (bdc)2 (bpNDI)]⋅4DMF}n with pore surface carved with polar functional groups and aromatic π clouds is exploited for selective capture of CO2 , C2, and C3 hydrocarbons at ambient condition. The framework shows stepwise CO2 and C2 H2 uptake at 195 K but type I profiles are observed at 298 K. The IAST selectivity of CO2 over CH4 is the highest (598 at 298 K) among the MOFs without open metal sites reported till date. It also shows high selectivity for C2 H2 , C2 H4 , C2 H6 , and C3 H8 over CH4 at 298 K. DFT calculations reveal that aromatic π surface and the polar imide (RNC=O) functional groups are the primary adsorption sites for adsorption. Furthermore, breakthrough column experiments showed CO2 /CH4 C2 H6 /CH4 and CO2 /N2 separation capability at ambient condition.

  5. Monitoring Concept for CO2 Storage at the Pilot Site Ketzin, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipki, Mario; Liebscher, Axel; Lüth, Stefan; Ivanova, Alexandra; Möller, Fabian; Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Rippe, Dennis; Zimmer, Martin; Szizybalski, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Between 2008 and 2013, the German Research Centre for Geosciences - GFZ has injected more than 67 kt of CO2 at the Pilot Site in Ketzin, 25 km west of Berlin. The CO2 was stored in porous sandstones of the Upper Triassic Stuttgart Formation at a depth of 630 to 650 m. In more than a decade, GFZ has developed and tested an extraordinary multi-monitoring concept for onshore CO2 storages which mainly comprises the following methods: Time-lapse 3D seismic surveying is the most commonly used method for imaging and monitoring a CO2-plume in the deep underground before, during and after the injection phase. Such campaigns require high logistical and financial efforts and can be realised only to a limited extent. At Ketzin, for instance, 3D-seismic repeat surveys were acquired using several thousand surface acquisition points and lasting over two or three months. Alternative approaches include permanently buried seismic receivers. Geoelectric measurements in Ketzin are mainly applied by using a permanent downhole electrode installation (Vertical Electrical Resistivity Array = VERA) which has been implemented in three wells behind the well casings. Measurements between 590 m to 735 m are constantly carried out covering the vertical thickness of the entire CO2 storage horizon. Valuable results were achieved by a combination of inhole, crosshole and surface downhole measurements which has been carried out with appropriate acquisition geometries. For focused areas around monitoring wells, geoelectric methods may support and supplement information from seismic surveys. Borehole monitoring of pressure and temperature are generally indispensable for every underground gas storage type. In Ketzin, a remote monitoring system for all wells has been installed that constantly provides the operators with values for date, time, downhole and wellhead pressure, depth, and temperature. Moreover, all wellheads are checked weekly during onsite inspections. Samples for chemical analysis are

  6. Pore scale modeling of reactive transport involved in geologic CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Qinjin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Viswanathan, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel-fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We apply a multi-component reactive transport lattice Boltzmann model developed in previolls studies to modeling the injection of a C02 saturated brine into various porous media structures at temperature T=25 and 80 C. The porous media are originally consisted of calcite. A chemical system consisting of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, CO2(aq), and CI-is considered. The fluid flow, advection and diHusion of aqueous species, homogeneous reactions occurring in the bulk fluid, as weB as the dissolution of calcite and precipitation of dolomite are simulated at the pore scale. The effects of porous media structure on reactive transport are investigated. The results are compared with continuum scale modeling and the agreement and discrepancy are discussed. This work may shed some light on the fundamental physics occurring at the pore scale for reactive transport involved in geologic C02 sequestration.

  7. An integrated petrophysical-geophysical approach for the characterization of a potential caprock-reservoir system for CO2 storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Casula, Giuseppe; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The selection of a CO2 geologic storage site requires the choice of a study site suitable for the characterization in order to create a robust experimental database especially regarding the spatial petrophysical heterogeneities and elasto-mechanical properties of the rocks that make up a potential caprock-reservoir system. In our study the petrophysical and elasto-mechanical characterization began in a previously well drilled area in the northern part of the Sulcis coal basin (Nuraxi Figus area - SW Sardinia - Italy) where crucial geologic data were recovered from high-quality samples from stratigraphic wells and from mining galleries. The basin represents one of the most important Italian carbon reserves characterized by a great mining potential. In the study area, the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Fm. made up of terrigeneous continental rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for CO2 storage. Petrophysical and geophysical investigations were carried out by a great number of laboratory tests on the core samples and in situ measurements on a mining gallery in order to characterize the potential caprock-reservoir system and to substantially reduce geologic uncertainty in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of CO2 storage capacity. In order to better define the spatial distribution of the petrophysical heterogeneity, the seismic responses from the caprock-reservoir system formations were also analysed and correlated with the petrophysical and elasto-mechanical properties In a second step of this work, we also analysed the tectonic stability of the study area by the integrated application of remote-sensing monitoring spatial geodetic techniques. In particular, the global positioning system (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (inSAR) were considered

  8. Simplified models of transport and reactions in conditions of CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolska, Katarzyna; Labus, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Simple hydrogeochemical models may serve as tools of preliminary assessment of CO2 injection and sequestraton impact on the aquifer and cap-rocks. In order to create models of reaction and transport in conditions of CO2 injection and storage, the TOUGHREACT simulator, and the Geochemist's Workbench software were applied. The chemical composition of waters for kinetic transport models based on the water - rock equilibrium calculations. Analyses of reaction and transport of substances during CO2 injection and storage period were carried out in three scenarios: one-dimensional radial model, and two-dimensional model of CO2 injection and sequestration, and one-dimensional model of aquifer - cap-rock interface. Modeling was performed in two stages. The first one simulated the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by CO2 injection (100 days in case of reaction model and 30 years in transport and reaction model), the second - enabled assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (20000 years). Reactions' quality and progress were monitored and their effects on formation porosity and sequestration capacity in form of mineral, residual and free phase of CO2 were calculated. Calibration of numerical models (including precipitation of secondary minerals, and correction of kinetics parameters) describing the initial stage of injection, was based on the experimental results. Modeling allowed to evaluate the pore space saturation with gas, changes in the composition and pH of pore waters, relationships between porosity and permeability changes and crystallization or dissolution minerals. We assessed the temporal and spatial extent of crystallization processes, and the amount of carbonates trapping. CO2 in mineral form. The calculated sequestration capacity of analyzed formations reached n·100 kg/m3 for the: dissolved phase - CO(aq), gas phase - CO2(g) and mineral phase, but as much as 101 kg/m3 for the supercritical phase - SCCO2. Processes of gas

  9. Brine/CO2 Interfacial Properties and Effects on CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers Propriétés interfaciales saumure/CO2 et effets sur le stockage du CO2 dans des aquifères salins profonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalbaud C.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been long recognized that interfacial interactions (interfacial tension, wettability, capillarity and interfacial mass transfer govern fluid distribution and behaviour in porous media. Therefore the interfacial interactions between CO2, brine and reservoir oil and/or gas have an important influence on the effectiveness of any CO2 storage operation. There is a lack of experimental data related to interfacial properties for all the geological storage options (oil & gas reservoirs, coalbeds, deep saline aquifers. In the case of deep saline aquifers, there is a gap in data and knowledge of brine-CO2 interfacial properties at storage conditions. More specifically, experimental interfacial tension values and experimental tests in porous media are necessary to better understand the wettability evolution as a function of thermodynamic conditions and it’s effects on fluid flow in the porous media. In this paper, a complete set of experimental values of brine-CO2 Interfaciale Tension (IFT at pressure, temperature and salt concentration conditions representative of those of a CO2 storage operation. A correlation is derived from experimental data published in a companion paper [Chalbaud C., Robin M., Lombard J.-M., Egermann P., Bertin H. (2009 Interfacial Tension Measurements and Wettability Evaluation for Geological CO2 Storage, Adv. Water Resour. 32, 1, 1-109] to model IFT values. This paper pays particular attention to coreflooding experiments showing that the CO2 partially wets the surface in a Intermediate-Wet (IW or Oil-Wet (OW limestone rock. This wetting behavior of CO2 is coherent with observations at the pore scale in glass micromodels and presents a negative impact on the storage capacity of a given site. Il est admis depuis longtemps que les propriétés interfaciales (tension interfaciale, mouillabilité, capillarité et transfert de masse régissent la distribution et le comportement des fluides au sein des milieux poreux. Par cons

  10. Allocation to carbon storage pools in Norway spruce saplings under drought and low CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; McDowell, Nate G; Trumbore, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are critical to maintain plant metabolism under stressful environmental conditions, but we do not fully understand how NSC allocation and utilization from storage varies with stress. While it has become established that storage allocation is unlikely to be a mere overflow process, very little empirical evidence has been produced to support this view, at least not for trees. Here we present the results of an intensively monitored experimental manipulation of whole-tree carbon (C) balance (young Picea abies (L.) H Karst.) using reduced atmospheric [CO2] and drought to reduce C sources. We measured specific C storage pools (glucose, fructose, sucrose, starch) over 21 weeks and converted concentration measurement into fluxes into and out of the storage pool. Continuous labeling ((13)C) allowed us to track C allocation to biomass and non-structural C pools. Net C fluxes into the storage pool occurred mainly when the C balance was positive. Storage pools increased during periods of positive C gain and were reduced under negative C gain. (13)C data showed that C was allocated to storage pools independent of the net flux and even under severe C limitation. Allocation to below-ground tissues was strongest in control trees followed by trees experiencing drought followed by those grown under low [CO2]. Our data suggest that NSC storage has, under the conditions of our experimental manipulation (e.g., strong progressive drought, no above-ground growth), a high allocation priority and cannot be considered an overflow process. While these results also suggest active storage allocation, definitive proof of active plant control of storage in woody plants requires studies involving molecular tools.

  11. The DELPHI expert process of the German umbrella project AUGE as basis for recommendations to CO2 storage in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Peter; Schoebel, Birgit; Liebscher, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Within the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN funding scheme for geological CO2 storage by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in Germany 33 projects (135 subprojects) have been funded with a total budget of 58 Mio € (excluding industry funds) from 2005 to 2014. In 2012, the German parliament passed the transposition of the EU CCS Directive 2009/31/EG into the national "Carbon Dioxide Storage Law" (KSpG). Annex 1 of the KSpG provides a description of criteria for the characterization and assessment of a potential CO2 storage site. Annex 2 describes the expected monitoring system of a CO2 storage site. The criteria given in the appendices are of general nature, which reflects (1) that the CO2 storage technology is still being developed and (2) that site specific aspects needs to be considered. In 2012 an umbrella project called AUGE has been launched in order to compile and summarize the results of the GEOTECHNOLOGIEN projects to underpin the two Annexes scientifically. By integration of the individual project results AUGE aims at derive recommendations for the review and implementation of the KSpG. The recommendations shall be drafted based on a common ground of science, public authorities and industry. Therefore, the AUGE project includes a Delphi expert process as an essential part. It is realized in cooperation with the company COMPARE Consulting, Göppingen. The implementation of the Delphi-Process is organized in three steps: • After the technical preparation of a standardized questionnaire (2014/2015) it was sent to 129 experts from science, industry and public authorities in Germany. After a few weeks of consideration time, 40 persons (30 %) had decided to participate actively in this inquiry. • Following the results of the first interrogation campaign, the second survey campaign started at the end of 2015. The same list of questions was used, complemented with the results of the first inquiry campaign. The intention is reduce the variance of the

  12. A leak monitoring method for CO2 storage sites using ratio of ∆CO2:∆O2 at the soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M. M.; Norman, A. L.; Layzell, D. B.; Amiri, N.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology has a high potential for reducing carbon emission at large scales. However, the success of CCS projects vastly depends on the continuous monitoring of injected CO2 and ensuring it remains below ground. The technology currently available for monitoring sites are mainly adopted from disciplines which are effective at detecting high volume leaks but may not be reliable in distinguishing seepage of CO2 from underground and fossil fuel combustion at the surface. We have constructed a numerical model that includes soil characteristics and the bio-geo-chemical dynamics of near surface soils and soil gases. The simulation of our model can predict O2 and CO2 profiles in soil and differential ratios with respect to atmospheric concentrations (∆CO2 and ∆O2), and distinguish CO2 leaks. Experiments on a 1-m soil column have been conducted using dual channel IR and fuel cell analyzers to verify our model predictions. The preliminary results show that measured O2 and CO2 concentrations in near-surface soil layers and the ratio of ∆CO2:∆O2 at the soil surface are in agreement with our model. Based on initial results it is expected that this method of monitoring will able to detect fluxes as small as 2-6µmole/m2/s of CO 2 leakage.

  13. Predicting long-term performance of engineered geologic carbon dioxide storage systems to inform decisions amidst uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, R.

