WorldWideScience

Sample records for geologic co2 sequestration

  1. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chapter discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of t...

  2. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 SEQUESTRATION (PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  3. Optimization geological sequestration of CO2 by capillary trapping mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenschild, D.; Harper, E.; Herring, A. L.; Armstrong, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration, as a method of atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, is at the technological forefront of the climate change movement. Sequestration is achieved by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas effluent from coal fired power plants and injecting it into saline aquifers. In an effort to fully understand and optimize CO2 trapping efficiency, the capillary trapping mechanisms that immobilize subsurface CO2 were analyzed at the pore scale. Pairs of analogous fluids representing the range of in situ supercritical CO2 and brine conditions were used during experimentation. The two fluids (identified as wetting and non wetting) were imbibed and drained from a flow cell apparatus containing a sintered glass bead column. Experimental and fluid parameters, such as interfacial tension, non-wetting fluid viscosity, and flow rate, were altered to characterize their impact on capillary trapping. Through the use of computed x-ray microtomography (CMT), we were able to quantify distinct differences between initial (post NW phase imbibition) and residual (post wetting fluid flood) non-wetting phase saturations. Alterations to the viscosity of the non-wetting and wetting fluid phases were made during experimentation; results indicate that the viscosity of the non-wetting fluid is the parameter of interest as residual saturations increased with increasing viscosity. These observed trends will be used to identify optimal conditions for trapping CO2 during subsurface sequestration.

  4. Effects of CO2 adsorption on coal deformation during geological sequestration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan Yang; Xiancai Lu; Yangzheng Lin; Alexander V. Neimark

    2011-01-01

      CO2 adsorption capacity in coals is determined CO2 adsorption-induced coal deformation is evaluated Geological sequestration of CO2 is deeply discussed Adsorption-induced deformation of coal during...

  5. The Wettability of Shale by CO2 and Its Impact on Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiltinan, E. J.; Cardenas, M. B.; Espinoza, D. N.; Yoon, H.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    The geologic sequestration of CO2 is widely considered as a potential solution for decreasing anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 emissions. Wettability of fluids within reservoir materials is a critical factor in determining the efficiency of structural and residual trapping, two major mechanisms of geologic sequestration. Individual reservoir minerals are often targeted for wettability studies. Current practice applies these results, recorded under laboratory conditions, to in-situ reservoir rock; however the wide variety of measured contact angles reported in the literature calls this practice into question. To address these issues and to study the wettability of shale caprock, resedimentation techniques are employed. These techniques allow for the creation of synthetic shales with controlled, homogeneous mineralogies. In addition, the systematic variation of the mineralogy allows for the characterization of shale wettability as a function of mineralogical composition. A novel design has been developed and used to conduct wettability experiments at reservoir conditions using high resolution X-ray computer tomography. Using this technique the wettability of resedimented shales and natural shales are compared at different reservoir conditions. Next, Lattice Boltzmann modelling methods are used to simulate capillary entry pressure into a shale capillary. Adhesion parameters along the wall are tuned to the results of the synthetic shales and heterogeneity is incorporated to estimate the capillary entry pressure into a natural shale. Understanding the mineralogical components of shale wetting allows for the prediction of capillary entry pressure based on shale mineralogy which can be used to help select secure CO2 storage sites.

  6. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2008-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO 2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO 2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mech

  7. Some geomechanical aspects of geological CO2 sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.

    2009-01-01

    Reservoir depletion and subsequent CO2 injection into the depleted geological reservoir induce stress changes that may mechanically damage top seal and wells, or trigger existing faults, creating the leakage pathways for CO2 escape from the reservoir. The role of geomechanics is to assess the mechan

  8. Geological Sequestration of CO2 A Brief Overview and Potential for Application for Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  9. The key to commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration: Displaced fluid management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdam, R.C.; Jiao, Z.; Stauffer, P.; Miller, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Wyoming State Geological Survey has completed a thorough inventory and prioritization of all Wyoming stratigraphic units and geologic sites capable of sequestering commercial quantities of CO2 (5-15 Mt CO 2/year). This multi-year study identified the Paleozoic Tensleep/Weber Sandstone and Madison Limestone (and stratigraphic equivalent units) as the leading clastic and carbonate reservoir candidates for commercial-scale geological CO2 sequestration in Wyoming. This conclusion was based on unit thickness, overlying low permeability lithofacies, reservoir storage and continuity properties, regional distribution patterns, formation fluid chemistry characteristics, and preliminary fluid-flow modeling. This study also identified the Rock Springs Uplift in southwestern Wyoming as the most promising geological CO2 sequestration site in Wyoming and probably in any Rocky Mountain basin. The results of the WSGS CO2 geological sequestration inventory led the agency and colleagues at the UW School of Energy Resources Carbon Management Institute (CMI) to collect available geologic, petrophysical, geochemical, and geophysical data on the Rock Springs Uplift, and to build a regional 3-D geologic framework model of the Uplift. From the results of these tasks and using the FutureGen protocol, the WSGS showed that on the Rock Springs Uplift, the Weber Sandstone has sufficient pore space to sequester 18 billion tons (Gt) of CO2, and the Madison Limestone has sufficient pore space to sequester 8 Gt of CO2. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  11. Self-Potential Monitoring for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Y.; Tosha, T.; Ishido, T.

    2009-12-01

    To appraise the utility of geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 injected into aquifers, we carried out numerical simulations of an aquifer system underlying a portion of Tokyo Bay and calculated the temporal changes in geophysical observables caused by changing underground conditions as computed by the reservoir simulation. We used the STAR general-purpose reservoir simulator with the CO2SQS equation-of-state package (Pritchett, 2005) which treats three fluid phases (liquid- and gaseous-phase CO2 and an aqueous liquid phase) to calculate the evolution of reservoir conditions, and then used various “geophysical postprocessors” to calculate the resulting temporal changes in the earth-surface distributions of microgravity, apparent resistivity (from either DC or MT surveys), seismic observables and electrical self-potential (SP). The applicability of any particular method is likely to be highly site-specific, but these calculations indicate that none of these techniques should be ruled out altogether. In case of SP, CO2 injection does not create large electric signals through electrokinetic coupling within the saline aquifer owing to small coupling coefficients under the high salinity conditions. However, if a substantial pressure disturbance is induced to shallower levels where the interface between shallower fresh- and deeper saline-waters (which works as the boundary between regions of differing streaming potential coefficient) is present, obvious SP changes can appear on the ground surface. Continuous and/or repeat SP measurements are thought to be a promising geophysical technique to monitor pressure changes in shallower levels than the saline aquifer where CO2 is injected. In addition to SP measurements in a relatively wide area like covering the horizontal extent of CO2 plume, SP monitoring in a local area around a deep well is thought to be worthwhile from a different angle. SP anomalies of negative polarity are frequently observed near deep wells

  12. Geologic CO2 Sequestration: Predicting and Confirming Performance in Oil Reservoirs and Saline Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. W.; Nitao, J. J.; Newmark, R. L.; Kirkendall, B. A.; Nimz, G. J.; Knauss, K. G.; Ziagos, J. P.

    2002-05-01

    Reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions ranks high among the grand scientific challenges of this century. In the near-term, significant reductions can only be achieved through innovative sequestration strategies that prevent atmospheric release of large-scale CO2 waste streams. Among such strategies, injection into confined geologic formations represents arguably the most promising alternative; and among potential geologic storage sites, oil reservoirs and saline aquifers represent the most attractive targets. Oil reservoirs offer a unique "win-win" approach because CO2 flooding is an effective technique of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), while saline aquifers offer immense storage capacity and widespread distribution. Although CO2-flood EOR has been widely used in the Permian Basin and elsewhere since the 1980s, the oil industry has just recently become concerned with the significant fraction of injected CO2 that eludes recycling and is therefore sequestered. This "lost" CO2 now has potential economic value in the growing emissions credit market; hence, the industry's emerging interest in recasting CO2 floods as co-optimized EOR/sequestration projects. The world's first saline aquifer storage project was also catalyzed in part by economics: Norway's newly imposed atmospheric emissions tax, which spurred development of Statoil's unique North Sea Sleipner facility in 1996. Successful implementation of geologic sequestration projects hinges on development of advanced predictive models and a diverse set of remote sensing, in situ sampling, and experimental techniques. The models are needed to design and forecast long-term sequestration performance; the monitoring techniques are required to confirm and refine model predictions and to ensure compliance with environmental regulations. We have developed a unique reactive transport modeling capability for predicting sequestration performance in saline aquifers, and used it to simulate CO2 injection at Sleipner; we are now

  13. Industrial CO2 Removal: CO2 Capture from Ambient Air and Geological Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2011-06-08

    This abstract and its accompanying presentation will provide an overview of two distinct industrial processes for removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere as a means of addressing anthropogenic climate change. The first of these is carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) coupled with large scale biomass production (hereafter referred to as bioCCS). The second is CO2 capture from ambient air via industrial systems (hereafter referred to as direct air capture (DAC)). In both systems, the captured CO2 would be injected into deep geologic formations so as to isolate it from the atmosphere. The technical literature is clear that both of these technologies are technically feasible as of today (IPCC, 2005; Keith, 2009; Lackner, 2009; Luckow et al., 2010; Ranjan and Herzog, 2011). What is uncertain is the relative cost of these industrial ambient-air CO2 removal systems when compared to other emissions mitigation measures, the ultimate timing and scale of their deployment, and the resolution of potential site specific constraints that would impact their ultimate commercial deployment.

  14. A feasibility study of geological CO2 sequestration in the Ordos Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Z.; Surdam, R.C.; Zhou, L.; Stauffer, P.H.; Luo, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Shaanxi Province/Wyoming CCS Partnership (supported by DOE NETL) aims to store commercial quantities of CO2 safely and permanently in the Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the northern Ordos Basin, Shaanxi Province, China. This objective is imperative because at present, six coal-to-liquid facilities in Shaanxi Province are capturing and venting significant quantities of CO2. The Wyoming State Geological Survey and the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Energy Resource and Chemical Engineering conducted a feasibility study to determine the potential for geological CO2 sequestration in the northern Ordos Basin near Yulin. The Shaanbei Slope of the Ordos Basin is a huge monoclinal structure with a high-priority sequestration reservoir (Majiagou Formation) that lies beneath a 2,000+ meter-thick sequence of Mesozoic rocks containing a multitude of lowpermeability lithologies. The targeted Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the location of interest is more than 700 meters thick. The carbonate reservoir is located at depths where pressures and temperatures are well above the supercritical point of CO2. The targeted reservoir contains high-salinity brines (20,000-50,000 ppm) that have little or no economic value. The targeted reservoir is continuous as inferred from well logs, and cores show that porosity ranges from 1 to 15% with average measured porosity of 8%, and that permeability ranges from 1-35 md. This paper focuses on calculations that will help evaluate the capacity estimates through the use of high-resolution multiphase numerical simulation models, as well as a more simple volumetric approach. The preliminary simulation results show that the Ordovician Majiagou Formation in the Ordos Basin has excellent potential for geological CO2 sequestration and could store the CO2 currently emitted by coal-to-liquid facilities in Shaanxi Province for hundreds of years (i.e., 9 Mt/year CO2; 450 Mt over a 50-year period at one injection site). ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Silicate Carbonation Processes in Water-Bearing Supercritical CO2 Fluids: Implications for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Q. R.; Schaef, T.; Thompson, C.; Loring, J. S.; Windisch, C. F.; Bowden, M. E.; Arey, B. W.; McGrail, P.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change is viewed by many as an anthropogenic phenomenon that could be mitigated through a combination of conservation efforts, alternative energy sources, and the development of technologies capable of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Continued increases of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected over the next decade, due to developing nations and growing populations. One economically favorable option for managing CO2 involves subsurface storage in deep basalt formations. The silicate minerals and glassy mesostasis basalt components act as metal cation sources, reacting with the CO2 to form carbonate minerals. Most prior work on mineral reactivity in geologic carbon sequestration settings involves only aqueous dominated reactions. However, in most sequestration scenarios, injected CO2 will reside as a buoyant fluid in contact with the sealing formation (caprock) and slowly become water bearing. Comparatively little laboratory research has been conducted on reactions occurring between minerals in the host rock and the wet scCO2. In this work, we studied the carbonation of wollastonite [CaSiO3] exposed to variably wet supercritical CO2 (scCO2) at a range of temperatures (50, 55 and 70 °C) and pressures (90,120 and 160 bar) in order to gain insight into reaction processes. Mineral transformation reactions were followed by two novel in situ high pressure techniques, including x-ray diffraction that tracked the rate and extents of wollastonite conversion to calcite. Increased dissolved water concentrations in the scCO2 resulted in increased carbonation approaching ~50 wt. %. Development of thin water films on the mineral surface were directly observed with infrared (IR) spectroscopy and indirectly with 18O isotopic labeling techniques (Raman spectroscopy). The thin water films were determined to be critical for facilitating carbonation processes in wet scCO2. Even in extreme low water conditions, the IR technique detected the formation of

  16. Vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical methods for geological CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, S. E.

    2009-04-23

    Large-scale implementation of geological CO2 sequestration requires quantification of risk and leakage potential. One potentially important leakage pathway for the injected CO2 involves existing oil and gas wells. Wells are particularly important in North America, where more than a century of drilling has created millions of oil and gas wells. Models of CO 2 injection and leakage will involve large uncertainties in parameters associated with wells, and therefore a probabilistic framework is required. These models must be able to capture both the large-scale CO 2 plume associated with the injection and the small-scale leakage problem associated with localized flow along wells. Within a typical simulation domain, many hundreds of wells may exist. One effective modeling strategy combines both numerical and analytical models with a specific set of simplifying assumptions to produce an efficient numerical-analytical hybrid model. The model solves a set of governing equations derived by vertical averaging with assumptions of a macroscopic sharp interface and vertical equilibrium. These equations are solved numerically on a relatively coarse grid, with an analytical model embedded to solve for wellbore flow occurring at the sub-gridblock scale. This vertical equilibrium with sub-scale analytical method (VESA) combines the flexibility of a numerical method, allowing for heterogeneous and geologically complex systems, with the efficiency and accuracy of an analytical method, thereby eliminating expensive grid refinement for sub-scale features. Through a series of benchmark problems, we show that VESA compares well with traditional numerical simulations and to a semi-analytical model which applies to appropriately simple systems. We believe that the VESA model provides the necessary accuracy and efficiency for applications of risk analysis in many CO2 sequestration problems. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. IN SITU MAGIC ANGLE SPINNING NMR FOR STUDYING GEOLOGICAL CO(2) SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, David W.; Turcu, Romulus VF; Sears, Jesse A.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Burton, Sarah D.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Felmy, Andrew R.; Hu, Jian Z.

    2011-03-27

    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) is one of the most promising ways of mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gases (1-3). Mineral carbonation reactions are potentially important to the long-term sealing effectiveness of caprock but remain poorly predictable, particularly in low-water supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-dominated environments where the chemistry has not been adequately explored. In situ probes that provide molecular-level information is desirable for investigating mechanisms and rates of GCS mineral carbonation reactions. MAS-NMR is a powerful tool for obtaining detailed molecular structure and dynamics information of a system regardless whether the system is in a solid, a liquid, a gaseous, or a supercritical state, or a mixture thereof (4,5). However, MAS NMR under scCO2 conditions has never been realized due to the tremendous technical difficulties of achieving and maintaining high pressure within a fast spinning MAS rotor (6,7), where non-metal materials must be used. In this work, we report development of a unique high pressure MAS NMR capability, and its application to mineral carbonation chemistry in scCO2 under geologically relevant temperatures and pressures.

  18. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  19. Pore scale modeling of reactive transport involved in geologic CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Qinjin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lichtner, Peter C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Viswanathan, Hari S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Abdel-fattah, Amr I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We apply a multi-component reactive transport lattice Boltzmann model developed in previolls studies to modeling the injection of a C02 saturated brine into various porous media structures at temperature T=25 and 80 C. The porous media are originally consisted of calcite. A chemical system consisting of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, CO2(aq), and CI-is considered. The fluid flow, advection and diHusion of aqueous species, homogeneous reactions occurring in the bulk fluid, as weB as the dissolution of calcite and precipitation of dolomite are simulated at the pore scale. The effects of porous media structure on reactive transport are investigated. The results are compared with continuum scale modeling and the agreement and discrepancy are discussed. This work may shed some light on the fundamental physics occurring at the pore scale for reactive transport involved in geologic C02 sequestration.

  20. Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Juerg M.; Takahashi, Taro; Goldberg, David

    2007-02-01

    Deep aquifers are potential long-term storage sites for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The retention time and environmental safety of the injected CO2 depend on geologic and physical factors and on the chemical reactions between the CO2, the aquifer water, and the host rocks. The pH buffer capacity of the aquifer water and the acid neutralization potential of the host rocks are important factors for the permanent stabilization of the injected CO2. Mafic rocks, such as basalt, which primarily consists of Ca, Mg silicate minerals, have a high acid neutralization capacity by providing alkaline earth elements that form stable carbonate minerals. The carbonate minerals formed thus sequester CO2 in a chemically stable and environmentally benign form. In this study, we present results from a small-scale CO2 injection test in mafic and metasedimentary rocks. The injection test was conducted using a single-well push-pull test strategy. CO2 saturated water (pH = 3.5) was injected into a hydraulically isolated and permeable aquifer interval to study the acid neutralization capacity of Ca, Mg silicate rocks and to estimate in situ cation release rates. Release rates for Ca, Mg, and Na were calculated by use of solute compositions of water samples retrieved after the CO2 injection, the incubation time of the injected solution within the aquifer, and geometric estimates of the reactive surface area of the host rocks. Our results confirm rapid acid neutralization rates and water-rock reactions sufficient for safe and permanent storage of CO2. Carbonic acid was neutralized within hours of injection into a permeable mafic aquifer by two processes: mixing between the injected solution and the aquifer water, and water-rock reactions. Calculated cation release rates decrease with increasing pH that is confirmed by laboratory-based experiments. Large differences between release rates obtained from the field and laboratory experiments may be mainly due to uncertainties in the estimation

  1. Summary Report on 2011 CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop, Berkeley, June 1-2, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help with the research planning and prioritization, EPA and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) jointly hosted a workshop on “CO2 Geologic Sequestration and Water Resources.” The objective of the workshop, held at LBNL on June 1–2, 2011, was to evaluate the current s...

  2. A Numerical Modeling Study of Effect of Heterogeneity on Capillary Trapping of Geologically Sequestrated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.; Trevisan, L.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez, D.; Sakaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    Heterogeneities at multiple scales influence migration and trapping of geologically sequestrated CO2 during injection and post-injection periods. Understanding of small-scale processes is crucial to device upscaling methodologies for incorporating them into macroscopic-scale models. The upscaled models are in turn used to get insights into the complex field-scale processes involved in the migration of supercritical CO2. Theoretical research based on numerical model analysis presented in this study focuses on capillary entrapment in homogeneous and heterogeneous small-scale and intermediate-scale laboratory experiments with surrogate fluids, presented in a companion presentation (Treviso et al., 2011). An improved understanding of pore-scale and larger scale processes on capillary entrapment may be achieved by combining pore-scale and macroscopic-scale modeling approaches. Capillarity controlled entrapped non-wetting phase saturation in macroscopic-scale models is generally either provided as an input parameter after laboratory scale measurements or estimated empirically. A particle trajectory modeling approach with pore-scale physics included is used to gain insights to development of physically-based models for the capillary entrapment in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The particle trajectory modeling generates functional relationships between phase saturation, entrapped phase saturation, hydraulic properties of the medium, and velocity of injected phase, which eventually are planned to be used for developing macroscopic scale models of capillary entrapment. The predictions of entrapped fluid saturation from the particle trajectory model are verified with measurements from the small scale experimental test systems. Macroscopic two-phase flow modeling approach with existing and modified constitutive models is tested by comparisons with both small-scale and intermediate-scale experimental results. T2VOC module based on TOUGH2 is used to simulate two

  3. Mechanisms for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations and Enhanced Gas Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosrokhavar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with a variety of aspects related to the storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. In particular we focus on the transfer between the gas phase to a fluid (liquid) or solid phase. This thesis limits its interest to study the sequestration capacity of

  4. Mechanisms for CO2 Sequestration in Geological Formations and Enhanced Gas Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosrokhavar, R.

    2014-01-01

    The work described in this thesis deals with a variety of aspects related to the storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations. In particular we focus on the transfer between the gas phase to a fluid (liquid) or solid phase. This thesis limits its interest to study the sequestration capacity of

  5. Mineral Chemistry and Precipitation Kinetics of Dawsonite in the Geological Sequestration of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, R.; Carey, J. W.; Kaszuba, J. P.

    2005-12-01

    Dawsonite [NaAl(OH)2CO3] is a relatively rare mineral that may play an important role in the geological sequestration of CO2: thermodynamic and reactive transport calculations predict that dawsonite should precipitate under a variety of CO2 injection scenarios by dissolution of Al-bearing minerals in Na-bearing brine. The precipitation of dawsonite is potentially beneficial as a means of fixing the CO2 in solid form but could also modify porosity and permeability. The relative rarity of natural dawsonite occurrences, however, indicates that either appropriate CO2-rich environments are rare in nature or that dawsonite formation is inhibited or more complex than the simplified geochemical systems used in the model calculations. We have conducted synthesis experiments and dissolution studies to help understand precipitation dynamics, Na-K substitution, and solubility. Both Na- and K-dawsonite were readily synthesized from mixtures of (Na,K)HCO3 and gibbsite [Al(OH)3] at 150°C for 24 hours. [Syntheses were made in unstirred, closed ParrTM reaction vessels and consisted generally of 15 ml of H2O with 6 g (Na,K)HCO3 and sufficient Al-bearing mineral to achieve a (Na,K)/Al ratio of 8.] At lower temperatures, a 41% yield of dawsonite was achieved at 120°C; 1% at 94°C; and no reaction was observed at ≤75°C. In contrast, other Al-bearing minerals including albite, analcime and pyrophyllite at 150°C (28 days) and albite, pyrophyllite, and clinoptilolite at 200°C (66 days) showed no evidence of dawsonite formation but did yield analcime. Kaolinite, however, did produce 1% dawsonite at 75°C (40 days), 37% at 150°C (90 days), and some dawsonite in addition to a complex mixture of albite, cancrisilite, and other phases at 200°C (66 days). Thermodynamic calculations suggest that silica activity restricts the range of dawsonite stability and synthesis experiments with gibbsite-quartz and gibbsite-opal-CT were significantly different than gibbsite alone. At 150°C, the

  6. Pore-scale Modeling on the Characterization of Kyeongsang Basin, South Korea for the Geological CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J.; Keehm, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is a green-house gas and is believed to be responsible for global warming and climate change. Many countries are looking for various techniques for effective storage of CO2 and the geological sequestration is regarded as the most economical and efficient option. For successful geological sequestration, accurate evaluation of physical properties of the target formation and their changes when CO2 is injected, is essential. Since physical property changes during CO2 injection are strongly dependent on the pore-scale details of the target formation, we used a series of pore-scale simulation techniques including CO2 injection simulation to estimate physical properties of CO2 bearing formations. The study area, Kyeongsang basin is located in southeastern part of Korea, which has many industrial complexes including power plants. We first obtained high-resolution 3D microstructures from core samples of the prospective formation. We performed a set of pore-scale simulation and estimated physical properties, such as porosity, permeability, electrical conductivity and velocity. Then we used lattice-Boltzmann two-phase flow simulation to mimic CO2 injection into the formation. During this simulation, a variety of microstructures with different CO2 saturation were obtained and we again performed pore-scale simulation to estimate the changes of physical properties as CO2 saturation increases. These quantitative interrelations between physical properties and CO2 saturation would be a valuable piece of information to evaluate the performance of the target formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy Resources R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (No. 2010201020001A)

  7. CO2 reaction with hydrated class H well cement under geologic sequestration conditions: effects of flyash admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchko, Barbara G; Strazisar, Brian R; Huerta, Nicolas; Lowry, Gregory V; Dzombak, David A; Thaulow, Niels

    2009-05-15

    The rate and mechanism of reaction of pozzolan-amended Class H cement exposed to both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine were determined under geologic sequestration conditions to assess the potential impact of cement degradation in existing, wells on CO2 storage integrity. The pozzolan additive chosen, Type F flyash, is the most common additive used in cements for well sealing in oil-gas field operations. The 35:65 and 65:35 (v/v) pozzolan-cement blends were exposed to supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine and underwent cement carbonation. Extrapolation of the carbonation rate for the 35:65 case suggests a penetration depth of 170-180 mm for both the CO2-saturated brine and supercritical CO2 after 30 years. Despite alteration in both pozzolan systems, the reacted cement remained relatively impermeable to fluid flow after exposure to brine solution saturated with CO2, with values well below the American Petroleum Institute recommended maximum well cement permeability of 200 microD. Analyses of 50: 50 pozzolan-cement cores from a production well in a sandstone reservoir exhibited carbonation and low permeability to brine solution saturated with CO2, which are consistent with our laboratory findings.

  8. TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.

    2005-03-17

    A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

  9. TheU-Tube: A Novel System for Acquiring Borehole Fluid Samplesfrom a Deep Geologic CO2 Sequestration Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.; Kharaka, Yousif K.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Myer, Larry R.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Collins, Daniel J.

    2005-03-17

    A novel system has been deployed to obtain geochemical samples of water and gas, at in situ pressure, during a geologic CO2 sequestration experiment conducted in the Frio brine aquifer in Liberty County, Texas. Project goals required high-frequency recovery of representative and uncontaminated aliquots of a rapidly changing two-phase (supercritical CO2-brine) fluid from 1.5 km depth. The datasets collected, using both the liquid and gas portions of the downhole samples, provide insights into the coupled hydro-geochemical issues affecting CO2 sequestration in brine-filled formations. While the basic premise underlying the U-Tube sampler is not new, the system is unique because careful consideration was given to the processing of the recovered two-phase fluids. In particular, strain gauges mounted beneath the high-pressure surface sample cylinders measured the ratio of recovered brine to supercritical CO2. A quadrupole mass spectrometer provided real-time gas analysis for perfluorocarbon and noble gas tracers that were injected along with the CO2. The U-Tube successfully acquired frequent samples, facilitating accurate delineation of the arrival of the CO2 plume, and on-site analysis revealed rapid changes in geochemical conditions.

  10. Density-Driven Flow Simulation in Anisotropic Porous Media: Application to CO2 Geological Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Negara, Ardiansyah

    2014-04-21

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in saline aquifers is considered as one of the most viable and promising ways to reduce CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. CO2 is injected into deep saline formations at supercritical state where its density is smaller than the hosting brine. This motivates an upward motion and eventually CO2 is trapped beneath the cap rock. The trapped CO2 slowly dissolves into the brine causing the density of the mixture to become larger than the host brine. This causes gravitational instabilities that is propagated and magnified with time. In this kind of density-driven flows, the CO2-rich brines migrate downward while the brines with low CO2 concentration move upward. With respect to the properties of the subsurface aquifers, there are instances where saline formations can possess anisotropy with respect to their hydraulic properties. Such anisotropy can have significant effect on the onset and propagation of flow instabilities. Anisotropy is predicted to be more influential in dictating the direction of the convective flow. To account for permeability anisotropy, the method of multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) in the framework of finite differences schemes is used. The MPFA method requires more point stencil than the traditional two-point flux approximation (TPFA). For example, calculation of one flux component requires 6-point stencil and 18-point stencil in 2-D and 3-D cases, respectively. As consequence, the matrix of coefficient for obtaining the pressure fields will be quite complex. Therefore, we combine the MPFA method with the experimenting pressure field technique in which the problem is reduced to solving multitude of local problems and the global matrix of coefficients is constructed automatically, which significantly reduces the complexity. We present several numerical scenarios of density-driven flow simulation in homogeneous, layered, and heterogeneous anisotropic porous media. The numerical results emphasize the

  11. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  12. Geochemical monitoring for potential environmental impacts of geologic sequestration of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Cole, David R.; Thordsen, James J.; Gans, Kathleen D.; Thomas, Randal B.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration is now considered an important component of the portfolio of options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions to stabilize their atmospheric levels at values that would limit global temperature increases to the target of 2 °C by the end of the century (Pacala and Socolow 2004; IPCC 2005, 2007; Benson and Cook 2005; Benson and Cole 2008; IEA 2012; Romanak et al. 2013). Increased anthropogenic emissions of CO2 have raised its atmospheric concentrations from about 280 ppmv during pre-industrial times to ~400 ppmv today, and based on several defined scenarios, CO2 concentrations are projected to increase to values as high as 1100 ppmv by 2100 (White et al. 2003; IPCC 2005, 2007; EIA 2012; Global CCS Institute 2012). An atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv is generally the accepted level that is needed to limit global temperature increases to the target of 2 °C by the end of the century. This temperature limit likely would moderate the adverse effects related to climate change that could include sea-level rise from the melting of alpine glaciers and continental ice sheets and from the ocean warming; increased frequency and intensity of wildfires, floods, droughts, and tropical storms; and changes in the amount, timing, and distribution of rain, snow, and runoff (IPCC 2007; Sundquist et al. 2009; IEA 2012). Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations are also increasing the amount of CO2 dissolved in ocean water lowering its pH from 8.1 to 8.0, with potentially disruptive effects on coral reefs, plankton and marine ecosystems (Adams and Caldeira 2008; Schrag 2009; Sundquist et al. 2009). Sedimentary basins in general and deep saline aquifers in particular are being investigated as possible repositories for the large volumes of anthropogenic CO2 that must be sequestered to mitigate global warming and related climate changes (Hitchon 1996; Benson and Cole 2008; Verma and Warwick 2011).

  13. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO

  14. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO

  15. Characterization of the Helderberg Group as a geologic seal for CO 2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Avary, K.L.; Carter, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership recognizes that both the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone and the Silurian Salina Group offer potential for subsurface carbon dioxide storage in northern West Virginia. The Silurian-Devonian Helderberg Group lies stratigraphically between these two units, and consequendy, its potential as a geologic seal must be evaluated. Predominantly a carbonate interval with minor interbedded siliciclastics and chert, the Helderberg Group was deposited in an ancient epeiric sea. Although most previous investigations of this unit have concentrated on outcrops in eastern West Virginia, new information is available from an injection well drilled along the Ohio River at First Energy's R. E. Burger electric power plant near Shadyside, Ohio. Geophysical, seismic, and core data from this well have been combined with existing outcrop information to evaluate the Helderberg Group's potential as a seal. The data collected suggest that only secondary porosity remains, and permeability, if it exists, most likely occurs along faults or within fractures. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  17. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT - AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Helen Kerr

    2003-08-01

    The CO{sub 2} Capture Project (CCP) is a joint industry project, funded by eight energy companies (BP, ChevronTexaco, EnCana, Eni, Norsk Hydro, Shell, Statoil, and Suncor) and three government agencies (1) European Union (DG Res & DG Tren), (2) Norway (Klimatek) and (3) the U.S.A. (Department of Energy). The project objective is to develop new technologies, which could reduce the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and geologic storage by 50% for retrofit to existing plants and 75% for new-build plants. Technologies are to be developed to ''proof of concept'' stage by the end of 2003. The project budget is approximately $24 million over 3 years and the work program is divided into eight major activity areas: (1) Baseline Design and Cost Estimation--defined the uncontrolled emissions from each facility and estimate the cost of abatement in $/tonne CO{sub 2}. (2) Capture Technology, Post Combustion: technologies, which can remove CO{sub 2} from exhaust gases after combustion. (3) Capture Technology, Oxyfuel: where oxygen is separated from the air and then burned with hydrocarbons to produce an exhaust with high CO{sub 2} for storage. (4) Capture Technology, Pre -Combustion: in which, natural gas and petroleum coke are converted to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} in a reformer/gasifier. (5) Common Economic Model/Technology Screening: analysis and evaluation of each technology applied to the scenarios to provide meaningful and consistent comparison. (6) New Technology Cost Estimation: on a consistent basis with the baseline above, to demonstrate cost reductions. (7) Geologic Storage, Monitoring and Verification (SMV): providing assurance that CO{sub 2} can be safely stored in geologic formations over the long term. (8) Non-Technical: project management, communication of results and a review of current policies and incentives governing CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Technology development work dominated the past six months of the project. Numerous studies are making

  18. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  19. Wettability-Water/brine Film Thickness Relationship and the Effect of Supercritical CO2 Pre-contact for CO2/brine/mineral Systems under Geologic CO2 Sequestration Conditions: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Song, Y.; Li, W.

    2016-12-01

    Injection CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the main options for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS). A successful GCS in saline aquifers requires full knowledge about CO2/brine/mineral systems under sequestration conditions to reduce uncertainties during subsurface storage of CO2. Adsorbed water film thickness and wettability on mineral surfaces are two key characteristics for CO2/brine/mineral systems. Wettability and water/brine film thickness have been measured experimentally and predicted by molecular simulation (MD) studies. However, these studies only consider the films apart from contact angles. Investigations on wettability for CO2/brine/mineral systems only consider contact angles without measurements on film thickness. The relationship between film thicknesses with water contact angles is open to questions. In this paper, MD simulations have been performed to investigate the interrelationship between water film thicknesses and water contact angles. Three silica surfaces with different silanol group number densities (Q3, Q3-50%, Q3/Q4) were selected to represent silica surfaces with different wettabilities. We found that as water contact angle increases, the film thickness decreases. We also studied the effect of CO2-mineral pre-contact and found that: on Q3 surface, if a CO2 bubble was pre-contacted with the surface, it can remain on the surface without forming a water film; however, if a CO2 bubble was placed certain distances away from the surface, it formed a water film. Wettability analysis revealed that on the same surface, water contact angle was larger when there was no water film. These findings show that on some silica surfaces, water film may be destroyed by supercritical CO2 even the silica surfaces are hydrophilic. A water film rupture mechanism was propsed for CO2 adhesion on mineral surfaces [Wang (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol. 47, 11858; Zhang (2016) Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. 10.1021/acs.estlett.5b00359]. The rupture of water film

  20. CO2-Brine-Iron-bearing Clay Mineral Interactions: Surface Area Changes and Fracture-Filling Potentials in Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Y.; Hu, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCS) is a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. The injected CO2 in GCS sites can induce dissolution of rocks and secondary mineral formation, potentially change the physical properties of the geological formations, and thus influence the transport and injectivity of CO2. However, most of the relevant studies are based on hydrological transport, using simulation models rather than studying actual interfacial chemical reactions. The mechanisms and kinetics of interfacial reactions among supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock surfaces at the molecular scale and their impacts on CO2 leakage have not been well understood. This research investigated the effects of various environmental factors (such as temperature, pressure, salinity, and different metal ion and organic-containing brine) on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of clay minerals. In this work, iron-bearing clay mineral, biotite [K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2], was used for model clay minerals in potential GCS sites. Both fluid/solid chemistry analysis and interfacial topographic studies were conducted to investigate the dissolution/precipitation on clay mineral surfaces under GCS conditions in high salinity systems. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the interfacial surface morphology changes were observed. Shortly after a CO2 pressure of 102 atm is applied at 95oC, in situ pH of solutions was 3.15 ± 0.10. The early intrinsic dissolution rates of biotite were 8.4 ± 2.8 × 10-13 and 11.2 ± 3.0 × 10-13 mol Si m-2s-1 in water and NaCl solution, respectively. At the early stage of reaction, fast growth of fibrous illite on biotite basal planes was observed. After 22-70 h reaction, the biotite basal surface cracked, resulting in illite detaching from the surfaced. Later, the cracked surface layer was released into solution, thus the inner layer was exposed as a renewed

  1. National Geologic Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Sequestration Assessment Project: Bighorn Basin (C5034) Well Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Drilling-density cell maps show the number of wells that have been drilled into the storage assessment unit (SAU). Each 1-square-mile cell has a count for the number...

  2. CO2 sequestration in basalts: laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otheim, L. T.; Adam, L.; van Wijk, K.; McLing, T. L.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is proposed as the only promising large-scale method to help reduce CO2 gas emission by its capture at large point sources and subsequent long-term storage in deep geologic formations. Reliable and cost-effective monitoring will be important aspect of ensuring geological sequestration is a safe, effective, and acceptable method for CO2 emissions mitigation. Once CO2 injection starts, seismic methods can be used to monitor the migration of the carbon dioxide plume. To calibrate changes in rock properties from field observations, we propose to first analyze changes in elastic properties on basalt cores. Carbon dioxide sequestration in basalt rocks results in fluid substitution and mixing of CO2 with water and rock mineralizations. Carbon dioxide sequestration in mafic rocks creates reactions such as Mg2SiO 4 + CaMgSi2O 6 + 4CO2 = Mg 3Ca(CO 3) 4 + 3SiO2 whereby primary silicate minerals within the basalt react with carbonic acid laden water to creating secondary carbonate minerals and silicates. Using time-lapse laboratory scale experiments, such as laser generated ultrasonic wave propagation; it is possible to observe small changes in the physical properties of a rock. We will show velocity and modulus measurements on three basalt core samples for different saturation. The ultimate goal of the project is to track seismic changes due to fluid substitution and mineralization. The porosity of our basalts ranges from 8% to 12%, and the P-wave velocity increases by 20% to 40% from dry to water saturated conditions. Petrographic analysis (CT-scans, thin sections, XRF, XRf) will aid in the characterization of the mineral structure in these basalts and its correlation to seismic properties changes resulting from fluid substitution and mineralization.

  3. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume

  4. Numerical investigation for the impact of CO2 geologic sequestration on regional groundwater flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H.; Zhang, K.; Karasaki, K.; Marui, A.; Uehara, H.; Nishikawa, N.

    2009-04-15

    Large-scale storage of carbon dioxide in saline aquifers may cause considerable pressure perturbation and brine migration in deep rock formations, which may have a significant influence on the regional groundwater system. With the help of parallel computing techniques, we conducted a comprehensive, large-scale numerical simulation of CO{sub 2} geologic storage that predicts not only CO{sub 2} migration, but also its impact on regional groundwater flow. As a case study, a hypothetical industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection in Tokyo Bay, which is surrounded by the most heavily industrialized area in Japan, was considered, and the impact of CO{sub 2} injection on near-surface aquifers was investigated, assuming relatively high seal-layer permeability (higher than 10 microdarcy). A regional hydrogeological model with an area of about 60 km x 70 km around Tokyo Bay was discretized into about 10 million gridblocks. To solve the high-resolution model efficiently, we used a parallelized multiphase flow simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N on a world-class high performance supercomputer in Japan, the Earth Simulator. In this simulation, CO{sub 2} was injected into a storage aquifer at about 1 km depth under Tokyo Bay from 10 wells, at a total rate of 10 million tons/year for 100 years. Through the model, we can examine regional groundwater pressure buildup and groundwater migration to the land surface. The results suggest that even if containment of CO{sub 2} plume is ensured, pressure buildup on the order of a few bars can occur in the shallow confined aquifers over extensive regions, including urban inlands.

  5. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the

  6. Permeability reduction produced by grain reorganization and accumulation of exsolved CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration: a new CO2 trapping mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Andrew J; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Tutolo, Benjamin M; Ding, Kang; Saar, Martin O; Seyfried, William E

    2013-01-01

    Carbon sequestration experiments were conducted on uncemented sediment and lithified rock from the Eau Claire Formation, which consisted primarily of K-feldspar and quartz. Cores were heated to accentuate reactivity between fluid and mineral grains and to force CO(2) exsolution. Measured permeability of one sediment core ultimately reduced by 4 orders of magnitude as it was incrementally heated from 21 to 150 °C. Water-rock interaction produced some alteration, yielding sub-μm clay precipitation on K-feldspar grains in the core's upstream end. Experimental results also revealed abundant newly formed pore space in regions of the core, and in some cases pores that were several times larger than the average grain size of the sediment. These large pores likely formed from elevated localized pressure caused by rapid CO(2) exsolution within the core and/or an accumulating CO(2) phase capable of pushing out surrounding sediment. CO(2) filled the pores and blocked flow pathways. Comparison with a similar experiment using a solid arkose core indicates that CO(2) accumulation and grain reorganization mainly contributed to permeability reduction during the heated sediment core experiment. This suggests that CO(2) injection into sediments may store more CO(2) and cause additional permeability reduction than is possible in lithified rock due to grain reorganization.

  7. Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Fotini K.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-11-01

    Understanding the potential impacts of unexpected surface releases of CO{sub 2} is an essential part of risk assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have extended a mesoscale atmospheric model to model dense gas dispersion of CO{sub 2} leakage. The hazard from CO{sub 2} leakage is greatest in regions with topographic depressions where the dense gas can pool. Simulation of dispersion in idealized topographies shows that CO{sub 2} can persist even under high winds. Simulation of a variety of topographies, winds, and release conditions allows the generation of a catalog of simulation results that can be queried to estimate potential impacts at actual geologic carbon sequestration sites.

  8. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2004-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential benefits for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the highly industrialized Carboniferous coal basins of North America and Europe and for enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Hence, enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations provide a basis for a market-based environmental solution in which the cost of sequestration is offset by the production and sale of natural gas. The Black Warrior foreland basin of west-central Alabama contains the only mature coalbed methane production fairway in eastern North America, and data from this basin provide an excellent basis for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of coal and for identifying the geologic screening criteria required to select sites for the demonstration and commercialization of carbon sequestration technology. Coalbed methane reservoirs in the upper Pottsville Formation of the Black Warrior basin are extremely heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity must be considered to screen areas for the application of CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery technology. Major screening factors include stratigraphy, geologic structure, geothermics, hydrogeology, coal quality, sorption capacity, technology, and infrastructure. Applying the screening model to the Black Warrior basin indicates that geologic structure, water chemistry, and the distribution of coal mines and reserves are the principal determinants of where CO{sub 2} can be sequestered. By comparison, coal thickness, temperature-pressure conditions, and coal quality are the key determinants of sequestration capacity and unswept coalbed methane resources. Results of this investigation indicate that the potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in the Black Warrior basin is substantial and can result in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions while increasing natural gas reserves. Coal-fired power plants serving the Black Warrior basin in

  9. Heterogeneity-enhanced gas phase formation in shallow aquifers during leakage of CO2-saturated water from geologic sequestration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Lassen, Rune N.; Sakaki, Toshihiro; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Jensen, Karsten H.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2014-12-01

    A primary concern for geologic carbon storage is the potential for leakage of stored carbon dioxide (CO2) into the shallow subsurface where it could degrade the quality of groundwater and surface water. In order to predict and mitigate the potentially negative impacts of CO2 leakage, it is important to understand the physical processes that CO2 will undergo as it moves through naturally heterogeneous porous media formations. Previous studies have shown that heterogeneity can enhance the evolution of gas phase CO2 in some cases, but the conditions under which this occurs have not yet been quantitatively defined, nor tested through laboratory experiments. This study quantitatively investigates the effects of geologic heterogeneity on the process of gas phase CO2 evolution in shallow aquifers through an extensive set of experiments conducted in a column that was packed with layers of various test sands. Soil moisture sensors were utilized to observe the formation of gas phase near the porous media interfaces. Results indicate that the conditions under which heterogeneity controls gas phase evolution can be successfully predicted through analysis of simple parameters, including the dissolved CO2 concentration in the flowing water, the distance between the heterogeneity and the leakage location, and some fundamental properties of the porous media. Results also show that interfaces where a less permeable material overlies a more permeable material affect gas phase evolution more significantly than interfaces with the opposite layering.

  10. Capillary pressure-saturation relations for supercritical CO2 and brine in limestone/dolomite sands: implications for geologic carbon sequestration in carbonate reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2015-06-16

    In geologic carbon sequestration, capillary pressure (Pc)-saturation (Sw) relations are needed to predict reservoir processes. Capillarity and its hysteresis have been extensively studied in oil-water and gas-water systems, but few measurements have been reported for supercritical (sc) CO2-water. Here, Pc-Sw relations of scCO2 displacing brine (drainage), and brine rewetting (imbibition) were studied to understand CO2 transport and trapping behavior under reservoir conditions. Hysteretic drainage and imbibition Pc-Sw curves were measured in limestone sands at 45 °C under elevated pressures (8.5 and 12.0 MPa) for scCO2-brine, and in limestone and dolomite sands at 23 °C (0.1 MPa) for air-brine using a new computer programmed porous plate apparatus. scCO2-brine drainage and imbibition curves shifted to lower Pc relative to predictions based on interfacial tension, and therefore deviated from capillary scaling predictions for hydrophilic interactions. Fitting universal scaled drainage and imbibition curves show that wettability alteration resulted from scCO2 exposure over the course of months-long experiments. Residual trapping of the nonwetting phases was determined at Pc = 0 during imbibition. Amounts of trapped scCO2 were significantly larger than for those for air, and increased with pressure (depth), initial scCO2 saturation, and time. These results have important implications for scCO2 distribution, trapping, and leakage potential.

  11. Separation and capture of CO2 from large stationary sources and sequestration in geological formations--coalbeds and deep saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Curt M; Strazisar, Brian R; Granite, Evan J; Hoffman, James S; Pennline, Henry W

    2003-06-01

    The topic of global warming as a result of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration is arguably the most important environmental issue that the world faces today. It is a global problem that will need to be solved on a global level. The link between anthropogenic emissions of CO2 with increased atmospheric CO2 levels and, in turn, with increased global temperatures has been well established and accepted by the world. International organizations such as the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have been formed to address this issue. Three options are being explored to stabilize atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and global temperatures without severely and negatively impacting standard of living: (1) increasing energy efficiency, (2) switching to less carbon-intensive sources of energy, and (3) carbon sequestration. To be successful, all three options must be used in concert. The third option is the subject of this review. Specifically, this review will cover the capture and geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from large point sources, namely fossil-fuel-fired power gasification plants. Sequestration of CO2 in geological formations is necessary to meet the President's Global Climate Change Initiative target of an 18% reduction in GHG intensity by 2012. Further, the best strategy to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 results from a multifaceted approach where sequestration of CO2 into geological formations is combined with increased efficiency in electric power generation and utilization, increased conservation, increased use of lower carbon-intensity fuels, and increased use of nuclear energy and renewables. This review covers the separation and capture of CO2 from both flue gas and fuel gas using wet scrubbing technologies, dry regenerable sorbents, membranes, cryogenics, pressure and temperature swing adsorption, and other advanced concepts. Existing

  12. Application of Cutting-Edge 3D Seismic Attribute Technology to the Assessment of Geological Reservoirs for CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Liner; Jianjun Zeng; Po Geng Heather King Jintan Li; Jennifer Califf; John Seales

    2010-03-31

    The goals of this project were to develop innovative 3D seismic attribute technologies and workflows to assess the structural integrity and heterogeneity of subsurface reservoirs with potential for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic attributes to aide in quantifying reservoir properies and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. Our study area is the Dickman field in Ness County, Kansas, a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontent to Indiana and beyond. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. Geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We systematically tested over a dozen seismic attributes, finding that curvature, SPICE, and ANT were particularly useful for mapping discontinuities in the data that likely indicated fracture trends. Our simulation results in the deep saline aquifer indicate two effective ways of reducing free CO{sub 2}: (a) injecting CO{sub 2} with brine water, and (b) horizontal well injection. A tuned combination of these methods can reduce the amount of free CO{sub 2} in the aquifer from over 50% to less than 10%.

  13. GEOLOGIC SCREENING CRITERIA FOR SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN COAL: QUANTIFYING POTENTIAL OF THE BLACK WARRIOR COALBED METHANE FAIRWAY, ALABAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack C. Pashin; Richard E. Carroll; Richard H. Groshong, Jr.; Dorothy E. Raymond; Marcella McIntyre; J. Wayne Payton

    2003-01-01

    Sequestration of CO{sub 2} in coal has potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants while enhancing coalbed methane recovery. Data from more than 4,000 coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior basin of Alabama provide an opportunity to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of coal and to develop a geologic screening model for the application of carbon sequestration technology. This report summarizes stratigraphy and sedimentation, structural geology, geothermics, hydrology, coal quality, gas capacity, and production characteristics of coal in the Black Warrior coalbed methane fairway and the implications of geology for carbon sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Coal in the Black Warrior basin is distributed among several fluvial-deltaic coal zones in the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Most coal zones contain one to three coal beds that are significant targets for coalbed methane production and carbon sequestration, and net coal thickness generally increases southeastward. Pottsville strata have effectively no matrix permeability to water, so virtually all flow is through natural fractures. Faults and folds influence the abundance and openness of fractures and, hence, the performance of coalbed methane wells. Water chemistry in the Pottsville Formation ranges from fresh to saline, and zones with TDS content lower than 10,000 mg/L can be classified as USDW. An aquifer exemption facilitating enhanced recovery in USDW can be obtained where TDS content is higher than 3,000 mg/L. Carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid above a temperature of 88 F and a pressure of 1,074 psi. Reservoir temperature exceeds 88 F in much of the study area. Hydrostatic pressure gradients range from normal to extremely underpressured. A large area of underpressure is developed around closely spaced longwall coal mines, and areas of natural underpressure are distributed among the coalbed methane fields. The mobility and

  14. Underground reconnaissance and environmental monitoring related to geologic CO2 sequestration studies at the DUSEL Facility, Homestake Mine, South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Patrick F.; Salve, Rohit

    2009-11-20

    Underground field reconnaissance was carried out in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) to identify potential locations for the planned geologic carbon sequestration experimental facility known as DUSEL CO{sub 2}. In addition, instrumentation for continuous environmental monitoring of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was installed at various locations within the Homestake mine. The motivation for this work is the need to locate and design the DUSEL CO{sub 2} facility currently being planned to host CO{sub 2} and water flow and reaction experiments in long column pressure vessels over large vertical length scales. Review of existing geologic data and reconnaissance underground revealed numerous potential locations for vertical experimental flow columns, with limitations of existing vertical boreholes arising from limited vertical extent, poor continuity between drifts, and small diameter. Results from environmental monitoring over 46 days reveal spatial and temporal variations related to ventilation, weather, and ongoing dewatering of the mine.

