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Sample records for geographical origin verification

  1. Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-time-of-flight mass spectrometric methodology for geographical origin verification of coffee

    Risticevic, Sanja; Carasek, Eduardo; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-01-01

    Increasing consumer awareness of food safety issues requires the development of highly sophisticated techniques for the authentication of food commodities. The food products targeted for falsification are either products of high commercial value or those produced in large quantities. For this reason, the present investigation is directed towards the characterization of coffee samples according to the geographical origin. The conducted research involves the development of a rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) method that is utilized for the verification of geographical origin traceability of coffee samples. As opposed to the utilization of traditional univariate optimization methods, the current study employs the application of multivariate experimental designs to the optimization of extraction-influencing parameters. Hence, the two-level full factorial first-order design aided in the identification of two influential variables: extraction time and sample temperature. The optimum set of conditions for the two variables was 12 min and 55 deg. C, respectively, as directed by utilization of Doehlert matrix and response surface methodology. The high-throughput automated SPME procedure was completed by implementing a single divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) 50/30 μm metal fiber with excellent durability properties ensuring the completion of overall sequence of coffee samples. The utilization of high-speed TOFMS instrument ensured the completion of one GC-MS run of a complex coffee sample in 7.9 min and the complete list of benefits provided by ChromaTOF software including fully automated background subtraction, baseline correction, peak find and mass spectral deconvolution algorithms was exploited during the data evaluation procedure. The combination of the retention index (RI) system using C 8 -C 40 alkanes and the mass spectral library search was utilized for the

  2. Headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic-time-of-flight mass spectrometric methodology for geographical origin verification of coffee

    Risticevic, Sanja [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Carasek, Eduardo [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Trindade, Florianopolis, 88040-900, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Pawliszyn, Janusz [Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: janusz@uwaterloo.ca

    2008-06-09

    Increasing consumer awareness of food safety issues requires the development of highly sophisticated techniques for the authentication of food commodities. The food products targeted for falsification are either products of high commercial value or those produced in large quantities. For this reason, the present investigation is directed towards the characterization of coffee samples according to the geographical origin. The conducted research involves the development of a rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) method that is utilized for the verification of geographical origin traceability of coffee samples. As opposed to the utilization of traditional univariate optimization methods, the current study employs the application of multivariate experimental designs to the optimization of extraction-influencing parameters. Hence, the two-level full factorial first-order design aided in the identification of two influential variables: extraction time and sample temperature. The optimum set of conditions for the two variables was 12 min and 55 deg. C, respectively, as directed by utilization of Doehlert matrix and response surface methodology. The high-throughput automated SPME procedure was completed by implementing a single divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) 50/30 {mu}m metal fiber with excellent durability properties ensuring the completion of overall sequence of coffee samples. The utilization of high-speed TOFMS instrument ensured the completion of one GC-MS run of a complex coffee sample in 7.9 min and the complete list of benefits provided by ChromaTOF software including fully automated background subtraction, baseline correction, peak find and mass spectral deconvolution algorithms was exploited during the data evaluation procedure. The combination of the retention index (RI) system using C{sub 8}-C{sub 40} alkanes and the mass spectral library search was

  3. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  4. Lipidomic fingerprint of almonds (Prunus dulcis L. cv Nonpareil) using TiO₂ nanoparticle based matrix solid-phase dispersion and MALDI-TOF/MS and its potential in geographical origin verification.

    Shen, Qing; Dong, Wei; Yang, Mei; Li, Linqiu; Cheung, Hon-Yeung; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2013-08-14

    A matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure with titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) as sorbent was developed for the selective extraction of phospholipids from almond samples, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) was employed for analysis. A remarkable increase in the signals of phospholipid accompanied by a decrease in those of triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols was observed in the relevant mass spectra. The proposed method was applied to five batches of almonds originating from four geographical areas, whereas principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to normalize the relative amounts of the identified phospholipid species. The results indicated that the lipidomic fingerprint of almonds was successfully established by the negative ion mode spectrum, and the ratio of m/z 833.6 to 835.6 as well as m/z 821.6 could be introduced as potential markers for the differentiation of the tested almonds with different geographical origins. The whole method is of great promise for selective separation of phospholipids from nonphospholipids, especially the glycerides, and superior in fast screening and characterization of phospholipids in almond samples.

  5. Appellations of geographical origin as a generator of national competitiveness

    Jovićević-Simin Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The protection of appellations of geographical origin worldwide, through the Lisbon Agreement mainly refers to agricultural and food products and the leading countries in the number of registrations of appellations of origin are: France, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, Italy etc. By the product structure 85% of registrations of appellations of origin in the world refer to the four major categories of food products such as: wine (61.5%, spirits (9.5%, agricultural products (8.4% and cheese (8.5%. Considering that the protection of appellations of geographical origin in Serbia is mainly related to agricultural and food products, and the fact that we have 52 domestic and only 3 internationally protected appellations of origin, these could be used as a powerful tool to support the growth of competitiveness in agriculture of certain regions as well as of the entire country. Appellations of geographical origin have a collective ownership and represent a kind of national resource.

  6. Geographical origin: meaningful reference or marketing tool?

    Hedegaard, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    dimensions of local culture. The French label served as inspiration for the European PDO/PGI-labels, but even if these labels are known in Denmark only five products are PDO-branded The data-collection in Denmark indicated little trust in increased sales through PDO-labelling. This was contrary to data...... of production can be positioned on a map, but there is no precise standard for the rootedness of the product in this place. Origin means to be from a place in the sense that natural factors, cultural practices and historical links contribute to the understanding of the link between food and place...... origin was the result of a crisis in French wine-production in the early 20th century. Labelling was intended to protect the reputation of a product in terms of quality and taste by referring to parcels of land where specific traditions are maintained and the resulting products embedded in collective...

  7. Fungi identify the geographic origin of dust samples.

    Neal S Grantham

    Full Text Available There is a long history of archaeologists and forensic scientists using pollen found in a dust sample to identify its geographic origin or history. Such palynological approaches have important limitations as they require time-consuming identification of pollen grains, a priori knowledge of plant species distributions, and a sufficient diversity of pollen types to permit spatial or temporal identification. We demonstrate an alternative approach based on DNA sequencing analyses of the fungal diversity found in dust samples. Using nearly 1,000 dust samples collected from across the continental U.S., our analyses identify up to 40,000 fungal taxa from these samples, many of which exhibit a high degree of geographic endemism. We develop a statistical learning algorithm via discriminant analysis that exploits this geographic endemicity in the fungal diversity to correctly identify samples to within a few hundred kilometers of their geographic origin with high probability. In addition, our statistical approach provides a measure of certainty for each prediction, in contrast with current palynology methods that are almost always based on expert opinion and devoid of statistical inference. Fungal taxa found in dust samples can therefore be used to identify the origin of that dust and, more importantly, we can quantify our degree of certainty that a sample originated in a particular place. This work opens up a new approach to forensic biology that could be used by scientists to identify the origin of dust or soil samples found on objects, clothing, or archaeological artifacts.

  8. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Wildlife forensic science: A review of genetic geographic origin assignment.

    Ogden, Rob; Linacre, Adrian

    2015-09-01

    Wildlife forensic science has become a key means of enforcing legislation surrounding the illegal trade in protected and endangered species. A relatively new dimension to this area of forensic science is to determine the geographic origin of a seized sample. This review focuses on DNA testing, which relies on assignment of an unknown sample to its genetic population of origin. Key examples of this are the trade in timber, fish and ivory and these are used only to illustrate the large number of species for which this type of testing is potentially available. The role of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers is discussed, alongside a comparison of neutral markers with those exhibiting signatures of selection, which potentially offer much higher levels of assignment power to address specific questions. A review of assignment tests is presented along with detailed methods for evaluating error rates and considerations for marker selection. The availability and quality of reference data are of paramount importance to support assignment applications and ensure reliability of any conclusions drawn. The genetic methods discussed have been developed initially as investigative tools but comment is made regarding their use in courts. The potential to compliment DNA markers with elemental assays for greater assignment power is considered and finally recommendations are made for the future of this type of testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sources and geographical origins of fine aerosols in Paris (France)

    Bressi, M.; Nicolas, J.B.; Sciare, J.; Feron, A.; Nonnaire, N.; Petit, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at identifying and apportioning fine aerosols to their major sources in Paris (France) - the second most populated - larger urban zone - in Europe - and determining their geographical origins. It is based on the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 examined over 1 year at an urban background site of Paris (Bressi et al., 2013). Positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF3.0) was used to identify and apportion fine aerosols to their sources; bootstrapping was performed to determine the adequate number of PMF factors, and statistics (root mean square error, coefficient of determination, etc.) were examined to better model PM2.5 mass and chemical components. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) and conditional probability function (CPF) allowed the geographical origins of the sources to be assessed; special attention was paid to implement suitable weighting functions. Seven factors, namely ammonium sulfate (A.S.)-rich factor, ammonium nitrate (A.N.)-rich factor, heavy oil combustion, road traffic, biomass burning, marine aerosols and metal industry, were identified; a detailed discussion of their chemical characteristics is reported. They contribute 27, 24, 17, 14, 12, 6 and 1% of PM2.5 mass (14.7 μgm -3 ) respectively on the annual average; their seasonal variability is discussed. The A.S.- and A.N.-rich factors have undergone mid- or long-range transport from continental Europe; heavy oil combustion mainly stems from northern France and the English Channel, whereas road traffic and biomass burning are primarily locally emitted. Therefore, on average more than half of PM2.5 mass measured in the city of Paris is due to mid- or long-range transport of secondary aerosols stemming from continental Europe, whereas local sources only contribute a quarter of the annual averaged mass. These results imply that fine-aerosol abatement policies conducted at the local scale may not be sufficient to notably reduce PM2.5 levels at urban background sites

  11. 75 FR 38765 - Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and...

    2010-07-06

    ..., facility assessment services, certifications of quantity and quality, import product inspections, and... control number. These include export certification, inspection of section 8e import products, and...] Domestic Origin Verification System Questionnaire and Regulations Governing Inspection and Certification of...

  12. [Current progress in food geographical origin traceability by near infrared spectroscopy technology].

    Ma, Dong-Hong; Wang, Xi-Chang; Liu, Li-Ping; Liu, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    The geographical origin traceability of food, an important part of traceability system, is effective in protecting the quality and safety of foodstuffs. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), which is a powerful technique for geographical origin traceability, has attracted extensive attention by scientists due to its speediness, non-pollution and simple operation. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of techniques that have been used for food geographical origin traceability. The basic principles of NIR and its applications in different food geographical origin traceability are presented too. Furthermore, problems in applications are analyzed and the future development trends are discussed.

  13. Verification of strontium isotopes and its possible source in Indian basmati rice for geographical authentication study

    Lagad, Rupali A.; Rai, Vinai K.; Singh, Sunil K.

    2015-01-01

    Due to globalization of food and agriculture product's market, there is increasing awareness of safety and authenticity of the food products. Consumers continuously demand the reassurance of origin and content of their foods. Hence safety and authenticity of food has been a growing analytical challenge. Basmati rice, the unique aromatic quality rice and a nature's gift to Indian sub-continent is produced and consumed on a large scale. Due to its profitable market as well as great demand overseas true Basmati rice market is facing unfair competition by unscrupulous producers for profit. Very few researches for geographical authentication are available for Indian basmati rice. Sr isotope composition of rice could be used as a geographical source indicator; however, little information is available on the possible source (lithogenic, biogenic, silicate, carbonate) of Sr in Rice or any other food stuff for tracing the geographical origin using Strontium isotopes as tracer. Hence in order to determine suitability of strontium isotopes as tracer and its possible source in rice for geographical authentication study, strontium isotope signature study of authentic Indian Basmati rice along with in situ soil and water of that region have been carried out

  14. Blind Verification of Digital Image Originality: A Statistical Approach

    Mahdian, Babak; Nedbal, R.; Saic, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2013), s. 1531-1540 ISSN 1556-6013 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013064; GA ČR GA13-28462S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind verification * image extraction * camera fingerprints Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/mahdian-0398095.pdf

  15. Identification Of Geographical Origin Of Coffee Before And After Roasting By Electronic Noses

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Ongo, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Geographical origin traceability of food is a relevant issue for both producers' business protection and customers' rights safeguard. Differentiation of coffees on the basis of geographical origin is still a challenging issue, though possible by means of chemical techniques [1]. Between the most widely consumed beverage, coffee is a valuable one, with an aroma constituted by hundreds of volatiles [2]. Since the final global volatile composition is also determined by the cultivation climatic conditions, Electronic Noses (ENs) could be interesting candidates for distinguishing the geographical provenience by exploiting differences in chemical volatile profile. The present investigation is directed toward the characterization of green and roasted coffees samples according to their geographical origin.

  16. Identification of geographical origin of sesame seeds by near infrared spectroscopy

    Kwon, Y.K.; Cho, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Geographical origin of the Korean, Chinese and Japanese sesame seeds were identified very high accuracy by NIR spectroscopy. The NIR instrument of filter type showed the same accuracy of the monochromator scanning type to identify the geographical origin of the sesame seeds. in case of adulteration between the Korean and Chinese sesame seeds, the ratio of addition could be determined about 10% error level. The reason of identification of geographical origin by NIR spectroscopy, it was supposed to the difference of oil cake substance

  17. IAEA verification of weapon-origin fissile material in the Russian Federation and the United States

    2001-01-01

    The Secretary of Energy of the United States, Spencer Abraham, Minister of the Russian Federation on Atomic Energy, Alexander Rumyantsev, and Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mohamed ElBaradei, met in Vienna on 18 September 2001 to review progress on the Trilateral Initiative. The Initiative was launched in 1996 to develop a new IAEA verification system for weapon-origin material designated by the United States and the Russian Federation as released from their defence programmes. The removal of weapon-origin fissile material from the defence programmes of the Russian Federation and the United States is in furtherance of the commitment to disarmament undertaken by the two States pursuant to Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). IAEA verification under this Initiative is intended to promote international confidence that fissile material made subject by either of the two States to Agency verification remains irreversibly removed from nuclear weapon programmes

  18. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Pei Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species authentication, Geographical origin discrimination, Quality control

  19. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach

    Nogueira, Carla; Iglesias, Antonio; Feás, Xesus; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2012-01-01

    Since the primordial of humanity, pollen has been considered a good source of nutrients and energy. Its promising healing properties have also been referred to. The present study aimed to characterize, for the first time, eight commercial pollens from Portugal and Spain available on the market studying the legislation on labeling, pollinic origin, physicochemical and microbiological analyses and identification of yeasts. Eleven botanical families were found amongst the samples. The most abundant family and the most dominant pollen was Cistaceae. The moisture content, ash, aw, pH, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and energy were analyzed and the specific parameters were within the specifications required by some countries with legislation regarding these parameters. Microbiologically commercial pollen showed acceptable safety for the commercial quality and hygiene. All samples showed negative results for toxigenic species. The microorganisms studied were aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. During the work, six yeasts species were isolated from pollen, with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa being the most abundant, as it was present in four samples. PMID:23109845

  20. Commercial Bee Pollen with Different Geographical Origins: A Comprehensive Approach

    Leticia M. Estevinho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the primordial of humanity, pollen has been considered a good source of nutrients and energy. Its promising healing properties have also been referred to. The present study aimed to characterize, for the first time, eight commercial pollens from Portugal and Spain available on the market studying the legislation on labeling, pollinic origin, physicochemical and microbiological analyses and identification of yeasts. Eleven botanical families were found amongst the samples. The most abundant family and the most dominant pollen was Cistaceae. The moisture content, ash, aw, pH, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and energy were analyzed and the specific parameters were within the specifications required by some countries with legislation regarding these parameters. Microbiologically commercial pollen showed acceptable safety for the commercial quality and hygiene. All samples showed negative results for toxigenic species. The microorganisms studied were aerobic mesophiles, yeasts and moulds, coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridium. During the work, six yeasts species were isolated from pollen, with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa being the most abundant, as it was present in four samples.

  1. Progress in analytical methods for the detection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea (Camellia sinensis)

    Yuan Yuwei; Hu Guixian; Shao Shengzhi; Zhang Yongzhi; Zhang Yu; Zhu Jiahong; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is one of the important agricultural products with obvious regional characteristics. Analytical methods are very important for the protection of geographical origin and authenticity of tea. The developments of analytical methods including stable isotope determination, multi-elements determination, near infrared reflectance spectroscopy, chemical fingerprint and others were reviewed. Major problems on tea origin and authenticity detection were discussed in this study, and some suggestions were also proposed which would be useful for the protection of geographical origin of tea in China. (authors)

  2. Discrimination of almonds (Prunus dulcis) geographical origin by minerals and fatty acids profiling.

    Amorello, Diana; Orecchio, Santino; Pace, Andrea; Barreca, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-one almond samples from three different geographical origins (Sicily, Spain and California) were investigated by determining minerals and fatty acids compositions. Data were used to discriminate by chemometry almond origin by linear discriminant analysis. With respect to previous PCA profiling studies, this work provides a simpler analytical protocol for the identification of almonds geographical origin. Classification by using mineral contents data only was correct in 77% of the samples, while, by using fatty acid profiles, the percentages of samples correctly classified reached 82%. The coupling of mineral contents and fatty acid profiles lead to an increased efficiency of the classification with 87% of samples correctly classified.

  3. Chemometric classification of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin based on polyphenolic profiles.

    Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong; Wang, Yutang

    2013-07-17

    To characterize and classify apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin on the basis of their polyphenol composition, the polyphenolic profiles of 58 apple juice samples belonging to 5 apple varieties and from 6 regions in Shaanxi province of China were assessed. Fifty-one of the samples were from protected designation of origin (PDO) districts. Polyphenols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and to a Q Exactive quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Chemometric techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) were carried out on polyphenolic profiles of the samples to develop discrimination models. SLDA achieved satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, providing respectively 98.3 and 91.2% success rate in terms of prediction ability. This result demonstrated that polyphenols could served as characteristic indices to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices.

  4. Differentiation of chocolates according to the cocoa's geographical origin using chemometrics.

    Cambrai, Amandine; Marcic, Christophe; Morville, Stéphane; Sae Houer, Pierre; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2010-02-10

    The determination of the geographical origin of cocoa used to produce chocolate has been assessed through the analysis of the volatile compounds of chocolate samples. The analysis of the volatile content and their statistical processing by multivariate analyses tended to form independent groups for both Africa and Madagascar, even if some of the chocolate samples analyzed appeared in a mixed zone together with those from America. This analysis also allowed a clear separation between Caribbean chocolates and those from other origins. Height compounds (such as linalool or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) characteristic of chocolate's different geographical origins were also identified. The method described in this work (hydrodistillation, GC analysis, and statistic treatment) may improve the control of the geographical origin of chocolate during its long production process.

  5. Recovering the geographic origin of early modern humans by realistic and spatially explicit simulations

    Ray, Nicolas; Currat, Mathias; Berthier, Pierre; Excoffier, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Most genetic and archeological evidence argue in favor of a recent and unique origin of modern humans in sub-Saharan Africa, but no attempt has ever been made at quantifying the likelihood of this model, relative to alternative hypotheses of human evolution. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of using multilocus genetic data to correctly infer the geographic origin of humans, and to distinguish between a unique origin (UO) and a multiregional evolution (ME) model. We introduce here...

  6. Determination of the Geographical Origin of All Commercial Hake Species by Stable Isotope Ratio (SIR) Analysis.

    Carrera, Mónica; Gallardo, José M

    2017-02-08

    The determination of the geographical origin of food products is relevant to comply with the legal regulations of traceability, to avoid food fraud, and to guarantee food quality and safety to the consumers. For these reasons, stable isotope ratio (SIR) analysis using an isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrument is one of the most useful techniques for evaluating food traceability and authenticity. The present study was aimed to determine, for the first time, the geographical origin for all commercial fish species belonging to the Merlucciidae family using SIR analysis of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N). The specific results enabled their clear classification according to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) fishing areas, latitude, and geographical origin in the following six different clusters: European, North African, South African, North American, South American, and Australian hake species.

  7. IAEA verification of weapon-origin fissile material in the Russian Federation and the United States

    2000-01-01

    The document informs about the meeting of the Minister of the Russian Federation on Atomic Energy, the Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration of the United States, and the Director General of the IAEA, on 18 September 2000 in Vienna, to review progress on the Trilateral Initiative which was launched in 1996 to develop a new IAEA verification system for weapon-origin material designated as released from defense programs by the United States or the Russian Federation

  8. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination. Keywords: Near infrared spectroscopy, Herbal medicine, Species...

  9. Species authentication and geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines by near infrared spectroscopy: A review.

    Wang, Pei; Yu, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid and nondestructive analytical technique, integrated with chemometrics, is a powerful process analytical tool for the pharmaceutical industry and is becoming an attractive complementary technique for herbal medicine analysis. This review mainly focuses on the recent applications of NIR spectroscopy in species authentication of herbal medicines and their geographical origin discrimination.

  10. A novel method to rapidly distinguish the geographical origin of traditional fermented-salted vegetables by mass fingerprinting.

    Yoon, So-Ra; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Hae-Won; Ha, Ji-Hyoung

    2017-01-01

    The geographical origin of kimchi is of interest to consumers and producers because the prices of commercial kimchi products can vary significantly according to the geographical origin. Hence, social issues related to the geographical origin of kimchi in Korea have emerged as a major problem. In this study, the geographical origin of kimchi was determined by comparing the mass fingerprints obtained for Korean and Chinese kimchi samples by MALDI-TOF MS with multivariate analysis. The results obtained herein provide an accurate, powerful tool to clearly discriminate kimchi samples based on their geographical origin within a short time and to ensure food authenticity, which is of significance in the kimchi industry. Furthermore, our MALDI-TOF MS method could be applied to determining the geographical origin of other fermented-salted vegetables at a reduced cost in shorter times.

  11. Using rare earth elements for the identification of the geographic origin of food

    Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Joebstl, D.

    2009-04-01

    The European Union defined regimes within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework to protect names of regional food specialities. Thus only food produced in a specific geographical area with a specific way of production or quality can be protected by a protected geographical indication (PGI) label. As such Styrian Pumpkin Seed Oil has been approved with this label, but as with many other high priced regional specialities, fraud cannot be excluded or nor identified. Thus the aim of this work is, to develop an analytical method for the control of the geographic origin of pumpkin seed oil and also to test the method for other protected products. The development of such a method is not only of interest for scientists, but also of importance for the consumer wanting to know the origin of the food products and the assurance of the purity and quality. The group of rare earth elements (REE) in plants also have a characteristic distribution pattern similar to upper crustal REE distributions. Since the REE concentrations are extremely low in pumpkin seed oil (ppt to low ppb), ICP-MS was the only sensitive tool able to produce validated results. The carrier of the REE are most likely small particles distributed within the pumpkin seed oil. Unlike, e.g., olive oil, pumpkin seed oil is bottled and sold unfiltered, which makes this Styrian speciality an interesting sampling target. As pumpkin seed oils from different geographic origin show variable trace element and rare earth distribution patterns, is should possible to trace the origin of these oils. In the current project pumpkin seeds from different regions in Austria and from abroad were sampled. The trace element patterns in the extracted oil of these seeds were determined and a preliminary classification with discriminate analysis was successfully done on a statistical basis. In addition to the study of the geographic origin it was demonstrated that REE distribution patterns can also be used for the

  12. Geographical and Botanical Origin of Apis mellifera (Apidae) Honey in four Colombian Departments

    Nates Parra, Guiomar; Montoya, Paula Maria; Chamorro, Fermin J; Ramirez, Nedy; Giraldo, Catalina; Obregon, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find palynological markers which permit differentiate honeys from the departments of Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Santander and Magdalena, by its geographical and botanical origin. Melissopalynological analyses were made of 184 honey samples obtained from 131 localities. A discriminant analysis and comparisons between the species composition of honey samples were made to find geo-graphical and botanical origin differences. A total of 297 pollen species distributed in 69 families was found, being Mimosa sp., Cecropia sp., Eucalyptus sp., Piper sp. and Quercus humboldtii the most representatives. The major families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Myrtaceae, Rubiaceae, Fagaceae and Melastomataceae. Six honey groups differentiated by its geographical origin were found: Altiplano Cundiboyacense, Medio Chicamocha, Sumapaz, Bajo Chicamocha, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Comunera Province. In a broader scale, honeys from the Andean and sub-Andean regions could be differentiated as well. Between the honey types differentiated by its botanical origin, the most important were monofloral honeys of Trifolium pratense, Coffea arabica, Eucalyptus sp., Inga sp. and Heliocarpus americanus, Asteraceae oligofloral honeys and mixtures of Q. humboldtii honeydew and floral nectar (Eucalyptussp., Brassicaceae Type, Asteraceae). This information in addition to the obtained by physico-chemical and sensorial analysis, may be the basis to acquire honeys' origin denomination.

  13. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  14. Genetic characterization of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) breeding and hybrid lines with different geographic origins.

    Furdui, Emilia M; Mărghitaş, Liviu A; Dezmirean, Daniel S; Paşca, Ioan; Pop, Iulia F; Erler, Silvio; Schlüns, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    The domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori L. comprises a large number of geographical breeds and hybrid lines. Knowing the genetic structure of those may provide information to improve the conservation of commercial lines by estimating inbreeding over generations and the consequences of excessive use of those lineages. Here, we analyzed the genetic diversity of seven breeds and eight hybrid lines from Eastern Europe and Asia using highly polymorphic microsatellites markers to determine its genetical impact on their use in global breeding programs. No consistent pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was found for most breed and hybrids; and the absence of a linkage disequilibrium also suggests that the strains are in equilibrium. A principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear separation of two silkworm breeds from the rest: one (IBV) originated from India and the other one (RG90) from Romania/Japan. The tendency of the other breeds from different geographic origins to cluster together in a general mix might be due to similar selection pressures (climate and anthropogenic factors) in different geographic locations. Phylogenetic analyses grouped the different silkworm breeds but not the hybrids according to their geographic origin and confirmed the pattern found in the principal coordinate analysis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Clone-specific differences in Pragmites australis: Effects of ploidy level and geographic origin

    Hansen, D.; Lambertini, Carla; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    2007-01-01

    by the geographic origin, the euploidy level (4x, 6x, 8x and 12x), and to assess differences between native and introduced clones in North America. Growth, morphology, photosynthetic characteristics, photosynthetic pigments and enzymes were measured on 11 geographically distinct clones propagated in a common...... result in an increase in plant size, probably because the number of cell divisions during development is reduced. Four North American clones were included in the study. The clone from the Atlantic Coast and the supposed invasive European clone resembled each other. The Gulf Coast clone differed from...

  16. The geographical origin and chemical composition in phellinus mushrooms measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Lim, J.M.; Sun, G.M.; Moon, J.H.; Chung, Y.S.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    In order to expand the utilization of phellinus mushrooms as a dietary supplement, we attempted to evaluate the chemical composition by measuring its inorganic elemental content with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Twenty seven phellinus mushrooms samples were collected from Korea, Cambodia, and Vietnam. A total of 28 elements were analyzed in the phellinus mushroom samples using the INAA. The concentrations of Ca, K, and Mg are much higher than those of other elements in phellinus mushroom samples. The sum of determined elemental concentration in Cambodia samples was about 2-6 times higher than those in Korea and Vietnam samples, respectively. Based on our measurement data, we attempted to discriminate the geographical origin using principal components analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The geographical origins of all samples were clearly classified with correct classification rate of 100%. (author)

  17. Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

    Heidi G. Parker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

  18. Uptake of combination antiretroviral therapy and HIV disease progression according to geographical origin in seroconverters in Europe, Canada, and Australia

    Jarrin, Inma; Pantazis, Nikos; Gill, M John

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences by geographical origin (GO) in time from HIV seroconversion (SC) to AIDS, death, and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (cART).......We examined differences by geographical origin (GO) in time from HIV seroconversion (SC) to AIDS, death, and initiation of antiretroviral therapy (cART)....

  19. Determination of geographical origin and icariin content of Herba Epimedii using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Yang, Yue; Wu, Yongjiang; Li, Weili; Liu, Xuesong; Zheng, Jiyu; Zhang, Wentao; Chen, Yong

    2018-02-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to discriminate the geographical origin of Herba Epimedii in this work. Four different classification models, namely discriminant analysis (DA), back propagation neural network (BPNN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and support vector machine (SVM), were constructed, and their performances in terms of recognition accuracy were compared. The results indicated that the SVM model was superior over the other models in the geographical origin identification of Herba Epimedii. The recognition rates of the optimum SVM model were up to 100% for the calibration set and 94.44% for the prediction set, respectively. In addition, the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy with the CARS-PLSR calibration model in prediction of icariin content of Herba Epimedii was also investigated. The determination coefficient (RP2) and root-mean-square error (RMSEP) for prediction set were 0.9269 and 0.0480, respectively. It can be concluded that the NIR spectroscopy technique in combination with chemometrics has great potential in determination of geographical origin and icariin content of Herba Epimedii. This study can provide a valuable reference for rapid quality control of food products.

  20. IAEA verification of weapon-origin fissile material in the Russian Federation and the United States

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Russian Federation Minister of Atomic Energy Alexander Rumyantsev, United States Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham and Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Mohamed ElBaradei met in Vienna on 16 September 2002 to review the status of the Trilateral Initiative and agree on its future direction. The parties concluded that the task entrusted to the Trilateral Initiative Working Group in 1996 has been fulfilled. The work completed has demonstrated practical approaches for IAEA verification of weapon-origin fissile material designated as released from defence programmes in classified forms or at certain sensitive facilities. The work included the examination of technical, legal and financial issues associated with such verification. The removal of weapon-origin fissile material from defence programmes of the Russian Federation and the United States is in furtherance of the commitment to disarmament steps undertaken by the two States pursuant to Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). IAEA verification of the materials declared excess to nuclear weapons programmes and made subject to this Initiative would build international confidence that this material will never again be used in nuclear weapons. Minister Rumyantsev, Secretary Abraham and Director General ElBaradei recognized the value of the groundbreaking work completed over the last six years. Building on the work completed, they directed the technical experts to begin without delay discussions on future possible cooperation within the trilateral format. Minister Rumyantsev, Secretary Abraham and Director General ElBaradei agreed that the Principals would meet again in September 2003 to review progress within the trilateral format. (IAEA)

  1. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A barcode of organellar genome polymorphisms identifies the geographic origin of Plasmodium falciparum strains

    Preston, Mark D.; Campino, Susana; Assefa, Samuel A.; Echeverry, Diego F.; Ocholla, Harold; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Stewart, Lindsay B.; Conway, David J.; Borrmann, Steffen; Michon, Pascal; Zongo, Issaka; Oué draogo, Jean-Bosco; Djimde, Abdoulaye A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Nosten, Francois; Pain, Arnab; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris J.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Sutherland, Colin J.; Roper, Cally; Clark, Taane G.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem that is actively being addressed in a global eradication campaign. Increased population mobility through international air travel has elevated the risk of re-introducing parasites to elimination areas and dispersing drug-resistant parasites to new regions. A simple genetic marker that quickly and accurately identifies the geographic origin of infections would be a valuable public health tool for locating the source of imported outbreaks. Here we analyse the mitochondrion and apicoplast genomes of 711 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 14 countries, and find evidence that they are non-recombining and co-inherited. The high degree of linkage produces a panel of relatively few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that is geographically informative. We design a 23-SNP barcode that is highly predictive (?92%) and easily adapted to aid case management in the field and survey parasite migration worldwide. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. A barcode of organellar genome polymorphisms identifies the geographic origin of Plasmodium falciparum strains

    Preston, Mark D.