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessment and risk management of engineered geologic CO2 storage systems is an area of active investigation. The potential geologic CO2 storage systems currently under consideration are inherently heterogeneous and have limited to no characterization data. Effective risk management decisions to ensure safe, long-term CO2 storage requires assessing and quantifying risks while taking into account the uncertainties in a storage site's characteristics. The key decisions are typically related to definition of area of review, effective monitoring strategy and monitoring duration, potential of leakage and associated impacts, etc. A quantitative methodology for predicting a sequestration site's long-term performance is critical for making key decisions necessary for successful deployment of commercial scale geologic storage projects where projects will require quantitative assessments of potential long-term liabilities. An integrated assessment modeling (IAM) paradigm which treats a geologic CO2 storage site as a system made up of various linked subsystems can be used to predict long-term performance. The subsystems include storage reservoir, seals, potential leakage pathways (such as wellbores, natural fractures/faults) and receptors (such as shallow groundwater aquifers). CO2 movement within each of the subsystems and resulting interactions are captured through reduced order models (ROMs). The ROMs capture the complex physical/chemical interactions resulting due to CO2 movement and interactions but are computationally extremely efficient. The computational efficiency allows for performing Monte Carlo simulations necessary for quantitative probabilistic risk assessment. We have used the IAM to predict long-term performance of geologic CO2 sequestration systems and to answer questions related to probability of leakage of CO2 through wellbores, impact of CO2/brine leakage into shallow aquifer, etc. Answers to such questions are critical in making key risk management

  14. Storage of Renewable Energy by Reduction of CO2 with Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Mauron, Philippe; Kato, Shunsuke; Callini, Elsa; Holzer, Marco; Huang, Jianmei

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between the past energy economy during the industrialization period which was mainly based on mining of fossil fuels, e.g. coal, oil and methane and the future energy economy based on renewable energy is the requirement for storage of the energy fluxes. Renewable energy, except biomass, appears in time- and location-dependent energy fluxes as heat or electricity upon conversion. Storage and transport of energy requires a high energy density and has to be realized in a closed materials cycle. The hydrogen cycle, i.e. production of hydrogen from water by renewable energy, storage and use of hydrogen in fuel cells, combustion engines or turbines, is a closed cycle. However, the hydrogen density in a storage system is limited to 20 mass% and 150 kg/m(3) which limits the energy density to about half of the energy density in fossil fuels. Introducing CO(2) into the cycle and storing hydrogen by the reduction of CO(2) to hydrocarbons allows renewable energy to be converted into synthetic fuels with the same energy density as fossil fuels. The resulting cycle is a closed cycle (CO(2) neutral) if CO(2) is extracted from the atmosphere. Today's technology allows CO(2) to be reduced either by the Sabatier reaction to methane, by the reversed water gas shift reaction to CO and further reduction of CO by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to hydrocarbons or over methanol to gasoline. The overall process can only be realized on a very large scale, because the large number of by-products of FTS requires the use of a refinery. Therefore, a well-controlled reaction to a specific product is required for the efficient conversion of renewable energy (electricity) into an easy to store liquid hydrocarbon (fuel). In order to realize a closed hydrocarbon cycle the two major challenges are to extract CO(2) from the atmosphere close to the thermodynamic limit and to reduce CO(2) with hydrogen in a controlled reaction to a specific hydrocarbon. Nanomaterials with

  15. Have We Overestimated Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage Capacities? Avons-nous surestimé les capacités de stockage de CO2 des aquifères salins ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibeau S.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During future, large scale CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers, fluid pressure is expected to rise as a consequence of CO2 injection, but the pressure build up will have to stay below specified values to ensure a safe and long term containment of the CO2 in the storage site. The pressure build up is the result of two different effects. The first effect is a local overpressure around the injectors, which is due to the high CO2 velocities around the injectors, and which can be mitigated by adding CO2 injectors. The second effect is a regional scale pressure build up that will take place if the storage aquifer is closed or if the formation water that flows away from the pressurised area is not large enough to compensate volumetrically the CO2 injection. This second effect cannot be mitigated by adding additional injectors. In the first section of this paper, we review some major global and regional assessments of CO2 storage capacities in deep saline aquifers, in term of mass and storage efficiency. These storage capacities are primarily based on a volumetric approach: storage capacity is the volumetric sum of the CO2 that can be stored through various trapping mechanisms. We then discuss in Section 2 storage efficiencies derived from a pressure build up approach, as stated in the CO2STORE final report (Chadwick A. et al. (eds (2008 Best Practice for the Storage of CO2 in Saline Aquifers, Observations and Guidelines from the SACS and CO2STORE Projects, Keyworth, Nottingham, BGS Occasional Publication No. 14 and detailed by Van der Meer and Egberts (van der Meer L.G.H., Egberts P.J.P. (2008 A General Method for Calculating Subsurface CO2 Storage Capacity, OTC Paper 19309, presented at the OTC Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 5-8 May. A quantitative range of such storage efficiency is presented, based on a review of orders of magnitudes of pore and water compressibilities and allowable pressure increase. To illustrate the relevance of

  16. Modelling ruptures of buried high pressure dense phase CO2 pipelines in carbon capture and storage applications - Part I. Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wareing, CJ; Fairweather, M.; Falle, SAEG; Woolley, RM

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage presents a short-term option for significantly reducing the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere and mitigating the effects of climate change. To this end, National Grid initiated the COOLTRANS research programme to consider the pipeline transportation of high pressure dense phase CO2, including the development and application of a mathematical model for predicting the sonic near-field dispersion of pure CO2 following the venting or failure of su...

  17. Genomic insights into growth and survival of supercritical-CO2 tolerant bacterium MIT0214 under conditions associated with geologic carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Hernandez, H.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO2 has the potential to significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses associated with fossil fuel combustion. The largest potential for storing captured CO2 in the United Sates is in deep geologic saline formations. Currently, little is known about the effects of CO2 storage on biologically active microbial communities found in the deep earth biosphere. Therefore, to investigate how deep earth microbial communities will be affected by the storage of CO2 we have enriched for a microbial consortium from the saline formation waters of the Frio 2 project site (Texas Gulf Coast) that is capable of growth in nutrient media under a supercritical CO2 headspace (Hernandez, et al). The cultivation of actively growing cells in an environment containing scCO2 is unexpected based on previous experimental evidence of microbial sterilization attributed to the acidic, desiccating, and solvent-like properties of scCO2. We have isolated strain MIT0214 from this supercritical CO2 based enrichment and have sequenced its genome using the Illumina platform followed by de novo assembly of reads and targeted Sanger sequencing to reduce gaps in the draft assembly. The genome of strain MIT0214 is approximately 5,551,062 base pairs with 35% GC-content and is most similar to nonpathogenic Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14597. Annotation of the draft assembly of the MIT0214 genome by the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server revealed 5538 coding sequences where 4145 of the coding sequences were assigned putative functions. These functions were enriched in cell wall and capsule formation, phage/prophage and plasmids, gene regulation and signaling, and nitrogen and sulfur metabolism relative to the genome of the most closely-related surface-isolated B. cereus reference (ATCC 14597) and in total 773,416 bp of the MIT0214 genome content was distinct from the B. cereus reference. Notably, this set of distinct sequences were most

  18. Caprock compressibility and permeability and the consequences for pressure development in CO2 storage sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbia, Ernest Ncha; Frykman, Peter; Nielsen, Carsten Møller;

    2014-01-01

    Large scale CO2 storage has previously been considered for the Vedsted structure located in the Northern part of Jylland in Denmark. Pressure buildup in the Gassum reservoir and transmission to the shallower Chalk Group where the brine-fresh water interface resides need to be investigated as part...... Formation from the samples measured. The sensitivity of pressure development for the caprock permeability has been studied by varying from one to three orders of magnitude higher and one to two orders of magnitude lower than the measured permeability of 0.1μD. Injecting 60 million tons (Mt) of CO2 at a rate...... study and the results indicate that higher overpressure is created in the reservoir and the caprock. Overestimating caprock compressibility can therefore underestimate overpressure within the storage and sealing formations and this can have significant implication in the presence of highly permeable...

  19. Geophysical Monitoring at the Aquistore CO2 Storage Site, Saskatchewan, Canada (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Aquistore Project, located near Estevan, Saskatchewan, is designed to demonstrate CO2 storage in a deep saline aquifer. CO2 captured from the nearby Boundary Dam coal-fired power plant will be injected into a brine-filled sandstone formation at ~3300 m depth, starting in November, 2013. A key element of the Aquistore research program is the further development of geophysical methods to monitor the security and subsurface distribution of the injected CO2. Toward this end, a spectrum of geophysical techniques are being tested at the Aquistore site. Various time-lapse seismic methods, including 3D surface and vertical seismic profiles (VSP) as well as crosswell seismic tomography, are designed to provide monitoring of the CO2 plume. Novel components of the seismic monitoring include use of a sparse permanent array and borehole recording using a fiber optic distributed acoustic sensor (DAS) system. Gravity and electromagnetic methods are providing complementary monitoring. Pre-injection baseline surveys have been acquired for each of these methods. In addition, continuous pre-injection monitoring has been ongoing since the summer of 2012 to establish background surface deformation patterns and local seismicity prior to the start of CO2 injection. A network of GPS stations, surface tiltmeters and InSAR reflectors has been deployed to monitor injection-related surface deformation. Passive seismic monitoring is being conducted using two orthogonal linear arrays of surface geophones.

  20. Assessing the Potential of Utilization and Storage Strategies for Post-Combustion CO2 Emissions Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Styring, P.; Armstrong, K.

    2015-01-01

    The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture is considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS), enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR), and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU) to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a “cradle to grave approach” where the final destination a...

  1. A Fundamental Study of Convective Mixing Contributing to Dissolution Trapping of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geologic Media using Surrogate Fluids and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Agartan, Eliff; Trevisan, Luca; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2013-04-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered as an important strategy to slow down global warming and hence climate change. Dissolution trapping is one of the primary mechanisms contributing to long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline geologic formations. When liquid scCO2 is injected into the formation, its density is less than density of brine. During the movement of injected scCO2 under the effect of buoyancy forces, it is immobilized due to capillary forces. With the progress of time, entrapped scCO2 dissolves in formation brine, and density-driven convective fingers are expected to be generated due to the higher density of the solute compared to brine. These fingers enhance mixing of dissolved CO2 in brine. The development and role of these convective fingers in mixing in homogeneous formations have been studied in past investigations. The goal of this study is to evaluate the contribution of convective mixing to dissolution trapping of scCO2 in naturally heterogeneous geologic formations via laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. To mimic the dissolution of scCO2 in formation brine under ambient laboratory conditions, a group of surrogate fluids were selected according to their density and viscosity ratios, and tested in different fluid/fluid mixtures and variety of porous media test systems. After selection of the appropriate fluid mixture, a set of experiments in a small test tank packed in homogeneous configurations was performed in order to analyze the fingering behavior. A second set of experiments was conducted for layered systems to study the effects of formation heterogeneity on convective mixing. To capture the dominant processes observed in the experiments, a Finite Volume based numerical code was developed. The model was then used to simulate more complex heterogeneous systems that were not represented in the experiments. Results of these analyses suggest that density-driven convective fingers that contributes

  2. Techno-economic assessment of four CO2 storage sites = Évaluation technico-économique de quatre sites de stockage de CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruson, J.F.; Serbutoviez, S.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.; Akhurst, M.; Nielsen, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Bergmo, P.; Bos, C.; Volpi, V.; Iacobellis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA) in their last projectio

  3. Techno-economic assessment of four CO2 storage sites = Évaluation technico-économique de quatre sites de stockage de CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruson, J.F.; Serbutoviez, S.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.; Akhurst, M.; Nielsen, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Bergmo, P.; Bos, C.; Volpi, V.; Iacobellis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA) in their last projectio

  4. Techno-economic assessment of four CO2 storage sites = Évaluation technico-économique de quatre sites de stockage de CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruson, J.F.; Serbutoviez, S.; Delprat-Jannaud, F.; Akhurst, M.; Nielsen, C.; Dalhoff, F.; Bergmo, P.; Bos, C.; Volpi, V.; Iacobellis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA) in their last

  5. A Numerical Modeling Study of Effect of Heterogeneity on Capillary Trapping of Geologically Sequestrated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.; Trevisan, L.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez, D.; Sakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneities at multiple scales influence migration and trapping of geologically sequestrated CO2 during injection and post-injection periods. Understanding of small-scale processes is crucial to device upscaling methodologies for incorporating them into macroscopic-scale models. The upscaled models are in turn used to get insights into the complex field-scale processes involved in the migration of supercritical CO2. Theoretical research based on numerical model analysis presented in this study focuses on capillary entrapment in homogeneous and heterogeneous small-scale and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments with surrogate fluids, presented in a companion presentation (Treviso et al., 2011). An improved understanding of pore-scale and larger scale processes on capillary entrapment may be achieved by combining pore-scale and macroscopic-scale modeling approaches. Capillarity controlled entrapped non-wetting phase saturation in macroscopic-scale models is generally either provided as an input parameter after laboratory scale measurements or estimated empirically. A particle trajectory modeling approach with pore-scale physics included is used to gain insights to development of physically-based models for the capillary entrapment in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The particle trajectory modeling generates functional relationships between phase saturation, entrapped phase saturation, hydraulic properties of the medium, and velocity of injected phase, which eventually are planned to be used for developing macroscopic scale models of capillary entrapment. The predictions of entrapped fluid saturation from the particle trajectory model are verified with measurements from the small scale experimental test systems. Macroscopic two-phase flow modeling approach with existing and modified constitutive models is tested by comparisons with both small-scale and intermediate-scale experimental results. T2VOC module based on TOUGH2 is used to simulate two

  6. Simulated anthropogenic CO2 storage and acidification of the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Palmiéri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Constraints on the Mediterranean Sea's storage of anthropogenic CO2 are limited, coming only from data-based approaches that disagree by more than a factor of two. Here we simulate this marginal sea's anthropogenic carbon storage by applying a perturbation approach in a high-resolution regional model. Our model simulates that, between 1800 and 2001, basin-wide CO2 storage by the Mediterranean Sea has increased by 1.0 Pg C, a lower limit based on the model's weak deep-water ventilation, as revealed by evaluation with CFC-12. Furthermore, by testing a data-based approach (transit time distribution in our model, comparing simulated anthropogenic CO2 to values computed from simulated CFC-12 and physical variables, we conclude that the associated basin-wide storage of 1.7 Pg, published previously, must be an upper bound. Out of the total simulated storage of 1.0 Pg C, 75% comes from the air–sea flux into the Mediterranean Sea and 25% comes from net transport from the Atlantic across the Strait of Gibraltar. Sensitivity tests indicate that the Mediterranean Sea's higher total alkalinity, relative to the global-ocean mean, enhances the Mediterranean's total inventory of anthropogenic carbon by 10%. Yet the corresponding average anthropogenic change in surface pH does not differ significantly from the global-ocean average, despite higher total alkalinity. In Mediterranean deep waters, the pH change is estimated to be between −0.005 and −0.06 pH units.