  15. Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

    2004-03-29

    Geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration is being considered as a way to offset fossil-fuel-related CO{sub 2} emissions to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The accumulation of vast quantities of injected carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in geologic sequestration sites may entail health and environmental risks from potential leakage and seepage of CO{sub 2} into the near-surface environment. We are developing and applying a coupled subsurface and atmospheric surface-layer modeling capability built within the framework of the integral finite difference reservoir simulator TOUGH2. The overall purpose of modeling studies is to predict CO{sub 2} concentration distributions under a variety of seepage scenarios and geologic, hydrologic, and atmospheric conditions. These concentration distributions will provide the basis for determining above-ground and near-surface instrumentation needs for carbon sequestration monitoring and verification, as well as for assessing health, safety, and environmental risks. A key feature of CO{sub 2} is its large density ({rho} = 1.8 kg m{sup -3}) relative to air ({rho} = 1.2 kg m{sup -3}), a property that may allow small leaks to cause concentrations in air above the occupational exposure limit of 4 percent in low-lying and enclosed areas such as valleys and basements where dilution rates are low. The approach we take to coupled modeling involves development of T2CA, a TOUGH2 module for modeling the multicomponent transport of water, brine, CO{sub 2}, gas tracer, and air in the subsurface. For the atmospheric surface-layer advection and dispersion, we use a logarithmic vertical velocity profile to specify constant time-averaged ambient winds, and atmospheric dispersion approaches to model mixing due to eddies and turbulence. Initial simulations with the coupled model suggest that atmospheric dispersion quickly dilutes diffuse CO{sub 2} seepage fluxes to negligible concentrations, and that rainfall

  16. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration: An additional benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace

  17. Geothermal energy combined with CO2 sequestration: An additional benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, H.; Wolf, K.H.A.A.; Bruining, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this transition period from a fossil-fuel based society to a sustainable-energy society, it is expected that CO2 capture and subsequent sequestration in geological formations plays a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. An alternative for CO2 emission reduction is to partially replace

  18. Application of numerical simulation to pilot project of CO2 geological sequestration%数值模拟在CO2地质封存示范项目中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    The geological sequestration of CO2 in deep saline aquifer is an effective countermeasure for reducing global warming and greenhouse effect. Based on the Shenhua Ordos CO2 capture and storage (CCS) pilot project, the behavior of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is investigated. The transport process of CO2 fluid, the pressure buildup of system and the reserves potential of sequestration are analyzed. This model can provide technological support and save human and financial resources for Shenhua CCS engineering project. First, the model is calibrated by comparing simulated results and measured pressure values. The suitable pressure curve is obtained and the main hydrological parameters are determined at this stage. Then an assumption of CO2 continuing injection for 3 years is simulated based on the former model. The CO2 diffusion, solution behavior, pressure variation and total reserves of strata are analyzed. The conclusions are drawn as follows: the largest distance of CO2 migration is about 350 m; hydraulic fracturing can improve CO2 injectivity obviously; cap rock can effectively prevent the escape of CO2. Simulation results demonstrate that even though the deep saline aquifers of Ordos basin has low penetrability, it is also suitable for CO2 sequestration.%  CO2深部咸水层地质封存被认为是减缓温室效应的一种有效的工程技术手段。针对神华鄂尔多斯105 t/a CO2捕集与封存(CCS)示范项目,用数值模拟方法对CO2在地层中的运移过程进行了详细地刻画,分析了CO2的流动迁移、地层压力积聚过程及地层封存潜力。数值模型不但可以为工程的顺利进行提供技术支撑,而且可以节省人力财力。首先,根据实际监测数据对模拟参数进行校准,得到了合适的压力拟合曲线,确定了主要的水文地质参数。然后,对为期3 a的CO2续注工程进行预测,详细分析了CO2的晕扩散、溶解情况、地层压力变化情况、储层封存潜

  19. CO2 CAPTURE PROJECT-AN INTEGRATED, COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT FOR NEXT GENERATION CO2 SEPARATION, CAPTURE AND GEOLOGIC SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Kerr

    2004-04-01

    have completed their 2003 stagegate review and are reported here. Some will proceed to the next stagegate review in 2004. Some technologies are emerging as preferred over others. Pre-combustion De-carbonization (hydrogen fuel) technologies are showing excellent results and may be able to meet the CCP's aggressive cost reduction targets for new-build plants. The workscopes planned for the next key stagegates are under review before work begins based on the current economic assessment of their performance. Chemical looping to produce oxygen for oxyfuel combustion shows real promise. As expected, post-combustion technologies are emerging as higher cost options but even so some significant potential reductions in cost have been identified and will continue to be explored. Storage, measurement, and verification studies are moving rapidly forward and suggest that geologic sequestration can be a safe form of long-term CO{sub 2} storage. Hyper-spectral geo-botanical measurements may be an inexpensive and non-intrusive method for long-term monitoring. Modeling studies suggest that primary leakage routes from CO{sub 2} storage sites may be along old wellbores in areas disturbed by earlier oil and gas operations. This is good news because old wells are usually mapped and can be repaired during the site preparation process. Wells are also easy to monitor and intervention is possible if needed. The project will continue to evaluate and bring in novel studies and ideas within the project scope as requested by the DOE. The results to date are summarized in the attached report and presented in detail in the attached appendices.

  20. CO2 Capture Project-An Integrated, Collaborative Technology Development Project for Next Generation CO2 Separation, Capture and Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helen Kerr; Linda M. Curran

    2005-04-15

    -combustion De-carbonization (hydrogen fuel) technologies showed excellent results and may be able to meet the CCP's aggressive cost reduction targets for new-build plants. Chemical looping to produce oxygen for oxyfuel combustion shows real promise. Post-combustion technologies emerged as higher cost options that may only have niche roles. Storage, measurement, and verification studies suggest that geologic sequestration will be a safe form of long-term CO{sub 2} storage. Economic modeling shows that options to reduce costs by 50% exist. A rigorous methodology for technology evaluation was developed. Public acceptance and awareness were enhanced through extensive communication of results to the stakeholder community (scientific, NGO, policy, and general public). Two volumes of results have been published and are available to all. Well over 150 technical papers were produced. All funded studies for this phase of the CCP are complete. The results are summarized in this report and all final reports are presented in the attached appendices.

  1. Distinctive Reactivities at Biotite Edge and Basal Planes in the Presence of Organic Ligands: Implications for Organic-Rich Geologic CO2 Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijie; Jun, Young-Shin

    2015-08-18

    To better understand how scCO2-saturated brine-mineral interactions can affect safe and efficient geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), we studied the effects of organic ligands (acetate and oxalate) on biotite dissolution and surface morphological changes. The experimental conditions were chosen to be relevant to GCS sites (95 °C and 102 atm CO2). Quantitative analyses of dissolution differences between biotite edge and basal planes were made. Acetate slightly inhibited biotite dissolution and promoted secondary precipitation. The effect of acetate was mainly pH-induced aqueous acetate speciation and the subsequent surface adsorption. Under the experimental conditions, most of acetate exists as acetic acid and adsorbs to biotite surface Si and Al sites, thereby reducing their release. However, oxalate strongly enhanced biotite dissolution and induced faster and more significant surface morphology changes by forming bidentate mononuclear surface complexes. For the first time, we show that oxalate selectively attacks edge surface sites and enhances biotite dissolution. Thus, oxalate increases the relative reactivity ratio of biotite edge surfaces to basal surfaces, while acetate does not impact this relative reactivity. This study provides new information on reactivity differences at biotite edge and basal planes in the presence of organic ligands, which has implications for safe CO2 storage in organic-rich sites.

  2. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  3. Reactive Transport Modeling of the Enhancement of Density-Driven CO2 Convective Mixing in Carbonate Aquifers and its Potential Implication on Geological Carbon Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Akand; Sun, Alexander Y; Yang, Changbing

    2016-01-01

    We study the convection and mixing of CO2 in a brine aquifer, where the spread of dissolved CO2 is enhanced because of geochemical reactions with the host formations (calcite and dolomite), in addition to the extensively studied, buoyancy-driven mixing. The nonlinear convection is investigated under the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium, and that the dissipation of carbonate rocks solely depends on flow and transport and chemical speciation depends only on the equilibrium thermodynamics of the chemical system. The extent of convection is quantified in term of the CO2 saturation volume of the storage formation. Our results suggest that the density increase of resident species causes significant enhancement in CO2 dissolution, although no significant porosity and permeability alterations are observed. Early saturation of the reservoir can have negative impact on CO2 sequestration.

  4. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert R. Bock; Richard G. Rhudy; David E. Nichols

    2001-07-01

    In order to plan for potential CO{sub 2} mitigation mandates, utilities need better information on CO{sub 2} mitigation options, especially carbon sequestration options that involve non-utility operations. One of the major difficulties in evaluating CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies and practices, both geologic storage of captured CO{sub 2} and storage in biological sinks, is obtaining consistent, transparent, accurate, and comparable economics. This project is comparing the economics of major technologies and practices under development for CO{sub 2} sequestration, including captured CO{sub 2} storage options such as active oil reservoirs, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, deep aquifers, coal beds, and oceans, as well as the enhancement of biological sinks such as forests and croplands. An international group of experts has been assembled to compare on a consistent basis the economics of this diverse array of CO{sub 2} sequestration options. Designs and data collection are nearly complete for each of the CO{sub 2} sequestration options being compared. Initial spreadsheet development has begun on concepts involving storage of captured CO{sub 2}. No significant problems have been encountered, but some additional outside expertise will be accessed to supplement the team's expertise in the areas of life cycle analysis, oil and gas exploration and production, and comparing CO{sub 2} sequestration options that differ in timing and permanence of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Plans for the next reporting period are to complete data collection and a first approximation of the spreadsheet. We expect to complete this project on time and on budget.

  5. Role of Biofilms in Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Robin; Mitchell, Andrew C.; Spangler, Lee H.; Cunningham, Al B.

    2010-05-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 involves injection into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will likely be in the supercritical state. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is only slightly soluble in water (approximately 4%) and it is therefore likely that two fluid phases will develop in the subsurface, an aqueous and a supercritical phase. Supercritical CO2 is less dense and much less viscous than water therefore creating the potential for upward leakage of CO2 through fractures, disturbed rock, or cement lining near injection wells. Our research focuses on microbially-based strategies for controlling leakage of CO2 during geologic sequestration and enhancing the process of CO2 trapping. We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation, mineral, and solubility trapping in carbon sequestration-relevant formation materials. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and high pressures (> 74 bar) have shown the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to scCO2, and facilitate the conversion of gaseous and supercritical CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Successful development of these biologically-based concepts could result in microbially enhanced carbon sequestration strategies as well as CO2 leakage mitigation technologies which can be applied either before CO2 injection or as a remedial measure. Acknowledgement: This work was funded by the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) program (U.S. DOE Award No. DE-FC26-04NT42262). However any opinions, conclusions, findings or recommendations expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of DOE.

  6. Sequestration of Martian CO2 by mineral carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin R.; Mark, Darren F.; Smith, Caroline L.

    2013-10-01

    Carbonation is the water-mediated replacement of silicate minerals, such as olivine, by carbonate, and is commonplace in the Earth’s crust. This reaction can remove significant quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere and store it over geological timescales. Here we present the first direct evidence for CO2 sequestration and storage on Mars by mineral carbonation. Electron beam imaging and analysis show that olivine and a plagioclase feldspar-rich mesostasis in the Lafayette meteorite have been replaced by carbonate. The susceptibility of olivine to replacement was enhanced by the presence of smectite veins along which CO2-rich fluids gained access to grain interiors. Lafayette was partially carbonated during the Amazonian, when liquid water was available intermittently and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were close to their present-day values. Earlier in Mars’ history, when the planet had a much thicker atmosphere and an active hydrosphere, carbonation is likely to have been an effective mechanism for sequestration of CO2.

  7. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  8. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  9. A Policy Option To Provide Sufficient Funding For Massive-Scale Sequestration of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kithil, P. W.

    2007-12-01

    Global emissions of CO2 now are nearly 30 billion tons per year, and are growing rapidly due to strong economic growth. Atmospheric levels of CO2 have reached 380 ppm and recent reports suggest the rate of increase has gone from 1% per year in the 1990's to 3% per year now - with potential to cross 550ppm in the 2020 decade. Without stabilization of atmospheric CO2 below 550ppm, climate models predict unacceptably higher average temperatures with significant risk of runaway global warming this century. While there is much talk about reducing CO2 emissions by switching to non-fossil energy sources, imposing energy efficiency, and a host of other changes, there are no new large-scale energy sources on the horizon. The options are to impose draconian cuts in fossil energy consumption that will keep us below 550ppm (devastating the global economy) - or to adopt massive-scale sequestration of CO2. Three approaches are feasible: biological ocean sequestration, geologic sequestration, and biological terrestrial sequestration. Biological sequestration is applicable to all CO2 sources, whereas geologic sequestration is limited to fossil-fuel power plants and some large point-source emitters such as cement plants and large industrial facilities. Sequestration provides a direct mechanism for reducing atmospheric levels of CO2, whereas offsetting technologies such as wind power or improved efficiency, reduce the need for more fossil fuels but do not physically remove CO2 from the environment. The primary geologic technique, carbon capture & sequestration (CCS), prevents CO2 from entering the atmosphere but likewise does not reduce existing levels of atmospheric CO2. Biological sequestration (ocean or terrestrial) physically removes CO2 from the atmosphere. Since we cannot shut down our global economy, urgent action is needed to counteract CO2 emissions, and avoid catastrophic climate change. Given the long lead time and/or small impact of offsetting energy sources

  10. Genomic insights into growth and survival of supercritical-CO2 tolerant bacterium MIT0214 under conditions associated with geologic carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, K. C.; Freedman, A. J.; Hernandez, H.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO2 has the potential to significantly reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses associated with fossil fuel combustion. The largest potential for storing captured CO2 in the United Sates is in deep geologic saline formations. Currently, little is known about the effects of CO2 storage on biologically active microbial communities found in the deep earth biosphere. Therefore, to investigate how deep earth microbial communities will be affected by the storage of CO2 we have enriched for a microbial consortium from the saline formation waters of the Frio 2 project site (Texas Gulf Coast) that is capable of growth in nutrient media under a supercritical CO2 headspace (Hernandez, et al). The cultivation of actively growing cells in an environment containing scCO2 is unexpected based on previous experimental evidence of microbial sterilization attributed to the acidic, desiccating, and solvent-like properties of scCO2. We have isolated strain MIT0214 from this supercritical CO2 based enrichment and have sequenced its genome using the Illumina platform followed by de novo assembly of reads and targeted Sanger sequencing to reduce gaps in the draft assembly. The genome of strain MIT0214 is approximately 5,551,062 base pairs with 35% GC-content and is most similar to nonpathogenic Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14597. Annotation of the draft assembly of the MIT0214 genome by the Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) server revealed 5538 coding sequences where 4145 of the coding sequences were assigned putative functions. These functions were enriched in cell wall and capsule formation, phage/prophage and plasmids, gene regulation and signaling, and nitrogen and sulfur metabolism relative to the genome of the most closely-related surface-isolated B. cereus reference (ATCC 14597) and in total 773,416 bp of the MIT0214 genome content was distinct from the B. cereus reference. Notably, this set of distinct sequences were most

  11. CO2 plume management in saline reservoir sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    close to the injection well, compared to monitoring wells intended to measure CO2 saturation via fluid sampling or cased-hole well logs. If pressure monitoring wells become mandated, these wells could be used for managing the CO2 saturation and aquifer pressure distribution. To understand the relevance and effectiveness of producing and injecting brine to improve storage efficiency, direct the plume to specific pore space, and redistribute the pressure, numerical models of CO2 injection into aquifers are used. Simulated cases include various aquifer properties at a single well site and varying the number and location of surrounding wells for plume management. Strategies in terms of completion intervals can be developed to effectively contact more vertical pore space in relatively thicker geologic formations. Inter-site plume management (or cooperative) wells for the purpose of pressure monitoring and plume management may become the responsibility of a consortium of operators or a government entity, not individual sequestration site operators. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Computational Modeling of the Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a component of C capture and storage (CCS), an emerging technology for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere, and involves injection of captured CO2 into deep subsurface formations. Similar to the injection of hazardous wastes, before injection...

  13. The Deep Carbon Cycle and CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovitch, N. B.; Mao, W. L.; Chou, I.; Mu, K.

    2009-12-01

    Increased understanding of the Earth’s carbon cycle may provide insight for future carbon storage. Long term geologic sequestration of CO2 occurs in the earth via exothermic reactions between CO2 and silicate minerals to form carbonate minerals. It has been shown that while there is a large enough supply of ultra mafic igneous rock to sequester the CO2 [1], the kinetics of this natural process are too slow to effectively manage our CO2 output. Most studies have focused on studying reaction kinetics at relatively low temperatures and pressures [2,3], and have found that the reaction kinetics are either too slow or (in the case of serpentine) necessitate an uneconomical heat pretreatment [3,4]. Our experiments expand the pressures and temperatures (up to 500 bars and exceeding 200 °C) at which the CO2 + silicate reaction is studied using fused silica capillary cells and Raman and XRD analysis. By increasing our understanding of the kinetics of this process and providing a valuable input for reactive flow and transport models, these results may guide approaches for practical CO2 sequestration in carbonate minerals as a way to manage atmospheric CO2 levels. High pressure and temperature results on carbonates have implications for understanding the deep carbon cycle. Most of the previous high pressure studies on carbonates have concentrated on magnesite (MgCO3), calcite (CaCO3), or dolomite ((Ca,Mg)CO3) [5,6]. While the Mg and Ca carbonates are the most abundant, iron-rich siderite (FeCO3) may be a significant player at greater depths within the earth. We performed XRD and Raman spectroscopy experiments on siderite to lower mantle pressures (up to 40 GPa) and observed a possible phase change around 13 GPa. References 1. Lackner, Klaus S., Wendt, Christopher H., Butt, Darryl P., Joyce, Edward L., Sharp, David H., 1995, Carbon dioxide disposal in carbonate minerals, Energy, Vol.20, No. 11, pp. 1153-1170 2. Bearat, Hamdallah, McKelvy, Michael J., Chizmeshya, Andrew V

  14. Developing a Robust Geochemical and Reactive Transport Model to Evaluate Possible Sources of Arsenic at the CO2 Sequestration Natural Analog Site in Chimayo, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from deep storage formations into shallow drinking water aquifers is a possible system failure related to geologic CO2 sequestration. A CO2 leak may cause mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions, changes in a...

  15. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  16. Cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgen, W.J.J. [Energy Research Centre of The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands); Witkamp, G.J. [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory for Process Equipment, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    A cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a basic design was made for the major process equipment, and total investment costs were estimated with the help of the publicly available literature and a factorial cost estimation method. Finally, the sequestration costs were determined on the basis of the depreciation of investments and variable and fixed operating costs. Estimated costs are 102 and 77 euro/ton CO2 net avoided for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively. For wollastonite, the major costs are associated with the feedstock and the electricity consumption for grinding and compression (54 and 26 euro/ton CO2 avoided, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed that additional influential parameters in the sequestration costs include the liquid-to-solid ratio in the carbonation reactor and the possible value of the carbonated product. The sequestration costs for steel slag are significantly lower due to the absence of costs for the feedstock. Although various options for potential cost reduction have been identified, CO2 sequestration by current aqueous carbonation processes seems expensive relative to other CO2 storage technologies. The permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2 by mineral carbonation may justify higher costs, but further cost reductions are required, particularly in view of (current) prices of CO2 emission rights. Niche applications of mineral carbonation with a solid residue such as steel slag as feedstock and/or a useful carbonated product hold the best prospects for an economically feasible CO2 sequestration process.

  17. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2005-04-01

    On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a ''Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration''. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. This report is a summary of the evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Almost 100 papers and reports resulted from this collaboration, including 18 peer reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. A full listing of these publications is in the reference section.

  18. International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter H. Israelsson; E. Eric Adams

    2007-06-30

    On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. The evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration were documented in almost 100 papers and reports, including 18 peer-reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. These efforts were summarized in our project report issued January 2005 and covering the period August 23, 1998-October 23, 2004. An accompanying CD contained electronic copies of all the papers and reports. This report focuses on results of a two-year sub-task to update an environmental assessment of acute marine impacts resulting from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. [6] and Caulfield et al. [20] to assess mortality to zooplankton, but uses updated information concerning bioassays, an updated modeling approach and three modified injection scenarios: a point release of negatively buoyant solid CO{sub 2} hydrate particles from a moving ship; a long, bottom-mounted diffuser discharging buoyant liquid CO{sub 2} droplets; and a stationary point release of hydrate particles forming a sinking plume. Results suggest that in particular the first two discharge modes could be

  19. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    2000-08-23

    The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

  20. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2002-09-01

    The primary focus of this reporting period was to prepare for conducting the ocean carbon sequestration field experiment during the summer of 2002. We discuss four key aspects of this preparation: (1) Design criteria for a CO{sub 2} flow system mounted on a ship; (2) Inter-model comparison of plume models; (3) Application of a double plume model to compute near field mixing; and (4) Evaluation of tracers.

  1. A Quantitative Investigation of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad, Muneer; Ehsani, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to a substantial increase in carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas (GHG), contributing to heightened concerns of global warming. In the last decade alone CO2 emissions increased by 2.0 ppm/yr. globally. In the year 2009, United States and China contributed up to 43.4% of global CO2 emissions. CO2 capture and sequestration have been recognized as promising solutions to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel based power plants. Typical techniques for carbon c...

  2. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    1999-08-23

    The ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. In order to better understand this potential, Japan, Norway, and the United States signed a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration in December 1997; since that time, Canada and ABB (Switzerland) have joined the project. The objective of the project is to investigate the technical feasibility of, and improve understanding of the environmental impacts from, CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration in order to minimize the impacts associated with the eventual use of this technique to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2000 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. The implementing research organizations are the Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (Japan), the Norwegian Institute for Water Research (Norway), and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA). The general contractor for the project will be the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research in Hawaii. A Technical Committee has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project. The members of this committee are the co-authors of this paper. In this paper we discuss key issues involved with the design, ocean engineering, measurements, siting, and costs of this experiment.

  3. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGrail, B. Peter [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ΔfG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than

  4. Geological Sequestration Training and Research Program in Capture and Transport: Development of the Most Economical Separation Method for CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahdat, Nader

    2013-09-30

    The project provided hands-on training and networking opportunities to undergraduate students in the area of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and transport, through fundamental research study focused on advanced separation methods that can be applied to the capture of CO2 resulting from the combustion of fossil-fuels for power generation . The project team’s approach to achieve its objectives was to leverage existing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) course materials and teaching methods to create and implement an annual CCS short course for the Tuskegee University community; conduct a survey of CO2 separation and capture methods; utilize data to verify and develop computer models for CO2 capture and build CCS networks and hands-on training experiences. The objectives accomplished as a result of this project were: (1) A comprehensive survey of CO2 capture methods was conducted and mathematical models were developed to compare the potential economics of the different methods based on the total cost per year per unit of CO2 avoidance; and (2) Training was provided to introduce the latest CO2 capture technologies and deployment issues to the university community.

  5. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  6. Interdisciplinary Investigation of CO2 Sequestration in Depleted Shale Gas Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoback, Mark D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Kovscek, Anthony R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Wilcox, Jennifer [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This project investigates the feasibility of geologic sequestration of CO2 in depleted shale gas reservoirs from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. It is anticipated that over the next two decades, tens of thousands of wells will be drilled in the 23 states in which organic-rich shale gas deposits are found. This research investigates the feasibility of using these formations for sequestration. If feasible, the number of sites where CO2 can be sequestered increases dramatically. The research embraces a broad array of length scales ranging from the ~10 nanometer scale of the pores in the shale formations to reservoir scale through a series of integrated laboratory and theoretical studies.

  7. Microbes under pressure: A comparison of CO2 stress responses on three model organisms and their implications for geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, E. U.; Franks, M. A.; Omelon, C. R.; Bennett, P.

    2011-12-01

    When carbon dioxide is captured and stored in deep saline aquifers, many biogeochemical changes will occur in these reservoirs. High concentrations of aqueous CO2 itself can be toxic to microorganisms as the gas easily enters cell membranes and alters intracellular cell functions. Because of this, we expect CO2 to be a perturbation that will alter microbial community composition. Microbes that are capable of withstanding CO2 stress will be selected for and their subsequent growth and metabolism will further affect brine chemistry. For this study, we examined three organisms representing metabolic functions and cellular structures potentially found in deep saline aquifers: the Gram-negative dissimilatory iron reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1, the aerobic Gram-positive hydrocarbon degrading Geobacillus stearothermophilus, and the methanogenic archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus. Organisms were grown in batch cultures and subsequently exposed to high PCO2 ranging from 25 atm to 60 atm for 2 to 24 hours. Cultures were then plated for viability or tested for metabolic activity such as methane production. Following CO2 stress, organisms were also examined for membrane changes through phospholipid fatty acid analysis and for morphological changes by transmission electron microscopy. After only 2 hours of incubation in 30 atm of CO2, no viable cells were found in planktonic cultures of Shewanella. In contrast, cultures of Geobacillus remained viable (less than a log 2 reduction from initial counts) even after exposure to double the CO2 pressure and for 17 hours. However, when grown in the presence of quartz sandstone, biofilm formation on the rock surface occurred in Shewanella cultures, resulting in survival times greater than 8 hours. Our results suggest that biofilm formation and cell wall thickness may be two very important factors in resisting CO2 toxicity as they create a reactive barrier that slows the diffusion of CO2 into

  8. CO2 Sequestration and Recycle by Photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven S.C. Chuang

    2004-02-01

    Visible light-photocatalysis could provide a cost-effective route to recycle CO2 to useful chemicals or fuels. Research is planned to study the reactivity of adsorbates, their role in the photosynthesis reaction, and their relation to the nature of surface sites during photosynthesis of methanol and hydrocarbons from CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O. The year two research focus catalyst screening and IR studies. Key research results show Pd/TiO2 exhibits the highest activity for hydrocarbon synthesis from photocatalytic reactions. The in situ IR could successfully monitor the adsorbate hydrocarbon species on Cu/TiO2. Year III research will focus on developing a better understanding of the key factors which control the catalyst activity.

  9. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  10. Capture and Sequestration of CO2 at the Boise White Paper Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.P. McGrail; C.J. Freeman; G.H. Beeman; E.C. Sullivan; S.K. Wurstner; C.F. Brown; R.D. Garber; D. Tobin E.J. Steffensen; S. Reddy; J.P. Gilmartin

    2010-06-16

    This report documents the efforts taken to develop a preliminary design for the first commercial-scale CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) project associated with biomass power integrated into a pulp and paper operation. The Boise Wallula paper mill is located near the township of Wallula in Southeastern Washington State. Infrastructure at the paper mill will be upgraded such that current steam needs and a significant portion of the current mill electric power are supplied from a 100% biomass power source. A new biomass power system will be constructed with an integrated amine-based CO2 capture plant to capture approximately 550,000 tons of CO2 per year for geologic sequestration. A customized version of Fluor Corporation’s Econamine Plus™ carbon capture technology will be designed to accommodate the specific chemical composition of exhaust gases from the biomass boiler. Due to the use of biomass for fuel, employing CCS technology represents a unique opportunity to generate a net negative carbon emissions footprint, which on an equivalent emissions reduction basis is 1.8X greater than from equivalent fossil fuel sources (SPATH and MANN, 2004). Furthermore, the proposed project will offset a significant amount of current natural gas use at the mill, equating to an additional 200,000 tons of avoided CO2 emissions. Hence, the total net emissions avoided through this project equates to 1,100,000 tons of CO2 per year. Successful execution of this project will provide a clear path forward for similar kinds of emissions reduction that can be replicated at other energy-intensive industrial facilities where the geology is suitable for sequestration. This project also represents a first opportunity for commercial development of geologic storage of CO2 in deep flood basalt formations. The Boise paper mill site is host to a Phase II pilot study being carried out under DOE’s Regional Carbon Partnership Program. Lessons learned from this pilot study and other separately

  11. Uncertainty quantification for CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Zhenxue; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Jia, Wei; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Ampomah, William; Grigg, Reid

    2014-01-01

    This study develops a statistical method to perform uncertainty quantification for understanding CO2 storage potential within an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) environment at the Farnsworth Unit of the Anadarko Basin in northern Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil-water flow and reactive transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major uncertainty metrics: net CO2 injection, cumulative oil production, cumulative gas (CH4) production, and net water injection. A global sensitivity and response surface analysis indicates that reservoir permeability, porosity, and thickness are the major intrinsic reservoir parameters that control net CO2 injection/storage and oil/gas recovery rates. The well spacing and the initial water saturation also have large impact on the oil/gas recovery rates. Further, this study has revealed key insights into the potential behavior and the operational parameters of CO2 sequestration at CO2-EOR s...

  12. A Quantitative Investigation of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities have led to a substantial increase in carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas (GHG), contributing to heightened concerns of global warming. In the last decade alone CO2 emissions increased by 2.0 ppm/yr. globally. In the year 2009, United States and China contributed up to 43.4% of global CO2 emissions. CO2 capture and sequestration have been recognized as promising solutions to mitigate CO2 emissions from fossil fuel based power plants. Typical techniques for carbon capture include post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and oxy-combustion capture, which are under active research globally. Mineral carbonation has been investigated as a suitable technique for long term storage of CO2. Sequestration is a highly energy intensive process and the additional energy is typically supplied by the power plant itself. This leads to a reduction in net amount of CO2 captured because of extra CO2 emitted. This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the energy consumption during sequestra...

  13. Cost Evaluation of CO2 Sequestration by Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a

  14. Mineral CO2 sequestration by steel slag carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral CO2 sequestration, i.e., carbonation of alkaline silicate Ca/Mg minerals, analogous to natural weathering processes, is a possible technology for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In this paper, alkaline Ca-rich industrial residues are presented as a possible feeds

  15. Cost Evaluation of CO2 Sequestration by Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    A cost evaluation of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation has been made using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. First, the process was simulated to determine the properties of the streams as well as the power and heat consumption of the process equipment. Second, a

  16. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  17. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or

  18. U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Sequestration Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, P. D.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Corum, M.; Merrill, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geological storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State geological surveys. To conduct the assessment, the USGS developed a probability-based assessment methodology that was extensively reviewed by experts from industry, government and university organizations (Brennan et al., 2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127). The methodology is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales and it identifies storage assessment units (SAUs) that are based on two depth categories below the surface (1) 3,000 to 13,000 ft (914 to 3,962 m), and (2) 13,000 ft (3,962 m) and greater. In the first category, the 3,000 ft (914 m) minimum depth of the storage reservoir ensures that CO2 is in a supercritical state to minimize the storage volume. The depth of 13,000 ft (3,962 m) represents maximum depths that are accessible with average injection pressures. The second category represents areas where a reservoir formation has potential storage at depths below 13,000 ft (3,962 m), although they are not accessible with average injection pressures; these are assessed as a separate SAU. SAUs are restricted to formation intervals that contain saline waters (total dissolved solids greater than 10,000 parts per million) to prevent contamination of protected ground water. Carbon dioxide sequestration capacity is estimated for buoyant and residual storage traps within the basins. For buoyant traps, CO2 is held in place in porous formations by top and lateral seals. For residual traps, CO2 is contained in porous formations as individual droplets held within pores by capillary forces. Preliminary geologic models have been developed to estimate CO2 storage capacity in approximately 40 major sedimentary basins within the United States. More than

  19. Development of Science-Based Permitting Guidance for Geological Sequestration of CO2 in Deep Saline Aquifers Based on Modeling and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Philippe Nicot; Renaud Bouroullec; Hugo Castellanos; Susan Hovorka; Srivatsan Lakshminarasimhan; Jeffrey Paine

    2006-06-30

    Underground carbon storage may become one of the solutions to address global warming. However, to have an impact, carbon storage must be done at a much larger scale than current CO{sub 2} injection operations for enhanced oil recovery. It must also include injection into saline aquifers. An important characteristic of CO{sub 2} is its strong buoyancy--storage must be guaranteed to be sufficiently permanent to satisfy the very reason that CO{sub 2} is injected. This long-term aspect (hundreds to thousands of years) is not currently captured in legislation, even if the U.S. has a relatively well-developed regulatory framework to handle carbon storage, especially in the operational short term. This report proposes a hierarchical approach to permitting in which the State/Federal Government is responsible for developing regional assessments, ranking potential sites (''General Permit'') and lessening the applicant's burden if the general area of the chosen site has been ranked more favorably. The general permit would involve determining in the regional sense structural (closed structures), stratigraphic (heterogeneity), and petrophysical (flow parameters such as residual saturation) controls on the long-term fate of geologically sequestered CO{sub 2}. The state-sponsored regional studies and the subsequent local study performed by the applicant will address the long-term risk of the particular site. It is felt that a performance-based approach rather than a prescriptive approach is the most appropriate framework in which to address public concerns. However, operational issues for each well (equivalent to the current underground injection control-UIC-program) could follow regulations currently in place. Area ranking will include an understanding of trapping modes. Capillary (due to residual saturation) and structural (due to local geological configuration) trappings are two of the four mechanisms (the other two are solubility and mineral trappings

  20. Adsorption and desorption on coals for CO2 sequestration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zuo-tang; FU Zhen-kun; ZHANG Ban-gan; WANG Guo-xiong; RUDOLPH Victor; HUO Li-wen

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide, methane and other gases on coals has been investigated experimentally using representative Zhongliangshan coals. Gas adsorption is one of the major concerns for both CO2 sequestration and methane recovery processes. The experiments were carried out using both single and multi-component mixtures at 25 ℃ and 30 ℃ with the highest pressure of 12 MPa. The coal was under moisture equilibrated conditions. This provides experimental data from which a predictive assessment of CO2 sequestration and/or methane recovery can be conducted. The results show that for pure gasses the CH4 adsorption capacity is higher than the N2 adsorption capacity but lower than the CO2 adsorption capacity. Injection of CO2 or other gases into the coal significantly affects CH4 desorption. This allows the enhancement of CH4 recovery from the coals, thus supplying more clean energy while sequestering significant amounts of CO2 thereby reducing the greenhouse effect from human beings.

  1. Well Integrity and Sealing in CO2 Sequestration Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatman, R.; Santra, A.; Kulakofsky, D.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 sequestration is a cost-effective and safe way to help mitigate climate change. Sustained well integrity and zonal isolation of CO2 by cement for the required 1000 year trapping period may be challenging. Some researchers report that cement fails when exposed to CO2 leading to potential leakage into the atmosphere or other underground zones. Others show cement samples from 30-50 year old CO2 wells that maintain the well’s sealing integrity, even though carbonization was found. This presentation provides reasons likely for this disparity between research lab test results and actual well performance data along with best practices to provide efficient cement-based systems for maintaining CO2 containment in storage and EOR (enhanced oil recovery) reservoirs. This discussion includes the geochemical conditions surrounding wells and the positive, long-term effects on cement durability, sealing integrity, and the protection of well casing from CO2 induced corrosion. Also discussed are recent laboratory results testing cement samples surrounded by formation material treated at two different downhole conditions. In one case the cement specimens were treated with a 40% humid CO2 at 140°F and 2000 psi whereas in the second case they were treated with saturated CO2 in water at 200°F and 2000 psi for various time intervals. Results show that samples of carefully designed cement systems had carbonization without any sign of loss of mechanical or sealing integrity which could lead to zonal isolation and well integrity failures. We also will report on a new lab method proposed to determine CO2 sealing performance by cement in a relatively short time period compared to previous methods. In summary, we will discuss a comprehensive approach that may be taken to help ensure longer term effective well integrity and CO2 containment in new CO2 wells and remedial solutions for old wells and for plugging and abandoning wells.

  2. Monitoring CO2 sequestration with a network inversion InSAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabus, B.; Ghuman, P.; MacDonald, B.

    2009-05-01

    The capture, containment and long-term storage of CO2 is increasingly discussed as an important means to counter climate change resulting from the ongoing release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. This CO2 sequestration often requires the pumping of the gas into deep saline aquifers. However, before sequestration can be regarded as a longterm solution it is necessary to investigate under which conditions permanent and leakless capture of the CO2 is achieved in the substrate. We demonstrate that a combination of spaceborne synthetic aperture interferometry (InSAR) and ground based measurements of ground uplift caused by the underground release and spreading of the CO2 can be forged into a powerful tool to monitor sequsetration. We use a novel InSAR approach, which combines the benefits of a point-based persistent scatterer algorithm with a network inversion approach, and an additional temporal filter to remove atmospheric disturbances also at smaller scales down to 1 km and less. Using case studies from several injection wells we show that InSAR and ground based data in conjunction with geological and structural information above the aquifer, as well as detailed injection logs, allow to monitor the volumetric spread of CO2 at the mm per year level. For the majority of the studied wells CO2 appears to approach a stable sequestration state, however, in at least one case our results suggest leakage outside the aquifer.

  3. Reaction of CO2 and brine at the interface between Portland cement and casing steel: Application to CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Zhang, J.; Lichtner, P. C.; Grigg, R.; Svec, B.; Pawar, R.

    2008-12-01

    Prediction of CO2 leakage through wellbore systems is a multiscale problem in geologic sequestration. In order for wellbore leakage to occur, km-scale processes must deliver CO2 from the point of injection to the wellbore. But, in order for the wellbore to actually leak, μm-scale processes must operate to allow CO2 to flow up the wellbore. In this study, we describe experiments and modeling of microscale processes accompanying CO2 leakage along the cement-casing interface. This work fits within a broader predictive study of CO2 sequestration performance (Viswanathan et al. 2008, Env Sci and Tech, in press) that includes calculation of CO2-migration times to wellbores. Experiments carried out in this report consisted of synthetic wellbore systems constructed of Portland cement and casing-grade steel in which a mixture of CO2 and brine were forced along the cement-casing interface at in situ sequestration conditions (40 °C and 14 MPa). The CO2-brine mixture was pre- equilibrated by flow through limestone before encountering the cement-casing composite. (The limestone- equilibrated fluid was calculated to be strongly out of equilibrium with both cement and the casing.) We used a high CO2-brine flux (10-20 ml/hour along the interface) and hypothesized that the interface would widen with time due to dissolution of either or both cement and steel. In addition to experiments, we conducted reactive transport modeling of cement reactivity using FLOTRAN, which was modified to allow representation of solid solution in the dominant cement phase, calcium-silicate-hydrate. We also developed a corrosion model for the steel. The experimental results showed that the steel was more reactive than the Portland cement. Extensive deposits or oxidation products of FeCO3-rich material developed at the interface and in some places led to an apparent closure of the interface despite the large flux through the system. In contrast, alteration of the cement appeared to be limited by

  4. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten

    2005-11-15

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  5. Numerical simulation of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers - case study of Utsira formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Zhang, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 geological storage (CGS is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. In order to fully exploit the storage potential, numerical simulations can help in determining injection strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 geological storage in Utsira saline formation where the sequestration is currently underway. The effects of various hydrogeological and numerical factors on the CO2 distribution in the topmost hydrogeological layer of Utsira are discussed. The existence of multiple pathways for upward mobility of CO2 into the topmost layer of Utsira as well as the performance of the top seal are also investigated.

  6. Numerical simulation of CO2 geological storage in saline aquifers – case study of Utsira formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zheming; Agarwal, Ramesh K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CO2 geological storage (CGS) is one of the most promising technologies to address the issue of excessive anthropogenic CO2 emissions in the atmosphere due to fossil fuel combustion for electricity generation. In order to fully exploit the storage potential, numerical simulations can help in determining injection strategies before the deployment of full scale sequestration in saline aquifers. This paper presents the numerical simulations of CO2 geological storage in Utsira saline formation where the sequestration is currently underway. The effects of various hydrogeological and numerical factors on the CO2 distribution in the topmost hydrogeological layer of Utsira are discussed. The existence of multiple pathways for upward mobility of CO2 into the topmost layer of Utsira as well as the performance of the top seal are also investigated.

  7. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  8. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya; M.J. McKelvy; G.H. Wolf; R.W. Carpenter; D.A. Gormley; J.R. Diefenbacher; R. Marzke

    2006-03-01

    Fossil fuels currently provide 85% of the world's energy needs, with the majority coming from coal, due to its low cost, wide availability, and high energy content. The extensive use of coal-fired power assumes that the resulting CO2 emissions can be vented to the atmosphere. However, exponentially increasing atmospheric CO2 levels have brought this assumption under critical review. Over the last decade, this discussion has evolved from whether exponentially increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions will adversely affect the global environment, to the timing and magnitude of their impact. A variety of sequestration technologies are being explored to mitigate CO2 emissions. These technologies must be both environmentally benign and economically viable. Mineral carbonation is an attractive candidate technology as it disposes of CO2 as geologically stable, environmentally benign mineral carbonates, clearly satisfying the first criteria. The primary challenge for mineral carbonation is cost-competitive process development. CO2 mineral sequestration--the conversion of stationary-source CO2 emissions into mineral carbonates (e.g., magnesium and calcium carbonate, MgCO3 and CaCO3)--has recently emerged as one of the most promising sequestration options, providing permanent CO2 disposal, rather than storage. In this approach a magnesium-bearing feedstock mineral (typically serpentine or olivine; available in vast quantities globally) is specially processed and allowed to react with CO2 under controlled conditions. This produces a mineral carbonate which (1) is environmentally benign, (2) already exists in nature in quantities far exceeding those that could result from carbonating the world's known fossil fuel reserves, and (3) is stable on a geological time scale. Minimizing the process cost via optimization of the reaction rate and degree of completion is the remaining challenge. As members of the DOE/NETL managed National Mineral Sequestration Working Group we

  9. CO2驱油与埋存研究进展%Advances in CO2 Displacing Oil and CO2 Sequestrated Researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢庆; 胡永乐; 田昌炳

    2012-01-01

    The current situation of CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches was reviewed. Nowadays, CO2 displacing oil had got good economic benefits outside and was carried out oil field experiment inside. And CO2 sequestrated researches were in exploring stage all over the world. The key problems in CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches contained five parts, such as enlarging sweep volume of EOR, carrier and medium choice of CO2 sequestrated, the formation damage in the process of CO2 displacing oil, air source, industrial coordination and overall planning. Finally, several development directions of CO2 displacing oil and CO2 sequestrated researches were proposed.%详细介绍了CO2驱油与埋存研究的现状。目前CO2驱油在国外已取得较好的经济效益,在国内正在进行矿场先导试验。而CO2埋存在国内外均处于探索阶段。CO2驱油与埋存研究中存在的问题主要包括提高采收率方面的扩大波及体积等关键问题、CO2埋存介质和方法的选择、CO2驱油对地层的伤害、CO2驱油与埋存的气源问题、CO2驱油与埋存产业协调和整体规划5大方面。指出了该项研究的发展趋势。图2表2参38

  10. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  11. Energy Consumption and Net CO2 Sequestration of Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Ruijg, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The energy consumption of this technology, however, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered. Therefore, the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of aqueous mineral carbonation was studied in

  12. Energy Consumption and Net CO2 Sequestration of Aqueous Mineral Carbonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Ruijg, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The energy consumption of this technology, however, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered. Therefore, the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of aqueous mineral carbonation was studied in

  13. Simple dielectric mixing model in the monitoring of CO2 leakage from geological storage aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidoye, L. K.; Bello, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The principle of the dielectric mixing for multiphase systems in porous media has been employed to investigate CO2-water-porous media system and monitor the leakage of CO2, in analogy to scenarios that can be encountered in geological carbon sequestration. A dielectric mixing model was used to relate the relative permittivity for different subsurface materials connected with the geological carbon sequestration. The model was used to assess CO2 leakage and its upward migration, under the influences of the depth-dependent characteristics of the subsurface media as well as the fault-connected aquifers. The results showed that for the upward migration of CO2 in the subsurface, the change in the bulk relative permittivity (εb) of the CO2-water-porous media system clearly depicts the leakage and movement of CO2, especially at depth shallower than 800 m. At higher depth, with higher pressure and temperature, the relative permittivity of CO2 increases with pressure, while that of water decreases with temperature. These characteristics of water and supercritical CO2, combine to limit the change in the εb, at higher depth. Furthermore, it was noticed that if the pore water was not displaced by the migrating CO2, the presence of CO2 in the system increases the εb. But, with the displacement of pore water by the migrating CO2, it was shown how the εb profile decreases with time. Owing to its relative simplicity, composite dielectric behaviour of multiphase materials can be effectively deployed for monitoring and enhancement of control of CO2 movement in the geological carbon sequestration.

  14. Convective Instability and Mass Transport of the Diffusion Layer in CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backhaus, S.

    2011-12-01

    The long-term fate of supercritical (sc) CO2 in saline aquifers is critical to the security of carbon sequestration, an important option for eliminating or reducing the emissions of this most prevalent greenhouse gas. scCO2 is less dense than brine and floats to the top of the aquifer where it is trapped in a metastable state by a geologic feature such as a low permeability cap rock. Dissolution into the underlying brine creates a CO2-brine mixture that is denser than brine, eliminating buoyancy and removing the threat of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere. If molecular diffusion were the only dissolution mechanism, the CO2 waste stream from a typical large coal-fired electrical power plant may take upward of 10,000 years to no longer pose a threat, however, a convective instability of the dense diffusion boundary layer between the scCO2 and the brine can dramatically increase the dissolution rates, shortening the lifetime of the scCO2 waste pool. We present results of 2D and 3D similitude-correct, laboratory-scale experiments using an analog fluid system. The experiments and flow visualization reveal the onset of the convective instability, the dynamics of the fluid flows during the convective processes, and the long-term mass transfer rates.

  15. Neutralization of red mud using CO2 sequestration cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ramesh Chandra; Patel, Raj Kishore; Ray, Bankim Chandra

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the ability of neutralization of red mud (RM) using carbon dioxide gas sequestration cycle at ambient conditions. The neutralized red mud (NRM) was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, FT-IR and auto titration method. X-ray diffraction pattern of NRM was revealed that the intensity of gibbsite was increased prominently and formed ilmenite due to dissolution of minerals. EDX analysis was showed that the %(w/w) of Na, C, O, Si were higher in the carbonated filtrate as compared to the RM and NRM. The permanently sequestered CO(2)%(w/w) per 10 g of red mud were approximately 26.33, approximately 58.01, approximately 55.37, and approximately 54.42 in NRM and first, second, third cycles of carbonated filtrate, respectively. The pH of red mud was decreased from approximately 11.8 to approximately 8.45 and alkalinity was decreased from approximately 10,789 to approximately 178 mg/L. The acid neutralizing capacity of NRM was approximately 0.23 mol H(+)/kg of red mud. The specific advantages of these cyclic processes are that, large amount of CO(2) can be captured as compared to single step.

  16. Spectral-element simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration time-lapse monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morency, C.; Luo, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2, a green house gas, represents an effort to reduce the large amount of CO2 generated as a by-product of fossil fuels combustion and emitted into the atmosphere. This process of sequestration involves CO2 storage deep underground. There are three main storage options: injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs, injection into methane-bearing coal beds, or injection into deep saline aquifers, that is, highly permeable porous media. The key issues involve accurate monitoring of the CO2, from the injection stage to the prediction & verification of CO2 movement over time for environmental considerations. A natural non-intrusive monitoring technique is referred to as ``4D seismics'', which involves 3D time-lapse seismic surveys. The success of monitoring the CO2 movement is subject to a proper description of the physics of the problem. We propose to realize time-lapse migrations comparing acoustic, elastic, and poroelastic simulations of 4D seismic imaging to characterize the storage zone. This approach highlights the influence of using different physical theories on interpreting seismic data, and, more importantly, on extracting the CO2 signature from the seismic wave field. Our simulations are performed using a spectral-element method, which allows for highly accurate results. Biot's equations are implemented to account for poroelastic effects. Attenuation associated with the anelasticity of the rock frame and frequency-dependent viscous resistance of the pore fluid are accommodated based upon a memory variable approach. The sensitivity of observables to the model parameters is quantified based upon finite-frequency sensitivity kernels calculated using an adjoint method.