    2014-06-13

    Malaria is a major public health problem that is actively being addressed in a global eradication campaign. Increased population mobility through international air travel has elevated the risk of re-introducing parasites to elimination areas and dispersing drug-resistant parasites to new regions. A simple genetic marker that quickly and accurately identifies the geographic origin of infections would be a valuable public health tool for locating the source of imported outbreaks. Here we analyse the mitochondrion and apicoplast genomes of 711 Plasmodium falciparum isolates from 14 countries, and find evidence that they are non-recombining and co-inherited. The high degree of linkage produces a panel of relatively few single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that is geographically informative. We design a 23-SNP barcode that is highly predictive (?92%) and easily adapted to aid case management in the field and survey parasite migration worldwide. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Discriminating the Geographical Origins of Chinese White Lotus Seeds by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    Lu Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traceability of a Chinese white lotus seed (WLS with Protected Designation of Origin (PDO was investigated using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Three chemometrics methods, discrimination analysis (DA, class modeling, and a newly proposed strategy, the fusion of DA and class modeling, were investigated to compare their capacity to trace the geographical origins of WLS. Least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM was developed to distinguish the PDO WLS from non-PDO WLS of four main producing areas. A class modeling technique, one-class partial least squares (OCPLS, was developed only using the data of PDO WLS. By the fusion of LS-SVM and OCPLS, the best prediction sensitivity and specificity were 0.900 and 0.973, respectively. The results indicate that fusion of DA and class modeling can enhance the specificity for detection of non-PDO products. The conclusion is that DA and class modeling should be combined for tracing food geographical origins.

  5. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): An apomictic invader on three continents

    Assessing the propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive populations using molecular markers provides insights into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) is an apomictic perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, Argentina, Canada and the USA. Invasive biotypes...

  7. Rapid Determination of the Geographical Origin of Chinese Red Peppers (Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim. Based on Sensory Characteristics and Chemometric Techniques

    Xiangqian Yin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDAp, artificial neural networks (ANN, and support vector machine (SVM were applied to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.. The models based on color, smell and taste may discriminate quickly and effectively the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, but the successful identification rates may vary with different kinds of parameters and chemometric methods. Among them, all models based on taste indexes showed an excellent ability to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers with correct classifications of 100% for the training set and the 100% for test set. The present study provided a simple, efficient, inexpensive, practical and fast method to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, which was of great importance for both consumers and producers.

  8. Rapid Determination of the Geographical Origin of Chinese Red Peppers (Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim.) Based on Sensory Characteristics and Chemometric Techniques.

    Yin, Xiangqian; Xu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2018-04-24

    In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDAp, artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM) were applied to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers ( Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.). The models based on color, smell and taste may discriminate quickly and effectively the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, but the successful identification rates may vary with different kinds of parameters and chemometric methods. Among them, all models based on taste indexes showed an excellent ability to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers with correct classifications of 100% for the training set and the 100% for test set. The present study provided a simple, efficient, inexpensive, practical and fast method to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, which was of great importance for both consumers and producers.

  9. Characterization of the human DNA gut virome across populations with different subsistence strategies and geographical origin.

    Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Soverini, Matteo; Quercia, Sara; Barone, Monica; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Gallinella, Giorgio; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco

    2017-11-01

    It is a matter of fact that the human gut microbiome also includes a non-bacterial fraction represented by eukaryotic cells and viruses. To further explore the gut microbiome variation in human populations, here we characterized the human DNA viral community from publicly available gut metagenome data sets from human populations with different geographical origin and lifestyle. In particular, such data sets encompass microbiome information from two western urban societies (USA and Italy), as well as two traditional hunter-gatherer communities (the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru) and one pre-agricultural tribe (Tunapuco from Peru). Our results allowed for the first taxonomic reconstruction of the complex viral metacommunities within the human gut. The core virome structure included herpesviruses, papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, adenoviruses and anelloviruses. Using Random Forests and a co-occurrence analysis approach, we identified the viruses that distinguished populations according to their geographical origin and/or lifestyle. This paves the way for new research aimed at investigating the biological role of the gut virome in human physiology, and the importance of our viral counterpart in the microbiome-host co-evolutionary process. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Control of Authenticity and Geographic Origin of Austrian, Slovenian, Romanian, Montenegrin and Argentinean wine

    Horacek, Micha; Papesch, Wolfgang; Ogrinc, Nives; Magdas, Alina; Wunderlin, Daniel; Misurovic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Consumers are willing to pay elevated prices for specific product qualities, e.g. for food from a certain region, thus there is the need to control the correct declaration of origin of these products. Conventionally this is done by estimating the flow of goods and by controlling the documentation accompanying the products. However, this means are often not sufficient to detect intentional deception. Since the 1990-ies the EU controls the authenticity of wine by isotope analyses of authentic wine samples from every wine-producing EU-country. Initially this was implemented to counteract adulteration of wine, but the produced data can also be used for the control geographic origin of wine samples. The measurement of the stable isotope composition of wine offers the possibility to investigate the product itself. The stable isotope ratios of the elements C and O are varying geographically due to diverse environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, soil, altitude, geography, cultivation…) thus creating individual patterns for different regions. Therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can be a potent tool for geographic differentiation. We investigated the stable isotope composition (C and O) of wine samples from Austria, Slovenia, Romania, Montenegro and Argentina from the years 2008 and 2009. Significant isotope variations are identified within samples from the same country as well as between samples from different countries, evidencing the potential of identifying wine from different regions in an individual country as well as discriminating wine from different countries. Also differences between the two investigated vintages exist, due to variations in the respective climate conditions.

  11. Verifying the geographic origin of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) with DNA-fingerprints.

    Degen, B; Ward, S E; Lemes, M R; Navarro, C; Cavers, S; Sebbenn, A M

    2013-01-01

    Illegal logging is one of the main causes of ongoing worldwide deforestation and needs to be eradicated. The trade in illegal timber and wood products creates market disadvantages for products from sustainable forestry. Although various measures have been established to counter illegal logging and the subsequent trade, there is a lack of practical mechanisms for identifying the origin of timber and wood products. In this study, six nuclear microsatellites were used to generate DNA fingerprints for a genetic reference database characterising the populations of origin of a large set of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae) samples. For the database, leaves and/or cambium from 1971 mahogany trees sampled in 31 stands from Mexico to Bolivia were genotyped. A total of 145 different alleles were found, showing strong genetic differentiation (δ(Gregorious)=0.52, F(ST)=0.18, G(ST(Hedrick))=0.65) and clear correlation between genetic and spatial distances among stands (r=0.82, P<0.05). We used the genetic reference database and Bayesian assignment testing to determine the geographic origins of two sets of mahogany wood samples, based on their multilocus genotypes. In both cases the wood samples were assigned to the correct country of origin. We discuss the overall applicability of this methodology to tropical timber trading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the geographic origin of the invasive grey squirrel using DNA sequencing: Implications for management strategies

    Claire D. Stevenson-Holt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The invasive grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis has become a major pest species causing negative effects to forestry and biodiversity. This study aims to assess the origin of grey squirrel within Cumbria using phylogeographic analysis to aid in management and control. The work reported analysed mitochondrial DNA sequences in the D-Loop gene of 73 grey squirrel individuals from multiple locations in the UK. The results indicate that individuals in north Cumbria are derived from individuals from Scotland and North East England. Other individuals in north Cumbria share a unique haplotype with south Cumbria and Lancashire suggesting a southerly origin and movement around or over the Cumbrian Mountain range which is thought of as a barrier to movements. The assessment of invasive species geographical origin and the identification of potential wildlife transit corridors through natural barriers are becoming more important as species shift range in response to environmental and ecological changes. With the grey squirrel population expansion also occurring in Italy, the European red squirrel may become threatened across its entire range. It is crucial to understand the population origins of the invasive grey squirrel and landscape usage to successfully manage the incursion routes and control the population.

  13. Honeydew Honeys: A Review on the Characterization and Authentication of Botanical and Geographical Origins.

    Pita-Calvo, Consuelo; Vázquez, Manuel

    2018-03-21

    The commercial interest in honeydew honeys (from the secretions of plants or the excretions of plant-sucking insects found on plants) is increasing because of their higher therapeutic properties compared with those of most blossom honeys (from nectar). However, honeydew honeys have been less studied than blossom honeys. In this work, studies carried out to characterize and authenticate honeydew honeys by their botanical and geographical origins have been reviewed. The identification of honey origins has been approached by two ways: by the analysis of chemical markers and by the development of analytical methodologies combined with multivariate analyses. Some compounds have been suggested as specific botanical markers of several honeydew honeys, such as quercitol and trans-oak lactone for oak honey, 2-aminoacetophenone and propylanisol for holm oak honey, and 1-chloro-octane and tridecane for pine honey. The presence of 3-carene and an unidentified compound in samples was proposed as a way discriminate between Greek and Turkish pine honeys. Chemometric analyses have been applied on chemical compositions and on physicochemical, microscopic, and spectral parameters and have proved to be valuable methods for authenticating honeydew honeys. Analytical methods based on spectral information are suitable for the routine control of honeydew-honey origins because they are fast and require easy sample preparations.

  14. Geographic population structure analysis of worldwide human populations infers their biogeographical origins

    Elhaik, Eran; Tatarinova, Tatiana; Chebotarev, Dmitri; Piras, Ignazio S.; Maria Calò, Carla; De Montis, Antonella; Atzori, Manuela; Marini, Monica; Tofanelli, Sergio; Francalacci, Paolo; Pagani, Luca; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali; Cucca, Francesco; Schurr, Theodore G.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Melendez, Carlalynne; Vilar, Miguel G.; Owings, Amanda C.; Gómez, Rocío; Fujita, Ricardo; Santos, Fabrício R.; Comas, David; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Zalloua, Pierre; Soodyall, Himla; Pitchappan, Ramasamy; GaneshPrasad, ArunKumar; Hammer, Michael; Matisoo-Smith, Lisa; Wells, R. Spencer; Acosta, Oscar; Adhikarla, Syama; Adler, Christina J.; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Clarke, Andrew C.; Cooper, Alan; Der Sarkissian, Clio S. I.; Haak, Wolfgang; Haber, Marc; Jin, Li; Kaplan, Matthew E.; Li, Hui; Li, Shilin; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Merchant, Nirav C.; Mitchell, John R.; Parida, Laxmi; Platt, Daniel E.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Renfrew, Colin; Lacerda, Daniela R.; Royyuru, Ajay K.; Sandoval, Jose Raul; Santhakumari, Arun Varatharajan; Soria Hernanz, David F.; Swamikrishnan, Pandikumar; Ziegle, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    The search for a method that utilizes biological information to predict humans’ place of origin has occupied scientists for millennia. Over the past four decades, scientists have employed genetic data in an effort to achieve this goal but with limited success. While biogeographical algorithms using next-generation sequencing data have achieved an accuracy of 700 km in Europe, they were inaccurate elsewhere. Here we describe the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) algorithm and demonstrate its accuracy with three data sets using 40,000–130,000 SNPs. GPS placed 83% of worldwide individuals in their country of origin. Applied to over 200 Sardinians villagers, GPS placed a quarter of them in their villages and most of the rest within 50 km of their villages. GPS’s accuracy and power to infer the biogeography of worldwide individuals down to their country or, in some cases, village, of origin, underscores the promise of admixture-based methods for biogeography and has ramifications for genetic ancestry testing. PMID:24781250

  15. The Evolutionary Relationships between Endosymbiotic Green Algae of Paramecium bursaria Syngens Originating from Different Geographical Locations.

    Zagata, Patrycja; Greczek-Stachura, Magdalena; Tarcz, Sebastian; Rautian, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria (Ehrenberg 1831), a freshwater ciliate, typically harbors hundreds of green algal symbionts inside the cell. The aim of present study was the molecular identification of newly analyzed P. bursaria symbionts. The second aspect of the present survey was testing a hypothesis whether endosymbionts prefer the specified syngen of the host, and the specified geographical distribution. Ten strains of endosymbionts isolated from strains of P. bursaria originating from different geographical locations were studied. We analyzed for the first time, both the fragment of plastid genome containing 3'rpl36-5' infA genes and a fragment of a nuclear gene encoding large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rDNA). The analysis of the LSU rDNA sequences showed the existence of 3 haplotypes and the haplotype diversity of 0.733, and 8 haplotypes for the 3'rpl36-5' infA gene fragment and haplotype diversity of 0.956. The endosymbionts isolated from P. bursaria strains were identified as Chlorella vulgaris, Ch. variabilis and Micractinium conductrix. There was no correlation between the syngen of P. bursaria and the species of endosymbiont.

  16. Organelle DNA haplotypes reflect crop-use characteristics and geographic origins of Cannabis sativa.

    Gilmore, Simon; Peakall, Rod; Robertson, James

    2007-10-25

    Comparative sequencing of cannabis individuals across 12 chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA loci revealed 7 polymorphic sites, including 5 length variable regions and 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Simple PCR assays were developed to assay these polymorphisms, and organelle DNA haplotypes were obtained for 188 cannabis individuals from 76 separate populations, including drug-type, fibre-type and wild populations. The haplotype data were analysed using parsimony, UPGMA and neighbour joining methods. Three haplotype groups were recovered by each analysis method, and these groups are suggestive of the crop-use characteristics and geographical origin of the populations, although not strictly diagnostic. We discuss the relationship between our haplotype data and taxonomic opinions of cannabis, and the implications of organelle DNA haplotyping to forensic investigations of cannabis.

  17. The Geographic Origins of Ethnic Groups in the Indian Subcontinent: Exploring Ancient Footprints with Y-DNA Haplogroups

    David G. Mahal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have evaluated the movements of large populations to the Indian subcontinent; however, the ancient geographic origins of smaller ethnic communities are not clear. Although historians have attempted to identify the origins of some ethnic groups, the evidence is typically anecdotal and based upon what others have written before. In this study, recent developments in DNA science were assessed to provide a contemporary perspective by analyzing the Y chromosome haplogroups of some key ethnic groups and tracing their ancient geographical origins from genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A total of 2,504 Y-DNA haplotypes, representing 50 different ethnic groups in the Indian subcontinent, were analyzed. The results identified 14 different haplogroups with 14 geographic origins for these people. Moreover, every ethnic group had representation in more than one haplogroup, indicating multiple geographic origins for these communities. The results also showed that despite their varied languages and cultural differences, most ethnic groups shared some common ancestors because of admixture in the past. These findings provide new insights into the ancient geographic origins of ethnic groups in the Indian subcontinent. With about 2,000 other ethnic groups and tribes in the region, it is expected that more scientific discoveries will follow, providing insights into how, from where, and when the ancestors of these people arrived in the subcontinent to create so many different communities.

  18. Level of evidence and geographic origin of articles published in Chilean dental journals.

    Javier Moraga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the geographic origin and level of evidence (LE of articles published in Chilean dental journals during 2012. The target population for the bibliometric study was articles published in exclusively-scientific Chilean dental journals. These variables were analyzed: journal, area, language, country, region, design, scenario, and LE. A total of 120 articles were published in four journals: International Journal of Odontostomatology (IJOS=59, Revista Clínica de Periodoncia, Implantología y Rehabilitación Oral (PIRO=28, Journal of Oral Research (JOR=18, and Revista Dental de Chile (RDC=15. From the total, 80.83% were published in Spanish and 70% had a Chilean affiliation. Most publications corresponded to areas of pathology (21 others (20 and prosthodontics (20. None of the articles was Level 1 Evidence, 6.49% was 2b, 14.29% was 2c, 63.64% was 4, and 15.58% was 5. Chilean dental journals mainly publish articles of domestic origin and low LE.

  19. Report on the Trilateral Initiative. IAEA verification of weapon-origin material in the Russian Federation and the United States

    Shea, Thomas E.

    2001-01-01

    Just over five years ago, the Trilateral Initiative was launched to investigate the technical, legal and financial issues associated with IAEA verification of weapon-origin fissile material in the Russian Federation and the United States. Since then, the Joint Working Group has developed concepts and equipment suitable for such a verification mission, anticipating that the States would submit classified forms of fissile material to IAEA verification under new agreements developed for this purpose. This article summarizes the accomplishments to date and identifies the future steps foreseen under the Trilateral Initiative. As there is no legal commitment on the Parties to this Initiative as yet, the issues considered are still changing. Since it was launched, the Initiative has been given a sense of importance and weight, raising the expectations of the international community. The Final Document of the 2000 Conference on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), for example, under the review of Article VI of the Treaty, includes the statement to 'complete and implement the Trilateral Initiative'. It was launched following independent statements by the President of the United States beginning in 1993, and by the President of the Russian Federation in 1996. It is an Initiative between the IAEA, the Russian Federation and the United States that is in the context of Article VI of the NPT. The intention is to examine the technical, legal and financial issues associated with IAEA verification of weapon origin and other fissile material released from defense programmes in those two countries

  20. Rapid direct analysis to discriminate geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils by flash gas chromatography electronic nose and chemometrics.

    Melucci, Dora; Bendini, Alessandra; Tesini, Federica; Barbieri, Sara; Zappi, Alessandro; Vichi, Stefania; Conte, Lanfranco; Gallina Toschi, Tullia

    2016-08-01

    At present, the geographical origin of extra virgin olive oils can be ensured by documented traceability, although chemical analysis may add information that is useful for possible confirmation. This preliminary study investigated the effectiveness of flash gas chromatography electronic nose and multivariate data analysis to perform rapid screening of commercial extra virgin olive oils characterized by a different geographical origin declared in the label. A comparison with solid phase micro extraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry was also performed. The new method is suitable to verify the geographic origin of extra virgin olive oils based on principal components analysis and discriminant analysis applied to the volatile profile of the headspace as a fingerprint. The selected variables were suitable in discriminating between "100% Italian" and "non-100% Italian" oils. Partial least squares discriminant analysis also allowed prediction of the degree of membership of unknown samples to the classes examined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Tracing the geographic origin of traded leopard body parts in the indian subcontinent with DNA-based assignment tests.

    Mondol, Samrat; Sridhar, Vanjulavalli; Yadav, Prasanjeet; Gubbi, Sanjay; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-04-01

    Illicit trade in wildlife products is rapidly decimating many species across the globe. Such trade is often underestimated for wide-ranging species until it is too late for the survival of their remaining populations. Policing this trade could be vastly improved if one could reliably determine geographic origins of illegal wildlife products and identify areas where greater enforcement is needed. Using DNA-based assignment tests (i.e., samples are assigned to geographic locations), we addressed these factors for leopards (Panthera pardus) on the Indian subcontinent. We created geography-specific allele frequencies from a genetic reference database of 173 leopards across India to infer geographic origins of DNA samples from 40 seized leopard skins. Sensitivity analyses of samples of known geographic origins and assignments of seized skins demonstrated robust assignments for Indian leopards. We found that confiscated pelts seized in small numbers were not necessarily from local leopards. The geographic footprint of large seizures appeared to be bigger than the cumulative footprint of several smaller seizures, indicating widespread leopard poaching across the subcontinent. Our seized samples had male-biased sex ratios, especially the large seizures. From multiple seized sample assignments, we identified central India as a poaching hotspot for leopards. The techniques we applied can be used to identify origins of seized illegal wildlife products and trade routes at the subcontinent scale and beyond. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Geographic origins and population genetics of bats killed at wind-energy facilities.

    Pylant, Cortney L; Nelson, David M; Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Gates, J Edward; Keller, Stephen R

    2016-07-01

    An unanticipated impact of wind-energy development has been large-scale mortality of insectivorous bats. In eastern North America, where mortality rates are among the highest in the world, the hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus) and the eastern red bat (L. borealis) comprise the majority of turbine-associated bat mortality. Both species are migratory tree bats with widespread distributions; however, little is known regarding the geographic origins of bats killed at wind-energy facilities or the diversity and population structure of affected species. We addressed these unknowns by measuring stable hydrogen isotope ratios (δ 2 H) and conducting population genetic analyses of bats killed at wind-energy facilities in the central Appalachian Mountains (USA) to determine the summering origins, effective size, structure, and temporal stability of populations. Our results indicate that ~1% of hoary bat mortalities and ~57% of red bat mortalities derive from non-local sources, with no relationship between the proportion of non-local bats and sex, location of mortality, or month of mortality. Additionally, our data indicate that hoary bats in our sample consist of an unstructured population with a small effective size (N e ) and either a stable or declining history. Red bats also showed no evidence of population genetic structure, but in contrast to hoary bats, the diversity contained in our red bat samples is consistent with a much larger N e that reflects a demographic expansion after a bottleneck. These results suggest that the impacts of mortality associated with intensive wind-energy development may affect bat species dissimilarly, with red bats potentially better able to absorb sustained mortality than hoary bats because of their larger N e . Our results provide important baseline data and also illustrate the utility of stable isotopes and population genetics for monitoring bat populations affected by wind-energy development. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Mono- and Heterofloral Bee Pollen of Different Geographical Origins

    Jucilene Silva Araújo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows variations in pollen chemical constituents and, consequently, in their therapeutic properties. Mono and multifloral bee pollen extracts were investigated for antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activity properties, phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition. Generally, Eucalyptus spp. and multifloral extracts exhibited potent inhibitory activity against α-amylase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosinase, lipoxygenase, lipase and hyaluronidase. On the other hand, Miconia spp. demonstrated higher antihemolytic activity. Cocos nucifera and Miconia spp. extracts exhibited important antioxidant properties in the different assays (ABTS, DPPH, β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Moreover, these extracts had greater amounts of total phenols and flavonoids in comparison to others. The increase in antioxidant activity (decrease in EC50 values was accompanied by an increase in the amount of total phenols in the extracts. The pollen extracts contained linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as major fatty acids, followed by palmitic acid, and oleic acid. In this study, differences were observed in both chemical constituents and biological activities of the samples related to the geographical and botanical origin of bee pollen.

  4. Sensory, chemical and morphological characterization of Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata genotypes from different geographical origins

    Pevicharova Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita spp. is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. They are characterized by great polymorphism according plants and fruits traits. The fruits are consumed in different ways as boiled, baked, dried or processed in puree and juice. The aim of the study was to assess variation of fruit sensory, chemical and morphological characteristics of Cucurbita genotypes in order to find appropriate parental components for the future high quality breeding programme. During 2-year period nine winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. and three pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch. genotypes originating from different geographical regions were tested on their morphological characters, basic chemical components and sensory profile. Cluster analysis and Principle component analysis were applied in order to identify similarities of different genotypes. According to the fruit characteristics and plant habitus significant differences were recorded. Considerable variation in the content of dry matter, ascorbic acid, total sugars, total pigments, beta-carotene and sensory assessment of the boiled fruits was established. Accession Moskatna carotina had the best flavour and chemical composition. The studied Cucurbita genotypes are a good basis for performing a breeding program to improve the sensory quality of fruits and increase basic chemical components especially those with antioxidant effect.

  5. Temporal changes in the geographic distribution, elevation, and potential origin of the Martian outflow channels

    Tribe, S.; Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Observational evidence of outflow channel activity on Mars suggests that water was abundant in the planet's early crust. However, with the decline in the planet's internal heat flow, a freezing front developed within the regolith that propagated downward with time and acted as a thermodynamic sink for crustal H2O. One result of this thermal evolution is that, if the initial inventory of water on Mars was small, the cryosphere may have grown to the point where all the available water was taken up as ground ice. Alternatively, if the inventory of H2O exceeds the current pore volume of the cryosphere, then Mars has always possessed extensive bodies of subpermafrost groundwater. We have investigated the relative age, geographic distribution, elevation, and geologic setting of the outflow channels in an effort to accomplish the following: (1) identify possible modes of origin and evolutionary trends in their formation; (2) gain evidence regarding the duration and spatial distribution of groundwater in the crust; and (3) better constraint estimates of the planetary inventory of H2O.

  6. Iodine status in pregnancy: role of dietary habits and geographical origin.

    Mian, Caterina; Vitaliano, Pantaleo; Pozza, Dina; Barollo, Susi; Pitton, Mariangela; Callegari, Giovanna; Di Gianantonio, Elena; Casaro, Anna; Nacamulli, Davide; Busnardo, Benedetto; Mantero, Franco; Girelli, Maria Elisa

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted on iodine status during pregnancy and its dependence on dietary habits, racial and geographical origin, and time since arrival in Italy. We enrolled 322 consecutive pregnant women: 217 Italians, 62 Eastern Europeans and 43 from Northern and Central Africa. All women completed a food frequency questionnaire on their dietary habits. The urinary iodide concentration (UIC) was determined in spot morning urine samples. In the group as a whole, the median UIC was 83 microg/l; the UIC was Iodine supplements were used by 40% of the women, and UIC were higher in those who did so than in those who did not (median 103 vs. 75 microg/l, P = 0.03), particularly if the latter did not drink milk (median 98 vs. 42 microg/l, P = 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that milk was the only variable influencing UIC (OR 1.29, P = 0.0005). (i) Iodine levels are too low among pregnant women in our region, and particularly in foreign women. (ii) Cow's milk intake is their main source of iodine. (iii) Iodine supplementation is mandatory during pregnancy, particularly for women do not drink milk.

  7. Diversity and homogeneity among small plasmids of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida linked with geographical origin

    Sabrina A Attéré

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Furunculosis, which is caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, is a major salmonid disease in fish farms worldwide. Several plasmids found in this bacterium confer phenotypes such drug resistance and virulence. Small plasmids (pAsa1, pAsa2, pAsa3, and pAsal1 related to ColE1- and ColE2-type replicons are usually present in its normal plasmidome. In the present study, with the objective to investigate if these plasmids display particularities related to the origin of the isolates bearing them, a total of 153 isolates, including 78 new and 75 previously described, were analyzed for the presence of small plasmids by PCR and DNA restriction fragment profiling. A geographical dichotomy between Canadian and European isolates for their propensity to do not have pAsa3 or pAsal1 was found. In addition, the genotyping analysis led to the identification of two European isolates harboring an unusual pAsal1. An investigation by next-generation sequencing (NGS of these two isolates shed light on two pAsal1 variants (pAsal1C and pAsal1D. As with pAsal1B, another pAsal1 variant previously described, these two new variants bore a second insertion sequence (ISAS5 in addition to the usual ISAS11. The characterization of these variants suggested that they could predominate over the wild-type pAsal1 in stressful conditions such as growth at temperatures of 25°C and above. To obtain a comprehensive portrait of the mutational pressure on small plasmids, 26 isolates whose DNA had been sequenced by NGS were investigated. pAsa3 and pAsal1 were more prone to mutations than pAsa1 and pAsa2, especially in the mobA gene, which encodes a relaxase and a primase. Lastly, the average copy number of each plasmid per cell was assessed using raw sequencing data. A clear trend with respect to the relative proportion per cell of each plasmid was identified. Our large-scale study revealed a geographical dichotomy in small plasmid repertoire in addition to a clear trend

  8. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    Halpenny, Darragh

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications.

  9. Feature selection and recognition from nonspecific volatile profiles for discrimination of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin.

    Guo, Jing; Yue, Tianli; Yuan, Yahong

    2012-10-01

    Apple juice is a complex mixture of volatile and nonvolatile components. To develop discrimination models on the basis of the volatile composition for an efficient classification of apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin, chromatography volatile profiles of 50 apple juice samples belonging to 6 varieties and from 5 counties of Shaanxi (China) were obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography. The volatile profiles were processed as continuous and nonspecific signals through multivariate analysis techniques. Different preprocessing methods were applied to raw chromatographic data. The blind chemometric analysis of the preprocessed chromatographic profiles was carried out. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) revealed satisfactory discriminations of apple juices according to variety and geographical origin, provided respectively 100% and 89.8% success rate in terms of prediction ability. Finally, the discriminant volatile compounds selected by SLDA were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The proposed strategy was able to verify the variety and geographical origin of apple juices involving only a reduced number of discriminate retention times selected by the stepwise procedure. This result encourages the similar procedures to be considered in quality control of apple juices. This work presented a method for an efficient discrimination of apple juices according to apple variety and geographical origin using HS-SPME-GC-MS together with chemometric tools. Discrimination models developed could help to achieve greater control over the quality of the juice and to detect possible adulteration of the product. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Circulation of HIV antigen in blood according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin

    Goudsmit, J.; Paul, D. A.

    1987-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus antigen (HIV-ag) was determined by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in HIV-antibody (anti-HIV) positive as well as pre-anti-HIV seroconversion sera and the results analysed according to stage of infection, risk group, age and geographic origin. Eleven (19%) of 58 homosexual men

  11. Pharmacogenomic diversity among Brazilians: Influence of ancestry, self-reported Color and geographical origin

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of being the product of the genetic admixture of three ancestral roots: Europeans, Africans and Amerindians, the present day Brazilian population displays very high levels of genomic diversity, which have important pharmacogenetic/-genomic (PGx implications. Recognition of this fact has prompted the creation of the Brazilian Pharmacogenomics Network (Refargen, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population heath impact. Here, we present original data and review published results from a Refargen comprehensive study of the distribution of PGx polymorphisms in a representative cohort of the Brazilian people, comprising 1,034 healthy, unrelated adults, self-identified as white, brown or black, according to the Color categories adopted by the Brazilian Census. Multinomial log-linear regression analysis was applied to infer the statistical association between allele, genotype and haplotype distributions among Brazilians (response variables and self-reported Color, geographical region and biogeographical ancestry (explanatory variables, whereas Wright´s FST statistics was used to assess the extent of PGx divergence among different strata of the Brazilian population. Major PGx implications of these findings are: first, extrapolation of data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in several pharmacogenes of clinical relevance (e.g. ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, VKORC varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/Color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts.