  7. Value chain analysis of CO2 storage by using the Ecco tool: Storage economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeve, D.; Bos, C.; Chitu, A.; Loveseth, S.; Wahl, P.E.; Coussy, P.; Eickhoff, C.

    2013-01-01

    The ECCO Tool [1, 2] has been developed in the “ECCO – European value chain for CO2” project [3]. ECCO was a collaborating project under the 7th framework programme for research of the EU. The ECCO Tool is a software program designed to evaluate quantitatively the post-tax economics of Carbon

  8. Subcritical crack growth in a chemically reactive environment-implications for caprock integrity for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z.; Eichhubl, P.; Callahan, O. A.; Major, J. R.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Seal integrity of cap-rock is a critical constraint on the long term performance of CO2 containment site. During fluid migration, the coupled geochemical reaction of minerals and geomechanical deformation of rock matrix may affect the seal integrity. The potential leakage of injected CO2 from cap-rock through preexisting fractures/faults represents a major concern associated with geological storage of CO2. To address the fundamental question of CO2 leakage through subcritical growth of fractures driven by chemically reactive fluid across caprocks, we build a Dugdale cohesive model. Ahead of the physical crack tip, a narrow band of cohesive zone is assumed to exist with the upper and lower cohesive surfaces held by the cohesive traction. In the vicinity of the crack tip, minerals dissolve due to the acidic environment and migrate from the physical crack tip into the cohesive zone causing damage of rock matrix in the form of a reduction of cohesive traction.Focusing on the dissolution of calcite and following the stress corrosion theory, we assume the degradation of cohesive traction is linearly proportional to the concentration of Ca2+whose evolution follows the reactive diffusion equation. Using a critical crack opening displacement criterion, the subcritical propagation behavior of crack due to stress corrosion is captured and the rate-limiting effects including the chemical reactions to produce the Ca2+ and the transport of minerals along the newly generated fracture cohesive zone are incorporated. Subcritical crack growth rate under different chemical environment conditions is examined and compared with the experimental fracture mechanics testing.

  9. Impact of CO2 leakage from sub-seabed carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) reservoirs on benthic virus-prokaryote interactions and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, Eugenio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Amaro, Teresa; Queirós, Ana M; Widdicombe, Stephen; Danovaro, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 emissions are a global concern due to their predicted impact on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning, and human life. Among the proposed mitigation strategies, CO2 capture and storage, primarily the injection of CO2 into marine deep geological formations has been suggested as a technically practical option for reducing emissions. However, concerns have been raised that possible leakage from such storage sites, and the associated elevated levels of pCO2 could locally impact the biodiversity and biogeochemical processes in the sediments above these reservoirs. Whilst a number of impact assessment studies have been conducted, no information is available on the specific responses of viruses and virus-host interactions. In the present study, we tested the impact of a simulated CO2 leakage on the benthic microbial assemblages, with specific focus on microbial activity and virus-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM). We found that exposure to levels of CO2 in the overlying seawater from 1,000 to 20,000 ppm for a period up to 140 days, resulted in a marked decrease in heterotrophic carbon production and organic matter degradation rates in the sediments, associated with lower rates of VIPM, and a progressive accumulation of sedimentary organic matter with increasing CO2 concentrations. These results suggest that the increase in seawater pCO2 levels that may result from CO2 leakage, can severely reduce the rates of microbial-mediated recycling of the sedimentary organic matter and viral infections, with major consequences on C cycling and nutrient regeneration, and hence on the functioning of benthic ecosystems.

  10. CO2 hydrate formation and dissociation in cooled porous media: a potential technology for CO2 capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen; Jiang, Lanlan; Zhu, Ningjun; Liu, Yu; Zhao, Yuechao; Dou, Binlin; Li, Qingping

    2013-09-03

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hydrate formation and dissociation with CO2 flowing through cooled porous media at different flow rates, pressures, temperatures, and flow directions. CO2 hydrate saturation was quantified using the mean intensity of water. The experimental results showed that the hydrate block appeared frequently, and it could be avoided by stopping CO2 flooding early. Hydrate formed rapidly as the temperature was set to 274.15 or 275.15 K, but the hydrate formation delayed when it was 276.15 K. The flow rate was an important parameter for hydrate formation; a too high or too low rate was not suitable for CO2 hydration formation. A low operating pressure was also unacceptable. The gravity made hydrate form easily in the vertically upward flow direction. The pore water of the second cycle converted to hydrate more completely than that of the first cycle, which was a proof of the hydrate "memory effect". When the pressure was equal to atmospheric pressure, hydrate did not dissociate rapidly and abundantly, and a long time or reduplicate depressurization should be used in industrial application.

  11. Determining Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Systematics in Brines at Elevated p/T Conditions to Enhance Monitoring of CO2 Induced Processes in Carbon Storage Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, V.; Myrttinen, A.; Mayer, B.; Barth, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    factors. Laboratory experiments with original reservoir fluids from CO2 storage reservoirs in Canada using supercritical fluid extraction reactors are being conducted at temperatures of up to 200 °C and CO2 pressures of up to 20 MPa. Preliminary results show that equilibration times for δ18O in high saline waters increase by an order of magnitude compared to fresh water, with exact times depending on CO2 partial pressure, stirring and the contact area between the phases. References Becker, V. et al., 2011. Predicting δ13CDIC dynamics in CCS: A scheme based on a review of inorganic carbon chemistry under elevated pressures and temperatures. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 5, pp.1250-1258. Johnson, G. et al., 2011. Using oxygen isotope ratios to quantitatively assess trapping mechanisms during CO2 injection into geological reservoirs: The Pembina case study. Chemical Geology, 283(3-4), pp.185-193.

  12. Interpreting detailed brine chemistry changes during early periods of in-zone CO2 storage at Cranfield site, Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.; Islam, A.; Lu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical reactions can play important role on the long-term geological storage of CO2 in sites where the target formations have reactive minerals. Although the use of batch models (experimental or theoretical) is expedient, it leaves questions about how to interpret the results from the context of field scale injection. The goal of this study is to investigate changes in fluid compositions using a detailed reactive transport model. Most published CO2 geochemical studies tend to consider only a small number of components because of expensive calculations and therefore simultaneous mobility of large number of heavy metals is not clearly known. In this study we present results of coupled multiphase, multicomponent reactive transport simulations of Cranfield site, Mississipi, USA at relatively fine scale, which are obtained using the parallel PFLOTRAN code. The geochemical system consists of 22 primary or basis species, in-situ CO2 and O2 gaseous components, and 5 minerals. The number of secondary elements is 37, representing very simple to complex mineralizations occurred simultaneously in saline formation (1.81 molality). The fluid chemical compositions were measured from production fluids and mineral composition of the formation was obtained from XRD analysis of core samples. The results show brine chemistry changes in the reservoir and shed insights on the need to monitor the mobility of heavy metals such as Mg, Ca, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ba, and Cd. The study provides simultaneous potential mobile inventory of these metals in the storage formations and warns possible risk through leakage into overlying zone. From storage point of view we also aim to observe the sensitivity of aforementioned constituents. Our results show pH drop from 6.91 to 3.5 and relatively small changes in HCO3- and Fe concentrations. However aqueous Ca and Al increase by orders of magnitude. The detailed geochemical effect shows trapping efficiency increased by few percent. The brine

  13. Correction: Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Graves, Christopher R.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2017-01-01

    Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479.......Correction for ‘Large-scale electricity storage utilizing reversible solid oxide cells combined with underground storage of CO2 and CH4’ by S. H. Jensen et al., Energy Environ. Sci., 2015, 8, 2471–2479....

  14. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Berghout, Niels|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328201057; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience curve

  15. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld; Berghout, Niels; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience curve

  16. The potential of renewables versus natural gas with CO2 capture and storage for power generation under CO2 constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Broek, Machteld; Berghout, Niels; Rubin, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    The costs of intermittent renewable energy systems (IRES) and power storage technologies are compared on a level playing field to those of natural gas combined cycle power plants with CO2 capture and storage (NGCC-CCS). To account for technological progress over time, an "experience

  17. Mineral Chemistry and Precipitation Kinetics of Dawsonite in the Geological Sequestration of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, R.; Carey, J. W.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Dawsonite [NaAl(OH)2CO3] is a relatively rare mineral that may play an important role in the geological sequestration of CO2: thermodynamic and reactive transport calculations predict that dawsonite should precipitate under a variety of CO2 injection scenarios by dissolution of Al-bearing minerals in Na-bearing brine. The precipitation of dawsonite is potentially beneficial as a means of fixing the CO2 in solid form but could also modify porosity and permeability. The relative rarity of natural dawsonite occurrences, however, indicates that either appropriate CO2-rich environments are rare in nature or that dawsonite formation is inhibited or more complex than the simplified geochemical systems used in the model calculations. We have conducted synthesis experiments and dissolution studies to help understand precipitation dynamics, Na-K substitution, and solubility. Both Na- and K-dawsonite were readily synthesized from mixtures of (Na,K)HCO3 and gibbsite [Al(OH)3] at 150°C for 24 hours. [Syntheses were made in unstirred, closed ParrTM reaction vessels and consisted generally of 15 ml of H2O with 6 g (Na,K)HCO3 and sufficient Al-bearing mineral to achieve a (Na,K)/Al ratio of 8.] At lower temperatures, a 41% yield of dawsonite was achieved at 120°C; 1% at 94°C; and no reaction was observed at ≤75°C. In contrast, other Al-bearing minerals including albite, analcime and pyrophyllite at 150°C (28 days) and albite, pyrophyllite, and clinoptilolite at 200°C (66 days) showed no evidence of dawsonite formation but did yield analcime. Kaolinite, however, did produce 1% dawsonite at 75°C (40 days), 37% at 150°C (90 days), and some dawsonite in addition to a complex mixture of albite, cancrisilite, and other phases at 200°C (66 days). Thermodynamic calculations suggest that silica activity restricts the range of dawsonite stability and synthesis experiments with gibbsite-quartz and gibbsite-opal-CT were significantly different than gibbsite alone. At 150°C, the

  18. Remaining gaps for "safe" CO2 storage: the INGV CO2GAPS vision of "learning by doing" monitoring geogas leakage, reservoirs contamination/mixing and induced/triggered seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Vinciguerra, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Boschi, E.; Anselmi, M.; Burrato, P.; Buttinelli, M.; Cantucci, B.; Cinti, D.; Galli, G.; Improta, L.; Nazzari, M.; Pischiutta, M.; Pizzino, L.; Procesi, M.; Rovelli, A.; Sciarra, A.; Voltattorni, N.