  17. On Leakage from Geologic Storage Reservoirs of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-14

    Large amounts of CO2 would need to be injected underground to achieve a significant reduction of atmospheric emissions. The large areal extent expected for CO2 plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered, such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape from the primary storage reservoir. Leakage of CO2 could also occur along wellbores. Concerns with escape of CO2 from a primary geologic storage reservoir include (1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard when leaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase in atmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy, eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In order to gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology for reducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address these issues and demonstrate that CO2 can be injected and stored safely in geologic formations.

  18. Carbon dioxide sequestration by mineral carbonation. Feasibility of enhanced natural weathering as a CO2 emission reduction technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgen, W.J.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    A possible technology that can contribute to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions is CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. The basic concept behind mineral CO2 sequestration is the mimicking of natural weathering processes in which calcium or magnesium containing minerals react with gaseous CO2 and form solid calcium or magnesium carbonates. Potential advantages of mineral CO2 sequestration compared to, e.g., geological CO2 storage include (1) the permanent and inherently safe sequestration of CO2, due to the thermodynamic stability of the carbonate product formed and (2) the vast potential sequestration capacity, because of the widespread and abundant occurrence of suitable feedstock. In addition, carbonation is an exothermic process, which potentially limits the overall energy consumption and costs of CO2 emission reduction. However, weathering processes are slow, with timescales at natural conditions of thousands to millions of years. For industrial implementation, a reduction of the reaction time to the order of minutes has to be achieved by developing alternative process routes. The aim of this thesis is an investigation of the technical, energetic, and economic feasibility of CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation. In Chapter 1 the literature published on CO2 sequestration by mineral carbonation is reviewed. Among the potentially suitable mineral feedstock for mineral CO2 sequestration, Ca-silicates, more particularly wollastonite (CaSiO3), a mineral ore, and steel slag, an industrial alkaline solid residue, are selected for further research. Alkaline Ca-rich residues seem particularly promising, since these materials are inexpensive and available near large industrial point sources of CO2. In addition, residues tend to react relatively rapidly with CO2 due to their (geo)chemical instability. Various process routes have been proposed for mineral carbonation, which often include a pre-treatment of the solid feedstock (e.g., size reduction and

  19. Simplified Predictive Models for CO2 Sequestration Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta; RaviGanesh, Priya; Schuetter, Jared; Mooney, Douglas; He, Jincong; Durlofsky, Louis

    2014-05-01

    We present results from an ongoing research project that seeks to develop and validate a portfolio of simplified modeling approaches that will enable rapid feasibility and risk assessment for CO2 sequestration in deep saline formation. The overall research goal is to provide tools for predicting: (a) injection well and formation pressure buildup, and (b) lateral and vertical CO2 plume migration. Simplified modeling approaches that are being developed in this research fall under three categories: (1) Simplified physics-based modeling (SPM), where only the most relevant physical processes are modeled, (2) Statistical-learning based modeling (SLM), where the simulator is replaced with a "response surface", and (3) Reduced-order method based modeling (RMM), where mathematical approximations reduce the computational burden. The system of interest is a single vertical well injecting supercritical CO2 into a 2-D layered reservoir-caprock system with variable layer permeabilities. In the first category (SPM), we use a set of well-designed full-physics compositional simulations to understand key processes and parameters affecting pressure propagation and buoyant plume migration. Based on these simulations, we have developed correlations for dimensionless injectivity as a function of the slope of fractional-flow curve, variance of layer permeability values, and the nature of vertical permeability arrangement. The same variables, along with a modified gravity number, can be used to develop a correlation for the total storage efficiency within the CO2 plume footprint. In the second category (SLM), we develop statistical "proxy models" using the simulation domain described previously with two different approaches: (a) classical Box-Behnken experimental design with a quadratic response surface fit, and (b) maximin Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) based design with a Kriging metamodel fit using a quadratic trend and Gaussian correlation structure. For roughly the same number of

  20. Experimental study on monitoring CO2 sequestration by conjoint analysis of the P-wave velocity and amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Shenglai; Huan, Kangning; Li, Fangfang; Huang, Wei; Zheng, Aiai; Zhang, Xing

    2013-09-03

    CO2 sequestration has been considered to be one of the most straightforward carbon management strategies for industrial CO2 emission. Monitoring of the CO2 injection process is one of the best ways to make sure the safety storage but is also a major challenge in CO2 geological sequestration. Previous field and laboratory researches have shown that seismic methods are among the most promising monitoring methods because of the obvious reduction in P-wave velocities caused by CO2 injection. However, as CO2 injection continues, the P-wave velocity becomes increasingly insensitive according to the pilot projects when CO2 saturation is higher than 20-40%. Therefore, the conventional seismic method needs improvement or replacement to solve its limitations. In this study, P-wave velocity and amplitude responses to supercritical CO2 injection in brine-saturated core samples from Jilin oilfield were tested using core displacement and an ultrasonic detection integrated system. Results showed that neither the P-wave velocity nor amplitude could simply be used to monitor the CO2 injection process because of the insensitive or nonmonotonous response. Consequently, a new index was established by synthetically considering these two parameters to invert and monitor the CO2 process, which can be thought of as a newer and more effective assessment criterion for the seismic method.

  1. Geological Carbon Sequestration in the Ohio River Valley: An Evaluation of Possible Target Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, T. A.; Daniels, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The development of geological carbon sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is of major interest to the national electricity and coal industries because the Valley is home to a heavy concentration of coal-burning electricity generation plants and the infrastructure is impossible to eliminate in the short-term. It has been determined by Ohio's politicians and citizenry that the continued use of coal in this region until alternative energy supplies are available will be necessary over the next few years. Geologic sequestration is the only possible means of keeping the CO2 out of the atmosphere in the region. The cost of the sequestration effort greatly decreases CO2 emissions by sequestering CO2 directly on site of these plants, or by minimizing the distance between fossil-fueled generation and sequestration (i.e., by eliminating the cost of transportation of supercritical CO2 from plant to sequestration site). Thus, the practicality of CO2 geologic sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is central to the development of such a commercial effort. Though extensive work has been done by the Regional Partnerships of the DOE/NETL in the characterization of general areas for carbon sequestration throughout the nation, few projects have narrowed their focus into a single geologic region in order to evaluate the sites of greatest commercial potential. As an undergraduate of the Earth Sciences at Ohio State, I have engaged in thorough research to obtain a detailed understanding of the geology of the Ohio River Valley and its potential for commercial-scale carbon sequestration. Through this research, I have been able to offer an estimate of the areas of greatest interest for CO2 geologic sequestration. This research has involved petrological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geophysical analyses of four major reservoir formations within Ohio—the Rose Run, the Copper Ridge, the Clinton, and the Oriskany—along with an evaluation of the possible effects of injection

  2. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II.

  3. SITE CHARACTERIZATION AND SELECTION GUIDELINES FOR GEOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-08-31

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a key technology pathway to substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for the state of California and the western region. Current estimates suggest that the sequestration resource of the state is large, and could safely and effectively accept all of the emissions from large CO2 point sources for many decades and store them indefinitely. This process requires suitable sites to sequester large volumes of CO2 for long periods of time. Site characterization is the first step in this process, and the state will ultimately face regulatory, legal, and technical questions as commercial CCS projects develop and commence operations. The most important aspects of site characterizations are injectivity, capacity, and effectiveness. A site can accept at a high rate a large volume of CO2 and store it for a long time is likely to serve as a good site for geological carbon sequestration. At present, there are many conventional technologies and approaches that can be used to estimate, quantify, calculate, and assess the viability of a sequestration site. Any regulatory framework would need to rely on conventional, easily executed, repeatable methods to inform the site selection and permitting process. The most important targets for long-term storage are deep saline formations and depleted oil and gas fields. The primary CO2 storage mechanisms for these targets are well understood enough to plan operations and simulate injection and long-term fate of CO2. There is also a strong understanding of potential geological and engineering hazards for CCS. These hazards are potential pathway to CO2 leakage, which could conceivably result in negative consequences to health and the environmental. The risks of these effects are difficult to quantify; however, the hazards themselves are sufficiently well understood to identify, delineate, and manage those risks effectively. The primary hazard elements are wells and faults, but may include other

  4. Co-location of air capture, subseafloor CO2 sequestration, and energy production on the Kerguelen plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David S; Lackner, Klaus S; Han, Patrick; Slagle, Angela L; Wang, Tao

    2013-07-02

    Reducing atmospheric CO2 using a combination of air capture and offshore geological storage can address technical and policy concerns with climate mitigation. Because CO2 mixes rapidly in the atmosphere, air capture could operate anywhere and in principle reduce CO2 to preindustrial levels. We investigate the Kerguelen plateau in the Indian Ocean, which offers steady wind resources, vast subseafloor storage capacities, and minimal risk of economic damages or human inconvenience and harm. The efficiency of humidity swing driven air capture under humid and windy conditions is tested in the laboratory. Powered by wind, we estimate ∼75 Mt CO2/yr could be collected using air capture and sequestered below seafloor or partially used for synfuel. Our analysis suggests that Kerguelen offers a remote and environmentally secure location for CO2 sequestration using renewable energy. Regional reservoirs could hold over 1500 Gt CO2, sequestering a large fraction of 21st century emissions.

  5. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.

    2012-07-01

    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Applicability of aquifer impact models to support decisions at CO2 sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Elizabeth; Bacon, Diana; Carroll, Susan; Mansoor, Kayyum; Sun, Yunwei; Zheng, Liange; Harp, Dylan; Dai, Zhenxue

    2016-09-01

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership has developed a suite of tools to assess and manage risk at CO2 sequestration sites (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). This capability includes polynomial or look-up table based reduced-order models (ROMs) that predict the impact of CO2 and brine leaks on overlying aquifers. The development of these computationally-efficient models and the underlying reactive transport simulations they emulate has been documented elsewhere (Carroll et al., 2014, Dai et al., 2014, Keating et al., 2015). The ROMs reproduce the ensemble behavior of large numbers of simulations and are well-suited to applications that consider a large number of scenarios to understand parameter sensitivity and uncertainty on the risk of CO2 leakage to groundwater quality. In this paper, we seek to demonstrate applicability of ROM-based ensemble analysis by considering what types of decisions and aquifer types would benefit from the ROM analysis. We present four hypothetical four examples where applying ROMs, in ensemble mode, could support decisions in the early stages in a geologic CO2 sequestration project. These decisions pertain to site selection, site characterization, monitoring network evaluation, and health impacts. In all cases, we consider potential brine/CO2 leak rates at the base of the aquifer to be uncertain. We show that derived probabilities provide information relevant to the decision at hand. Although the ROMs were developed using site-specific data from two aquifers (High Plains and Edwards), the models accept aquifer characteristics as variable inputs and so they may have more broad applicability. We conclude that pH and TDS predictions are the most transferable to other aquifers based on the analysis of the nine water quality metrics (pH, TDS, 4 trace metals, 3 organic compounds). Guidelines are presented for determining the aquifer types for which the ROMs should be applicable.

  7. Potential for iron oxides to control metal releases in CO2 sequestration scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, P.M.; Roy, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for the release of metals into groundwater following the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the subsurface during carbon sequestration projects remains an open research question. Changing the chemical composition of even the relatively deep formation brines during CO2 injection and storage may be of concern because of the recognized risks associated with the limited potential for leakage of CO2-impacted brine to the surface. Geochemical modeling allows for proactive evaluation of site geochemistry before CO2 injection takes place to predict whether the release of metals from iron oxides may occur in the reservoir. Geochemical modeling can also help evaluate potential changes in shallow aquifers were CO2 leakage to occur near the surface. In this study, we created three batch-reaction models that simulate chemical changes in groundwater resulting from the introduction of CO2 at two carbon sequestration sites operated by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). In each of these models, we input the chemical composition of groundwater samples into React??, and equilibrated them with selected mineral phases and CO 2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The model then simulated the kinetic reactions with other mineral phases over a period of up to 100 years. For two of the simulations, the water was also at equilibrium with iron oxide surface complexes. The first model simulated a recently completed enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project in south-central Illinois in which the MGSC injected into, and then produced CO2, from a sandstone oil reservoir. The MGSC afterwards periodically measured the brine chemistry from several wells in the reservoir for approximately two years. The sandstone contains a relatively small amount of iron oxide, and the batch simulation for the injection process showed detectable changes in several aqueous species that were attributable to changes in surface complexation sites. After using the batch reaction

  8. Physical and chemical hazards of CO2 sequestration activity State of the art and experience feedback at Krechba (In Salah pilot site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Hamida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the CO2 release into atmosphere and thus contribute to reducing the greenhouse effect, the industrial process of CO2 sequestration is still at an experimental stage. This technique of CO2 geological sequestration are not fully controlled and raise issue of technological, environmental, human and organizational hazards and their effects on human health, environment and economy. From CO2 capture to transportation then injecting it into underground natural reservoirs where it is stored, geochemical, geophysical and generally industrial risks are still not very well recognized and identified. The behaviour of CO2 is not yet fully identified deep geological environment. It is therefore necessary to build, in support of this industrial CO2 storage process, proactive analysis of more transversal and overall risk for better control, technological processes of capture, Transport, Storage of CO2 (CTSC. 

  9. Carbon Sequestration: Hydrogenation of CO2 to Formic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The concentration CO2 gas has become a great worldwide challenge because CO2 is considered as an important counterpart of greenhouse gases. The tremendous increase in the concentration of CO2 gas, elevated the worldwide temperature as well as it altered the climatic changes. Various physiochemical approached have been reported to trap the CO2 gas and the chemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals is one of them. This review covers the conversion of CO2 gas to formic acid. In this CO2 hydr...

  10. Carbon Sequestration: Hydrogenation of CO2 to Formic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay Praveenkumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The concentration CO2 gas has become a great worldwide challenge because CO2 is considered as an important counterpart of greenhouse gases. The tremendous increase in the concentration of CO2 gas, elevated the worldwide temperature as well as it altered the climatic changes. Various physiochemical approached have been reported to trap the CO2 gas and the chemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals is one of them. This review covers the conversion of CO2 gas to formic acid. In this CO2 hydrogenation reaction, both the homogeneous as well as heterogeneous catalytic systems were discussed along with the effect of solvent systems on reaction kinetics.

  11. Quantitative Risk Assessment of CO2 Sequestration in a commerical-scale EOR Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, F.; McPherson, B. J. O. L.; Dai, Z.; Jia, W.; Lee, S. Y.; Ampomah, W.; Viswanathan, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery with CO2 (CO2-EOR) is perhaps the most feasible option for geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), if only due to existing infrastructure and economic opportunities of associated oil production. Probably the most significant source of uncertainty of CO2 storage forecasts is heterogeneity of reservoir properties. Quantification of storage forecast uncertainty is critical for accurate assessment of risks associated with GCS in EOR fields. This study employs a response surface methodology (RSM) to quantify uncertainties of CO2 storage associated with oil production in an active CO2-EOR field. Specifically, the Morrow formation, a clastic reservoir within the Farnsworth EOR Unit (FWU) in Texas, was selected as a case study. Four uncertain parameters (i.e., independent variables) are reservoir permeability, anisotropy ratio of permeability, water-alternating-gas (WAG) time ratio, and initial oil saturation. Cumulative oil production and net CO2 injection are the output dependent variables. A 3-D FWU reservoir model, including a representative 5-spot well pattern, was constructed for CO2-oil-water multiphase flow analysis. A total of 25 permutations of 3-D reservoir simulations were executed using Eclipse simulator. After performing stepwise regression analysis, a series of response surface models of the output variables at each step were constructed and verified using appropriate goodness-of-fit measures. The R2 values are larger than 0.9 and NRMSE values are less than 5% between the simulated and predicted oil production and net CO2 injection, suggesting that the response surface (or proxy) models are sufficient for predicting CO2-EOR system behavior for FWU case. Given the range of uncertainties in the independent variables, the cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of dependent variables were estimated using the proxy models. The predicted cumulative oil production and net CO2 injection at 95th percentile after 5 years are about 3.65 times, and 1

  12. High-performance modeling of CO2 sequestration by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes a parallel computational framework for CO2 sequestration simulation by coupling reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics (MD) on massively parallel HPC systems. In this framework, a parallel reservoir simulator, Reservoir Simulation Toolbox (RST), solves the flow and transport equations that describe the subsurface flow behavior, while the molecular dynamics simulations are performed to provide the required physical parameters. Numerous technologies from different fields are employed to make this novel coupled system work efficiently. One of the major applications of the framework is the modeling of large scale CO2 sequestration for long-term storage in the subsurface geological formations, such as depleted reservoirs and deep saline aquifers, which has been proposed as one of the most attractive and practical solutions to reduce the CO2 emission problem to address the global-warming threat. To effectively solve such problems, fine grids and accurate prediction of the properties of fluid mixtures are essential for accuracy. In this work, the CO2 sequestration is presented as our first example to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular dynamics, while the framework can be extended naturally to the full multiphase multicomponent compositional flow simulation to handle more complicated physical process in the future. Accuracy and scalability analysis are performed on an IBM BlueGene/P and on an IBM BlueGene/Q, the latest IBM supercomputer. Results show good accuracy of our MD simulations compared with published data, and good scalability are observed with the massively parallel HPC systems. The performance and capacity of the proposed framework are well demonstrated with several experiments with hundreds of millions to a billion cells. To our best knowledge, the work represents the first attempt to couple the reservoir simulation and molecular simulation for large scale modeling. Due to the complexity of the subsurface systems

  13. Laboratory experiments on CO2 dissolution in water for carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez de La Reguera, D.; Stute, M.; Matter, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The standard approach to geologic sequestration is the injection of CO2 as a bulk phase into storage reservoirs at depths >800m where it is buoyant with respect to the host rocks and aqueous fluids, and may migrate upward thereby reducing the storage efficiency. The CarbFix pilot project in Iceland tests the feasibility of an alternative storage approach, which is the mineralization of CO2 into stable carbonate minerals through the reaction with basaltic rocks [1]. The mineralization of CO2 is facilitated by the dissolution of CO2 gas into the aqueous phase. Therefore, CarbFix will inject the CO2 fully dissolved in water. Dissolution will occur within the injection well, where water and CO2 are simultaneously injected. A downscaled version of the CarbFix injection system was designed in the laboratory and used to study the dissolution kinetics of CO2 gas bubbles in a water column while injection took place. The injection system consisted of 100 m long ~1 cm inner diameter inner braided PVC tubing, which was deployed in a staircase of a 60m tall building. The tubing was intersected with a series of 10 cm long sections of clear tubing (windows) every eight meters in order to detect the number of bubbles in the flow with a digital camera equipped with a flash system. As CO2 gas was injected through a sparger into the water stream at a constant rate, gas bubbles were created, with bubble size and density decreasing along the vertical flow path, as the CO2 dissolved. The number and volume of gas bubbles were estimated from the digital images taken at each window. Various devices that were supposed to facilitate the dissolution of CO2 were tested. The pressure change due to elevation change and frictional effects was calculated using the Darcy-Weisbach equation and the amount of CO2 per bubble in each window was approximated using the van der Waals equation of state for real gases. The experimental results reveal that bubble size and density decrease along the flow path

  14. A Review of CO2 Sequestration Projects and Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the top CO2 emitters were China, United States, and European Union. The rapid growing economy and the heavy reliance on coal in China give rise to the continued growth of CO2 emission, deterioration of anthropogenic climate change, and urgent need of new technologies. Carbon Capture and sequestration is one of the effective ways to provide reduction of CO2 emission and mitigation of pollution. Coal-fired power plants are the focus of CO2 source supply due to their excessive emission and the energy structure in China. And over 80% of the large CO2 sources are located nearby storage reservoirs. In China, the CO2 storage potential capacity is of about 3.6 × 109 t for all onshore oilfields; 30.483 × 109 t for major gas fields between 900 m and 3500 m of depth; 143.505 × 109 t for saline aquifers; and 142.67 × 109 t for coal beds. On the other hand, planation, soil carbon sequestration, and CH4–CO2 reforming also contribute a lot to carbon sequestration. This paper illustrates some main situations about CO2 sequestration applications in China with the demonstration of several projects regarding different ways of storage. It is concluded that China possesses immense potential and promising future of CO2 sequestration.

  15. Mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible carbon dioxide sequestration process were investigated experimentally by systematic variation of the reaction temperature, CO2 pressure, particle size, reaction time, liquid to solid ratio and agitation power. The carbonation reaction

  16. Energy consumption and net CO2 sequestration of aqueous mineral carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Ruijg, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands); Witkamp, G.J. [Laboratory for Process Equipment, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. The energy consumption of this technology, however, reduces the net amount of CO2 sequestered. Therefore, the energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency of aqueous mineral carbonation was studied in dependence of various process variables using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. For wollastonite, the maximum energetic CO2 sequestration efficiency within the ranges of process conditions studied was 75% at 200C, 20 bar CO2, and a particle size of <38{mu}m. The main energy-consuming process steps were the grinding of the feedstock and the compression of the CO2 feed. At these process conditions, a significantly lower efficiency was determined for steel slag (69%), mainly because of the lower Ca content of the feedstock. The CO2 sequestration efficiency might be improved substantially for both types of feedstock by, e.g., reducing the amount of process water applied and further grinding of the feedstock. The calculated energetic efficiencies warrant a further assessment of the (energetic) feasibility of CO2 sequestration by aqueous mineral carbonation on the basis of a pilot-scale process.

  17. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr.; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objective for this reporting period was to further characterize the three areas selected as potential CO{sub 2} sequestration sites. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Thus, we purchased 12 hardcopy well logs (in addition to 15 well logs obtained during previous quarter) from a commercial source and digitized them to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Detailed correlation of coal zones is important for reservoir analysis and modeling. Thus, we correlated and mapped Wilcox Group subdivisions--the Hooper, Simsboro and Calvert Bluff formations, as well as the coal-bearing intervals of the Yegua and Jackson formations in well logs. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to Big Brown and Martin Lake coal mines. This quarter we also received CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses of the Sandow Mine samples, and we are assessing the results. GEM, a compositional simulator developed by the Computer Modeling Group (CMG), was selected for performing the CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced CBM modeling tasks for this project. This software was used to conduct preliminary CO{sub 2} sequestration and methane production simulations in a 5-spot injection pattern. We are continuing to pursue a cooperative agreement with Anadarko Petroleum, which has already acquired significant relevant data near one of our potential sequestration sites.

  18. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  19. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  20. Synthetic seismic monitoring using reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration for CO2 sequestration in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W.; Kim, Y.; Min, D.; Oh, J.; Huh, C.; Kang, S.

    2012-12-01

    During last two decades, CO2 sequestration in the subsurface has been extensively studied and progressed as a direct tool to reduce CO2 emission. Commercial projects such as Sleipner, In Salah and Weyburn that inject more than one million tons of CO2 per year are operated actively as well as test projects such as Ketzin to study the behavior of CO2 and the monitoring techniques. Korea also began the CCS (CO2 capture and storage) project. One of the prospects for CO2 sequestration in Korea is the southwestern continental margin of Ulleung basin. To monitor the behavior of CO2 underground for the evaluation of stability and safety, several geophysical monitoring techniques should be applied. Among various geophysical monitoring techniques, seismic survey is considered as the most effective tool. To verify CO2 migration in the subsurface more effectively, seismic numerical simulation is an essential process. Furthermore, the efficiency of the seismic migration techniques should be investigated for various cases because numerical seismic simulation and migration test help us accurately interpret CO2 migration. In this study, we apply the reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration to synthetic seismic monitoring data generated for the simplified model based on the geological structures of Ulleung basin in Korea. Synthetic seismic monitoring data are generated for various cases of CO2 migration in the subsurface. From the seismic migration images, we can investigate CO2 diffusion patterns indirectly. From seismic monitoring simulation, it is noted that while the reverse-time migration generates clear subsurface images when subsurface structures are steeply dipping, Kirchhoff migration has an advantage in imaging horizontal-layered structures such as depositional sediments appearing in the continental shelf. The reverse-time migration and Kirchhoff migration present reliable subsurface images for the potential site characterized by stratigraphical traps. In case of

  1. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  2. Behavior of CO2/water flow in porous media for CO2 geological storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Yu, Minghao; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhang, Yi; Xue, Ziqiu; Suekane, Tetsuya; Song, Yongchen

    2017-04-01

    A clear understanding of two-phase fluid flow properties in porous media is of importance to CO2 geological storage. The study visually measured the immiscible and miscible displacement of water by CO2 using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and investigated the factor influencing the displacement process in porous media which were filled with quartz glass beads. For immiscible displacement at slow flow rates, the MR signal intensity of images increased because of CO2 dissolution; before the dissolution phenomenon became inconspicuous at flow rate of 0.8mLmin(-1). For miscible displacement, the MR signal intensity decreased gradually independent of flow rates, because supercritical CO2 and water became miscible in the beginning of CO2 injection. CO2 channeling or fingering phenomena were more obviously observed with lower permeable porous media. Capillary force decreases with increasing particle size, which would increase permeability and allow CO2 and water to invade into small pore spaces more easily. The study also showed CO2 flow patterns were dominated by dimensionless capillary number, changing from capillary finger to stable flow. The relative permeability curve was calculated using Brooks-Corey model, while the results showed the relative permeability of CO2 slightly decreases with the increase of capillary number.

  3. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  4. Uncertainty Analysis using Experimental Design Methods for Assessing CO2 Sequestration and Coal Bed Methane Production Potential of Subbituminous Coals of the Nenana Basin, Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, N.; Ahmadi, M.; Hanks, C.; Awoleke, O.

    2016-12-01

    Naturally fractured, unmineable coal seam reservoirs are attractive targets for geological sequestration of CO2 because of their high CO2-adsorption capacities and possible cost offsets from enhanced coal bed methane production (ECBM). In this study, we have investigated CO2 sequestration and CH4 production potential of the subbituminous Healy Creek Formation coals through preliminary sensitivity analyses, experimental design methods and fluid flow simulations. Our primary sensitivity analyses indicated that the total cumulative volumes of CO2 sequestered and CH4 produced from the Healy Creek coals are mostly sensitive to bottomhole injection pressure, coal matrix porosity, fracture porosity and permeability, and coal volumetric strain. The results of Plackett-Burman experimental design were used to further constrain the most influential reservoir parameters and generate proxy models for probabilistic reservoir forecasts. Our probabilistic estimates for the mature, subbituminous Healy Creek coals in the entire Nenana basin indicate that it is possible to sequestrate between 0.87 TCF (P10) and 0.2 TCF (P90) of CO2 while producing between 0.29 TCF (P10) and 0.1 TCF (P90) of CH4 at the end of 20-year forecast. Our study demonstrated application of experimental design methods and Monte Carlo analysis in reducing these uncertainties in reservoir properties and quantifying their effect on reservoir performance. In addition, the results of fluid flow scenarios show that the CO2 sequestration through a primary reservoir depletion method is the most effective way to inject CO2 in the coals of the Nenana basin. Including a horizontal well instead of the vertical well resulted in relatively high average gas production rates and subsequent faster production decline. Our CO2 buoyancy scenario suggested that the effect of CO2 buoyancy and the nature of the caprock should be considered when identifying potential geologic sites for CO2 sequestration and in CO2 storage capacity

  5. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-07-09

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Different scientific theories exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. The authors of this report reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of near surface environments such as potable water aquifers and the vadose zone. Experimental and modeling studies highlighted the potential for both beneficial (e.g., CO2 re sequestration or contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g., contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion in these systems. Current knowledge gaps, including the role of CO2-induced changes in redox conditions, the influence of CO2 influx rate, gas composition, organic matter content and microorganisms are discussed in terms of their potential influence on pertinent geochemical processes and the potential for beneficial or deleterious outcomes. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why closing these knowledge gaps are pivotal. A framework for studying and assessing consequences associated with each factor is also presented in Section 5.6.

  6. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    Unminable coal beds are potentially large storage reservoirs for the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 and offer the benefit of enhanced methane production, which can offset some of the costs associated with CO2 sequestration. The objective of this report is to provide a final topical report on enhanced coal bed methane recovery and CO2 sequestration to the U.S. Department of Energy in fulfillment of a Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership milestone. This report summarizes work done at Idaho National Laboratory in support of Phase II of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership. Research that elucidates the interaction of CO2 and coal is discussed with work centering on the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. Sorption-induced strain, also referred to as coal swelling/shrinkage, was investigated. A new method of obtaining sorption-induced strain was developed that greatly decreases the time necessary for data collection and increases the reliability of the strain data. As coal permeability is a strong function of sorption-induced strain, common permeability models were used to fit measured permeability data, but were found inadequate. A new permeability model was developed that can be directly applied to coal permeability data obtained under laboratory stress conditions, which are different than field stress conditions. The coal permeability model can be used to obtain critical coal parameters that can be applied in field models. An economic feasibility study of CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming was done. Economic analyses of CO2 injection options are compared. Results show that injecting flue gas to recover methane from CBM fields is marginally economical; however, this method will not significantly contribute to the need to sequester large quantities of CO2. Separating CO2 from flue gas and injecting it into the unminable coal zones of the Powder River Basin seam is currently uneconomical, but can

  7. Utility of Biofilms and Biologically-Induced Mineralization in Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, R.; Mitchell, A. C.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration involves the injection of CO2 into underground formations including oil beds, deep un-minable coal seams, basaltic rocks, and deep saline aquifers with temperature and pressure conditions such that CO2 will often be in the supercritical state. Four trapping mechanisms are proposed to play significant roles in the deep geologic sequestration of CO2: formation trapping, capillary trapping, solubility trapping, and mineral trapping. Our research has shown that, independent of the host rock, microbial biofilms are capable of enhancing formation trapping, solubility trapping, and mineral trapping. i) We have demonstrated that engineered microbial biofilms are capable of reducing the permeability of rock cores at pressures and temperatures, which would be found in the presence of supercritical CO2. ii) The biofilms have been demonstrated to be resistant to supercritical CO2. iii) Biofilms precipitate CO2 in the form of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which resists dissolution by brine and scCO2. iv) Microbial activity can increase CO2 solubilization thus improving solubility trapping. Recent activities have begun to focus on practical aspects related to the implementation of biofilm-enhanced geologic carbon sequestration technologies in field situations.

  8. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to further characterize the three areas selected as potential test sites, to begin assessing regional attributes of natural coal fractures (cleats), which control coalbed permeability, and to interview laboratories for coal sample testing. An additional objective was to initiate discussions with an operating company that has interests in Texas coalbed gas production and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential, to determine their interest in participation and cost sharing in this project. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Therefore, we purchased 15 well logs from a commercial source to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Log suites included gamma ray (GR), self potential (SP), resistivity, sonic, and density curves. Other properties of the coals in the selected areas were collected from published literature. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to a Jackson coal outcrop and visited Wilcox coal exposures at the Sandow surface mine. Coal samples at the Sandow mine were collected for CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses. We contacted several laboratories that specialize in analyzing coals and selected a laboratory, submitting the Sandow Wilcox coals for analysis. To address the issue of cost sharing, we had fruitful initial discussions with a petroleum corporation in Houston. We reviewed the objectives and status of this project, discussed data that they have already collected, and explored the potential for cooperative data acquisition and exchange in the future. We are pursuing a cooperative agreement with them.

  9. Commerical-Scale CO2 Capture and Sequestration for the Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolfo Garza

    2010-07-28

    On June 8, 2009, DOE issued Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Number DE-FOA-000015 seeking proposals to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources. This FOA called for what was essentially a two-tier selection process. A number of projects would receive awards to conduct front-end engineering and design (FEED) studies as Phase I. Those project sponsors selected would be required to apply for Phase II, which would be the full design, construction, and operation of their proposed technology. Over forty proposals were received, and ten were awarded Phase I Cooperative Agreements. One of those proposers was CEMEX. CEMEX proposed to capture and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2) from one of their existing cement plants and either sequester the CO2 in a geologic formation or use it for enhanced oil recovery. The project consisted of evaluating their plants to identify the plant best suited for the demonstration, identify the best available capture technology, and prepare a design basis. The project also included evaluation of the storage or sequestration options in the vicinity of the selected plant.

  10. Managing geological uncertainty in CO2-EOR reservoir assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welkenhuysen, Kris; Piessens, Kris

    2014-05-01

    Recently the European Parliament has agreed that an atlas for the storage potential of CO2 is of high importance to have a successful commercial introduction of CCS (CO2 capture and geological storage) technology in Europe. CO2-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is often proposed as a promising business case for CCS, and likely has a high potential in the North Sea region. Traditional economic assessments for CO2-EOR largely neglect the geological reality of reservoir uncertainties because these are difficult to introduce realistically in such calculations. There is indeed a gap between the outcome of a reservoir simulation and the input values for e.g. cost-benefit evaluations, especially where it concerns uncertainty. The approach outlined here is to turn the procedure around, and to start from which geological data is typically (or minimally) requested for an economic assessment. Thereafter it is evaluated how this data can realistically be provided by geologists and reservoir engineers. For the storage of CO2 these parameters are total and yearly CO2 injection capacity, and containment or potential on leakage. Specifically for the EOR operation, two additional parameters can be defined: the EOR ratio, or the ratio of recovered oil over injected CO2, and the CO2 recycling ratio of CO2 that is reproduced after breakthrough at the production well. A critical but typically estimated parameter for CO2-EOR projects is the EOR ratio, taken in this brief outline as an example. The EOR ratio depends mainly on local geology (e.g. injection per well), field design (e.g. number of wells), and time. Costs related to engineering can be estimated fairly good, given some uncertainty range. The problem is usually to reliably estimate the geological parameters that define the EOR ratio. Reliable data is only available from (onshore) CO2-EOR projects in the US. Published studies for the North Sea generally refer to these data in a simplified form, without uncertainty ranges, and are

  11. Geophysical Characterization for a CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N.; Jagucki, P.; Meggyesy, D.; Janosy, R.; Sminchak, J.; Ramakrishan, T.; Boyd, A.

    2003-12-01

    A site at the American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant, WV in the Ohio River Valley in the Midwestern U.S., a region with the economy heavily dependent on fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, is being evaluated to determine the potential for geologic sequestration. The project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Battelle, AEP, BP, The Ohio Air Quality Development Office, and Schlumberger. The major objective of the current phase is to characterize the reservoir at the plant site. Future decisions with regard to CO2 injection will be subject to the evaluated reservoir properties. The effort includes acquisition of 2-dimensional seismic data, assessment of regional geology, drilling to PreCambrian rocks and formation analysis and testing in a 2,800 meters deep well, reservoir simulations, risk assessment, and stakeholder outreach. The test well reached total depth in summer 2003. Wireline logging and reservoir testing was performed for each section of the borehole, including extensive tests in the lowermost 885 meters to estimate formation properties and pressure gradients. The logs included gamma-ray, neutron and density, and array resistivity, magnetic resonance relaxation for permeability information, elemental composition via capture spectroscopy, and resistivity based formation image. The seismic survey was conducted over approximately 11 miles along 2 lines: one along strike and one along dip. The results of the geophysical surveys combined with the field observations provide an integrated assessment of the major injection parameters for the two main injection reservoirs of interest, the Rose Run Formation and the Lower Maryville formation. In addition, the properties of the potential caprock formations overlying the candidate injection zones were also determined. The results of this characterization will be presented with emphasis on geophysical testing and seismic survey. These results are also being used to conduct reservoir

  12. CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF TEXAS LOW-RANK COALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2004-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. there were two main objectives for this reporting period. first, they wanted to collect wilcox coal samples from depths similar to those of probable sequestration sites, with the objective of determining accurate parameters for reservoir model description and for reservoir simulation. The second objective was to pursue opportunities for determining permeability of deep Wilcox coal to use as additional, necessary data for modeling reservoir performance during CO{sub 2} sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane recovery. In mid-summer, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation agreed to allow the authors to collect Wilcox Group coal samples from a well that was to be drilled to the Austin Chalk, which is several thousand feet below the Wilcox. In addition, they agreed to allow them to perform permeability tests in coal beds in an existing shut-in well. Both wells are in the region of the Sam K. Seymour power station, a site that they earlier identified as a major point source of CO{sub 2}. They negotiated contracts for sidewall core collection and core analyses, and they began discussions with a service company to perform permeability testing. To collect sidewall core samples of the Wilcox coals, they made structure and isopach maps and cross sections to select coal beds and to determine their depths for coring. On September 29, 10 sidewall core samples were obtained from 3 coal beds of the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation of the Wilcox Group. The samples were desorbed in 4 sidewall core canisters. Desorbed gas samples were sent to a laboratory for gas compositional analyses, and the coal samples were sent to another laboratory to measure CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} sorption isotherms. All analyses should be finished by the end of

  13. Dissolution of cemented fractures in gas bearing shales in the context of CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Kamil; Szymczak, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Carbon dioxide has a stronger binding than methane to the organic matter contained in the matrix of shale rocks [1]. Thus, the injection of CO2 into shale formation may enhance the production rate and total amount of produced methane, and simultaneously permanently store pumped CO2. Carbon dioxide can be injected during the initial fracking stage as CO2 based hydraulic fracturing, and/or later, as a part of enhanced gas recovery (EGR) [2]. Economic and environmental benefits makes CO2 sequestration in shales potentially very for industrial-scale operation [3]. However, the effective process requires large area of fracture-matrix interface, where CO2 and CH4 can be exchanged. Usually natural fractures, existing in shale formation, are preferentially reactivated during hydraulic fracturing, thus they considerably contribute to the flow paths in the resulting fracture system [4]. Unfortunately, very often these natural fractures are sealed by calcite [5]. Consequently the layer of calcite coating surfaces impedes exchange of gases, both CO2 and CH4, between shale matrix and fracture. In this communication we address the question whether carbonic acid, formed when CO2 is mixed with brine, is able to effectively dissolve a calcite layer present in the natural fractures. We investigate numerically fluid flow and dissolution of calcite coating in natural shale fractures, with CO2-brine mixture as a reactive fluid. Moreover, we discuss the differences between slow dissolution (driven by carbonic acid) and fast dissolution (driven by stronger hydrochloric acid) of calcite layer. We compare an impact of the flow rate and geometry of the fracture on the parameters of practical importance: available surface area, morphology of dissolution front, time scale of the dissolution, and the penetration length. We investigate whether the dissolution is sufficiently non-uniform to retain the fracture permeability, even in the absence of the proppant. The sizes of analysed fractures

  14. Total soil C and N sequestration in a grassland following 10 years of free air CO2 enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, van C.; Boots, B.; Graaff, de M.A.; Harris, D.; Blum, H.; Six, J.

    2006-01-01

    Soil C sequestration may mitigate rising levels of atmospheric CO2. However, it has yet to be determined whether net soil C sequestration occurs in N-rich grasslands exposed to long-term elevated CO2. This study examined whether N-fertilized grasslands exposed to elevated CO2 sequestered additional

  15. CO2 sequestration by ureolytic microbial consortia through microbially-induced calcite precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Tugba O; Nguyen, Hang N; Castro, Sarah L; Rodrigues, Debora F

    2016-12-01

    Urea is an abundant nitrogen-containing compound found in urine of mammals and widely used in fertilizers. This compound is part of the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle and is easily biodegraded by ureolytic microorganisms that have the urease enzyme. Previous studies, with ureolytic isolates, have shown that some ureolytic microorganisms are able to sequester CO2 through a process called microbially-induced calcium carbonate precipitation. The present study investigates 15 ureolytic consortia obtained from the "Pamukkale travertines" and the "Cave Without A Name" using different growth media to identify the possible bacterial genera responsible for CO2 sequestration through the microbially-induced calcite precipitation (MICP). The community structure and diversity were determined by deep-sequencing. The results showed that all consortia presented varying CO2 sequestration capabilities and MICP rates. The CO2 sequestration varied between 0 and 86.4%, and it depended largely on the community structure, as well as on pH. Consortia with predominance of Comamonas, Plesiomonas and Oxalobacter presented reduced CO2 sequestration. On the other hand, consortia dominated by Sporosarcina, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Elizabethkingia showed higher rates of CO2 uptake in the serum bottle headspace.

  16. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane McVay; Walter Ayers, Jr.; Jerry Jensen; Jorge Garduno; Gonzola Hernandez; Rasheed Bello; Rahila Ramazanova

    2006-08-31

    Injection of CO{sub 2} in coalbeds is a plausible method of reducing atmospheric emissions of CO{sub 2}, and it can have the additional benefit of enhancing methane recovery from coal. Most previous studies have evaluated the merits of CO{sub 2} disposal in high-rank coals. The objective of this research was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in, and enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery from, low-rank coals in the Texas Gulf Coast area. Our research included an extensive coal characterization program, including acquisition and analysis of coal core samples and well transient test data. We conducted deterministic and probabilistic reservoir simulation and economic studies to evaluate the effects of injectant fluid composition (pure CO{sub 2} and flue gas), well spacing, injection rate, and dewatering on CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM recovery in low-rank coals of the Calvert Bluff formation of the Texas Wilcox Group. Shallow and deep Calvert Bluff coals occur in two, distinct, coalbed gas petroleum systems that are separated by a transition zone. Calvert Bluff coals < 3,500 ft deep are part of a biogenic coalbed gas system. They have low gas content and are part of a freshwater aquifer. In contrast, Wilcox coals deeper than 3,500 ft are part of a thermogenic coalbed gas system. They have high gas content and are part of a saline aquifer. CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM projects in Calvert Bluff low-rank coals of East-Central Texas must be located in the deeper, unmineable coals, because shallow Wilcox coals are part of a protected freshwater aquifer. Probabilistic simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection into 20 feet of Calvert Bluff coal in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicates that these coals can store 1.27 to 2.25 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with an ECBM recovery of 0.48 to 0.85 Bcf. Simulation results of flue gas injection (87% N{sub 2}-13% CO{sub 2}) indicate that these same coals can store 0.34 to 0

  17. Porous-medium convection: new problems from CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, John

    2013-11-01

    Large scale injection and storage of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers is proposed to offset anthropogenic emissions and mitigate climate change. Many aspects of the resultant porous flows provoke fundamental fluid-mechanical problems. The rise and spread of the buoyant CO2 plume beneath an overlying impermeable stratum is a classic gravity current, but with the undesirable extra possibility of upward leakage through fractures. Fortunately, long-term trapping mechanisms exist. One such, dissolution of CO2 into the underlying brine, produces a denser solution which thus convects reassuringly downwards. Consideration of the convective flux prompts re-examination of high-Ra convection in a porous medium, which is found to have a strikingly different asymptotic form from that in a pure fluid. The high-Ra regime of Rayleigh-Darcy convection has an ordered interior with a linear mean temperature gradient and a superposed vertical columnar heat-exchanger flow whose wavelength is consistent with the Ra - 5 / 14 scaling predicted by an asymptotic stability analysis. Quantification of the convective dissolution flux allows evolution towards saturation in confined aquifers, or the erosion of a gravity current in open aquifers, to be calculated.

  18. Feasibility of Large-Scale Ocean CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Brewer; James Barry

    2001-09-30

    Direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} is one of several approaches under consideration to sequester carbon dioxide in order to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} near 550 ppm (2X preindustrial CO{sub 2} levels). Without significant efforts to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, the Earth is expected to experience extreme climate warming consequences associated with the projected high ({approx}3-4X preindustrial) atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels in the next 100 to 200 years. Research funded by DOE-Office of Fossil Energy under this award is based on the development of novel experimental methods by MBARI to deploy small quantities (5-45 l) of liquid CO{sub 2} in the deep-sea for the purposes of investigating the fundamental science underlying the concepts of ocean CO{sub 2} sequestration. This project is linked closely with studies funded by the Office of Science and the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI). The objectives of studies in marine chemistry funded by the Office of Fossil Energy and MBARI are to: (1) Determine the long term fate of CO{sub 2} hydrate in the deep-sea, (2) Investigate the geochemical changes in marine sediments and pore waters associated with CO{sub 2} disposal, and (3) Investigate the transfer of CO{sub 2} from the hydrate phase to the oceanic water column as a boundary condition for ocean modeling of the fate of the released material. These activities extend the results of recent studies using the deep-sea CO{sub 2} deployment system, which characterized several features of liquid CO{sub 2} released into the sea, including hydrate formation and factors influencing dissolution rates of CO{sub 2}. Results from this project are relevant in determining the efficacy of carbon sequestration and the degree of perturbation of seawater chemistry. Biological studies, funded jointly by the Office of Science, Office of Fossil Energy, and MBARI, focus on the environmental consequences of CO{sub 2} release in the deep-sea. The specific objectives

  19. CO2GeoNet, the unique role of the European scientific body on CO2 geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Arts, R.; Durand, D.; Durucan, S.; Johannessen, P.; May, F.; Olivier, M.-L.; Persoglia, S.; Riley, N.; Sohrabi, M.; Stokka, S.; Vercelli, S.; Vizika-Kavvadias, O.

    2009-01-01

    CO2GeoNet is a Network of Excellence on the geological storage of CO2, initiated by the EC's 6th research framework programme in 2004 and integrating Europe's key research institutes to create a scientific reference body dedicated to the development of CO2 geological storage as a viable option for m

  20. Fluid characterization for miscible EOR projects and CO2 sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Kristian; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2007-01-01

    Accurate performance prediction of miscible enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) projects or CO, sequestration in depleted oil and gas reservoirs relies in part on the ability of an equation-of-state (EOS) model to adequately represent the properties of a wide range of mixtures of the resident fluid...... and the injected fluid(s). The mixtures that form when gas displaces oil in a porous medium will, in many cases, differ significantly from compositions created in swelling tests and other standard pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) experiments. Multicontact experiments (e.g., slimtube displacements) are often used...... in the data reduction and demonstrate that for some gas/oil systems, swelling tests do not contribute to a more accurate prediction of multicontact miscibility. Finally, we report on the impact that use of EOS models based on different characterization procedures can have on recovery predictions from dynamic...

  1. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to perform reservoir simulation and economic sensitivity studies to (1) determine the effects of injection gas composition, (2) determine the effects of injection rate, and (3) determine the effects of coal dewatering prior to CO{sub 2} injection on CO{sub 2} sequestration in the Lower Calvert Bluff Formation (LCB) of the Wilcox Group coals in east-central Texas. To predict CO{sub 2} sequestration and ECBM in LCB coal beds for these three sensitivity studies, we constructed a 5-spot pattern reservoir simulation model and selected reservoir parameters representative of a typical depth, approximately 6,200-ft, of potential LCB coalbed reservoirs in the focus area of East-Central Texas. Simulation results of flue gas injection (13% CO{sub 2} - 87% N{sub 2}) in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern (40-ac well spacing) indicate that LCB coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 0.46 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft, with a median ECBM recovery of 0.94 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 4,270 days (11.7 years). Simulation of 100% CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern indicated that these same coals with average net thickness of 20 ft can store a median value of 1.75 Bcf of CO{sub 2} at depths of 6,200 ft with a median ECBM recovery of 0.67 Bcf and median CO{sub 2} breakthrough time of 1,650 days (4.5 years). Breakthrough was defined as the point when CO{sub 2} comprised 5% of the production stream for all cases. The injection rate sensitivity study for pure CO{sub 2} injection in an 80-acre 5-spot pattern at 6,200-ft depth shows that total volumes of CO{sub 2} sequestered and methane produced do not have significant sensitivity to

  2. In situ synthesis of polymer-modified mesoporous carbon CMK-3 composites for CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Jin, Zhong; Lu, Wei; Sun, Zhengzong; Alemany, Lawrence B; Lomeda, Jay R; Tour, James M

    2011-12-01

    Here we report carbon-based composites polyethylenimine-mesocarbon (PEI-CMK-3) and polyvinylamine-mesocarbon (PVA-CMK-3) that can be used to capture and rapidly release CO(2). CO(2) uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at 30 °C and 1 atm; the 39% PEI-CMK-3 composite had ~12 wt % CO(2) uptake capacity and the 37% PVA-CMK-3 composite had ~13 wt % CO(2) uptake capacity. A desorption temperature of 75 °C was sufficient for regeneration. The CO(2) uptake was the same when using 10% CO(2) in a 90% CH(4), C(2)H(6), and C(3)H(8) mixture, underscoring this composite's efficacy for CO(2) sequestration from natural gas.

  3. Microbial Communities in Terrestrial CO2 Springs: Insights into the Long-Term Effects of Carbon Sequestration on Subsurface Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, E. F. U.; Major, J. R.; Bennett, P.

    2014-12-01

    communities at high PCO2 and suggest that while CO2 is one environmental stress that can lower diversity, many other environmental factors can also influence survival. Lavalleur, H.J., Colwell, F.S., 2013. Microbial characterization of basalt formation waters targeted for geological carbon sequestration. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 85, 62-73.

  4. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have be

  5. CO2-ECBM and CO2 Sequestration in Polish Coal Seam – Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Baran

    2014-01-01

    Originality/value: The results indicate successful sorption of carbon dioxide in each experiment. This provides the rationale to study the application of the coal tested to obtain methane genetic origin genetic methane with the use of the CO2 injection.

  6. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have be

  7. Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.