  12. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R.; Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C.; Camin, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. ► The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. ► We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. ► Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. ► In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000–2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  13. Statistical methods for improving verification of claims of origin for Italian wines based on stable isotope ratios

    Dordevic, N.; Wehrens, R. [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy); Postma, G.J.; Buydens, L.M.C. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Analytical Chemistry, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Camin, F., E-mail: federica.camin@fmach.it [IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach, via Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all' Adige (Italy)

    2012-12-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of claims of origin is of enormous economic importance for DOC and DOCG wines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The official method is based on univariate statistical tests of H, C and O isotopic ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multivariate statistical analysis leads to much better specificity and easier detection of false claims of origin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the case of multi-modal data, mixture modelling provides additional improvements. - Abstract: Wine derives its economic value to a large extent from geographical origin, which has a significant impact on the quality of the wine. According to the food legislation, wines can be without geographical origin (table wine) and wines with origin. Wines with origin must have characteristics which are essential due to its region of production and must be produced, processed and prepared, exclusively within that region. The development of fast and reliable analytical methods for the assessment of claims of origin is very important. The current official method is based on the measurement of stable isotope ratios of water and alcohol in wine, which are influenced by climatic factors. The results in this paper are based on 5220 Italian wine samples collected in the period 2000-2010. We evaluate the univariate approach underlying the official method to assess claims of origin and propose several new methods to get better geographical discrimination between samples. It is shown that multivariate methods are superior to univariate approaches in that they show increased sensitivity and specificity. In cases where data are non-normally distributed, an approach based on mixture modelling provides additional improvements.

  14. Determination of the Geographical and Botanical Origin of Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) Using Stable Isotopes of C, N, and S.

    Ocvirk, Miha; Ogrinc, Nives; Košir, Iztok Jože

    2018-02-28

    A need exists for a reliable method to determine the geographical and botanical origin of hops. For this study, three sets of samples were collected: the first set comprised 5 German samples; the second set comprised samples of hops from 10 of the world's major hop-growing regions; and the third comprised the 4 main Slovenian regions. The samples were analyzed using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to obtain δ 13 C, δ 15 N, and δ 34 S values. The δ 15 N (2.2 ‰ to 8.4 ‰) and δ 34 S (0.7 ‰ to 12.3 ‰) values were the most discriminating parameters for classifying hop according to geographical origin. ANOVA showed distinct groupings for 8 out of the 10 hop-growing regions. Although it was not possible to distinguish the geographical origin of hops based on δ 13 C (-28.9 ‰ to -24.7 ‰), in the case of botanical origin, δ 13 C values proved to be the most discriminative albeit with limited success.

  15. Propagule pressure, genetic structure, and geographic origins of Chondrilla juncea (Asteraceae): an apomictic invader on three continents.

    Gaskin, John F; Schwarzländer, Mark; Kinter, C Lynn; Smith, James F; Novak, Stephen J

    2013-09-01

    Assessing propagule pressure and geographic origins of invasive species provides insight into the invasion process. Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea; Asteraceae) is an apomictic, perennial plant that is invasive in Australia, South America (Argentina), and North America (Canada and the United States). This study comprehensively compares propagule pressure and geographic structure of genotypes to improve our understanding of a clonal invasion and enhance management strategies. • We analyzed 1056 native range plants from Eurasia and 1156 plants from three invaded continents using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) techniques. We used measures of diversity (Simpson's D) and evenness (E), analysis of molecular variance, and Mantel tests to compare invasions, and genotype similarity to determine origins of invasive genotypes. • We found 682 unique genotypes in the native range, but only 13 in the invaded regions. Each invaded region contained distinct AFLP genotypes, suggesting independent introduction events, probably with different geographic origins. Relatively low propagule pressure was associated with each introduction around the globe, but levels of among-population variation differed. We found exact AFLP genotype matches between the native and invaded ranges for five of the 13 invasive genotypes. • Invasion dynamics can vary across invaded ranges within a species. Intensive sampling for molecular analyses can provide insight for understanding intraspecific invasion dynamics, which can hold significance for the management of plant species, especially by finding origins and distributions of invasive genotypes for classical biological control efforts.

  16. Characterization of volatiles in Beaten cheeses (bieno sirenje by SPME/GC-MC: Influence of geographical origin

    Sulejmani Erhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the volatile profiles of a type of economically important cheeses for the FYR Macedonian dairy sector were characterized. A total of eighteen samples belonged to 6 different geographical regions of Beaten cheese, including cheeses from Kumanovo, Tetovo, Struga, Resen, Veles and Radovish were comparatively studied for their volatile profiles. Sixty two volatile compounds were identified in the cheeses by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the results are discussed based on their chemical classes (18 esters, 13 ketones, 10 acids, 8 alcohols, 5 terpenes, and 8 miscellaneous compounds. Acids, esters and alcohols were the most abundant classes identified and were highly dependent on the geographical origin of cheeses. Beaten cheese from Struga had the highest levels of carboxylic acids, ketones, alcohols, esters and terpenes. The Beaten cheese from other geographical origin had low levels of volatiles probably from the effect of variable characteristics of used milk and different cheese making process which affects the biochemical processes. The results suggest that each cheese from different geographical regions had different volatiles profile and the manufacturing technique as well as the ripening stage of the cheeses played a major role on the volatile compounds’ distribution.

  17. Calorimetric analysis points out the physical-chemistry of organic olive oils and reveals the geographical origin

    Mallamace, Domenico; Vasi, Sebastiano; Corsaro, Carmelo; Naccari, Clara; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dugo, Giacomo; Cicero, Nicola

    2017-11-01

    The thermal properties of many organic extra Virgin Olive Oils (eVOOs) coming from different countries of the world were investigated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). This technique, through a series of heating and cooling cycles, provides a specific curve, i.e., a thermogram, which represents the fingerprint of each eVOO sample. In fact, variations due to the different cultivars, geographical origin or chemical composition can be highlighted because they produce changes in the corresponding thermogram. In particular, in this work, we show the results of an unsupervised multivariate statistical analysis applied to the DSC thermograms of many organic eVOOs. This analysis allows us to discriminate the geographical origin of the different studied samples in terms of the peculiar features shown by the melting profiles of the triacylglycerol moieties.

  18. Pollen Foraging by Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in Greece: Botanical and Geographical Origin

    Dimou Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is very important for honey bee colony development and nutrition. It is also a valuable product for human consumption, considered to have high nutritional value. In this study, we performed melissopalynological analysis of 285 pollen load samples collected from 44 apiaries throughout Greece. The analysis revealed 229 plant taxa represented in total. The abundance of each pollen type varied among the geographical areas from which the samples were collected. We also observed variation among samples collected from the same geographical region. The most frequently found families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Rosaceae. The most frequently observed taxa were Brassicaceae, Carduus type, Cistus and Papaver rhoeas. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical classification of pollen samples among northern, central and southern Greece is possible.

  19. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the tr...

  20. Discrimination of Medicine Radix Astragali from Different Geographic Origins Using Multiple Spectroscopies Combined with Data Fusion Methods

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Song, Chao; Sha, Min; Liu, Jun; Li, Li-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Yong

    2018-05-01

    Raman spectra and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra of four different geographic origins of Radix Astragali were collected. These data were analyzed using kernel principal component analysis combined with sparse representation classification. The results showed that the recognition rate reached 70.44% using Raman spectra for data input and 90.34% using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra for data input. A new fusion method based on Raman combined with ultraviolet-visible data was investigated and the recognition rate was increased to 96.43%. The experimental results suggested that the proposed data fusion method effectively improved the utilization rate of the original data.

  1. Development and assessment of a lysophospholipid-based deep learning model to discriminate geographical origins of white rice.

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lim, Dong Kyu; Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Kwon, Sung Won

    2017-08-17

    Geographical origin determination of white rice has become the major issue of food industry. However, there is still lack of a high-throughput method for rapidly and reproducibly differentiating the geographical origins of commercial white rice. In this study, we developed a method that employed lipidomics and deep learning to discriminate white rice from Korea to China. A total of 126 white rice of 30 cultivars from different regions were utilized for the method development and validation. By using direct infusion-mass spectrometry-based targeted lipidomics, 17 lysoglycerophospholipids were simultaneously characterized within minutes per sample. Unsupervised data exploration showed a noticeable overlap of white rice between two countries. In addition, lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) were prominent in white rice from Korea while lysophosphatidylethanolamines (lysoPEs) were enriched in white rice from China. A deep learning prediction model was built using 2014 white rice and validated using two different batches of 2015 white rice. The model accurately discriminated white rice from two countries. Among 10 selected predictors, lysoPC(18:2), lysoPC(14:0), and lysoPE(16:0) were the three most important features. Random forest and gradient boosting machine models also worked well in this circumstance. In conclusion, this study provides an architecture for high-throughput classification of white rice from different geographical origins.

  2. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry in combination with chemometrics for characterization of geographical origin and agronomic practices of table grape.

    Longobardi, Francesco; Casiello, Grazia; Centonze, Valentina; Catucci, Lucia; Agostiano, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Although table grape is one of the most cultivated and consumed fruits worldwide, no study has been reported on its geographical origin or agronomic practice based on stable isotope ratios. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of isotopic ratios (i.e. 2 H/ 1 H, 13 C/ 12 C, 15 N/ 14 N and 18 O/ 16 O) as possible markers to discriminate the agronomic practice (conventional versus organic farming) and provenance of table grape. In order to quantitatively evaluate which of the isotopic variables were more discriminating, a t test was carried out, in light of which only δ 13 C and δ 18 O provided statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) for the discrimination of geographical origin and farming method. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed no good separation of samples differing in geographical area and agronomic practice; thus, for classification purposes, supervised approaches were carried out. In particular, general discriminant analysis (GDA) was used, resulting in prediction abilities of 75.0 and 92.2% for the discrimination of farming method and origin respectively. The present findings suggest that stable isotopes (i.e. δ 18 O, δ 2 H and δ 13 C) combined with chemometrics can be successfully applied to discriminate the provenance of table grape. However, the use of bulk nitrogen isotopes was not effective for farming method discrimination. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Differences in virulence and sporulation of Phytophthora kernoviae isolates originating from two distinct geographical regions

    Phytophthora kernoviae has only been isolated from the United Kingdom (U.K.) and New Zealand. To understand what differences may exist between isolates from these two distinct geographical regions, virulence studies on three host plants and sporulation on host leaves were conducted on select isolat...

  4. Cultural Diversity, Geographical Isolation, and the Origin of the Wealth of Nations

    Quamrul Ashraf; Oded Galor

    2011-01-01

    This research argues that variations in the interplay between cultural assimilation and cultural diffusion have played a significant role in giving rise to differential patterns of economic development across the globe. Societies that were geographically less vulnerable to cultural diffusion benefited from enhanced assimilation, lower cultural diversity, and more intense accumulation of society-specific human capital. Thus, they operated more efficiently with respect to their production-possi...

  5. Determination of the geographic origin of rice by chemometrics with strontium and lead isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Shinozaki, Miyuki; Kawasaki, Akira

    2012-02-22

    The objective of this study was to develop a technique for determining the country of origin of rice in the Japanese market. The rice samples included a total of 350 products grown in Japan (n = 200), the United States (n = 50), China (n = 50), and Thailand (n = 50). In this study, (87)Sr/(86)Sr and Pb isotope ((204)Pb, (206)Pb, (207)Pb, and (208)Pb) ratios and multielement concentrations (Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Ba) were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. By combining three chemometric techniques based on different principles and determination criteria, the countries of origin of rice were determined. The predictions made by 10-fold cross-validation were around 97% accurate. The presented method demonstrated the effectiveness of determining the geographic origin of an agricultural product by combining several chemometric techniques using heavy element isotope ratios and multielement concentrations.

  6. Analysis of 14C and 13C in teeth provides precise birth dating and clues to geographical origin.

    Alkass, K; Buchholz, B A; Druid, H; Spalding, K L

    2011-06-15

    The identification of human bodies in situations when there are no clues as to the person's identity from circumstantial data, poses a difficult problem to the investigators. The determination of age and sex of the body can be crucial in order to limit the search to individuals that are a possible match. We analyzed the proportion of bomb pulse derived carbon-14 ((14)C) incorporated in the enamel of teeth from individuals from different geographical locations. The 'bomb pulse' refers to a significant increase in (14)C levels in the atmosphere caused by above ground test detonations of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955-1963). By comparing (14)C levels in enamel with (14)C atmospheric levels systematically recorded over time, high precision birth dating of modern biological material is possible. Above ground nuclear bomb testing was largely restricted to a couple of locations in the northern hemisphere, producing differences in atmospheric (14)C levels at various geographical regions, particularly in the early phase. Therefore, we examined the precision of (14)C birth dating of enamel as a function of time of formation and geographical location. We also investigated the use of the stable isotope (13)C as an indicator of geographical origin of an individual. Dental enamel was isolated from 95 teeth extracted from 84 individuals to study the precision of the (14)C method along the bomb spike. For teeth formed before 1955 (N=17), all but one tooth showed negative Δ(14)C values. Analysis of enamel from teeth formed during the rising part of the bomb-spike (1955-1963, N=12) and after the peak (>1963, N=66) resulted in an average absolute date of birth estimation error of 1.9±1.4 and 1.3±1.0 years, respectively. Geographical location of an individual had no adverse effect on the precision of year of birth estimation using radiocarbon dating. In 46 teeth, measurement of (13)C was also performed. Scandinavian teeth showed a substantially greater depression in

  7. Virulence Studies of Different Sequence Types and Geographical Origins of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 in a Mouse Model of Infection

    Jean-Philippe Auger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus sequence typing previously identified three predominant sequence types (STs of Streptococcus suis serotype 2: ST1 strains predominate in Eurasia while North American (NA strains are generally ST25 and ST28. However, ST25/ST28 and ST1 strains have also been isolated in Asia and NA, respectively. Using a well-standardized mouse model of infection, the virulence of strains belonging to different STs and different geographical origins was evaluated. Results demonstrated that although a certain tendency may be observed, S. suis serotype 2 virulence is difficult to predict based on ST and geographical origin alone; strains belonging to the same ST presented important differences of virulence and did not always correlate with origin. The only exception appears to be NA ST28 strains, which were generally less virulent in both systemic and central nervous system (CNS infection models. Persistent and high levels of bacteremia accompanied by elevated CNS inflammation are required to cause meningitis. Although widely used, in vitro tests such as phagocytosis and killing assays require further standardization in order to be used as predictive tests for evaluating virulence of strains. The use of strains other than archetypal strains has increased our knowledge and understanding of the S. suis serotype 2 population dynamics.

  8. Potential use of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses for traceability of geographic origins of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas).

    Gong, Yi; Li, Yunkai; Chen, Xinjun; Chen, Ling

    2018-04-15

    Squid is an important seafood resource for Asian and European countries. With the continuous development of processed squid products, an effective traceability system has become increasingly prominent. Here, we attempt to trace the fishery products of the main target species, jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas), by using biochemical tracers. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ 13 C and δ 15 N values) and fatty acid profiles were identified in squid from three harvest locations in the eastern Pacific Ocean by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. Comparative analysis was used to evaluate the geographic variations in tracers and to identify the suitable discriminatory variables among origins. Significant spatial variations were found in isotopic values and fatty acid profiles in squid muscle tissues, possibly because of different food availability and/or oceanographic conditions that each group experiences at a given location. The stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that δ 15 N, C16:1n7, C17:1n7, C18:2n6, C20:1 and C20:4n6 were effective variables at differentiating origin. Combined use of stable isotope ratios and fatty acid analyses could trace geographic origins of jumbo squid. This study provides an alternative approach for improving authenticity evaluation of commercial squid products. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Geographic determination of the growing origins of Jamaican and international coffee using instrumental neutron activation analysis and other methods

    Antoine, J.M.R.; Hoo Fung, L.A.; Grant, Ch.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether elemental analysis could distinguish the growing origins of Jamaican versus international coffee and identify intra-island growing regions. Twenty-four samples of roasted and ground coffee and soluble coffee were collected and analysed using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Sixteen elements were selected for statistical evaluation. Soluble clustered discretely from roasted and ground samples. The distinction among roasted and ground samples was not as discrete. Geographic growing regions could be determined by statistical analysis; separating the growing sub-regions in Jamaica would require additional analyses. (author)

  10. 87Sr/88Sr a useful tool for the identification of geographic origin of Styrian pumpkin seed oils?

    Meisel, T.; Bandoniene, D.; Zettl, D.; Maneiko, M.; Horschinegg, M.

    2012-04-01

    The authenticity and the geographic origin of Styrian pumpkin seed oil (PGI) a regional specialty needs to be protected, but the current specification of this high priced product does not include the proof of origin through analytical tools. As it turns out, this and many other products within the Protected Geographical Status (PGS) framework of the European Union, cannot be protected from fraud without forensic tools. In previous studies we were able to demonstrate, that distribution and content of trace elements in particular the rare earth elements, are useful parameters to discriminate Austrian from non-Austrian pumpkin seed oils and seeds. Unlike stable isotopes ratios (C and H), the trace element patterns are not influenced by changes in weather conditions and temperature during growing and harvesting cycle. Though the study of the distribution of element traces can be used not only for the identification of the geographic origin with very useful PLS and PCA models but also can identify fraud through mixing with other oils, this method need to be validated by other means. Radiogenic isotopes, in particular the 87Sr/86Sr isotope amount ratio has been successfully applied to food and other products for forensic studies. In this study we determined the 87Sr/86Sr isotope amount ratio in pumpkin seed oils extracted from seeds of known geographic origin from Austria, Russia and China, as these are the largest producers, to see if significant differences occur and if they can be used as a forensic tool. Although the total area of the Russian and the Chinese crop fields are magnitudes larger than the ones from Austria, it turns out that the variance of the Austrian 87Sr/86Sr data is much larger than that from other sources. Reasons are the large diversity of the Austrian geology (pre-varsican, alpine to sub-recent ages of the underlying bedrock of the soils can be found), the small farm sizes and the small scale production. In Russia large farms are situated on

  11. Classification of soil samples according to their geographic origin using gamma-ray spectrometry and principal component analysis

    Dragovic, Snezana; Onjia, Antonije

    2006-01-01

    A principal component analysis (PCA) was used for classification of soil samples from different locations in Serbia and Montenegro. Based on activities of radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 238 U, 235 U, 4 K, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 7 Be) detected by gamma-ray spectrometry, the classification of soils according to their geographical origin was performed. Application of PCA to our experimental data resulted in satisfactory classification rate (86.0% correctly classified samples). The obtained results indicate that gamma-ray spectrometry in conjunction with PCA is a viable tool for soil classification

  12. Espresso beverages of pure origin coffee: mineral characterization, contribution for mineral intake and geographical discrimination.

    Oliveira, Marta; Ramos, Sandra; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Morais, Simone

    2015-06-15

    Espresso coffee beverages prepared from pure origin roasted ground coffees from the major world growing regions (Brazil, Ethiopia, Colombia, India, Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Kenya, Cuba, Timor, Mussulo and China) were characterized and compared in terms of their mineral content. Regular consumption of one cup of espresso contributes to a daily mineral intake varying from 0.002% (sodium; Central America) to 8.73% (potassium; Asia). The mineral profiles of the espresso beverages revealed significant inter- and intra-continental differences. South American pure origin coffees are on average richer in the analyzed elements except for calcium, while samples from Central America have generally lower mineral amounts (except for manganese). Manganese displayed significant differences (pworld coffee producers were achieved by applying canonical discriminant analysis. Manganese and calcium were found to be the best chemical descriptors for origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using molecular tools to identify the geographical origin of a case of human brucellosis.

    Muchowski, J K; Koylass, M S; Dainty, A C; Stack, J A; Perrett, L; Whatmore, A M; Perrier, C; Chircop, S; Demicoli, N; Gatt, A B; Caruana, P A; Gopaul, K K

    2015-10-01

    Although Malta is historically linked with the zoonosis brucellosis, there had not been a case of the disease in either the human or livestock population for several years. However, in July 2013 a case of human brucellosis was identified on the island. To determine whether this recent case originated in Malta, four isolates from this case were subjected to molecular analysis. Molecular profiles generated using multilocus sequence analysis and multilocus variable number tandem repeat for the recent human case isolates and 11 Brucella melitensis strains of known Maltese origin were compared with others held on in-house and global databases. While the 11 isolates of Maltese origin formed a distinct cluster, the recent human isolation was not associated with these strains but instead clustered with isolates originating from the Horn of Africa. These data was congruent with epidemiological trace-back showed that the individual had travelled to Malta from Eritrea. This work highlights the potential of using molecular typing data to aid in epidemiological trace-back of Brucella isolations and assist in monitoring of the effectiveness of brucellosis control schemes.

  14. Discrimination of geographical origin of lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) using isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with chemometrics.

    Longobardi, F; Casiello, G; Cortese, M; Perini, M; Camin, F; Catucci, L; Agostiano, A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the geographic origin of lentils by using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) in combination with chemometrics. Lentil samples from two origins, i.e. Italy and Canada, were analysed obtaining the stable isotope ratios of δ(13)C, δ(15)N, δ(2)H, δ(18)O, and δ(34)S. A comparison between median values (U-test) highlighted statistically significant differences (porigin but with overlapping zones; consequently, two supervised discriminant techniques, i.e. partial least squares discriminant analysis and k-nearest neighbours algorithm were used. Both models showed good performances with external prediction abilities of about 93% demonstrating the suitability of the methods developed. Subsequently, isotopic determinations were also performed on the protein and starch fractions and the relevant results are reported. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards the determination of the geographical origin of yellow cake samples by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics

    Sirven, J.B.; Pailloux, A.; M'Baye, Y.; Coulon, N.; Alpettaz, Th.; Gosse, St.

    2009-01-01

    Yellow cake is a commonly used name for powdered uranium concentrate, produced with the uranium ore. It is the first step in the fabrication of nuclear fuel. As it contains fissile material its circulation needs to be controlled in order to avoid proliferation. In particular there is an interest in onsite determination of the geographical origin of a sample. The yellow cake elemental composition depends on its production site and can therefore be used to identify its origin. In this work laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) associated with chemometrics techniques is used to discriminate yellow cake samples of different geographical origin. 11 samples, one per origin, are analyzed by a commercial equipment in laboratory experimental conditions. Spectra are then processed by multivariate techniques like Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA). Successive global PCAs are first performed on the whole spectra and enable one to discriminate all samples. The method is then refined by selecting several emission lines in the spectra and by using them as input data of the chemometric treatments. With a SIMCA model applied to these data a rate of correct identification of 100% is obtained for all classes. Then to define the specifications of a future onsite LIBS system, the use of a more compact spectrometer is simulated by a numerical treatment of experimental spectra. Simultaneously the reduction of spectral data used by the model is also investigated to decrease the spectral bandwidth of the measurement. The rate of correct identification remains very high. This work shows the very good ability of SIMCA associated with LIBS to discriminate yellow cake samples with a very high rate of success, in controlled laboratory conditions. (authors)

  16. Classifying wine according to geographical origin via quadrupole-based ICP-mass spectrometry measurements of boron isotope ratios

    Coetzee, Paul P. [University of Johannesburg, Department of Chemistry, Johannesburg (South Africa); Vanhaecke, Frank [Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2005-11-01

    The potential of quadrupole-based ICP-MS as a tool for B-isotopic analysis of wines and its usefulness in provenance determinations were assessed. A precision of 0.1-0.25% RSD (corresponding to a relative standard deviation of the mean of three replicate measurements of 0.06-0.12%) was sufficient to establish small differences in the B isotope ratios in wines from different geographical origins. Each sample measurement was bracketed by measurements of a standard and mass bias drift correction made by interpolation. Sample preparation was kept to a minimum to avoid possible fractionation. Dilution of the wine samples by a factor of 100 with 0.65% HNO{sub 3} was found to reduce matrix-induced mass discrimination substantially. Wines from three wine-producing regions, Stellenbosch, Robertson, and Swartland, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and wines from specific regions in France (Bergerac) and Italy (Valpolicella) were analyzed by ICP-QMS for their B-isotopic compositions. It was concluded that the {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios can be used to characterize wines from different geographical origins. Average {sup 11}B/{sup 10}B ratios in red wines from South Africa (Stellenbosch), France (Bergerac), and Italy (Valpolicella) were found to differ by between 0.5 and 1.5%. (orig.)

  17. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    Cynkar, Wies, E-mail: wies.cynkar@awri.com.au [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Dambergs, Robert [Australian Wine Research Institute, Tasmanian Institute of Agricultural Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 98, Hobart Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel [Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  18. Classification of Tempranillo wines according to geographic origin: Combination of mass spectrometry based electronic nose and chemometrics

    Cynkar, Wies; Dambergs, Robert; Smith, Paul; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Rapid methods employing instruments such as electronic noses (EN) or gas sensors are used in the food and beverage industries to monitor and assess the composition and quality of products. Similar to other food industries, the wine industry has a clear need for simple, rapid and cost effective techniques for objectively evaluating the quality of grapes, wine and spirits. In this study a mass spectrometry based electronic nose (MS-EN) instrument combined with chemometrics was used to predict the geographical origin of Tempranillo wines produced in Australia and Spain. The MS-EN data generated were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) with full cross validation (leave-one-out method). The SLDA classified correctly 86% of the samples while PLS-DA 85% of Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. The relative benefits of using MS-EN will provide capability for rapid screening of wines. However, this technique does not provide the identification and quantitative determination of individual compounds responsible for the different aroma notes in the wine.

  19. Classifying wine according to geographical origin via quadrupole-based ICP-mass spectrometry measurements of boron isotope ratios

    Coetzee, Paul P.; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The potential of quadrupole-based ICP-MS as a tool for B-isotopic analysis of wines and its usefulness in provenance determinations were assessed. A precision of 0.1-0.25% RSD (corresponding to a relative standard deviation of the mean of three replicate measurements of 0.06-0.12%) was sufficient to establish small differences in the B isotope ratios in wines from different geographical origins. Each sample measurement was bracketed by measurements of a standard and mass bias drift correction made by interpolation. Sample preparation was kept to a minimum to avoid possible fractionation. Dilution of the wine samples by a factor of 100 with 0.65% HNO 3 was found to reduce matrix-induced mass discrimination substantially. Wines from three wine-producing regions, Stellenbosch, Robertson, and Swartland, in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and wines from specific regions in France (Bergerac) and Italy (Valpolicella) were analyzed by ICP-QMS for their B-isotopic compositions. It was concluded that the 11 B/ 10 B ratios can be used to characterize wines from different geographical origins. Average 11 B/ 10 B ratios in red wines from South Africa (Stellenbosch), France (Bergerac), and Italy (Valpolicella) were found to differ by between 0.5 and 1.5%. (orig.)

  20. Selected parameters of arabica coffee quality affected by its geographical origin

    Alica Bobková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate selected parameters of Arabica coffee quality. Arabica coffee beans originated from 21 different regions of the world. Parameters of their moisture content, water extract, water extract in dry matter, dry mater, caffeine and caffeine content in dry matter were assessed by the Slovak Technical Standard. Dry matter content ranged from 98.64 to 99.07%, the highest content was measured in sample from Cuba. Minimum dry matter content was detected in coffee beans from Mexico. Caffeine in studied samples ranged from 10 200 mg.kg-1 to 13 500 mg.kg-1. The lowest caffeine content was determined in Panama coffee, the highest was found in the sample from Indonesia. The results of moisture content and caffeine in dry mater were evaluated by the Food Code of the Slovak Republic and all observed parameters in the coffee beans meet the maximum levels given in legislation. By statistical procesing it can be seen that coffee samples originating from Ecuador, Indonesia and Nepal were similar in parameters of caffeine content and caffeine in dry matter. Other similar samples originating from Cuba, Peru, Ethiopia and Panama were statistically similar at dry matter content. Special statistical group was coffee from Salvador at the parameters of water extract and water extract in dry matter. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Multiple geographic origins of commensalism and complex dispersal history of Black Rats.

    Aplin, Ken P; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Chinen, Alejandro A; Chesser, R Terry; Ten Have, José; Donnellan, Stephen C; Austin, Jeremy; Frost, Angela; Gonzalez, Jean Paul; Herbreteau, Vincent; Catzeflis, Francois; Soubrier, Julien; Fang, Yin-Ping; Robins, Judith; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Bastos, Amanda D S; Maryanto, Ibnu; Sinaga, Martua H; Denys, Christiane; Van Den Bussche, Ronald A; Conroy, Chris; Rowe, Kevin; Cooper, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The Black Rat (Rattus rattus) spread out of Asia to become one of the world's worst agricultural and urban pests, and a reservoir or vector of numerous zoonotic diseases, including the devastating plague. Despite the global scale and inestimable cost of their impacts on both human livelihoods and natural ecosystems, little is known of the global genetic diversity of Black Rats, the timing and directions of their historical dispersals, and the risks associated with contemporary movements. We surveyed mitochondrial DNA of Black Rats collected across their global range as a first step towards obtaining an historical genetic perspective on this socioeconomically important group of rodents. We found a strong phylogeographic pattern with well-differentiated lineages of Black Rats native to South Asia, the Himalayan region, southern Indochina, and northern Indochina to East Asia, and a diversification that probably commenced in the early Middle Pleistocene. We also identified two other currently recognised species of Rattus as potential derivatives of a paraphyletic R. rattus. Three of the four phylogenetic lineage units within R. rattus show clear genetic signatures of major population expansion in prehistoric times, and the distribution of particular haplogroups mirrors archaeologically and historically documented patterns of human dispersal and trade. Commensalism clearly arose multiple times in R. rattus and in widely separated geographic regions, and this may account for apparent regionalism in their associated pathogens. Our findings represent an important step towards deeper understanding the complex and influential relationship that has developed between Black Rats and humans, and invite a thorough re-examination of host-pathogen associations among Black Rats.

  2. Volatile profile of cashews (Anacardium occidentale L.) from different geographical origins during roasting.

    Agila, Amal; Barringer, Sheryl Ann

    2011-01-01

    Volatile compounds were quantified in the headspace of Indian, Vietnamese, and Brazilian cashews, both raw and during roasting by selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry. The optimum roasting times based on color measurements were also determined. Raw cashews were oil roasted for 3 to 9 min at 143 °C and color and volatiles measured. An excellent correlation, following a pseudo 1st-order reaction, was found between L* value and roasting time; darkness increases as roasting time increases. The optimum roasting time was 6, 8, and 9 min for Vietnamese, Indian, and Brazilian cashews, respectively. Raw cashews had lower concentrations of volatiles than roasted cashews. Most volatiles significantly increased in concentration during roasting of Brazilian, Indian, and Vietnamese cashews. Only a few volatiles significantly decreased during roasting. Ethanol and 1-heptene significantly decreased during roasting in Brazilian cashews and toluene decreased in Vietnamese cashews. Brazilian cashews had significantly higher levels of most volatiles than Indian and Vietnamese cashews. Most volatile levels in Indian and Vietnamese cashews were not significantly different. Of the volatiles, Strecker aldehydes, including methylbutanal, 2-methylpropanal, and acetaldehyde, were at the highest concentration in roasted cashews. The Maillard reaction contributed to the formation of most of the volatiles in cashews from the 3 countries. There was also degradation of sugars to form furan-type compounds and oxidation of lipids to form alkanals such as hexanal. The volatile profile during roasting of cashews can be used to determine the best roasting time for each type of cashew. The rate of color development and the production of volatiles differ for the cashews from the 3 geographical locations. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Molecular phylogeography of canine distemper virus: Geographic origin and global spreading.