    2012-12-01

    The CO2GAPS project proposed by INGV is intended to build up an European Proposal for a new kind of research strategy in the field of the geogas storage. Aim of the project would be to fill such key GAPS concerning the main risks associated to CO2 storage and their implications on the entire Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process, which are: i) the geogas leakage both in soils and shallow aquifers, up to indoor seepage; ii) the reservoirs contamination/mixing by hydrocarbons and heavy metals; iii) induced or triggered seismicity and microseismicity, especially for seismogenic blind faults. In order to consider such risks and make the CCS public acceptance easier, a new kind of research approach should be performed by: i) a better multi-disciplinary and "site specific" risk assessment; ii) the development of more reliable multi-disciplinary monitoring protocols. In this view robust pre-injection base-lines (seismicity and degassing) as well as identification and discrimination criteria for potential anomalies are mandatory. CO2 injection dynamic modelling presently not consider reservoirs geomechanical properties during reactive mass-transport large scale simulations. Complex simulations of the contemporaneous physic-chemical processes involving CO2-rich plumes which move, react and help to crack the reservoir rocks are not totally performed. These activities should not be accomplished only by the oil-gas/electric companies, since the experienced know-how should be shared among the CCS industrial operators and research institutions, with the governments support and overview, also flanked by a transparent and "peer reviewed" scientific popularization process. In this context, a preliminary and reliable 3D modelling of the entire "storage complex" as defined by the European Directive 31/2009 is strictly necessary, taking into account the above mentioned geological, geochemical and geophysical risks. New scientific results could also highlighting such opportunities

  19. 基于数值模拟探讨提高咸水层CO2封存注入率的途径%Numerical investigation for enhancing injectivity of CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许雅琴; 张可霓; 王洋

    2012-01-01

    咸水层CO2地质封存是减少大气中CO2排放量的有效途径.CO2注入率是衡量咸水层中CO2注入能力的有效因素,因此,研究注入速率的变化规律及提高的措施是很有工程价值的.在很多区域,地层的低渗透性限制了CO2的注入率.针对鄂尔多斯盆地的水文地质条件,通过数值模拟,探讨在低渗透性咸水层中提高CO2注入率的途径,包括改变储层中的盐度、采用水平井注入、增加注入井段的长度以及采取水力压裂等工程措施.其中改变储层中的盐度可通过在注入C02前向储层中注入一定量的水来实现.模拟结果表明,这些方式可以有效地提高CO2注入率,其中水平井改造方式和水力压裂工程措施效果显著,盐度改造措施在地层初始含盐度较高时,会有更好的效果.研究结果可为鄂尔多斯盆地和类似地区的咸水层CO2地质封存项目提供参考.%CO2 storage in deep saline aquifers is considered to be an imperative practical mean for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Injectivity is one of key factors for determining the feasibility for storage of CO2 in a brine field. Research into the injection rate variation rules and the measures to improve is of great value. Many saline aquifers have relatively low permeability which limits the injection rate of CO2 to the aquifers. In this paper, numerical simulation studies of carbon dioxide storage in brine-saturated reservoirs have been conducted to investigate the approaches for enhancing injectivity through changing the fluid salinity in aquifer, using horizontal well or longer injection screen, and introducing hydraulic fracturing for storage aquifer improvement. Changing fluid salinity can be implemented through injecting a slug of fresh water prior to commencement of CO2 injection. Setup of the models is loosely based on the hydrogeological conditions in Ordos basin. Modeling results indicate that these approaches can effectively improve the

  20. How to Characterize a Potential Site for CO2 Storage with Sparse Data Coverage – a Danish Onshore Site Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen Carsten Møller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates how a potential site for CO2 storage can be evaluated up to a sufficient level of characterization for compiling a storage permit application, even if the site is only sparsely explored. The focus of the paper is on a risk driven characterization procedure. In the initial state of a site characterization process with sparse data coverage, the regional geological and stratigraphic understanding of the area of interest can help strengthen a first model construction for predictive modeling. Static and dynamic modeling in combination with a comprehensive risk assessment can guide the different elements needed to be evaluated for fulfilling a permit application. Several essential parameters must be evaluated; the storage capacity for the site must be acceptable for the project life of the operation, the trap configuration must be efficient to secure long term containment, the injectivity must be sufficient to secure a longstanding stable operation and finally a satisfactory and operational measuring strategy must be designed. The characterization procedure is demonstrated for a deep onshore aquifer in the northern part of Denmark, the Vedsted site. The site is an anticlinal structural closure in an Upper Triassic – Lower Jurassic sandstone formation at 1 800-1 900 m depth.

  1. Summary Report on 2011 CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop, Berkeley, June 1-2, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help with the research planning and prioritization, EPA and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) jointly hosted a workshop on “CO2 Geologic Sequestration and Water Resources.” The objective of the workshop, held at LBNL on June 1–2, 2011, was to evaluate the current s...

  2. Geological storage of captured carbon dioxide as a large-scale carbon mitigation option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS), involves capture of CO2 emissions from power plants and other large stationary sources and subsequent injection of the captured CO2 into deep geological formations. This is the only technology currently available that allows continued use of fossil fuels while simultaneously reducing emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. Although the subsurface injection and subsequent migration of large amounts of CO2 involve a number of challenges, many decades of research in the earth sciences, focused on fluid movement in porous rocks, provides a strong foundation on which to analyze the system. These analyses indicate that environmental risks associated with large CO2 injections appear to be manageable.

  3. Separation and capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations--coalbeds and deep saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Curt M; Strazisar, Brian R; Granite, Evan J; Hoffman, James S; Pennline, Henry W

    2003-06-01

    commercial CO2 capture facilities at electric power-generating stations based on the use of monoethanolamine are described, as is the Rectisol process used by Dakota Gasification to separate and capture CO2 from a coal gasifier. Two technologies for storage of the captured CO2 are reviewed--sequestration in deep unmineable coalbeds with concomitant recovery of CH4 and sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Key issues for both of these techniques include estimating the potential storage capacity, the storage integrity, and the physical and chemical processes that are initiated by injecting CO2 underground. Recent studies using computer modeling as well as laboratory and field experimentation are presented here. In addition, several projects have been initiated in which CO2 is injected into a deep coal seam or saline aquifer. The current status of several such projects is discussed. Included is a commercial-scale project in which a million tons of CO2 are injected annually into an aquifer under the North Sea in Norway. The review makes the case that this can all be accomplished safely with off-the-shelf technologies. However, substantial research and development must be performed to reduce the cost, decrease the risks, and increase the safety of sequestration technologies. This review also includes discussion of possible problems related to deep injection of CO2. There are safety concerns that need to be addressed because of the possibilities of leakage to the surface and induced seismic activity. These issues are presented along with a case study of a similar incident in the past. It is clear that monitoring and verification of storage will be a crucial part of all geological sequestration practices so that such problems may be avoided. Available techniques include direct measurement of CO2 and CH4 surface soil fluxes, the use of chemical tracers, and underground 4-D seismic monitoring. Ten new hypotheses were formulated to describe what happens when CO2 is pumped into a coal

  4. Numerical investigation for the impact of CO2 geologic sequestration on regional groundwater flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, K.; Karasaki, K.; Marui, A.; Uehara, H.; Nishikawa, N.

    2009-04-15

    Large-scale storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers may cause considerable pressure perturbation and brine migration in deep rock formations, which may have a significant influence on the regional groundwater system. With the help of parallel computing techniques, we conducted a comprehensive, large-scale numerical simulation of CO{sub 2} geologic storage that predicts not only CO{sub 2} migration, but also its impact on regional groundwater flow. As a case study, a hypothetical industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection in Tokyo Bay, which is surrounded by the most heavily industrialized area in Japan, was considered, and the impact of CO{sub 2} injection on near-surface aquifers was investigated, assuming relatively high seal-layer permeability (higher than 10 microdarcy). A regional hydrogeological model with an area of about 60 km x 70 km around Tokyo Bay was discretized into about 10 million gridblocks. To solve the high-resolution model efficiently, we used a parallelized multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N on a world-class high performance supercomputer in Japan, the Earth Simulator. In this simulation, CO{sub 2} was injected into a storage aquifer at about 1 km depth under Tokyo Bay from 10 wells, at a total rate of 10 million tons/year for 100 years. Through the model, we can examine regional groundwater pressure buildup and groundwater migration to the land surface. The results suggest that even if containment of CO{sub 2} plume is ensured, pressure buildup on the order of a few bars can occur in the shallow confined aquifers over extensive regions, including urban inlands.

  5. Evaluation of CO2 migration and formation storage capacity in the Dalders formations, Baltic Sea - Preliminary analysis by means of models of increasing complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Auli; Yang, Zhibing; Tian, Liang; Jung, Byeongju; Fagerlund, Fritjof; Joodaki, Saba; Pasquali, Riccardo; O'Neill, Nick; Vernon, Richard

    2014-05-01

    We present preliminary data analysis and modeling of CO2 injection into selected parts of the Dalders Monocline and Dalders Structure, formations situated under the Baltic Sea and of potential interest for CO2 geological storage. The approach taken is to use models of increasing complexity successively, thereby increasing the confidence and reliability of the predictions. The objective is to get order-of-magnitude estimates of the behavior of the formations during potential industrial scale CO2 injection and subsequent storage periods. The focus has been in regions with best cap-rock characteristics, according to the present knowledge. Data has been compiled from various sources available, such as boreholes within the region. As the first approximation we use analytical solutions, in order to get an initial estimate the CO2 injection rates that can be used without causing unacceptable pressure increases. These preliminary values are then used as basis for more detailed numerical analyses with TOUGH2/TOUGH2-MP (e.g. Zhang et al, 2008) simulator and vertical equilibrium based (e.g. Gasda et al, 2009) models. With the numerical models the variations in material properties, formation thickness etc., as well as more processes such as CO2 dissolution can also be taken into account. The presentation discusses results from these preliminary analyses in terms of estimated storage capacity, CO2 and pressure plume extent caused by various injection scenarios, as well as CO2 travel time after the end of the injection. The effect of factors such as number of injection wells and the positioning of these, the effect of formation properties and the boundary conditions are discussed as are the benefits and disadvantages of the various modeling approaches used. References: Gasda S.E. et al, 2009. Computational Geosciences 13, 469-481. Zhang et al, 2008. Report LBNL-315E, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  6. CO2-Brine-Iron-bearing Clay Mineral Interactions: Surface Area Changes and Fracture-Filling Potentials in Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCS) is a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. The injected CO2 in GCS sites can induce dissolution of rocks and secondary mineral formation, potentially change the physical properties of the geological formations, and thus influence the transport and injectivity of CO2. However, most of the relevant studies are based on hydrological transport, using simulation models rather than studying actual interfacial chemical reactions. The mechanisms and kinetics of interfacial reactions among supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock surfaces at the molecular scale and their impacts on CO2 leakage have not been well understood. This research investigated the effects of various environmental factors (such as temperature, pressure, salinity, and different metal ion and organic-containing brine) on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of clay minerals. In this work, iron-bearing clay mineral, biotite [K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2], was used for model clay minerals in potential GCS sites. Both fluid/solid chemistry analysis and interfacial topographic studies were conducted to investigate the dissolution/precipitation on clay mineral surfaces under GCS conditions in high salinity systems. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the interfacial surface morphology changes were observed. Shortly after a CO2 pressure of 102 atm is applied at 95oC, in situ pH of solutions was 3.15 ± 0.10. The early intrinsic dissolution rates of biotite were 8.4 ± 2.8 × 10-13 and 11.2 ± 3.0 × 10-13 mol Si m-2s-1 in water and NaCl solution, respectively. At the early stage of reaction, fast growth of fibrous illite on biotite basal planes was observed. After 22-70 h reaction, the biotite basal surface cracked, resulting in illite detaching from the surfaced. Later, the cracked surface layer was released into solution, thus the inner layer was exposed as a renewed

  7. Performance Analysis of Cold Energy Recovery from CO2 Injection in Ship-Based Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwalong You

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon capture and storage (CCS technology is one of the practical solutions for mitigating the effects of global warming. When captured CO2 is injected into storage sites, the CO2 is subjected to a heating process. In a conventional CO2 injection system, CO2 cold energy is wasted during this heating process. This study proposes a new CO2 injection system that takes advantage of the cold energy using the Rankine cycle. The study compared the conventional system with the new CO2 injection system in terms of specific net power consumption, exergy efficiency, and life-cycle cost (LCC to estimate the economic effects. The results showed that the new system reduced specific net power consumption and yielded higher exergy efficiency. The LCC of the new system was more economical. Several cases were examined corresponding to different conditions, specifically, discharge pressure and seawater temperature. This information may affect decision-making when CCS projects are implemented.