    2009-01-01

    The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have

  8. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS ON UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION AND CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS DINIS DA GAMA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen las principales contribuciones al desarrollo tecnológico del proceso de gasificación subterránea del carbón (G.S.C. y complementariamente la posibilidad de secuestración del CO2 en el medio ambiente subterráneo. Se busca explicar por que razones existen actualmente en el mundo muy pocas plantas industriales de G.S.C. que produzcan regularmente combustibles gaseosos oriundos de la combustión del carbón "in situ", a pesar de las ventajas de protección ambiental que resultan de este proceso. Un breve listado de los proyectos en curso es incluido. La posibilidad del almacenamiento subterráneo del CO2 con o sin simultaneidad respecto a la G.S.C. es analizada, destacando las principales dificultades de aplicación de esta técnica y los riesgos asociados a las soluciones integradas, que necesitan soluciones de innovación.

  9. Time-Lapse Acoustic Impedance Inversion in CO2 Sequestration Study (Weyburn Field, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Morozov, I. B.

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic-impedance (AI) pseudo-logs are useful for characterising subtle variations of fluid content during seismic monitoring of reservoirs undergoing enhanced oil recovery and/or geologic CO2 sequestration. However, highly accurate AI images are required for time-lapse analysis, which may be difficult to achieve with conventional inversion approaches. In this study, two enhancements of time-lapse AI analysis are proposed. First, a well-known uncertainty of AI inversion is caused by the lack of low-frequency signal in reflection seismic data. To resolve this difficulty, we utilize an integrated AI inversion approach combining seismic data, acoustic well logs and seismic-processing velocities. The use of well logs helps stabilizing the recursive AI inverse, and seismic-processing velocities are used to complement the low-frequency information in seismic records. To derive the low-frequency AI from seismic-processing velocity data, an empirical relation is determined by using the available acoustic logs. This method is simple and does not require subjective choices of parameters and regularization schemes as in the more sophisticated joint inversion methods. The second improvement to accurate time-lapse AI imaging consists in time-variant calibration of reflectivity. Calibration corrections consist of time shifts, amplitude corrections, spectral shaping and phase rotations. Following the calibration, average and differential reflection amplitudes are calculated, from which the average and differential AI are obtained. The approaches are applied to a time-lapse 3-D 3-C dataset from Weyburn CO2 sequestration project in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. High quality time-lapse AI volumes are obtained. Comparisons with traditional recursive and colored AI inversions (obtained without using seismic-processing velocities) show that the new method gives a better representation of spatial AI variations. Although only early stages of monitoring seismic data are available, time

  10. FEASIBILITY OF LARGE-SCALE OCEAN CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Peter Brewer; Dr. James Barry

    2002-09-30

    We have continued to carry out creative small-scale experiments in the deep ocean to investigate the science underlying questions of possible future large-scale deep-ocean CO{sub 2} sequestration as a means of ameliorating greenhouse gas growth rates in the atmosphere. This project is closely linked to additional research funded by the DoE Office of Science, and to support from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. The listing of project achievements here over the past year reflects these combined resources. Within the last project year we have: (1) Published a significant workshop report (58 pages) entitled ''Direct Ocean Sequestration Expert's Workshop'', based upon a meeting held at MBARI in 2001. The report is available both in hard copy, and on the NETL web site. (2) Carried out three major, deep ocean, (3600m) cruises to examine the physical chemistry, and biological consequences, of several liter quantities released on the ocean floor. (3) Carried out two successful short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Izuo Aya and colleagues (NMRI, Osaka, Japan) to examine the fate of cold (-55 C) CO{sub 2} released at relatively shallow ocean depth. (4) Carried out two short cruises in collaboration with Dr. Costas Tsouris, ORNL, to field test an injection nozzle designed to transform liquid CO{sub 2} into a hydrate slurry at {approx}1000m depth. (5) In collaboration with Prof. Jill Pasteris (Washington University) we have successfully accomplished the first field test of a deep ocean laser Raman spectrometer for probing in situ the physical chemistry of the CO{sub 2} system. (6) Submitted the first major paper on biological impacts as determined from our field studies. (7) Submitted a paper on our measurements of the fate of a rising stream of liquid CO{sub 2} droplets to Environmental Science & Technology. (8) Have had accepted for publication in Eos the first brief account of the laser Raman spectrometer success. (9) Have had two

  11. CO2 migration and sequestration by combined capillary and solubility trapping: theory, experiments, and capacity estimates at the basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juanes, Ruben

    2011-11-01

    The large-scale injection and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) into deep saline aquifers is a promising tool for reducing atmospheric CO2 emissions to mitigate climate change. Success of geologic sequestration relies on trapping the buoyant CO2, to minimize the risk of leakage into shallower formations through pre- existing wells, fractures or faults. However, traditional reservoir-simulation tools are currently unable to resolve the impact of small-scale trapping processes on fluid flow at the scale of a geologic basin. Here, we formulate a sharp-interface mathematical model for the post-injection migration of a CO2 plume driven by groundwater flow in a sloping aquifer, subject to both capillary trapping and CO2 dissolution by convective mixing. We develop semi-analytical solutions that elucidate the nontrivial interplay between the two trapping mechanisms, and how their synergetic action controls plume migration. We validate the theory by means of laboratory experiments with analogue fluids to study how convective mixing arrests the buoyant current. We use our findings to estimate the dimensionless rate of solubility trapping for several large saline aquifers in the United States, and assess the importance of solubility trapping in practice.

  12. Aqueous Carbonation of Natural Brucite for CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Sang, L.; Chen, J.; Ji, J.; Teng, H.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental study is carried out at conditions of room temperature and moderate CO2 pressure to examine the carbonation reaction of natural brucite in aqueous environment. Two sets of initial conditions are examined, one is brucite in pure water, and the other is in 1% HCl. Time-dependent XRD analysis shows that carbon fixation process begins within 30 min of the experiments irrespective of the original makeup of the slurry. Ensuing measurements by XRD and FT-IR reveal that nesquehonite (> 78%) is by far the dominant C-bearing species in the carbonate mineral product assembly. Minor product components observed in water are basic magnesium carbonate hydromagnesite and dypingite; when HCl is added in the starting slurry, chloride-bearing artinite replaces hydromagnesite. However, thermodynamic calculation suggests that the assembly of such composition is most likely a kinetically favored product at the experimental conditions which are more strongly saturated with respect to hydromagnesite and magnesite than to nesquehonite. A pseudo first-order rate law is found to best describe the time-dependent measurements for both water and HCl experiments. Moreover, fitting the rate expression to the experimental data yields a higher rate constant for the experiments performed in HCl solutions. The faster kinetics relative to that in water implies that the carbonation reaction may be a multi-stepped process, involving first the dissolution of brucite and CO2 to generate Mg2+ and CO32-, followed by precipitation of magnesium carbonate phases from aqueous solutions. This leads to our proposition that direct heterogeneous reaction between hydrated CO2 and solid phase of Mg(OH)2 is probably not the pathway for the overall carbonation process. Assuming the upper limit of carbon content Cmax = 8.7% (based upon that of nesquehonite), measured total carbon in the product Ctot show a carbonation rate of 83.9% and 94.3% for brucite in HCl and DDW at the end of 2.5 hr experiments

  13. Molecular characterization of CO2 sequestration and assimilation in microalgae and its biotechnological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baojun; Chen, Gu; Cao, Xupeng; Wei, Dong

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae are renewable feedstock for sustainable biofuel production, cell factory for valuable chemicals and promising in alleviation of greenhouse gas CO2. However, the carbon assimilation capacity is still the bottleneck for higher productivity. Molecular characterization of CO2 sequestration and assimilation in microalgae has advanced in the past few years and are reviewed here. In some cyanobacteria, genes for 2-oxoglytarate dehydrogenase was replaced by four alternative mechanisms to fulfill TCA cycle. In green algae Coccomyxa subellipsoidea C-169, alternative carbon assimilation pathway was upregulated under high CO2 conditions. These advances thus provide new insights and new targets for accelerating CO2 sequestration rate and enhancing bioproduct synthesis in microalgae. When integrated with conventional parameter optimization, molecular approach for microalgae modification targeting at different levels is promising in generating value-added chemicals from green algae and cyanobacteria efficiently in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration with Simultaneous Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    CO2 sequestration in geological formations has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Coal is an attractive geologic environment for CO2 sequestration because CO2 is retained in the coal as an adsorbed phase and the cost of sequestration can be offset by enhanced coalbed methane recovery. Using reservoir simulations of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, we examined the feasibility of injecting and sequestering CO2 in this basin, particularly looking at whether hydraulically fracturing the coal would help increase CO2 injectivity. Our 3D model was built in an area where the least principal stress is equal to the overburden stress, resulting in horizontal hydraulic fractures, and gamma ray logs from coalbed methane wells were used to determine the depth and thickness of the coal. These wells produce from the Big George coal, which is approximately 20 m thick in this area, with a depth to the top of 310-360 m. Geostatistical techniques were employed to populate the coal matrix and cleats with permeability and porosity data taken from published reports. We conducted enhanced coalbed methane simulations using a commercial enhanced coalbed methane simulator. Our base case involved one injection well and one production well (1/4 of a 5-spot pattern). We then added a hydraulic fracture at the base of the injector and closed the rest of the well off. All our simulations were run with and without coal matrix shrinkage and swelling. The natural fracture system of the coal is the main pathway for gas migration. We found that gravity and buoyancy were the major driving forces behind gas flow within the coal, which reduced gas sweep efficiency and sequestration. Gravity caused the gas to migrate upwards at first and then along the top of the coal. The presence of the hydraulic fracture assisted in greater penetration of gas into the base of the reservoir, creating a more uniform vertical sweep as gas rose to the

  15. Multiphase modeling of geologic carbon sequestration in saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandilla, Karl W; Celia, Michael A; Birkholzer, Jens T; Cihan, Abdullah; Leister, Evan C

    2015-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is being considered as a climate change mitigation option in many future energy scenarios. Mathematical modeling is routinely used to predict subsurface CO2 and resident brine migration for the design of injection operations, to demonstrate the permanence of CO2 storage, and to show that other subsurface resources will not be degraded. Many processes impact the migration of CO2 and brine, including multiphase flow dynamics, geochemistry, and geomechanics, along with the spatial distribution of parameters such as porosity and permeability. In this article, we review a set of multiphase modeling approaches with different levels of conceptual complexity that have been used to model GCS. Model complexity ranges from coupled multiprocess models to simplified vertical equilibrium (VE) models and macroscopic invasion percolation models. The goal of this article is to give a framework of conceptual model complexity, and to show the types of modeling approaches that have been used to address specific GCS questions. Application of the modeling approaches is shown using five ongoing or proposed CO2 injection sites. For the selected sites, the majority of GCS models follow a simplified multiphase approach, especially for questions related to injection and local-scale heterogeneity. Coupled multiprocess models are only applied in one case where geomechanics have a strong impact on the flow. Owing to their computational efficiency, VE models tend to be applied at large scales. A macroscopic invasion percolation approach was used to predict the CO2 migration at one site to examine details of CO2 migration under the caprock.

  16. Considerations for monitoring, verification, and accounting for geologic storage of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monea, Mike; Knudsen, Ray; Worth, Kyle; Chalaturnyk, Rick; White, Don; Wilson, Malcolm; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G.; Srivastava, Rameshwar D.

    Growing concern over the impact of increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs), especially carbon dioxide (CO2), in the atmosphere has led to suggested mitigation techniques. One proposal that is attracting widespread attention is carbon capture and storage (CCS). This mitigation approach involves capture of CO2 and permanent storage in geologic formations, such as oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline formations, and unmineable coal seams. Critical to the successful implementation of this approach is the development of a robust monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) program. Defining the site characteristics of a proposed geologic storage project is the first step in developing a monitoring program. Following site characterization, the second step involves developing hypothetical models describing important mechanisms that control the behavior of injected CO2. A wide array of advanced monitoring technologies is currently being evaluated by the Weyburn-Midale Project, the Frio Project, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program. These efforts are evaluating and determining which monitoring techniques are most effective and economic for specific geologic situations, information that will be vital in guiding future projects. Although monitoring costs can run into millions of dollars, they are typically only a small part of the overall cost of a CO2 storage project. Ultimately, a robust MVA program will be critical in establishing CCS as a viable GHG mitigation strategy.

  17. LARGE-SCALE CO2 TRANSPORTATION AND DEEP OCEAN SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Sarv

    1999-03-01

    Technical and economical feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} transportation and ocean sequestration at depths of 3000 meters or grater was investigated. Two options were examined for transporting and disposing the captured CO{sub 2}. In one case, CO{sub 2} was pumped from a land-based collection center through long pipelines laid on the ocean floor. Another case considered oceanic tanker transport of liquid carbon dioxide to an offshore floating structure for vertical injection to the ocean floor. In the latter case, a novel concept based on subsurface towing of a 3000-meter pipe, and attaching it to the offshore structure was considered. Budgetary cost estimates indicate that for distances greater than 400 km, tanker transportation and offshore injection through a 3000-meter vertical pipe provides the best method for delivering liquid CO{sub 2} to deep ocean floor depressions. For shorter distances, CO{sub 2} delivery by parallel-laid, subsea pipelines is more cost-effective. Estimated costs for 500-km transport and storage at a depth of 3000 meters by subsea pipelines and tankers were 1.5 and 1.4 dollars per ton of stored CO{sub 2}, respectively. At these prices, economics of ocean disposal are highly favorable. Future work should focus on addressing technical issues that are critical to the deployment of a large-scale CO{sub 2} transportation and disposal system. Pipe corrosion, structural design of the transport pipe, and dispersion characteristics of sinking CO{sub 2} effluent plumes have been identified as areas that require further attention. Our planned activities in the next Phase include laboratory-scale corrosion testing, structural analysis of the pipeline, analytical and experimental simulations of CO{sub 2} discharge and dispersion, and the conceptual economic and engineering evaluation of large-scale implementation.

  18. Numerical and analogue modelling of the propagation and dissolution of CO2 into reservoir brines: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, K.; Bickle, M.; Neufeld, J. A.; Waterton, P.; Kampman, N.; Maskell, A.; Chapman, H.

    2013-12-01

    The release of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is recognised as the principal cause of the current changes observed in the Earth's climate. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) within reservoirs is seen as a solution to combat these changes through long-term and secure geological storage of CO2. The viability of long-term storage however, is reliant on an accurate knowledge of CO2 trapping mechanisms, as well as an understanding of the effect of the injected supercritical CO2 on the reservoir formations themselves. One prospective stable trapping mechanism is the dissolution of CO2 into ambient reservoir brine. Developing a greater understanding of the flow of CO2 through reservoir rocks and the associated reactions between the host rock formation and the fluid is therefore of great importance to understanding whether a CO2 storage site will succeed. This study examines the enhanced rates of dissolution found during injection into a layered, heterogeneous formation through analogue experiments and numerical modelling. The analogue experiments are designed to approximate an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) setting and show that during fluid propagation, pore-scale viscous fingers grow and retreat. This will provide an increased surface area between the flow and the ambient reservoir fluid which is likely to enhance the dissolution of CO2 in reservoir brines. The numerical simulations provide a useful comparison with the analogue experiments and give constraints on the timescales and magnitude of CO2 dissolution and the resultant fluid-mineral reactions in a heterogeneous reservoir. The study begins to address whether the dissolution of carbonate or silicate minerals can provide the CO2 with a leakage pathway through corroded caprocks and fault seals, or help with pathway sealing.

  19. Fundamentals of carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR): a supporting document of the assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery using CO2-EOR associated with carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide basic technical information regarding the CO2-EOR process, which is at the core of the assessment methodology, to estimate the technically recoverable oil within the fields of the identified sedimentary basins of the United States. Emphasis is on CO2-EOR because this is currently one technology being considered as an ultimate long-term geologic storage solution for CO2 owing to its economic profitability from incremental oil production offsetting the cost of carbon sequestration.

  20. Gas condensate reservoir characterisation for CO2 geological storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    During oil and gas production hydrocarbon recovery efficiency is significantly increased by injecting miscible CO2 gas in order to displace hydrocarbons towards producing wells. This process of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) might be used for the total CO2 storage after complete hydrocarbon reservoir depletion. This kind of potential storage sites was selected for detailed studies, including generalised development study to investigate the applicability of CO2 for storages. The study is focused on compositional modelling to predict the miscibility pressures. We consider depleted gas condensate field in Kazakhstan as important target for CO2 storage and EOR. This reservoir being depleted below the dew point leads to retrograde condensate formed in the pore system. CO2 injection in the depleted gas condensate reservoirs may allow enhanced gas recovery by reservoir pressurisation and liquid re-vaporisation. In addition a number of geological and petrophysical parameters should satisfy storage requirements. Studied carbonate gas condensate and oil field has strong seal, good petrophysical parameters and already proven successful containment CO2 and sour gas in high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) conditions. The reservoir is isolated Lower Permian and Carboniferous carbonate platform covering an area of about 30 km. The reservoir contains a gas column about 1.5 km thick. Importantly, the strong massive sealing consists of the salt and shale seal. Sour gas that filled in the oil-saturated shale had an active role to form strong sealing. Two-stage hydrocarbon saturation of oil and later gas within the seal frame were accompanied by bitumen precipitation in shales forming a perfect additional seal. Field hydrocarbon production began three decades ago maintaining a strategy in full replacement of gas in order to maintain pressure of the reservoir above the dew point. This was partially due to the sour nature of the gas with CO2 content over 5%. Our models and

  1. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  2. Carbonation of steel slag for CO2 sequestration: Leaching of products and reaction mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbonation of industrial alkaline residues can be used as a CO2 sequestration technology to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. In this study, steel slag samples were carbonated to a varying extent. Leaching experiments and geochemical modeling were used to identify solubility-controlling processes of

  3. Soil fertility limits carbon sequestration by forest ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Oren; David S. Ellsworth; Kurt H. Johnsen; Nathan Phillips; Brent E. Ewers; Chris Maier; Karina V.R. Schafer; Heather McCarthy; George Hendrey; Steven G. McNulty; Gabriel G. Katul

    2001-01-01

    Northern mid-latitude forests are a large terrestrial carbon sink. Ignoring nutrient limitations, large increases in carbon sequestration from carbon dioxide (CO2) fertilization are expected in these forests. Yet, forests are usually relegated to sites of moderate to poor fertility, where tree growth is often limited by nutrient supply, in...

  4. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  5. Caprock Breach: A Threat to Secure Geologic Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, A. P.; Dong, W.

    2013-12-01

    The integrity of caprock in providing a reliable barrier is crucial to several environmental geosciences endeavours related to geologic sequestration of CO2, deep geologic disposal of hazardous wastes and contaminants. The integrity of geologic barriers can be compromised by several factors. The re-activation of dormant fractures and development of new fractures in the caprock during the injection process are regarded as effects that can pose a threat to storage security. Other poromechanical influences of pore structure collapse due to chemically induced erosion of the porous fabric resulting in worm-hole type features can also contribute to compromising storage security. The assessment of the rate of steady or transient seepage through defects in the caprock can allow geoscientists to make prudent evaluations of the effectiveness of a sequestration strategy. While complicated computational simulations can be used to calculate leakage through defects, it is useful to explore alternative analytical results that could be used in providing preliminary estimates of leakage rates through defects in the caprock in a storage setting. The relevance of such developments is underscored by the fact that the permeability characteristics of the storage formation, the fracture and the surficial rocks overlying the caprock can rarely be quantified with certainty. This paper presents the problem of a crack in a caprock that connects to a storage formation and an overburden rock or surficial soil formation. The geologic media are maintained at constant far-field flow potentials and leakage takes place at either steady or transient conditions. The paper develops an analytical result that can be used to estimate the steady seepage through the crack. The analytical result can also be used to estimate the leakage through hydraulically non-intersecting cracks and leakage from caprock-well casing interfaces. The analytical result is used to estimate the accuracy of a computational

  6. Carbon sequestration and atmospheric CO2 removal: climate consequence and long-term commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2010-12-01

    A variety of methods have been proposed to remove anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere and thus mitigate climate change, such as biospheric carbon sequestration, carbon sequestration through enhanced ocean and land weathering, and direct carbon capture from ambient air. Although these proposed methods differ substantially in their physical, chemical, and biological implementations, the ultimate outcome of all schemes is to remove anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. However, the climate effect of atmospheric CO2 removal has not been studied. Here we use an Earth system model to investigate the response of the coupled climate-carbon system to an idealized removal of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. We use idealized scenarios in our analysis to facilitate exploration of the basic response of the coupled climate-carbon cycle system to proposed methods of removing anthropogenic CO2. In our extreme and idealized simulations, anthropogenic CO2 emissions are halted and all anthropogenic CO2 is removed from the atmosphere at year 2050 under the IPCC A2 CO2 emission scenario. In our simulations a one-time removal of all anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere reduces surface air temperature by 0.8°C within a few years, but 1°C surface warming above pre-industrial levels lasts for several centuries. In other words, a one-time removal of 100% excess CO2 from the atmosphere offsets less than 50% of the warming experienced at the time of removal. To maintain atmospheric CO2 and temperature at low levels, not only does anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere need to be removed, but anthropogenic CO2 stored in the ocean and land needs to be removed as well when it outgasses to the atmosphere. Our study indicts that the amount of CO2 that would need to be removed from the atmosphere, either by biological means or other means, could be much greater than the desired reduction in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and may exceed the total burden of excess atmospheric CO2 at the time

  7. Supercritical CO 2 -philic nanoparticles suitable for determining the viability of carbon sequestration in shale

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    © The Royal Society of Chemistry. A fracture spacing less than a decimeter is probably required for the successful sequestration of CO2 in shale. Tracer experiments using inert nanoparticles could determine if a fracturing this intense has been achieved. Here we describe the synthesis of supercritical CO2-philic nanoparticles suitable for this application. The nanoparticles are ~50 nm in diameter and consist of iron oxide (Fe3O4) and silica (SiO2) cores functionalized with a fluorescent polymeric corona. The nanoparticles stably disperse in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and are detectable to concentrations of 10 ppm. This journal is

  8. Feasibility of Large-Scale Ocean CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Brewer

    2008-08-31

    Scientific knowledge of natural clathrate hydrates has grown enormously over the past decade, with spectacular new findings of large exposures of complex hydrates on the sea floor, the development of new tools for examining the solid phase in situ, significant progress in modeling natural hydrate systems, and the discovery of exotic hydrates associated with sea floor venting of liquid CO{sub 2}. Major unresolved questions remain about the role of hydrates in response to climate change today, and correlations between the hydrate reservoir of Earth and the stable isotopic evidence of massive hydrate dissociation in the geologic past. The examination of hydrates as a possible energy resource is proceeding apace for the subpermafrost accumulations in the Arctic, but serious questions remain about the viability of marine hydrates as an economic resource. New and energetic explorations by nations such as India and China are quickly uncovering large hydrate findings on their continental shelves. In this report we detail research carried out in the period October 1, 2007 through September 30, 2008. The primary body of work is contained in a formal publication attached as Appendix 1 to this report. In brief we have surveyed the recent literature with respect to the natural occurrence of clathrate hydrates (with a special emphasis on methane hydrates), the tools used to investigate them and their potential as a new source of natural gas for energy production.

  9. RESEARCH STATUS AND PROSPECT OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN DEEP SALINE AQUIFER%地下咸水层封存CO_2的研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶斌; 叶为民

    2012-01-01

    CO2捕获和封存技术是一项具有广泛应用前景的碳减排新技术,而地下咸水层是封存CO2最适宜的场所之一。首先介绍了地下咸水层封存CO2的基本原理;然后重点从三个方面论述了利用地下咸水层封存CO2的研究现状,包括CO2在地下咸水层中的运移规律,地下咸水层的地质条件分析与评价,以及CO2封存容量的估算三个方面;最后建议我国要进一步研究超临界CO2在地下咸水层中的渗流机理,并对具有封存潜力的地下咸水层逐步开展地质勘探与评价工作。%CO2 Capture and Storage is an efficient COt emission reduction technology with wide application prospect. Deep saline aquifer is considered to be the most suitable site for CO2 sequestration. Firstly, the basic principle of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifer was introduced~ secondly, research status and prospect of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifer were discussed from three aspects, including transport and transformation mechanisms of CO2 in deep saline aquifer, investigation and assessment of geological conditions of deep saline aquifer, and estimation of COz sequestration capacity~ finally, it was advised that the seepage mechanism of COz after injected into deep saline aquifer should be further studied, and China should start the work of geological investigation for potential sites that are possible to be used for CO2 sequestration.

  10. Algal-based CO2 Sequestration Technology and Global Scenario of Carbon Credit Market: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the global and national scenario of Carbon credit. This paper will also discuss the advantages of the algae-based carbon capture technology in growing carbon credit market. Carbon Dioxide (CO2, the most important greenhouse gas produced by combustion of fuels, has become a cause of global panic as its concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere has been rising alarmingly. However, it is now turning into a product that helps people, countries, consultants, traders, corporations and even farmers earn billion of rupees. A carbon credit is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tone of CO2 or CO2 equivalent (CO2-e. Businesses can exchange, buy or sell carbon credits in the international markets at the prevailing market price. India and China are likely to emerge as biggest seller and Europe is going to be biggest buyers of carbon credits. Using algae for reduction the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is known as algae-based carbon capture technology. This new technology has attracted companies that need inexpensive CO2 sequestration solutions. Algae farming emerge as the best CO2 sequestration technique in comparison with other methods.

  11. An Organic Geochemical Assessment of CO2-Coal Interactions During Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Jonathan J.; Burruss, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Three well-characterized coal samples of varying rank were extracted with supercritical CO2 to determine the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that could be mobilized during simulated CO2 injection/sequestration in deep coal beds. The supercritical CO2 extractions were conducted at 40?C and 100 bars, roughly corresponding to a depth of 1 km. The greatest amount of PAHs was extracted from the high-volatile C bituminous coal sample. Extracts from the subbituminous C and anthracite coal samples contained lower concentrations of these compounds. The effectiveness of supercritical CO2 in liberating PAHs from the coal sample was evaluated in a comparison with a parallel series of Soxhlet extractions using 100% dichloromethane. More PAHs were extracted from the lower rank coal samples with dichloromethane than with supercritical CO2. The results from this investigation indicate that, regardless of coal rank, CO2 injection into deep coal beds may mobilize PAHs from the coal matrix. However, more PAHs could be mobilized during CO2 sequestration in a high-volatile C bituminous coal bed than in either of the other two coal ranks studied.

  12. Geological safety evaluation method for CO2 geological storage in deep saline aquifer%深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁玉杰; 张森琦; 郭建强; 李旭峰; 张徽

    2011-01-01

    CO2地质储存工程属于环保型工程项目,地质安全性是影响CO2长期封存的首要因素.深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性影响因素主要包括盖层适宜性、场地地震安全性、水文地质条件、地面场地地质条件四个方面,其中盖层适宜性是CO2安全储存的最关键因素,场地地震安全性和水文地质条件次之,而地面场地地质条件也是影响工程施工的重要因素.本文基于CO2地质储存的地质安全性影响因素分析,建立了层次分析结构的地质安全性评价指标体系,并初步计算了评价指标的权重;提出可以利用模糊综合评价方法进行深部咸水层CO2地质储存地质安全性综合评价,为中国深部咸水层CO2地质储存的地质安全性评价方法和安全选址指明了方向.%CO2 geological storage projects belong to environmental protection projects, and geological safety is the primary factor for CO2 sequestration for a long time.Geological safety influencing factors of CO2 geological storage include cap rock suitability, site safety for earthquake, hydrogeological condition and geological condition of the ground site, of which cap rock suitability is the most important factor, and geological condition of the ground site is the main factor influencing project construction.According to an analysis of CO2 geological storage safety influencing factors, the authors built geological safety evaluation indexes system on the basis of the AHP structure and tentatively calculated the weights.It is held that CO2 geological storage safety could be evaluated comprehensively by fuzzy synthetic evaluation method.In addition, the geological safety evaluation method of CO2 geological storage and the means for safe project site selection in China's deep saline aquifer are put forward in this paper.

  13. CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams: experimental characterization of the fundamental underlying mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, R.; Mazzotti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The process of injecting and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) into suitable deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers, (depleted) oil or gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, is referred to as CO2 sequestration. In little more than a decade, this technology has emerged as one of the most important options for reducing CO2 emissions. Among the different options, unmineable coal seams are not as broadly distributed as saline aquifers or oil/gas reservoirs, but their peculiarity resides in the proven capacity of retaining significant amount of gas (mainly methane, CH4) for a very long time. Additionally, the injection of CO2 into the coal reservoir would enhance the recovery of this natural gas, a source of energy that will most likely play a key role in the power sector over the next 20 years from now. This process is called Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery and, as for enhanced oil recovery, it allows in principle offsetting the costs associated to the storage operation. A study was undertaken aimed at the experimental characterization of the fundamental mechanisms that take place during the process of injection and storage in coal reservoirs, namely adsorption and swelling (Pini et al 2010), and of their effects on the coal's permeability (Pini et al. 2009), the property that plays a dominant role in controlling fluid transport in a porous rock. An apparatus has been built that allows measuring the permeability of rock cores under typical reservoir conditions (high pressure and temperature) by the so-called transient step method. For this study, a coal core from the Sulcis coal mine in Sardinia (Italy) has been used. In the experiments, an inert gas (helium) was used to investigate the effects of the effective pressure on the permeability of the coal sample, whereas two adsorbing gases (CO2 and N2) to quantify those of adsorption and swelling. The experiments have been interpreted by a one-dimensional model that describes the fluid transport

  14. Numerical modeling of time-lapse monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a layered basalt reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, M.; Van Wijk, K.; Clement, W.P.; Haney, M.

    2008-01-01

    As part of preparations in plans by The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) to inject CO2 in layered basalt, we numerically investigate seismic methods as a noninvasive monitoring technique. Basalt seems to have geochemical advantages as a reservoir for CO2 storage (CO2 mineralizes quite rapidly while exposed to basalt), but poses a considerable challenge in term of seismic monitoring: strong scattering from the layering of the basalt complicates surface seismic imaging. We perform numerical tests using the Spectral Element Method (SEM) to identify possibilities and limitations of seismic monitoring of CO2 sequestration in a basalt reservoir. While surface seismic is unlikely to detect small physical changes in the reservoir due to the injection of CO2, the results from Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) simulations are encouraging. As a perturbation, we make a 5%; change in wave velocity, which produces significant changes in VSP images of pre-injection and post-injection conditions. Finally, we perform an analysis using Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), to quantify these changes in the reservoir properties due to CO2 injection.

  15. Recovery Act: Innovative CO2 Sequestration from Flue Gas Using Industrial Sources and Innovative Concept for Beneficial CO2 Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dando, Neal; Gershenzon, Mike; Ghosh, Rajat

    2012-07-31

    field testing of a biomimetic in-duct scrubbing system for the capture of gaseous CO2 coupled with sequestration of captured carbon by carbonation of alkaline industrial wastes. The Phase 2 project, reported on here, combined efforts in enzyme development, scrubber optimization, and sequestrant evaluations to perform an economic feasibility study of technology deployment. The optimization of carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme reactivity and stability are critical steps in deployment of this technology. A variety of CA enzyme variants were evaluated for reactivity and stability in both bench scale and in laboratory pilot scale testing to determine current limits in enzyme performance. Optimization of scrubber design allowed for improved process economics while maintaining desired capture efficiencies. A range of configurations, materials, and operating conditions were examined at the Alcoa Technical Center on a pilot scale scrubber. This work indicated that a cross current flow utilizing a specialized gas-liquid contactor offered the lowest system operating energy. Various industrial waste materials were evaluated as sources of alkalinity for the scrubber feed solution and as sources of calcium for precipitation of carbonate. Solids were mixed with a simulated sodium bicarbonate scrubber blowdown to comparatively examine reactivity. Supernatant solutions and post-test solids were analyzed to quantify and model the sequestration reactions. The best performing solids were found to sequester between 2.3 and 2.9 moles of CO2 per kg of dry solid in 1-4 hours of reaction time. These best performing solids were cement kiln dust, circulating dry scrubber ash, and spray dryer absorber ash. A techno-economic analysis was performed to evaluate the commercial viability of the proposed carbon capture and sequestration process in full-scale at an aluminum smelter and a refinery location. For both cases the in-duct scrubber technology was compared to traditional amine- based capture

  16. Subsurface Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration - A Review and Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into subsurface formations is at least 50 years old with large-scale utilization of CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) beginning in the 1970s. Early monitoring efforts had limited measurements in available boreholes. With growing interest in CO2 sequestration beginning in the 1990's, along with growth in geophysical reservoir monitoring, small to mid-size sequestration monitoring projects began to appear. The overall goals of a subsurface monitoring plan are to provide measurement of CO2 induced changes in subsurface properties at a range of spatial and temporal scales. The range of spatial scales allows tracking of the location and saturation of the plume with varying detail, while finer temporal sampling (up to continuous) allows better understanding of dynamic processes (e.g. multi-phase flow) and constraining of reservoir models. Early monitoring of small scale pilots associated with CO2-EOR (e.g., the McElroy field and the Lost Hills field), developed many of the methodologies including tomographic imaging and multi-physics measurements. Large (reservoir) scale sequestration monitoring began with the Sleipner and Weyburn projects. Typically, large scale monitoring, such as 4D surface seismic, has limited temporal sampling due to costs. Smaller scale pilots can allow more frequent measurements as either individual time-lapse 'snapshots' or as continuous monitoring. Pilot monitoring examples include the Frio, Nagaoka and Otway pilots using repeated well logging, crosswell imaging, vertical seismic profiles and CASSM (continuous active-source seismic monitoring). For saline reservoir sequestration projects, there is typically integration of characterization and monitoring, since the sites are not pre-characterized resource developments (oil or gas), which reinforces the need for multi-scale measurements. As we move beyond pilot sites, we need to quantify CO2 plume and reservoir properties (e.g. pressure) over large scales, while still

  17. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  18. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  19. Geologic Storage of CO2: Leakage Pathways and Environmental Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia, M. A.; Peters, C. A.; Bachu, S.

    2002-05-01

    Geologic storage of CO2 appears to be an attractive option for carbon mitigation because it offers sufficient capacity to solve the problem, and it can be implemented with existing technology. Among the list of options for storage sites, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers are two major categories. While injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs offers immediate possibilities, especially in the context of enhanced oil recovery, it appears that deep saline aquifers provide the extensive capacity necessary to solve the problem over the decade to century time scale. Capacity and technology argue favorably for this option, but remaining obstacles to implementation include capture technologies, overall economic considerations, and potential environmental consequences of the injection. Of these, the environmental questions may be most difficult to solve. Experience from CO2 floods for enhanced oil recovery and from CO2 and acid gas disposal operations indicates that geological storage of CO2 is safe over the short term for comparatively small amounts of CO2. However, there is no experience to date regarding the long-term fate and safety of the large volumes of CO2 that must be injected to significantly reduce atmospheric emissions. In order to make proper evaluation of environmental risks, the full range of possible environmental consequences must be considered. Most of these environmental concerns involve migration and leakage of CO2 into shallow portions of the subsurface and eventually into the atmosphere. In shallow subsurface zones, elevated levels of carbon dioxide can cause pH changes, leading to possible mobilization of ground-water contaminants including metals. In the unsaturated zone, vegetation can be adversely affected, as can other ecosystem components. At the land surface, elevated levels of CO2 can lead to asphyxiation in humans and other animals. And finally, in the atmosphere, CO2 that leaks from underground diminishes the effectiveness

  20. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-05-01

    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve natural minerals rich in magnesium/calcium silicates (serpentine), and the alkali generated by the same process was used to absorb CO2 and precipitate magnesium/calcium carbonates. The concentrations of Mg2+ and Ca2+ dissolved from serpentine increased 20 and 145 times by using the acid solution. Under optimal conditions, 24mg of CO2 was absorbed into the alkaline solution and 13mg of CO2 was precipitated as magnesium/calcium carbonates over a fed-batch cycle (24h). Additionally, the MEDCC removed 94% of the COD (initially 822mg/L) and achieved 22% desalination (initially 35g/L NaCl). These results demonstrate the viability of this process for effective CO2 sequestration using renewable organic matter and natural minerals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell for CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-05-01

    Mineral carbonation can be used for CO2 sequestration, but the reaction rate is slow. In order to accelerate mineral carbonation, acid generated in a microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC) was examined to dissolve natural minerals rich in magnesium/calcium silicates (serpentine), and the alkali generated by the same process was used to absorb CO2 and precipitate magnesium/calcium carbonates. The concentrations of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) dissolved from serpentine increased 20 and 145 times by using the acid solution. Under optimal conditions, 24 mg of CO2 was absorbed into the alkaline solution and 13 mg of CO2 was precipitated as magnesium/calcium carbonates over a fed-batch cycle (24h). Additionally, the MEDCC removed 94% of the COD (initially 822 mg/L) and achieved 22% desalination (initially 35 g/L NaCl). These results demonstrate the viability of this process for effective CO2 sequestration using renewable organic matter and natural minerals.

  2. CO2 sequestration by carbonation of steelmaking slags in an autoclave reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-E; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chu, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Chu-Fang; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2011-11-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) sequestration experiments using the accelerated carbonation of three types of steelmaking slags, i.e., ultra-fine (UF) slag, fly-ash (FA) slag, and blended hydraulic slag cement (BHC), were performed in an autoclave reactor. The effects of reaction time, liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S), temperature, CO(2) pressure, and initial pH on CO(2) sequestration were evaluated. Two different CO(2) pressures were chosen: the normal condition (700 psig) and the supercritical condition (1300 psig). The carbonation conversion was determined quantitatively by using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). The major factors that affected the conversion were reaction time (5 min to 12h) and temperature (40-160°C). The BHC was found to have the highest carbonation conversion of approximately 68%, corresponding to a capacity of 0.283 kg CO(2)/kg BHC, in 12h at 700 psig and 160°C. In addition, the carbonation products were confirmed to be mainly in CaCO(3), which was determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) to analyze samples before and after carbonation. Furthermore, reaction kinetics were expressed with a surface coverage model, and the carbon footprint of the developed technology in this investigation was calculated by a life cycle assessment (LCA). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil carbon sequestration for advancing food security and offsetting CO2 Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Lal, R

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural soil C sinks, potentially significant depository of atmospheric CO2, are important to numerous ecosystems services including mitigation and adaptation to climate change, improvements in quantity and quality of renewable fresh water resources, enhancement of biodiversity, and increase in agronomic productivity. Technical soil C sequestration potential depends on C lost during the prior land use, soil management, and the attendant degradation in soil quality. The global maximum soi...

  4. Coal matrix swelling during CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams:A perspective%深部煤层封存 CO2过程中的煤基质溶胀效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩浩; 张登峰; 王倩倩; 彭健; 霍培丽

    2015-01-01

    强化煤层气甲烷(CH4)采收率的深部煤层封存二氧化碳(CO2)技术能够将主要人为温室气体(CO2)进行有效的地质存储。考虑到 CO2流体和煤体的自身特性,封存过程中的 CO2流体将会诱导煤基质发生溶胀效应。溶胀效应将会对煤层封存 CO2技术构成潜在的影响。为此,本文结合国内外相关研究工作,归纳了流体诱导煤基质溶胀的规律,指出了煤基质溶胀对煤层封存 CO2过程的影响,介绍了流体诱导煤基质溶胀的分析手段,提出了封存过程中煤基质溶胀的研究趋势。分析表明:①煤基质溶胀程度与流体种类、压力、温度和煤的变质程度有关;②CO2诱导煤基质溶胀效应将会降低煤层的渗透性能,进而影响 CO2等流体在煤层内部的有效运移;③溶胀效应会影响煤层的 CO2封存性能,建立涉及溶胀效应的煤吸附理论模型是溶胀效应研究的重要课题;④煤基质溶胀机理及其可逆性能研究目前存在争议,研究人员需要从煤体理化结构的研究出发以明确上述问题。%Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in deep coal seams with enhanced coal-bed methane (CH4) recovery (CO2-ECBM) can store the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas (CO2) in geological time. In consideration of the properties of both CO2 and coal,swelling effect induced by CO2 will occur during the sequestration process. The swelling effect can show negative effect on CO2 sequestration in coal seams. Therefore, the recent research progress in coal swelling during sequestration process has been summarized. The effects of fluid on coal swelling were concluded,and the influences of coal swelling on sequestration process were analyzed. The analytical methods for coal swelling were provided and the future trends of coal matrix swelling during CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams were also pointed out. The results indicate that coal swelling is related to fluid type

  5. Use of relational databases to evaluate regional petroleum accumulation, groundwater flow, and CO2 sequestration in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T.R.; Merriam, D.F.; Bartley, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale relational databases and geographic information system tools are used to integrate temperature, pressure, and water geo-chemistry data from numerous wells to better understand regional-scale geothermal and hydrogeological regimes of the lower Paleozoic aquifer systems in the mid-continent and to evaluate their potential for geologic CO2 sequestration. The lower Paleozoic (Cambrian to Mississippian) aquifer systems in Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma comprise one of the largest regional-scale saline aquifer systems in North America. Understanding hydrologic conditions and processes of these regional-scale aquifer systems provides insight to the evolution of the various sedimentary basins, migration of hydrocarbons out of the Anadarko and Arkoma basins, and the distribution of Arbuckle petroleum reservoirs across Kansas and provides a basis to evaluate CO2 sequestration potential. The Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphic units form a saline aquifer that is in hydrologic continuity with the freshwater recharge from the Ozark plateau and along the Nemaha anticline. The hydrologic continuity with areas of freshwater recharge provides an explanation for the apparent underpressure in the Arbuckle Group. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  6. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP - REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING CO2 MOVEMENT DURING SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2005-10-01

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  7. Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Peter; Esposito, Richard; Theodorou, Konstantinos; Hannon, Michael; Lamplugh, Aaron; Ellison, Kirk

    2013-06-30

    Work under the project entitled "Geologic Sequestration Training and Research," was performed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Southern Company from December 1, 2009, to June 30, 2013. The emphasis was on training of students and faculty through research on topics central to further development, demonstration, and commercialization of carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS). The project had the following components: (1) establishment of a laboratory for measurement of rock properties, (2) evaluation of the sealing capacity of caprocks, (3) evaluation of porosity, permeability, and storage capacity of reservoirs, (4) simulation of CO{sub 2} migration and trapping in storage reservoirs and seepage through seal layers, (5) education and training of students through independent research on rock properties and reservoir simulation, and (6) development of an advanced undergraduate/graduate level course on coal combustion and gasification, climate change, and carbon sequestration. Four graduate students and one undergraduate student participated in the project. Two were awarded Ph.D. degrees for their work, the first in December 2010 and the second in August 2013. A third graduate student has proposed research on an advanced technique for measurement of porosity and permeability, and has been admitted to candidacy for the Ph.D. The fourth graduate student is preparing his proposal for research on CCUS and solid waste management. The undergraduate student performed experimental measurements on caprock and reservoir rock samples and received his B.S.M.E. degree in May 2012. The "Caprock Integrity Laboratory," established with support from the present project, is fully functional and equipped for measurement of porosity, permeability, minimum capillary displacement pressure, and effective permeability to gas in the presence of wetting phases. Measurements are made at ambient temperature and under reservoir conditions, including supercritical CO{sub 2

  8. Density-driven enhanced dissolution of injected CO2 during long-term CO2 geological storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations is increasingly seen as a viable strategy to reduce the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, possible leakage of injected CO2 from the storage formation through vertical pathways such as fractures, faults and abandoned wells is a huge challenge for CO2 geological storage projects. Thus, the density-driven fluid flow as a process that can accelerate the phase change of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase is receiving more and more attention. In this paper, we performed higher-resolution reactive transport simulations to investigate the possible density-driven fluid flow process under the ‘real’ condition of CO2 injection and storage. Simulation results indicated that during CO2 injection and geological storage in deep saline formations, the higher-density CO2-saturated aqueous phase within the lower CO2 gas plume migrates downward and moves horizontally along the bottom of the formation, and the higher-density fingers within the upper gas plume propagate downward. These density-driven fluid flow processes can significantly enhance the phase transition of injected CO2 from supercritical phase into aqueous phase, consequently enhancing the effective storage capacity and long-term storage security of injected CO2 in saline formations.

  9. Water Contact Angle Dependence with Hydroxyl Functional Groups on Silica Surfaces under CO2 Sequestration Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Ning; Li, Weizhong; Song, Yongchen

    2015-12-15

    Functional groups on silica surfaces under CO2 sequestration conditions are complex due to reactions among supercritical CO2, brine and silica. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of hydroxyl functional groups on wettability. It has been found that wettability shows a strong dependence on functional groups on silica surfaces: silanol number density, space distribution, and deprotonation/protonation degree. For neutral silica surfaces with crystalline structure (Q(3), Q(3)/Q(4), Q(4)), as silanol number density decreases, contact angle increases from 33.5° to 146.7° at 10.5 MPa and 318 K. When Q(3) surface changes to an amorphous structure, water contact angle increases 20°. Water contact angle decreases about 12° when 9% of silanol groups on Q(3) surface are deprotonated. When the deprotonation degree increases to 50%, water contact angle decreases to 0. The dependence of wettability on silica surface functional groups was used to analyze contact angle measurement ambiguity in literature. The composition of silica surfaces is complicated under CO2 sequestration conditions, the results found in this study may help to better understand wettability of CO2/brine/silica system.

  10. Modeling of CBM production, CO2 injection, and tracer movement at a field CO2 sequestration site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siriwardane, Hema J.; Bowes, Benjamin D.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Gondle, Raj K.; Wells, Arthur W.; Strazisar, Brian R.

    2012-07-01

    Sequestration of carbon dioxide in unmineable coal seams is a potential technology mainly because of the potential for simultaneous enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM). Several pilot tests have been performed around the globe leading to mixed results. Numerous modeling efforts have been carried out successfully to model methane production and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Sensitivity analyses and history matching along with several optimization tools were used to estimate reservoir properties and to investigate reservoir performance. Geological and geophysical techniques have also been used to characterize field sequestration sites and to inspect reservoir heterogeneity. The fate and movement of injected CO{sub 2} can be determined by using several monitoring techniques. Monitoring of perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracers is one of these monitoring technologies. As a part of this monitoring technique, a small fraction of a traceable fluid is added to the injection wellhead along with the CO{sub 2} stream at different times to monitor the timing and location of the breakthrough in nearby monitoring wells or offset production wells. A reservoir modeling study was performed to simulate a pilot sequestration site located in the San Juan coal basin of northern New Mexico. Several unknown reservoir properties at the field site were estimated by modeling the coal seam as a dual porosity formation and by history matching the methane production and CO{sub 2} injection. In addition to reservoir modeling of methane production and CO{sub 2} injection, tracer injection was modeled. Tracers serve as a surrogate for determining potential leakage of CO{sub 2}. The tracer was modeled as a non-reactive gas and was injected into the reservoir as a mixture along with CO{sub 2}. Geologic and geometric details of the field site, numerical modeling details of methane production, CO{sub 2} injection, and tracer injection are presented in this paper. Moreover, the numerical

  11. Our trial to develop a risk assessment tool for CO2 geological storage (GERAS-CO2GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    We will introduce our researches about to develop a risk assessment tool named 'GERAS-CO2GS' (Geo-environmental Risk Assessment System, CO2 Geological Storage Risk Assessment System) for 'Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage (Geological CCS)'. It aims to facilitate understanding of size of impact of risks related with upper migration of injected CO2. For gaining public recognition about feasibility of Geological CCS, quantitative estimation of risks is essential, to let public knows the level of the risk: whether it is negligible or not. Generally, in preliminary hazard analysis procedure, potential hazards could be identified within Geological CCS's various facilities such as: reservoir, cap rock, upper layers, CO2 injection well, CO2 injection plant and CO2 transport facilities. Among them, hazard of leakage of injected C02 is crucial, because it is the clue to estimate risks around a specific injection plan in terms of safety, environmental protection effect and economy. Our risk assessment tool named GERAS-CO2GS evaluates volume and rate of retention and leakage of injected CO2 in relation with fractures and/or faults, and then it estimates impact of seepages on the surface of the earth. GERAS-CO2GS has four major processing segments: (a) calculation of CO2 retention and leakage volume and rate, (b) data processing of CO2 dispersion on the surface and ambient air, (c) risk data definition and (d) evaluation of risk. Concerning to the injection site, we defined a model, which is consisted from an injection well and a geological strata model: which involves a reservoir, a cap rock, an upper layer, faults, seabed, sea, the surface of the earth and the surface of the sea. For retention rate of each element of CO2 injection site model, we use results of our experimental and numerical studies on CO2 migration within reservoirs and faults with specific lithological conditions. For given CO2 injection rate, GERAS-CO2GS calculates CO2 retention and leakage of each segment

  12. Optimal Control of Partially Miscible Two-Phase Flow with Applications to Subsurface CO2 Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    Simon, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in subsurface CO2 sequestration, we investigate constrained optimal control problems with partially miscible two-phase flow in porous media. The objective is, e.g., to maximize the amount of trapped CO2 in an underground reservoir after a fixed period of CO2 injection, where the time-dependent injection rates in multiple wells are used as control parameters. We describe the governing two-phase two-component Darcy flow PDE system and formulate the optimal control problem. For the discretization we use a variant of the BOX method, a locally conservative control-volume FE method. The timestep-wise Lagrangian of the control problem is implemented as a functional in the PDE toolbox Sundance, which is part of the HPC software Trilinos. The resulting MPI parallelized Sundance state and adjoint solvers are linked to the interior point optimization package IPOPT. Finally, we present some numerical results in a heterogeneous model reservoir.