    Panzera, Yanina; Sarute, Nicolás; Iraola, Gregorio; Hernández, Martín; Pérez, Ruben

    2015-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) (Paramyxoviridae-Morbillivirus) is a worldwide spread virus causing a fatal systemic disease in a broad range of carnivore hosts. In this study we performed Bayesian inferences using 208 full-length hemagglutinin gene nucleotide sequences isolated in 16 countries during 37 years (1975-2011). The estimated time to the most recent common ancestor suggested that current CDV strains emerged in the United States in the 1880s. This ancestor diversified through time into two ancestral clades, the current America 1 lineage that recently spread to Asia, and other ancestral clade that diversified and spread worldwide to originate the remaining eight lineages characterized to date. The spreading of CDV was characterized by several migratory events with posterior local differentiation, and expansion of the virus host range. A significant genetic flow between domestic and wildlife hosts is displayed; being domestic hosts the main viral reservoirs worldwide. This study is an extensive and integrative description of spatio/temporal population dynamics of CDV lineages that provides a novel evolutionary paradigm about the origin and dissemination of the current strains of the virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of 1H NMR for the characterisation of cocoa beans of different geographical origins and fermentation levels.

    Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Acquotti, Domenico; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-15

    This study reports for the first time the use of (1)H NMR technique combined with chemometrics to study the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans of different varieties, origin and fermentation levels. Results of PCA applied to cocoa bean (1)H NMR dataset showed that the main factor influencing the cocoa bean metabolic profile is the fermentation level. In fact well fermented brown beans form a group clearly separated from unfermented, slaty, and underfermented, violet, beans, independently of the variety or geographical origin. Considering only well fermented beans, the metabolic profile obtained by (1)H NMR permitted to discriminate between some classes of samples. The National cocoa of Ecuador, known as Arriba, showed the most peculiar characteristics, while the samples coming from the African region showed some similar traits. The dataset obtained, representative of all the classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was therefore useful to characterise fermented cocoa beans as a function of their origin and fermentation level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Original Article. Geographic distribution of Fusarium culmorum chemotypes associated with wheat crown rot in Iraq

    Matny Oadi N.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium crown rot (FCR is an important disease of wheat and other grains that has had a significant impact on cereal crop production worldwide. Fusarium species associated with FCR can also produce powerful trichothecenes mycotoxins that pose a considerable health risk to humans and animals that consume infected grains. In this study we examined Fusarium species of wheat from different regions of Iraq that showed FCR symptoms. Twenty-nine isolates were collected overall, and the marker gene translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF-1α was sequenced in order to determine their taxonomic identities. All isolates were determined to be F. culmorum, and primers targeting tri-cluster genes were used in order to further characterize isolates into specific trichothecene chemotype strains. Five of the 29 isolates were determined to be the nivalenol (NIV chemotype, while the rest of the isolates recovered were the deoxynivalenol (DON chemotype. All DON-type isolates produced 3Ac-DON, while the 15Ac-DON-type was not detected. The majority of the NIV-type isolates originated from wheat growing regions in the mid-latitudes of Iraq, while the DON-type isolates were recovered from areas distributed broadly across the country. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report on the distribution of specific F. culmorum chemotypes from FCR diseased wheat in Iraq.

  6. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Berna, Amalia Z., E-mail: Amalia.Berna@csiro.au [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Trowell, Stephen [CSIRO Entomology and Food Futures Flagship, PO Box 1700, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Clifford, David [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, Locked Bag 17, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel [The Australian Wine Research Institute, Waite Road, Urrbrae, PO Box 197, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia)

    2009-08-26

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  7. Geographical origin of Sauvignon Blanc wines predicted by mass spectrometry and metal oxide based electronic nose

    Berna, Amalia Z.; Trowell, Stephen; Clifford, David; Cynkar, Wies; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of 34 Sauvignon Blanc wine samples from three different countries and six regions was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that there were three distinct clusters or classes of wines with different aroma profiles. Wines from the Loire region in France and Australian wines from Tasmania and Western Australia were found to have similar aroma patterns. New Zealand wines from the Marlborough region as well as the Australian ones from Victoria were grouped together based on the volatile composition. Wines from South Australia region formed one discrete class. Seven analytes, most of them esters, were found to be the relevant chemical compounds that characterized the classes. The grouping information obtained by GC-MS, was used to train metal oxide based electronic (MOS-Enose) and mass spectrometry based electronic (MS-Enose) noses. The combined use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and ethanol removal prior to MOS-Enose analysis, allowed an average error of prediction of the regional origins of Sauvignon Blanc wines of 6.5% compared to 24% when static headspace (SHS) was employed. For MS-Enose, the misclassification rate was higher probably due to the requirement to delimit the m/z range considered.

  8. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  9. Portuguese Honeys from Different Geographical and Botanical Origins: A 4-Year Stability Study Regarding Quality Parameters and Antioxidant Activity.

    Soares, Sonia; Pinto, Diana; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2017-08-11

    Portuguese honeys (n = 15) from different botanical and geographical origins were analysed regarding their quality parameters (diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, moisture and pH), colour (L*, a*, b*) and antioxidant profile (total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, DPPH• scavenging activity, and ferric reducing power). The samples were analysed fresh and after 4-years of storage (at 25 °C and protected from light). The hydroxymethylfurfural content and diastase activity of the fresh samples were in accordance with the recommended values described in the legislation. In general, the antioxidant activity of the samples correlated more with the bioactive compounds content than with colour. The storage affected differently each individual sample, especially regarding the antioxidant profile. Nevertheless, although in general the lightness of the samples decreased (and the redness increased), after 4 years, 11 samples still presented acceptable diastase activity and hydroxymethylfurfural values.

  10. Variation in some quality attributes of Atlantic salmon fillets from aquaculture related to geographic origin and water temperature

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2017-01-01

    an efficient use of the information gathered in the different links of the value chain, a deeper knowledge of the correlations between the various quality attributes and factors like the geographical origin of the salmon, the company and the water temperature of the fish farm, is needed. In the present study......It is well know that factors like fat content and texture affect the yield when making products from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The relation between these factors and other quality attributes like water holding capacity and protein content, however, has received limited attention. To enable...... a multivariate approach was taken to investigate the variation in some quality parameters (fat, protein, texture, water holding capacity, weight) amongst salmon samples (n = 136) from Norwegian aquaculture in order to establish which parameters were accounting for most of the variation seen in relation...

  11. Geographical origin of Leucobryum boninense Sull. & Lesq. (Leucobryaceae, Musci) endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    Oguri, Emiko; Yamaguchi, Tomio; Tsubota, Hiromi; Deguchi, Hironori; Murakami, Noriaki

    2013-04-01

    Leucobryum boninense is endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan, and its related species are widely distributed in Asia and the Pacific. We aimed to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among Leucobryum species and infer the origin of L. boninense. We also describe the utility of the chloroplast trnK intron including matK for resolving the phylogenetic relationships among Leucobryum species, as phylogenetic analyses using trnK intron and/or matK have not been performed well in bryophytes to date. Fifty samples containing 15 species of Leucobryum from Asia and the Pacific were examined for six chloroplast DNA regions including rbcL, rps4, partial 5' trnK intron, matK, partial 3' trnK intron, and trnL-F intergenic spacer plus one nuclear DNA region including ITS. A molecular phylogenetic tree showed that L. boninense made a clade with L. scabrum from Japan, Taiwan and, Hong Kong; L. javense which is widely distributed in East and Southeast Asia, and L. pachyphyllum and L. seemannii restricted to the Hawaii Islands, as well as with L. scaberulum from the Ryukyus, Japan, Taiwan, and southeastern China. Leucobryum boninense from various islands of the Bonin Islands made a monophylic group that was closely related to L. scabrum and L. javense from Japan. Therefore, L. boninense may have evolved from L. scabrum from Japan, Taiwan, or Hong Kong, or L. javense from Japan. We also described the utility of trnK intron including matK. A percentage of the parsimony-informative characters in trnK intron sequence data (5.8%) was significantly higher than that from other chloroplast regions, rbcL (2.4%) and rps4 (3.2%) sequence data. Nucleotide sequence data of the trnK intron including matK are more informative than other chloroplast DNA regions for identifying the phylogenetic relationships among Leucobryum species.

  12. Determination of the geographic origin of onions between three main production areas in Japan and other countries by mineral composition.

    Ariyama, Kaoru; Aoyama, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Akashi; Homura, Yuji; Kadokura, Masashi; Yasui, Akemi

    2007-01-24

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are produced in many countries and are one of the most popular vegetables in the world, thus leading to an enormous amount of international trade. It is currently important that a scientific technique be developed for determining geographic origin as a means to detect fraudulent labeling. We have therefore developed a technique based on mineral analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The onion samples used in this study were from Hokkaido, Hyogo, and Saga, which are the primary onion-growing areas in Japan, and those from countries that export onions to Japan (China, the United States, New Zealand, Thailand, Australia, and Chile). Of 309 samples, 108 were from Hokkaido, 52 were from Saga, 77 were from Hyogo, and 72 were from abroad. Fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, and Ba) in the samples were determined by frame atomic adsorption spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The models established by LDA were used to discriminate the geographic origin between Hokkaido and abroad, Hyogo and abroad, and Saga and abroad. Ten-fold cross-validations were conducted using these models. The discrimination accuracies obtained by cross-validation between Hokkaido and abroad were 100 and 86%, respectively. Those between Hyogo and abroad were 100 and 90%, respectively. Those between Saga and abroad were 98 and 90%, respectively. In addition, it was demonstrated that the fingerprint of an element pattern from a specific production area, which a crop receives, did not easily change by the variations of fertilization, crop year, variety, soil type, and production year if appropriate elements were chosen.

  13. [Data fusion and multi-components quantitative analysis for identification and quality evaluation of Gentiana rigescens from different geographical origins].

    Wang, Qin-Qin; Shen, Tao; Zuo, Zhi-Tian; Huang, Heng-Yu; Wang, Yuan-Zhong

    2018-03-01

    The accumulation of secondary metabolites of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is closely related to its origins. The identification of origins and multi-components quantitative evaluation are of great significance to ensure the quality of medicinal materials. In this study, the identification of Gentiana rigescens from different geographical origins was conducted by data fusion of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in combination of partial least squares discriminant analysis; meanwhile quantitative analysis of index components was conducted to provide an accurate and comprehensive identification and quality evaluation strategy for selecting the best production areas of G. rigescens. In this study, the FTIR and HPLC information of 169 G. rigescens samples from Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi and Guizhou Provinces were collected. The raw infrared spectra were pre-treated by multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate (SNV) and Savitzky-Golay (SG) derivative. Then the performances of FTIR, HPLC, and low-level data fusion and mid-level data fusion for identification were compared, and the contents of gentiopicroside, swertiamarin, loganic acid and sweroside were determined by HPLC. The results showed that the FTIR spectra of G. rigescens from different geographical origins were different, and the best pre-treatment method was SNV+SG-derivative (second derivative, 15 as the window parameter, and 2 as the polynomial order). The results showed that the accuracy rate of low- and mid-level data fusion (96.43%) in prediction set was higher than that of FTIR and HPLC (94.64%) in prediction set. In addition, the accuracy of low-level data fusion (100%) in the training set was higher than that of mid-level data fusion (99.12%) in training set. The contents of the iridoid glycosides in Yunnan were the highest among different provinces. The average content of gentiopicroside, as a bioactive marker in Chinese

  14. Live birth sex ratios and father's geographic origins in Jerusalem, 1964-1976.

    Groeger, J; Opler, M; Kleinhaus, K; Perrin, M C; Calderon-Margalit, R; Manor, O; Paltiel, O; Conley, D; Harlap, S; Malaspina, D

    2017-05-06

    To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. Of all live births recorded, 51.4% were male. Relative to Jewish ancestry (51.4% males), significantly more males (1,761) were born to Muslim ancestry (54.5, 95% CI = 52.1-56.8, P = 0.01). Among the former, sex ratios were not significantly associated with paternal or maternal age, education, or offspring's birth order. Consistent with a preference for male offspring, the sex ratio decreased despite increasing numbers of births over the 13-year period. Sex ratios were not affected by maternal or paternal origins in North Africa or Europe. However, the offspring whose paternal grandfathers were born in Western Asia included fewer males than expected (50.7, 50.1-51.3, P = 0.02), whether the father was born abroad (50.7) or in Israel (50.8). This was observed for descendents of paternal grandfathers born in Lebanon (47.6), Turkey (49.9), Yemen & Aden (50.2), Iraq (50.5), Afghanistan (50.5), Syria (50.6), and Cyprus (50.7); but not for those from India (51.5) or Iran (51.9). The West Asian group showed the strongest decline in sex ratios with increasing paternal family size. A decreased sex ratio associated with ancestry in Western Asia is consistent with reduced ability to bear sons by a subset of Jewish men in the Jerusalem cohort. Lower sex ratios may be because of pregnancy stress, which may be higher in this subgroup. Alternatively, a degrading Y chromosome haplogroup or other genetic or epigenetic differences on male germ lines could affect birth ratios, such as differential exposure to an environmental agent, dietary

  15. Live birth sex ratios and father’s geographic origins in Jerusalem, 1964–1976

    Groeger, J; Opler, M; Kleinhaus, K; Perrin, MC; Calderon-Margalit, R; Manor, O; Paltiel, O; Conley, D; Harlap, S; Malaspina, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. Methods We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. Results Of all live births recorded, 51.4% were male. Relative to Jewish ancestry (51.4% males), significantly more males (1,761) were born to Muslim ancestry (54.5, 95% CI=52.1–56.8, p=.01). Among the former, sex ratios were not significantly associated with paternal or maternal age, education, or offspring’s birth order. Consistent with a preference for male offspring, the sex ratio decreased despite increasing numbers of births over the 13-year period. Sex ratios were not affected by maternal or paternal origins in North Africa or Europe. However, the offspring whose paternal grandfathers were born in Western Asia included fewer males than expected (50.7, 50.1–51.3, p=.02), whether the father was born abroad (50.7) or in Israel (50.8). This was observed for descendents of paternal grandfathers born in Lebanon (47.6), Turkey (49.9), Yemen & Aden (50.2), Iraq (50.5), Afghanistan (50.5), Syria (50.6), and Cyprus (50.7); but not for those from India (51.5) or Iran (51.9). The West Asian group showed the strongest decline in sex ratios with increasing paternal family size. Conclusions A decreased sex ratio associated with ancestry in Western Asia is consistent with reduced ability to bear sons by a subset of Jewish men in the Jerusalem cohort. Lower sex ratios may be due to pregnancy stress, which may be higher in this subgroup. Alternatively, a degrading Y chromosome haplogroup or other genetic or epigenetic differences on male germ lines could affect birth ratios, such as differential exposure to an

  16. Geographic origin as a determinant of left ventricular mass and diastolic function - the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Vähämurto, L; Juonala, M; Ruohonen, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Kähönen, M; Laitinen, T; Tossavainen, P; Jokinen, E; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T; Pahkala, K

    2018-03-01

    Eastern Finns have higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and carotid intima-media thickness than western Finns although current differences in CHD risk factors are minimal. Left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic function predict future cardiovascular events but their east-west differences are unknown. We examined the association of eastern/western baseline origin with LV mass and diastolic function. The study population included 2045 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data from the baseline survey (1980) and the latest follow-up (2011) when echocardiography was performed at the age of 34-49 years. Subjects with eastern baseline origin had in 2011 higher LV mass (139±1.0 vs. 135±1.0 g, p=0.006) and E/e'-ratio indicating weaker LV diastolic function (4.86±0.03 vs. 4.74±0.03, p=0.02) than western subjects. Results were independent of age, sex, area of examination and CHD risk factors such as blood pressure and BMI (LV mass indexed with height: porigin (135±0.9 vs. 131±0.9 ml, p=0.0011) but left atrial end-systolic volume, also indicating LV diastolic function, was not different between eastern and western subjects (43.4±0.5 vs. 44.0±0.5 ml, p=0.45). Most of the subjects were well within the normal limits of these echocardiographic measurements. In our healthy middle-aged population, geographic origin in eastern Finland associated with higher LV mass compared to western Finland. Higher E/e'-ratio suggests that subjects with eastern baseline origin might have higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in the future than western subjects.

  17. Geographical origin and sexual-system evolution of the androdioecious plant Gynochthodes boninensis (Rubiaceae), endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan.

    Oguri, Emiko; Sugawara, Takashi; Peng, Ching-I; Yang, T Y Aleck; Murakami, Noriaki

    2013-09-01

    Gynochthodes boninensis is a woody climber endemic to the Bonin Islands, Japan. It is characterized by an androdioecious sexual system, which is rare in angiosperms. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 29 taxa including 61 samples from the tribe Morindeae to elucidate the geographical origin of G. boninensis by determining its progenitor species. We also investigated evolutionary transitions among different sexual systems within this plant group. The combined ETS, ITS, and trnT-F sequence data showed that G. boninensis formed a monophyletic group, but it did not form a clade with G. umbellata, which was treated as the same species, whereas it formed a clade with G. parvifolia, which is distributed in southeastern Asia. This suggests that G. boninensis evolved independently from G. umbellata, and probably originated from a progenitor native to southeastern Asia. In the clade composed of the three species of G. boninensis, G. parvifolia, and G. umbellata, only G. boninensis is androdioecious, whereas the others are dioecious. Thus, the androdioecious sexual system of G. boninensis may have evolved from dioecy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploring the Effects of Geographical Origin on the Chemical Composition and Quality Grading of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay Grapes.

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Cozzolino, Daniel; Bastian, Susan E P; Jeffery, David W

    2017-01-31

    The relationship between berry chemical composition, region of origin and quality grade was investigated for Chardonnay grapes sourced from vineyards located in seven South Australian Geographical Indications (GI). Measurements of basic chemical parameters, amino acids, elements, and free and bound volatiles were conducted for grapes collected during 2015 and 2016. Multiple factor analysis (MFA) was used to determine the sets of data that best discriminated each GI and quality grade. Important components for the discrimination of grapes based on GI were 2-phenylethanol, benzyl alcohol and C6 compounds, as well as Cu, Zn, and Mg, titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), and pH. Discriminant analysis (DA) based on MFA results correctly classified 100% of the samples into GI in 2015 and 2016. Classification according to grade was achieved based on the results for elements such as Cu, Na, Fe, volatiles including C6 and aryl alcohols, hydrolytically-released volatiles such as (Z)-linalool oxide and vitispirane, pH, TSS, alanine and proline. Correct classification through DA according to grade was 100% for both vintages. Significant correlations were observed between climate, GI, grade, and berry composition. Climate influenced the synthesis of free and bound volatiles as well as amino acids, sugars, and acids, as a result of higher temperatures and precipitation.

  19. Influence of geographical origin and flour type on diversity of lactic acid bacteria in traditional Belgian sourdoughs.

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-10-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough.

  20. Influence of Geographical Origin and Flour Type on Diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Traditional Belgian Sourdoughs▿ †

    Scheirlinck, Ilse; Van der Meulen, Roel; Van Schoor, Ann; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc; Vandamme, Peter; Huys, Geert

    2007-01-01

    A culture-based approach was used to investigate the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in Belgian traditional sourdoughs and to assess the influence of flour type, bakery environment, geographical origin, and technological characteristics on the taxonomic composition of these LAB communities. For this purpose, a total of 714 LAB from 21 sourdoughs sampled at 11 artisan bakeries throughout Belgium were subjected to a polyphasic identification approach. The microbial composition of the traditional sourdoughs was characterized by bacteriological culture in combination with genotypic identification methods, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR fingerprinting and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS) gene sequence analysis. LAB from Belgian sourdoughs belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Weissella, and Enterococcus, with the heterofermentative species Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pontis as the most frequently isolated taxa. Statistical analysis of the identification data indicated that the microbial composition of the sourdoughs is mainly affected by the bakery environment rather than the flour type (wheat, rye, spelt, or a mixture of these) used. In conclusion, the polyphasic approach, based on rapid genotypic screening and high-resolution, sequence-dependent identification, proved to be a powerful tool for studying the LAB diversity in traditional fermented foods such as sourdough. PMID:17675431

  1. Application of PCA-LDA method to determine the geographical origin of tea based on determination of stable isotopes and multi-elements

    Yuan Yuwei; Zhang Yongzhi; Yang Guiling; Zhang Zhiheng; Fu Haiyan; Han Wenyan; Li Shufang

    2013-01-01

    The ratio of stable isotope and concentration of multi-element in tea was determinated with isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Pattern recognition techniques with principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to classify the geographical origins of tea from Fujian, Shandong and Zhejiang province, and Yuyao, Jinhua and Xihu region of Zhejiang. The results showed the values of δ"1"5N, δ"1"3C, δD, δ"1"8O and the ratios of "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb, "2"0"8Pb/"2"0"6Pb and "8"7Sr/"8"6Sr in tea samples were different from different origins. There was also large variable for the concentrations of 27 mineral elements, such as Li, Be, Na and so on, with a specific character of origin. The method of PCA could be used to classify the geographical origin of tea from different origins but with a cross in the scatter plot. However, PCA combining with LDA could gave correct assignation percentages of 99% for the tea samples among Fujian, Shandong and Zhejiang provinces, and 87% for the tea samples among Yuyao, Jinhua and Xihu region of Zhejiang. These results revealed that it was possible and feasible to classify the geographical origin of tea by the method of PCA-LDA based on the determination of isotopes and multi-elements. (authors)

  2. Effects of grown origin, genotype, harvest year, and their interactions of wheat kernels on near infrared spectral fingerprints for geographical traceability.

    Zhao, Haiyan; Guo, Boli; Wei, Yimin; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of origin, genotype, harvest year, and their interactions on wheat near infrared (NIR) spectra were studied to find the reasons for differences in NIR fingerprints of wheat from different geographical origins and the stability of NIR fingerprints among different years. Ten varieties were grown in three regions of China for 2 years. 180 kernel samples were analysed by NIR. The spectra after pre-treatment were analysed by principal component analysis, multi-way analysis of variance, and discriminant partial least-squares. The results showed that origin, genotype, year, and their interactions all had significant effects on wheat NIR fingerprints. The second overtones of N-H and C-H stretching vibrations and a combination of stretch and deformation of C-H group in wheat were mainly influenced by the geographical origin. The wavelength ranges 975-990 nm, 1200 nm, and 1355-1380 nm contained plenty of origin information to build robust discriminant models of wheat geographical origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of geographical origin, variety and farming system on the chemical markers and in vitro antioxidant capacity of Brazilian purple grape juices

    Margraf, Tiago; Santos, Érica Neulyana Taborda; Andrade, de Eriel Forville; Ruth, van Saskia M.; Granato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The effects of farming system, geographical origin, and grape variety on the in vitro antioxidant capacity, some physicochemical properties and chemical composition were investigated. Major and minor phenolic compounds, reducing and antioxidant assays using chemical and biological systems were

  4. Integration of HPLC-based fingerprint and quantitative analyses for differentiating botanical species and geographical growing origins of Rhizoma coptidis.

    Lv, Xiumei; Li, Yan; Tang, Ce; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Gang

    2016-12-01

    Rhizoma coptidis is a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The investigation of the influence of species and geographical origins on the phytochemicals of R. coptidis is crucial for its reasonable application and quality control. Development of an effective method to systematically study the phytochemical variations of the rhizomes of three Coptis species (Ranunculaceae) (Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall.) and a species (i.e., C. chinensis) obtained from both Daodi and non-Daodi production regions. The three species had significant differences in their phytochemicals. The rhizome of C. chinensis contained more epiberberine (13.52 ± 2.65 mg/g), palmatine (18.20 ± 2.89 mg/g), coptisine (23.32 ± 4.27 mg/g) and columbamine (4.89 ± 1.16 mg/g), whereas the rhizomes of C. deltoidea and C. teeta showed the highest level of jatrorrhizine (8.52 ± 1.36 mg/g) and berberine (81.06 ± 4.83 mg/g), respectively. Moreover, the rhizome of C. chinensis from three Daodi production regions (Shizhu, Lichuan and Emeishan) contained more alkaloids than those from three non-Daodi production regions (Mianyang, Shifang and Zhenping). It is necessary to use the three R. coptidis species differentially in TCM clinical practice. Daodi C. chinensis medicinal materials have better quality than most non-Daodi ones, and so they should be preferred for TCM prescription. The combination of HPLC-based fingerprint analysis and quantification of multi-ingredients with statistical analysis provided an effective approach for species discrimination and quality evaluation of R. coptidis.

  5. Use of seed protein polymorphism for discrimination of improvement level and geographic origin of upland rice cultivars

    Ricardo Montalván

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain proteins from 58 Brazilian and nine Japanese upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L. were electrophoretically separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Densitometric scanning of the electrophoretic profiles permitted the estimation of the relative concentration of 16 protein fractions, which were used as variables for the calculation of Fisher's canonical discriminating functions. Significant differences between mean values of protein fractions were useful in distinguishing Brazilian and Japanese cultivars, as well as improved and non-improved Brazilian rice cultivars in scattered plots. Electrophoretically detectable protein polymorphism in rice grain can indicate geographic origin as well as breeding improvement level of a cultivar. Improved cultivars were those released by plant breeding institutes.Proteínas de grão de 58 genótipos de arroz brasileiro e nove japoneses foram separadas por meio de eletroforese (SDS-PAGE. A observação densitométrica dos perfis eletroforéticos permitiu avaliar as concentrações relativas de 16 frações protéicas que foram usadas como variáveis para a estimativa de funções discriminantes de Fisher. Diferenças significantes foram encontradas entre as frações protéicas dos grupos brasileiros e japoneses, assim como entre os genótipos melhorados e não melhorados. O polimorfismo protéico detectável eletroforetica-mente nos grãos de arroz pode indicar a origem geográfica e o nível de melhoramento dos cultivares.

  6. Geographic origin of publications in radiological journals as a function of GDP and percentage of GDP spent on research.

    Halpenny, Darragh; Burke, John; McNeill, Graeme; Snow, Aisling; Torreggiani, William C

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the geographic origin of publications in the highest impacting radiology journals and to examine the link between the percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on research by a country and the output of radiology publications. The five highest impacting general radiology journals (according to the ISI Web of Knowledge database) were selected over a 6-year period from January 2002 to December 2007. Publications were totaled according to the country of the corresponding author. Publications (total and corrected for population size) were assessed according to the GDP of a given country and the percentage of GDP spent on research in that country. Correlation was determined using Spearman's rank. In total, 10,925 papers were identified. The top 10 nations produced 83.9% of the total number of papers. The United States was the most prolific country, with 41.7% of the total. The second-ranked and third-ranked countries were Germany (11.6%) and Japan (6.7%). Corrected for GDP, smaller European countries outperformed larger nations. Switzerland (0.925 publications per billion of GDP), Austria (0.694 publications per billion of GDP), and Belgium (0.648 publications per billion of GDP) produced the most papers per billion of GDP. When corrected for percentage of GDP spent on research, European countries again ranked highest, with Greece, Turkey, and Belgium having the best ratios. The percentage of GDP spent on research was positively correlated with the number of publications in high-ranking radiology journals (r = 0.603, P GDP and the percentage of GDP spent on research may give more meaningful results. When GDP is taken into consideration, smaller European countries are more productive. The importance of investment in radiologic research is emphasized by the association between increased funding of research and the number of publications in high-impacting radiology journals. Copyright (c) 2010 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  7. Feasibility of using a bacteriophage-based structural color sensor for screening the geographical origins of agricultural products

    Seol, Daun; Moon, Jong-Sik; Lee, Yujin; Han, Jiye; Jang, Daeil; Kang, Dong-Jin; Moon, Jiyoung; Jang, Eunjin; Oh, Jin-Woo; Chung, Hoeil

    2018-05-01

    An M13 bacteriophage-based color sensor, which can change its structural color upon interaction with a gaseous molecule, was evaluated as a screening tool for the discrimination of the geographical origins of three different agricultural products (garlic, onion, and perilla). Exposure of the color sensor to sample odors induced the self-assembled M13 bacteriophage bundles to swell by the interaction of amino acid residues (repeating units of four glutamates) on the bacteriophage with the odor components, resulting in a change in the structural color of the sensor. When the sensor was exposed to the odors of garlic and onion samples, the RGB color changes were considerable because of the strong interactions of the odor components such as disulfides with the glutamate residues on the sensor. Although the patterns of the color variations were generally similar between the domestic and imported samples, some degrees of dissimilarities in their intensities were also observed. Although the magnitude of color change decreased for perilla, the color change patterns between the two groups were somewhat different. With the acquired RGB data, a support vector machine was employed to distinguish the domestic and imported samples, and the resulting accuracies in the measurements of garlic, onion, and perilla samples were 94.1, 88.7, and 91.6%, respectively. The differences in the concentrations of the odor components between both groups and/or the presence of specific components exclusively in the odor of one group allowed the color sensor-based discrimination. The demonstrated color sensor was thus shown to be a potentially versatile and simple as an on-site screening tool. Strategies able to further improve the sensor performance were also discussed.

  8. Feasibility of using a bacteriophage-based structural color sensor for screening the geographical origins of agricultural products.

    Seol, Daun; Moon, Jong-Sik; Lee, Yujin; Han, Jiye; Jang, Daeil; Kang, Dong-Jin; Moon, Jiyoung; Jang, Eunjin; Oh, Jin-Woo; Chung, Hoeil

    2018-05-15

    An M13 bacteriophage-based color sensor, which can change its structural color upon interaction with a gaseous molecule, was evaluated as a screening tool for the discrimination of the geographical origins of three different agricultural products (garlic, onion, and perilla). Exposure of the color sensor to sample odors induced the self-assembled M13 bacteriophage bundles to swell by the interaction of amino acid residues (repeating units of four glutamates) on the bacteriophage with the odor components, resulting in a change in the structural color of the sensor. When the sensor was exposed to the odors of garlic and onion samples, the RGB color changes were considerable because of the strong interactions of the odor components such as disulfides with the glutamate residues on the sensor. Although the patterns of the color variations were generally similar between the domestic and imported samples, some degrees of dissimilarities in their intensities were also observed. Although the magnitude of color change decreased for perilla, the color change patterns between the two groups were somewhat different. With the acquired RGB data, a support vector machine was employed to distinguish the domestic and imported samples, and the resulting accuracies in the measurements of garlic, onion, and perilla samples were 94.1, 88.7, and 91.6%, respectively. The differences in the concentrations of the odor components between both groups and/or the presence of specific components exclusively in the odor of one group allowed the color sensor-based discrimination. The demonstrated color sensor was thus shown to be a potentially versatile and simple as an on-site screening tool. Strategies able to further improve the sensor performance were also discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Characteristic fingerprint based on gingerol derivative analysis for discrimination of ginger (Zingiber officinale) according to geographical origin using HPLC-DAD combined with chemometrics.