  8. CO2 Storage Potential of the Eocene Tay Sandstone, Central North Sea, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Christopher; Williams, John

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is crucial for low-carbon industry, climate mitigation and a sustainable energy future. The offshore capacity of the UK is substantial and has been estimated at 78 Gt of CO2 in saline aquifers and hydrocarbon fields. The early-mid Eocene Tay Sandstone Member of the Central North Sea (CNS) is a submarine-fan system and potential storage reservoir with a theoretical capacity of 123 Mt of CO2. The Tay Sandstone comprises of 4 sequences, amalgamating into a fan complex 125km long and 40 km at a minimum of 1500 m depth striking NW-SE, hosting several hydrocarbon fields including Gannett A, B, D and Pict. In order to better understand the storage potential and characteristics, the Tay Sandstone over Quadrant 21 has been interpreted using log correlation and 3D seismic. Understanding the internal and external geometry of the sandstone as well as the lateral extent of the unit is essential when considering CO2 vertical and horizontal fluid flow pathways and storage security. 3D seismic mapping of a clear mounded feature has revealed the youngest sequence of the Tay complex; a homogenous sand-rich channel 12 km long, 1.5 km wide and on average 100 m thick. The sandstone has porosity >35%, permeability >5 D and a net to gross of 0.8, giving a total pore volume of 927x106 m3. The remaining three sequences are a series of stacked channels and interbedded mudstones which are more quiescent on the seismic, however, well logs indicate each subsequent sequence reduce in net to gross with age as mud has a greater influence in the early fan system. Nevertheless, the sandstone properties remain relatively consistent and are far more laterally extensive than the youngest sequence. The Tay Sandstone spatially overlaps several other potential storage sites including the older Tertiary sandstones of the Cromarty, Forties and Mey Members and deeper Jurassic reservoirs. This favours the Tay Sandstone to be considered in a secondary or multiple stacked

  9. Opportunities and uncertainties in the early stages of development of CO2 capture and storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lind, Mårten

    2009-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS), which is a technology that is currently being promoted by industries, scientists and governments, among others, in order to mitigate climate change despite a continued use of fossil fuels. Because of the complex nature of CCS and the risks it entails, it is controversial. The aim of this thesis is to analyse how the technology may be further developed in a responsible manner. In the first part of the thesis different ...

  10. An experimental study of basaltic glass-H2O-CO2 interaction at 22 and 50 °C: Implications for subsurface storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeczka, Iwona; Wolff-Boenisch, Domenik; Oelkers, Eric H.; Gislason, Sigurdur R.

    2014-02-01

    degassed at the outlet. Substantial differences were found between the results of geochemical modelling calculations and the observed chemical evolution of the fluids during the experiments. These differences underscore the need to improve the models before they can be used to predict with confidence the fate and consequences of carbon dioxide injected into the subsurface. The pH increase from 3.4 to 4.5 of the CO2-rich inlet fluid does not immobilize toxic elements at ambient temperature but immobilizes Al and Cr at 50 °C. This indicates that further neutralization of CO2-charged water is required for decreased toxic element mobility. The CO2-charged water injection enhances the mobility of redox sensitive Fe2+ significantly making it available for the storage of injected carbon as iron carbonate minerals. The precipitation of aluminosilicates likely occurred at a pH of 4.2-4.5 in CO2-charged waters. These secondary phases can (1) fill the available pore space and therefore clog the host rock in the vicinity of the injection well, and (2) incorporate some divalent cations limiting their availability for carbon storage. The inability of simple reactive transport models to describe accurately the fluid evolution in this well constrained one dimensional flow system suggests that significant improvements need to be made to such models before we can predict with confidence the fate and consequences of injecting carbon dioxide into the subsurface. Column reactors such as that used in this study could be used to facilitate ex situ carbon mineral storage. Carbonate precipitation at the outlet of the reactor suggests that the harvesting of divalent metals from rocks using CO2-charged waters could potentially be upscaled to an industrial carbonation process.

  11. Geochemical evaluation of CO2 injection into storage reservoirs based on case-studies in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambach, T.; Koenen, M.; Bergen, F. van

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years several geochemical evaluations of CO2 storage in Dutch potential reservoirs are carried out, including predictions of the short- and long-term impact of CO2 on the reservoir using geochemical modelling. The initial mineralogy of the reservoir is frequently obtained from core

  12. Current status and technical challenges of CO2 storage in coal seams and enhanced coalbed methane recovery:an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochun Li; Zhi-ming Fang

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, research on CO2 storage in coal seams and simultaneously enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) has attracted a lot of attention due to its win–win effect between greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reduction and coalbed methane recovery enhancement. This paper presents an overview on the current status of research on CO2-ECBM in the past two decades, which involves CO2 storage capacity evaluations, laboratory investigations, mod-elings and pilot tests. The current status shows that we have made great progress in the ECBM technology study, especially in the understanding of the ECBM mechanisms. However, there still have many technical challenges, such as the definition of unmineable coal seams for CO2 storage capacity evaluation and storage site characterization, methods for CO2 injec-tivity enhancement, etc. The low injectivity of coal seams and injectivity loss with CO2 injection are the major technique challenges of ECBM. We also search several ways to promote the advancement of ECBM technology in the present stage, such as integrating ECBM with hydraulic fracturing, using a gas mixture instead of pure CO2 for injection into coal seams and the application of ECBM to underground coal mines.

  13. A Study on Seismic Hazard Evaluation at the Nagaoka CO2 Storage Site, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, S.

    2015-12-01

    RITE carried out the first Japanese pilot-scale CO2 sequestration project from July, 2003 to January, 2005 in Nagaoka City.Supercritical CO2 was injected into an onshore saline aquifer at a depth of 1,100m. CO2 was injected at a rate of 10,400 tonnes. 'Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake in 2004' (Mw6.6) and 'The Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in 2007' (Mw6.6) occurred during the CO2 injection-test and after the completion of injection-test. Japan is one of the world's major countries with frequent earthquakes.This paper presents a result of seismic response analysis, and reports of seismic hazard evaluation of a reservoir and a caprock. In advance of dynamic response analysis, the earthquake motion recorded on the earth surface assumed the horizontally layer model, and set up the input wave from a basement layer by SHAKE ( = One-Dimensional Seismic Response Analysis). This wave was inputted into the analysis model and the equation of motion was solved using the direct integral calculus by Newmark Beta Method. In Seismic Response Analysis, authors have used Multiple Yield Model (MYM, Iwata, et al., 2013), which can respond also to complicated geological structure. The intensity deformation property of the foundation added the offloading characteristic to the composition rule of Duncan-Chang model in consideration of confining stress dependency, and used for and carried out the nonlinear repetition model. And the deformation characteristic which made it depend on confining stress with the cyclic loadings and un-loadings, and combined Mohr-Coulomb's law as a strength characteristic.The maximum dynamic shearing strain of caprock was generated about 1.1E-04 after the end of an earthquake. Although the dynamic safety factor was 1.925 on the beginning, after the end of an earthquake fell 0.05 point. The dynamic safety factor of reservoir fell to 1.20 from 1.29. As a result of CO2 migration monitoring by the seismic cross-hole tomography, CO2 has stopped in the reservoir

  14. Integrated electromagnetic data investigation of a Mesozoic CO2 storage target reservoir-cap-rock succession, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beka, Thomas I.; Senger, Kim; Autio, Uula A.; Smirnov, Maxim; Birkelund, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    Recently acquired time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) and magnetotelluric (MT) data sets are utilized in the first electromagnetic (EM) characterization of a geological CO2 storage target site in Adventdalen, Arctic Norway. Combining the two EM data sets enabled to resolve the electrical resistivity structure of the target site better than either of the methods alone. 2D inverting the MT data in the audio period interval (0.003-1 s) with supporting input derived from the TEM data (0.01-10 ms) provided a geologically meaningful resistivity model that included information not previously evident from existing seismic and borehole data. The ca. 1.8 × 1 km 2D resistivity model displays a laterally constrained highly conductive anomaly (ca. 10 Ω m) at about 400-500 m depth, where reflectors of a parallel seismic section are concealed and core samples indicate a highly fractured décollement zone formed during Paleogene compression. The base of the permafrost is imaged at ca. 200 m depth. Synthetic inversion tests, however, suggest that this may be exaggerated by tens of meters, due to a thin conductive layer present approximately between 10 and 25 m depth. The resistivity model does not give indication for a fluid pathway we can connect to leakage, in line with water injection and leak-off tests in the reservoir and cap-rock, both of which indicate a sealing shale-dominated cap-rock separating an over-pressured compartment above the sealing shale from a severely under-pressured reservoir interval. The results we present indicate the advantage of integrating EM exploration techniques in a CO2 reservoir-cap-rock study to obtain a more complete picture.

  15. Public Responses to CO2 Storage Sites. Lessons from Five European Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Boso, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Upham, P. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki and Centre for Integrated Energy Research, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Riesch, H. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Brunsting, S. [ECN Policy Studies, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Duetschke, E. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Lis, A. [Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Central European University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2012-05-24

    Studies of the factors involved in public perceptions of CO2 storage projects reveal a level of complexity and diversity that arguably confounds a comprehensive theoretical account. To some extent, a conceptual approach that simply organises the relevant social scientific knowledge thematically, rather than seeking an integrated explanation, is as useful as any single account that fails to do justice to the contingencies involved. This paper reviews and assembles such knowledge in terms of six themes and applies these themes to five European cases of carbon capture and storage (CCS) implementation. We identify the main factors involved in community responses to CCS as relating to: the characteristics of the project; the engagement process; risk perceptions; the actions of the stakeholders; the characteristics of the community, and the socio-political context.

  16. Exploring highly porous Co2P nanowire arrays for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhou, Weiwei; Qi, Meili; Yin, Jinghua; Xia, Xinhui; Chen, Qingguo

    2017-02-01

    Controllable synthesis of mesoporous conductive metal phosphide nanowire arrays is critical for developing highly-active electrodes of alkaline batteries. Herein we develop a simple combined strategy for rational synthesis of mesoporous Co2P nanowire arrays by hydrothermal-phosphorization method. Free-standing mesoporous Co2P nanowires consisting of interconnected nanoparticles of 10-20 nm grow vertically to the substrate forming arrays. High electrical conductivity and large porosity are obtained in the arrays architecture. When characterized as the cathode of high-rate alkaline batteries, the designed Co2P nanowire arrays are proven with good electrochemical performance with a large capacity (133 mAh g-1 at 1 A g-1), stable cycling life with a capacity retention of almost 100% after 5000 cycles at 10 A g-1 owing to the mesoporous nanowire structure with short ion/electron transport path. Our synthetic approach can be useful for construction of other porous metal phosphide arrays for energy storage and conversion.

  17. Assessing the potential of utilisation and storage strategies for post-combustion CO2 emissions reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eStyring

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emissions reduction potential of three carbon dioxide handling strategies for post-combustion capture are considered. These are carbon capture and sequestration/storage (CCS, enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (EHR and carbon dioxide utilization (CDU to produce synthetic oil. This is performed using common and comparable boundary conditions including net CO2 sequestered based on equivalent boundary conditions. This is achieved using a 'cradle to grave approach' where the final destination and fate of any product is considered. The input boundary is pure CO2 that has been produced using a post-combustion capture process as this is common between all processes. The output boundary is the emissions resulting from any product produced with the assumption that the majority of the oil will go to combustion processes. We also consider the 'cradle to gate' approach where the ultimate fate of the oil is not considered as this is a boundary condition often applied to EHR processes. Results show that while CCS can make an impact on CO2 emissions, CDU will have a comparable effect whilst generating income while EHR will ultimately increase net emissions. The global capacity for CDU is also compared against CCS using data based on current and planned CCS projects. Analysis shows that current CDU represent a greater volume of capture than CCS processes and that this gap is likely to remain well beyond 2020 which is the limit of the CCS projects in the database.

  18. Estimating CO2 storage capacity in saline aquifers: Revisited concept and application to the Bécancour area (Québec, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Tran Ngoc, Tien; Lefebvre, René; Malo, Michel; Doughty, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of effective storage capacity is needed to assess CO2 geological storage projects. Although many efforts have been made to define and estimate storage capacity in deep saline aquifers, it is a complex issue due to the multiphase-multicomponent displacement processes involved. There are difficulties and differing views about the use of existing dynamic/static capacity estimation approaches, especially regarding the application of these approaches to various types of reservoirs. In this research, a revised methodology to assess the amount of CO2 that can be injected into a saline aquifer is presented in terms of reservoir boundaries, capacity definitions and efficiency storage factors. For the dynamic approach, the TOUGH2 numerical simulator was used to calculate the CO2 storage capacity for a bounded reservoir volume, using a definition of "capacity" based on the mass of all forms of CO2 present in the reservoir after injection (mobile, immobile and dissolved). It is necessary to distinguish the efficiency storage factors, and thus the storage capacity, that are estimated on mass or volume basis because the factors based on mass are greater than the ones based on volume. Local and global efficiency storage factors are respectively averaged over domains containing CO2 and the whole reservoir and they change with space and time. For the static approach (i.e. USDOE volumetric and compressibility methods), in order to compute the storage capacity the only difficulty resides in the estimation of the efficiency storage factors, which are related to the areal, vertical, gravity and microscopic displacements in the volumetric static method. These factors were quantitatively estimated from correlations used in petroleum engineering to relate multiphase displacement processes with dimensionless numbers. The methodology proposed herein was applied to the estimation of the CO2 effective storage capacity of the deep saline aquifers of the Potsdam sandstones in the B

  19. Chemical and morphological changes during olivine carbonation for CO2 storage in the presence of NaCl and NaHCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadikota, Greeshma; Matter, Juerg; Kelemen, Peter; Park, Ah-Hhyung Alissa

    2014-03-14

    The increasing concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere are attributed to the rising consumption of fossil fuels for energy generation around the world. One of the most stable and environmentally benign methods of reducing atmospheric CO2 is by storing it as thermodynamically stable carbonate minerals. Olivine ((Mg,Fe)2SiO4) is an abundant mineral that reacts with CO2 to form Mg-carbonate. The carbonation of olivine can be enhanced by injecting solutions containing CO2 at high partial pressure into olivine-rich formations at high temperatures, or by performing ex situ mineral carbonation in a reactor system with temperature and pressure control. In this study, the effects of NaHCO3 and NaCl, whose roles in enhanced mineral carbonation have been debated, were investigated in detail along with the effects of temperature, CO2 partial pressure and reaction time for determining the extent of olivine carbonation and its associated chemical and morphological changes. At high temperature and high CO2 pressure conditions, more than 70% olivine carbonation was achieved in 3 hours in the presence of 0.64 M NaHCO3. In contrast, NaCl did not significantly affect olivine carbonation. As olivine was dissolved and carbonated, its pore volume, surface area and particle size were significantly changed and these changes influenced subsequent reactivity of olivine. Thus, for both long-term simulation of olivine carbonation in geologic formations and the ex situ reactor design, the morphological changes of olivine during its reaction with CO2 should be carefully considered in order to accurately estimate the CO2 storage capacity and understand the mechanisms for CO2 trapping by olivine.