  13. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  14. Modeling and Simulation of Nanoparticle Transport in Multiphase Flows in Porous Media: CO2 Sequestration

    KAUST Repository

    El-Amin, Mohamed

    2012-09-03

    Geological storage of anthropogenic CO2 emissions in deep saline aquifers has recently received tremendous attention in the scientific literature. Injected CO2 plume buoyantly accumulates at the top part of the deep aquifer under a sealing cap rock, and some concern that the high-pressure CO2 could breach the seal rock. However, CO2 will diffuse into the brine underneath and generate a slightly denser fluid that may induce instability and convective mixing. Onset times of instability and convective mixing performance depend on the physical properties of the rock and fluids, such as permeability and density contrast. The novel idea is to adding nanoparticles to the injected CO2 to increase density contrast between the CO2-rich brine and the underlying resident brine and, consequently, decrease onset time of instability and increase convective mixing. As far as it goes, only few works address the issues related to mathematical and numerical modeling aspects of the nanoparticles transport phenomena in CO2 storages. In the current work, we will present mathematical models to describe the nanoparticles transport carried by injected CO2 in porous media. Buoyancy and capillary forces as well as Brownian diffusion are important to be considered in the model. IMplicit Pressure Explicit Saturation-Concentration (IMPESC) scheme is used and a numerical simulator is developed to simulate the nanoparticles transport in CO2 storages.

  15. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  16. Optimization of capillary trapping for application in geological carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, E.; Wildenschild, D.; Armstrong, R. T.; Herring, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration, as a method of atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction, is at the technological forefront of the climate change movement. Sequestration is achieved by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) gas effluent from coal fired power plants and injecting it into saline aquifers. In an effort to fully understand and optimize CO2 trapping efficiency, the capillary trapping mechanisms that immobilize subsurface CO2 were analyzed at the pore scale. Pairs of analogous fluids representing the range of in situ supercritical CO2 and brine conditions were used during experimentation. The two fluids (identified as wetting and non wetting) were imbibed and drained from a flow cell apparatus containing a sintered glass bead column. Experimental and fluid parameters, such as interfacial tension, non-wetting fluid viscosity and flow rate, were altered to characterize their impact on capillary trapping. Through the use of computed x-ray microtomography (CMT), we were able to quantify distinct differences between initial (post NW phase imbibition) and residual (post wetting fluid flood) non-wetting phase saturations. Observed trends will be used to identify optimal conditions for trapping CO2 during subsurface sequestration.

  17. A study of steel alloys for potential use in CO2 sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczak, Joseph H.; Rawers, James C.; Blankenship, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The effect of CO2 as a greenhouse gas, and the potential of global warming, has led to the study of sequestration of CO2 as a mineral carbonate. Some of the processes of mineral sequestration involve handing large tonnages of silicate minerals and reacting them with CO2. In this study the Albany Research Center evaluated the effects of wear and corrosion individually, and any possible synergetic effects resulting from a combination of wear and corrosion, on steel alloys that might be used in CO2 sequestration. By understanding the mechanism of slurry material loss, a better selection of erosion/corrosion resistant steel alloys can be chosen which in turn help plan construction costs. Four different conventional alloys were chosen. The alloys include AISI 1080 carbon steel, a 9Cr, 1 Mo steel, a 316 stainless steel, and a heat treatable 440C stainless steel. These materials covered a large range of alloy composition and cost. A variety of erosion and corrosion tests were used to evaluate the steels response to selected sequestration environments. The tests used included: (i) wear from dry Jet and HAET erosion tests, (ii) corrosion from immersion tests, and (iii) slurry erosion/corrosion tests. The slurry wear tests were conducted using a 270-μm silica abrasive in water and a solution (a mixture of sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, and sodium carbonate) saturated with CO2 at pH levels of 4.5 and 9.4. The results of these tests were compared with the results dry erosion and immersion corrosion tests. The results of the various tests were then used to evaluate the mechanism of material loss and determine is the presence of synergetic effects. The corrosion test showed little loss of material for all alloys. The erosion tests showed only a small difference between alloys. The slurry tests showed synergistic effect of combining erosion and corrosion resulted in a significant additional loss of material. It was further found both increasing the hardness and amounts of

  18. Glacial – interglacial atmospheric CO2 change: a possible "standing volume" effect on deep-ocean carbon sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Skinner

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available So far, the exploration of possible mechanisms for glacial atmospheric CO2 draw-down and marine carbon sequestration has focussed almost exclusively on dynamic or kinetic processes (i.e. variable mixing-, equilibration- or export rates. Here an attempt is made to underline instead the possible importance of changes in the standing volumes of intra-oceanic carbon reservoirs (i.e. different water-masses in setting the total marine carbon inventory. By way of illustration, a simple mechanism is proposed for enhancing the carbon storage capacity of the deep sea, which operates via an increase in the volume of relatively carbon-enriched AABW-like deep-water filling the ocean basins. Given the hypsometry of the ocean floor and an active biological pump, the water-mass that fills more than the bottom 3 km of the ocean will essentially determine the carbon content of the marine reservoir. A set of simple box-model experiments confirm the expectation that a deep sea dominated by AABW-like deep-water holds more CO2, prior to any additional changes in ocean overturning rate, biological export or ocean-atmosphere exchange. The magnitude of this "standing volume effect" might be as large as the contributions that have been attributed to carbonate compensation, the thermodynamic solubility pump or the biological pump for example. If incorporated into the list of factors that have contributed to marine carbon sequestration during past glaciations, this standing volume mechanism may help to reduce the amount of glacial – interglacial CO2 change that remains to be explained by other mechanisms that are difficult to assess in the geological archive, such as reduced mass transport or mixing rates in particular. This in turn could help narrow the search for forcing conditions capable of pushing the global carbon cycle between glacial and interglacial modes.

  19. Mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Comans, R.N.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands); Witkamp, G.J. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-02-15

    The mechanisms of aqueous wollastonite carbonation as a possible carbon dioxide sequestration process were investigated experimentally by systematic variation of the reaction temperature, CO2 pressure, particle size, reaction time, liquid to solid ratio and agitation power. The carbonation reaction was observed to occur via the aqueous phase in two steps: (1) Ca leaching from the CaSiO3 matrix and (2) CaCO3 nucleation and growth. Leaching is hindered by a Ca-depleted silicate rim resulting from incongruent Ca-dissolution. Two temperature regimes were identified in the overall carbonation process. At temperatures below an optimum reaction temperature, the overall reaction rate is probably limited by the leaching rate of Ca. At higher temperatures, nucleation and growth of calcium carbonate is probably limiting the conversion, due to a reduced (bi)carbonate activity. The mechanisms for the aqueous carbonation of wollastonite were shown to be similar to those reported previously for an industrial residue and a Mg-silicate. The carbonation of wollastonite proceeds rapidly relative to Mg-silicates, with a maximum conversion in 15 min of 70% at 200C, 20 bar CO2 partial pressure and a particle size of <38 {mu}m. The obtained insight in the reaction mechanisms enables the energetic and economic assessment of CO2 sequestration by wollastonite carbonation, which forms an essential next step in its further development.

  20. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Selecci0n de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.; Zapatero, M. A.; Suarez, I.; Arenillas, A.

    2007-09-18

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmailable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 refs.

  1. Geological Storage of CO2. Site Selection Criteria; Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2. Criterios de Seleccion de Emplazamientos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, C.; Martinez, R.; Recreo, F.; Prado, P.; Campos, R.; Pelayo, M.; Losa, A. de la; Hurtado, A.; Lomba, L.; Perez del Villar, L.; Ortiz, G.; Sastre, J.

    2006-07-01

    In year 2002 the Spanish Parliament unanimously passed the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, signed December 1997, compromising to limiting the greenhouse gas emissions increase. Later on, the Environment Ministry submitted the Spanish National Assignment Emissions Plan to the European Union and in year 2005 the Spanish Greenhouse Gas market started working, establishing taxes to pay in case of exceeding the assigned emissions limits. So, the avoided emissions of CO2 have now an economic value that is promoting new anthropogenic CO2 emissions reduction technologies. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are among these new technological developments for mitigating or eliminate climate change. CO2 can be stored in geological formations such as depleted oil or gas fields, deep permeable saline water saturated formations and unmineable coal seams, among others. This report seeks to establish the selection criteria for suitable geological formations for CO2 storage in the Spanish national territory, paying attention to both the operational and performance requirements of these storage systems. The report presents the physical and chemical properties and performance of CO2 under storage conditions, the transport and reaction processes of both supercritical and gaseous CO2, and CO2 trapping mechanisms in geological formations. The main part of the report is devoted to geological criteria at watershed, site and formation scales. (Author) 100 ref.

  2. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  3. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C

  4. Modeling CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifer and Depleted Oil Reservoirs to Evaluate Regional CO2 Sequestration Potential of Ozark Plateau Aquifer System, South-Central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watney, W. L.; Rush, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Paleozoic-age Ozark Plateau Aquifer System (OPAS) in southern Kansas consists of a thick (>450 m) and deeply buried (>1 km) succession of Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle Group strata (dolomite) overlain by Lower Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous-age carbonate, chert, and shale. The Arbuckle Group is a thick widespread saline aquifer in southern Kansas. A 500 meter core of the OPAS interval and immediate overlying Pennsylvanian shale caprock were cored in early 2011 in the BEREXCO Wellington KGS #1-32 well in Wellington Field, a nearly depleted oil field in Sumner County, in south-central Kansas. An exhaustive set of modern logs were run in the KGS #1-32 well including chemical, microresistivity imaging, dipole sonic, nuclear magnetic resonance, and standard porosity and resistivity wireline logs. In addition, routine and special core analyses provide vital means to calibrate these logs. Core also provide vital chemical analyses and rock samples to run flow experiments, including in situ conditions, to establish reaction kinetics of rock and connate brines with CO2. Core and logs also provide the means to calibrate a 26 km2 multicomponent 3D seismic survey that was acquired in Wellington Field in 2010. Studies of four oil fields, also part of this project, are underway in southwestern Kansas to provide additional calibration points for the western part of the regional study that covers 65,000 km2 where CO2 sequestration capacity will be measured. Several hundred deep wells have been identified to serve as type wells in the regional study area. Well logs and sample descriptions are being digitized, correlated, and mapped to define distribution of aquifers, oil reservoirs, and caprocks. Drill stem test data have been analyzed for deep wells to establish that the Arbuckle is an open aquifer connected to surface exposures 100s of km to east in central Missouri. Over 500 km2 of 3D seismic have been donated by industrial partners to aid in understanding fault and fracture

  5. Effect of elevated CO2 and temperature on abiotic and biologically-driven basalt weathering and C sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Sabrina; Dontsova, Katerina; Le Galliard, Jean-François; Chollet, Simon; Llavata, Mathieu; Massol, Florent; Cros, Alexis; Barré, Pierre; Gelabert, Alexandre; Daval, Damien; Corvisier, Jérôme; Troch, Peter; Barron-Gafford, Greg; Van Haren, Joost; Ferrière, Régis

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of primary silicates is one of the mechanisms involved in carbon removal from the atmosphere, affecting the carbon cycle at geologic timescales with basalt significantly contributing to the global weathering CO2 flux. Mineral weathering can be enhanced by microbiota and plants. Increase in both temperature and amount of CO2 in the atmosphere can directly increase weathering and can also affect weathering through impact on biological systems. This would result in possible negative feedback on climate change. The goal of this research was to quantify direct and indirect effects of temperature and elevated CO2 on basalt weathering and carbon sequestration. In order to achieve this goal we performed controlled-environment mesocosm experiments at Ecotron Ile-de-France (France). Granular basalt collected in Flagstaff (AZ, USA) was exposed to rainfall at equilibrium with two different CO2 concentrations in the air, ambient (400 ppm) and elevated (800 ppm); and kept at two climate regimes, with ambient and elevated (+ 4° C) temperature. Four biological treatments were superimposed on this design: a plant-free control; N-fixing grass (Alfalfa, Medicago sativa), N-fixing tree (Velvet mesquite, Prosopis velutina); and grass that does not form symbiotic relationships with N fixers (Green Sprangletop, Leptochloa dubia). All used basalt had native microbial community. Mesocosms were equipped with solution and gas samplers. To monitor biogenic and lithogenic weathering product concentrations, soil solution samples were collected under vacuum after each rainfall event and analyzed to determine pH, electrical conductivity, major and trace elements concentrations, anions concentrations, and aqueous phase organic matter chemistry. Soil gases were monitored for CO2 using porous Teflon gas samplers connected to the Vaisala probes. Plant biomass was collected at the end of the experiment to determine dry weight, as well as removal of N and lithogenic elements by the plants

  6. Monetizing Leakage Risk of Geologic CO2 Storage using Wellbore Permeability Frequency Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Fitts, Jeffrey; Peters, Catherine; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) may be captured from large point sources (e.g., coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement manufacturers) and injected into deep sedimentary basins for storage, or sequestration, from the atmosphere. This technology—CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)—may be a significant component of the portfolio of technologies deployed to mitigate climate change. But injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the storage reservoir through a variety of natural and manmade pathways, including existing wells and wellbores. Such leakage will incur costs to a variety of stakeholders, which may affect the desirability of potential CO2 injection locations as well as the feasibility of the CCS approach writ large. Consequently, analyzing and monetizing leakage risk is necessary to develop CCS as a viable technological option to mitigate climate change. Risk is the product of the probability of an outcome and the impact of that outcome. Assessment of leakage risk from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs requires an analysis of the probabilities and magnitudes of leakage, identification of the outcomes that may result from leakage, and an assessment of the expected economic costs of those outcomes. One critical uncertainty regarding the rate and magnitude of leakage is determined by the leakiness of the well leakage pathway. This leakiness is characterized by a leakage permeability for the pathway, and recent work has sought to determine frequency distributions for the leakage permeabilities of wells and wellbores. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of leakage and monetized leakage risk for CO2 injection locations in the Michigan Sedimentary Basin (USA) using empirically derived frequency distributions for wellbore leakage permeabilities. To conduct this probabilistic risk analysis, we apply the RISCS (Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage) model (Bielicki et al, 2013a, 2012b) to injection into the Mt. Simon Sandstone. RISCS monetizes leakage risk

  7. The CO2 Geological Sealing Conditions and Potential Evaluation in Coal Seams in Jiangsu Province%江苏省CO2煤层地质封存条件与潜力评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚素平; 汤中一; 谭丽华; 裴文明

    2012-01-01

    The geological conditions of CO2 sequestration in coal seams in Jiangsu Province contain the distribution of Carboniferous-Permian coal measures,coal resources and coal seam reservoir conditions. According to the comprehensive research about the geological conditions of CO2 sequestration in coal seams, the preliminary assessments of the storage potential are made for the coal fields in southern Jiangsu, Xuzhou and Fengpei, respectively. The results show that the coal seams in these coal fields have considerable potential and disposal prospect for CO2 sequestration. The estimate of CO2 storage resources in coal seams in Jiangsu Province is over three hundred million tons of CO2. Among these coal seams .southern Jiangsu coal area could sequester 81 million tons of CO2,Xuzhou coal area of nearly 150 million tons of CO2 and Fengpei coal area of 87 million tons of CO2. The prospect of typical coal-seam CO2 sequestration can be divided into three categories : suitable storage area( Class A), less suitable storage area ( B), and poor storage area ( Class C).%根据江苏省石炭—二叠纪煤系的分布、煤炭资源量和煤层的储集条件等煤封存CO2地质条件的综合研究,分别对苏南煤田、徐州煤田、丰沛煤田煤层封存CO2的潜力进行了初步评估,认为该区CO2煤层封存具有一定的潜力和前景.评估结果表明江苏省煤层可存储CO2总量超过3×108t,其中苏南含煤区可存储CO2容量为8.1×107 t,徐州煤矿区可存储容量近1.5×108t,丰沛煤矿区为8.7× 107t.并对各典型含煤区块CO2煤封存前景进行分类:适合存储区(A类)、较适合存储区(B类)和较差存储区(C类).

  8. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on"CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, D.; Sherlock, D.; Daley, T.; Huang, L.; Lawton, D.; Masters, R.; Verliac, M.; White, D.

    2010-01-15

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on CO2 Sequestration Geophysics was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee (see side bar) representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier (Figures 1-2). Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO2 sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  9. Geochronology, geochemistry, and tectonic characterization of Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in the southwestern United States and their implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priewisch, Alexandra

    Travertines are freshwater carbonates that precipitate from carbonic groundwater due to the degassing of CO2. Travertine deposits are often situated along faults that serve as conduits for CO2-charged groundwater and their geochemistry often records mixing of deeply-derived fluids and volatiles with shallow meteoric water. Travertines are surface expressions of dynamic mantle processes related to the tectonic setting. This dissertation includes four chapters that focus on different aspects of travertine formation and their scientific value. They are excellent, although underestimated, diagnostic tools for climatology, hydrology, tectonics, geochemistry, geomicrobiology, and they can inform carbon sequestration models. Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona occur in an extensional tectonic stress regime on the southeastern Colorado Plateau and along the Rio Grande rift. They accumulated above fault systems during episodes of high hydraulic head in confined aquifers, increased regional volcanic activity, and high input of mantle-derived volatiles such as CO 2 and He. Stable isotope and trace element geochemistry of travertines is controlled by groundwater geochemistry as well as the degassing of CO 2. The geochemical composition allows for distinguishing different travertine facies and evaluating past groundwater flow. The travertine deposits in New Mexico are interpreted to be extinct CO2 fields due to the large volumes that accumulated and in analogy to the travertine deposits in Arizona that are associated with an active CO2-gas field. Travertines are natural analogues for CO2 leakage along fault systems that bypassed regional cap rocks and they provide important insight into the migration of CO2 from a reservoir to the surface. The volume of travertine can be used to infer the integrated CO2 leakage along a fault system over geologic time. This leakage is estimated as: (1) CO2 that becomes fixed in CaCO3/travertine (tons of carbon

  10. Carbon dioxide sequestration: Modeling the diffusive and convective transport under a CO2 cap

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    A rise in carbon dioxide levels from industrial emissions is contributing to the greenhouse effect and global warming. CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers is a strategy to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels. Scientists and researchers rely on numerical simulators to predict CO2 storage by modeling the fluid transport behaviour. Studies have shown that after CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer, undissolved CO2 rises due to buoyant forces and will spread laterally away from the injection site under an area of low permeability. CO2 from this ‘capped\\' region diffuses into the fluid underlying it, and the resulting CO2-fluid mixture increases in density. This increase in density leads to gravity-driven convection. Accordingly, diffusive-convective transport is important to model since it predicts an enhanced storage capacity of the saline aquifer. This work incorporates the diffusive and convective transport processes into the transport modeling equation, and uses a self-generated code. Discretization of the domain is done with a cell-centered finite difference method. Cases are set up using similar parameters from published literature in order to compare results. Enhanced storage capacity is predicted in this work, similar to work done by others. A difference in the onset of convective transport between this work and published results is noticed and discussed in this paper. A sensitivity analysis is performed on the density model used in this work, and on the diffusivity value assumed. The analysis shows that the density model and diffusivity value is a key component on simulation results. Also, perturbations are added to porosity and permeability in order to see the effect of perturbations on the onset of convection, and results agree with similar findings by others. This work provides a basis for studying other cases, such as the impact of heterogeneity on the diffusion-convective transport. An extension of this work may involve the use of an equation of state to

  11. CO2 Sequestration Site Performance: Processes of Storage Seal Failure and Overburden Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, A. J.; Wilkinson, M.; Haszeldine, S.

    2006-12-01

    Climate models of ocean degassing require that sequestered carbon be removed from the atmosphere for at least 104 years for the planet to cool as a consequence of CO2 storage. Site monitoring over millennia is not an option. The best way to address robust site performance and fail-safe concerns over such a timescale is to model the movement of CO2 in the subsurface, quantifying rates of seepage and assessing the ambient geology to ensure minimal displacement of saline water to potable aquifers and low flux of CO2 to the atmosphere in the event of a failed storage facility. Hydrocarbon geologists routinely model subsurface fluid movement to identify migration pathways and flux rates. Petroleum geology has also identified critical pathways for trap and system failure with respect to oil and gas. Our studies of seal failure and regional flow regimes provide templates for testing CO2 behaviour in the subsurface and the likely pathways involved in storage-to-surface breaches. We consider three aspects of petroleum basin geology that interplay in the sealing of a hydrocarbon field, but within the unusual context of CO2 storage: 1) capillary entry pressure, 2) fluid pressure and 3) seal permeability. A combination of high buoyancy pressure and low interfacial tension values for fluid CO2 results in a low threshold failure for seals that typically retain methane gas. However, Darcy flow through mudrock-dominated overburden is sufficiently slow to prevent CO2 escape via the pore network. By contrast, sensitivity analysis of fracture-related flow infers that fracturing of the seal and overburden may play a significant role in storage failure and rapid vertical migration of CO2. We conclude that fracture-related migration is the most likely cause of storage-to-surface breaches on a millennial timescale, especially in regions of recent exhumation and glacial unloading. We are currently testing this hypothesis on case studies from the North Sea, UK, using seismic images of CO2

  12. Investigation of novel geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 movement during sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, G. Michael; Gasperikova, Erika

    2003-10-31

    Cost effective monitoring of reservoir fluid movement during CO{sub 2} sequestration is a necessary part of a practical geologic sequestration strategy. Current petroleum industry seismic techniques are well developed for monitoring production in petroleum reservoirs. The cost of time-lapse seismic monitoring can be born because the cost to benefit ratio is small in the production of profit making hydrocarbon. However, the cost of seismic monitoring techniques is more difficult to justify in an environment of sequestration where the process produces no direct profit. For this reasons other geophysical techniques, which might provide sufficient monitoring resolution at a significantly lower cost, need to be considered. In order to evaluate alternative geophysical monitoring techniques we have undertaken a series of numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} sequestration scenarios. These scenarios have included existing projects (Sleipner in the North Sea), future planned projects (GeoSeq Liberty test in South Texas and Schrader Bluff in Alaska) as well as hypothetical models based on generic geologic settings potentially attractive for CO{sub 2} sequestration. In addition, we have done considerable work on geophysical monitoring of CO{sub 2} injection into existing oil and gas fields, including a model study of the Weyburn CO{sub 2} project in Canada and the Chevron Lost Hills CO{sub 2} pilot in Southern California (Hoversten et al. 2003). Although we are specifically interested in considering ''novel'' geophysical techniques for monitoring we have chosen to include more traditional seismic techniques as a bench mark so that any quantitative results derived for non-seismic techniques can be directly compared to the industry standard seismic results. This approach will put all of our finding for ''novel'' techniques in the context of the seismic method and allow a quantitative analysis of the cost/benefit ratios of the newly

  13. Risk Assessment and Management for Long-Term Storage of CO2 in Geologic Formations — United States Department of Energy R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Deel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Concern about increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG and their impact on the earth's climate has grown significantly over the last decade. Many countries, including the United States, wrestle with balancing economic development and meeting critical near-term environmental goals while minimizing long-term environmental risks. One promising solution to the buildup of GHGs in the atmosphere, being pursued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL and its industrial and academic partners, is carbon sequestration—a process of permanent storage of CO2 emissions in underground geologic formations, thus avoiding CO2 release to the atmosphere. This option looks particularly attractive for point source emissions of GHGs, such as fossil fuel fired power plants. CO2 would be captured, transported to a sequestration site, and injected into an appropriate geologic formation. However, sequestration in geologic formations cannot achieve a significant role in reducing GHG emissions unless it is acceptable to stakeholders, regulators, and the general public, i.e., unless the risks involved are judged to be acceptable. One tool that can be used to achieve acceptance of geologic sequestration of CO2 is risk assessment, which is a proven method to objectively manage hazards in facilities such as oil and natural gas fields, pipelines, refineries, and chemical plants. Although probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been applied in many areas, its application to geologic CO2 sequestration is still in its infancy. The most significant risk from geologic carbon sequestration is leakage of CO2. Two types of CO2 releases are possible—atmospheric and subsurface. High concentrations of CO2 caused by a release to the atmosphere would pose health risks to humans and animals, and any leakage of CO2 back into the atmosphere negates the effort expended to sequester the CO2

  14. How CO2 Leakage May Impact the Role of Geologic Carbon Storage in Climate Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, C. A.; Deng, H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Fitts, J. P.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Among CCUS technologies (Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration), geological storage of CO2 has a large potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but confidence in its deployment is often clouded by the possibility and cost of leakage. In this study, we took the Michigan sedimentary basin as an example to investigate the monetized risks associated with leakage, using the Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage (RISCS) model. The model accounts for spatial heterogeneity and variability of hydraulic properties of the subsurface system and permeability of potential leaking wells. In terms of costs, the model quantifies the financial consequences of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere as well as the costs incurred if CO2 or brine leaks into overlying formations and interferes with other subsurface activities or resources. The monetized leakage risks derived from the RISCS model were then used to modify existing cost curves by shifting them upwards and changing their curvatures. The modified cost curves were used in the integrated assessment model - GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model), which provides policy-relevant results to help inform the potential role of CCUS in future energy systems when carbon mitigation targets and incentives are in place. The results showed that the extent of leakage risks has a significant effect on the extent of CCUS deployment. Under more stringent carbon mitigation policies such as a high carbon tax, higher leakage risks can be afforded and incorporating leakage risks will have a smaller impact on CCUS deployment. Alternatively, if the leakage risks were accounted for by charging a fixed premium, similar to how the risk of nuclear waste disposal is treated, the contribution of CCUS in mitigating climate change varies, depending on the value of the premium.

  15. Extensive CO2 Leakage From Extinct and Modern CO2 Reservoirs in New Mexico and Arizona: Evaluating the Role of Seal Bypass and Large-Volume Travertine Deposition With Implications For CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priewisch, A.; Crossey, L. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Mozley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quaternary large-volume travertine deposits in New Mexico and Arizona occur along the Rio Grande rift and on the southeastern Colorado Plateau. Travertines are natural analogues for CO2 leakage along fault systems because they form due to the degassing of CO2 from carbonic groundwater that migrates up fault systems. Travertine volumes can be used to infer integrated CO2 leakage along faults, which includes: (1) CO2 that becomes fixed in CaCO3/travertine (tons of carbon converted into tons of carbonate), (2) the amount of CO2 that degassed into the atmosphere (twice the amount of (1), based on reaction stoichiometry), (3) dissolved CO2 that is carried away with the water discharging from a spring (based on modern spring discharge and dissolved carbon content), and (4) CO2 that escapes through the soil (based on modern soil flux measurements). The total CO2 leakage (1 and 2) calculated in this study is estimated as ~6 Gt (gigatons) whereas the integrated CO2 leakage (1-4) is estimated as ~128 Gt over ~450,000 years of travertine accumulation. U-series dating of the travertines shows that the deposits formed episodically which implies that CO2 leakage occurred episodically. Better understanding of integrated CO2 leakage along fault systems is needed to better constrain global estimates of natural CO2 fluxes, and to help in risk assessment of CO2 sequestration sites designed to effectively store anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface.

  16. A multi-scale model for CO2 sequestration enhanced coalbed methane recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.X.WANG; X.R.WEI; V.RUDOLPH; C.T.WEI; Y.QIN

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-scale model to simulate the multicomponent gas diffusion and flow in bulk coals for CO2 sequestration enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The model is developed based on a bi-dispersed structure model by assuming that coal con-sists of microporous micro-particles, meso/macro-pores and open microfractures. The bi-disperse diffusion theory and the Maxwell-Stefan approach were incorporated in the model, providing an improved simulation of the CH4-CO2/CH4-N2 counter diffusion dynamics. In the model,the counter diffusion process is numerically coupled with the flow of the mixture gases occurring within macro-pores or fractures in coal so as to account for the interaction between diffusion and flow in gas transport through coals.The model was validated by both experimental data from literature and our CO2 flush tests, and shows an excellent agreement with the experiments. The results reveal that the gas diffusivities, in particular the micro-pore diffusivities are strongly concentration-dependent.

  17. Demonstration of a Reheat Combustor for Power Production With CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Chorpening; Geo. A. Richards; Kent H. Casleton; Mark Woike; Brian Willis; Larry Hoffman

    2005-10-01

    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultralow or “zero”-emissions power generation systems. In a concept proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc., nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with steam diluent. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO2 and water streams. The concentrated CO2 stream could then serve as input to a CO2 sequestration process. In this study, experimental data are reported from a full-scale combustion test using steam as the diluent in oxy-fuel combustion. This combustor represents the “reheat” combustion system in a steam cycle that uses a high and low-pressure steam expansion. The reheat combustor serves to raise the temperature of the low-pressure steam turbine inlet, similar to the reheat stage of a conventional steam power cycle. Unlike a conventional steam cycle, the reheat enthalpy is actually generated by oxy-fuel combustion in the steam flow. This paper reports on the unique design aspects of this combustor, as well as initial emissions and operating performance.

  18. Modeling the convective stability of CO2 sequestration by a discontinuous and unstably stratified density profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanstall, Taber; Hadji, Layachi

    2016-11-01

    The convective stability associated with carbon sequestration is modeled by adopting an unstably stratified basic profile having a step function density with top heavy carbon saturated layer overlying a lighter carbon free layer. The model takes into account the anisotropy in both permeability and carbon dioxide diffusion, and chemical reactions between the CO2 rich brine and host mineralogy. We carry out a linear stability analysis to derive the instability threshold parameters for a variety of CO2 boundary conditions. We solve for the minimum thickness of the carbon-rich layer at which convection sets in and quantify how its value is influenced by diffusion, anisotropy, permeability, reaction and type of boundary conditions. The discontinuity leads to convective concentration contours that have the shape of an asymmetric lens which we quantify by deriving and making use of the CO2 flux expressions at the interface. The linear problem is extended to the nonlinear regime, the analysis of which leads to the determination of a uniformly valid super critical steady solution.

  19. Aqueous mineral carbonation as a possible CO2 sequestration process. Energetic efficiency and costs. Carbon dioxide, sequestration, mineral carbonation, energy consumption, costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijgen, W.J.J.; Ruijg, G.J.; Comans, R.N.J. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmental Research, Petten (Netherlands); Witkamp, G.J. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    Aqueous mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology to reduce CO2 emissions. In this paper, the energy consumption and costs of this technology were assessed using either wollastonite (CaSiO3) or steel slag as feedstock. The major energy-consuming process steps were found to be the grinding of the feedstock and the compression of the CO2. Within ranges of experimentally investigated process conditions, optimum energetic CO2 sequestration efficiencies were 79 and 74% for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively. It was shown that the energetic performance for both feedstock might be improved up to >90% by e.g. further grinding of the feedstock and reducing the amount of process water applied. At energetically optimized process conditions, a preliminary cost estimate was made of 93 and 66 euro/ton CO2 avoided for wollastonite and steel slag, respectively (sequestration costs excluding possible capture). For wollastonite, major costs were associated with the feedstock and the electricity consumption (51 and 20 euro/ton CO2 avoided, respectively). A sensitivity analysis showed that additional influential parameters with regard to the sequestration costs include the liquid-to-solid ratio applied in the carbonation reactor and the possible commercial value of the carbonated product.

  20. LIBS Sensor for Sub-surface CO2 Leak Detection in Carbon Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinesh JAIN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring carbon sequestration poses numerous challenges to the sensor community. For example, the subsurface environment is notoriously harsh, with large potential mechanical, thermal, and chemical stresses, making long-term stability and survival a challenge to any potential in situ monitoring method. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been demonstrated as a promising technology for chemical monitoring of harsh environments and hard to reach places. LIBS has a real- time monitoring capability and can be used for the elemental and isotopic analysis of solid, liquid, and gas samples. The flexibility of the probe design and the use of fiber- optics has made LIBS particularly suited for remote measurements. The paper focuses on developing a LIBS instrument for downhole high-pressure, high-temperature brine experiments, where CO2 leakage could result in changes in the trace mineral composition of an aquifer. The progress in fabricating a compact, robust, and simple LIBS sensor for widespread subsurface leak detection is presented.

  1. Fundamental Elements of Geologic C02 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Steefel, C I

    2001-11-19

    Geologic sequestration represents a promising strategy for isolating CO{sub 2} waste streams from the atmosphere. Successful implementation of this approach hinges on our ability to predict the relative effectiveness of subsurface CO{sub 2} migration and sequestration as a function of key target-formation and cap-rock properties, which will enable us to identify optimal sites and evaluate their long-term isolation performance. Quantifying this functional relationship requires a modeling capability that explicitly couples multiphase flow and kinetically controlled geochemical processes. We have developed a unique computational package that meets these criteria, and used it to model CO{sub 2} injection at Statoil's North-Sea Sleipner facility, the world's first saline-aquifer storage site. The package integrates a state-of-the-art reactive transport simulator (NUFT) with supporting geochemical software and databases (SUPCRT92). In our Sleipner study, we have quantified--for the first time--the influence of intra-aquifer shales and aquifer/cap-rock composition on migration/sequestration balance, sequestration partitioning among hydrodynamic, solubility, and mineral trapping mechanisms, and the isolation performance of shale cap rocks. Here, we review the fundamental elements of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration in saline aquifers as revealed from model XSH of our Sleipner study; this model, unlike CSH and DSH, does not address the complicating (yet advantageous) presence of intra-aquifer shales.

  2. Impact of pressure and temperature on CO2-brine-mica contact angles and CO2-brine interfacial tension: Implications for carbon geo-sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Muhammad; Al-Yaseri, Ahmed Z; Barifcani, Ahmed; Lebedev, Maxim; Iglauer, Stefan

    2016-01-15

    Precise characterization of wettability of CO2-brine-rock system and CO2-brine interfacial tension at reservoir conditions is essential as they influence capillary sealing efficiency of caprocks, which in turn, impacts the structural and residual trapping during CO2 geo-sequestration. In this context, we have experimentally measured advancing and receding contact angles for brine-CO2-mica system (surface roughness ∼12nm) at different pressures (0.1MPa, 5MPa, 7MPa, 10MPa, 15MPa, 20MPa), temperatures (308K, 323K, and 343K), and salinities (0wt%, 5wt%, 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% NaCl). For the same experimental matrix, CO2-brine interfacial tensions have also been measured using the pendant drop technique. The results indicate that both advancing and receding contact angles increase with pressure and salinity, but decrease with temperature. On the contrary, CO2-brine interfacial tension decrease with pressure and increase with temperature. At 20MPa and 308K, the advancing angle is measured to be ∼110°, indicating CO2-wetting. The results have been compared with various published literature data and probable factors responsible for deviations have been highlighted. Finally we demonstrate the implications of measured data by evaluating CO2 storage heights under various operating conditions. We conclude that for a given storage depth, reservoirs with lower pressures and high temperatures can store larger volumes and thus exhibit better sealing efficiency.

  3. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Nakamura; C.L. Senior

    2005-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 31 March 2005 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. This report discusses results of the work pertaining to five tasks: Task 1--Supply of CO2 from Power Plant Flue Gas to Photobioreactor; Task 2--Selection of Microalgae; Task 3--Optimization and Demonstration of Industrial Scale Photobioreactor; Task 4--Carbon Sequestration System Design; and Task 5--Economic Analysis. Based on the work conducted in each task summary conclusion is presented.

  4. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  5. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-07

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  6. ENHANCING THE ATOMIC-LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF CO2 MINERAL SEQUESTRATION MECHANISMS VIA ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODELING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.V.G. Chizmeshya

    2003-12-19

    Fossil fuels currently provide 85% of the world's energy needs, with the majority coming from coal, due to its low cost, wide availability, and high energy content. The extensive use of coal-fired power assumes that the resulting CO{sub 2} emissions can be vented to the atmosphere. However, exponentially increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels have brought this assumption under critical review. Over the last decade, this discussion has evolved from whether exponentially increasing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions will adversely affect the global environment, to the timing and magnitude of their impact. A variety of sequestration technologies are being explored to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. These technologies must be both environmentally benign and economically viable. Mineral carbonation is an attractive candidate technology as it disposes of CO{sub 2} as geologically stable, environmentally benign mineral carbonates, clearly satisfying the first criteria. The primary challenge for mineral carbonation is cost-competitive process development. CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration--the conversion of stationary-source CO{sub 2} emissions into mineral carbonates (e.g., magnesium and calcium carbonate, MgCO{sub 3} and CaCO{sub 3})--has recently emerged as one of the most promising sequestration options, providing permanent CO{sub 2} disposal, rather than storage. In this approach a magnesium-bearing feedstock mineral (typically serpentine or olivine; available in vast quantities globally) is specially processed and allowed to react with CO{sub 2} under controlled conditions. This produces a mineral carbonate which (1) is environmentally benign, (2) already exists in nature in quantities far exceeding those that could result from carbonating the world's known fossil fuel reserves, and (3) is stable on a geological time scale. Minimizing the process cost via optimization of the reaction rate and degree of completion is the remaining challenge. As members of the

  7. Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection in Heterogeneous Porous media for CO2 Geological Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, P.; Farajzadeh, R.; Bruining, J.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2012-01-01

    We report a modeling and numerical simulation study of density-driven natural convection during geological CO2 storage in heterogeneous formations. We consider an aquifer or depleted oilfield overlain by gaseous CO2, where the water density increases due to CO2 dissolution. The heterogeneity of the

  8. Monitoring of CO2 geological storage based on the passive surface waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Kaoshan; Li Xiaofeng; Song Xuehang; Chen Gen; Pan Yongdong; Huang Zhenhua

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and geological storage (CCS) is one of promising technologies for greenhouse gas effect mitigation. Many geotechnical challenges remain during carbon dioxide storage field practices, among which effectively detecting CO2 from deep underground is one of engineering problems. This paper reviews monitoring techniques currently used during CO2 injection and storage. A method developed based on measuring seismic microtremors is of main interest. This method was first successfully used to characterize a site in this paper. To explore its feasibility in CO2 storage monitoring, numerical simulations were conducted to investigate detectable changes in elastic wave signatures due to injection and geological storage of CO2. It is found that, although it is effective for shallow earth profile estimation, the surface wave velocity is not sensitive to the CO2 layer physical parameter variations, especially for a thin CO2 geological storage layer in a deep underground reservoir.

  9. Assessment of basin-scale hydrologic impacts of CO2 sequestration, Illinois basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M.; Banerjee, A.; Rupp, J.; Medina, C.; Lichtner, P.; Gable, C.; Pawar, R.; Celia, M.; McIntosh, J.; Bense, V.

    2010-01-01

    Idealized, basin-scale sharp-interface models of CO2 injection were constructed for the Illinois basin. Porosity and permeability were decreased with depth within the Mount Simon Formation. Eau Claire confining unit porosity and permeability were kept fixed. We used 726 injection wells located near 42 power plants to deliver 80 million metric tons of CO2/year. After 100 years of continuous injection, deviatoric fluid pressures varied between 5.6 and 18 MPa across central and southern part of the Illinois basin. Maximum deviatoric pressure reached about 50% of lithostatic levels to the south. The pressure disturbance (>0.03 MPa) propagated 10-25 km away from the injection wells resulting in significant well-well pressure interference. These findings are consistent with single-phase analytical solutions of injection. The radial footprint of the CO2 plume at each well was only 0.5-2 km after 100 years of injection. Net lateral brine displacement was insignificant due to increasing radial distance from injection well and leakage across the Eau Claire confining unit. On geologic time scales CO2 would migrate northward at a rate of about 6 m/1000 years. Because of paleo-seismic events in this region (M5.5-M7.5), care should be taken to avoid high pore pressures in the southern Illinois basin. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Understanding CO2 Plume Behavior and Basin-Scale Pressure Changes during Sequestration Projects through the use of Reservoir Fluid Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leetaru, H.E.; Frailey, S.M.; Damico, J.; Mehnert, E.; Birkholzer, J.; Zhou, Q.; Jordan, P.D.

    2009-01-01

    Large scale geologic sequestration tests are in the planning stages around the world. The liability and safety issues of the migration of CO2 away from the primary injection site and/or reservoir are of significant concerns for these sequestration tests. Reservoir models for simulating single or multi-phase fluid flow are used to understand the migration of CO2 in the subsurface. These models can also help evaluate concerns related to brine migration and basin-scale pressure increases that occur due to the injection of additional fluid volumes into the subsurface. The current paper presents different modeling examples addressing these issues, ranging from simple geometric models to more complex reservoir fluid models with single-site and basin-scale applications. Simple geometric models assuming a homogeneous geologic reservoir and piston-like displacement have been used for understanding pressure changes and fluid migration around each CO2 storage site. These geometric models are useful only as broad approximations because they do not account for the variation in porosity, permeability, asymmetry of the reservoir, and dip of the beds. In addition, these simple models are not capable of predicting the interference between different injection sites within the same reservoir. A more realistic model of CO2 plume behavior can be produced using reservoir fluid models. Reservoir simulation of natural gas storage reservoirs in the Illinois Basin Cambrian-age Mt. Simon Sandstone suggest that reservoir heterogeneity will be an important factor for evaluating storage capacity. The Mt. Simon Sandstone is a thick sandstone that underlies many significant coal fired power plants (emitting at least 1 million tonnes per year) in the midwestern United States including the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio. The initial commercial sequestration sites are expected to inject 1 to 2 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Depending on the geologic structure and

  11. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  12. Multipoint Pressure and Temperature Sensing Fiber Optic Cable for Monitoring CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William

    2014-12-31

    This report describes the work completed on contract DE-FE0010116. The goal of this two year project was to develop and demonstrate in the laboratory a highly accurate multi-point pressure measurement fiber optic cable based on MEMS pressure sensors suitable for downhole deployment in a CO2 sequestration well. The sensor interrogator was also to be demonstrated in a remote monitoring system and environmental testing was to be completed to indicate its downhole survivability over a lengthy period of time (e.g., 20 years). An interrogator system based on a pulsed laser excitation was shown to be capable of multiple (potentially 100+) simultaneous sensor measurements. Two sensors packages were completed and spliced in a cable onto the same fiber and measured. One sensor package was subsequently measured at high temperatures and pressures in supercritical CO2, while the other package was measured prior and after being subjected to high torque stresses to mimic downhole deployment. The environmental and stress tests indicated areas in which the package design should be further improved.

  13. Trapping non-wettable fluid in porous rock: Implication to CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Yun, T.

    2013-12-01

    The residual saturation of CO2 mainly determines the effective storage capacity in geological formation whereas its transport and fate are dominated by fluid properties and pore characteristics. This experimental study evaluates the relative permeability of brine and non-wettable fluids in Berea sandstone. The surrogate fluids representing CO2 are continuously injected into the brine-saturated sandstone and the effluent is simultaneously separated to measure the residual volume. The variables under consideration include the viscosity and surface tension of injected fluids, porosity, anisotropy of rock, and injection pressure and the residual saturation of non-wettable fluids is quantified based on the proposed variables. Results highlight that the storage capacity can be readily modulated and maximized by controlling the cyclic injection, initial saturation of non-wettable fluids, and injection pressure.

  14. Co-Sequestration Geochemical Modeling: Simple Brine Solution + CO2-O2-SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verba, C.; Kutchko, B. G.; Reed, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Class H well cement (LaFarge) was exposed to supercritical CO2 to evaluate the impact of brine chemistry on the well cement. Simulated experimental downhole conditions include a pressure of 28.6 MPa and a temperature of 50oC. Brine composition was formulated from the NETL NATCARB database, resulting in a simple solution of 1 M (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2). It was determined that the brine chemistry plays a vital role in determining the degree and type of alteration of cement in carbon sequestration conditions. The implications of co-sequestration (CO2/O2/SO2 mixtures) from of oxy-fueled combustion, coal gasification and sour gas have been considered. Geochemical modeling was conducted to understand the interaction between formation brine, cement and co-contaminant gases, using a gas composition of 95.5% CO2, 4% O2, and 1.5% SO2. The modeling results are significant in determining the validity of co-sequestering coal flue gas containing SOx gases or sour hydrocarbon gas which could potentially produce pyrite or other sulfur-bearing species in the cement via mineralization trapping. Thermodynamic components of aqueous species, gases, and minerals were used to calculate the pH and mineral saturation indices using CHIM-XPT. The computed pH of the solution is 4.34. The total sulfate molality within the brine is 0.0095 M. In experimental conditions of 600 mL of brine, 0.0057 moles of sulfate will be converted into 5.7 mL of sulfuric acid. The modeling shows that an excess of 31% O2 forms, indicating that H2S from SO2 disporportionation is oxidized to sulfate, thus no gaseous H2S will form. Remaining SO2 in the experimental headspace has a predicted mole fraction is 10-46. Additional SO2 gas added to the system produces the reaction to precipitate gypsum. Additional gas reactions precipitate gypsum, anhydrite, calcite, and dolomite.

  15. Probabilistic inversion of electrical resistivity data from bench-scale experiments: On model parameterization for CO2 sequestration monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Lochbuehler, T.; Detwiler, R. L.; Linde, N.

    2013-12-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a well-established method for geophysical characterization and has shown potential for monitoring geologic CO2 sequestration, due to its sensitivity to electrical resistivity contrasts generated by liquid/gas saturation variability. In contrast to deterministic ERT inversion approaches, probabilistic inversion provides not only a single saturation model but a full posterior probability density function for each model parameter. Furthermore, the uncertainty inherent in the underlying petrophysics (e.g., Archie's Law) can be incorporated in a straightforward manner. In this study, the data are from bench-scale ERT experiments conducted during gas injection into a quasi-2D (1 cm thick), translucent, brine-saturated sand chamber with a packing that mimics a simple anticlinal geological reservoir. We estimate saturation fields by Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling with the MT-DREAM(ZS) algorithm and compare them quantitatively to independent saturation measurements from a light transmission technique, as well as results from deterministic inversions. Different model parameterizations are evaluated in terms of the recovered saturation fields and petrophysical parameters. The saturation field is parameterized (1) in cartesian coordinates, (2) by means of its discrete cosine transform coefficients, and (3) by fixed saturation values and gradients in structural elements defined by a gaussian bell of arbitrary shape and location. Synthetic tests reveal that a priori knowledge about the expected geologic structures (as in parameterization (3)) markedly improves the parameter estimates. The number of degrees of freedom thus strongly affects the inversion results. In an additional step, we explore the effects of assuming that the total volume of injected gas is known a priori and that no gas has migrated away from the monitored region.

  16. A New Method of CO2 Mineralization and Sequestration%一种CO2的矿化封存新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪志; 宋名秀; 阿不都拉江·那斯尔; 王倩; 朱维群

    2013-01-01

    针对目前CO2矿化封存的研究现状,提出了一种新的CO2矿化封存方法:利用CO2和NH3反应生成三聚氰酸固体,并考察了温度、压力、反应物配比及有无催化剂对三聚氰酸收率的影响.当反应条件为在250℃,22MPa,NH3与CO2反应配比为1∶1.4,反应8h时,最高收率可达到68.3%.此项技术能够与现在工业成熟的富氧燃烧技术联用,实现对CO2的永久性封存,具有经济效益.%In view of the present CO2 mineralization and sequestration research,a new CO2 mineralization storage method,namely using CO2 and NH3 to generate cyanuric acid solid,was proposed.The effects of temperature,pressure,reactant ratio,and presence of catalyst on the cyanuric acid yield were inspected.The highest yield was 68.3% under the following reaction conditions i.e.at 250℃ and 22MPa,NH3:CO2 =1:1.4,for reacting 8h.Combining it with oxygen-rich combustion technology,it can realize the permanent storage of carbon dioxide CO2 and also get economic benefits.

  17. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  18. Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Male, E.J.; Pickles, W.L.; Silver, E.A.; Hoffmann, G.D.; Lewicki, J.; Apple, M.; Repasky, K.; Burton, E.A.

    2009-11-01

    Hyperspectral plant signatures can be used as a short-term, as well as long-term (100-yr timescale) monitoring technique to verify that CO2 sequestration fields have not been compromised. An influx of CO2 gas into the soil can stress vegetation, which causes changes in the visible to nearinfrared reflectance spectral signature of the vegetation. For 29 days, beginning on July 9th, 2008, pure carbon dioxide gas was released through a 100-meter long horizontal injection well, at a flow rate of 300 kg/day. Spectral signatures were recorded almost daily from an unmown patch of plants over the injection with a ''FieldSpec Pro'' spectrometer by Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc. Measurements were taken both inside and outside of the CO2 leak zone to normalize observations for other environmental factors affecting the plants.