    Yudthavorasit, Soparat; Wongravee, Kanet; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun

    2014-09-01

    Chromatographic fingerprints of gingers from five different ginger-producing countries (China, India, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam) were newly established to discriminate the origin of ginger. The pungent bioactive principles of ginger, gingerols and six other gingerol-related compounds were determined and identified. Their variations in HPLC profiles create the characteristic pattern of each origin by employing similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). As results, the ginger profiles tended to be grouped and separated on the basis of the geographical closeness of the countries of origin. An effective mathematical model with high predictive ability was obtained and chemical markers for each origin were also identified as the characteristic active compounds to differentiate the ginger origin. The proposed method is useful for quality control of ginger in case of origin labelling and to assess food authenticity issues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite elemental composition

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    .09 ± 0.06 mmol mol-1; Mg/Ca = 66.9 ± 4.1 mmol mol-1), juveniles of Southern California origin partitioned ∼ 8% more Sr into their skeletons when exposed to higher CO2 (Sr/Ca = 2.26 ± 0.05 vs. 2.10 ± 0.03 mmol mol-1 1 SD). Together these results suggest that the diversity of carbonate minerologies present across different skeletal structures and life stages in purple sea urchins does not translate into an equivalent plasticity of response associated with geographic variation or temporal shifts in seawater properties. Rather, composition of S. purpuratus skeleton precipitated during both early and adult life history stages appears relatively robust to spatial gradients and predicted changes in seawater carbonate chemistry for 2100. An exception to this trend may arise during early life stages, where certain populations of purple sea urchins may alter skeletal mineral precipitation rates and composition beyond a given CO2 threshold. The degree to which this latter geochemical plasticity might affect mineral stability and solubility in a future, altered ocean requires additional study.

  11. Validation of botanical origins and geographical sources of some Saudi honeys using ultraviolet spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Ali; Adgaba, Nuru; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Gad, Haidy A; Roshan, Abdulrahman; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Kolyali, Sevgi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims at distinguishing honey based on botanical and geographical sources. Different floral honey samples were collected from diverse geographical locations of Saudi Arabia. UV spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis including Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) were used to classify honey samples. HCA and PCA presented the initial clustering pattern to differentiate between botanical as well as geographical sources. The SIMCA model clearly separated the Ziziphus sp. and other monofloral honey samples based on different locations and botanical sources. The results successfully discriminated the honey samples of different botanical and geographical sources validating the segregation observed using few physicochemical parameters that are regularly used for discrimination.

  12. Endomyocardial fibrosis in Sub Saharan Africa: The geographical origin, socioeconomic status, and dietary habits of cases reported in Yaounde, Cameroon

    David Chelo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion : Apart from geographical similarities all patients of our series shared the same dietary habits. Our study was conducted in a hospital setting; therefore a screening of the disease in the whole national territory would enable a more reliable mapping.

  13. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) plantations

    Ozdemir, E.; Oral, H. V.; Akburak, S.; Makineci, E.; Yilmaz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Aim of study: To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton.) could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils. Area of study: Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain) and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41° 09’-41° 12’ N latitude and 28° 54’-29° 00’ E longitude in Turkey. Material and methods: Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm) and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Research highlights: Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots. (Author)

  14. Carbon and nitrogen accumulation in forest floor and surface soil under different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. plantations

    E. Ozdemir

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study : To determine if plantations consisting of different geographic origins of the Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton. could have altered C and N stocks in the forest floor and surface soils.Area of study : Forest floor and mineral soil C and N stocks were measured in four adjacent plantations of different geographic origins of Maritime pine (Gironde, Toulon, Corsica and Spain and adjacent primary native Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L. at Burunsuz region in Belgrad Forest where is located in the Istanbul province in the Marmara geographical region between 41°09' -41°12' N latitude and 28°54' - 29°00' E longitude in Turkey.Material and Methods : Plots were compared as common garden experiments without replications. 15 surface soil (0-10 cm and 15 forest floor samples were taken from each Maritime pine origins and adjacent native Sessile oak forest. C and N contents were determined on LECO Truspec 2000 CN analyzer. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.Research highlights : Forest floor carbon mass, nitrogen concentration and nitrogen mass of forest floor showed a significant difference among origins. Soil carbon mass and nitrogen mass did not significantly differ among investigated plots.Keywords: carbon sequestration; C/N ratio; decomposition; exotic; tree provenance.

  15. Geographical markers for Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins domesticated for rice-based ethnic fermented beverages production in North East India.

    Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia

    2011-11-01

    Autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from traditional starters used for the production of rice-based ethnic fermented beverage in North East India were examined for their genetic polymorphism using mitochondrial DNA-RFLP and electrophoretic karyotyping. Mitochondrial DNA-RFLP analysis of S. cerevisiae strains with similar technological origins from hamei starter of Manipur and marcha starter of Sikkim revealed widely separated clusters based on their geographical origin. Electrophoretic karyotyping showed high polymorphism amongst the hamei strains within similar mitochondrial DNA-RFLP cluster and one unique karyotype of marcha strain was widely distributed in the Sikkim-Himalayan region. We conceptualized the possibility of separate domestication events for hamei strains in Manipur (located in the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot) and marcha strains in Sikkim (located in Himalayan biodiversity hotspot), as a consequence of less homogeneity in the genomic structure between these two groups, their clear separation being based on geographical origin, but not on technological origin and low strain level diversity within each group. The molecular markers developed based on HinfI-mtDNA-RFLP profile and the chromosomal doublets in chromosome VIII position of Sikkim-Himalayan strains could be effectively used as geographical markers for authenticating the above starter strains and differentiating them from other commercial strains.

  16. Influence of agroclimatic parameters on phenolic and volatile compounds of Chilean virgin olive oils and characterization based on geographical origin, cultivar and ripening stage.

    Romero, Nalda; Saavedra, Jorge; Tapia, Francisco; Sepúlveda, Betsabet; Aparicio, Ramón

    2016-01-30

    This study involved two commercial orchards located in Limarí Valley and Molina from two important Chilean production zones of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). The investigation evaluated the effects of climate, soil composition, agricultural practices (fertilization and irrigation) and variety (considering two harvests) on the compounds responsible for the flavor of EVOO (volatiles and phenols) and how these compounds can explain the differences in chemical profiles by geographical origin, cultivar and fruit ripeness stage. Varieties from the Limarí Valley presented the highest content of phenolic compounds. A significant relationship (P Chilean regions have much more influence than cultivars on the concentration of sensory quality compounds. Difference in latitude between orchards increases the importance of the geographical origin on the virgin olive oil chemical composition while full irrigation decreases the impact of the cultivar. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The system of protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products System chronionych nazw pochodzenia i oznaczeń geograficznych produktów rolnych

    Izabela Lipińska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determe the scheme of actual legal protection of geographical indications and designations of origin for agricultural products and foodstuffs. The protection is reserved only for producers who fulfill all requirements mentioned in the regulations, considering region, origins and quality. They only may sell such products on the internal market under the certain logos. Labels are vital, giving EU farmers and producers the possibility of higher returns in exchange for better quality, and giving consumers specific products that come with the guarantee of a certain production method and enable to gain some financial support from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development.

  18. Multi-element, multi-compound isotope profiling as a means to distinguish the geographical and varietal origin of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    Diomande, Didier; Antheaume, Ingrid; Leroux, Maël; Lalande, Julie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Remaud, Gérald S; Tea, Illa

    2015-12-01

    Multi-element stable isotope ratios have been assessed as a means to distinguish between fermented cocoa beans from different geographical and varietal origins. Isotope ratios and percentage composition for C and N were measured in different tissues (cotyledons, shells) and extracts (pure theobromine, defatted cocoa solids, protein, lipids) obtained from fermented cocoa bean samples. Sixty-one samples from 24 different geographical origins covering all four continental areas producing cocoa were analyzed. Treatment of the data with unsupervised (Principal Component Analysis) and supervised (Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) multiparametric statistical methods allowed the cocoa beans from different origins to be distinguished. The most discriminant variables identified as responsible for geographical and varietal differences were the δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of cocoa beans and some extracts and tissues. It can be shown that the isotope ratios are correlated with the altitude and precipitation conditions found in the different cocoa-growing regions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of antioxidant activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza var. alba by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy.

    Duan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Danlu; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2014-03-25

    Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. var. alba C.Y. Wu and H.W. Li and Radix S. miltrorrhiza belong to the same genus. S. miltiorrhiza var. alba has a unique effectiveness for thromboangiitis besides therapeutical efficay of S. miltrorrhiza. It exhibits antioxidant activity (AA), while its quality and efficacy also vary with geographic locations. Therefore, a rapid and nondestructive method based on Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIRS) was developed for discrimination of geographical origin and evaluation of AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The discrimination of geographical origin was achieved by using discriminant analysis and the accuracy was 100%. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed to establish the model for evaluation of AA by NIRS. The spectral regions were selected by interval PLS (i-PLS) method. Different pre-treated methods were compared for the spectral pre-processing. The final optimal results of PLS model showed that correlation coefficients in the calibration set (Rc) and the prediction set (Rp), root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual prediction deviation (RPD) were 0.974, 0.950, 0.163 mg mL(-1) and 2.66, respectively. The results demonstrated that NIRs combined with chemometric methods could be a rapid and nondestructive tool to discriminate geographical origin and evaluate AA of S. miltiorrhiza var. alba. The developed NIRS method might have a potential application to high-throughput screening of a great number of raw S. miltiorrhiza var. alba samples for AA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Trilateral Initiative: IAEA Verification of Weapon-Origin Plutonium in the Russian Federation and the United States

    Shea, T.E.

    2015-01-01

    One year following the indefinite extension of the NPT, the IAEA, the United States and the Russian Federation entered into a cooperative effort aimed at creating a verification system under which the IAEA could accept and monitor nuclear warheads or nuclear warhead components in relation to the Article VI commitments of both States. Over a six year period, through 98 trilateral events, substantial progress was made on verification arrangements and technologies that could enable the IAEA to carry out such a mission, without gaining access to design or manufacturing secrets associated with nuclear weapons. Substantial progress was made on defining the approaches at lead facilities in the two States. The Board of Governors was looking forward to having the Agency undertake such a mission, and the 2000 NPT Review Conference called for the completion and implementation of the Trilateral Initiative. Then elections changed the leadership in both States and the incoming Administrations decided to end the effort, call it a success, and walk away. This presentation will summarize the creation, history, accomplishments, unresolved issues, consider the legacy and suggest four steps that might now be taken. (author)

  1. A comparative UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for distinguishing Zingiber officinale Roscoe of two geographical origins.

    Mais, Enos; Alolga, Raphael N; Wang, Shi-Lei; Linus, Loveth O; Yin, Xiaojin; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2018-02-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a popular spice used in the food, beverage and confectionary industries. In this study, we report an untargeted UPLC-Q/TOF-MS-based metabolomics approach for comprehensively discriminating between ginger from two geographical locations, Ghana in West Africa and China. Forty batches of fresh ginger from both countries were discriminated using principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discrimination analysis. Sixteen differential metabolites were identified between the gingers from the two geographical locations, six of which were identified as the marker compounds responsible for the discrimination. Our study highlights the essence and predictive power of metabolomics in detecting minute differences in same varieties of plants/plant samples based on the levels and composition of their metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Génépi Liqueur: Volatile Profile as Diagnostic Marker for Geographic Origin and To Predict Liqueur Safety.

    Boggia, Lorenzo; Pignata, Giuseppe; Sgorbini, Barbara; Colombo, Maria Laura; Marengo, Arianna; Casale, Manuela; Nicola, Silvana; Bicchi, Carlo; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2017-04-05

    Artemisia umbelliformis, commonly known as "white génépi", is characterized by a volatile fraction rich in α- and β-thujones, two monoterpenoids; under European Union (EU) regulations these are limited to 35 mg/L in Artemisia-based beverages because of their recognized activity on the human central nervous system. This study reports the results of an investigation to define the geographical origin and thujone content of individual plants of A. umbelliformis from different geographical sites, cultivated experimentally at a single site, and to predict the thujone content in the resulting liqueurs through their volatile fraction. Headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and non-separative HS-SPME-MS were used as analytical platforms to create a database suitable for chemometric description and prediction through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). HS-SPME-MS was applied to shorten analysis time. With both approaches, a diagnostic prediction of (i) plant geographical origin and (ii) thujone content of plant-related liqueurs could be made.

  3. Authenticity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) geographical origin based on analysis of C, N, O and S stable isotope ratios: a preliminary case report in Korea, China and Philippine.

    Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Prabakaran, Mayakrishnan; Yang, Jin-Hee; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Although rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the third largest food crop, relatively fewer studies have been reported on rice geographical origin based on light element isotope ratios in comparison with other foods such as wine, beef, juice, oil and milk. Therefore this study tries to discriminate the geographical origin of the same rice cultivars grown in different Asian countries using the analysis of C, N, O and S stable isotope ratios and chemometrics. The δ(15) NAIR , δ(18) OVSMOW and δ(34) SVCDT values of brown rice were more markedly influenced by geographical origin than was the δ(13) CVPDB value. In particular, the combination of δ(18) OVSMOW and δ(34) SVCDT more efficiently discriminated rice geographical origin than did the remaining combinations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a clear discrimination between different rice geographical origins but not between rice genotypes. In particular, the first components of PCA discriminated rice cultivated in the Philippines from rice cultivated in China and Korea. The present findings suggest that analysis of the light element isotope composition combined with chemometrics can be potentially applicable to discriminate rice geographical origin and also may provide a valuable insight into the control of improper or fraudulent labeling regarding the geographical origin of rice worldwide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Analysis of 14C and 13C in teeth provides precise birth dating and clues to geographical origin

    K, Alkass; BA, Buchholz; H, Druid; KL, Spalding

    2011-01-01

    The identification of human bodies in situations when there are no clues as to the person’s identity from circumstantial data, poses a difficult problem to investigators. The determination of age and sex of the body can be crucial in order to limit the search to individuals that are a possible match. We analyzed the proportion of bomb pulse derived carbon-14 (14C) incorporated in the enamel of teeth from individuals from different geographical locations. The ‘bomb pulse’ refers to a significa...

  5. Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) and Traditional Speciality Guaranteed (TSG): A bibiliometric analysis.

    Dias, Claudia; Mendes, Luís

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the literature on food quality labels in the European Union (PDO, PGI and TSG), our search did not find any review joining the various research topics on this subject. This study aims therefore to consolidate the state of academic research in this field, and so the methodological option was to elaborate a bibliometric analysis resorting to the term co-occurrence technique. Analysis was made of 501 articles on the ISI Web of Science database, covering publications up to 2016. The results of the bibliometric analysis allowed identification of four clusters: "Protected Geographical Indication", "Certification of Olive Oil and Cultivars", "Certification of Cheese and Milk" and "Certification and Chemical Composition". Unlike the other clusters, where the PDO label predominates, the "Protected Geographical Indication" cluster covers the study of PGI products, highlighting analysis of consumer behaviour in relation to this type of product. The focus of studies in the "Certification of Olive Oil and Cultivars" cluster and the "Certification of Cheese and Milk" cluster is the development of authentication methods for certified traditional products. In the "Certification and Chemical Composition" cluster, standing out is analysis of the profiles of fatty acids present in this type of product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction of an single nucleodite polymorphism-based "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" suitable for predicting the geographical origin of male lineages

    Brión, María; Sanchez, Juan J; Balogh, Kinga

    2005-01-01

    . From more than 200 SNPs compiled in the phylogenetic tree published by the Y-Chromosome Consortium, and looking at the population studies previously published, a package of 29 SNPs has been selected for the identification of major population haplogroups. A "Major Y-chromosome haplogroup typing kit" has......The European Consortium "High-throughput analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms for the forensic identification of persons--SNPforID", has performed a selection of candidate Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for making inferences on the geographic origin of an unknown sample...

  7. Chemical profiling of guarana seeds (Paullinia cupana) from different geographical origins using UPLC-QTOF-MS combined with chemometrics.

    da Silva, Givaldo Souza; Canuto, Kirley Marques; Ribeiro, Paulo Riceli Vasconcelos; de Brito, Edy Sousa; Nascimento, Madson Moreira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Coutinho, Janclei Pereira; de Jesus, Raildo Mota

    2017-12-01

    Paullinia cupana, commonly known as guarana, is an Amazonian fruit whose seeds are used to produce the powdered guarana, which is rich in caffeine and consumed for its stimulating activity. The metabolic profile of guarana from the two largest producing regions was investigated using UPLC-MS combined with multivariate statistical analysis. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed significant differences between samples produced in the states of Bahia and Amazonas. The metabolites responsible for the differentiation were identified by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Fourteen phenolic compounds were characterized in guarana powder samples, and catechin, epicatechin, B-type procyanidin dimer, A-type procyanidin trimer and A-type procyanidin dimer were the main compounds responsible for the geographical variation of the samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Discrimination of Geographical Origin of Asian Garlic Using Isotopic and Chemical Datasets under Stepwise Principal Component Analysis.

    Liu, Tsang-Sen; Lin, Jhen-Nan; Peng, Tsung-Ren

    2018-01-16

    Isotopic compositions of δ 2 H, δ 18 O, δ 13 C, and δ 15 N and concentrations of 22 trace elements from garlic samples were analyzed and processed with stepwise principal component analysis (PCA) to discriminate garlic's country of origin among Asian regions including South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, and China. Results indicate that there is no single trace-element concentration or isotopic composition that can accomplish the study's purpose and the stepwise PCA approach proposed does allow for discrimination between countries on a regional basis. Sequentially, Step-1 PCA distinguishes garlic's country of origin among Taiwanese, South Korean, and Vietnamese samples; Step-2 PCA discriminates Chinese garlic from South Korean garlic; and Step-3 and Step-4 PCA, Chinese garlic from Vietnamese garlic. In model tests, countries of origin of all audit samples were correctly discriminated by stepwise PCA. Consequently, this study demonstrates that stepwise PCA as applied is a simple and effective approach to discriminating country of origin among Asian garlics. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  10. A comparison of dried shiitake mushroom in log cultivation and mycelial cultivation from different geographical origins using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis

    Suzuki, Yaeko; Nakashita, Rumiko; Ishikawa, Noemia Kazue; Tabuchi, Akiko; Sakuno, Emi; Tokimoto, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    We determined carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of dried shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) samples from Japan, China, South Korea and Brazil in order to discriminate their geographical origins. In log cultivation, the δ 13 C values of Japanese dried shiitake samples were lower than those of Chinese samples, depending on the δ 13 C values of log and their growth conditions. In mycelial cultivation, the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of Japanese dried shiitake samples were higher than those of Chinese samples. By using the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values, 87.4% of Japanese dried shiitake samples (n = 95) and 87.9% of Chinese dried shiitake samples (n = 66) in log cultivation, 90.0% of the Japanese dried shiitake samples (n = 50) and 93.9% of Chinese dried shiitake samples (n = 114) in mycelial cultivation, were correctly classified according to the production site. These results suggested that the δ 13 C and δ 15 N values will be potentially useful for tracing their geographical origin of dried shiitake samples. (author)

  11. Free amino acids, biogenic amines, and ammonium profiling in tobacco from different geographical origins using microwave-assisted extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography.

    Cai, Kai; Xiang, Zhangmin; Li, Hongqin; Zhao, Huina; Lin, Yechun; Pan, Wenjie; Lei, Bo

    2017-12-01

    This work describes a rapid, stable, and accurate method for determining the free amino acids, biogenic amines, and ammonium in tobacco. The target analytes were extracted with microwave-assisted extraction and then derivatized with diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate, followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography analysis. The experimental design used to optimize the microwave-assisted extraction conditions showed that the optimal extraction time was 10 min with a temperature of 60°C. The stability of aminoenone derivatives was improved by keeping the pH near 9.0, and there was no obvious degradation during the 80°C heating and room temperature storage. Under optimal conditions, this method showed good linearity (R 2 > 0.999) and sensitivity (limits of detection 0.010-0.081 μg/mL). The extraction recoveries were between 88.4 and 106.5%, while the repeatability and reproducibility ranged from 0.48 to 5.12% and from 1.56 to 6.52%, respectively. The newly developed method was employed to analyze the tobacco from different geographical origins. Principal component analysis showed that four geographical origins of tobacco could be clearly distinguished and that each had their characteristic components. The proposed method also showed great potential for further investigations on nitrogen metabolism in plants. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Geographically Sourcing Cocaine’s Origin - Delineation of the Nineteen Major Coca Growing Regions in South America

    Mallette, Jennifer R.; Casale, John F.; Jordan, James; Morello, David R.; Beyer, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Previously, geo-sourcing to five major coca growing regions within South America was accomplished. However, the expansion of coca cultivation throughout South America made sub-regional origin determinations increasingly difficult. The former methodology was recently enhanced with additional stable isotope analyses (2H and 18O) to fully characterize cocaine due to the varying environmental conditions in which the coca was grown. An improved data analysis method was implemented with the combination of machine learning and multivariate statistical analysis methods to provide further partitioning between growing regions. Here, we show how the combination of trace cocaine alkaloids, stable isotopes, and multivariate statistical analyses can be used to classify illicit cocaine as originating from one of 19 growing regions within South America. The data obtained through this approach can be used to describe current coca cultivation and production trends, highlight trafficking routes, as well as identify new coca growing regions.

  13. Geographical origin discrimination and polysaccharides quantitative analysis of Radix codonopsis with micro near-infrared spectrometer engine

    Jiayue Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, Tradition Chinese Medicine (TCM industry in China is in the stage from the empirical development to industrial production. Near infrared (NIR spectroscopy has been widely used in the quality control of TCM’s modernization with its characteristics including rapidness, nondestruction, simplicity, economy, and so on. In this study, as one type of a portable micro NIR spectrometer, Micro NIR 1700 was used to establish the qualitative models for identification of geographical region and authenticity of Radix codonopsis based on discriminant analysis (DA method. Both of the DA models had better predictive ability with 100% accuracy. In addition, a method for rapid quantitative analysis of polysaccharide in Radix codonopsis was also developed based on Micro NIR 1700 spectrometer with partial least-squares (PLS algorithm. In the PLS calibration model, the NIR spectra of samples were pretreated with different preprocessing methods and the spectral region was selected with different variable selection methods as well. The performance of the final PLS model was evaluated according to correlation coefficient of calibration (Rc, correlation coefficient of prediction (Rp, root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV, and root mean squared of prediction (RMSEP. The values of Rc, Rp, RMSECV, and RMSEP were 0.9775, 0.9602, 2.496, and 2.734g/mL, respectively. This work demonstrated that micro infrared spectrometer could be more convenient and rapid for quality control of Radix codonopsis, and the presented models would be a useful reference for quality control of other similar raw materials of TCM.

  14. Characterization of Botanical and Geographical Origin of Corsican “Spring” Honeys by Melissopalynological and Volatile Analysis

    Yin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen spectrum, physicochemical parameters and volatile fraction of Corsican “spring” honeys were investigated with the aim of developing a multidisciplinary method for the qualification of honeys in which nectar resources are under-represented in the pollen spectrum. Forty-one Corsican “spring” honeys were certified by melissopalynological analysis using directory and biogeographical origin of 50 representative taxa. Two groups of honeys were distinguished according to the botanical origin of samples: “clementine” honeys characterized by the association of cultivated species from oriental plain and other “spring” honeys dominated by wild herbaceous taxa from the ruderal and/or maquis area. The main compounds of the “spring” honey volatile fraction were phenylacetaldehyde, benzaldehyde and methyl-benzene. The volatile composition of “clementine” honeys was also characterized by three lilac aldehyde isomers. Statistical analysis of melissopalynological, physicochemical and volatile data showed that the presence of Citrus pollen in “clementine” honeys was positively correlated with the amount of linalool derivatives and methyl anthranilate. Otherwise, the other “spring” honeys were characterized by complex nectariferous species associations and the content of phenylacetaldehyde and methyl syringate.

  15. The timing of GIGANTEA expression during day/night cycles varies with the geographical origin of Arabidopsis accessions.

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Coupland, George

    2017-07-03

    Latitudinal clines in circadian rhythms have consistently been described in various plant species, with the most recent examples appearing in soybean cultivars and in monkey flower natural populations. These latitudinal clines provide evidence that natural variation in circadian rhythms is adaptive, but it is still unclear what adaptive benefits this variation confers, particularly because circadian rhythms are not usually measured in day/night conditions that reflect those experienced by organisms in nature. Here, we report that daily rhythms of GIGANTEA expression respond to day length in a way that depends on the latitude of origin of Arabidopsis accessions. We additionally extend previous findings by confirming that natural variation in GI expression affects growth related traits, and alters the expression of different target genes. The results support the idea that natural variation in daily rhythms of expression have broad effects on plant development and are of potential adaptive value.

  16. Variations in growth, survival and carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) among Pinus pinaster populations of different geographic origins.

    Correia, Isabel; Almeida, Maria Helena; Aguiar, Alexandre; Alía, Ricardo; David, Teresa Soares; Pereira, João Santos

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate differences in growth and adaptability of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), we studied growth, polycyclism, needle tissue carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C) as an estimate of water-use efficiency (WUE) and survival of seven populations at 10 years of age growing in a performance trial at a provenance test site in Escaroupim, Portugal. Six populations were from relatively high rainfall sites in Portugal and southwestern France (Atlantic group), and one population was from a more arid Mediterranean site in Spain. There were significant differences between some populations in total height, diameter at breast height, delta(13)C of bulk needle tissue, polycyclism and survival. A population from central Portugal (Leiria, on the Atlantic coast) was the tallest and had the lowest delta(13)C. Overall, the variation in delta(13)C was better explained by the mean minimum temperatures of the coldest month than by annual precipitation at the place of origin. Analyses of the relationships between delta(13)C and growth or survival revealed a distinct pattern for the Mediterranean population, with low delta(13)C (and WUE) associated with the lowest growth potential and reduced survival. There were significant negative correlations between delta(13)C and height or survival in the Atlantic group. Variation in polycyclism was correlated with annual precipitation at the place of origin. Some Atlantic populations maintained a high growth potential while experiencing moderate water stress. A detailed knowledge of the relationships between growth, survival and delta(13)C in contrasting environments will enhance our ability to select populations for forestry or conservation.

  17. Origin,

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  18. Aegilops tauschii Accessions with Geographically Diverse Origin Show Differences in Chromosome Organization and Polymorphism of Molecular Markers Linked to Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes.

    Majka, Maciej; Kwiatek, Michał T; Majka, Joanna; Wiśniewska, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14) is a diploid wild species which is reported as a donor of the D-genome of cultivated bread wheat. The main goal of this study was to examine the differences and similarities in chromosomes organization among accessions of Ae. tauschii with geographically diversed origin, which is believed as a potential source of genes, especially determining resistance to fungal diseases (i.e., leaf rust and powdery mildew) for breeding of cereals. We established and compared the fluorescence in situ hybridization patterns of 21 accessions of Ae. tauschii using various repetitive sequences mainly from the BAC library of wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Results obtained for Ae. tauschii chromosomes revealed many similarities between analyzed accessions, however, some hybridization patterns were specific for accessions, which become from cognate regions of the World. The most noticeable differences were observed for accessions from China which were characterized by presence of distinct signals of pTa-535 in the interstitial region of chromosome 3D, less intensity of pTa-86 signals in chromosome 2D, as well as lack of additional signals of pTa-86 in chromosomes 1D, 5D, or 6D. Ae. tauschii of Chinese origin appeared homogeneous and separate from landraces that originated in western Asia. Ae. tauschii chromosomes showed similar hybridization patterns to wheat D-genome chromosomes, but some differences were also observed among both species. What is more, we identified reciprocal translocation between short arm of chromosome 1D and long arm of chromosome 7D in accession with Iranian origin. High polymorphism between analyzed accessions and extensive allelic variation were revealed using molecular markers associated with resistance genes. Majority of the markers localized in chromosomes 1D and 2D showed the diversity of banding patterns between accessions. Obtained results imply, that there is a moderate or high level of polymorphism in the genome of Ae

  19. Comprehensive analysis of Polygoni Multiflori Radix of different geographical origins using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints and multivariate chemometric methods

    Li-Li Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR is increasingly being used not just as a traditional herbal medicine but also as a popular functional food. In this study, multivariate chemometric methods and mass spectrometry were combined to analyze the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatograph (UPLC fingerprints of PMR from six different geographical origins. A chemometric strategy based on multivariate curve resolution–alternating least squares (MCR–ALS and three classification methods is proposed to analyze the UPLC fingerprints obtained. Common chromatographic problems, including the background contribution, baseline contribution, and peak overlap, were handled by the established MCR–ALS model. A total of 22 components were resolved. Moreover, relative species concentrations were obtained from the MCR–ALS model, which was used for multivariate classification analysis. Principal component analysis (PCA and Ward's method have been applied to classify 72 PMR samples from six different geographical regions. The PCA score plot showed that the PMR samples fell into four clusters, which related to the geographical location and climate of the source areas. The results were then corroborated by Ward's method. In addition, according to the variance-weighted distance between cluster centers obtained from Ward's method, five components were identified as the most significant variables (chemical markers for cluster discrimination. A counter-propagation artificial neural network has been applied to confirm and predict the effects of chemical markers on different samples. Finally, the five chemical markers were identified by UPLC–quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Components 3, 12, 16, 18, and 19 were identified as 2,3,5,4′-tetrahydroxy-stilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin-8-O-(6′-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranoside, emodin, and physcion, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method can be applied for the

  20. Main flavonoids, DPPH activity, and metal content allow determination of the geographical origin of propolis from the Province of San Juan (Argentina).