  20. Power Generation Technology Using CO2 Capture Energy Storage%利用捕捉的 CO2贮能发电技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金家敏

    2016-01-01

    碳捕捉技术是指通过一定的方法,将工业生产中产生的CO2分离出来进行储存和利用的工艺和技术。论述了利用捕捉的二氧化碳贮能发电和生产煤气的技术,包括生产流程、电热煤气发生炉、技术可行性、经济效益等,并对碳气化贮能经济效益进行估算,得到碳气化贮能不仅不要外电补足,而且还有多余的电能供应它用,有很大的优越性。%Carbon‐capture technology is to separate CO2 generated during the industrial production for storage and utilization .This paper discusses the technology of applying the captured CO2 for power generation and coal gas production ,including production process ,electric gas furnace ,technical feasibility and economic benefit etc .,and estimates the economic benefit of carbon gasification energy storage .And it is concluded that carbon gasification energy storage can not only need no redundant power supply ,but also exhibits great advantages .

  1. Distinctive Reactivities at Biotite Edge and Basal Planes in the Presence of Organic Ligands: Implications for Organic-Rich Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijie; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-08-18

    To better understand how scCO2-saturated brine-mineral interactions can affect safe and efficient geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), we studied the effects of organic ligands (acetate and oxalate) on biotite dissolution and surface morphological changes. The experimental conditions were chosen to be relevant to GCS sites (95 °C and 102 atm CO2). Quantitative analyses of dissolution differences between biotite edge and basal planes were made. Acetate slightly inhibited biotite dissolution and promoted secondary precipitation. The effect of acetate was mainly pH-induced aqueous acetate speciation and the subsequent surface adsorption. Under the experimental conditions, most of acetate exists as acetic acid and adsorbs to biotite surface Si and Al sites, thereby reducing their release. However, oxalate strongly enhanced biotite dissolution and induced faster and more significant surface morphology changes by forming bidentate mononuclear surface complexes. For the first time, we show that oxalate selectively attacks edge surface sites and enhances biotite dissolution. Thus, oxalate increases the relative reactivity ratio of biotite edge surfaces to basal surfaces, while acetate does not impact this relative reactivity. This study provides new information on reactivity differences at biotite edge and basal planes in the presence of organic ligands, which has implications for safe CO2 storage in organic-rich sites.

  2. The importance of CO2 capture and storage: A geopolitical discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsson Filip

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CO2 capture and storage (CCS technology is since more than ten years considered one of the key options for the future climate change mitigation. This paper discusses the implications for the further development of CCS, particularly with respect to climate change policy in an international geopolitics context. The rationale for developing CCS should be the over-abundance of fossil fuel reserves (and resources in a climate change context. From a geopolitical point, it can be argued that the most important outcome from the successful commercialisation of CCS will be that fossil fuel-dependent economies with large fossil fuel resources will find it easier to comply with stringent greenhouse gas (GHG reduction targets (i.e. to attach a price to CO2 emissions. This should be of great importance since, from a geopolitical view, the curbing on GHG emissions cannot be isolated from security of supply and economic competition between regions. Thus, successful application of CCS may moderate geopolitical risks related to regional differences in the possibilities and thereby willingness to comply with large emission cuts. In Europe, application of CCS will enhance security of supply by fuel diversification from continued use of coal, especially domestic lignite. Introduction of CCS will also make possible negative emissions when using biomass as a fuel, i.e. in so called Biomass Energy CCS (BECCS. Yet, the development of BECCS relies on the successful development of fossil fuelled CCS since BECCS in itself is unlikely to be sufficient for establishing a cost efficient CCS infrastructure for transport and storage and because BECCS does not solve the problem with the abundant resources of fossil fuels. Results from research and development of capture, transport and storage of CO2 indicate that the barriers for commercialization of CCS should not be technical. Instead, the main barriers for implementation of CCS seem to be how to reach public acceptance

  3. Soil organic carbon storage and soil CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sampling,measurements of organic carbon contents and 14C signatures of selected four soil profiles in the Haibei Station situated on the northeast Tibetan Plateau,and application of 14C tracing technology were conducted in an attempt to investigate the turnover times of soil organic car-bon and the soil-CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem. The results show that the organic carbon stored in the soils varies from 22.12×104 kg C hm-2 to 30.75×104 kg C hm-2 in the alpine meadow eco-systems,with an average of 26.86×104 kg C hm-2. Turnover times of organic carbon pools increase with depth from 45 a to 73 a in the surface soil horizon to hundreds of years or millennia or even longer at the deep soil horizons in the alpine meadow ecosystems. The soil-CO2 flux ranges from 103.24 g C m-2 a-1 to 254.93 gC m-2 a-1,with an average of 191.23 g C m-2 a-1. The CO2 efflux produced from microbial decomposition of organic matter varies from 73.3 g C m-2 a-1 to 181 g C m-2 a-1. More than 30% of total soil organic carbon resides in the active carbon pool and 72.8%―81.23% of total CO2 emitted from or-ganic matter decomposition results from the topsoil horizon (from 0 cm to 10 cm) for the Kobresia meadow. Responding to global warming,the storage,volume of flow and fate of the soil organic carbon in the alpine meadow ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau will be changed,which needs further research.

  4. Soil organic carbon storage and soil CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Zhen; SHEN ChengDe; GAO QuanZhou; SUN YanMin; YI WeiXi; LI YingNian

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution sampling, measurements of organic carbon contents and 14C signatures of selected four soil profiles in the Haibei Station situated on the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and application of 14C tracing technology were conducted in an attempt to investigate the turnover times of soil organic carbon and the soil-CO2 flux in the alpine meadow ecosystem. The results show that the organic carbon stored in the soils varies from 22.12(104 kg C hm-2 to 30.75(104 kg C hm-2 in the alpine meadow ecosystems, with an average of 26.86(104 kg C hm-2. Turnover times of organic carbon pools increase with depth from 45 a to 73 a in the surface soil horizon to hundreds of years or millennia or even longer at the deep soil horizons in the alpine meadow ecosystems. The soil-CO2 flux ranges from 103.24 g C m-2 a-1 to 254.93 gC m-2 a-1, with an average of 191.23 g C m-2 a-1. The CO2 efflux produced from microbial decomposition of organic matter varies from 73.3 g C m-2 a-1 to 181 g C m-2 a-1. More than 30% of total soil organic carbon resides in the active carbon pool and 72.8%-81.23% of total CO2 emitted from organic matter decomposition results from the topsoil horizon (from 0 cm to 10 cm) for the Kobresia meadow. Responding to global warming, the storage, volume of flow and fate of the soil organic carbon in the alpine meadow ecosystem of the Tibetan Plateau will be changed, which needs further research.

  5. Characterization of the Helderberg Group as a geologic seal for CO 2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Avary, K.L.; Carter, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership recognizes that both the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone and the Silurian Salina Group offer potential for subsurface carbon dioxide storage in northern West Virginia. The Silurian-Devonian Helderberg Group lies stratigraphically between these two units, and consequendy, its potential as a geologic seal must be evaluated. Predominantly a carbonate interval with minor interbedded siliciclastics and chert, the Helderberg Group was deposited in an ancient epeiric sea. Although most previous investigations of this unit have concentrated on outcrops in eastern West Virginia, new information is available from an injection well drilled along the Ohio River at First Energy's R. E. Burger electric power plant near Shadyside, Ohio. Geophysical, seismic, and core data from this well have been combined with existing outcrop information to evaluate the Helderberg Group's potential as a seal. The data collected suggest that only secondary porosity remains, and permeability, if it exists, most likely occurs along faults or within fractures. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  6. TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.

    2005-03-17

    A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

  7. TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.

    2005-03-17

    A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

  8. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In geological underground utilisation, operating and abandoned wells have been identified as a main potential leakage pathways for reservoir fluids. In the scope of the well abandonment procedure currently carried out at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Germany, a hydro-mechanical model was built to carry out a coupled analysis of the integrity in the entire wellbore system. The main aim of the present study was to assess the impacts of stress changes associated with CO2 injection as well as the cement backfill undertaken in the scope of well abandonment. A numerical model comprising cement sheaths, steel casings, tubing, multiple packers and wellbore annuli was implemented to enable a detailed representation of the entire wellbore system. The numerical model grid has a horizontal discretisation of 5 m x 5 m to focus on near wellbore effects, whereby element sizes increase with increasing distance from the wellbore. Vertical grid discretisation uses a tartan grid type over the entire model thickness of 1,500 m to ensure a sufficient discretisation of all wellbore system elements as well as of the reservoir unit. The total number of elements amounts to 210,672. Mechanical model parameters were taken from geological, drilling, logging and laboratory test data based on Ketzin pilot site-specific information as well as related literature (Kempka et al., 2014). The coupled calculations were performed using an elasto-plastic constitutive law, whereby an initial simulation run ensured a static mechanical equilibrium to represent the initial state before the start of CO2 injection. Thereto, gravitational load of the overburden rocks and pore pressure distribution following available well logs were integrated for initial model parameterisation including a normal faulting stress regime defined by a horizontal to vertical total stress ratio of 0.85. A correction accounting for the temperature and pressure dependent CO2 density was carried out in advance of each

  9. Geochemical Impacts of Leaking CO2 from Subsurface Storage Reservoirs on the Fate of Metal Contaminants in an Overlaying Groundwater Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H.; Qafoku, N. P.; Lawter, A.; Bowden, M. E.; Brown, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    The leakage of CO2 and the concomitant upward transport of brine solutions and contaminants from deep storage reservoirs to overlaying groundwater aquifers is considered one of the major risks associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A systematic understanding of how such leakage would impact the geochemistry of potable aquifers is crucial to the maintenance of environmental quality and the widespread acceptance of GCS. A series of batch and column experiments studies were conducted to understand the fate (mobilization and immobilization) of trace metals, such as Cd and As in the groundwater aquifer after the intrusion of CO2 gas and CO2-saturated fluids containing leached metals from deep subsurface storage reservoirs. Sediments from the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, United States, were used in this investigation, which is part of the National Risk Assessment Partnership Program sponsored by the US DOE. This aquifer was selected to be representative of consolidated sand and gravel/sandstone aquifers overlying potential CO2 sequestration repositories within the continental US. The experiments were conducted at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The results demonstrated that Cd and As that intrude into groundwater aquifers with the leaking CO2 at initial concentrations of 40 and 114 mg/L, respectively, will be adsorbed on the sediments, in spite of the acidic pH (between 5 and 6) due to CO2 dissolution in the groundwater. Cd concentrations were well below its MCL in both the aqueous solution of the batch study and the effluent of the column study, even for one of the sediment samples which had undetectable amount of carbonate minerals to buffer the pH. Arsenic concentrations were also significantly lower than that in the influent, suggesting that natural sediments have the capacity to mitigate the adverse effects of the CO2 leakage. However, the mitigation capacity of sediments is influenced by its geochemical properties. When there are anions

  10. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  11. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT-AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Kerr

    2004-04-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), Norway (Klimatek) and the U.S.A. (Department of Energy)). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion--technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel--where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with wet high concentrations of CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre-Combustion--in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening--analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV)--providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies

  12. Kalundborg case study, a feasibility study of CO{sub 2} storage in onshore saline aquifers. CO2STORE[Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Michael; Bech, N.; Bidstrup, T.; Christensen, Niels Peter; Vangkilde-Pedersen, T. [GEUS (Denmark); Biede, O. [ENERGI E2 (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The Danish case-study of the CO2STORE project comprises the potential future capture and underground storage of CO{sub 2} from two point sources. These are the coal fired power plant Asnaesvaerket and the Statoil refinery both located in the city of Kalundborg, Denmark. Initial mapping of the storage structure was conducted as part of the EU funded research project GESTCO that was concluded in 2003. The study identified a large underground structure forming a potential, future storage site 15 km to the northeast of the city. Porous sandstones filled with saline water at a depth of approximately 1.500 m form the reservoir. The structure covers approximately 160 km{sup 2} and a preliminary calculation suggests a storage capacity of nearly 900 million tonnes of CO2 equal to more than 150 years of CO{sub 2} emissions from the two point sources. In the Kalundborg case-study, a fictive capture and storage scenario will be formulated and modelled. The scenario is based on experiences learned through the SACS and GESTCO projects. Detailed geological modelling, reservoir simulation, reservoir and cap rock characterisation and risk assessment will be important issues for the case-study. The Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is project leader for the Kalundborg case-study. Information on CO{sub 2} emissions from the point sources and technical and economical input for the three scenarios is provided by the industrial partners; ENERGI E2 and Statoil ASA. The scenario is designed only for this case study and does not reflect the strategic plans of ENERGI E2 nor Statoil ASA. Geochemical simulation and modelling studies on reservoir and cap rock were performed at Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM) in France. The CO2STORE project is performed within the European Community supported 5th Framework Programme. (au)

  13. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2014-04-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density is smaller than the hosting brine. This motivates an upward motion and eventually CO2 is trapped beneath the cap rock. The trapped CO2 slowly dissolves into the brine causing the density of the mixture to become larger than the host brine. This causes gravitational instabilities that is propagated and magnified with time. In this kind of density-driven flows, the CO2-rich brines migrate downward while the brines with low CO2 concentration move upward. With respect to the properties of the subsurface aquifers, there are instances where saline formations can possess anisotropy with respect to their hydraulic properties. Such anisotropy can have significant effect on the onset and propagation of flow instabilities. Anisotropy is predicted to be more influential in dictating the direction of the convective flow. To account for permeability anisotropy, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) in the framework of finite differences schemes is used. The MPFA method requires more point stencil than the traditional two-point flux approximation (TPFA). For example, calculation of one flux component requires 6-point stencil and 18-point stencil in 2-D and 3-D cases, respectively. As consequence, the matrix of coefficient for obtaining the pressure fields will be quite complex. Therefore, we combine the MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field technique in which the problem is reduced to solving multitude of local problems and the global matrix of coefficients is constructed automatically, which significantly reduces the complexity. We present several numerical scenarios of density-driven flow simulation in homogeneous, layered, and heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. The numerical results emphasize the

  14. Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Cole, David R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Gunter, W.D.; Knauss, Kevin G.; Freifeild, Barry M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO2 injection showed a Na-Ca-Cl–type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions. Following CO2 breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5–5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100–3000 mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30–1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH4. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO2 and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO2 could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater. The δ18O values for brine and CO2 samples indicate that supercritical CO2 comprises ∼50% of pore-fluid volume ∼6 mo after the end of injection. Postinjection sampling, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicates that the brine gradually will return to its preinjection composition.

  15. ‘Fuji’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh) volatile production during high pCO2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Fuji’apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] volatile compound dynamics were characterized during cold storage in air or at low pO2 controlled atmosphere (CA) with up to 5 kPa CO2. Volatile compounds in storage chambers were adsorbed onto solid sorbent traps and analyzed by GC-MS....

  16. CO2 Capture Project-An Integrated, Collaborative Technology Development Project for Next Generation CO2 Separation, Capture and Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Kerr; Linda M. Curran

    2005-04-15

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) was a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, ENI, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (European Union [DG RES & DG TREN], the Norwegian Research Council [Klimatek Program] and the U.S. Department of Energy [NETL]). The project objective was to develop new technologies that could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies were to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. Certain promising technology areas were increased in scope and the studies extended through 2004. The project budget was approximately $26.4 million over 4 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. Capture Technology, Pre-Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum cokes are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Pre

  17. Ground gas monitoring: implications for hydraulic fracturing and CO2 storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, Christopher J; Hall, Jean A; Martin, John P; Manning, David A C

    2014-12-02

    Understanding the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between the geosphere and atmosphere is essential for the management of anthropogenic emissions. Human activities such as carbon capture and storage and hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") affect the natural system and pose risks to future global warming and to human health and safety if not engineered to a high standard. In this paper an innovative approach of expressing ground gas compositions is presented, using data derived from regulatory monitoring of boreholes in the unsaturated zone at infrequent intervals (typically 3 months) with data from a high frequency monitoring instrument deployed over periods of weeks. Similar highly variable trends are observed for time scales ranging from decades to hourly for boreholes located close to sanitary landfill sites. Additionally, high frequency monitoring data confirm the effect of meteorological controls on ground gas emissions; the maximum observed CH4 and CO2 concentrations in a borehole monitored over two weeks were 40.1% v/v and 8.5% v/v respectively, but for 70% of the monitoring period only air was present. There is a clear weakness in current point monitoring strategies that may miss emission events and this needs to be considered along with obtaining baseline data prior to starting any engineering activity.

  18. Popcorn-Derived Porous Carbon for Energy Storage and CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting; Chen, Chunlin; Li, Xing; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-16

    Porous carbon materials have drawn tremendous attention due to its applications in energy storage, gas/water purification, catalyst support, and other important fields. However, producing high-performance carbons via a facile and efficient route is still a big challenge. Here we report the synthesis of microporous carbon materials by employing a steam-explosion method with subsequent potassium activation and carbonization of the obtained popcorn. The obtained carbon features a large specific surface area, high porosity, and doped nitrogen atoms. Using as an electrode material in supercapacitor, it displays a high specific capacitance of 245 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and a remarkable stability of 97.8% retention after 5000 cycles at 5 A g(-1). The product also exhibits a high CO2 adsorption capacity of 4.60 mmol g(-1) under 1066 mbar and 25 °C. Both areal specific capacitance and specific CO2 uptake are directly proportional to the surface nitrogen content. This approach could thus enlighten the batch production of porous nitrogen-doped carbons for a wide range of energy and environmental applications.

  19. The global carbon nation: Status of CO2 capture, storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocs, Elizabeth A.

    2017-07-01

    As the world transitions toward cleaner and more sustainable energy generation, Carbon Capture and Sequestration/Storage (CCS) plays an essential role in the portfolio of technologies to help reduce global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The projected increase in population size and its resulting increase in global energy consumption, for both transportation and the electricity grid —the largest emitters of greenhouse gases, will continue to add to current CO2 emissions levels during this transition. Since eighty percent of today's global energy continues to be generated by fossil fuels, a shift to low-carbon energy sources will take many decades. In recent years, shifting to renewables and increasing energy efficiencies have taken more importance than deploying CCS. Together, this triad —renewables, energy efficiency, and CCS— represent a strong paradigm for achieving a carbon-free world. Additionally, the need to accelerate CCS in developing economies like China and India are of increasing concern since migration to renewables is unlikely to occur quickly in those countries. CCS of stationary sources, accounting for only 20% reduction in emissions, as well as increasing efficiency in current systems are needed for major reductions in emissions. A rising urgency for fifty to eighty percent reduction of CO2 emissions by 2050 and one hundred percent reduction by 2100 makes CCS all that more critical in the transition to a cleaner-energy future globally.

  20. A method for examining the geospatial distribution of CO2 storage resources applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina; Brandon N. Ashby,

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates geospatial modification of the USGS methodology for assessing geologic CO2 storage resources, and was applied to the Pre-Punta Gorda Composite and Dollar Bay reservoirs of the South Florida Basin. The study provides detailed evaluation of porous intervals within these reservoirs and utilizes GIS to evaluate the potential spatial distribution of reservoir parameters and volume of CO2 that can be stored. This study also shows that incorporating spatial variation of parameters using detailed and robust datasets may improve estimates of storage resources when compared to applying uniform values across the study area derived from small datasets, like many assessment methodologies. Geospatially derived estimates of storage resources presented here (Pre-Punta Gorda Composite = 105,570 MtCO2; Dollar Bay = 24,760 MtCO2) were greater than previous assessments, which was largely attributed to the fact that detailed evaluation of these reservoirs resulted in higher estimates of porosity and net-porous thickness, and areas of high porosity and thick net-porous intervals were incorporated into the model, likely increasing the calculated volume of storage space available for CO2 sequestration. The geospatial method for evaluating CO2 storage resources also provides the ability to identify areas that potentially contain higher volumes of storage resources, as well as areas that might be less favorable.

  1. Characterization of the Wymark CO2 Reservoir: A Natural Analog to Long-Term CO2 Storage at Weyburn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryerson, F; Johnson, J

    2010-11-22

    Natural accumulations of CO{sub 2} occur in the Duperow and other Devonian strata on the western flank of the Williston Basin in lithologies very similar to those into which anthropogenic CO{sub 2} is being injected as part of an EOR program in the Weyburn-Midale pool. Previous workers have established the stratgraphic and petrographic similarities between the Duperow and Midale beds (Lake and Whittaker, 2004 and 2006). As the CO{sub 2} accumulations in the Devonian strata may be as old as 50 Ma, this similarity provides confidence in the efficacy of long-term geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the Midale-Weyburn pool. Here we attempt to extend this comparison with whole rock and mineral chemistry using the same sample suite used by Lake and Whittaker. We provide XRD, XRF, and electron microprobe analysis of major constituent minerals along with extensive backscattered electron and x-ray imaging to identify trace phases and silicate minerals. LPNORM analysis is used to quantify modal concentrations of minerals species. Samples from depth intervals where CO{sub 2} has been observed are compared to those where CO{sub 2} was absent, with no systematic differences in mineral composition observed. Gas accumulation can be correlated with sample porosity. In particular gas-bearing samples from the Eastend region are more porous than the overlying gas-free samples. Silicate minerals are rare in the Duperow carbonates, never exceeding 3 wt%. As such, mineral trapping is precluded in these lithologies. The geochemical data presented here will be used for comparison with a similar geochemical-mineralogical study of the Midale (Durocher et al., 2003) in a subsequent report.

  2. On the potential for CO2 mineral storage in continental flood basalts – PHREEQC batch- and 1D diffusion–reaction simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Pham Thi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Continental flood basalts (CFB are considered as potential CO2 storage sites because of their high reactivity and abundant divalent metal ions that can potentially trap carbon for geological timescales. Moreover, laterally extensive CFB are found in many place in the world within reasonable distances from major CO2 point emission sources. Based on the mineral and glass composition of the Columbia River Basalt (CRB we estimated the potential of CFB to store CO2 in secondary carbonates. We simulated the system using kinetic dependent dissolution of primary basalt-minerals (pyroxene, feldspar and glass and the local equilibrium assumption for secondary phases (weathering products. The simulations were divided into closed-system batch simulations at a constant CO2 pressure of 100 bar with sensitivity studies of temperature and reactive surface area, an evaluation of the reactivity of H2O in scCO2, and finally 1D reactive diffusion simulations giving reactivity at CO2 pressures varying from 0 to 100 bar. Although the uncertainty in reactive surface area and corresponding reaction rates are large, we have estimated the potential for CO2 mineral storage and identified factors that control the maximum extent of carbonation. The simulations showed that formation of carbonates from basalt at 40 C may be limited to the formation of siderite and possibly FeMg carbonates. Calcium was largely consumed by zeolite and oxide instead of forming carbonates. At higher temperatures (60 – 100 C, magnesite is suggested to form together with siderite and ankerite. The maximum potential of CO2 stored as solid carbonates, if CO2 is supplied to the reactions unlimited, is shown to depend on the availability of pore space as the hydration and carbonation reactions increase the solid volume and clog the pore space. For systems such as in the scCO2 phase with limited amount of water, the total carbonation potential is limited by the amount of water present

  3. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the

  4. Geochemical monitoring for potential environmental impacts of geologic sequestration of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Cole, David R.; Thordsen, James J.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Thomas, Randal B.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration is now considered an important component of the portfolio of options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to stabilize their atmospheric levels at values that would limit global temperature increases to the target of 2 °C by the end of the century (Pacala and Socolow 2004; IPCC 2005, 2007; Benson and Cook 2005; Benson and Cole 2008; IEA 2012; Romanak et al. 2013). Increased anthropogenic emissions of CO2 have raised its atmospheric concentrations from about 280 ppmv during pre-industrial times to ~400 ppmv today, and based on several defined scenarios, CO2 concentrations are projected to increase to values as high as 1100 ppmv by 2100 (White et al. 2003; IPCC 2005, 2007; EIA 2012; Global CCS Institute 2012). An atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv is generally the accepted level that is needed to limit global temperature increases to the target of 2 °C by the end of the century. This temperature limit likely would moderate the adverse effects related to climate change that could include sea-level rise from the melting of alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets and from the ocean warming; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; and changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff (IPCC 2007; Sundquist et al. 2009; IEA 2012). Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are also increasing the amount of CO2 dissolved in ocean water lowering its pH from 8.1 to 8.0, with potentially disruptive effects on coral reefs, plankton and marine ecosystems (Adams and Caldeira 2008; Schrag 2009; Sundquist et al. 2009). Sedimentary basins in general and deep saline aquifers in particular are being investigated as possible repositories for the large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes (Hitchon 1996; Benson and Cole 2008; Verma and Warwick 2011).