  19. Molecular simulation studies of CO2 adsorption by carbon model compounds for carbon capture and sequestration applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2013-01-02

    Effects of oxygen-containing surface functionalities on the adsorption of mixtures including CO(2)/CH(4), CO(2)/N(2), and CO(2)/H(2)O have been investigated in the current work. Together with Bader charge analysis, electronic structure calculations have provided the initial framework comprising both the geometry and corresponding charge information required to carry out statistical-based molecular simulations. The adsorption isotherms and selectivity of CO(2) from CO(2)/N(2), CO(2)/CH(4), and CO(2)/H(2)O gas mixtures were determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations at temperature/pressure conditions relevant to carbon capture and sequestration applications. The interactions between the surfaces with induced polarity and nonpolar/polar molecules have been investigated. It has been observed that, due to the induced polarity of the surface functionalization, the selectivity of CO(2) over CH(4) increases from approximately 2 to higher than 5, and the selectivity of CO(2) over N(2) increases from approximately 5 to 20, especially in the low-pressure regime. However, water vapor will always preferentially adsorb over CO(2) in carbon-based systems containing oxygen functionalized surfaces at conditions relevant to carbon capture application. Molecular simulation results indicate that the surface chemistry in micropores is tunable thereby influencing the selectivity for enhanced uptake of CO(2).

  20. Fault reactivation and seismicity risk from CO2 sequestration in the Chinshui gas field, NW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chia-Yu; Hung, Jih-Hao

    2015-04-01

    The Chinshui gas field located in the fold-thrust belt of western Taiwan was a depleted reservoir. Recently, CO2 sequestration has been planned at shallower depths of this structure. CO2 injection into reservoir will generate high fluid pressure and trigger slip on reservoir-bounding faults. We present detailed in-situ stresses from deep wells in the Chinshui gas field and evaluated the risk of fault reactivation for underground CO2 injection. The magnitudes of vertical stress (Sv), formation pore pressure (Pf) and minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) were obtained from formation density logs, repeat formation tests, sonic logs, mud weight, and hydraulic fracturing including leak-off tests and hydraulic fracturing. The magnitude of maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) was constrained by frictional limit of critically stressed faults. Results show that vertical stress gradient is about 23.02 MPa/km (1.02 psi/ft), and minimum horizontal stress gradient is 18.05 MPa/km (0.80 psi/ft). Formation pore pressures were hydrostatic at depths 2 km, and increase with a gradient of 16.62 MPa/km (0.73 psi/ft). The ratio of fluid pressure and overburden pressure (λp) is 0.65. The upper bound of maximum horizontal stress constrained by strike-slip fault stress regime (SHmax>Sv>Shmin) and coefficient of friction (μ=0.6) is about 18.55 MPa/km (0.82 psi/ft). The orientation of maximum horizontal stresses was calculated from four-arm caliper tools through the methodology suggested by World Stress Map (WMS). The mean azimuth of preferred orientation of borehole breakouts are in ~65。N. Consequently, the maximum horizontal stress axis trends in 155。N and sub-parallel to the far-field plate-convergence direction. Geomechanical analyses of the reactivation of pre-existing faults was assessed using 3DStress and Traptester software. Under current in-situ stress, the middle block fault has higher slip tendency, but still less than frictional coefficient of 0.6 a common threshold value for

  1. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements

  2. Coupled Multi-physics analysis of Caprock Integrity and Fault Reactivation during CO2 Sequestration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; Martinez, M. J.; Bishop, J.

    2012-12-01

    Structural/stratigraphic trapping beneath a low-permeable caprock layer is the primary trapping mechanism for long-term subsurface sequestration of CO2. Pre-existing fracture networks, injection induced fractures, and faults are of concern for possible CO2 leakage both during and after injection. In this work we model the effects of both caprock jointing and a fault on the caprock sealing integrity during various injection scenarios. The modeling effort uses a three-dimensional finite-element based coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics simulator. The joints within the caprock are idealized as equally spaced and parallel. Both the mechanical and flow behavior of the joint network are treated within an effective continuum formulation. The mechanical behavior of the joint network is linear elastic in shear and nonlinear elastic in the normal direction. The flow behavior of the joint network is treated using the classical cubic-law relating flow rate and aperture. The flow behavior is then upscaled to obtain an effective permeability. The fault is modeled as a finite-thickness layer with multiple joint sets. The joint sets within the fault region are modeled following the same mechanical and flow formulation as the joints within the caprock. Various injection schedules as well as fault and caprock jointing configurations within a proto-typical sequestration site have been investigated. The resulting leakage rates through the caprock and fault are compared to those assuming intact material. The predicted leakage rates are a strong nonlinear function of the injection rate. *This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-SC0001114. Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of

  3. Exergy Analysis of a Syngas-Fueled Combined Cycle with Chemical-Looping Combustion and CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Urdiales Montesino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels are still widely used for power generation. Nevertheless, it is possible to attain a short- and medium-term substantial reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere through a sequestration of the CO2 produced in fuels’ oxidation. The chemical-looping combustion (CLC technique is based on a chemical intermediate agent, which gets oxidized in an air reactor and is then conducted to a separated fuel reactor, where it oxidizes the fuel in turn. Thus, the oxidation products CO2 and H2O are obtained in an output flow in which the only non-condensable gas is CO2, allowing the subsequent sequestration of CO2 without an energy penalty. Furthermore, with shrewd configurations, a lower exergy destruction in the combustion chemical transformation can be achieved. This paper focus on a second law analysis of a CLC combined cycle power plant with CO2 sequestration using syngas from coal and biomass gasification as fuel. The key thermodynamic parameters are optimized via the exergy method. The proposed power plant configuration is compared with a similar gas turbine system with a conventional combustion, finding a notable increase of the power plant efficiency. Furthermore, the influence of syngas composition on the results is investigated by considering different H2-content fuels.

  4. Geological characterization of Italian reservoirs and numerical 3D modelling of CO2 storage scenarios into saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, S.; Moia, F.; Guandalini, R.; Cappelletti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The research activities carried out by the Environment and Sustainable Development Department of RSE S.p.A. aim to evaluate the feasibility of CO2 geological sequestration in Italy, with particular reference to the storage into saline aquifers. The identification and geological characterization of the Italian potential storage sites, together with the study of the temporal and spatial evolution of the CO2 plume within the caprock-reservoir system, are performed using different modelling tools available in the Integrated Analysis Modelling System (SIAM) entirely powered in RSE. The numerical modelling approach is the only one that allows to investigate the behaviour of the injected CO2 regarding the fluid dynamic, geochemical and geomechanical aspects and effects due to its spread, in order to verify the safety of the process. The SIAM tools allow: - Selection of potential Italian storage sites through geological and geophysical data collected in the GIS-CO2 web database; - Characterization of caprock and aquifer parameters, seismic risk and environmental link for the selected site; - Creation of the 3D simulation model for the selected domain, using the modeller METHODRdS powered by RSE and the mesh generator GMSH; - Simulation of the injection and the displacement of CO2: multiphase fluid 3D dynamics is based on the modified version of TOUGH2 model; - Evaluation of geochemical reaction effects; - Evaluation of geomechanic effects, using the coupled 3D CANT-SD finite elements code; - Detailed local analysis through the use of open source auxiliary tools, such as SHEMAT and FEHM. - 3D graphic analysis of the results. These numerical tools have been successfully used for simulating the injection and the spread of CO2 into several real Italian reservoirs and have allowed to achieve accurate results in terms of effective storage capacity and safety analysis. The 3D geological models represent the high geological complexity of the Italian subsoil, where reservoirs are

  5. Recovery Act: Multi-Objective Optimization Approaches for the Design of Carbon Geological Sequestration Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Domenico

    2013-05-31

    The main objective of this project is to provide training opportunities for two graduate students in order to improve the human capital and skills required for implementing and deploying carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies. The graduate student effort will be geared towards the formulation and implementation of an integrated simulation-optimization framework to provide a rigorous scientific support to the design CCS systems that, for any given site: (a) maximize the amount of carbon storage; (b) minimize the total cost associated with the CCS project; (c) minimize the risk of CO2 upward leakage from injected formations. The framework will stem from a combination of data obtained from geophysical investigations, a multiphase flow model, and a stochastic multi-objective optimization algorithm. The methodology will rely on a geostatistical approach to generate ensembles of scenarios of the parameters that are expected to have large sensitivities and uncertainties on the model response and thus on the risk assessment, in particular the permeability properties of the injected formation and its cap rock. The safety theme will be addressed quantitatively by including the risk of CO2 upward leakage from the injected formations as one the objectives that should be minimized in the optimization problem. The research performed under this grant is significant to academic researchers and professionals weighing the benefits, costs, and risks of CO2 sequestration. Project managers in initial planning stages of CCS projects will be able to generate optimal tradeoff surfaces and with corresponding injection plans for potential sequestration sites leading to cost efficient preliminary project planning. In addition, uncertainties concerning CCS have been researched. Uncertainty topics included Uncertainty Analysis of Continuity of Geological Confining Units using Categorical Indicator Kriging (CIK) and the Influence of Uncertain Parameters on the Leakage of CO2 to

  6. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Durrant, Marie [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­and-trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  7. Procedure to use phosphogypsum industrial waste for mineral CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Escudero, C; Morales-Flórez, V; Pérez-López, R; Santos, A; Esquivias, L

    2011-11-30

    Industrial wet phosphoric acid production in Huelva (SW Spain) has led to the controversial stockpiling of waste phosphogypsum by-products, resulting in the release of significant quantities of toxic impurities in salt marshes in the Tinto river estuary. In the framework of the fight against global climate change and the effort to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, a simple and efficient procedure for CO(2) mineral sequestration is presented in this work, using phosphogypsum waste as a calcium source. Our results demonstrate the high efficiency of portlandite precipitation by phosphogypsum dissolution using an alkaline soda solution. Carbonation experiments performed at ambient pressure and temperature resulted in total conversion of the portlandite into carbonate. The fate of trace elements present in the phosphogypsum waste was also investigated, and trace impurities were found to be completely transferred to the final calcite. We believe that the procedure proposed here should be considered not only as a solution for reducing old stockpiles of phosphogypsum wastes, but also for future phosphoric acid and other gypsum-producing industrial processes, resulting in more sustainable production.

  8. Seismicity Characterization and Monitoring at WESTCARB's Proposed Montezuma Hills Geologic Sequestration Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, T.M.; Haught, R.; Peterson, J.E.; Boyle, K.; Beyer, J.H.; Hutchings, L.R.

    2010-09-15

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), in collaboration with Shell Oil Co. performed site characterization for a potential small-scale pilot test of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The site area, know as Montezuma Hills, is near the town of Rio Vista in northern California. During the process of injection at a CO2 storage site, there is a potential for seismic events due to slippage upon pre-existing discontinuities or due to creation of new fractures. Observations from many injection projects have shown that the energy from these events can be used for monitoring of processes in the reservoir. Typically, the events are of relatively high frequency and very low amplitude. However, there are also well documented (non-CO2-related) cases in which subsurface injection operations have resulted in ground motion felt by near-by communities. Because of the active tectonics in California (in particular the San Andreas Fault system), and the potential for public concern, WESTCARB developed and followed an induced seismicity protocol (Myer and Daley, 2010). This protocol called for assessing the natural seismicity in the area and deploying a monitoring array if necessary. In this report, we present the results of the natural seismicity assessment and the results of an initial temporary deployment of two seismometers at the Montezuma Hills site. Following the temporary array deployment, the project was suspended and the array removed in August of 2010.

  9. The path to a successful one-million tonne demonstration of geological sequestration: Characterization, cooperation, and collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, R.J.; Greenberg, S.E.; Frailey, S.M.; Krapac, I.G.; Leetaru, H.E.; Marsteller, S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the Illinois Basin-Decatur USA test site for a 1 million tonne injection of CO2 into the Mount Simon Sandstone saline reservoir beginning in 2011 has been a multiphase process requiring a wide array of personnel and resources that began in 2003. The process of regional characterization took two years as part of a Phase I effort focused on the entire Illinois Basin, located in Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky, USA. Seeking the cooperation of an industrial source of CO2 and site selection within the Basin took place during Phase II while most of the concurrent research emphasis was on a set of small-scale tests of Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and CO2 injection into a coal seam. Phase III began the commitment to the 1 million-tonne test site development through the collaboration of the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) who is providing a site, the CO2, and developing a compression facility, of Schlumberger Carbon Services who is providing expertise for operations, drilling, geophysics, risk assessment, and reservoir modelling, and of the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) whose geologists and engineers lead the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC). Communications and outreach has been a collaborative effort of ADM, ISGS and Schlumberger Carbon Services. The Consortium is one of the seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships, a carbon sequestration research program supported by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy. ?? 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Final Report - "CO2 Sequestration in Cell Biomass of Chlorobium Thiosulfatophilum"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James L. Gaddy, PhD; Ching-Whan Ko, PhD

    2009-05-04

    World carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have increased at a rate of about 3 percent per year during the last 40 years to over 24 billion tons today. While a number of methods have been proposed and are under study for dealing with the carbon dioxide problem, all have advantages as well as disadvantages which limit their application. The anaerobic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum uses hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide to produce elemental sulfur and cell biomass. The overall objective of this project is to develop a commercial process for the biological sequestration of carbon dioxide and simultaneous conversion of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The Phase I study successfully demonstrated the technical feasibility of utilizing this bacterium for carbon dioxide sequestration and hydrogen sulfide conversion to elemental sulfur by utilizing the bacterium in continuous reactor studies. Phase II studies involved an advanced research and development to develop the engineering and scale-up parameters for commercialization of the technology. Tasks include culture isolation and optimization studies, further continuous reactor studies, light delivery systems, high pressure studies, process scale-up, a market analysis and economic projections. A number of anaerobic and aerobic microorgansims, both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic, were examined to find those with the fastest rates for detailed study to continuous culture experiments. C. thiosulfatophilum was selected for study to anaerobically produce sulfur and Thiomicrospira crunogena waws selected for study to produce sulfate non-photosynthetically. Optimal conditions for growth, H2S and CO2 comparison, supplying light and separating sulfur were defined. The design and economic projections show that light supply for photosynthetic reactions is far too expensive, even when solar systems are considered. However, the aerobic non-photosynthetic reaction to produce sulfate with T

  11. Microseismicity monitoring at the Decatur, IL, CO2 sequestration demonstration site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaven, J. Ole; Hickman, Stephen H.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Greenberg, Sallie

    2016-04-01

    Industrial-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) will require the injection of large volumes of CO2 into extensive undisturbed brine aquifers. Large-volume injection has the potential to induce earthquake activity (Zoback and Gorelick, 2012). To assess the seismic hazard posed by one such operation, the USGS has been monitoring seismic activity at a CCS demonstration site in Decatur, IL, where supercritical CO2 is injected into the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a basal brine formation, at a depth of about 2 km, several 10s of meters above granitic basement. During the first phase of injection, supercritical CO2 was injected at a rate of about 1000 metric tons/day from November 2011 until November 2014. The USGS monitored microseismicity using a seismic network that consists of 16 stations (4 in 500 ft boreholes). The USGS data set contains 179 locatable events and shows that the microseismicity occurs in the Mt Simon sandstone injection interval and, to a lesser degree, in the pre-Mt Simon and the Precambrian basement. Microseismicity occurs in distinct clusters at varying distances from the injection well and distance from the well does not increase systematically with time. Double difference relocations of these events reveal that these clusters tend to form linear features in both the Mt. Simon and the basement, suggesting that the microseismicity involves reactivation of preexisting fractures and faults. This finding is corroborated by composite focal mechanisms for individual clusters that are consistent with the regional horizontal principal stress orientations and right-lateral slip across the reactivated faults and fractures. Despite the injection of nearly one million tons of CO2 the largest microearthquake magnitudes barely exceeded 1 and, thus, none of these events could be felt at the surface. During the second phase, injection down a second borehole will be at a rate of about 3000 metric tons/day starting in early 2016 and continue for three years. To augment

  12. Microbial Reverse-Electrodialysis Electrolysis and Chemical-Production Cell for H2 Production and CO2 Sequestration.

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2014-03-24

    Natural mineral carbonation can be accelerated using acid and alkali solutions to enhance atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the production of these solutions needs to be carbon-neutral. A microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis and chemical-production cell (MRECC) was developed to produce these solutions and H2 gas using only renewable energy sources (organic matter and salinity gradient). Using acetate (0.82 g/L) as a fuel for microorganisms to generate electricity in the anode chamber (liquid volume of 28 mL), 0.45 mmol of acid and 1.09 mmol of alkali were produced at production efficiencies of 35% and 86%, respectively, along with 10 mL of H2 gas. Serpentine dissolution was enhanced 17-87-fold using the acid solution, with approximately 9 mL of CO2 absorbed and 4 mg of CO2 fixed as magnesium or calcium carbonates. The operational costs, based on mineral digging and grinding, and water pumping, were estimated to be only $25/metric ton of CO2 fixed as insoluble carbonates. Considering the additional economic benefits of H2 generation and possible wastewater treatment, this method may be a cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for CO2 sequestration.

  13. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-07-18

    Geologic carbon sequestration is one strategy for reducing the rate of increase of global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} ) concentrations (IEA, 1997; Reichle, 2000). As used here, the term geologic carbon sequestration refers to the direct injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} deep into subsurface target formations. These target formations will typically be either depleted oil and gas reservoirs, or brine-filled permeable formations referred to here as brine formations. Injected CO{sub 2} will tend to be trapped by one or more of the following mechanisms: (1) permeability trapping, for example when buoyant supercritical CO{sub 2} rises until trapped by a confining caprock; (2) solubility trapping, for example when CO{sub 2} dissolves into the aqueous phase in water-saturated formations, or (3) mineralogic trapping, such as occurs when CO{sub 2} reacts to produce stable carbonate minerals. When CO{sub 2} is trapped in the subsurface by any of these mechanisms, it is effectively sequestered away from the atmosphere where it would otherwise act as a greenhouse gas. The purpose of this report is to summarize our work aimed at quantifying potential CO{sub 2} seepage due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration sites. The approach we take is to present first the relevant properties of CO{sub 2} over the range of conditions from the deep subsurface to the vadose zone (Section 2), and then discuss conceptual models for how leakage might occur (Section 3). The discussion includes consideration of gas reservoir and natural gas storage analogs, along with some simple estimates of seepage based on assumed leakage rates. The conceptual model discussion provides the background for the modeling approach wherein we focus on simulating transport in the vadose zone, the last potential barrier to CO{sub 2} seepage (Section 4). Because of the potentially wide range of possible properties of actual future geologic sequestration sites, we carry out sensitivity analyses by

  14. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from aGeologic Storage Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-09

    The amounts of CO2 that would need to be injected intogeologic storage reservoirs to achieve a significant reduction ofatmospheric emissions are very large. A 1000 MWe coal-fired power plantemits approximately 30,000 tonnes of CO2 per day, 10 Mt per year(Hitchon, 1996). When injected underground over a typical lifetime of 30years of such a plant, the CO2 plume may occupy a large area of order 100km2 or more, and fluid pressure increase in excess of 1 bar(corresponding to 10 m water head) may extend over an area of more than2,500 km2 (Pruess, et al., 2003). The large areal extent expected for CO2plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered,such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape fromthe primary storage reservoir. Under most subsurface conditions oftemperature and pressure, CO2 is buoyant relative to groundwaters. If(sub-)vertical pathways are available, CO2 will tend to flow upward and,depending on geologic conditions, may eventually reach potablegroundwater aquifers or even the land surface. Leakage of CO2 could alsooccur along wellbores, including pre-existing and improperly abandonedwells, or wells drilled in connection with the CO2 storage operations.The pressure increases accompanying CO2 injection will give rise tochanges in effective stress that could cause movement along faults,increasing permeability and potential for leakage.Escape of CO2 from aprimary geologic storage reservoir and potential hazards associated withits discharge at the land surface raise a number of concerns, including(1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard whenleaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase inatmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy,eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In orderto gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address theseissues

  15. Fractionation and fluxes of metals and radionuclides during the recycling process of phosphogypsum wastes applied to mineral CO2 sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Llanes, Manuel; Pérez López, Rafael; Gázquez González, Manuel Jesús; Morales Flórez, V.; Santos, A; Esquivias, L.; Bolívar Raya, Juan Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The industry of phosphoric acid produces a calcium-rich by-product known as phosphogypsum, which is usually stored in large stacks of millions of tons. Up to now, no commercial application has been widely implemented for its reuse because of the significant presence of potentially toxic contaminants. This work confirmed that up to 96% of the calcium of phosphogypsum could be recycled for CO2 mineral sequestration by a simple two-step process: alkaline dissolution and aqueous carbonation, unde...

  16. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  17. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  18. Responses of Mycorrhizal Symbioses to Deliberate Leaks from AN Experimental CO2 Sequestration Field: the Zert Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, M. E.; Rowe, J. O.; Zhou, X.; Jewell, S.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon sequestration is a means of reducing the concentration of atmospheric CO2 . It is important to monitor carbon sequestration fields for surface detection of possible leaks of CO2 . At The Zero Emissions Research Technology (ZERT) site, CO2 is injected at 0.15 tonnes/day increased to 0.3 tonnes/day into the soil through a shallow horizontal injection well with deliberate zones of leaking CO2 , which wells up through the soil and reaches concentrations of 16% w/v. The ZERT site is an experimental facility designed for developing means of surface detection of leaking CO2 and for determining the responses of plants to very high soil CO2 . Within 1 - 2 weeks of CO2 injections, dandelions and grasses begin to form circular zones of leaf dieback called hot spots. While the hotspots are visually apparent, the responses of the underground mycorrhizal symbioses to very high soil CO2 at the ZERT site are as yet undetermined. To examine the effects of leaking CO2 on mycorrhizae, we collected soil and root samples between and at the hotspots before CO2 was injected, then inoculated the rhizosphere with mycorrhizal inoculum containing spores of Glomus and Gigaspora sp., and resampled the soil and roots after three weeks of CO2 injection. We then evaluated the samples for percent mycorrhizal colonization via the line-intercept method in cleared roots in which fungal structures were stained with India-ink. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi benefit by improved P uptake, so we hypothesize that where plants have increased anthocyanin production, a symptom of P deficiency, mycorrhizal colonization would be reduced. In previous summers of the ZERT experiments, leaves have turned red/purple with CO2 exposure, and as of August, 2012, current year leaves appear to have increased anthocyanin above hotspots. Plant roots exude organic carbon into the soil, where it is used by mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal symbioses are key in the carbon dynamics of soil and in linking the above and below

  19. Modeling ground surface uplift during CO2 sequestration: the case of In Salah, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Rutqvist, Jonny; Finsterle, Stefan; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2016-04-01

    Observable ground deformation, common in storage projects, carries useful information on processes occurring at the injection depth. The Krechba gas field at In Salah (Algeria) is one of the best known sites for studying ground surface deformation during geological storage. Being the first industrial-scale on-shore CO2 demonstration project, the site is well known for satellite-based ground-deformation monitoring data of remarkable quality. In this work, we carry out coupled fluid flow and geomechanical simulations to understand the uplift at three different CO2 injection wells (KB-501, KB-502, KB-503). Previous numerical studies focused on the KB-502 injection well, where a double-lobe uplift pattern has been observed in the ground-deformation data. The observed uplift patterns at KB-501 and KB-503 are different, but also indicate the influence of deep fracture zone mechanical responses. The current study improves the previous modeling approach by introducing an injection reservoir and a fracture zone, both responding to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. In addition, we model a stress-dependent permeability and bulk modulus, according to a dual continuum model. Mechanical and hydraulic properties were determined through inverse modeling by matching the simulated spatial and temporal evolution of uplift to the corresponding InSAR observations as well as by matching simulated and measured pressures. The numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with observed spatial and temporal variation of ground surface uplift, as well as with measured pressures. The estimated values for the parameterized mechanical and hydraulic properties are in good agreement with previous numerical results, although with uncertainty.

  20. CO2 sequestration utilizing basic-oxygen furnace slag: Controlling factors, reaction mechanisms and V-Cr concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tung-Hsin; Yang, Huai-Jen; Shau, Yen-Hong; Takazawa, Eiichi; Lee, Yu-Chen

    2016-03-01

    Basic-oxygen furnace slag (BOF-slag) contains >35% CaO, a potential component for CO2 sequestration. In this study, slag-water-CO2 reaction experiments were conducted with the longest reaction duration extending to 96hr under high CO2 pressures of 100-300kg/cm(2) to optimize BOF-slag carbonation conditions, to address carbonation mechanisms, and to evaluate the extents of V and Cr release from slag carbonation. The slag carbonation degree generally reached the maximum values after 24hr slag-water-CO2 reaction and was controlled by slag particle size and reaction temperature. The maximum carbonation degree of 71% was produced from the experiment using fine slag of ≤0.5mm under 100°C and a CO2 pressure of 250kg/cm(2) with a water/slag ratio of 5. Vanadium release from the slag to water was significantly enhanced (generally >2 orders) by slag carbonation. In contrast, slag carbonation did not promote chromium release until the reaction duration exceeded 24hr. However, the water chromium content was generally at least an order lower than the vanadium concentration, which decreased when the reaction duration exceeded 24hr. Therefore, long reaction durations of 48-96hr are proposed to reduce environmental impacts while keeping high carbonation degrees. Mineral textures and water compositions indicated that Mg-wüstite, in addition to CaO-containing minerals, can also be carbonated. Consequently, the conventional expression that only considered carbonation of the CaO-containing minerals undervalued the CO2 sequestration capability of the BOF-slag by ~20%. Therefore, the BOF-slag is a better CO2 storage medium than that previously recognized.

  1. Tagging CO2 to Enable Quantitative Inventories of Geological Carbon Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lackner, Klaus; Matter, Juerg; Park, Ah-Hyung; Stute, Martin; Carson, Cantwell; Ji, Yinghuang

    2014-06-30

    In the wake of concerns about the long term integrity and containment of sub-surface CO2 sequestration reservoirs, many efforts have been made to improve the monitoring, verification, and accounting methods for geo-sequestered CO2. Our project aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a system designed to tag CO2 with carbon isotope 14C immediately prior to sequestration to a level that is normal on the surface (one part per trillion). Because carbon found at depth is naturally free of 14C, this tag would easily differentiate pre-existing carbon from anthropogenic injected carbon and provide an excellent handle for monitoring its whereabouts in the subsurface. It also creates an excellent handle for adding up anthropogenic carbon inventories. Future inventories in effect count 14C atoms. Accordingly, we have developed a 14C tagging system suitable for use at the part-per-trillion level. This system consists of a gas-exchange apparatus to make disposable cartridges ready for controlled injection into a fast flowing stream of pressurized CO2. We built a high-pressure injection and tagging system, and a 14C detection system. The disposable cartridge and injection system have been successfully demonstrated in the lab with a high-pressure flow reactor, as well as in the field at the CarbFix CO2 sequestration site in Iceland. The laser-based 14C detection system originally conceived has been shown to possess inadequate sensitivity for ambient levels. Alternative methods for detecting 14C, such as saturated cavity absorption ringdown spectroscopy and scintillation counting, may still be suitable. KEYWORDS

  2. FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, C. J.; Zhong, Lirong; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2011-09-27

    This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, and subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When

  3. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane.

  4. Potential for CO2 sequestration and enhanced coalbed methane production in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelinck, C.N.; Schreurs, H.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ruijg, G.J.; Jansen, Daan; Pagnier, H.; Bergen, F. van; Wolf, K.-H.; Barzandji, O.; Bruining, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the technical and economic feasibility of using CO2 for the enhanced production of coal bed methane (ECBM) in the Netherlands. This concept could lead to both CO2 storage by adsorbing CO2 in deep coal layers that are not suitable for mining, as well as production of methane.

  5. Partitioning CO2 fluxes with isotopologue measurements and modeling to understand mechanisms of forest carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleska, Scott [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Davidson, Eric [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Finzi, Adrien [Boston Univ., MA (United States); Wehr, Richdard [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Moorcroft, Paul [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    1. Objectives This project combines automated in situ observations of the isotopologues of CO2 with root observations, novel experimental manipulations of belowground processes, and isotope-enabled ecosystem modeling to investigate mechanisms of below- vs. aboveground carbon sequestration at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurements Site (EMS). The proposed objectives, which have now been largely accomplished, include: A. Partitioning of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) into photosynthesis and respiration using long-term continuous observations of the isotopic composition of NEE, and analysis of their dynamics ; B. Investigation of the influence of vegetation phenology on the timing and magnitude of carbon allocated belowground using measurements of root growth and indices of belowground autotrophic vs. heterotrophic respiration (via trenched plots and isotope measurements); C. Testing whether plant allocation of carbon belowground stimulates the microbial decomposition of soil organic matter, using in situ rhizosphere simulation experiments wherein realistic quantities of artificial isotopically-labeled exudates are released into the soil; and D. Synthesis and interpretation of the above data using the Ecosystem Demography Model 2 (ED2). 2. Highlights Accomplishments: • Our isotopic eddy flux record has completed its 5th full year and has been used to independently estimate ecosystem-scale respiration and photosynthesis. • Soil surface chamber isotopic flux measurements were carried out during three growing seasons, in conjunction with a trenching manipulation. Key findings to date (listed by objective): A. Partitioning of Net Ecosystem Exchange: 1. Ecosystem respiration is lower during the day than at night—the first robust evidence of the inhibition of leaf respiration by light (the “Kok effect”) at the ecosystem scale. 2. Because it neglects the Kok effect, the standard NEE partitioning approach overestimates ecosystem photosynthesis (by ~25%) and

  6. Prospects for optimizing soil microbial functioning to improve plant nutrient uptake and soil carbon sequestration under elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, M.; Pendall, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Potential to mitigate climate change through increasing plant productivity and its carbon (C) input to soil may be limited by soil nitrogen (N) availability. Using a novel 13C-CO2 and 15N-soil dual labeling method, we investigated whether plant growth-promoting bacteria would interact with atmospheric CO2 concentration to alter plant productivity and soil C storage. We grew Bouteloua gracilis under ambient (380 ppm) or elevated CO2 (700 ppm) in climate-controlled chambers, and plant individuals were grown with or without Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculum, which can produce N catabolic enzymes. We observed that both eCO2 and P. fluorescens increased plant productivity and its C allocation to soil. P. fluorescens relative to eCO2 enhanced plant N uptake from soil organic matter, which highly correlated with soil N enzyme activities and rhizosphere exudate C. More importantly, P. fluorescens increased microbial biomass and deceased specific microbial respiration in comparison with eCO2. These results indicate that application of plant growth-promoting bacteria can increase microbial C utilization efficiency with subsequent N mineralization from soil organic matter, and may improve plant N availability and soil C sequestration. Together, our findings highlight the potential of plant growth-promoting bacteria for global change mitigation by terrestrial ecosystems.

  7. Intercomparison of numerical simulation codes for geologic disposal of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, Karsten; Garcia, Julio; Kovscek, Tony; Oldenburg, Curt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Steefel, Carl; Xu, Tianfu

    2002-11-27

    Numerical simulation codes were exercised on a suite of eight test problems that address CO2 disposal into geologic storage reservoirs, including depleted oil and gas reservoirs, and brine aquifers. Processes investigated include single- and multi-phase flow, gas diffusion, partitioning of CO2 into aqueous and oil phases, chemical interactions of CO2 with aqueous fluids and rock minerals, and mechanical changes due to changes in fluid pressures. Representation of fluid properties was also examined. In most cases results obtained from different simulation codes were in satisfactory agreement, providing confidence in the ability of current numerical simulation approaches to handle the physical and chemical processes that would be induced by CO2 disposal in geologic reservoirs. Some discrepancies were also identified and can be traced to differences in fluid property correlations, and space and time discretization.

  8. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the

  9. Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.

    2007-05-01

    Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

  10. Use of comparative assessment framework for comparison of geological nuclear waste and CO2 disposal technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streimikiene, Dalia

    2010-09-15

    Comparative assessment of few future energy and climate change mitigation options for Lithuania in 2020 performed indicated that nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine technologies are very similar energy options in terms of costs taking into account GHG emission reduction costs. Comparative assessment of these energy options requires evaluation of the potentials and costs for geological CO2 and nuclear waste storage as the main uncertainties in comparative assessment of electricity generation technologies are related with these back-end technologies. The paper analyses the main characteristics of possible geological storage of CO2 and NW options in Lithuania.

  11. Using improved technology for widespread application of a geological carbon sequestration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Kansas Geological Survey is part of an ongoing collaboration between DOE-NETL, academia, and the petroleum industry to investigate the feasibility of carbon utilization and storage in Kansas. Latest findings in the 25,000 mi2 study area in southern Kansas estimate CO2 storage capacity ranges from 8.8 to 75.5 billion metric tons in a deep Lower Orodovican-age Arbuckle saline aquifer. In addition, an estimated 100 million tonnes of CO2 could be used for extracting additional oil from Kansas' fields, making transitions to carbon management economic. This partnership has a rare opportunity to synchronize abundant, yet previously disseminated knowledge into a cohesive scientific process to optimize sequestration site selection and implementation strategies. Following a thorough characterization, a small-scale CO2 injection of 70,000 tonnes will be implemented in Wellington Field in Sumner County, including a five-plot miscible CO2-EOR flood of a Mississippian reservoir followed by the underlying Arbuckle saline aquifer. Best practices and lessons learned from the field study will improve estimates on CO2 storage capacity, plume migration models, and identify potential leakage pathways to pursue safe and effective geological carbon sequestration at commercial scales. A highly accessible and multifunctional online database is being developed throughout the study that integrates all acquired geological, physical, chemical, and hydrogeologic knowledge. This public database incorporates tens of thousands of data points into easily viewable formats for user downloads. An Interactive Project Map Viewer is a key mechanism to present the scientific research, and will delineate compartment candidates and reservoirs matching reference criteria or user defined attributes. This tool uses a familiar pan and zoom interface to filter regional project data or scale down to detailed digitized information from over 3,300 carefully selected preexisting Kansas wells. A Java-based log

  12. Pore-Level Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geologic Media: Gravity-Driven Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G. S.; Smith, D. H.; Ferer, M.

    2002-05-01

    Carbon capture with storage in geologic media has the potential to sequester a significant amount of anthropogenically-produced carbon dioxide in the upcoming decades. Underground injection of gas is already a common practice in the oil and gas industry, and injection into deep brine-saturated formations is a commercially proven method of sequestering CO2. However, before these become viable means of sequestration on a large scale, a number of questions must be answered about the ability of brine and oil fields to retain the CO2 that has been stored there. The primary methods of release of carbon dioxide from many geologic formations likely will be gravity-driven percolation. We have developed a pore-level numerical model that can be used to study the invasion of a non-wetting fluid (CO2) into a porous medium filled with wetting fluid (brine). The model incorporates a distribution of "pore-throat" radii, the formation wettability (i.e., the gas-liquid-solid contact angle), the interfacial tension between the fluids, the fluid viscosities and densities, and all other parameters that appear in the capillary pressure or the capillary, Bond, or fluid-trapping numbers. For this work, the model has been used to study gravity-driven flow upward out of brine-saturated formations (which is very similar to the downward infiltration of DNAPLs into water-saturated porous media). Results are presented which show how leakage rates depend on the amount of carbon dioxide sequestered and the average pore size of the overlying formations, as well as the density of CO2 (which will change with the depth of the formation).

  13. Variations in coal characteristics and their possible implications for CO2 sequestration: Tanquary injection site, southeastern Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, D.G.; Mastalerz, Maria; Drobniak, A.; Rupp, J.A.; Harpalani, S.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Regional Sequestration Partnership program, the potential for sequestering CO2 in the largest bituminous coal reserve in United States - the Illinois Basin - is being assessed at the Tanquary site in Wabash County, southeastern Illinois. To accomplish the main project objectives, which are to determine CO2 injection rates and storage capacity, we developed a detailed coal characterization program. The targeted Springfield Coal occurs at 274m (900ft) depth, is 2.1m (7ft) thick, and is of high volatile B bituminous rank, having an average vitrinite reflectance (Ro) of 0.63%. Desorbed Springfield Coal gas content in cores from four wells ~15 to ~30m (50 to 100ft) apart varies from 4.7-6.6cm3/g (150 to 210scf/ton, dmmf) and consists, generally, of >92% CH4 with lesser amounts of N2 and then CO2. Adsorption isotherms indicate that at least three molecules of CO2 can be stored for each displaced CH4 molecule. Whole seam petrographic composition, which affects sequestration potential, averages 76.5% vitrinite, 4.2% liptinite, 11.6% inertinite, and 7.7% mineral matter. Sulfur content averages 1.59%. Well-developed coal cleats with 1 to 2cm spacing contain partial calcite and/or kaolinite fillings that may decrease coal permeability. The shallow geophysical induction log curves show much higher resistivity in the lower part of the Springfield Coal than the medium or deep curves because of invasion by freshwater drilling fluid, possibly indicating higher permeability. Gamma-ray and bulk density vary, reflecting differences in maceral, ash, and pyrite content. Because coal properties vary across the basin, it is critical to characterize injection site coals to best predict the potential for CO2 injection and storage capacity. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. 75 FR 75059 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Injection and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 230 / Wednesday, December 1... sequestration of carbon dioxide and all other facilities that conduct injection of carbon dioxide. This rule... may determine''). These regulations will affect owners or operators of carbon dioxide (CO 2...

  15. Regulating geologic sequestration in the United States: early rules take divergent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Melisa F; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-05-01

    Regulations for geological sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been adopted in the state of Washington and proposed by the state of Kansas and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program. These three sets of rules take significantly different approaches to regulating GS of CO2. This paper compares these rules, focusing on elements where their differences highlight the choices that must be made to create a regulatory framework for GS in the United States. Consensus is emerging in some areas, but there is still substantial disagreement regarding the allowable composition of the CO2 stream, the size of the area of review, reservoir performance goals, and management of risks other than those to groundwater. Gaps include issues related to ownership of subsurface pore space, greenhouse gas accounting, and long-term stewardship. The divergent approaches of these rules raise two overarching questions: (1) Should policy makers create GS regulations by modifying and supplementing UIC rules or through new enabling legislation? (2) What should be the relative roles of state and federal governments in GS regulation? We outline trade-offs between the consistency and coordination that federal involvement could offer and the reality that states need to be heavily involved with implementation of GS regulations. We conclude that federal involvement above and beyond the proposed EPA Class VI rules is needed to create effective GS regulation in the United States.

  16. CO2地质封存机理--从实验研究角度综述%A Review of Laboratory Investigation for Mechanisms of CO2 Capture and Geologic Storage (CCGS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢健; 赵可英; 曾小雪

    2016-01-01

    CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCGS) is regarded as an effective strategy for reduction of anthropogenic carbon release and mitigation of global warming. Typical methodologies and theories regarding CCGS laboratory investigation are reviewed. The coupled physical-geochemical processes in relation to four mechanisms of CO2 geologic sequestration are introduced. Findings from core flood experiments such as relationship between CO2 saturation and permeability are included. Multiphase flow apparatus with procedures for laboratory investigation are introduced. A collection of methodologies (equations) for calculation of CCGS-related physical parameters are presented, followed by a brief introduction of petrophysical characterization and geochemical tests. Problems or research opportunities are discussed regarding the current CCGS laboratory work. The paper ends up with suggestion remarks.%CO2地质封存是减少碳排放和减缓气候变暖的一种有效措施。本文综述了CO2地质封存研究的内容、方法、手段及其相关理论和研究成果。阐述 CO2地质封存的四种碳封存机制背后的物理、地球化学过程,CO2注入试验饱和度分布和渗透率的关系等;简要介绍了岩心驱替试验装置和岩石物理分析和化学分析方法及有关参数的计算。指出现有研究存在岩心–次岩心尺度的微观实验研究和反应性迁移模拟研究不足等问题。

  17. Simulation of muon radiography for monitoring CO$_2$ stored in a geological reservoir

    CERN Document Server

    Klinger, J; Coleman, M; Gluyas, J G; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lincoln, D L; Pal, S; Paling, S M; Spooner, N J C; Telfer, S; Thompson, L F; Woodward, D

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of monitoring subsurface CO$_2$, such as repeat seismic surveys, are episodic and require highly skilled personnel to acquire the data. Simulations based on simplified models have previously shown that muon radiography could be automated to continuously monitor CO$_2$ injection and migration, in addition to reducing the overall cost of monitoring. In this paper, we present a simulation of the monitoring of CO$_2$ plume evolution in a geological reservoir using muon radiography. The stratigraphy in the vicinity of a nominal test facility is modelled using geological data, and a numerical fluid flow model is used to describe the time evolution of the CO$_2$ plume. A planar detection region with a surface area of 1000 m$^2$ is considered, at a vertical depth of 776 m below the seabed. We find that one year of constant CO$_2$ injection leads to changes in the column density of $\\lesssim 1\\%$, and that the CO$_2$ plume is already resolvable with an exposure time of less than 50 days.

  18. Effects of CO2 gas as leaks from geological storage sites on agro-ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Colls, Jeremy J; Steven, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage in geological formations has potential risks in the long-term safety because of the possibility of CO2 leakage. Effects of leaking gas, therefore, on vegetation, soil, and soil-inhabiting organisms are critical to understand. An artificial soil gassing and response...

  19. Developments since 2005 in understanding potential environmental impacts of CO2 leakage from geological storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, D.G.; Beaubien, S.E.; Blackford, J.C.; Foekema, E.M.; Lions, J.; Vittor, de C.; West, J.M.; Widdicombe, S.; Hauton, C.; Queiros, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research into the potential environmental impacts of leakage from geological storage of CO2 since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in 2005. Possible impacts are considered on onshore (including drinking water aquifers) and offshore e

  20. Monitoring CO2 invasion processes at the pore scale using geological labs on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, S; Liu, N; Diouf, A; Bernard, D; Lecoutre, C; Garrabos, Y; Marre, S

    2016-09-21

    In order to investigate at the pore scale the mechanisms involved during CO2 injection in a water saturated pore network, a series of displacement experiments is reported using high pressure micromodels (geological labs on chip - GLoCs) working under real geological conditions (25 < T (°C) < 75 and 4.5 < p (MPa) < 8). The experiments were focused on the influence of three experimental parameters: (i) the p, T conditions, (ii) the injection flow rates and (iii) the pore network characteristics. By using on-chip optical characterization and imaging approaches, the CO2 saturation curves as a function of either time or the number of pore volume injected were determined. Three main mechanisms were observed during CO2 injection, namely, invasion, percolation and drying, which are discussed in this paper. Interestingly, besides conventional mechanisms, two counterintuitive situations were observed during the invasion and drying processes.

  1. Mixotrophic Cultivation of Botryococcus Braunii for Biomass and Lipid Yields with Simultaneous CO2 Sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Pooja

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an attempt has been made to utilize glucose as a carbon source to cultivate Botyrococcusbrauniimixotrophically with CO2 inputs to achieve biomass and lipid yields along with CO2 reduction. Experiments were carried out in laboratory culture flasks using different glucose concentrations (1g/L, 1.5g/L, 2g/L, 2.5g/L, 3g/L, 3.5g/L, 4g/L, 4.5g/L and 5g/L with 6% CO2 inputs at a flow rate of 0.1vvm at different time intervals of CO2 aeration (1hr/d, 2hr/d, 4hr/d, 6hr/d, 8hr/d, 10h/d, 12h/d and 24hr/d. The maximum biomass and lipid yields of 2.43g/L and 1.29g/L respectively were obtained at the glucose concentration of 2.5g/L. On the other hand the CO2 removal efficiency reached upto 75%. Hence in the present study it was observed that the microalgaeB. bauniigrew efficiently in the mixotrophic cultivation mode utilizing the glucose and CO2 as carbon source for its growth to achieve CO2reduction and in turn it produced biomass and lipids yields efficiently.

  2. Experimental observation of permeability changes in dolomite at CO2 sequestration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M; Luhmann, Andrew J; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O; Seyfried, William E

    2014-02-18

    Injection of cool CO2 into geothermally warm carbonate reservoirs for storage or geothermal energy production may lower near-well temperature and lead to mass transfer along flow paths leading away from the well. To investigate this process, a dolomite core was subjected to a 650 h, high pressure, CO2 saturated, flow-through experiment. Permeability increased from 10(-15.9) to 10(-15.2) m(2) over the initial 216 h at 21 °C, decreased to 10(-16.2) m(2) over 289 h at 50 °C, largely due to thermally driven CO2 exsolution, and reached a final value of 10(-16.4) m(2) after 145 h at 100 °C due to continued exsolution and the onset of dolomite precipitation. Theoretical calculations show that CO2 exsolution results in a maximum pore space CO2 saturation of 0.5, and steady state relative permeabilities of CO2 and water on the order of 0.0065 and 0.1, respectively. Post-experiment imagery reveals matrix dissolution at low temperatures, and subsequent filling-in of flow passages at elevated temperature. Geochemical calculations indicate that reservoir fluids subjected to a thermal gradient may exsolve and precipitate up to 200 cm(3) CO2 and 1.5 cm(3) dolomite per kg of water, respectively, resulting in substantial porosity and permeability redistribution.

  3. Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA: A System for Biofuel Production, Wastewater Treatment, and CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan; Embaye, Tsegereda; Buckwalter, Patrick; Richardson, Tra-My; Kagawa, Hiromi; Reinsch, Sigrid; Martis, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We are developing Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA). OMEGAs are closed photo-bioreactors constructed of flexible, inexpensive, and durable plastic with small sections of semi-permeable membranes for gas exchange and forward osmosis (FO). Each OMEGA modules is filled with municipal wastewater and provided with CO2 from coastal CO2 sources. The OMEGA modules float just below the surface, and the surrounding seawater provides structural support, temperature control, and mixing for the freshwater algae cultures inside. The salinit7 gradient from inside to outside drives forward osmosis through the patches of FO membranes. This concentrates nutrients in the wastewater, which enhances algal growth, and slowly dewaters the algae, which facilitates harvesting. Thy concentrated algal biomass is harvested for producing biofuels and fertilizer. OMEGA system cleans the wastewater released into the surrounding coastal waters and functions as a carbon sequestration system.

  4. Offshore Membrane Enclosure for Growing Algai (Omega) System for Biofuel Production, Wastewater Treatment, and CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan; Embaye, Tsegereda; Buckwalter, Patrick; Richardson, Tra-My; Kagawa, Hiromi; Reinsch, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    We are developing Offshore Membrane Enclosures for Growing Algae (OMEGA). OMEGAs are closed photo-bioreactors constructed of flexible, inexpensive, and durable plastic with small sections of semi-permeable membranes for gas exchange and forward osmosis (FO). Each OMEGA modules is filled with municipal wastewater and provided with CO2 from coastal CO2 sources. The OMEGA modules float just below the surface, and the surrounding seawater provides structural support, temperature control, and mixing for the freshwater algae cultures inside. The salinity gradient from inside to outside drives forward osmosis through the patches of FO membranes. This concentrates nutrients in the wastewater, which enhances algal growth, and slowly dewaters the algae, which facilitates harvesting. The concentrated algal biomass is harvested for producing biofuels and fertilizer. OMEGA system cleans the wastewater released into the surrounding coastal waters and functions as a carbon sequestration system.

  5. CO2 Sequestration in Coalbed Methane Reservoirs: Experimental Studies and Computer Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad Sahimi; Theodore T. Tsotsis

    2002-12-15

    One of the approaches suggested for sequestering CO{sub 2} is by injecting it in coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. Despite its potential importance for CO{sub 2} sequestration, to our knowledge, CO{sub 2} injection in CBM reservoirs for the purpose of sequestration has not been widely studied. Furthermore, a key element missing in most of the existing studies is the comprehensive characterization of the CBM reservoir structure. CBM reservoirs are complex porous media, since in addition to their primary pore structure, generated during coal formation, they also contain a variety of fractures, which may potentially play a key role in CO{sub 2} sequestration, as they generally provide high permeability flow paths for both CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. In this report we present an overview of our ongoing experimental and modeling efforts, which aim to investigate the injection, adsorption and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in CBM reservoirs, the enhanced CH{sub 4} production that results, as well as the main factors that affect the overall operation. We describe the various experimental techniques that we utilize, and discuss their range of application and the value of the data generated. We conclude with a brief overview of our modeling efforts aiming to close the knowledge gap and fill the need in this area.