    Lima, Beatriz; Tapia, Alejandro; Luna, Lorena; Fabani, María P; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Podio, Natalia S; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Feresin, Gabriela E

    2009-04-08

    The chemical characterization as well as the assessment of geographical origin of propolis from several areas of the Provincia de San Juan (Argentina) is reported. Chemical characterization of propolis was performed by measuring total phenolic (TP), total flavonoids (FL), free radical scavenging capacity (DPPH bleaching), and metal content in samples of six different districts. Methanolic propolis extracts (MEP) showed TP ranging from 25.7 to 39.3 g of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of MEP, whereas flavonoids ranged from 6.6 to 13.3 g of quercetin equivalents per 100 g of MEP. Six main flavonoids were isolated and identified from the propolis samples, comprising the flavanones 7-hydroxy-8-methoxyflavanone (1), pinocembrin (2), and pinobanksin (3), the flavones chrysin (4) and tectochrysin (5), and the flavonol galangin (6). Compounds 1-6 were quantified by HPLC-PDA. Free radical scavenging activity, measured as percent DPPH bleaching, ranged from 46.6 to 89.5 at 10 mug/mL. Moreover, propolis samples presented high contents of Ca, K, Fe, Na, and Mg, but low amounts of Mn and Zn. Linear discriminant analysis affords eight descriptors, galangin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin, chrysin, tectochrysin, DPPH, K, and Na, allowing a clear distinction with 100% accuracy among different origins within the Provincia de San Juan. A direct relationship of DPPH free radical scavenging activity with TP or with compounds 1-6 was not found, showing the need of further evaluation on the origin of free radical activity in propolis samples.

  1. Comparison of Attenuated Total Reflectance Mid-Infrared, Near Infrared, and 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopies for the Determination of Coffee’s Geographical Origin

    Jessica Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensorial properties of Colombian coffee are renowned worldwide, which is reflected in its market value. This raises the threat of fraud by adulteration using coffee grains from other countries, thus creating a demand for robust and cost-effective methods for the determination of geographical origin of coffee samples. Spectroscopic techniques such as Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, near infrared (NIR, and mid-infrared (mIR have arisen as strong candidates for the task. Although a body of work exists that reports on their individual performances, a faithful comparison has not been established yet. We evaluated the performance of 1H-NMR, Attenuated Total Reflectance mIR (ATR-mIR, and NIR applied to fraud detection in Colombian coffee. For each technique, we built classification models for discrimination by species (C. arabica versus C. canephora (or robusta and by origin (Colombia versus other C. arabica using a common set of coffee samples. All techniques successfully discriminated samples by species, as expected. Regarding origin determination, ATR-mIR and 1H-NMR showed comparable capacity to discriminate Colombian coffee samples, while NIR fell short by comparison. In conclusion, ATR-mIR, a less common technique in the field of coffee adulteration and fraud detection, emerges as a strong candidate, faster and with lower cost compared to 1H-NMR and more discriminating compared to NIR.

  2. Geographic and Research Center Origins of Rice Resistance to Asian Planthoppers and Leafhoppers: Implications for Rice Breeding and Gene Deployment

    Finbarr G. Horgan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines aspects of virulence to resistant rice varieties among planthoppers and leafhoppers. Using a series of resistant varieties, brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, virulence was assessed in seedlings and early-tillering plants at seven research centers in South and East Asia. Virulence of the whitebacked planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, in Taiwan and the Philippines was also assessed. Phylogenetic analysis of the varieties using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs indicated a clade of highly resistant varieties from South Asia with two further South Asian clades of moderate resistance. Greenhouse bioassays indicated that planthoppers can develop virulence against multiple resistance genes including genes introgressed from wild rice species. Nilaparvata lugens populations from Punjab (India and the Mekong Delta (Vietnam were highly virulent to a range of key resistance donors irrespective of variety origin. Sogatella furcifera populations were less virulent to donors than N. lugens; however, several genes for resistance to S. furcifera are now ineffective in East Asia. A clade of International Rice Research Institute (IRRI-bred varieties and breeding lines, without identified leafhopper-resistance genes, were highly resistant to the green leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens. Routine phenotyping during breeding programs likely maintains high levels of quantitative resistance to leafhoppers. We discuss these results in the light of breeding and deploying resistant rice in Asia.

  3. Review of the fossil matamata turtles: earliest well-dated record and hypotheses on the origin of their present geographical distribution

    Ferreira, Gabriel S.; Rincón, Ascanio D.; Solórzano, Andrés; Langer, Max C.

    2016-04-01

    The matamata ( Chelus fimbriatus) is a highly aquatic chelid turtle known exclusively from northern South America. Due to its extremely modified morphology, it is well circumscribed among living taxa, but that is not the case of the two extinct species ascribed to the taxon, Chelus colombianus and Chelus lewisi. These were originally described for the Miocene of Colombia and Venezuela, respectively, and are known mostly from post-cranial material. Few traits have been considered diagnostic for these fossil taxa, and their shared geographic and temporal distributions raise doubts about their distinctiveness. Here, we describe new turtle remains from the early Miocene Castillo Formation, at Cerro la Cruz, northwestern Venezuela, assigning them to C. colombianus. We also review the taxonomy and diagnostic features of the fossil species of Chelus, comparing them with the variation recognized within C. fimbriatus. All alleged differences between the fossil Chelus species were found in our sample of the extant species, and may represent intraspecific variation of a single fossil species. Further, we reviewed the fossil record of Chelus spp. and proposed a paleobiogeographic hypothesis to explain its present geographic range.

  4. Variation in fumonisin and ochratoxin production associated with differences in biosynthetic gene content in Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae isolates from multiple crop and geographic origins

    Antonia Susca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungi Aspergillus niger and A. welwitschiae are morphologically indistinguishable species used for industrial fermentation and for food and beverage production. The fungi also occur widely on food crops. Concerns about their safety have arisen with the discovery that some isolates of both species produce fumonisin (FB and ochratoxin A (OTA mycotoxins. Here, we examined FB and OTA production as well as the presence of genes responsible for synthesis of the mycotoxins in a collection of 92 A. niger/A. welwitschiae isolates from multiple crop and geographic origins. The results indicate that i isolates of both species differed in ability to produce the mycotoxins; ii FB-nonproducing isolates of A. niger had an intact fumonisin biosynthetic gene (fum cluster; iii FB-nonproducing isolates of A. welwitschiae exhibited multiple patterns of fum gene deletion; and iv OTA-nonproducing isolates of both species lacked the ochratoxin A biosynthetic gene (ota cluster. Analysis of genome sequence data revealed a single pattern of ota gene deletion in the two species. Phylogenetic analysis suggest that the simplest explanation for this is that ota cluster deletion occurred in a common ancestor of A. niger and A. welwitschiae, and subsequently both the intact and deleted cluster were retained as alternate alleles during divergence of the ancestor into descendent species. Finally, comparison of results from this and previous studies indicate that a majority of A. niger isolates and a minority of A. welwitschiae isolates can produce FBs, whereas a minority of isolates of both species produce OTA. The comparison also suggested that the relative abundance of each species and frequency of FB/OTA-producing isolates can vary with crop and/or geographic origin.

  5. Salers Protected Designation of Origin cheese, France. The diversity and paradox of local knowledge in geographical indications

    Bérard, Laurence

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our case study of Salers cheese production in south-central France highlights how place-specific knowledge grounds the various networks shaping the rise of geographical indications (GI in food production. In 1961, Salers cheese producers created a “Protected Designation of Origin” (PDO. To preserve the distinctive character of their product, they opted to require use of the gerle, a traditional wooden vat, and an on-farm cheese making process. The gerle came recently under scrutiny from French governmental hygiene regulation enforcement, and the subsequent public controversy jeopardized the entire supply chain and destabilized Salers cheese-making methods. Prevailing in their efforts to protect Salers, producers established the gerle as mandatory and have since set up a governance board to ensure PDO brand integrity. Our analysis suggests that the diversity of technical choices and associated set of knowledge in Salers cheese production has paradoxically been both its strength and weakness. Local agricultural know-how forges links among participants in Salers networks, connecting cheese producers and consumers, to cattle, microbes, landscapes, wooden tools, and cheeses. Yet, diversity of local expertise creates a tension among producers who must collaborate to achieve unified standards within a PDO while resisting homogeneity. Such results contribute to discussing on PDO governance: an arena to share, compare, and unite local knowledge is critical for GI and thus for sustainable agricultural systems.Nuestro caso de estudio sobre producción de queso de Salers, en el centro-sur de Francia, ilustra cómo los saberes específicos locales explican el origen de la formación de una indicación geográfica (IG. En 1961, los productores del queso de Salers crearon una denominación de origen protegida (DOP. Para preservar el carácter distintivo de sus productos, optaron por requerir como condiciones necesarias tanto el uso de la «gerle», una

  6. From the Theory of Play into the Practice in Kindergarten: Verification of the Original Didactic Toys for Preschool Children

    Navrátilová Hana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study deals with the phenomenon of play in the preschool environment. Based on establishing the links between theories and practice applicable in preschool conditions, the students from study programme of Preschool Teacher Training at Faculty of Humanities at Tomas Bata University in Zlín created a set of original didactic toys for preschool children. The main objective of the study was to verify this set in kindergartens and to find out how teachers perceive play and how they work with toys in preschools. The study also focused on preschool children´s view of play and toys. Methods: We have chosen a qualitative research design to explore the research problem and to answer the research questions. The data collection in this research was based on participant observation and interviews with the participants who were preschool children and their teachers from four selected kindergartens in Zlín Region in the Czech Republic. These were 12 teachers with secondary or university education (Bc. degree, aged 23 to 48, with a length of practice from 1 year to 25 years at the position of kindergarten teacher. The research study then included interviews and video recordings of 77 preschool children (age 2 to 6 years. Results: Data gathered by a qualitative research with preschool children in the kindergarten environment represent a partial picture on the importance of toys and playing with them. The results emerging from the observation and interviewing the preschool children and their teachers shows the way of toy selection with the importance of variability of possible modifications of the toys offered to children in the preschool environment. The progress of play with the verified didactic toys was influenced by the need for a partner in the play, the role of the teacher, the chances to freely discover the elements of toys. We found a restrictive perspective expressed by the participating preschool teachers about the dominant

  7. Identification of the Geographic Origin of Parmigiano Reggiano (P.D.O.) Cheeses Deploying Non-Targeted Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics.

    Popping, Bert; De Dominicis, Emiliano; Dante, Mario; Nocetti, Marco

    2017-02-16

    Parmigiano Reggiano is an Italian product with a protected designation of origin (P.D.O.). It is an aged hard cheese made from raw milk. P.D.O. products are protected by European regulations. Approximately 3 million wheels are produced each year, and the product attracts a relevant premium price due to its quality and all around the world well known typicity. Due to the high demand that exceeds the production, several fraudulent products can be found on the market. The rate of fraud is estimated between 20% and 40%, the latter predominantly in the grated form. We have developed a non-target method based on Liquid Chomatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) that allows the discrimination of Parmigiano Reggiano from non-authentic products with milk from different geographical origins or products, where other aspects of the production process do not comply with the rules laid down in the production specifications for Parmeggiano Reggiano. Based on a database created with authentic samples provided by the Consortium of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese, a reliable classification model was built. The overall classification capabilities of this non-targeted method was verified on 32 grated cheese samples. The classification was 87.5% accurate.

  8. [Bibliometric study of original articles in the Revista Española de Salud Pública (1991-2000). Part II: authors' productivity, their institutions and geographical areas].

    Estrada Lorenzo, José Manuel; Villar Alvarez, Fernando; Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Rebollo Rodríguez, M José

    2003-01-01

    When characterizing a scientific journal from the bibliometric standpoint, it is of importance to know how many authors were involved in the studies published as well as the geographical areas where these authors are located and the type of institutions by which they are employed. The aim of this article is that of analyzing the geographical spread of these authors and the institutions by which they are employed, as well as its evolution as regards the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the 1991-2000 period. Of the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the studied ten-year period, a calculation has been made as to the total number of authors, the number of occasional authors (authors having published solely one article), transitivity index, the ratio between the number of male and female authors, the productivity of the authors and their institutions and the spread of authors and the institutions by which they are employed by Autonomous Communities. Of the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the 1991-2000 period, a total of 1,052 different authors were involved, 1,000 of whom were Spanish and 52 foreigners. The ratio of male authors to female authors for the period in question was 1.29. The Autonomous Communities from which the largest number of authors came were Community of Madrid (16.3%), Andalusia (13.4%) and the Community of Valencia (12.5%). The institutions by which the authors are employed are located most often in Community of Madrid (16.5%), in Community of Valencia (11.3%) and Andalusia and Catalonia (10.5%). A total of 37.6% of the authors work at centers devoted to health care, followed by authors who work at Universities (26.3%). On calculating the spread of the type of institution by Autonomous Communities, in the Community of Madrid and in the Community of Valencia and Andalusia, the most frequent institution is

  9. Geographic origin is not supported by the genetic variability found in a large living collection of Jatropha curcas with accessions from three continents.

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Jankowicz-Cieslak, Joanna; Pabinger, Stephan; Till, Bradley J; Laimer, Margit

    2015-04-01

    Increasing economic interest in Jatropha curcas requires a major research focus on the genetic background and geographic origin of this non-edible biofuel crop. To determine the worldwide genetic structure of this species, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, inter simple sequence repeats, and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were employed for a large collection of 907 J. curcas accessions and related species (RS) from three continents, 15 countries and 53 regions. PCoA, phenogram, and cophenetic analyses separated RS from two J. curcas groups. Accessions from Mexico, Bolivia, Paraguay, Kenya, and Ethiopia with unknown origins were found in both groups. In general, there was a considerable overlap between individuals from different regions and countries. The Bayesian approach using STRUCTURE demonstrated two groups with a low genetic variation. Analysis of molecular varience revealed significant variation among individuals within populations. SNPs found by in silico analyses of Δ12 fatty acid desaturase indicated possible changes in gene expression and thus in fatty acid profiles. SNP variation was higher in the curcin gene compared to genes involved in oil production. Novel SNPs allowed separating toxic, non-toxic, and Mexican accessions. The present study confirms that human activities had a major influence on the genetic diversity of J. curcas, not only because of domestication, but also because of biased selection. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Determination of elemental impurities and U and O isotopic compositions with a view to identify the geographical and industrial origins of uranium ore concentrates

    Salaun, A.; Hubert, A.; Pointurier, F.; Aupiais, J.; Pili, E.; Richon, P.; Fauré, A.; Diallo, S.

    2012-12-01

    First events of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radiological materials occurred 50 years ago. Nuclear forensics expertise are aiming at determining the use of seized material, its industrial history and provenance (geographical area, place of production or processing), at assisting in the identification and dismantling of illicit trafficking networks. This information is also valuable in the context of inspections of declared facilities to verify the consistency of operator's declaration. Several characteristics can be used to determine the origin of uranium ore concentrates such as trace elemental impurity patterns (Keegan et al., 2008 ; Varga et al., 2010a, 2010b) or uranium, oxygen and lead isotopic compositions (Tamborini et al., 2002a, 2002b ; Wallenius et al., 2006; Varga et al., 2009). We developed analytical procedures for measuring the isotopic compositions of uranium (234U/238U and 235U/238U) and oxygen (18O/16O) and levels of elemental impurities (e.g. REE, Th) from very small amounts of uranium ore concentrates (or yellow cakes). Micrometer particles and few milligrams of material are used for oxygen isotope measurements and REE determination, respectively. Reference materials were analyzed by mass spectrometry (TIMS, SF-ICP-MS and SIMS) to validate testing protocols. Finally, materials of unknown origin were analyzed to highlight significant differences and determine whether these differences allow identifying the origin of these ore concentrates. References: Keegan, E., et al. (2008). Applied Geochemistry 23, 765-777. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002a). Analytical Chemistry 74, 6098-6101. Tamborini, G., et al. (2002b). Microchimica Acta 139, 185-188. Varga, Z., et al. (2009). Analytical Chemistry 81, 8327-8334. Varga, Z., et al. (2010a). Talanta 80, 1744-1749. Varga, Z., et al. (2010b). Radiochimica Acta 98, 771-778 Wallenius, M., et al. (2006). Forensic Science International 156, 55-62.

  11. The bioinvasion of Guam: inferring geographic origin, pace, pattern and process of an invasive lizard (Carlia) in the Pacific using multi-locus genomic data

    Austin, C.C.; Rittmeyer, E.N.; Oliver, L.A.; Andermann, J.O.; Zug, G.R.; Rodda, G.H.; Jackson, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species often have dramatic negative effects that lead to the deterioration and loss of biodiversity frequently coupled with the burden of expensive biocontrol programs and subversion of socioeconomic stability. The fauna and flora of oceanic islands are particularly susceptible to invasive species and the increase of global movements of humans and their products since WW II has caused numerous anthropogenic translocations and increased the ills of human-mediated invasions. We use a multi-locus genomic dataset to identify geographic origin, pace, pattern and historical process of an invasive scincid lizard (Carlia) that has been inadvertently introduced to Guam, the Northern Marianas, and Palau. This lizard is of major importance as its introduction is thought to have assisted in the establishment of the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam by providing a food resource. Our findings demonstrate multiple waves of introductions that appear to be concordant with movements of Allied and Imperial Japanese forces in the Pacific during World War II.

  12. A possible geographic origin of endemic hepatitis C virus 6a in Hong Kong: evidences for the association with Vietnamese immigration.

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Chan, Paul K S; Tam, John S; Tang, Julian W

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) 6a accounts for 23.6% of all HCV infections of the general population and 58.5% of intravenous drug users in Hong Kong. However, the geographical origin of this highly predominant HCV subgenotype is largely unknown. This study explores a hypothesis for one possible transmission route of HCV 6a to Hong Kong. NS5A sequences derived from 26 HCV 6a samples were chosen from a five year period (1999-2004) from epidemiologically unrelated patients from Hong Kong. Partial-NS5A sequences (513-bp from nt 6728 to 7240) were adopted for Bayesian coalescent analysis to reconstruct the evolutionary history of HCV infections in Hong Kong using the BEAST v1.3 program. A rooted phylogenetic tree was drawn for these sequences by alignment with reference Vietnamese sequences. Demographic data were accessed from "The Statistic Yearbooks of Hong Kong". Bayesian coalescent analysis showed that the rapid increase in 6a infections, which had increased more than 90-fold in Hong Kong from 1986 to 1994 correlated to two peaks of Vietnamese immigration to Hong Kong from 1978 to 1997. The second peak, which occurred from 1987 through 1997, overlapped with the rapid increase of HCV 6a occurrence in Hong Kong. Phylogenetic analyses have further revealed that HCV 6a strains from Vietnam may be ancestral to Hong Kong counterparts. The high predominance of HCV 6a infections in Hong Kong was possibly associated with Vietnamese immigration during 1987-1997.

  13. Characterization of wines according the geographical origin by analysis of isotopes and minerals and the influence of harvest on the isotope values.

    Dutra, S V; Adami, L; Marcon, A R; Carnieli, G J; Roani, C A; Spinelli, F R; Leonardelli, S; Vanderlinde, R

    2013-12-01

    We studied Brazilian wines produced by microvinification from Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes, vintages 2007 and 2008, from the Serra Gaúcha, Campanha and Serra do Sudeste regions, in order to differentiate them according to geographical origin by using isotope and mineral element analyses. In addition, the influence of vintage production in isotope values was verified. Isotope analysis was performed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and the determination of minerals was by flame atomic absorption (FAA). The best parameters to classify the wines in the 2008 vintage were Rb and Li. The results of the δ(13)C of wine ethanol, Rb and Li showed a significant difference between the varieties regardless of the region studied. The δ(18)O values of water and δ(13)C of ethanol showed significant differences, regardless of the variety. Discriminant analysis of isotope and minerals values allowed to classify approximately 80% of the wines from the three regions studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A possible geographic origin of endemic hepatitis C virus 6a in Hong Kong: evidences for the association with Vietnamese immigration.

    Xiaoming Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV 6a accounts for 23.6% of all HCV infections of the general population and 58.5% of intravenous drug users in Hong Kong. However, the geographical origin of this highly predominant HCV subgenotype is largely unknown. This study explores a hypothesis for one possible transmission route of HCV 6a to Hong Kong. METHODS: NS5A sequences derived from 26 HCV 6a samples were chosen from a five year period (1999-2004 from epidemiologically unrelated patients from Hong Kong. Partial-NS5A sequences (513-bp from nt 6728 to 7240 were adopted for Bayesian coalescent analysis to reconstruct the evolutionary history of HCV infections in Hong Kong using the BEAST v1.3 program. A rooted phylogenetic tree was drawn for these sequences by alignment with reference Vietnamese sequences. Demographic data were accessed from "The Statistic Yearbooks of Hong Kong". RESULTS: Bayesian coalescent analysis showed that the rapid increase in 6a infections, which had increased more than 90-fold in Hong Kong from 1986 to 1994 correlated to two peaks of Vietnamese immigration to Hong Kong from 1978 to 1997. The second peak, which occurred from 1987 through 1997, overlapped with the rapid increase of HCV 6a occurrence in Hong Kong. Phylogenetic analyses have further revealed that HCV 6a strains from Vietnam may be ancestral to Hong Kong counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The high predominance of HCV 6a infections in Hong Kong was possibly associated with Vietnamese immigration during 1987-1997.

  15. A Possible Geographic Origin of Endemic Hepatitis C Virus 6a in Hong Kong: Evidences for the Association with Vietnamese Immigration

    Zhou, Xiaoming; Chan, Paul K. S.; Tam, John S.; Tang, Julian W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) 6a accounts for 23.6% of all HCV infections of the general population and 58.5% of intravenous drug users in Hong Kong. However, the geographical origin of this highly predominant HCV subgenotype is largely unknown. This study explores a hypothesis for one possible transmission route of HCV 6a to Hong Kong. Methods NS5A sequences derived from 26 HCV 6a samples were chosen from a five year period (1999–2004) from epidemiologically unrelated patients from Hong Kong. Partial-NS5A sequences (513-bp from nt 6728 to 7240) were adopted for Bayesian coalescent analysis to reconstruct the evolutionary history of HCV infections in Hong Kong using the BEAST v1.3 program. A rooted phylogenetic tree was drawn for these sequences by alignment with reference Vietnamese sequences. Demographic data were accessed from “The Statistic Yearbooks of Hong Kong”. Results Bayesian coalescent analysis showed that the rapid increase in 6a infections, which had increased more than 90-fold in Hong Kong from 1986 to 1994 correlated to two peaks of Vietnamese immigration to Hong Kong from 1978 to 1997. The second peak, which occurred from 1987 through 1997, overlapped with the rapid increase of HCV 6a occurrence in Hong Kong. Phylogenetic analyses have further revealed that HCV 6a strains from Vietnam may be ancestral to Hong Kong counterparts. Conclusions The high predominance of HCV 6a infections in Hong Kong was possibly associated with Vietnamese immigration during 1987–1997. PMID:21931867

  16. Premilinary studies for optimiziing a protocol for obtaining embryogenic calluses in two rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Mull. Arg clones from different geographical origins

    Santiago Cadavid Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of growth regulators on obtaining friable rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. calluses with no plant regeneration as investigated. Two clones having different geographical origin were used in all trails carried out in this study: FX 3864 (South-American and PB 254 (Asian. Young leaves and eight- to ten-week-old seed integument from both clones were used as explants in several experiments; they were initially cultured in MH medium (Carron, et ál., 1989, modified MH medium (Montoro, et ál., 1993, 2000 and modified MS medium (Carron, et at,. 1992, no positive response being obtained by days 25 or 50. However, other trials were carried out with the integument in modified MS medium (1962, 0.67 mg/L BAP and 0.66 mg/L 2-4 D being added as medium for initiating embryogenesis, the formation of white, friable calluses being observed by day 25 in the two selected clones. These calluses were sub-cultured in MS supplemented with 0.35 mg/L BAP and 0.2 mg/L 2-4 D as callogenesis expression medium, embryogenic expression being observed in both clones by day 50. Equally friable white calluses were obtained from young leaves in the two clones in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP, 1.0 mg/L ANA but without IBA and kinetin by day 25. Calluses sub-cultured in the same medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L ANA began to show increased friability after 50 days. culture. This work is a partial report of a macro-project for optimising a protocol for rubber (Hevea brasiliensis  multiplication by somatic embryogenesis.

  17. Geographic Names

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  18. Genomic characterization of a South American Phytophthora hybrid mandates reassessment of the geographic origins of Phytophthora infestans

    Martin, Michael David; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Ho, Simon Y. W.

    2016-01-01

    outbreak remains disputed, as does the New World center of origin of the species itself. Both Mexico and South America have been proposed, generating considerable controversy. Here, we readdress the pathogen's origins using a genomic data set encompassing 71 globally sourced modern and historical samples...

  19. Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).

    Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the δ(13)C and δ(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Differentiation of wines according to grape variety and geographical origin based on volatiles profiling using SPME-MS and SPME-GC/MS methods.

    Ziółkowska, Angelika; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2016-12-15

    Among methods to detect wine adulteration, profiling volatiles is one with a great potential regarding robustness, analysis time and abundance of information for subsequent data treatment. Volatile fraction fingerprinting by solid-phase microextraction with direct analysis by mass spectrometry without compounds separation (SPME-MS) was used for differentiation of white as well as red wines. The aim was to differentiate between varieties used for wine production and to also differentiate wines by country of origin. The results obtained were compared to SPME-GC/MS analysis in which compounds were resolved by gas chromatography. For both approaches the same type of statistical procedure was used to compare samples: principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). White wines (38) and red wines (41) representing different grape varieties and various regions of origin were analysed. SPME-MS proved to be advantageous in use due to better discrimination and higher sample throughput. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria humidicola based on microsatellites, cytogenetics, morphological traits, and geographical origin.

    Jungmann, L; Vigna, B B Z; Boldrini, K R; Sousa, A C B; do Valle, C B; Resende, R M S; Pagliarini, M S; Zucchi, M I; de Souza, A P

    2010-09-01

    Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick. is a warm-season grass commonly used as forage in the tropics. Accessions of this species were collected in eastern Africa and massively introduced into South America in the 1980s. Several of these accessions form a germplasm collection at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. However, apomixis, ploidy, and limited knowledge of the genetic basis of this germplasm collection have constrained breeding activities. The objectives of this work were to identify genetic variability in the Brazilian B. humidicola germplasm collection using microsatellite markers and to compare the results with information on the following: (1) collection sites of the accessions; (2) reproductive mode and ploidy levels; and (3) genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits. The evaluated germplasm population is highly structured into four major groups. The sole sexual accession did not group with any of the clusters. Genetic dissimilarities did not correlate with either geographic distances or genetic distances inferred from morphological descriptors. Additionally, the genetic structure identified in this collection did not correspond to differences in ploidy level. Alleles exclusive to either sexual or apomictic accessions were identified, suggesting that further evaluation of the association of these loci with apospory should be carried out.

  2. Two year-long continuous monitoring of PM1 aerosol chemical composition at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory. Source apportionment of the Organic content and geographic origins.

    Stavroulas, Iasonas; Pikridas, Michael; Oikonomou, Kostantina; Vasiliadou, Emily; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Gros, Valerie; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1{μ}m (PM1) induces direct and indirect effects on local and regional pollution, global climate and health. As of the beginning of 2015, the chemical composition of submicron aerosols, is continuously being monitored at the newly established Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO, http://www.cyi.ac.cy/index.php/cao.html), a national facility of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure operated by The Cyprus Institute. Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean Middle East region and influenced by diverse air masses throughout the year, is ideal for monitoring photochemically aged aerosols and gaseous pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore this is a unique dataset for this area in such proximity to the Middle East, a poorly documented area in terms of atmospheric aerosol observations. An Aerodyne Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM) is currently deployed at the CAO premises (35.04N - 33.06E) situated at the rural area of Agia Marina Xyliatou on the foothill of mount Troodos at an elevation of 532m above sea level (asl). The ACSM delivers chemical composition of the major non-refractory aerosol (PM1) chemical constituents (organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride) with an effective (close to 100{%}) collection efficiency for particles in the diameter range of 65-700 nm at a 30 minute temporal resolution. Black Carbon (BC) was also monitored using both Magee Scientific AE-31 and AE-33 aethalometers. Quality control of the PM chemical dataset was conducted by comparison with chemical analysis performed on collocated 24-h filter samples (PM1) and comparison with 1-h PM2.5 derived from a Thermo Scientific TEOM (1400a) Monitor. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was conducted and different organic aerosol factors were distinguished using the Igor based SoFi toolkit utilizing the ME-2 multilinear engine. Air mass origin was investigated for each measurement day using the

  3. RESRAD-BUILD verification

    Kamboj, S.; Yu, C.; Biwer, B. M.; Klett, T.

    2002-01-01

    The results generated by the RESRAD-BUILD code (version 3.0) were verified with hand or spreadsheet calculations using equations given in the RESRAD-BUILD manual for different pathways. For verification purposes, different radionuclides--H-3, C-14, Na-22, Al-26, Cl-36, Mn-54, Co-60, Au-195, Ra-226, Ra-228, Th-228, and U-238--were chosen to test all pathways and models. Tritium, Ra-226, and Th-228 were chosen because of the special tritium and radon models in the RESRAD-BUILD code. Other radionuclides were selected to represent a spectrum of radiation types and energies. Verification of the RESRAD-BUILD code was conducted with an initial check of all the input parameters for correctness against their original source documents. Verification of the calculations was performed external to the RESRAD-BUILD code with Microsoft Excel to verify all the major portions of the code. In some cases, RESRAD-BUILD results were compared with those of external codes, such as MCNP (Monte Carlo N-particle) and RESRAD. The verification was conducted on a step-by-step basis and used different test cases as templates. The following types of calculations were investigated: (1) source injection rate, (2) air concentration in the room, (3) air particulate deposition, (4) radon pathway model, (5) tritium model for volume source, (6) external exposure model, (7) different pathway doses, and (8) time dependence of dose. Some minor errors were identified in version 3.0; these errors have been corrected in later versions of the code. Some possible improvements in the code were also identified

  4. Simultaneously tracing the geographical origin and presence of bovine milk in Italian water buffalo Mozzarella cheese using MALDI-TOF data of casein signature peptides.