  5. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  6. Zero-Offset VSP Monitoring of CO2 Storage: Impedance Inversion and Wedge Modelling at the Ketzin Pilot Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Götz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the CO2 storage pilot site near the town of Ketzin (35 km west of Berlin, Germany the sandstone reservoir at 630 m–650 m depth is thin and heterogeneous. The time-lapse analysis of zero-offset VSP measurements shows that CO2-induced amplitude changes can be observed on near-well corridor stacks. Further, we investigate whether CO2-induced amplitude changes in the monitoring data can be used to derive geometrical and petrophysical parameters governing the migration of CO2 within a brine saturated sandstone aquifer. 2D seismic-elastic modelling is done to test the processing workflow and to perform a wedge modelling study for estimation of the vertical expansion of the CO2 plume. When using the NRMS error as a measure for the similarity between the modelled and recorded repeat traces, the best match is achieved for a plume thickness of 6-7 m within the reservoir sandstone of 8 m thickness. With band limited impedance inversion a velocity reduction at the top of the reservoir of 30%, influenced by casing reverberations as well as CO2 injection, is found. The relation of seismic amplitude to CO2 saturated layer thickness and CO2-induced changes in P-wave velocities are important parameters for the quantification of the injected CO2 volume.

  7. Environmental impact of an agro-waste based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage: Life cycle assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Kuntal; De, Sudipta

    2016-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most scientific tool to measure environmental sustainability. Poly-generation is a better option than single-utility generation due to its higher resource utilization efficiency and more flexibility. Also biomass based polygeneration with CO2 capture and storage may be useful being 'net negative' greenhouse gas emission option. But this 'negativity' should be studied and confirmed through LCA. In this paper, cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of a straw based polygeneration without and with CO2 storage is studied. Results show that captured CO2 of this polygeneration should be stored to get a net negative energy system. However, biomass distribution density, ethanol production rate and CO2 transportation distance affect the net GHG emission. For this polygeneration system, exergy based allocation should be preferred.

  8. Determination of the Effect of Geological Reservoir Variability on Carbon Dioxide Storage Using Numerical Experiments Détermination de la variabilité des réservoirs géologiques sur le stockage du CO2 par la méthodologie des plans d’expériences

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    Diedro F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulations of carbon dioxide storage in sedimentary reservoirs model the fluid and gas flow and the chemical reactions which occur between the minerals (calcite and dolomite and the injected CO2 [André et al. (2007 Energy Convers. Manage. 48, 17821797; Gunter et al. (1999 Appl. Geochem. 4, 1-111. However because of the lack of data, these reservoirs are always partially known and the fitted variograms of petrophysical and mineralogical quantities are approximate. The aim is to quantify the impact of uncertainties on reservoir characteristics on the storage predictions. We focus on two operational parameters: the quantity of the stored carbon dioxide and the mean variation of the porosity. Two sources of uncertainties are examined: the draw dispersion and the approximation on the variogram parameters. To study the influence of the draw dispersion, variogram parameters are kept fixed and different simulations are run; the associated variance on the operational parameters then has the meaning of a repeatability error. In the second case, a sensibility analysis is carried out to study the influence of variogram parameters variations (sill, range, nugget effect on the CO2 storage. The chosen methodology is the designs of experiments. The simulations are carried out using reactive transport software. The studied carbonated reservoir is built in reference to the Dogger formation of Paris Basin (France [Diedro (2009 Thèse, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de St- Étienne. This reservoir is composed of several minerals, some of them being disposed in spots. The results show that the impact of the draw dispersion remains lower than the impact of the variogram parameters. The effect of the size of the dolomite spots within the rock on the stored carbon dioxide is to be noticed. Larger spots of the dolomite field with low concentration lead to a greater precipitation of carbonate and reduction of porosity than little ,spots with higher

  9. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

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    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  10. Probabilistic Assessment of Above Zone Pressure Predictions at a Geologic Carbon Storage Site

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    Namhata, Argha; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Dilmore, Robert M.; Zhang, Liwei; Nakles, David V.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage into geological formations is regarded as an important mitigation strategy for anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This study first simulates the leakage of CO2 and brine from a storage reservoir through the caprock. Then, we estimate the resulting pressure changes at the zone overlying the caprock also known as Above Zone Monitoring Interval (AZMI). A data-driven approach of arbitrary Polynomial Chaos (aPC) Expansion is then used to quantify the uncertainty in the above zone pressure prediction based on the uncertainties in different geologic parameters. Finally, a global sensitivity analysis is performed with Sobol indices based on the aPC technique to determine the relative importance of different parameters on pressure prediction. The results indicate that there can be uncertainty in pressure prediction locally around the leakage zones. The degree of such uncertainty in prediction depends on the quality of site specific information available for analysis. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight that there is a need for site-specific data for efficient predictions of risks associated with storage activities. The presented approach can provide a basis of optimized pressure based monitoring network design at carbon storage sites.

  11. Bacterial community responses during a possible CO2 leaking from sub-seabed storage in marine polluted sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero-Santiago, Ana R; DelValls, T Ángel; Inmaculada Riba, M

    2017-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a viable option to reduce high concentrations of CO2 and mitigate their negative effects. This option has associated risks such as possible CO2 leakage from the storage sites. So far, negative effects deriving from a CO2 release have been reported for benthic macrofauna in both polluted and nonpolluted sediments. However, bacterial communities has no considered. In this work, risk assessment was carried out in order to evaluate the possible effects in a contaminated area considering bacterial responses (total number of cells, respiring activity, changes in the bacterial community composition and diversity). Four microcosms were placed into an integrated CO2 injection system with a non-pressurized chamber to simulate four different pH treatments (pH control 7.8, 7, 6.5 and 6). Results showed an impact on bacterial communities because of the CO2 treatment. Changes in respiring activity, community composition groups and diversity were found. This study highlights the use of respiring bacteria activity not only as bioindicator for environmental risk assessment and monitoring purposes but also as a bioindicador during a CO2 leakage event or CO2 enrichment process among all the responses studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drilling and completion of the three CO2SINK boreholes in Europe's pilot CO2 storage and verification project in an onshore saline aquifer

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    Prevedel, P.,; Wohlgemuth, L.; Legarth, B.; Henninges, J.; Schütt, H.; Schmidt-Hattenberger, C.; Norden, B.; Förster, A.; Hurter, S.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports the CO2SINK drilling and permanent monitoring completions, as well as the well testing techniques applied in Europe's first scientific carbon dioxide onshore storage test in a saline aquifer near the town of Ketzin, 40 km east of Berlin/Germany. Three boreholes, one injection and two observation wells have been drilled in 2007 to a total depth of about 800 m. The wells were completed as "smart" wells containing a variety of permanently installed down-hole sensors, which have successfully proven their functionality during over their first injection year and are the key instruments for the continuous monitoring of the CO2 inside the reservoir during the storage phase. Constructing three wells in close proximity of 50 to 100m distance to each other with a dense sensor and monitoring cable population requires detailed planning and employment of high-end project management tools. All wells were cased with stainless final casings equipped with pre-perforated sand filters in the pay-zone and wired on the outside with two fibre-optical, one multi-conductor copper, and a PU-heating cable to the surface. The reservoir casing section is externally coated with a fibre-glass-resin wrap for electrical insulation of the 15 geo-electrical toroid antennas in the open hole section. A staged cementation program was selected in combination with the application of a newly developed swellable rubber packer technology and specialized cementation down-hole tools. This technology was given preference over perforation work inside the final casing at the reservoir face, which would have created unmanageable risks of potential damage of the outside casing cables. Prior to the start of the injection phase, an extensive production and injection well test program as well as well-to-well interference tests were performed in order to determine the optimum CO2 injection regime.

  13. Geochemical changes and microbial activities during CO2 storage - Long-term experiments under in situ conditions within the frame of CO2SINK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Maren; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Vieth, Andrea; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the CO2SINK project, CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer of the Stuttgart formation (Triassic, Middle Keuper) at a depth of about 640 m below surface near Ketzin (Northeast German Basin, about 40 km west of Berlin) (Schilling et al., 2009). The injection of CO2 may induce a variety of geochemical changes in the reservoir system. Inorganic components may be dissolved from mineral phases (Wigand et al., 2008) and mineral precipitation from fluid components (Ketzer et al., 2009) may occur. In addition, organic molecules may be relocated, since supercritical CO2 is an excellent solvent for organic components. These geochemical shifts probably affect the microbial community composition and activity. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals, as well as corresponding microbial processes (Bennet et al., 2001) can affect reservoir permeability. In order to detect and quantify changes in geochemical characteristics and microbial processes during CO2storage and to estimate their impact on storage efficiency long-term experiments under in situ P-T conditions are performed. Freshly drilled sandstone sections from the target reservoir at Ketzin from a depth of about 630 m were incubated together with synthetic brine (20 % lower total dissolved solids than the Ketzin reservoir fluid) in high pressure vessels at 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C since September 2007. Since outer core sections were contaminated with drilling mud, as shown with fluorescein tracer detection (Wandrey et al., 2010), only clean inner core sections were used for long-term experiments to avoid contamination with microorganisms, as well as organic and inorganic mud components. After 15, 21 and 24 month fluid and rock samples were taken for chemical, microbial, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses. In fluid samples the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exceed those of the Ketzin reservoir fluid. Assuming chemical equilibrium between mineral and formation brine, observed

  14. Leakage Risk Assessment for a Potential CO2 Storage Project in Saskatchewan, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Mazzoldi, A.; Gupta, A.K.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2011-05-01

    A CO{sub 2} sequestration project is being considered to (1) capture CO{sub 2} emissions from the Consumers Cooperative Refineries Limited at Regina, Saskatchewan and (2) geologically sequester the captured CO{sub 2} locally in a deep saline aquifer. This project is a collaboration of several industrial and governmental organizations, including the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC), Sustainable Development Technology Canada (SDTC), SaskEnvironment Go Green Fund, SaskPower, CCRL, Schlumberger Carbon Services, and Enbridge. The project objective is to sequester 600 tonnes CO{sub 2}/day. Injection is planned to start in 2012 or 2013 for a period of 25 years for a total storage of approximately 5.5 million tonnes CO{sub 2}. This report presents an assessment of the leakage risk of the proposed project using a methodology known as the Certification Framework (CF). The CF is used for evaluating CO{sub 2} leakage risk associated with geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), as well as brine leakage risk owing to displacement and pressurization of brine by the injected CO{sub 2}. We follow the CF methodology by defining the entities (so-called Compartments) that could be impacted by CO{sub 2} leakage, the CO{sub 2} storage region, the potential for leakage along well and fault pathways, and the consequences of such leakage. An understanding of the likelihood and consequences of leakage forms the basis for understanding CO{sub 2} leakage risk, and forms the basis for recommendations of additional data collection and analysis to increase confidence in the risk assessment.

  15. Biosurfactant as an Enhancer of Geologic Carbon Storage: Microbial Modification of Interfacial Tension and Contact Angle in Carbon dioxide/Water/Quartz Systems

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    Taehyung Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Injecting and storing of carbon dioxide (CO2 in deep geologic formations is considered as one of the promising approaches for geologic carbon storage. Microbial wettability alteration of injected CO2 is expected to occur naturally by microorganisms indigenous to the geologic formation or microorganisms intentionally introduced to increase CO2 storage capacity in the target reservoirs. The question as to the extent of microbial CO2 wettability alteration under reservoir conditions still warrants further investigation. This study investigated the effect of a lipopeptide biosurfactant—surfactin, on interfacial tension (IFT reduction and contact angle alteration in CO2/water/quartz systems under a laboratory setup simulating in situ reservoir conditions. The temporal shifts in the IFT and the contact angle among CO2, brine, and quartz were monitored for different CO2 phases (3 MPa, 30°C for gaseous CO2; 10 MPa, 28°C for liquid CO2; 10 MPa, 37°C for supercritical CO2 upon cultivation of Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 with induced surfactin secretion activity. Due to the secreted surfactin, the IFT between CO2 and brine decreased: from 49.5 to 30 mN/m, by ∼39% for gaseous CO2; from 28.5 to 13 mN/m, by 54% for liquid CO2; and from 32.5 to 18.5 mN/m, by ∼43% for supercritical CO2, respectively. The contact angle of a CO2 droplet on a quartz disk in brine increased: from 20.5° to 23.2°, by 1.16 times for gaseous CO2; from 18.4° to 61.8°, by 3.36 times for liquid CO2; and from 35.5° to 47.7°, by 1.34 times for supercritical CO2, respectively. With the microbially altered CO2