  6. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  7. Accelerated Carbonate Dissolution as a CO2 Separation and Sequestration Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldeira, K G; Knauss, K G; Rau, G H

    2004-02-18

    We have proposed a technique that could reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from near coastal fossil-fuel power plants using existing power plant cooling water flow rates (Rau and Caldeira, 1999; Caldeira and Rau, 2000). Preliminary cost estimates are as low as $68 per tonne C sequestered, as compared to > $170 per tonne C estimated for other approaches to CO{sub 2} separation with geologic or deep-ocean storage. Engineers at McDermott Technologies, Inc., have independently estimated the cost of our proposed technique, and came to the conclusion that our cost estimates were at the high end of the likely range. Interest has been expressed in pursuing this approach further both in Norway and in Japan. We have proved the viability of our concept using (1) bench-top laboratory experiments (Figures 1 and 2), (2) computer modeling of those experiments, (3) more sophisticated cost estimates, and (4) three-dimensional computer modeling of the consequences to global ocean chemistry (Figure 3 and 4). The climate and environmental impacts of our current, carbon intensive energy usage demands that effective and practical energy alternatives and CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies be found. As part of this effort, various means of capturing and storing CO{sub 2} generated from fossil-fuel-based energy production are being investigated (e.g. [3,4]). One of the proposed methods involves a geochemistry-based capture and sequestration process [5,6] that hydrates point-source, waste CO{sub 2} with water to produce a carbonic acid solution. This in turn is reacted and neutralized with limestone, thus converting the original CO{sub 2} gas to calcium bicarbonate in solution, the overall reaction being: CO{sub 2(g)} + H{sub 2}O{sub (l)} + CaCO{sub 3(s)} {yields} Ca{sub (aq)}{sup 2+} + 2HCO{sub 3(aq)}{sup -} The dissolved calcium bicarbonate produced is then released and diluted in the ocean where it would add minimally to the large, benign pool of these ions already present in seawater. Such a

  8. The impact of CO2 on shallow groundwater chemistry: observations at a natural analog site and implications for carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fessenden, Julianna [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kanjorski, Nancy [NON LANL; Koning, Dan [NM BUREAU OF GEOLOGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES; Pawar, Rajesh [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    In a natural analog study of risks associated with carbon sequestration, impacts of CO{sub 2} on shallow groundwater quality have been measured in a sandstone aquifer in New Mexico, USA. Despite relatively high levels of dissolved CO{sub 2}, originating from depth and producing geysering at one well, pH depression and consequent trace element mobility are relatively minor effects due to the buffering capacity of the aquifer. However, local contamination due to influx of saline waters in a subset of wells is significant. Geochemical modeling of major ion concentrations suggests that high alkalinity and carbonate mineral dissolution buffers pH changes due to CO{sub 2} influx. Analysis oftrends in dissolved trace elements, chloride, and CO2 reveal no evidence of in-situ trace element mobilization. There is clear evidence, however, that As, U, and Pb are locally co-transported into the aquifer with CO{sub 2}-rich saline water. This study illustrates the role that local geochemical conditions will play in determining the effectiveness of monitoring strategies for CO{sub 2} leakage. For example, if buffering is significant, pH monitoring may not effectively detect CO2 leakage. This study also highlights potential complications that CO{sub 2}carrier fluids, such as saline waters, pose in monitoring impacts ofgeologic sequestration.

  9. Tracing the CO2 source and migration in natural analogues from different geological contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battani, A.; Jean Luc, F.; Philippe, S.; Nadine, E.; Olivier, V.; Elodie, J.

    2009-12-01

    Naturally occurring CO2 fields allow studying long-term fluid-rock interactions, and the processes of CO2 migration, useful for the prediction of CO2 behavior in industrial storage sites. Two different provinces showing both leaking systems (hydrothermal areas) and well confined systems (stable sedimentary basins) have been studied. The first province concerns the French CO2 province of Massif Central (volcanic events, seismic activity, high geothermal gradient) and the stable Valence basin. The other study was devoted to the Basin and Range province, USA, with hydrothermal, high seismic and volcanic activity, a high geothermal gradient (Soda Springs; Idaho, Sevier basin), and the non-hydrothermal stable area of the Colorado plateau (Green River, San Rafael anticline and Springerville). The aim is to link the CO2 sources and its subsurface migration to the geological context. In hydrothermal areas, the mesured helium isotopic ratio (R/Ra) is high (close to the mantle ratio), while the CO2/3He ratios move dramatically towards crustal values. In this context, isotopic and elemental noble gas data show that the gas migrates very fast from depth. In more confined areas (natural CO2 fields), the CO2 shows a more important proportion of radiogenic gases (4He) (crustal helium isotopic ratios) and the associated CO2/3He ratios are in the MORB range, or “mantle derived”. We try to explain the apparent discrepancy between the CO2/3He and the R/Ra values in both areas. As a primary assumption, the source of CO2 could be localized in the extensional zones of high geothermal gradient with important seismicity. We suggest that the pseudotachylites formed by frictional melting associated with each seismic event supply an instantaneous crustal CO2.amount to the initial magmatic CO2. This justifies the coeval increase of the CO2/3He ratios without any significant modification in the helium isotopic ratios (instantaneous, no time for 4He production). Moreover, the contact

  10. Predictive modeling of CO2 sequestration in deep saline sandstone reservoirs: Impacts of geochemical kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balashov, Victor N.; Guthrie, George D.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Lopano, Christina L.; Rimstidt, J. Donald; Brantley, Susan L.

    2013-03-01

    One idea for mitigating the increase in fossil-fuel generated CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is to inject CO{sub 2} into subsurface saline sandstone reservoirs. To decide whether to try such sequestration at a globally significant scale will require the ability to predict the fate of injected CO{sub 2}. Thus, models are needed to predict the rates and extents of subsurface rock-water-gas interactions. Several reactive transport models for CO{sub 2} sequestration created in the last decade predicted sequestration in sandstone reservoirs of ~17 to ~90 kg CO{sub 2} m{sup -3|. To build confidence in such models, a baseline problem including rock + water chemistry is proposed as the basis for future modeling so that both the models and the parameterizations can be compared systematically. In addition, a reactive diffusion model is used to investigate the fate of injected supercritical CO{sub 2} fluid in the proposed baseline reservoir + brine system. In the baseline problem, injected CO{sub 2} is redistributed from the supercritical (SC) free phase by dissolution into pore brine and by formation of carbonates in the sandstone. The numerical transport model incorporates a full kinetic description of mineral-water reactions under the assumption that transport is by diffusion only. Sensitivity tests were also run to understand which mineral kinetics reactions are important for CO{sub 2} trapping. The diffusion transport model shows that for the first ~20 years after CO{sub 2} diffusion initiates, CO{sub 2} is mostly consumed by dissolution into the brine to form CO{sub 2,aq} (solubility trapping). From 20-200 years, both solubility and mineral trapping are important as calcite precipitation is driven by dissolution of oligoclase. From 200 to 1000 years, mineral trapping is the most important sequestration mechanism, as smectite dissolves and calcite precipitates. Beyond 2000 years, most trapping is due to formation of aqueous HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Ninety-seven percent of the

  11. Efficiency enhancement for natural gas liquefaction with CO2 capture and sequestration through cycles innovation and process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdulkarem, Abdullah

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants are energy intensive. As a result, the power plants operating these LNG plants emit high amounts of CO2 . To mitigate global warming that is caused by the increase in atmospheric CO2, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) using amine absorption is proposed. However, the major challenge of implementing this CCS system is the associated power requirement, increasing power consumption by about 15--25%. Therefore, the main scope of this work is to tackle this challenge by minimizing CCS power consumption as well as that of the entire LNG plant though system integration and rigorous optimization. The power consumption of the LNG plant was reduced through improving the process of liquefaction itself. In this work, a genetic algorithm (GA) was used to optimize a propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) LNG plant modeled using HYSYS software. An optimization platform coupling Matlab with HYSYS was developed. New refrigerant mixtures were found, with savings in power consumption as high as 13%. LNG plants optimization with variable natural gas feed compositions was addressed and the solution was proposed through applying robust optimization techniques, resulting in a robust refrigerant which can liquefy a range of natural gas feeds. The second approach for reducing the power consumption is through process integration and waste heat utilization in the integrated CCS system. Four waste heat sources and six potential uses were uncovered and evaluated using HYSYS software. The developed models were verified against experimental data from the literature with good agreement. Net available power enhancement in one of the proposed CCS configuration is 16% more than the conventional CCS configuration. To reduce the CO2 pressurization power into a well for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications, five CO2 pressurization methods were explored. New CO2 liquefaction cycles were developed and modeled using HYSYS software. One of the developed

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-07-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  13. Recovery and Sequestration of CO2 from Stationary Combustion Systems by Photosynthesis of Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2003-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started the first full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases. Aquasearch started to model the costs associated with biomass harvest from different microalgal strains. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  14. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Stephen M. Masutani

    2002-01-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report is the summary first year report covering the reporting period 1 October 2000 to 30 September 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  15. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. Miguel Olaizola; Dr. Steven M. Masutani

    2001-08-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2001 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on the component optimization work. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii initiated effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  16. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura

    2003-05-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI conducted preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae and developed a design concept for photobioreactors for biofixation of CO{sub 2} and photovoltaic power generation. Aquasearch continued their effort on characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration and preparation for pilot scale demonstration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  17. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-04-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2002 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work conducted during the previous reporting period, PSI initiated work on feasibility demonstration of direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch continued their effort on selection and characterization of microalgae suitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  18. Oceanic iron fertilization:one of strategies for sequestration atmospheric CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋金明

    2003-01-01

    Carbon cycle is connected with the most important environmental issue of Global Change.As one of the major carbon reservoirs, oceans play an important part in the carbon cycle. In recentyears, iron seems to give us a good news that oceanic iron fertilization could stimulate biological produc-tivity as CO2 sink of human-produced CO2. Oceanic iron fertilization experiments have verified thatadding iron into high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) seawaters can increase phytoplankton productionand export organic carbon, and hence increase carbon sink of anthropogenic CO2, to reduce globalwarming. In sixty days, the export organic carbon could reach 10 000 times for adding iron by modelprediction and in situ experiment, I.e. The atmospheric CO2 uptake and inorganic carbon drawdown inupper seawaters also have the same magnitude. Therefore, oceanic iron fertilization is one of the strate-gies for increasing carbon sink of anthropogenic CO2. The paper is focused on the iron fertilization, es-pecially in situ ocean iron experiments in order that the future research is more efficient.

  19. Risk assessment of geo-microbial assosicated CO2 Geological Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Higashino, H.; Mayumi, D.; Sakata, S.; Kano, Y.; Nishi, Y.; Nakao, S.

    2014-12-01

    If we maintain preferable conditions for methanogenesis archaea during geological CCS, we will be able to abate greenhouse gas emission and produce natural gas as natural energy resource at the same time. Assuming Bio-CCS site, CO2 is injected from a well for to abate greenhouse gas emission and cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes, and CH4 is produced from another well. The procedure is similar to the Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery (EOR/EGR) operation, but in Bio-CCS, the target is generation and production of methane out of depleted oil/gas reservoir during CO2 abatement. Our project aims to evaluate the basic practicability of Bio-CCS that cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes within depleted oil/gas reservoirs for geological CCS, and produce methane gas as fuel resources on the course of CO2 abatement for GHG control. To evaluate total feasibility of Bio-CCS concept, we have to estimate: CH4 generation volume, environmental impact along with life cycle of injection well, and risk-benefit balance of the Bio-CCS. We are modifying the model step by step to include interaction of oil/gas-CO2-geomicrobe within reservoir more practically and alternation of geo-microbes generation, so that we will be able to estimate methane generation rate more precisely. To evaluate impacts of accidental events around Bio-CCS reservoir, we estimated CO2 migration in relation with geological properties, condition of faults and pathways around well, using TOUGH2-CO2 simulator. All findings will be integrated in to it: cultivation condition of methanogenic geo-microbes, estimation method of methane generation quantities, environmental impacts of various risk scenarios, and benefit analysis of schematic site of Bio-CCS.

  20. The geological risks of drilling a borehole for CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Changyou; Wilkinson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    A hydrocarbon exploration borehole may be unsuccessful because the target reservoir is of low porosity, is too thin or has no seal, even when drilled in an area of well-known geology, such as the North Sea. The same geological problems could cause a new CO2 storage borehole or project to be unsuccessful, especially when drilled into a previously untried structure in a saline aquifer. As experience worldwide of developing new CO2 storage projects is limited, hydrocarbon exploration provides a useful analogue to assess both the absolute range of risk factors, and their historical occurrence. In this study, we reviewed the results of 382 unsuccessful hydrocarbon boreholes in the UK North Sea to analyse the geological risks of drilling. We found that absence of the target reservoir (19 ± 3 % of cases), low reservoir quality (16 ± 5 %) and lack of trap (16 ± 3 %) are the most significant risk for a new borehole. We suggest that boreholes drilled for CO2 storage will have a similar risk profile, even when drilled into a highly explored area such as the North Sea. From the drilling records, we estimate that the probability of a reservoir having an effective caprock is 95 ± 2%; and for any bounding faults to provide an effective seal to be 82 ± 4 %. Based on the probability data, 48 ± 8 % of subsurface structures, which appear to be suitable for CO2 storage on pre-drill prognosis, are predicted to actually be suitable for the storage of CO2. For storage sites that have been penetrated by existing boreholes, then the geological risks are greatly reduced. The most significant remaining risk is reservoir compartmentalization.

  1. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  2. Experimental investigation of geochemical and mineralogical effects of CO2 sequestration on flow characteristics of reservoir rock in deep saline aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnaweera, T D; Ranjith, P G; Perera, M S A

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between injected CO2, brine, and rock during CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers alter their natural hydro-mechanical properties, affecting the safety, and efficiency of the sequestration process. This study aims to identify such interaction-induced mineralogical changes in aquifers, and in particular their impact on the reservoir rock's flow characteristics. Sandstone samples were first exposed for 1.5 years to a mixture of brine and super-critical CO2 (scCO2), then tested to determine their altered geochemical and mineralogical properties. Changes caused uniquely by CO2 were identified by comparison with samples exposed over a similar period to either plain brine or brine saturated with N2. The results show that long-term reaction with CO2 causes a significant pH drop in the saline pore fluid, clearly due to carbonic acid (as dissolved CO2) in the brine. Free H(+) ions released into the pore fluid alter the mineralogical structure of the rock formation, through the dissolution of minerals such as calcite, siderite, barite, and quartz. Long-term CO2 injection also creates a significant CO2 drying-out effect and crystals of salt (NaCl) precipitate in the system, further changing the pore structure. Such mineralogical alterations significantly affect the saline aquifer's permeability, with important practical consequences for the sequestration process.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL OF ULTRAMAFIC ROCKS IN CHINA%中国超基性岩封存CO2的潜力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛雪芬; 季峻峰; 陈骏

    2011-01-01

    大气CO浓度上升引起的气候效应正受到国际社会的高度关注.超基性岩石与CO反应可生成稳定的碳酸盐矿物而永久性地固定CO,有效地降低人类活动排放到大气中CO浓度,从而缓解日趋严重的温室效应带来的全球气候恶化.根据各省记载的超基性岩体的岩石学、地球化学资料,按照公式:T=1/3·a·t·r·d·(1-φ)计算,对各省市自治区的CO封存量进行了详细统计和评估.计算表明,中国超基性岩封存CO的潜力巨大,总封存量可达13.02×10CO,约为2008年全国CO总排放量的1887倍.其中超过11.55×10t CO的封存量(占全国总量的89%)在西藏和新疆地区,其他地区占全国的11%,总量达到1.46x10tCO,相当于2008年全国总排放量的212倍,因此具有较高的碳封存潜力.由于各省工业产业结构分布的不均匀导致CO排放量有着很大的差异,因此利用超基性岩封存CO的潜力相差悬殊.东南沿海和华南地区等经济发达地区相对封存储量较少,应考虑其他方式来封存.%The global is facing a major challenge due to anthropogenic CO2 emission from the utilization of fossil fuels.Ultra-mafic rock storage is potential to reduce the atmospheric CO2 ,with high reactivity to form carbonates leading to a very stable sequestration, eventually to relief the increasingly dangerous global warming originating from the greenhouse effect.After the statistics on the data of petrology and geochemistry of the ultra-mafic rocks recorded in the regional geology of 27 provinces in China,we used the equation: T= 1/3 · a · t · r · d · (1-φ)( T is the potential CO2 storage capacity sequestrating in the ultra-mafic rocks; a is the area of the ultra-mafic rock outcrops; t is the estimated depth of the ultra-mafic rocks; r is how much CO2 can be consumed by 1 t peridotite or 1 t serpentine,which is 0. 63 t and 0. 46 t respectively; d is the densities of the ultra-mafic rocks, peridotite is 3.4g/mi3 and serpentine is

  4. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide.

  5. Southern Adriatic Sea as a Potential Area for CO2 Geological Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpi V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Adriatic Sea is one of the five prospective areas for CO2 storage being evaluated under the three year (FP7 European SiteChar project dedicated to the characterization of European CO2 storage sites. The potential reservoir for CO2 storage is represented by a carbonate formation, the wackstones and packstones of the Scaglia Formation (Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene. In this paper, we present the geological characterization and the 3D modeling that led to the identification of three sites, named Grazia, Rovesti and Grifone, where the Scaglia Formation, with an average thickness of 50 m, reveals good petrophysical characteristics and is overlain by an up to 1 200 thick caprock. The vicinity of the selected sites to the Enel - Federico II power plant (one of the major Italian CO2 emittor where a pilot plant for CO2 capture has been already started in April 2010, represents a good opportunity to launch the first Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS pilot project in Italy and to apply this technology at industrial level, strongly contributing at the same time at reducing the national CO2 emissions.

  6. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research and education center for Michigan, implemented through the Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education, part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, David A. [Western Michigan University; Harrison, William B. [Western Michigan University

    2014-01-28

    The Michigan Geological Repository for Research and Education (MGRRE), part of the Department of Geosciences at Western Michigan University (WMU) at Kalamazoo, Michigan, established MichCarb—a geological carbon sequestration resource center by: • Archiving and maintaining a current reference collection of carbon sequestration published literature • Developing statewide and site-specific digital research databases for Michigan’s deep geological formations relevant to CO2 storage, containment and potential for enhanced oil recovery • Producing maps and tables of physical properties as components of these databases • Compiling all information into a digital atlas • Conducting geologic and fluid flow modeling to address specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery, including compiling data for geological and fluid flow models, formulating models, integrating data, and running the models; applying models to specific predictive uses of CO2 storage and enhanced oil recovery • Conducting technical research on CO2 sequestration and enhanced oil recovery through basic and applied research of characterizing Michigan oil and gas and saline reservoirs for CO2 storage potential volume, injectivity and containment. Based on our research, we have concluded that the Michigan Basin has excellent saline aquifer (residual entrapment) and CO2/Enhanced oil recovery related (CO2/EOR; buoyant entrapment) geological carbon sequestration potential with substantial, associated incremental oil production potential. These storage reservoirs possess at least satisfactory injectivity and reliable, permanent containment resulting from associated, thick, low permeability confining layers. Saline aquifer storage resource estimates in the two major residual entrapment, reservoir target zones (Lower Paleozoic Sandstone and Middle Paleozoic carbonate and sandstone reservoirs) are in excess of 70-80 Gmt (at an overall 10% storage efficiency factor; an approximately

  7. Microbial characterization of basalt formation waters targeted for geological carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavalleur, Heather J; Colwell, Frederick S

    2013-07-01

    Geological carbon sequestration in basalts is a promising solution to mitigate carbon emissions into the Earth's atmosphere. The Wallula pilot well in Eastern Washington State, USA provides an opportunity to investigate how native microbial communities in basalts are affected by the injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into deep, alkaline formation waters of the Columbia River Basalt Group. Our objective was to characterize the microbial communities at five depth intervals in the Wallula pilot well prior to CO2 injection to establish a baseline community for comparison after the CO2 is injected. Microbial communities were examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to enumerate bacterial cells and 454 pyrosequencing to compare and contrast the diversity of the native microbial communities. The deepest depth sampled contained the greatest amount of bacterial biomass, as well as the highest bacterial diversity. The shallowest depth sampled harbored the greatest archaeal diversity. Pyrosequencing revealed the well to be dominated by the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria, with microorganisms related to hydrogen oxidizers (Hydrogenophaga), methylotrophs (Methylotenera), methanotrophs (Methylomonas), iron reducers (Geoalkalibacter), sulfur oxidizers (Thiovirga), and methanogens (Methermicocccus). Thus, the Wallula pilot well is composed of a unique microbial community in which hydrogen and single-carbon compounds may play a significant role in sustaining the deep biosphere.

  8. Development of an Intelligent Monitoring System for Geological Carbon Sequestration (GCS) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. Y.; Jeong, H.; Xu, W.; Hovorka, S. D.; Zhu, T.; Templeton, T.; Arctur, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    To provide stakeholders timely evidence that GCS repositories are operating safely and efficiently requires integrated monitoring to assess the performance of the storage reservoir as the CO2 plume moves within it. As a result, GCS projects can be data intensive, as a result of proliferation of digital instrumentation and smart-sensing technologies. GCS projects are also resource intensive, often requiring multidisciplinary teams performing different monitoring, verification, and accounting (MVA) tasks throughout the lifecycle of a project to ensure secure containment of injected CO2. How to correlate anomaly detected by a certain sensor to events observed by other devices to verify leakage incidents? How to optimally allocate resources for task-oriented monitoring if reservoir integrity is in question? These are issues that warrant further investigation before real integration can take place. In this work, we are building a web-based, data integration, assimilation, and learning framework for geologic carbon sequestration projects (DIAL-GCS). DIAL-GCS will be an intelligent monitoring system (IMS) for automating GCS closed-loop management by leveraging recent developments in high-throughput database, complex event processing, data assimilation, and machine learning technologies. Results will be demonstrated using realistic data and model derived from a GCS site.

  9. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  10. Direct gas-solid carbonation kinetics of steel slag and the contribution to in situ sequestration of flue gas CO(2) in steel-making plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo; Chen, Xuejing; Yan, Feng; Li, Kaimin

    2013-12-01

    Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag under various operational conditions was investigated to determine the sequestration of the flue gas CO2 . X-ray diffraction analysis of steel slag revealed the existence of portlandite, which provided a maximum theoretical CO2 sequestration potential of 159.4 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) as calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The carbonation reaction occurred through a fast kinetically controlled stage with an activation energy of 21.29 kJ mol(-1) , followed by 10(3) orders of magnitude slower diffusion-controlled stage with an activation energy of 49.54 kJ mol(-1) , which could be represented by a first-order reaction kinetic equation and the Ginstling equation, respectively. Temperature, CO2 concentration, and the presence of SO2 impacted on the carbonation conversion of steel slag through their direct and definite influence on the rate constants. Temperature was the most important factor influencing the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag in terms of both the carbonation conversion and reaction rate. CO2 concentration had a definite influence on the carbonation rate during the kinetically controlled stage, and the presence of SO2 at typical flue gas concentrations enhanced the direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag. Carbonation conversions between 49.5 % and 55.5 % were achieved in a typical flue gas at 600 °C, with the maximum CO2 sequestration amount generating 88.5 kg CO 2 tslag (-1) . Direct gas-solid carbonation of steel slag showed a rapid CO2 sequestration rate, high CO2 sequestration amounts, low raw-material costs, and a large potential for waste heat utilization, which is promising for in situ carbon capture and sequestration in the steel industry.

  11. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able to reduce the gap between the field and lab rates by about two orders of magnitude at elevated temperatures of 200-300 oC. Currently, we are using Si isotopes as a new tool to unravel the coupled reactions in ambient temperature laboratory experiments. These new experimental data, together with coupled reactive mass transport modeling

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Takashi Nakamura

    2003-09-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2003 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, PSI delivered its coal reactor to Aquasearch. Aquasearch and PSI continued preparation work on direct feeding of coal combustion gas to microalgae. Aquasearch started their effort on economic analyses of commercial scale photobioreactor. University of Hawaii continued effort on system optimization of the CO{sub 2} sequestration system.

  13. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi Nakamura

    2004-11-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 April to 30 June 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run further, pilot and full scale, carbon sequestration tests with actual propane combustion gases utilizing two different strains of microalgae. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns. Aquasearch also tested an alternative cell separation technology. University of Hawaii performed experiments at the Mera Pharmaceuticals facility in Kona in mid June to obtain data on the carbon venting rate out of the photobioreactor; gas venting rates were measured with an orifice flow meter and gas samples were collected for GC analysis to determine the carbon content of the vented gases.

  14. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2005-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 October to 31 December 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  15. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashi Nakamura; Miguel Olaizola; Stephen M. Masutani

    2004-12-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 July to 30 September 2004 in which PSI, Aquasearch and University of Hawaii conducted their tasks. Based on the work during the previous reporting period, Aquasearch run the first set of experiments with actual coal combustion gases with two different strains of microalgae. In addition further, full scale carbon sequestration tests with propane combustion gases were conducted. Aquasearch continued testing modifications to the coal combustor to allow for longer-term burns.

  16. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on ""CO2 sequestration geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lumley, David [U. W. AUSTRALIA; Sherlock, Don [CHEVRON; Daley, Tom [LBNL; Lawton, Don [U CALGARY; Masters, Ron [SHELL; Verliac, Michel [SCHLUMBERGER; White, Don [GEOL. SURVEY CANADA

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on 'CO{sub 2} Sequestration Geophysics' was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier. Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO{sub 2} sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  17. 3D seismic analysis of the Collyhurst Sandstone: implications for CO2 sequestration in the East Irish Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Davide; Williams, John; Kirk, Karen; Gent, Christopher; Bentham, Michelle; Fellgett, Mark; Schofield, David

    2016-04-01

    orientation of 155±10°. Under the regional stress conditions, east dipping faults show the highest slip tendencies and leakage risk, especially when present within shallower structures. The highest storage potential for the Collyhurst Sandstone Formation is observed within the basin grabens where its greater depth of occurrence favours the injection of supercritical CO2 and mitigates the risk of geomechanically-induced fault leakage. The results of this work further expand the understanding of prospective areas for CO2 sequestration in the East Irish Sea Basin in locations where the primary Sherwood Sandstone Formation is either too shallow, discontinuous or eroded.

  18. Experimental investigation of injectivity alteration due to salt precipitation during CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeddizahed, Javad; Rostami, Behzad

    2016-10-01

    Injection of CO2 into saline aquifers causes the geochemical reaction of rock-fluid and salt precipitation due to the evaporation of water as a physical process. Well injectivity is an important issue in carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects because large volumes of CO2 must be stored for a long time and salt precipitation can significantly reduce injectivity by reducing the permeability. The impact of salt precipitation on the injectivity must therefore be specified in order to maintain the security of CCS projects and enable them to perform at a high level of practicality. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the injection rate and brine salinity on injectivity reduction due to evaporation and salt precipitation. In this study, we injected supercritical CO2 into a sandstone rock sample fully saturated with NaCl brine to characterize the salt precipitation induced by the evaporation process. Evaporation is investigated by mass measurement of the water and vapor produced. The extension in time of salt precipitation and the precipitation profile are analyzed by drying rate measurement, Capillary number and Peclet number. The consequences of salt precipitation on injectivity are specified by permeability and relative permeability analysis. The results show that a high drying rate in the early stage of injection induces rapid salt precipitation. The level of salt precipitation increases with salinity, within a permeability reduction range of 21-66%, and decreases with the injection rate, within a permeability reduction range of 43-62%. The relative permeability of CO2 is affected by both the injection rate and salinity.

  19. CO2地质储存的地震监测%A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF SEISMIC MONITORING IN CO2 GEOLOGICAL STORAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由荣军; 李德春; 武俊文

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the basic idea of isolation technology of CO2and the main mode of isolation of CO2. On such a basis, the authors proposed the feasibility of seam separation and isolation of the mechanism for CO, and analyzed the key research questions and research ideas of geological storage of CO2 in seam, with emphasis placed on the availability of seismic monitoring in CO2 storage.%主要阐述了CO2隔离技术的基本思路和CO2地中隔离的主要方式,在此基础上提出了CO2煤层中隔离的可行性和隔离机制的分析方法,分析了CO2地质储存的重点研究问题及研究思路,评价了地震监测方法在CO2地质储存检测中的有效性.

  20. Mixing and trapping of dissolved CO2 in deep geologic formations with shale layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agartan, Elif; Cihan, Abdullah; Illangasekare, Tissa H.; Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2017-07-01

    For dissolution trapping, the spatial variability of the geologic properties of naturally complex storage formations can significantly impact flow patterns and storage mechanisms of dissolved CO2. The significance of diffusive mixing that occurs in low permeability layers embedded between relatively higher permeability materials was highlighted by Agartan et al. (2015) using a highly controlled laboratory experimental study on trapping of dissolved CO2 in multilayered systems. In this paper, we present a numerical modeling study on the impacts of low permeability layers on flow and storage of dissolved CO2 in realistic field-scale settings. The simulator of variable-density flow used in this study was first verified using the experimental data in Agartan et al. (2015) to capture the observed processes. The simulator was then applied to a synthetic, field-scale multilayered system, with 19 sensitivity cases having variable permeability and thickness of the shale layers as well as the source strength and geometry of the source zone of dissolved CO2. Simulation results showed that the presence of continuous shale layers in the storage system disrupts the convective mixing by enhancing lateral spreading of dissolved CO2 in sandstone layers and retarding the vertical mixing of dissolved CO2. The effectiveness of trapping of dissolved CO2 depends on the physical properties of the shale layers and configurations of the source zone. The comparison to homogeneous cases with effective vertical permeability shows that it is important to capture these continuous thin shale layers in a storage formation and include them in the models to enhance dissolution trapping.

  1. Study the effect of reservoir spatial heterogeneity on CO2 sequestration under an uncertainty quantification (UQ) software framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Hou, J.; Engel, D.; Lin, G.; Yin, J.; Han, B.; Fang, Z.; Fountoulakis, V.

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we introduce an uncertainty quantification (UQ) software framework for carbon sequestration, with the focus of studying being the effect of spatial heterogeneity of reservoir properties on CO2 migration. We use a sequential Gaussian method (SGSIM) to generate realizations of permeability fields with various spatial statistical attributes. To deal with the computational difficulties, we integrate the following ideas/approaches: 1) firstly, we use three different sampling approaches (probabilistic collocation, quasi-Monte Carlo, and adaptive sampling approaches) to reduce the required forward calculations while trying to explore the parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty; 2) secondly, we use eSTOMP as the forward modeling simulator. eSTOMP is implemented using the Global Arrays toolkit (GA) that is based on one-sided inter-processor communication and supports a shared memory programming style on distributed memory platforms. It provides highly-scalable performance. It uses a data model to partition most of the large scale data structures into a relatively small number of distinct classes. The lower level simulator infrastructure (e.g. meshing support, associated data structures, and data mapping to processors) is separated from the higher level physics and chemistry algorithmic routines using a grid component interface; and 3) besides the faster model and more efficient algorithms to speed up the forward calculation, we built an adaptive system infrastructure to select the best possible data transfer mechanisms, to optimally allocate system resources to improve performance, and to integrate software packages and data for composing carbon sequestration simulation, computation, analysis, estimation and visualization. We will demonstrate the framework with a given CO2 injection scenario in a heterogeneous sandstone reservoir.

  2. Influence of SO2 in incineration flue gas on the sequestration of CO2 by municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Jiang; Sicong Tian; Chang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CO2 content and presence of SO2 on the sequestration of CO2 by municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was studied by investigating the carbonation reaction of MSWI fly ash with different combinations of simulated flue gas.The reaction between fly ash and 100% CO2 was relatively fast; the uptake of CO2 reached 87 g CO2/kg ash,and the sequestered CO2 could be entirely released at high temperatures.When CO2 content was reduced to 12%,the reaction rate decreased; the uptake fell to 41 g CO2/kg ash,and 70.7% of the sequestered CO2 could be released.With 12% CO2 in the presence of SO2,the reaction rate significantly decreased; the uptake was just 17 g CO2/kg ash,and only 52.9% of the sequestered CO2 could be released.SO2 in the simulated gas restricted the ability of fly ash to sequester CO2 because it blocked the pores of the ash.

  3. CO2 sequestration in feldspar-rich sandstone: Coupled evolution of fluid chemistry, mineral reaction rates, and hydrogeochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutolo, Benjamin M.; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Kong, Xiang-Zhao; Saar, Martin O.; Seyfried, William E.

    2015-07-01

    To investigate CO2 Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) in sandstones, we performed three 150 °C flow-through experiments on K-feldspar-rich cores from the Eau Claire formation. By characterizing fluid and solid samples from these experiments using a suite of analytical techniques, we explored the coupled evolution of fluid chemistry, mineral reaction rates, and hydrogeochemical properties during CO2 sequestration in feldspar-rich sandstone. Overall, our results confirm predictions that the heightened acidity resulting from supercritical CO2 injection into feldspar-rich sandstone will dissolve primary feldspars and precipitate secondary aluminum minerals. A core through which CO2-rich deionized water was recycled for 52 days decreased in bulk permeability, exhibited generally low porosity associated with high surface area in post-experiment core sub-samples, and produced an Al hydroxide secondary mineral, such as boehmite. However, two samples subjected to ∼3 day single-pass experiments run with CO2-rich, 0.94 mol/kg NaCl brines decreased in bulk permeability, showed generally elevated porosity associated with elevated surface area in post-experiment core sub-samples, and produced a phase with kaolinite-like stoichiometry. CO2-induced metal mobilization during the experiments was relatively minor and likely related to Ca mineral dissolution. Based on the relatively rapid approach to equilibrium, the relatively slow near-equilibrium reaction rates, and the minor magnitudes of permeability changes in these experiments, we conclude that CCUS systems with projected lifetimes of several decades are geochemically feasible in the feldspar-rich sandstone end-member examined here. Additionally, the observation that K-feldspar dissolution rates calculated from our whole-rock experiments are in good agreement with literature parameterizations suggests that the latter can be utilized to model CCUS in K-feldspar-rich sandstone. Finally, by performing a number of reactive

  4. Development of a CO2 Sequestration Module by Integrating Mineral Activation and Aqueous Carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Alexander; Parvana Aksoy; John Andresen; Mercedes Maroto-Valer; Harold Schobert

    2006-08-14

    Mineral carbonation is a promising concept for permanent CO{sub 2} sequestration due to the vast natural abundance of the raw materials and the permanent storage of CO{sub 2} in solid form as carbonates. The sequestration of CO{sub 2} through the employment of magnesium silicates--olivine and serpentine--is beyond the proof of concept stage. For the work done in this project, serpentine was chosen as the feedstock mineral due to its abundance and availability. Although the reactivity of olivine is greater than that of serpentine, physical and chemical treatments have been shown to increase greatly the reactivity of serpentine. The primary drawback to mineral carbonation is reaction kinetics. To accelerate the carbonation, aqueous processes are preferred, where the minerals are first dissolved in solution. In aqueous carbonation, the key step is the dissolution rate of the mineral, where the mineral dissolution reaction is likely to be surface-controlled. The relatively low reactivity of serpentine has warranted research into physical and chemical treatments that have been shown to greatly increase its reactivity. The use of sulfuric acid as an accelerating medium for the removal of magnesium from serpentine has been investigated. To accelerate the dissolution process, the mineral can be ground to very fine particle size, <37 {micro}m, but this is a very energy-intensive process. Previous work in our laboratory showed that chemical surface activation helps to dissolve magnesium from the serpentine (of particle size {approx} 100 {micro}m) and that the carbonation reaction can be conducted under mild conditions (20 C and 4.6 MPa) compared to previous studies that required >185 C, >13 MPa, and <37 {micro}m particle size. This work also showed that over 70% of the magnesium can be extracted at ambient temperature, leaving an amorphous silica with surface area of about 330 m{sup 2}/g. The overall objective of this research program is to optimize the active carbonation

  5. Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-09-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) has been proposed as a viable strategy to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission; however, the increased cost that will be incurred by fossil energy production facilities is a deterrent to implementation of this technology. Allowing impurities in the effluent CO2 stream could result in significant financial and energy savings for CO2 capture and separation. However, impurities such as O2 have the potential to influence the redox state and alter the geochemical interactions that occur within GCS reservoirs, which increases the concern for CO2 and brine leakage from the storage reservoir as well as the overlying groundwater contamination. In this work, to investigate the impact of O2 co-injected with CO2 on the geochemical interactions, especially the trace metal mobilization from a GCS reservoir rock, batch studies were conducted with Eau Claire siltstone collected from CO2 sequestration sites. The rock was reacted with synthetic brines in contact with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 95 mole% CO2-5 mole% O2 at 10.1 MPa and 75 °C. Both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, including 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and chemical extraction were combined in this study to investigate reaction mechanisms. The Eau Claire siltstone contains quartz (52 wt%), fluorapatite (40%), and aluminosilicate (5%) as major components, and dolomite (2%), pyrite (1%), and small-particle-/poorly-crystalline Fe-oxides as minor components. With the introduction of CO2 into the reaction vessel containing rock and brine, the leaching of small amounts of fluorapatite, aluminosilicate, and dolomite occurred. Trace metals of environmental concern, including Pb, As, Cd, and Cu were detected in the leachate with concentrations up to 400 ppb in the CO2-brine-rock reaction system within 30 days. In the presence of O2

  6. Shale-Gas Experience as an Analog for Potential Wellbore Integrity Issues in CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, James W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simpson, Wendy S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ziock, Hans-Joachim [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Shale-gas development in Pennsylvania since 2003 has resulted in about 19 documented cases of methane migration from the deep subsurface (7,0000) to drinking water aquifers, soils, domestic water wells, and buildings, including one explosion. In all documented cases, the methane leakage was due to inadequate wellbore integrity, possibly aggravated by hydrofracking. The leakage of methane is instructive on the potential for CO{sub 2} leakage from sequestration operations. Although there are important differences between the two systems, both involve migrating, buoyant gas with wells being a primary leakage pathway. The shale-gas experience demonstrates that gas migration from faulty wells can be rapid and can have significant impacts on water quality and human health and safety. Approximately 1.4% of the 2,200 wells drilled into Pennsylvania's Marcellus Formation for shale gas have been implicated in methane leakage. These have resulted in damage to over 30 domestic water supplies and have required significant remediation via well repair and homeowner compensation. The majority of the wellbore integrity problems are a result of over-pressurization of the wells, meaning that high-pressure gas has migrated into an improperly protected wellbore annulus. The pressurized gas leaks from the wellbore into the shallow subsurface, contaminating drinking water or entering structures. The effects are localized to a few thousands of feet to perhaps two-three miles. The degree of mixing between the drinking water and methane is sufficient that significant chemical impacts are created in terms of elevated Fe and Mn and the formation of black precipitates (metal sulfides) as well as effervescing in tap water. Thus it appears likely that leaking CO{sub 2} could also result in deteriorated water quality by a similar mixing process. The problems in Pennsylvania highlight the critical importance of obtaining background data on water quality as well as on problems associated with

  7. CO2 Sequestration by Spirulina Platensis%钝顶螺旋藻固定二氧化碳效率的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 张涛; 童丹

    2015-01-01

    Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer was used to evaluate the efficiency of CO 2 sequestration by the blue green alga Spirulina platensis in a closed photobioreactor cascade.It was found that Sp .plat-ensis culture emitted large quantity of CO 2 in the first a few days of the experiments,and then started CO 2 sequestration process.The emission of CO 2 was,presumably,caused by the combination of high concen-tration of NaHCO 3 and a pH value below 10.During theCO 2 sequestration process,the single photobiore-actor only assimilated ~ 40% of atmospheric CO 2 .Sp .platensis grew normally in this photobioreactor cascade with an average productivity of 0.14 g/L/d.The technology method provides a theoretical basis for purifing a high concentration of CO 2 in the coal-fired industries,and it can also achieve a high economic value of Spirulina products.Therefore,CO 2 sequestration by Spirulina is of great significance in the en-ergy industry,environmental protection and recycling economy.%采用气质联用仪测量 CO 2浓度,研究户外密闭条件下钝顶螺旋藻固定 CO 2的情况.实验结果表明,培养基中 NaHCO 3浓度较高及 pH 低于10时,试验第0~3天有大量 CO 2从培养基中溢出,之后藻液开始固定空气中CO 2.整个自制光生物反应器固定 CO 2量约为326 mg/(L.d),而单一反应器藻液固定 CO 2效率约为40%,其平均增重约0.14 g/(L.d).该技术能为净化燃煤工业废气中高浓度 CO 2提供理论依据,同时还可获得高经济价值的螺旋藻产品.

  8. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

    2001-05-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period 1 January to 31 March 2001 in which Aquasearch tested 24 different species of microalgae for growth at three different temperatures. Eleven species were analyzed for the presence of high-value pigments. Most of the algae analyzed were good sources of industrially valuable pigments. Analysis of the methods for introducing and dissolving CO{sub 2} in the commercial bioreactor was begun this quarter.

  9. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES TASK 4, BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha L. Rollins; Les Reardon; David Nichols; Patrick Lee; Millicent Moore; Mike Crim; Robert Luttrell; Evan Hughes

    2002-06-01

    Biomass derived energy currently accounts for about 3 quads of total primary energy use in the United States. Of this amount, about 0.8 quads are used for power generation. Several biomass energy production technologies exist today which contribute to this energy mix. Biomass combustion technologies have been the dominant source of biomass energy production, both historically and during the past two decades of expansion of modern biomass energy in the U. S. and Europe. As a research and development activity, biomass gasification has usually been the major emphasis as a method of more efficiently utilizing the energy potential of biomass, particularly wood. Numerous biomass gasification technologies exist today in various stages of development. Some are simple systems, while others employ a high degree of integration for maximum energy utilization. The purpose of this study is to conduct a technical and economic comparison of up to three biomass gasification technologies, including the carbon dioxide emissions reduction potential of each. To accomplish this, a literature search was first conducted to determine which technologies were most promising based on a specific set of criteria. The technical and economic performances of the selected processes were evaluated using computer models and available literature. Using these results, the carbon sequestration potential of the three technologies was then evaluated. The results of these evaluations are given in this final report.

  10. Bioleaching of ultramafic tailings by acidithiobacillus spp. for CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Bioleaching experiments using various acid-generating substances, i.e., metal sulfides and elemental sulfur, were conducted to demonstrate the accelerated dissolution of chrysotile tailings collected from an asbestos mine near Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada. Columns, possessing an acid-generating substance colonized with Acidithiobacillus sp., produced leachates with magnesium concentrations that were an order of magnitude greater than mine site waters or control column leachates. In addition, chrysotile tailings were efficient at neutralizing acidity, which resulted in the immobilization of metals (Fe, Cu, Zn) associated with the metal sulfide mine tailings that were used to generate acid. This suggests that tailings from acid mine drainage environments may be utilized to enhance chrysotile dissolution without polluting "downstream" ecosystems. These results demonstrate that the addition of an acid-generating substance in conjunction with a microbial catalyst can significantly enhance the release of magnesium ions, which are then available for the precipitation of carbonate minerals. This process, as part of a carbon dioxide sequestration program, has implications for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions in the mining industry.

  11. Rhizosphere mediated electrogenesis with the function of anode placement for harnessing bioenergy through CO2 sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjeevi, P; Mohanakrishna, G; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-11-01

    The feasibility of power generation by non-destructive usage of rhizodeposits of Pennisetum setaceum plant formed mainly due to photosynthesis-carbon sequestration mechanism was studied in rhizosphere based microbial fuel-cell (R-MFC). Four fuel-cell assemblies (non-catalyzed graphite-plates; membrane-less operation; air-cathode) were evaluated for their electrogenic activity by varying anode distances from root in rhizosphere [A1 - 0; A2 - 8; A3 - 12 and A4 - 16 cm] at 2 cm depth from soil-layer and analyzed their electrogenic potential. The fuel-cell assembly near to the root zone showed maximum electrogenic-activity (R1, 1007 mV/4.52 mA) followed by R2 (780 mV/4.11 mA), R3 (720 mV/3.4 mA) and R4 (220 mV/1.2 mA). The observed maximum electrogenesis with R1 and minimum with R4 electrode-assemblies enumerated the critical role of root-exudates as substrates. All fuel-cell assemblies showed 10% higher electrogenic activity during day-time operation which can be directly attributed to plant's photosynthetic activity. The study enumerated the potential of plant to harness power in a sustainable way by optimum placement of fuel-cell setup in their rhizosphere.

  12. RECOVERY AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 FROM STATIONARY COMBUSTION SYSTEMS BY PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF MICROALGAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. T. Nakamura; Dr. C.L. Senior

    2001-03-01

    Most of the anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide result from the combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. Photosynthesis has long been recognized as a means, at least in theory, to sequester anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Aquatic microalgae have been identified as fast growing species whose carbon fixing rates are higher than those of land-based plants by one order of magnitude. Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), Aquasearch, and the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute at the University of Hawaii are jointly developing technologies for recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from stationary combustion systems by photosynthesis of microalgae. The research is aimed primarily at demonstrating the ability of selected species of microalgae to effectively fix carbon from typical power plant exhaust gases. This report covers the reporting period from 1 October to 31 December 2000. During this period planning of chemostat experiments at Aquasearch was initiated. These experiments will be used to select microalgae for the photobioreactor demonstrations. An initial survey of techniques for removing CO{sub 2} from coal-fired flue gas was begun. Chemical adsorption using MEA is the most mature technology and looks to be the most economically viable in the near future.