    Caira, Simonetta; Pinto, Gabriella; Nicolai, Maria Adalgisa; Chianese, Lina; Addeo, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Water buffalo (WB) casein (CN) and curd samples from indigenous Italian and international breeds were examined with the objective of identifying signature peptides that could function as an indicator to determine the origin of their milk products. CN in complex mixtures were digested with trypsin, and peptide fragments were subsequently identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The unique presence of a β-CN A variant and an internally deleted αs1-CN (f35-42) variant in international WB milk samples was ascertained by identifying signature tryptic peptides from either dephosphorylated or native CN. Four signature unphosphorylated peptides derived from β-CN A, i.e. (f49-68) Asn(68) (2223.6 Da), (f1-28) Ser(10) (3169.4 Da), (f1-29) Ser(10) (3297.4 Da) and (f33-48) Thr(41) (1982 Da) and two from αs1-CN (f35-42) deleted fragments, i.e. (f23-34) Met(31) (1415.7 Da) and (f43-58) Val(44) (1752.7 Da), were identified. Two signature casein phosphopeptides (CPPs), i.e. β-CN (f1-28) 4P (3489.1 Da) and β-CN (f33-48) 1P (2062.0 Da), were identified in the tryptic hydrolysate of native casein or curd and cheese samples using in-batch hydroxyapatite (HA) chromatography. All these fragments functioned as analytical surrogates of two αs1- and β-casein variants that specifically occur in the milk of international WB breeds. Furthermore, the bovine peptide β-CN (f1-28) 4P had a distinct and lower molecular mass compared with the WB counterpart and functioned as a species-specific marker for all breeds of WB. Advantages of this analytical approach are that (i) peptides are easier to separate than proteins, (ii) signature peptide probes originating from specific casein variants allow for the targeting of all international WB milk, curd and cheese samples and (iii) bovine and WB casein in mixtures can be simultaneously determined in protected designation of origin (PDO) "Mozzarella di Bufala Campana" cheese

  5. MLVA-16 typing of 295 marine mammal Brucella isolates from different animal and geographic origins identifies 7 major groups within Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis

    Jacques Isabelle

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1994, Brucella strains have been isolated from a wide range of marine mammals. They are currently recognized as two new Brucella species, B. pinnipedialis for the pinniped isolates and B. ceti for the cetacean isolates in agreement with host preference and specific phenotypic and molecular markers. In order to investigate the genetic relationships within the marine mammal Brucella isolates and with reference to terrestrial mammal Brucella isolates, we applied in this study the Multiple Loci VNTR (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA approach. A previously published assay comprising 16 loci (MLVA-16 that has been shown to be highly relevant and efficient for typing and clustering Brucella strains from animal and human origin was used. Results 294 marine mammal Brucella strains collected in European waters from 173 animals and a human isolate from New Zealand presumably from marine origin were investigated by MLVA-16. Marine mammal Brucella isolates were shown to be different from the recognized terrestrial mammal Brucella species and biovars and corresponded to 3 major related groups, one specific of the B. ceti strains, one of the B. pinnipedialis strains and the last composed of the human isolate. In the B. ceti group, 3 subclusters were identified, distinguishing a cluster of dolphin, minke whale and porpoise isolates and two clusters mostly composed of dolphin isolates. These results were in accordance with published analyses using other phenotypic or molecular approaches, or different panels of VNTR loci. The B. pinnipedialis group could be similarly subdivided in 3 subclusters, one composed exclusively of isolates from hooded seals (Cystophora cristata and the two others comprising other seal species isolates. Conclusion The clustering analysis of a large collection of marine mammal Brucella isolates from European waters significantly strengthens the current view of the population structure of these two

  6. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (Pdiverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities.

  7. Swarm Verification

    Holzmann, Gerard J.; Joshi, Rajeev; Groce, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Reportedly, supercomputer designer Seymour Cray once said that he would sooner use two strong oxen to plow a field than a thousand chickens. Although this is undoubtedly wise when it comes to plowing a field, it is not so clear for other types of tasks. Model checking problems are of the proverbial "search the needle in a haystack" type. Such problems can often be parallelized easily. Alas, none of the usual divide and conquer methods can be used to parallelize the working of a model checker. Given that it has become easier than ever to gain access to large numbers of computers to perform even routine tasks it is becoming more and more attractive to find alternate ways to use these resources to speed up model checking tasks. This paper describes one such method, called swarm verification.

  8. Geographical Tatoos

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  9. Determination of wine authenticity and geographical origin by measuring non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in wine ethanol with EIM-IRMS® methodology in combination with δ18O values obtained from wine water.

    Smajlovic, Ivan; Glavanovic, Mirko; Sparks, Kimberlee L.; Sparks, Jed P.; Jovic, Slobodan

    2014-05-01

    Wine consumption has grown significantly in the last two decades, with the United States being the leading consumer of wine in the world. It is also the second largest wine producer and importer after the European Union, which consists of 27 European countries. The world has seen a significant increase in production from new world countries, especially the United States, Australia and Chile, and wine imports have grown significantly with this globalization. The quality and authenticity of products have become critical concerns. With the amount of wine being imported the need for verifying wine authenticity and understanding procedures used in wine making has become more important than ever. Understanding the origin of consumed wine in rapidly expanding global economy has become fundamental in order to control quality and protect consumers. In our previous scientific work we have shown that EIM-IRMS®, Ethanol Isotope Measurement - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EIM-IRMS®), is capable of providing unique molecular fingerprint that cannot be reproduced or counterfeited. Today we know that δ18O value from the wine water is one of the most important parameters which can give information about wine geographical origin. Earlier we have suggested that grape juice or grape pulp is a closed biochemical system in which all chemical compounds stand in dynamic equilibrium and are in direct connection with each other. Taking that into consideration we have concluded that if system is genuine and if no water, or no sugar has been added to the grape must or grape juice prior to alcoholic fermentation, then ethanol which is made in process of alcoholic fermentation will have specific δD value of non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes which will be in range from -205 to -215 ‰ vs. V-SMOW. In this work we will show that this value, which we named δDn (non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in ethanol), is very important because it can support or refute conclusions

  10. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    David Damiens

    Full Text Available The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  11. Cross-Mating Compatibility and Competitiveness among Aedes albopictus Strains from Distinct Geographic Origins - Implications for Future Application of SIT Programs in the South West Indian Ocean Islands.

    Damiens, David; Lebon, Cyrille; Wilkinson, David A; Dijoux-Millet, Damien; Le Goff, Gilbert; Bheecarry, Ambicadutt; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2016-01-01

    The production of large numbers of males needed for a sustainable sterile insect technique (SIT) control program requires significant developmental and operational costs. This may constitute a significant economic barrier to the installation of large scale rearing facilities in countries that are undergoing a transition from being largely dependent on insecticide use to be in a position to integrate the SIT against Aedes albopictus. Alternative options available for those countries could be to rely on outsourcing of sterile males from a foreign supplier, or for one centralised facility to produce mosquitoes for several countries, thus increasing the efficiency of the mass-rearing effort. However, demonstration of strain compatibility is a prerequisite for the export of mosquitoes for transborder SIT applications. Here, we compared mating compatibility among Ae. albopictus populations originating from three islands of the South Western Indian Ocean, and assessed both insemination rates and egg fertility in all possible cross-mating combinations. Furthermore, competitiveness between irradiated and non-irradiated males from the three studied strains, and the subsequent effect on female fertility were also examined. Although morphometric analysis of wing shapes suggested phenoptypic differences between Ae. albopictus strains, perfect reproductive compatibility between them was observed. Furthermore, irradiated males from the different islands demonstrated similar levels of competitiveness and induced sterility when confronted with fertile males from any of the other island populations tested. In conclusion, despite the evidence of inter-strain differences based on male wing morphology, collectively, our results provide a new set of expectations for the use of a single candidate strain of mass-reared sterile males for area-wide scale application of SIT against Ae. albopictus populations in different islands across the South Western Indian Ocean. Cross

  12. Geographical Isolation and the Origin of Species

    Jordan, David Starr

    1922-01-01

    It is a fundamental principle of science that man has no answer to any problem until, through observation and experiment, he is able to find it out. He must work from individual details, an adequate number of which will enable him to frame a more or less complete generalization. Such result,

  13. A Verification Logic for GOAL Agents

    Hindriks, K. V.

    Although there has been a growing body of literature on verification of agents programs, it has been difficult to design a verification logic for agent programs that fully characterizes such programs and to connect agent programs to agent theory. The challenge is to define an agent programming language that defines a computational framework but also allows for a logical characterization useful for verification. The agent programming language GOAL has been originally designed to connect agent programming to agent theory and we present additional results here that GOAL agents can be fully represented by a logical theory. GOAL agents can thus be said to execute the corresponding logical theory.

  14. Software verification for nuclear industry

    Wilburn, N.P.

    1985-08-01

    Why verification of software products throughout the software life cycle is necessary is considered. Concepts of verification, software verification planning, and some verification methodologies for products generated throughout the software life cycle are then discussed

  15. Verification and disarmament

    Blix, H. [IAEA, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    The main features are described of the IAEA safeguards verification system that non-nuclear weapon states parties of the NPT are obliged to accept. Verification activities/problems in Iraq and North Korea are discussed.

  16. Verification and disarmament

    Blix, H.

    1998-01-01

    The main features are described of the IAEA safeguards verification system that non-nuclear weapon states parties of the NPT are obliged to accept. Verification activities/problems in Iraq and North Korea are discussed

  17. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques.

    Tres, A; Ruiz-Samblas, C; van der Veer, G; van Ruth, S M

    2013-04-15

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been applied to verify the geographical origin of crude palm oil (continental scale). For this purpose 94 crude palm oil samples were collected from South East Asia (55), South America (11) and Africa (28). Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to develop a hierarchical classification model by combining two consecutive binary PLS-DA models. First, a PLS-DA model was built to distinguish South East Asian from non-South East Asian palm oil samples. Then a second model was developed, only for the non-Asian samples, to discriminate African from South American crude palm oil. Models were externally validated by using them to predict the identity of new authentic samples. The fatty acid fingerprinting model revealed three misclassified samples. The volatile compound fingerprinting models showed an 88%, 100% and 100% accuracy for the South East Asian, African and American class, respectively. The verification of the geographical origin of crude palm oil is feasible by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting. Further research is required to further validate the approach and to increase its spatial specificity to country/province scale. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physics Verification Overview

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-12

    The purpose of the verification project is to establish, through rigorous convergence analysis, that each ASC computational physics code correctly implements a set of physics models and algorithms (code verification); Evaluate and analyze the uncertainties of code outputs associated with the choice of temporal and spatial discretization (solution or calculation verification); and Develop and maintain the capability to expand and update these analyses on demand. This presentation describes project milestones.

  19. Inspector measurement verification activities

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  20. Decentralized position verification in geographic ad hoc routing

    Leinmüller, Tim; Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank; Maihöfer, Christian

    Inter-vehicle communication is regarded as one of the major applications of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Compared to MANETs or wireless sensor networks (WSNs), these so-called vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have unique requirements on network protocols. The requirements result mainly from

  1. 19 CFR 10.784 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles. When conducting a verification of origin to which Generally Accepted Accounting Principles may be relevant, CBP will apply and accept the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles applicable...

  2. 19 CFR 10.824 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles. When conducting a verification of origin to which Generally Accepted Accounting Principles may be relevant, CBP will apply and accept the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles applicable...

  3. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  4. Cleaning and Cleanliness Verification Techniques for Mars Returned Sample Handling

    Mickelson, E. T.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Allton, J. H.; Hittle, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    Precision cleaning and cleanliness verification techniques are examined as a subset of a comprehensive contamination control strategy for a Mars sample return mission. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Verification Account Management System (VAMS)

    Social Security Administration — The Verification Account Management System (VAMS) is the centralized location for maintaining SSA's verification and data exchange accounts. VAMS account management...

  6. Geographical information systems

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  7. FMCT verification: Case studies

    Hui Zhang

    2001-01-01

    Full text: How to manage the trade-off between the need for transparency and the concern about the disclosure of sensitive information would be a key issue during the negotiations of FMCT verification provision. This paper will explore the general concerns on FMCT verification; and demonstrate what verification measures might be applied to those reprocessing and enrichment plants. A primary goal of an FMCT will be to have the five declared nuclear weapon states and the three that operate unsafeguarded nuclear facilities become parties. One focus in negotiating the FMCT will be verification. Appropriate verification measures should be applied in each case. Most importantly, FMCT verification would focus, in the first instance, on these states' fissile material production facilities. After the FMCT enters into force, all these facilities should be declared. Some would continue operating to produce civil nuclear power or to produce fissile material for non- explosive military uses. The verification measures necessary for these operating facilities would be essentially IAEA safeguards, as currently being applied to non-nuclear weapon states under the NPT. However, some production facilities would be declared and shut down. Thus, one important task of the FMCT verifications will be to confirm the status of these closed facilities. As case studies, this paper will focus on the verification of those shutdown facilities. The FMCT verification system for former military facilities would have to differ in some ways from traditional IAEA safeguards. For example, there could be concerns about the potential loss of sensitive information at these facilities or at collocated facilities. Eventually, some safeguards measures such as environmental sampling might be seen as too intrusive. Thus, effective but less intrusive verification measures may be needed. Some sensitive nuclear facilities would be subject for the first time to international inspections, which could raise concerns

  8. Advanced verification topics

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  9. Geographic Media Literacy

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  10. Determination of n-alkanes in C. annuum (bell pepper) fruit and seed using GC-MS: comparison of extraction methods and application to samples of different geographical origin

    de Rijke, E.; Fellner, C.; Westerveld, J.; Lopatka, M.; Cerli, C.; Kalbitz, K.; de Koster, C.G.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient extraction and analysis method was developed for the isolation and quantification of n-alkanes from bell peppers of different geographical locations. Five extraction techniques, i.e., accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ball mill extraction, ultrasonication, rinsing, and shaking, were

  11. Nuclear test ban verification

    Chun, Kin-Yip

    1991-07-01

    This report describes verification and its rationale, the basic tasks of seismic verification, the physical basis for earthquake/explosion source discrimination and explosion yield determination, the technical problems pertaining to seismic monitoring of underground nuclear tests, the basic problem-solving strategy deployed by the forensic seismology resarch team at the University of Toronto, and the scientific significance of the team's research. The research carried out at the Univeristy of Toronto has two components: teleseismic verification using P wave recordings from the Yellowknife Seismic Array (YKA), and regional (close-in) verification using high-frequency L g and P n recordings from the Eastern Canada Telemetered Network. Major differences have been found in P was attenuation among the propagation paths connecting the YKA listening post with seven active nuclear explosion testing areas in the world. Significant revisions have been made to previously published P wave attenuation results, leading to more interpretable nuclear explosion source functions. (11 refs., 12 figs.)

  12. Standard Verification System (SVS)

    Social Security Administration — SVS is a mainframe program that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform SSN verifications. This program is called by SSA Internal applications to verify SSNs. There is also...

  13. Formal Verification -26 ...

    by testing of the components and successful testing leads to the software being ... Formal verification is based on formal methods which are mathematically based ..... scenario under which a similar error could occur. There are various other ...

  14. SSN Verification Service

    Social Security Administration — The SSN Verification Service is used by Java applications to execute the GUVERF02 service using the WebSphere/CICS Interface. It accepts several input data fields...

  15. Environmental technology verification methods

    Szewczuk, S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) is a tool that has been developed in the United States of America, Europe and many other countries around the world to help innovative environmental technologies reach the market. Claims about...

  16. Verification of RADTRAN

    Kanipe, F.L.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents details of the verification process of the RADTRAN computer code which was established for the calculation of risk estimates for radioactive materials transportation by highway, rail, air, and waterborne modes

  17. Complementary technologies for verification of excess plutonium

    Langner, D.G.; Nicholas, N.J.; Ensslin, N.; Fearey, B.L.; Mitchell, D.J.; Marlow, K.W.; Luke, S.J.; Gosnell, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Three complementary measurement technologies have been identified as candidates for use in the verification of excess plutonium of weapons origin. These technologies: high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, neutron multiplicity counting, and low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy, are mature, robust technologies. The high-resolution gamma-ray system, Pu-600, uses the 630--670 keV region of the emitted gamma-ray spectrum to determine the ratio of 240 Pu to 239 Pu. It is useful in verifying the presence of plutonium and the presence of weapons-grade plutonium. Neutron multiplicity counting is well suited for verifying that the plutonium is of a safeguardable quantity and is weapons-quality material, as opposed to residue or waste. In addition, multiplicity counting can independently verify the presence of plutonium by virtue of a measured neutron self-multiplication and can detect the presence of non-plutonium neutron sources. The low-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopic technique is a template method that can provide continuity of knowledge that an item that enters the a verification regime remains under the regime. In the initial verification of an item, multiple regions of the measured low-resolution spectrum form a unique, gamma-radiation-based template for the item that can be used for comparison in subsequent verifications. In this paper the authors discuss these technologies as they relate to the different attributes that could be used in a verification regime

  18. Multilateral disarmament verification

    Persbo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Non-governmental organisations, such as VERTIC (Verification Research, Training and Information Centre), can play an important role in the promotion of multilateral verification. Parties involved in negotiating nuclear arms accords are for the most part keen that such agreements include suitable and robust provisions for monitoring and verification. Generally progress in multilateral arms control verification is often painstakingly slow, but from time to time 'windows of opportunity' - that is, moments where ideas, technical feasibility and political interests are aligned at both domestic and international levels - may occur and we have to be ready, so the preparatory work is very important. In the context of nuclear disarmament, verification (whether bilateral or multilateral) entails an array of challenges, hurdles and potential pitfalls relating to national security, health, safety and even non-proliferation, so preparatory work is complex and time-greedy. A UK-Norway Initiative was established in order to investigate the role that a non-nuclear-weapon state such as Norway could potentially play in the field of nuclear arms control verification. (A.C.)

  19. Embedded software verification and debugging

    Winterholer, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of verification and debugging techniques for embedded software, which is frequently used in safety critical applications (e.g., automotive), where failures are unacceptable. Since the verification of complex systems needs to encompass the verification of both hardware and embedded software modules, this book focuses on verification and debugging approaches for embedded software with hardware dependencies. Coverage includes the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software and all key approaches to debugging, dynamic, static, and hybrid verification. This book discusses the current, industrial embedded software verification flow, as well as emerging trends with focus on formal and hybrid verification and debugging approaches. Includes in a single source the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software; Addresses the main techniques that are currently being used in the industry for assuring the quality of embedded softw...

  20. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  1. Hospitals in the state of Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LDHH (2007) [hospitals_06_07_pub_LDHH_2007

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Hospitals in the state of Louisiana. This database contains the responses provided by the hospitals to the "Emergency Response Hospital Data Verification Form" that...

  2. Procedure generation and verification

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy has used Artificial Intelligence of ''AI'' concepts to develop two powerful new computer-based techniques to enhance safety in nuclear applications. The Procedure Generation System, and the Procedure Verification System, can be adapted to other commercial applications, such as a manufacturing plant. The Procedure Generation System can create a procedure to deal with the off-normal condition. The operator can then take correct actions on the system in minimal time. The Verification System evaluates the logic of the Procedure Generator's conclusions. This evaluation uses logic techniques totally independent of the Procedure Generator. The rapid, accurate generation and verification of corrective procedures can greatly reduce the human error, possible in a complex (stressful/high stress) situation

  3. Nuclear disarmament verification

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-01-01

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification

  4. Verification of Ceramic Structures

    Behar-Lafenetre, Stephanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michael; De Graaf, Dennis; Hartmann, Peter; Coe, Graham; Laine, Benoit

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the “Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures” contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and instrument structures. It has been written in order to be applicable to most types of ceramic or glass-ceramic materials - typically Cesic®, HBCesic®, Silicon Nitride, Silicon Carbide and ZERODUR®. The proposed guideline describes the activities to be performed at material level in order to cover all the specific aspects of ceramics (Weibull distribution, brittle behaviour, sub-critical crack growth). Elementary tests and their post-processing methods are described, and recommendations for optimization of the test plan are given in order to have a consistent database. The application of this method is shown on an example in a dedicated article [7]. Then the verification activities to be performed at system level are described. This includes classical verification activities based on relevant standard (ECSS Verification [4]), plus specific analytical, testing and inspection features. The analysis methodology takes into account the specific behaviour of ceramic materials, especially the statistical distribution of failures (Weibull) and the method to transfer it from elementary data to a full-scale structure. The demonstration of the efficiency of this method is described in a dedicated article [8]. The verification is completed by classical full-scale testing activities. Indications about proof testing, case of use and implementation are given and specific inspection and protection measures are described. These additional activities are necessary to ensure the required reliability. The aim of the guideline is to describe how to reach the same reliability level as for structures made of more classical materials (metals, composites).

  5. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  6. Verification and validation benchmarks

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V and V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V and V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the

  7. Verification and validation benchmarks

    Oberkampf, William L.; Trucano, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    Verification and validation (V and V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V and V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V and V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the

  8. Reload core safety verification

    Svetlik, M.; Minarcin, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a brief look at the process of reload core safety evaluation and verification in Slovak Republic. It gives an overview of experimental verification of selected nuclear parameters in the course of physics testing during reactor start-up. The comparison of IAEA recommendations and testing procedures at Slovak and European nuclear power plants of similar design is included. An introduction of two level criteria for evaluation of tests represents an effort to formulate the relation between safety evaluation and measured values (Authors)

  9. Is flow verification necessary

    Beetle, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Safeguards test statistics are used in an attempt to detect diversion of special nuclear material. Under assumptions concerning possible manipulation (falsification) of safeguards accounting data, the effects on the statistics due to diversion and data manipulation are described algebraically. A comprehensive set of statistics that is capable of detecting any diversion of material is defined in terms of the algebraic properties of the effects. When the assumptions exclude collusion between persons in two material balance areas, then three sets of accounting statistics are shown to be comprehensive. Two of the sets contain widely known accountancy statistics. One of them does not require physical flow verification - comparisons of operator and inspector data for receipts and shipments. The third set contains a single statistic which does not require physical flow verification. In addition to not requiring technically difficult and expensive flow verification, this single statistic has several advantages over other comprehensive sets of statistics. This algebraic approach as an alternative to flow verification for safeguards accountancy is discussed in this paper

  10. Integrated Java Bytecode Verification

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Existing Java verifiers perform an iterative data-flow analysis to discover the unambiguous type of values stored on the stack or in registers. Our novel verification algorithm uses abstract interpretation to obtain definition/use information for each register and stack location in the program...

  11. Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification

    2016-03-01

    additional paintbrushes. Additionally, in Paradox , human players are never given small optimization problems (for example, toggling the values of 50...were developed by the Center for Game Science: Pipe Jam, Traffic Jam, Flow Jam and Paradox . Verification tools and games were integrated to verify...4 4. Paradox …………………………………………………......5 5. MyClass ………………………………………………….....7 6. Results …………………………………………………......11 7. Time to

  12. The design of verification regimes

    Gallagher, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Verification of a nuclear agreement requires more than knowledge of relevant technologies and institutional arrangements. It also demands thorough understanding of the nature of verification and the politics of verification design. Arms control efforts have been stymied in the past because key players agreed to verification in principle, only to disagree radically over verification in practice. In this chapter, it is shown that the success and stability of arms control endeavors can be undermined by verification designs which promote unilateral rather than cooperative approaches to security, and which may reduce, rather than enhance, the security of both sides. Drawing on logical analysis and practical lessons from previous superpower verification experience, this chapter summarizes the logic and politics of verification and suggests implications for South Asia. The discussion begins by determining what properties all forms of verification have in common, regardless of the participants or the substance and form of their agreement. Viewing verification as the political process of making decisions regarding the occurrence of cooperation points to four critical components: (1) determination of principles, (2) information gathering, (3) analysis and (4) projection. It is shown that verification arrangements differ primarily in regards to how effectively and by whom these four stages are carried out

  13. The National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project.

    Bockenhauer, Mark H.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the National Geographic Society's Teaching Geography Project is an inservice teacher education success story. Describes the origins, objectives, and development of the project. Summarizes the impact of the project and contends that its success is the result of the workshop format and guided practice in instructional strategies. (CFR)

  14. Geographic information systems: introduction.

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Freier, Jerome E; Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The recent exponential growth of the science and technology of geographic information systems (GIS) has made a tremendous contribution to epidemiological analysis and has led to the development of new powerful tools for the surveillance of animal diseases. GIS, spatial analysis and remote sensing provide valuable methods to collect and manage information for epidemiological surveys. Spatial patterns and trends of disease can be correlated with climatic and environmental information, thus contributing to a better understanding of the links between disease processes and explanatory spatial variables. Until recently, these tools were underexploited in the field of veterinary public health, due to the prohibitive cost of hardware and the complexity of GIS software that required a high level of expertise. The revolutionary developments in computer performance of the last decade have not only reduced the costs of equipment but have made available easy-to-use Web-based software which in turn have meant that GIS are more widely accessible by veterinary services at all levels. At the same time, the increased awareness of the possibilities offered by these tools has created new opportunities for decision-makers to enhance their planning, analysis and monitoring capabilities. These technologies offer a new way of sharing and accessing spatial and non-spatial data across groups and institutions. The series of papers included in this compilation aim to: - define the state of the art in the use of GIS in veterinary activities - identify priority needs in the development of new GIS tools at the international level for the surveillance of animal diseases and zoonoses - define practical proposals for their implementation. The topics addressed are presented in the following order in this book: - importance of GIS for the monitoring of animal diseases and zoonoses - GIS application in surveillance activities - spatial analysis in veterinary epidemiology - data collection and remote

  15. Making cocoa origin traceable

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  16. Technical workshop on safeguards, verification technologies, and other related experience

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the Technical Workshop on safeguards was to encourage a clearer understanding of the IAEA Safeguards System, its origins and evolution and the present state of the art. Presentations held by the IAEA officials and outside experts examined as well other components of the non-proliferation regime, the current practices and procedures, and the future prospects. A series of presentations described the characteristics of the interaction between global and regional verification systems and described relevant past and present experience. Prominence given to such state of the art verification technologies as environmental sampling, satellite imaging and monitoring thorough remote and unattended techniques demonstrated, beyond any doubt, the essentially dynamic nature of verification. It is generally acknowledged that there have been major achievements in preventing spread of nuclear weapons, but no verification system can in itself prevent proliferation

  17. Technical workshop on safeguards, verification technologies, and other related experience

    NONE

    1999-12-31

    The aim of the Technical Workshop on safeguards was to encourage a clearer understanding of the IAEA Safeguards System, its origins and evolution and the present state of the art. Presentations held by the IAEA officials and outside experts examined as well other components of the non-proliferation regime, the current practices and procedures, and the future prospects. A series of presentations described the characteristics of the interaction between global and regional verification systems and described relevant past and present experience. Prominence given to such state of the art verification technologies as environmental sampling, satellite imaging and monitoring thorough remote and unattended techniques demonstrated, beyond any doubt, the essentially dynamic nature of verification. It is generally acknowledged that there have been major achievements in preventing spread of nuclear weapons, but no verification system can in itself prevent proliferation Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Distorted Fingerprint Verification System

    Divya KARTHIKAESHWARAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. Fingerprint matching is affected by non-linear distortion introduced in fingerprint impression during the image acquisition process. This non-linear deformation changes both the position and orientation of minutiae. The proposed system operates in three stages: alignment based fingerprint matching, fuzzy clustering and classifier framework. First, an enhanced input fingerprint image has been aligned with the template fingerprint image and matching score is computed. To improve the performance of the system, a fuzzy clustering based on distance and density has been used to cluster the feature set obtained from the fingerprint matcher. Finally a classifier framework has been developed and found that cost sensitive classifier produces better results. The system has been evaluated on fingerprint database and the experimental result shows that system produces a verification rate of 96%. This system plays an important role in forensic and civilian applications.

  19. Methods of Software Verification

    R. E. Gurin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the problem of software verification (SW. Methods of software verification designed to check the software for compliance with the stated requirements such as correctness, system security and system adaptability to small changes in the environment, portability and compatibility, etc. These are various methods both by the operation process and by the way of achieving result. The article describes the static and dynamic methods of software verification and paid attention to the method of symbolic execution. In its review of static analysis are discussed and described the deductive method, and methods for testing the model. A relevant issue of the pros and cons of a particular method is emphasized. The article considers classification of test techniques for each method. In this paper we present and analyze the characteristics and mechanisms of the static analysis of dependencies, as well as their views, which can reduce the number of false positives in situations where the current state of the program combines two or more states obtained both in different paths of execution and in working with multiple object values. Dependences connect various types of software objects: single variables, the elements of composite variables (structure fields, array elements, the size of the heap areas, the length of lines, the number of initialized array elements in the verification code using static methods. The article pays attention to the identification of dependencies within the framework of the abstract interpretation, as well as gives an overview and analysis of the inference tools.Methods of dynamic analysis such as testing, monitoring and profiling are presented and analyzed. Also some kinds of tools are considered which can be applied to the software when using the methods of dynamic analysis. Based on the work a conclusion is drawn, which describes the most relevant problems of analysis techniques, methods of their solutions and

  20. Material integrity verification radar

    Koppenjan, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has the need for verification of 'as-built' spent fuel-dry storage containers and other concrete structures. The IAEA has tasked the Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) to fabricate, test, and deploy a stepped-frequency Material Integrity Verification Radar (MIVR) system to nondestructively verify the internal construction of these containers. The MIVR system is based on previously deployed high-frequency, ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems that have been developed by STL for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Whereas GPR technology utilizes microwave radio frequency energy to create subsurface images, MTVR is a variation for which the medium is concrete instead of soil. The purpose is to nondestructively verify the placement of concrete-reinforcing materials, pipes, inner liners, and other attributes of the internal construction. The MIVR system underwent an initial field test on CANDU reactor spent fuel storage canisters at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada, in October 1995. A second field test at the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant in Embalse, Argentina, was completed in May 1996. The DOE GPR also was demonstrated at the site. Data collection and analysis were performed for the Argentine National Board of Nuclear Regulation (ENREN). IAEA and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Control and Accounting of Nuclear Material (ABACC) personnel were present as observers during the test. Reinforcing materials were evident in the color, two-dimensional images produced by the MIVR system. A continuous pattern of reinforcing bars was evident and accurate estimates on the spacing, depth, and size were made. The potential uses for safeguard applications were jointly discussed. The MIVR system, as successfully demonstrated in the two field tests, can be used as a design verification tool for IAEA safeguards. A deployment of MIVR for Design Information Questionnaire (DIQ

  1. Original Researc Original Research

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  2. Original Research Original Research

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  3. Quantum money with classical verification

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  4. Quantum money with classical verification

    Gavinsky, Dmitry

    2014-01-01

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  5. Soil microbial communities: Influence of geographic location and hydrocarbon pollutants

    Maila, MP

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance and relevance of the geographical origin of the soil sample and the hydrocarbons in determining the functional or species diversity within different bacterial communities was evaluated using the community level physiological profiles...

  6. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  7. Profil Protein Trypanosoma evansi dari Daerah Geografis Berbeda di Indonesia Tahun 2012-2014 dengan Sodium Dodecil Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (TRYPANOSOMA EVANSI PROTEIN PROFILE OF DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL AREAS ORIGIN IN INDONESIA

    Fitrine Ekawasti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Surra outbreak in 2012 has led to more than 1,700 animals have died in the province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT Indonesia. Surra case sporadically continues throughout the year in various areas, especially Kalimantan, Banten as well as other areas. Some reports reveal differences in protein profiles among multiple isolates of T. evansi. Therefore the purpose of this research were to find out the protein profile of each isolate T. evansi in Indonesia and the possible biological differences among them. Eleven isolates originating from the province of East Nusa Tenggara, South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan, Banten, Lampung and Bengkulu has been isolated and purified Using DEAE. Trypanosoma isolate were frezeethawing repeatedly to obtain soluble protein. Furthermore, soluble protein is treated with heating or without heating and then each was run on SDS PAGE with Coomassie Blue staining. The protein profiles of all isolates were compared each other. The results showed that eleven isolates of T. evansi in Indonesia has a very diverse protein profile. Then for the purposes of development of diagnostic kit can be used whole lysate cell (WCL as stock antigen in serological test process.