  13. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H.; Wigley, M.; Bickle, M.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Galy, A.; Ballentine, C.; Zhou, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines and reactions of the acid brines ultimately dissolving silicate minerals and precipitating carbonate minerals are the prime long-term mechanisms for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they are likely to depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. Noble gas isotopic spikes were detected at producing wells within days of initial CO2 injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretations are complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution as the lack of increase in S and Cl concentrations preclude additions of more saline waters. Early calcite dissolution was followed by re-precipitation. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the waters apparently exceed the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of acetic and hydrochloric acid leaches of carbonate fractions of the reservoir rocks and the silicate residues from the leaching. This may indicate incongruent dissolution of Sr or larger scale isotopic heterogeneity of the reservoir. This is being investigated

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A CO2 SEQUESTRATION MODULE BY INTEGRATING MINERAL ACTIVATION AND AQUEOUS CARBONATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer; John M. Andresen; George Alexander

    2004-11-15

    Mineral carbonation is a promising concept for permanent CO{sub 2} sequestration due to the vast natural abundance of the raw minerals, the permanent storage of CO{sub 2} in solid form as carbonates, and the overall reaction being exothermic. However, the primary drawback to mineral carbonation is the reaction kinetics. To accelerate the reaction, aqueous carbonation processes are preferred, where the minerals are firstly dissolved in solution. In aqueous carbonation, the key step is the dissolution rate of the mineral, where the mineral dissolution reaction is likely to be surface controlled. In order to accelerate the dissolution process, the serpentine can be ground to very fine particle size (<37 {micro}m), but this is a very energy intensive process. Alternatively, magnesium could be chemically extracted in aqueous solution. Phase I showed that chemical surface activation helps to dissolve the magnesium from the serpentine minerals (particle size {approx}100 {micro}m), and furthermore, the carbonation reaction can be conducted under mild conditions (20 C and 650 psig) compared to previous studies that required >185 C, >1850 psig and <37 {micro}m particle size. Phase I also showed that over 70% of the magnesium can be extracted at ambient temperature leaving amorphous SiO{sub 2} with surface areas {approx} 330m{sup 2}/g. The overall objective of Phase 2 of this research program is to optimize the active carbonation process developed in Phase I in order to design an integrated CO{sub 2} sequestration module. During the current reporting period, Task 1 ''Mineral activation'' was initiated and focused on a parametric study to optimize the operation conditions for the mineral activation, where serpentine and sulfuric acid were reacted, as following the results from Phase 1. Several experimental factors were outlined as having a potential influence on the mineral activation. This study has focused to date on the effects of varying the acid

  15. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Hanna M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Birkholzer, Jens T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Borgia, Andrea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; McKone, Thomas E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-06-13

    Geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is the injection of carbon dioxide (CO2), typically captured from stationary emission sources, into deep geologic formations to prevent its entry into the atmosphere. Active pilot facilities run by regional United States (US) carbon sequestration partnerships inject on the order of one million metric tonnes (mt) CO2 annually while the US electric power sector emits over 2000 million mt-CO2 annually. GCS is likely to play an increasing role in US carbon mitigation initiatives, but scaling up GCS poses several challenges. Injecting CO2 into sedimentary basins raises fluid pressure in the pore space, which is typically already occupied by naturally occurring, or native, brine. The resulting elevated pore pressures increase the likelihood of induced seismicity, of brine or CO2 escaping into potable groundwater resources, and of CO2 escaping into the atmosphere. Brine extraction is one method for pressure management, in which brine in the injection formation is brought to the surface through extraction wells. Removal of the brine makes room for the CO2 and decreases pressurization. Although the technology required for brine extraction is mature, this form of pressure management will only be applicable if there are cost-­effective and sustainable methods of disposing of the extracted brine. Brine extraction, treatment, and disposal may increase the already substantial capital, energy, and water demands of Carbon dioxide Capture and Sequestration (CCS). But, regionally specific brine management strategies may be able to treat the extracted water as a source of revenue, energy, and water to subsidize CCS costs, while minimizing environmental impacts. By this approach, value from the extracted water would be recovered before disposing of any resulting byproducts. Until a price is placed on carbon, we expect that utilities and other CO2 sources will be

  16. A Fundamental Study of Convective Mixing Contributing to Dissolution Trapping of CO2 in Heterogeneous Geologic Media using Surrogate Fluids and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Agartan, Eliff; Trevisan, Luca; Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Zhou, Quanlin

    2013-04-01

    Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide is considered as an important strategy to slow down global warming and hence climate change. Dissolution trapping is one of the primary mechanisms contributing to long-term storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline geologic formations. When liquid scCO2 is injected into the formation, its density is less than density of brine. During the movement of injected scCO2 under the effect of buoyancy forces, it is immobilized due to capillary forces. With the progress of time, entrapped scCO2 dissolves in formation brine, and density-driven convective fingers are expected to be generated due to the higher density of the solute compared to brine. These fingers enhance mixing of dissolved CO2 in brine. The development and role of these convective fingers in mixing in homogeneous formations have been studied in past investigations. The goal of this study is to evaluate the contribution of convective mixing to dissolution trapping of scCO2 in naturally heterogeneous geologic formations via laboratory experiments and numerical analyses. To mimic the dissolution of scCO2 in formation brine under ambient laboratory conditions, a group of surrogate fluids were selected according to their density and viscosity ratios, and tested in different fluid/fluid mixtures and variety of porous media test systems. After selection of the appropriate fluid mixture, a set of experiments in a small test tank packed in homogeneous configurations was performed in order to analyze the fingering behavior. A second set of experiments was conducted for layered systems to study the effects of formation heterogeneity on convective mixing. To capture the dominant processes observed in the experiments, a Finite Volume based numerical code was developed. The model was then used to simulate more complex heterogeneous systems that were not represented in the experiments. Results of these analyses suggest that density-driven convective fingers that contributes

  17. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  18. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ 1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low injection rates; most industrial-scale injection

  19. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-PURITY HYDROGEN AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2 FROM SYNGAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Denton; Hana Lorethova; Tomasz Wiltowski; Court Moorefield; Parag Kulkarni; Vladimir Zamansky; Ravi Kumar

    2003-12-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made on the program ''Simultaneous Production of High-Purity Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2} from Syngas (contract number DE-FG26-99FT40682)'', during October 2000 through September of 2003. GE Energy and Environmental Research (GE-EER) and Southern Illinois University (SIU) at Carbondale conducted the research work for this program. This program addresses improved methods to efficiently produce simultaneous streams of high-purity hydrogen and separated carbon dioxide from synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas may be produced through either gasification of coal or reforming of natural gas. The process of production of H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2} utilizes a dual-bed reactor and regenerator system. The reactor produces hydrogen and the regenerator produces separated CO{sub 2}. The dual-bed system can be operated under either a circulating fluidized-bed configuration or a cyclic fixed-bed configuration. Both configurations were evaluated in this project. The experimental effort was divided into lab-scale work at SIU and bench-scale work at GE-EER. Tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed system demonstrated the process for the conversion of syngas to high purity H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The lab-scale system generated up to 95% H{sub 2} (on a dry basis). Extensive thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions between the syngas and the fluidized solids determined an optimum range of temperature and pressure operation, where the extent of the undesirable reactions is minimum. The cycling of the process between hydrogen generation and oxygen regeneration has been demonstrated. The fluidized solids did not regenerate completely and the hydrogen purity in the reuse cycle dropped to 70% from 95% (on a dry basis). Changes in morphology and particle size may be the most dominant factor affecting the efficiency of the repeated cycling between hydrogen production and oxygen regeneration. The concept of

  20. Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    ABSTRACT Modeling Diffusion and Buoyancy-Driven Convection with Application to Geological CO2 Storage Rebecca Allen Geological CO2 storage is an engineering feat that has been undertaken around the world for more than two decades, thus accurate modeling of flow and transport behavior is of practical importance. Diffusive and convective transport are relevant processes for buoyancy-driven convection of CO2 into underlying fluid, a scenario that has received the attention of numerous modeling studies. While most studies focus on Darcy-scale modeling of this scenario, relatively little work exists at the pore-scale. In this work, properties evaluated at the pore-scale are used to investigate the transport behavior modeled at the Darcy-scale. We compute permeability and two different forms of tortuosity, namely hydraulic and diffusive. By generating various pore ge- ometries, we find hydraulic and diffusive tortuosity can be quantitatively different in the same pore geometry by up to a factor of ten. As such, we emphasize that these tortuosities should not be used interchangeably. We find pore geometries that are characterized by anisotropic permeability can also exhibit anisotropic diffusive tortuosity. This finding has important implications for buoyancy-driven convection modeling; when representing the geological formation with an anisotropic permeabil- ity, it is more realistic to also account for an anisotropic diffusivity. By implementing a non-dimensional model that includes both a vertically and horizontally orientated 5 Rayleigh number, we interpret our findings according to the combined effect of the anisotropy from permeability and diffusive tortuosity. In particular, we observe the Rayleigh ratio may either dampen or enhance the diffusing front, and our simulation data is used to express the time of convective onset as a function of the Rayleigh ratio. Also, we implement a lattice Boltzmann model for thermal convective flows, which we treat as an analog for

  1. Interaction of ice storms and management practices on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential mitigation under future CO2 atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather R. McCarthy; Ram Oren; Hyun-Seok Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Chris Maier; Seth G. Pritchard; Michael A. Davis

    2006-01-01

    Ice storms are disturbance events with potential impacts on carbon sequestration. Common forest management practices, such as fertilization and thinning, can change wood and stand properties and thus may change vulnerability to ice storm damage. At the same time, increasing atmospheric CO2 levels may also influence ice storm vulnerability. Here...

  2. Relative permeabilities of supercritical CO2 and brine in carbon sequestration by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian.-Fei.; He, S.; Zu, Y. Q.; Lamy-Chappuis, B.; Yardley, B. W. D.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the migration of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in realistic sandstone rocks under conditions of saline aquifers, with applications to the carbon geological storage, has been investigated by a two-phase lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Firstly the digital images of sandstone rocks were reproduced utilizing the X-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT), and high resolutions (up to 2.5 μm) were applied to the pore-scale LBM simulations. For the sake of numerical stability, the digital images were "cleaned" by closing the dead holes and removing the suspended particles in sandstone rocks. In addition, the effect of chemical reactions occurred in the carbonation process on the permeability was taken into account. For the wetting brine and non-wetting supercritical CO2 flows, they were treated as the immiscible fluids and were driven by pressure gradients in sandstone rocks. Relative permeabilities of brine and supercritical CO2 in sandstone rocks were estimated. Particularly the dynamic saturation was applied to improve the reliability of the calculations of the relative permeabilities. Moreover, the effects of the viscosity ratio of the two immiscible fluids and the resolution of digital images on the relative permeability were systematically investigated.

  3. sRecovery Act: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, Michael

    2014-09-30

    the J/TR section based on neutron log porosity values. The only zones in Rizer #1 that appear to be porous were fractured diabase units where saline formation water was flowing into the borehole. Two geocellular models were created for the SC and GA study area. Flow simulation modeling was performed on the SC data set. The injection simulation used the newly acquired basin data as well as the Petrel 3-D geologic model that included geologic structure. Due to the new basin findings as a result of the newly acquired data, during phase two of the modeling the diabase unit was used as reservoir and the sandstone units were used as caprock. Conclusion are: 1) the SGR basin is composed of numerous sub-basins, 2) this study only looked at portions of two sub-basins, 3) in SC, 30 million tonnes of CO2 can be injected into the diabase units if the fracture network is continuous through the units, 4) due to the severity of the faulting there is no way of assuring the injected CO2 will not migrate upward into the overlying Coastal Plain aquifers, 5) in Georgia there appears to porous zones in the J/TR sandstones, 6) as in SC there is faulting in the sub-basin and the seismic suggest the faulting extends upward into the Coastal Plain making that area not suitable for CO2 sequestration, 7) the complex faulting observed at both study areas appear to be associated with transfer fault zones (Heffner 2013), if sub-basins in the Georgia portion of the SGR basin can be located that are far away from the transfer fault zones there is a strong possibility of sequestering CO2 in these areas, and 9) the SGR basin covers area in three states and this project only studied two small areas so there is enormous potential for CO2 sequestration in other portions the basin and further research needs to be done to find these areas.

  4. Geological Carbon Sequestration: A New Approach for Near-Surface Assurance Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Wielopolski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There are two distinct objectives in monitoring geological carbon sequestration (GCS: Deep monitoring of the reservoir’s integrity and plume movement and near-surface monitoring (NSM to ensure public health and the safety of the environment. However, the minimum detection limits of the current instrumentation for NSM is too high for detecting weak signals that are embedded in the background levels of the natural variations, and the data obtained represents point measurements in space and time. A new approach for NSM, based on gamma-ray spectroscopy induced by inelastic neutron scatterings (INS, offers novel and unique characteristics providing the following: (1 High sensitivity with a reducible error of measurement and detection limits, and, (2 temporal- and spatial-integration of carbon in soil that results from underground CO2 seepage. Preliminary field results validated this approach showing carbon suppression of 14% in the first year and 7% in the second year. In addition the temporal behavior of the error propagation is presented and it is shown that for a signal at the level of the minimum detection level the error asymptotically approaches 47%.

  5. Basin-scale Modeling of Geological Carbon Sequestration: Model Complexity, Injection Scenario and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Bandilla, K.; Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geological carbon sequestration can significantly contribute to climate-change mitigation only if it is deployed at a very large scale. This means that injection scenarios must occur, and be analyzed, at the basin scale. Various mathematical models of different complexity may be used to assess the fate of injected CO2 and/or resident brine. These models span the range from multi-dimensional, multi-phase numerical simulators to simple single-phase analytical solutions. In this study, we consider a range of models, all based on vertically-integrated governing equations, to predict the basin-scale pressure response to specific injection scenarios. The Canadian section of the Basal Aquifer is used as a test site to compare the different modeling approaches. The model domain covers an area of approximately 811,000 km2, and the total injection rate is 63 Mt/yr, corresponding to 9 locations where large point sources have been identified. Predicted areas of critical pressure exceedance are used as a comparison metric among the different modeling approaches. Comparison of the results shows that single-phase numerical models may be good enough to predict the pressure response over a large aquifer; however, a simple superposition of semi-analytical or analytical solutions is not sufficiently accurate because spatial variability of formation properties plays an important role in the problem, and these variations are not captured properly with simple superposition. We consider two different injection scenarios: injection at the source locations and injection at locations with more suitable aquifer properties. Results indicate that in formations with significant spatial variability of properties, strong variations in injectivity among the different source locations can be expected, leading to the need to transport the captured CO2 to suitable injection locations, thereby necessitating development of a pipeline network. We also consider the sensitivity of porosity and

  6. Modelling CO2 flow in naturally fractured geological media using MINC and multiple subregion upscaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatomir, Alexandru Bogdan A. C.; Flemisch, Bernd; Class, Holger; Helmig, Rainer; Sauter, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Geological storage of CO2 represents one viable solution to reduce greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere. Potential leakage of CO2 storage can occur through networks of interconnected fractures. The geometrical complexity of these networks is often very high involving fractures occurring at various scales and having hierarchical structures. Such multiphase flow systems are usually hard to solve with a discrete fracture modelling (DFM) approach. Therefore, continuum fracture models assuming average properties are usually preferred. The multiple interacting continua (MINC) model is an extension of the classic double porosity model (Warren and Root, 1963) which accounts for the non-linear behaviour of the matrix-fracture interactions. For CO2 storage applications the transient representation of the inter-porosity two phase flow plays an important role. This study tests the accuracy and computational efficiency of the MINC method complemented with the multiple sub-region (MSR) upscaling procedure versus the DFM. The two phase flow MINC simulator is implemented in the free-open source numerical toolbox DuMux (www.dumux.org). The MSR (Gong et al., 2009) determines the inter-porosity terms by solving simplified local single-phase flow problems. The DFM is considered as the reference solution. The numerical examples consider a quasi-1D reservoir with a quadratic fracture system , a five-spot radial symmetric reservoir, and a completely random generated fracture system. Keywords: MINC, upscaling, two-phase flow, fractured porous media, discrete fracture model, continuum fracture model

  7. Vegetation turnover and nitrogen feedback drive temperate forest carbon sequestration in response to elevated CO[2]. A multi-model structural analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A. P.; Zaehle, S.; Medlyn, B. E.; De Kauwe, M. G.; Asao, S.; Hickler, T.; Lomas, M. R.; Pak, B. C.; Parton, W. J.; Quegan, S.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Wang, Y.; Warlind, D.; Norby, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting forest carbon (C) sequestration requires understanding the processes leading to rates of biomass C accrual (net primary productivity; NPP) and loss (turnover). In temperate forest ecosystems, experiments and models have shown that feedback via progressive nitrogen limitation (PNL) is a key driver of NPP responses to elevated CO[2]. In this analysis we show that while still important, PNL may not be as severe a constraint on NPP as indicated by some studies and that the response of turnover to elevated CO[2] could be as important, especially in the near to medium term. Seven terrestrial ecosystem and biosphere models that couple C and N cycles with varying assumptions and complexity were used to simulate responses over 300 years to a step change in CO[2] to 550 ppmv. Simulations were run for the evergreen needleleaf Duke forest and the deciduous broadleaf Oak Ridge forest FACE experiments. Whether or not a model simulated PNL under elevated CO[2] depended on model structure and the timescale of observation. Avoiding PNL depended on mechanisms that reduced ecosystem N losses. The two key assumptions that reduced N losses were whether plant N uptake was based on plant N demand and whether ecosystem N losses (volatisation and leaching) were dependent on the concentration of N in the soil solution. Assumptions on allocation and turnover resulted in very different responses of turnover to elevated CO[2], which had profound implications for C sequestration. For example, at equilibrium CABLE2.0 predicted an increase in vegetation C sequestration despite decreased NPP, while O-CN predicted much less vegetation C sequestration than would be expected from predicted NPP increases alone. Generally elevated CO[2] favoured a shift in C partitioning towards longer lived wood biomass, which increased vegetation turnover and enhanced C sequestration. Enhanced wood partitioning was overlaid by increases or decreases in self-thinning depended on whether self-thinning was

  8. 清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存%Clean coal technology and CO2 geological storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳迎红; 马丽

    2014-01-01

    To improve the utilization rate of coal and speed up clean,efficiency and low carbonization of coal industry,provide that the tra-ditional coal conversion technologies should be replaced by efficient and clean technologies.Investigate the clean coal technologies and CO2 geological storage technologies,especially the technologies of CO2 storage in saline formation.The way stores large quantities of CO2 safely and stably.The method also solves the problems of CO2 emissions due to China̓s energy structure.%中国能源资源特点决定现在以煤为主的消费结构,但煤炭在消费过程中存在高污染和低效率的问题,因此为提高资源利用率,煤炭行业面临结构调整。煤炭行业的清洁化、高效化、低碳化将是产业发展方向,煤炭高效洁净转化将取代传统的转化技术,如何解决煤炭利用过程中产生的CO2是清洁煤技术面临的新问题。通过研究清洁煤技术与CO2地质封存技术,特别是深部盐水层封存技术,为煤炭利用中产生的CO2排放提供了一种大规模、安全、稳定的存储方式,从而解决目前中国能源结构造成的CO2排放问题。

  9. Reactive Transport at the Pore Scale with Applications to the Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks for CO2 Sequestration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boek, E.; Gray, F.; Welch, N.; Shah, S.; Crawshaw, J.

    2014-12-01

    In CO2 sequestration operations, CO2 injected into a brine aquifer dissolves in the liquid to create an acidic solution. This may result in dissolution of the mineral grains in the porous medium. Experimentally, it is hard to investigate this process at the pore scale. Therefore we develop a new hybrid particle simulation algorithm to study the dissolution of solid objects in a laminar flow field, as encountered in porous media flow situations. First, we calculate the flow field using a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm implemented on GPUs, which demonstrates a very efficient use of the GPU device and a considerable performance increase over CPU calculations. Second, using a stochastic particle approach, we solve the advection-diffusion equation for a single reactive species and dissolve solid voxels according to our reaction model. To validate our simulation, we first calculate the dissolution of a solid sphere as a function of time under quiescent conditions. We compare with the analytical solution for this problem [1] and find good agreement. Then we consider the dissolution of a solid sphere in a laminar flow field and observe a significant change in the sphericity with time due to the coupled dissolution - flow process. Second, we calculate the dissolution of a cylinder in channel flow in direct comparison with corresponding dissolution experiments. We discuss the evolution of the shape and dissolution rate. Finally, we calculate the dissolution of carbonate rock samples at the pore scale in direct comparison with micro-CT experiments. This work builds on our recent research on calculation of multi-phase flow [2], [3] and hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular propagator distributions for solute transport in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media using LB simulations [4]. It turns out that the hybrid simulation model is a suitable tool to study reactive flow processes at the pore scale. This is of great importance for CO2 storage and

  10. CO2 leakage up from a geological storage site to shallow fresh groundwater: CO2-water-rock interaction assessment and development of sensitive monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humez, Pauline; Audigane, Pascal; Lions, Julie; Négrel, Philippe; Lagneau, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    The assessment of environmental impacts of carbon dioxide storage in geological repository requires the investigation of the potential CO2 leakage back into fresh groundwater, particularly with respect to protected groundwater reserves. We are starting a new project with the aims of developing sensitive monitoring techniques in order to detect potential CO2 leaks and their magnitude as well as their geochemical impacts on the groundwater. In a predictive approach goal, a modelling study of the geochemical impact on fresh groundwaters of a CO2 intrusion during geological storage was performed and serves as a basis for the development of sensitive monitoring techniques (e.g. isotope tracing). Then, isotopic monitoring opportunities will be explored. A modeling study of the geochemical impact on fresh groundwaters of the ingress of CO2 during geological storage was conducted. The 3D model includes (i) storage saline aquifer, (ii) impacted overlying aquifer containing freshwater and (iii) a leakage path way up through an abandoned well represented as 1D porous medium and corresponding to the cement-rock formation interface. This model was used to simulate the supercritical CO2 migration path and the interaction between the fluid and the host rock. The model uses the carbonate saline Dogger aquifer in the Paris Basin as the storage reservoir and the Albian formation (located above the Dogger) as the fresh groundwater aquifer. The principal geochemical process simulated is the acidification of groundwaters due to CO2 dissolution, inducing the dissolution of minerals in the Albian formation. Knowing the mineralogical composition of the impacted aquifer is therefore crucial if we are to correctly determine which elements might be release during the arrival of CO2 in freshwater. Estimates of increases in element concentrations are proposed along with a direct control of the injection procedure. This predictive modeling approach impact of CO2 intrusion to fresh groundwaters

  11. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    Conventional coal-burning power plants are major contributors of excess CO2 to the atmospheric inventory. Because such plants are stationary, they are particularly amenable to CO2 capture and disposal by deep injection into confined geologic formations. However, the energy penalty for CO2 separation and compression is steep, and could lead to a 30-40 percent reduction in useable power output. Integrated gas combined cycle (IGCC) plants are thermodynamically more efficient, i.e.,produce less CO2 for a given power output, and are more suitable for CO2 capture. Therefore, if CO2 capture and deep subsurface disposal were to be considered seriously, the preferred approach would be to build replacement IGCC plants with integrated CO2 capture, rather than retrofit existing conventional plants. Coal contains minor quantities of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, which are of concern, as their release into the atmosphere leads to the formation of urban ozone and acid rain, the destruction of stratospheric ozone, and global warming. Coal also contains many trace elements that are potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. During CO2 separation and capture, these constituents could inadvertently contaminate the separated CO2 and be co-injected. The concentrations and speciation of the co-injected contaminants would differ markedly, depending on whether CO2 is captured during the operation of a conventional or an IGCC plant, and the specific nature of the plant design and CO2 separation technology. However, regardless of plant design or separation procedures, most of the hazardous constituents effectively partition into the solid waste residue. This would lead to an approximately two order of magnitude reduction in contaminant concentration compared with that present in the coal. Potential exceptions are Hg in conventional plants, and Hg and possibly Cd, Mo and Pb in IGCC plants. CO2 capture and injection disposal could afford an opportunity to deliberately capture

  12. Shallow groundwater monitoring at the SACROC oilfield, Scurry County, TX: good news for geologic storage of CO2 despite a complex hydrogeologic and geochemical setting (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, R. C.; Romanak, K.; Yang, C.; Hovorka, S.

    2009-12-01

    The SACROC water study is the first comprehensive research project with application to geologic storage (GS) of CO2 that focuses on collection and interpretation of field measurements of groundwater (water level and water chemistry data). CO2 has been injected for enhanced oil recovery at the SACROC oilfield in Scurry County, TX since 1972. Hence, we have a perfect natural laboratory and an analog for monitoring future commercial CO2 sequestration sites. Kinder Morgan currently operates the SACROC oilfield where over 150 million metric tons (MMT) of CO2 has been injected for EOR at ~2 km depth; over 75 MMT of the CO2 has been produced and re-injected. CO2 is assumed to be trapped in the deep subsurface at SACROC. The goals of monitoring shallow groundwater over CO2 injection sites are to (1) confirm that CO2 has remained in the deep subsurface and (2) assess impacts to water quality if CO2 were to migrate upward along conduit flow paths (e.g. leaking well bores). We collected groundwater and stratigraphic data within an ~3,000 km2 area centered on SACROC to establish regional variability prior to assessing potential impacts to groundwater from CO2 injection. Groundwater data include results from five sampling trips between June 2006 and November 2008, and a compilation of historical data from the Texas Water Development Board database, dating back to 1936. Sources of complexity that contribute to data interpretation challenges include: (1) regional historic oilfield activity, (2) multiple freshwater-bearing strata in the regional Dockum aquifer, (3) sampled wells screened in shallowest (30 m), deepest (150 m), or across both water-bearing zones, (4) variable discharge rate of sampled wells (250 gpm), (5) groundwater flow divide that bisects SACROC, (6) variable aquifer recharge mechanisms, (7) temporal variability in groundwater levels and chemistry, (8) cation exchange, (9) presence of biogenically-produced CO2 in aquifer, and (10) incongruent dissolution of

  13. Mesoscale Assessment of CO2 Storage Potential and Geological Suitability for Target Area Selection in the Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Diao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, south of the Yangtze River, there are a large number of carbon sources, while the Sichuan Basin is the largest sedimentary basin; it makes sense to select the targets for CO2 geological storage (CGUS early demonstration. For CO2 enhanced oil and gas, coal bed methane recovery (CO2-EOR, EGR, and ECBM, or storage in these depleted fields, the existing oil, gas fields, or coal seams could be the target areas in the mesoscale. This paper proposed a methodology of GIS superimposed multisource information assessment of geological suitability for CO2 enhanced water recovery (CO2-EWR or only storage in deep saline aquifers. The potential per unit area of deep saline aquifers CO2 storage in Central Sichuan is generally greater than 50 × 104 t/km2 at P50 probability level, with Xujiahe group being the main reservoir. CO2 storage potential of depleted gas fields is 53.73 × 108 t, while it is 33.85 × 108 t by using CO2-EGR technology. This paper recommended that early implementation of CGUS could be carried out in the deep saline aquifers and depleted gas fields in the Sichuan Basin, especially that of the latter because of excellent traps, rich geological data, and well-run infrastructures.

  14. Potentiel des méthodes de séparation et stockage du CO2 dans la lutte contre l'effet de serreThe role of CO2 capture and sequestration in mitigation of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Baptiste, Philippe; Ducroux, René

    2003-06-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2. Technical solutions exist to reduce CO 2 emission and stabilise atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including energy saving and energy efficiency, switch to lower carbon content fuels like natural gas and to energy sources that operate with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, etc.), and last but not least, sequester CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2. Some of the factors that will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are also discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology; however, substantial R&D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to more than 30% of the global anthropogenic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the battle against global warming. To cite this article: P. Jean-Baptiste, R. Ducroux, C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  15. Fundamental study of CO2-H2O-mineral interactions for carbon sequestration, with emphasis on the nature of the supercritical fluid-mineral interface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Heath, Jason E.; Wang, Yifeng; Matteo, Edward N.; Meserole, Stephen P.; Tallant, David Robert

    2013-09-01

    In the supercritical CO2-water-mineral systems relevant to subsurface CO2 sequestration, interfacial processes at the supercritical fluid-mineral interface will strongly affect core- and reservoir-scale hydrologic properties. Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that water films will form on mineral surfaces in supercritical CO2, but will be thinner than those that form in vadose zone environments at any given matric potential. The theoretical model presented here allows assessment of water saturation as a function of matric potential, a critical step for evaluating relative permeabilities the CO2 sequestration environment. The experimental water adsorption studies, using Quartz Crystal Microbalance and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy methods, confirm the major conclusions of the adsorption/condensation model. Additional data provided by the FTIR study is that CO2 intercalation into clays, if it occurs, does not involve carbonate or bicarbonate formation, or significant restriction of CO2 mobility. We have shown that the water film that forms in supercritical CO2 is reactive with common rock-forming minerals, including albite, orthoclase, labradorite, and muscovite. The experimental data indicate that reactivity is a function of water film thickness; at an activity of water of 0.9, the greatest extent of reaction in scCO2 occurred in areas (step edges, surface pits) where capillary condensation thickened the water films. This suggests that dissolution/precipitation reactions may occur preferentially in small pores and pore throats, where it may have a disproportionately large effect on rock hydrologic properties. Finally, a theoretical model is presented here that describes the formation and movement of CO2 ganglia in porous media, allowing assessment of the effect of pore size and structural heterogeneity on capillary trapping efficiency. The model results also suggest possible engineering approaches for optimizing trapping capacity and for

  16. Role of deep convection on anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.; Houpert, L.; de Madron, X. Durrieu; Lefèvre, D.; Stabholz, M.; Guglielmi, V.

    2016-07-01

    The most active deep convection area in the western Mediterranean Sea is located in the Gulf of Lions. Recent studies in this area provides some insights on the complexity of the physical dynamics of convective regions, but very little is known about their impacts on the biogeochemical properties. The CASCADE (CAscading, Surge, Convection, Advection and Downwelling Events) cruise, planed in winter 2011, give us the opportunity to compare vertical profiles of properties sampled either during stratified conditions or after/during a convection event. In the present study, we focus on the distributions of the carbonate system properties (mainly total alkalinity, AT; and total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT) because, in the context of the climate change, deep convection areas are suspected to significantly increase the sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 (CANT). Given its limited size, the impact of the Mediterranean Sea on the global carbon budget is probably minor but this marginal sea can be used as a laboratory to better understand carbon sequestration and its transfer to the basin interior by deep convection processes. Distributions of AT and CT, both measured from bottle samples, and that of CANT (estimated with the TrOCA approach) are first analyzed in the light of other key properties (salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen). An objective interpolation procedure is then applied to estimate CT and AT from CTD measured properties. With this procedure, the vertical resolution goes from a maximum of 32 samples per station to one property estimate every meter (more detailed distributions are obtained). Results provide arguments to conclude that CANT is rapidly transferred to the deepest layer due to deep convection events. During deep convection events, the increase of CANT in the water column is positively correlated to that of potential density and oxygen content. The challenge of quantifying the amount of sequestered carbon is however not resolved due to the

  17. Influence of Chemical, Mechanical, and Transport Processes on Wellbore Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan A; Iyer, Jaisree; Walsh, Stuart D C

    2017-08-15

    Wells are considered to be high-risk pathways for fluid leakage from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs, because breaches in this engineered system have the potential to connect the reservoir to groundwater resources and the atmosphere. Given these concerns, a few studies have assessed leakage risk by evaluating regulatory records, often self-reported, documenting leakage in gas fields. Leakage is thought to be governed largely by initial well-construction quality and the method of well abandonment. The geologic carbon storage community has raised further concerns because acidic fluids in the CO2 storage reservoir, alkaline cement meant to isolate the reservoir fluids from the overlying strata, and steel casings in wells are inherently reactive systems. This is of particular concern for storage of CO2 in depleted oil and gas reservoirs with numerous legacy wells engineered to variable standards. Research suggests that leakage risks are not as great as initially perceived because chemical and mechanical alteration of cement has the capacity to seal damaged zones. Our work centers on defining the coupled chemical and mechanical processes governing flow in damaged zones in wells. We have developed process-based models, constrained by experiments, to better understand and forecast leakage risk. Leakage pathways can be sealed by precipitation of carbonate minerals in the fractures and deformation of the reacted cement. High reactivity of cement hydroxides releases excess calcium that can precipitate as carbonate solids in the fracture network under low brine flow rates. If the flow is fast, then the brine remains undersaturated with respect to the solubility of calcium carbonate minerals, and zones depleted in calcium hydroxides, enriched in calcium carbonate precipitates, and made of amorphous silicates leached of original cement minerals are formed. Under confining pressure, the reacted cement is compressed, which reduces permeability and lowers leakage risks. The

  18. Lineament Mapping using Remote Sensing Techniques and Structural Geology for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Site Characterization in Central New York State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Melissa Maria

    2011-12-01

    This study identified lineaments from satellite images and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) utilizing image processing techniques that enhance variations in spectral and spatial reflectivity and topography. In flat-lying sedimentary sequences Lineaments are commonly surface expressions of tectonic fractures and faults in the bedrock, emphasized on the surface by topography, drainage, and vegetation - many can be identified by remotely sensed data. Knowledge of fault locations can prevent unsuitable site selection for CO2 sequestration where CO2 could migrate up fault systems. Lineament patterns also give insight into the fracture fabric of the region- an important consideration for CO2 sequestration. Various data sets, including multispectral satellite imagery (Landsat and ASTER) and DEMs, as well as geological data describing fractures, faults, and hydrology, were used to map and validate the lineament distribution in the study area. Linear features were enhanced with tonal, topographic and textural changes by digital image processing of the satellite imagery and DEMs. Lineaments were then extracted manually using ArcMap (ArcGIS 9.2 -- ESRI). Lineaments longer than 1 km were identified, digitized and stored in a geo-database together with attributes describing their length, orientation and other characteristics. Lineament categories included vegetation, drainage, and topography. Rose diagrams and statistics of length and number of lineaments in each 100 orientation bin were used to characterize the lineament distribution in each remotely sensed data set. The primary lineament orientations from both ASTER imagery and topography trended northeast and northwest in the study area of central New York State. These trends agreed with some of the EarthSat (1997) lineament sets from Landsat images and also corresponded to some published fracture and fault systems but do not reflect the most abundant sets.

  19. Imaging wellbore cement degradation by carbon dioxide under geologic sequestration conditions using X-ray computed microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Jansik, Danielle; Um, Wooyong

    2013-01-02

    X-ray microtomography (XMT), a nondestructive three-dimensional imaging technique, was applied to demonstrate its capability to visualize the mineralogical alteration and microstructure changes in hydrated Portland cement exposed to carbon dioxide under geologic sequestration conditions. Steel coupons and basalt fragments were added to the cement paste in order to simulate cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. XMT image analysis showed the changes of material density and porosity in the degradation front (density: 1.98 g/cm(3), porosity: 40%) and the carbonated zone (density: 2.27 g/cm(3), porosity: 23%) after reaction with CO(2)-saturated water for 5 months compared to unaltered cement (density: 2.15 g/cm(3), porosity: 30%). Three-dimensional XMT imaging was capable of displaying spatially heterogeneous alteration in cement pores, calcium carbonate precipitation in cement cracks, and preferential cement alteration along the cement-steel and cement-rock interfaces. This result also indicates that the interface between cement and host rock or steel casing is likely more vulnerable to a CO(2) attack than the cement matrix in a wellbore environment. It is shown here that XMT imaging can potentially provide a new insight into the physical and chemical degradation of wellbore cement by CO(2) leakage.

  20. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  1. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary

    2013-05-31

    This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock's elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the elastic properties and attenuation vary versus CO{sub 2} saturation in the reservoir during injection and subsequent distribution of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir; (b) what are the combined effects of saturation and pore pressure on the elastic properties; and (c) what are the combined effects of saturation and rock fabric alteration on the elastic properties. The main new results are (a) development and application of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory to forecasting the elastic properties as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation; (b) a new method of applying this theory to well data; and (c) combining this theory with other effects of CO{sub 2} injection on the rock frame, including the effects of pore pressure and rock fabric alteration. An important result is translating these elastic changes into synthetic seismic responses, specifically, the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) response depending on saturation as well as reservoir and seal type. As planned, three graduate students participated in this work and, as a result, received scientific and technical training required should they choose to work in the area of monitoring and quantifying CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  2. Carbon sequestration on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Christopher S.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.

    2015-01-01

    On Earth, carbon sequestration in geologic units plays an important role in the carbon cycle, scrubbing CO_2 from the atmosphere for long-term storage. While carbonate is identified in low abundances within the dust and soils of Mars, at

  3. The role of North Atlantic Ocean circulation and biological sequestration on atmospheric CO2 uptake during the last deglaciation (CL Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschitiello, Francesco; D'Andrea, William J.; Dokken, Trond M.; Schmittner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the impact of ocean circulation on the global atmospheric CO2 budget is of paramount importance for anticipating the consequences of projected future changes in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). In particular, the efficiency of the oceanic biological pump can impact atmospheric CO2 through changes in vertical carbon export mediated by variations in the nutrient inventory of the North Atlantic basin. However, the causal relationship between North Atlantic Ocean circulation, biological carbon sequestration, and atmospheric CO2 is poorly understood. Here we present new high-resolution planktic-benthic 14C data and biomarker records from an exceptionally well-dated marine core from the Nordic Seas spanning the last deglaciation ( 15,000-10,000 years BP). The records document for the first time large and rapid atmospheric CO2 drawdowns and increase in plankton stocks during major North Atlantic cooling events. Using transient climate simulations from a fully coupled climate-biosphere model, we show that minor perturbations of the North Atlantic biological pump resulting from surface freshening and AMOC weakening can have a major impact on the global atmospheric CO2 budget. Furthermore, our data help clarifying the timing and magnitude of the deglacial CO2 signal recorded in Antarctic ice cores. We conclude that the global CO2 budget is more sensitive to perturbations in North Atlantic circulation than previously thought, which has significance in the future debate of the AMOC response to anthropogenic warming.

  4. Review on the Present and Future Prospects for CO2 Geological Storage in the Foreign Countries%国外 CO2地质储存现状与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秀珍

    2012-01-01

      Emission of greenhouse gas CO2 have given the powerful impact on the global climate as environment as well, which has got the great attention of the countries all over the world. Mitigation of CO2 emission to the at-mosphere is extremely important for the sustainable development. CO2 geological storage is one of the effective methods to mitigate such emission. This article summarizes the present and future prospects of the CO2 geologi-cal storage in the foreign countries through the following respects:1) CO2 trapping mechanism, 2) CO2 geological storage, 3) current situation and future of the storage projects, 4) capacity estimation of the storage sites, 5) moni-toring techniques, 6) simulation tools and 7) cost of the storage.%  温室气体CO2的大量排放给全球气候和环境带来的巨大影响,受到了世界各国的关注.实现CO2的深度减排是人类可持续发展的必由之路.CO2地质储存是缓解碳排放行之有效的方法之一.本文通过以下几方面论述了国外CO2地质储存的现状以及对未来的展望:1)CO2捕集机理,2)CO2地质储存,3)CO2地质储存项目现状与未来预测,4) CO2地质储存场地储量评估,5)CO2地质储存监测技术,6)CO2地质储存模拟工具,7)CO2地质存储经费等.

  5. Geometry-coupled reactive fluid transport at the fracture scale -Application to CO 2 geologic storage

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Seunghee

    2015-08-19

    Water acidification follows CO2 injection and leads to reactive fluid transport through pores and rock fractures, with potential implications to reservoirs and wells in CO2 geologic storage and enhanced oil recovery. Kinetic rate laws for dissolution reactions in calcite and anorthite are combined with Navier-Stokes law and advection-diffusion transport to perform geometry-coupled numerical simulations in order to study the evolution of chemical reactions, species concentration and fracture morphology. Results are summarized as a function of two dimensionless parameters: the Damköhler number Da which is the ratio between advection and reaction times, and the transverse Peclet number Pe defined as the ratio between the time for diffusion across the fracture and the time for advection along the fracture. Reactant species are readily consumed near the inlet in a carbonate reservoir when the flow velocity is low (low transverse Peclet number and Da>10-1). At high flow velocities, diffusion fails to homogenize the concentration field across the fracture (high transverse Peclet number Pe>10-1). When the reaction rate is low as in anorthite reservoirs (Da<10-1) reactant species are more readily transported towards the outlet. At a given Peclet number, a lower Damköhler number causes the flow channel to experience a more uniform aperture enlargement along the length of the fracture. When the length-to-aperture ratio is sufficiently large, say l/d>30, the system response resembles the solution for 1-D reactive fluid transport. A decreased length-to-aperture ratio slows the diffusive transport of reactant species to the mineral fracture surface, and analyses of fracture networks must take into consideration both the length and slenderness of individual fractures in addition to Pe and Da numbers.

  6. Interactions between CO2, minerals, and toxic ions: Implications for CO2 leakage from deep geological storage (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, F.; Montes-Hernandez, G.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term injection of carbon dioxide into geological underground reservoirs may lead to leakage events that will enhance fluid-rock interactions and question the safety of these repositories. If injection of carbon dioxide into natural reservoirs has been shown to mobilize some species into the pore fluid, including heavy metals and other toxic ions, the detailed interactions remain still debated because two main processes could interact and modify fluid composition: on the one hand dissolution/precipitation reactions may release/incorporate trace elements, and on the other hand adsorption/desorption reactions on existing mineral surfaces may also mobilize or trap these elements. We analyze here, through laboratory experiments, a scenario of a carbon dioxide reservoir that leaks into a fresh water aquifer through a localized leakage zone such as a permeable fault zone localized in the caprock and enhance toxic ions mobilization. Our main goal is to evaluate the potential risks on potable water quality. In a series of experiments, we have injected carbon dioxide into a fresh water aquifer-like medium that contained carbonate and/or iron oxide particles, pure water, and various concentrations of trace elements (copper, arsenic, cadmium, and selenium, in various states of oxidation). This analogue and simplified medium has been chosen because it contains two minerals (calcite, goethite) widespread found in freshwater aquifers. The surface charge of these minerals may vary with pH and therefore control how trace elements are adsorbed or desorbed, depending on fluid composition. Our experiments show that these minerals could successfully prevent the remobilization of adsorbed Cu(II), Cd(II), Se(IV), and As(V) if carbon dioxide is intruded into a drinking water aquifer. Furthermore, a decrease in pH resulting from carbon dioxide intrusion could reactivate the adsorption of Se(IV) and As(V) if goethite and calcite are sufficiently available in the aquifer. Our

  7. Fuel-Flexible Gasification-Combustion Technology for Production of H2 and Sequestration-Ready CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Rizeq; Parag Kulkarni; Wei Wei; Arnaldo Frydman; Thomas McNulty; Roger Shisler

    2005-11-01

    It is expected that in the 21st century the Nation will continue to rely on fossil fuels for electricity, transportation, and chemicals. It will be necessary to improve both the process efficiency and environmental impact performance of fossil fuel utilization. GE Global Research is developing an innovative fuel-flexible Unmixed Fuel Processor (UFP) technology to produce H{sub 2}, power, and sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} from coal and other solid fuels. The UFP module offers the potential for reduced cost, increased process efficiency relative to conventional gasification and combustion systems, and near-zero pollutant emissions including NO{sub x}. GE was awarded a contract from U.S. DOE NETL to develop the UFP technology. Work on the Phase I program started in October 2000, and work on the Phase II effort started in April 2005. In the UFP technology, coal and air are simultaneously converted into separate streams of (1) high-purity hydrogen that can be utilized in fuel cells or turbines, (2) sequestration-ready CO{sub 2}, and (3) high temperature/pressure vitiated air to produce electricity in a gas turbine. The process produces near-zero emissions with an estimated efficiency higher than IGCC with conventional CO2 separation. The Phase I R&D program established the feasibility of the integrated UFP technology through lab-, bench- and pilot-scale testing and investigated operating conditions that maximize separation of CO{sub 2} and pollutants from the vent gas, while simultaneously maximizing coal conversion efficiency and hydrogen production. The Phase I effort integrated experimental testing, modeling and preliminary economic studies to demonstrate the UFP technology. The Phase II effort will focus on three high-risk areas: economics, sorbent attrition and lifetime, and product gas quality for turbines. The economic analysis will include estimating the capital cost as well as the costs of hydrogen and electricity for a full-scale UFP plant. These costs will be

  8. CO2地质封存工程的潜在地质环境灾害风险及防范措施%Potential Geological and Environmental Risks and Its Prevention Measures for CO2 Geological Storage Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔振东; 刘大安; 曾荣树; 牛晶蕊

    2011-01-01

    CO2地质封存技术虽是有效减排CO2和提高石油、天然气等能源采收率的技术手段,但目前该技术尚处于发展阶段.CO2地质封存工程可能诱发一些潜在的地质环境灾害风险,如浅层地表垂向差异变形、可能诱发的断层活化及地震事件、CO2逃逸导致淡水含水层的污染、CO2泄漏富集危害附近人类健康和局部生态系统等.本文分析了上述潜在地质环境灾害风险及灾害诱发模式,并从科学选址、风险评估、工程监管、监测预警、应急补救等角度提出了具体的防范措施和工程指导原则,对CO2地质封存技术的安全性评估和工程实施阶段的风险管理具有重要的现实意义.%The CO2 geological storage technology has been considered as a promising way to effectively reduce CO2 emission and enhance the recovery rate of oil or gas. However, this technology is still in a developing stage and CO2 geological storage project may induce some potential geological and environmental risks, such as vertical deformation differences of the shallow surface, fault activation for triggering earthquakes, the pollution of freshwater aquifers, harms for human health and local ecosystems, and so on. The mentioned potential risks and its induction modes have been analyzed respectively. Then corresponding prevention principles and measures are suggested from such aspects as scientific site selection, risk assessment, project supervision, monitoring and pre-warning, and emergency reliefs. And this provides important practical implications for risk assessment and management of CO2 geological storage project.

  9. Accounting for geochemical alterations of caprock fracture permeability in basin-scale models of leakage from geologic CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, B.; Fitts, J. P.; Dobossy, M.; Bielicki, J. M.; Peters, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Climate mitigation, public acceptance and energy, markets demand that the potential CO2 leakage rates from geologic storage reservoirs are predicted to be low and are known to a high level of certainty. Current approaches to predict CO2 leakage rates assume constant permeability of leakage pathways (e.g., wellbores, faults, fractures). A reactive transport model was developed to account for geochemical alterations that result in permeability evolution of leakage pathways. The one-dimensional reactive transport model was coupled with the basin-scale Estimating Leakage Semi-Analytical (ELSA) model to simulate CO2 and brine leakage through vertical caprock pathways for different CO2 storage reservoir sites and injection scenarios within the Mt. Simon and St. Peter sandstone formations of the Michigan basin. Mineral dissolution in the numerical reactive transport model expands leakage pathways and increases permeability as a result of calcite dissolution by reactions driven by CO2-acidified brine. A geochemical model compared kinetic and equilibrium treatments of calcite dissolution within each grid block for each time step. For a single fracture, we investigated the effect of the reactions on leakage by performing sensitivity analyses of fracture geometry, CO2 concentration, calcite abundance, initial permeability, and pressure gradient. Assuming that calcite dissolution reaches equilibrium at each time step produces unrealistic scenarios of buffering and permeability evolution within fractures. Therefore, the reactive transport model with a kinetic treatment of calcite dissolution was coupled to the ELSA model and used to compare brine and CO2 leakage rates at a variety of potential geologic storage sites within the Michigan basin. The results are used to construct maps based on the susceptibility to geochemically driven increases in leakage rates. These maps should provide useful and easily communicated inputs into decision-making processes for siting geologic CO2

  10. Limiting the Magnitude of Potential Injection-Induced Seismicity Associated With Waste-Water Disposal, Hydraulic Fracturing and CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mark

    2017-04-01

    into basement. This suggests that an important criterion for large-scale CO2 sequestration projects is that the injection zone is isolated from crystalline basement rocks by viscoplastic shales to prevent rupture propagation from extending down into basement.

  11. Reduced tillage and cover crops as a strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil organic carbon sequestration in dry Mediterranean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagro, María; Garcia-Franco, Noelia; de Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Díaz-Pereira, Elvira; Martínez-Mena, María

    2016-04-01

    , respectively) than under CT treatment (399 g C-CO2 m-2 yr-1) in site 2. Tillage operations had a rapid but short-lived effect on soil CO2 efflux rates, with no significant influence on the annual soil CO2 emissions. The larger amounts of plant biomass incorporated into soil annually in the reduced tillage treatments compared to the conventional tillage treatment promoted soil aggregation and the physico-chemical soil organic carbon stabilization while soil CO2 emissions did not significantly increase. According to our results, reduced-tillage is strongly recommended as a beneficial SLM strategy for mitigating atmospheric CO2 increase through soil carbon sequestration and stabilization in semiarid Mediterranean agroecosystems.

  12. Porous Carbon Materials Based on Graphdiyne Basis Units by the Incorporation of the Functional Groups and Li Atoms for Superior CO2 Capture and Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yong; Guo, Wenyue; Zhao, Lianming; Zhu, Houyu

    2017-09-06

    The graphdiyne family has attracted a high degree of concern because of its intriguing and promising properties. However, graphdiyne materials reported to date represent only a tiny fraction of the possible combinations. In this work, we demonstrate a computational approach to generate a series of conceivable graphdiyne-based frameworks (GDY-Rs and Li@GDY-Rs) by introducing a variety of functional groups (R = -NH2, -OH, -COOH, and -F) and doping metal (Li) in the molecular building blocks of graphdiyne without restriction of experimental conditions and rapidly screen the best candidates for the application of CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS). The pore topology and morphology and CO2 adsorption and separation properties of these frameworks are systematically investigated by combining density functional theory (DFT) and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. On the basis of our computer simulations, combining Li-doping and hydroxyl groups strategies offer an unexpected synergistic effect for efficient CO2 capture with an extremely CO2 uptake of 4.83 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar. Combined with its superior selectivity (13 at 298 K and 1 bar) for CO2 over CH4, Li@GDY-OH is verified to be one of the most promising materials for CO2 capture and separation.

  13. A data driven model for the impact of IFT and density variations on CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomeli, Mohammad A.; Riaz, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) storage in depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs and deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising solutions for decreasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. One of the important issues for CO2 storage in subsurface environments is the sealing efficiency of low-permeable cap-rocks overlying potential CO2 storage reservoirs. Though we focus on the effect of IFT in this study as a factor influencing sealing efficiency or storage capacity, other factors such as interfacial interactions, wettability, pore radius and interfacial mass transfer also affect the mobility and storage capacity of CO2 phase in the pore space. The study of the variation of IFT is however important because the pressure needed to penetrate a pore depends on both the pore size and the interfacial tension. Hence small variations in IFT can affect flow across a large population of pores. A novel model is proposed to find the IFT of the ternary systems (CO2/brine-salt) in a range of temperatures (300-373 K), pressures (50-250 bar), and up to 6 molal salinity applicable to CO2 storage in geological formations through a multi-variant non-linear regression of experimental data. The method uses a general empirical model for the quaternary system CO2/brine-salts that can be made to coincide with experimental data for a variety of solutions. We introduce correction parameters into the model, which compensates for uncertainties, and enforce agreement with experimental data. The results for IFT show a strong dependence on temperature, pressure, and salinity. The model has been found to describe the experimental data in the appropriate parameter space with reasonable precision. Finally, we use the new model to evaluate the effects of formation depth on the actual efficiency of CO2 storage. The results indicate that, in the case of CO2 storage in deep subsurface environments as a global-warming mitigation strategy, CO2 storage capacity increases with reservoir depth.

  14. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits of the approach proposed by Buscheck et al. (2011b), which uses brine as the working fluid, with those of the approach first suggested by Brown (2000) and analyzed by Pruess (2006), using CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, and then extended to saline-formation CCS by Randolph and Saar (2011a). During stage one of our hybrid approach, formation brine, which is extracted to provide pressure relief for CO{sub 2} injection, is the working fluid for energy recovery. Produced brine is applied to a consumptive beneficial use: feedstock for fresh water production through desalination, saline cooling water, or make-up water to be injected into a neighboring reservoir operation, such as in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), where there is often a shortage of a working fluid. For stage one, it is important to find economically feasible disposition options to reduce the volume of brine requiring reinjection in the integrated geothermal-CCS reservoir (Buscheck et al. 2012a). During stage two, which begins as CO{sub 2} reaches the production wells; coproduced brine and CO{sub 2} are the working fluids. We present preliminary reservoir engineering analyses of this approach, using a simple conceptual model of a homogeneous, permeable CO{sub 2} storage formation/geothermal reservoir, bounded by relatively impermeable sealing units. We assess both the CO{sub 2} sequestration capacity and geothermal energy production potential as a function of well spacing between CO{sub 2} injectors and brine/CO{sub 2} producers for various well patterns and for a range of subsurface conditions.

  15. Two-Stage, Integrated, Geothermal-CO2 Storage Reservoirs: An Approach for Sustainable Energy Production, CO2-Sequestration Security, and Reduced Environmental Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buscheck, T A; Chen, M; Sun, Y; Hao, Y; Elliot, T R

    2012-02-02

    We introduce a hybrid two-stage energy-recovery approach to sequester CO{sub 2} and produce geothermal energy at low environmental risk and low cost by integrating geothermal production with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) in saline, sedimentary formations. Our approach combines the benefits