  8. Scalable Techniques for Formal Verification

    Ray, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This book presents state-of-the-art approaches to formal verification techniques to seamlessly integrate different formal verification methods within a single logical foundation. It should benefit researchers and practitioners looking to get a broad overview of the spectrum of formal verification techniques, as well as approaches to combining such techniques within a single framework. Coverage includes a range of case studies showing how such combination is fruitful in developing a scalable verification methodology for industrial designs. This book outlines both theoretical and practical issue

  9. A Practitioners Perspective on Verification

    Steenburgh, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    NOAAs Space Weather Prediction Center offers a wide range of products and services to meet the needs of an equally wide range of customers. A robust verification program is essential to the informed use of model guidance and other tools by both forecasters and end users alike. In this talk, we present current SWPC practices and results, and examine emerging requirements and potential approaches to satisfy them. We explore the varying verification needs of forecasters and end users, as well as the role of subjective and objective verification. Finally, we describe a vehicle used in the meteorological community to unify approaches to model verification and facilitate intercomparison.

  10. High-level verification

    Lerner, Sorin; Kundu, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    Given the growing size and heterogeneity of Systems on Chip (SOC), the design process from initial specification to chip fabrication has become increasingly complex. This growing complexity provides incentive for designers to use high-level languages such as C, SystemC, and SystemVerilog for system-level design. While a major goal of these high-level languages is to enable verification at a higher level of abstraction, allowing early exploration of system-level designs, the focus so far for validation purposes has been on traditional testing techniques such as random testing and scenario-based

  11. Verification Survey of Uranium Mine Remediation

    Ron, Stager

    2009-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) contracted an independent verification of an intensive gamma radiation survey conducted by a mining company to demonstrate that remediation of disturbed areas was complete. This site was the first of the recent mines being decommissioned in Canada and experience gained here may be applied to other mines being decommissioned in the future. The review included examination of the site-specific basis for clean-up criteria and ALARA as required by CNSC guidance. A paper review of the company report was conducted to determine if protocols were followed and that the summarized results could be independently reproduced. An independent verification survey was conducted on parts of the site and comparisons were made between gamma radiation measurements from the verification survey and the original company survey. Some aspects of data collection using rate meters linked to GPS data loggers are discussed as are aspects for data management and analyses methods required for the large amount of data collected during these surveys. Recommendations were made for implementation of future surveys and reporting the data from those surveys in order to ensure that remediation was complete. (authors)

  12. Survey on Offline Finger Print Verification System

    Suman, R.; Kaur, R.

    2012-01-01

    The fingerprint verification, means where "verification" implies a user matching a fingerprint against a single fingerprint associated with the identity that the user claims. Biometrics can be classified into two types Behavioral (signature verification, keystroke dynamics, etc.) And Physiological

  13. 19 CFR 10.550 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... may agree. (b) Applicable accounting principles. When conducting a verification of origin to which Generally Accepted Accounting Principles may be relevant, CBP will apply and accept the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles applicable in the country of production. ...

  14. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Applicable accounting principles. When conducting a verification of origin to which Generally Accepted Accounting Principles may be relevant, CBP will apply and accept the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles applicable in the country of production. ...

  15. HDL to verification logic translator

    Gambles, J. W.; Windley, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The increasingly higher number of transistors possible in VLSI circuits compounds the difficulty in insuring correct designs. As the number of possible test cases required to exhaustively simulate a circuit design explodes, a better method is required to confirm the absence of design faults. Formal verification methods provide a way to prove, using logic, that a circuit structure correctly implements its specification. Before verification is accepted by VLSI design engineers, the stand alone verification tools that are in use in the research community must be integrated with the CAD tools used by the designers. One problem facing the acceptance of formal verification into circuit design methodology is that the structural circuit descriptions used by the designers are not appropriate for verification work and those required for verification lack some of the features needed for design. We offer a solution to this dilemma: an automatic translation from the designers' HDL models into definitions for the higher-ordered logic (HOL) verification system. The translated definitions become the low level basis of circuit verification which in turn increases the designer's confidence in the correctness of higher level behavioral models.

  16. A geographical perspective

    Elhance, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter attempts to elucidate the various spatial dimensions of the problem of achieving a nuclear weapons agreement in South Asia. The contention here is that geography, more so than other factors, lies at the heart of all past conflicts and hostilities within and between the two potential nuclear powers in the region, Pakistan and India. The hypothesis that these two countries are destined to be irrevocably interlinked in social, cultural, economic, military-strategic and political arenas is addressed. The likelihood that Kashmir and Punjab are constant sources of most bilateral tensions between these countries is assessed. The primary objective of this discussion is to evaluate effects of geography on the achievement and verification of a nuclear agreement in South Asia

  17. Verification of Simulation Tools

    Richard, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Before qualifying a simulation tool, the requirements shall first be clearly identified, i.e.: - What type of study needs to be carried out? - What phenomena need to be modeled? This phase involves writing a precise technical specification. Once the requirements are defined, the most adapted product shall be selected from the various software options available on the market. Before using a particular version of a simulation tool to support the demonstration of nuclear safety studies, the following requirements shall be met. - An auditable quality assurance process complying with development international standards shall be developed and maintained, - A process of verification and validation (V and V) shall be implemented. This approach requires: writing a report and/or executive summary of the V and V activities, defining a validated domain (domain in which the difference between the results of the tools and those of another qualified reference is considered satisfactory for its intended use). - Sufficient documentation shall be available, - A detailed and formal description of the product (software version number, user configuration, other settings and parameters) in the targeted computing environment shall be available. - Source codes corresponding to the software shall be archived appropriately. When these requirements are fulfilled, the version of the simulation tool shall be considered qualified for a defined domain of validity, in a given computing environment. The functional verification shall ensure that: - the computer architecture of the tool does not include errors, - the numerical solver correctly represents the physical mathematical model, - equations are solved correctly. The functional verification can be demonstrated through certification or report of Quality Assurance. The functional validation shall allow the user to ensure that the equations correctly represent the physical phenomena in the perimeter of intended use. The functional validation can

  18. Shift Verification and Validation

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  19. Online fingerprint verification.

    Upendra, K; Singh, S; Kumar, V; Verma, H K

    2007-01-01

    As organizations search for more secure authentication methods for user access, e-commerce, and other security applications, biometrics is gaining increasing attention. With an increasing emphasis on the emerging automatic personal identification applications, fingerprint based identification is becoming more popular. The most widely used fingerprint representation is the minutiae based representation. The main drawback with this representation is that it does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Also, it is difficult quickly to match two fingerprint images containing different number of unregistered minutiae points. In this study filter bank based representation, which eliminates these weakness, is implemented and the overall performance of the developed system is tested. The results have shown that this system can be used effectively for secure online verification applications.

  20. Authentic, Original, and Valuable

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The idea of genetic authenticity and origin has been an important issue within genetics for decades for scientific, political, and economic reasons. The question of where species and populations come from, as well as the linking of genetic traits to particular geographical locations, has resurfaced....... Using the case of human and non-human genetics to compare and contrast the various facets associated with genetic identity, we seek to develop a broader picture of the ways in which genetics plays an important role in stabilizing categories of origin....

  1. An overview of CTBT verification technologies and status of IMS networks

    Basham, P.

    2002-01-01

    The CTBT history is described in brief. Nuclear test environments and verification regime are presented with illustrations. Geographical location of seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide monitoring networks are indicated on globe maps. Benefits of the International Monitoring System (IMS) to host countries are listed

  2. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  3. Verification of road databases using multiple road models

    Ziems, Marcel; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian

    2017-08-01

    In this paper a new approach for automatic road database verification based on remote sensing images is presented. In contrast to existing methods, the applicability of the new approach is not restricted to specific road types, context areas or geographic regions. This is achieved by combining several state-of-the-art road detection and road verification approaches that work well under different circumstances. Each one serves as an independent module representing a unique road model and a specific processing strategy. All modules provide independent solutions for the verification problem of each road object stored in the database in form of two probability distributions, the first one for the state of a database object (correct or incorrect), and a second one for the state of the underlying road model (applicable or not applicable). In accordance with the Dempster-Shafer Theory, both distributions are mapped to a new state space comprising the classes correct, incorrect and unknown. Statistical reasoning is applied to obtain the optimal state of a road object. A comparison with state-of-the-art road detection approaches using benchmark datasets shows that in general the proposed approach provides results with larger completeness. Additional experiments reveal that based on the proposed method a highly reliable semi-automatic approach for road data base verification can be designed.

  4. Improved verification methods for safeguards verifications at enrichment plants

    Lebrun, A.; Kane, S. C.; Bourva, L.; Poirier, S.; Loghin, N. E.; Langlands, D.

    2009-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a coordinated research and development programme to improve its verification methods and equipment applicable to enrichment plants. The programme entails several individual projects to meet the objectives of the IAEA Safeguards Model Approach for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants updated in 2006. Upgrades of verification methods to confirm the absence of HEU (highly enriched uranium) production have been initiated and, in particular, the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) has been redesigned to reduce its weight and incorporate an electrically cooled germanium detector. Such detectors are also introduced to improve the attended verification of UF 6 cylinders for the verification of the material balance. Data sharing of authenticated operator weighing systems such as accountancy scales and process load cells is also investigated as a cost efficient and an effective safeguards measure combined with unannounced inspections, surveillance and non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement. (authors)

  5. Improved verification methods for safeguards verifications at enrichment plants

    Lebrun, A.; Kane, S. C.; Bourva, L.; Poirier, S.; Loghin, N. E.; Langlands, D. [Department of Safeguards, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, A1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has initiated a coordinated research and development programme to improve its verification methods and equipment applicable to enrichment plants. The programme entails several individual projects to meet the objectives of the IAEA Safeguards Model Approach for Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants updated in 2006. Upgrades of verification methods to confirm the absence of HEU (highly enriched uranium) production have been initiated and, in particular, the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) has been redesigned to reduce its weight and incorporate an electrically cooled germanium detector. Such detectors are also introduced to improve the attended verification of UF{sub 6} cylinders for the verification of the material balance. Data sharing of authenticated operator weighing systems such as accountancy scales and process load cells is also investigated as a cost efficient and an effective safeguards measure combined with unannounced inspections, surveillance and non-destructive assay (NDA) measurement. (authors)

  6. Geographical origin classification of olive oils by PTR-MS

    Araghipour, N.; Colineau, J.; Koot, A.H.; Akkermans, W.; Rojas, J.M.M.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A.; Märk, T.D.; Downey, G.; Guillou, C.; Mannina, L.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The volatile compositions of 192 olive oil samples from five different European countries were investigated by PTR-MS sample headspace analysis. The mass spectra of all samples showed many masses with high abundances, indicating the complex VOC composition of olive oil. Three different PLS-DA models

  7. Enhanced Verification Test Suite for Physics Simulation Codes

    Kamm, J R; Brock, J S; Brandon, S T; Cotrell, D L; Johnson, B; Knupp, P; Rider, W; Trucano, T; Weirs, V G

    2008-10-10

    This document discusses problems with which to augment, in quantity and in quality, the existing tri-laboratory suite of verification problems used by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The purpose of verification analysis is demonstrate whether the numerical results of the discretization algorithms in physics and engineering simulation codes provide correct solutions of the corresponding continuum equations. The key points of this document are: (1) Verification deals with mathematical correctness of the numerical algorithms in a code, while validation deals with physical correctness of a simulation in a regime of interest. This document is about verification. (2) The current seven-problem Tri-Laboratory Verification Test Suite, which has been used for approximately five years at the DOE WP laboratories, is limited. (3) Both the methodology for and technology used in verification analysis have evolved and been improved since the original test suite was proposed. (4) The proposed test problems are in three basic areas: (a) Hydrodynamics; (b) Transport processes; and (c) Dynamic strength-of-materials. (5) For several of the proposed problems we provide a 'strong sense verification benchmark', consisting of (i) a clear mathematical statement of the problem with sufficient information to run a computer simulation, (ii) an explanation of how the code result and benchmark solution are to be evaluated, and (iii) a description of the acceptance criterion for simulation code results. (6) It is proposed that the set of verification test problems with which any particular code be evaluated include some of the problems described in this document. Analysis of the proposed verification test problems constitutes part of a necessary--but not sufficient--step that builds confidence in physics and engineering simulation codes. More complicated test cases, including physics models of

  8. The Pauli exclusion principle origin, verifications and applications

    Kaplan, Ilya G

    2017-01-01

    This is the first scientific book devoted to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics and is permanently applied in chemistry, physics, molecular biology and in physical astronomy. However, while the principle has been studied for more than 90 years, rigorous theoretical foundations still have not been established and many unsolved problems remain. Following an introduction and historical survey, this book discusses the still unresolved questions around this fundamental principle. For instance, why, according to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, are only symmetric and antisymmetric permutation symmetries for identical particles realized, while the Schrödinger equation is satisfied by functions with any permutation symmetry? Chapter 3 covers possible answers to this, while chapter 4 presents effective and elegant methods for finding the Pauli-allowed states in atomic, molecular and nuclear spectroscopy. Chapter 5 discusses parastatistics and fractional statistics, dem...

  9. Numident Online Verification Utility (NOVU)

    Social Security Administration — NOVU is a mainframe application that accesses the NUMIDENT to perform real-time SSN verifications. This program is called by other SSA online programs that serve as...

  10. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  11. Using geographic information systems

    Winsor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A true Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer mapping system with spatial analysis ability and cartographic accuracy that will offer many different projections. GIS has evolved to become an everyday tool for a wide range of users including oil companies, worldwide. Other systems are designed to allow oil and gas companies to keep their upstream data in the same format. Among these are the Public Petroleum Data Model developed by Gulf Canada, Digitech and Applied Terravision Systems of Calgary, the system developed and marketed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation in the United States, and the Mercury projects by IBM. These have been developed in an effort to define an industry standard. The advantages and disadvantages of open and closed systems were discussed. Factors to consider when choosing a GIS system such as overall performance, area of use and query complexity, were reviewed. 3 figs

  12. Experimental inventory verification system

    Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.

    1991-01-01

    As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) goals and Department of Energy (DOE) inventory requirements are frequently in conflict at facilities across the DOE complex. The authors wish, on one hand, to verify the presence of correct amounts of nuclear materials that are in storage or in process; yet on the other hand, we wish to achieve ALARA goals by keeping individual and collective exposures as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations permit. The Experimental Inventory Verification System (EIVSystem) is a computer-based, camera-driven system that utilizes image processing technology to detect change in vault areas. Currently in the test and evaluation phase at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this system guards personnel. The EIVSystem continually monitors the vault, providing proof of changed status for objects sorted within the vault. This paper reports that these data could provide the basis for reducing inventory requirements when no change has occurred, thus helping implement ALARA policy; the data will also help describe there target area of an inventory when change has been shown to occur

  13. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications

    March, Paul

    2004-02-01

    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  14. Verification of hypergraph states

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hayashi, Masahito

    2017-12-01

    Hypergraph states are generalizations of graph states where controlled-Z gates on edges are replaced with generalized controlled-Z gates on hyperedges. Hypergraph states have several advantages over graph states. For example, certain hypergraph states, such as the Union Jack states, are universal resource states for measurement-based quantum computing with only Pauli measurements, while graph state measurement-based quantum computing needs non-Clifford basis measurements. Furthermore, it is impossible to classically efficiently sample measurement results on hypergraph states unless the polynomial hierarchy collapses to the third level. Although several protocols have been proposed to verify graph states with only sequential single-qubit Pauli measurements, there was no verification method for hypergraph states. In this paper, we propose a method for verifying a certain class of hypergraph states with only sequential single-qubit Pauli measurements. Importantly, no i.i.d. property of samples is assumed in our protocol: any artificial entanglement among samples cannot fool the verifier. As applications of our protocol, we consider verified blind quantum computing with hypergraph states, and quantum computational supremacy demonstrations with hypergraph states.

  15. Origen botánico y geográfico de las mieles de El Fuerte, Departamento de Santa Bárbara, Jujuy, Argentina Botanical and geographical origin of honeys from El Fuerte, Department of Santa Bárbara, Jujuy, Argentina

    Ana C. Sánchez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este es el primer aporte al conocimiento del origen botánico y geográfico de las mieles de la Provincia de Jujuy. Se analizaron veinticuatro muestras procedentes de la Localidad El Fuerte Departamento Santa Bárbara, reconociéndose un total de cincuenta tipos polínicos pertenecientes a treinta y dos familias botánicas. Se registraron 33% de mieles Uniflorales y 67% de mieles Multiflorales. Se destacan los siguientes tipos polínicos: Gleditsia amorphoides, Myrtaceae y Scutia-Condalia acompañados por Allophylus edulis, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Schinus sp. y Zanthoxylum coco. El espectro polínico obtenido caracteriza geográficamente estas mieles, reflejando la vegetación nativa del área de estudio: ecotono entre la Selva Montana de las Yungas y el Chaco Serrano.This is the first contribution to the knowledge of botanical and geographical origin of honey from the Province of Jujuy. Twenty-four samples were analyzed from the locality of El Fuerte, Santa Bárbara Department. Fifty pollen types were identified belonging to thirty-two botanical families, were registering a 33% honey unifloral and 67% multifloral honey. Include the following pollen types: Gleditsia amorphoides, Myrtaceae and Scutia-Condalia, accompanied by Allophylus edulis, Parapiptadenia excelsa, Schinus sp y Zanthoxylum coco. The pollen spectrum obtained characterized these honeys and reflects the native vegetation: ecotone between the Selva Montana of the Yungas and Chaco Serrano.

  16. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  17. Design verification for reactor head replacement

    Dwivedy, K.K.; Whitt, M.S.; Lee, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the challenges of design verification for reactor head replacement for PWR plants and the program for qualification from the prospective of the utility design engineering group. This paper is based on the experience with the design confirmation of four reactor head replacements for two plants, and their interfacing components, parts, appurtenances, and support structures. The reactor head replacement falls under the jurisdiction of the applicable edition of the ASME Section XI code, with particular reference to repair/replacement activities. Under any repair/replacement activities, demands may be encountered in the development of program and plan for replacement due to the vintage of the original design/construction Code and the design reports governing the component qualifications. Because of the obvious importance of the reactor vessel, these challenges take on an added significance. Additional complexities are introduced to the project, when the replacement components are fabricated by vendors different from the original vendor. Specific attention is needed with respect to compatibility with the original design and construction of the part and interfacing components. The program for reactor head replacement requires evaluation of welding procedures, applicable examination, test, and acceptance criteria for material, welds, and the components. Also, the design needs to take into consideration the life of the replacement components with respect to the extended period of operation of the plant after license renewal and other plant improvements. Thus, the verification of acceptability of reactor head replacement provides challenges for development and maintenance of a program and plan, design specification, design report, manufacturer's data report and material certification, and a report of reconciliation. The technical need may also be compounded by other challenges such as widely scattered global activities and organizational barriers, which

  18. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  19. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    EDENBURN, MICHAEL W.; BUNTING, MARCUS; PAYNE, ARTHUR C. JR.; TROST, LAWRENCE C.

    2000-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0

  20. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  1. Challenges for effective WMD verification

    Andemicael, B.

    2006-01-01

    Effective verification is crucial to the fulfillment of the objectives of any disarmament treaty, not least as regards the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The effectiveness of the verification package depends on a number of factors, some inherent in the agreed structure and others related to the type of responses demanded by emerging challenges. The verification systems of three global agencies-the IAEA, the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO, currently the Preparatory Commission), and the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)-share similarities in their broad objectives of confidence-building and deterrence by assuring members that rigorous verification would deter or otherwise detect non-compliance. Yet they are up against various constraints and other issues, both internal and external to the treaty regime. These constraints pose major challenges to the effectiveness and reliability of the verification operations. In the nuclear field, the IAEA safeguards process was the first to evolve incrementally from modest Statute beginnings to a robust verification system under the global Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The nuclear non-proliferation regime is now being supplemented by a technology-intensive verification system of the nuclear test-ban treaty (CTBT), a product of over three decades of negotiation. However, there still remain fundamental gaps and loopholes in the regime as a whole, which tend to diminish the combined effectiveness of the IAEA and the CTBT verification capabilities. He three major problems are (a) the lack of universality of membership, essentially because of the absence of three nuclear weapon-capable States-India, Pakistan and Israel-from both the NPT and the CTBT, (b) the changes in US disarmament policy, especially in the nuclear field, and (c) the failure of the Conference on Disarmament to conclude a fissile material cut-off treaty. The world is

  2. Disarmament Verification - the OPCW Experience

    Lodding, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  3. Verification of Chemical Weapons Destruction

    Lodding, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Chemical Weapons Convention is the only multilateral treaty that bans completely an entire category of weapons of mass destruction under international verification arrangements. Possessor States, i.e. those that have chemical weapons stockpiles at the time of becoming party to the CWC, commit to destroying these. All States undertake never to acquire chemical weapons and not to help other States acquire such weapons. The CWC foresees time-bound chemical disarmament. The deadlines for destruction for early entrants to the CWC are provided in the treaty. For late entrants, the Conference of States Parties intervenes to set destruction deadlines. One of the unique features of the CWC is thus the regime for verifying destruction of chemical weapons. But how can you design a system for verification at military sites, while protecting military restricted information? What degree of assurance is considered sufficient in such circumstances? How do you divide the verification costs? How do you deal with production capability and initial declarations of existing stockpiles? The founders of the CWC had to address these and other challenges in designing the treaty. Further refinement of the verification system has followed since the treaty opened for signature in 1993 and since inspection work was initiated following entry-into-force of the treaty in 1997. Most of this work concerns destruction at the two large possessor States, Russia and the United States. Perhaps some of the lessons learned from the OPCW experience may be instructive in a future verification regime for nuclear weapons. (author)

  4. Independent Verification Final Summary Report for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 1630 Site Knoxville, Tennessee

    P.C. Weaver

    2009-04-29

    The primary objective of the independent verification was to determine if BJC performed the appropriate actions to meet the specified “hot spot” cleanup criteria of 500 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) uranium-238 (U-238) in surface soil. Specific tasks performed by the independent verification team (IVT) to satisfy this objective included: 1) performing radiological walkover surveys, and 2) collecting soil samples for independent analyses. The independent verification (IV) efforts were designed to evaluate radioactive contaminants (specifically U-238) in the exposed surfaces below one foot of the original site grade, given that the top one foot layer of soil on the site was removed in its entirety.

  5. Independent Verification Final Summary Report for the David Witherspoon, Inc. 1630 Site Knoxville, Tennessee

    Weaver, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of the independent verification was to determine if BJC performed the appropriate actions to meet the specified 'hot spot' cleanup criteria of 500 picocuries per gram (pCi/g) uranium-238 (U-238) in surface soil. Specific tasks performed by the independent verification team (IVT) to satisfy this objective included: (1) performing radiological walkover surveys, and (2) collecting soil samples for independent analyses. The independent verification (IV) efforts were designed to evaluate radioactive contaminants (specifically U-238) in the exposed surfaces below one foot of the original site grade, given that the top one foot layer of soil on the site was removed in its entirety.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered as one of the most silent epidemics and its incidence is ... ies from different geographical locations (Nestvold et .... The general male:female ratio is 5.3:1.0. The male specific incidence of TBI was ...

  7. Verification and update of BNL mixed waste survey

    Bowerman, B.S.; Siskind, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report briefly describes attempts to verify the results of a previous survey on the amount of mixed wastes generated at various facilities during 1985. The original survey indicated some lack of understanding of current EPA regulations. This telephone survey verification indicated a better understanding of these regulations in recent months. Changes in EPA regulations and the addition of new compounds to the list of hazardous wastes are causing problems for organizations trying to comply. 7 refs

  8. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground

    Capron, J.M.; Anselm, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities

  9. Improvements, verifications and validations of the BOW code

    Yu, S.D.; Tayal, M.; Singh, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    The BOW code calculates the lateral deflections of a fuel element consisting of sheath and pellets, due to temperature gradients, hydraulic drag and gravity. the fuel element is subjected to restraint from endplates, neighboring fuel elements and the pressure tube. Many new features have been added to the BOW code since its original release in 1985. This paper outlines the major improvements made to the code and verification/validation results. (author)

  10. Verification steps for the CMS event-builder software

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    The CMS event-builder software is used to assemble event fragments into complete events at 100 kHz. The data originates at the detector front-end electronics, passes through several computers and is transported from the underground to the high-level trigger farm on the surface. I will present the testing and verifications steps a new software version has to pass before it is deployed in production. I will discuss the current practice and possible improvements.

  11. CASL Verification and Validation Plan

    Mousseau, Vincent Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinh, Nam [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This report documents the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs (CASL) verification and validation plan. The document builds upon input from CASL subject matter experts, most notably the CASL Challenge Problem Product Integrators, CASL Focus Area leaders, and CASL code development and assessment teams. This document will be a living document that will track progress on CASL to do verification and validation for both the CASL codes (including MPACT, CTF, BISON, MAMBA) and for the CASL challenge problems (CIPS, PCI, DNB). The CASL codes and the CASL challenge problems are at differing levels of maturity with respect to validation and verification. The gap analysis will summarize additional work that needs to be done. Additional VVUQ work will be done as resources permit. This report is prepared for the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) CASL program in support of milestone CASL.P13.02.

  12. Technical challenges for dismantlement verification

    Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Johnston, R.G.; Nakhleh, C.W.; Dreicer, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    In preparation for future nuclear arms reduction treaties, including any potential successor treaties to START I and II, the authors have been examining possible methods for bilateral warhead dismantlement verification. Warhead dismantlement verification raises significant challenges in the political, legal, and technical arenas. This discussion will focus on the technical issues raised by warhead arms controls. Technical complications arise from several sources. These will be discussed under the headings of warhead authentication, chain-of-custody, dismantlement verification, non-nuclear component tracking, component monitoring, and irreversibility. The authors will discuss possible technical options to address these challenges as applied to a generic dismantlement and disposition process, in the process identifying limitations and vulnerabilities. They expect that these considerations will play a large role in any future arms reduction effort and, therefore, should be addressed in a timely fashion

  13. Time Series Based for Online Signature Verification

    I Ketut Gede Darma Putra

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Signature verification system is to match the tested signature with a claimed signature. This paper proposes time series based for feature extraction method and dynamic time warping for match method. The system made by process of testing 900 signatures belong to 50 participants, 3 signatures for reference and 5 signatures from original user, simple imposters and trained imposters for signatures test. The final result system was tested with 50 participants with 3 references. This test obtained that system accuracy without imposters is 90,44897959% at threshold 44 with rejection errors (FNMR is 5,2% and acceptance errors (FMR is 4,35102%, when with imposters system accuracy is 80,1361% at threshold 27 with error rejection (FNMR is 15,6% and acceptance errors (average FMR is 4,263946%, with details as follows: acceptance errors is 0,391837%, acceptance errors simple imposters is 3,2% and acceptance errors trained imposters is 9,2%.

  14. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  15. Utterance Verification for Text-Dependent Speaker Recognition

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sahidullah, Md; Kukanov, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Text-dependent automatic speaker verification naturally calls for the simultaneous verification of speaker identity and spoken content. These two tasks can be achieved with automatic speaker verification (ASV) and utterance verification (UV) technologies. While both have been addressed previously...

  16. Formal Verification of Continuous Systems

    Sloth, Christoffer

    2012-01-01

    and the verification procedures should be algorithmically synthesizable. Autonomous control plays an important role in many safety-critical systems. This implies that a malfunction in the control system can have catastrophic consequences, e.g., in space applications where a design flaw can result in large economic...... losses. Furthermore, a malfunction in the control system of a surgical robot may cause death of patients. The previous examples involve complex systems that are required to operate according to complex specifications. The systems cannot be formally verified by modern verification techniques, due...

  17. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  18. IMRT plan verification in radiotherapy

    Vlk, P.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the procedure for verification of IMRT (Intensity modulated radiation therapy) plan, which is used in the Oncological Institute of St. Elisabeth in Bratislava. It contains basic description of IMRT technology and developing a deployment plan for IMRT planning system CORVUS 6.0, the device Mimic (Multilammelar intensity modulated collimator) and the overall process of verifying the schedule created. The aim of verification is particularly good control of the functions of MIMIC and evaluate the overall reliability of IMRT planning. (author)

  19. K Basins Field Verification Program

    Booth, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Field Verification Program establishes a uniform and systematic process to ensure that technical information depicted on selected engineering drawings accurately reflects the actual existing physical configuration. This document defines the Field Verification Program necessary to perform the field walkdown and inspection process that identifies the physical configuration of the systems required to support the mission objectives of K Basins. This program is intended to provide an accurate accounting of the actual field configuration by documenting the as-found information on a controlled drawing

  20. Runtime Verification Through Forward Chaining

    Alan Perotti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel rule-based approach for Runtime Verification of FLTL properties over finite but expanding traces. Our system exploits Horn clauses in implication form and relies on a forward chaining-based monitoring algorithm. This approach avoids the branching structure and exponential complexity typical of tableaux-based formulations, creating monitors with a single state and a fixed number of rules. This allows for a fast and scalable tool for Runtime Verification: we present the technical details together with a working implementation.

  1. A Scalable Approach for Hardware Semiformal Verification

    Grimm, Tomas; Lettnin, Djones; Hübner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The current verification flow of complex systems uses different engines synergistically: virtual prototyping, formal verification, simulation, emulation and FPGA prototyping. However, none is able to verify a complete architecture. Furthermore, hybrid approaches aiming at complete verification use techniques that lower the overall complexity by increasing the abstraction level. This work focuses on the verification of complex systems at the RT level to handle the hardware peculiarities. Our r...

  2. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  3. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  4. Automated Verification of Virtualized Infrastructures

    Bleikertz, Sören; Gross, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Virtualized infrastructures and clouds present new challenges for security analysis and formal verification: they are complex environments that continuously change their shape, and that give rise to non-trivial security goals such as isolation and failure resilience requirements. We present a pla...

  5. Future of monitoring and verification

    Wagenmakers, H.

    1991-01-01

    The organized verification entrusted to IAEA for the implementation of the NPT, of the Treaty of Tlatelolco and of the Treaty of Rarotonga, reaches reasonable standards. The current dispute with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea about the conclusion of a safeguards agreement with IAEA, by its exceptional nature, underscores rather than undermines the positive judgement to be passed on IAEA's overall performance. The additional task given to the Director General of IAEA under Security Council resolution 687 (1991) regarding Iraq's nuclear-weapons-usable material is particularly challenging. For the purposes of this paper, verification is defined as the process for establishing whether the States parties are complying with an agreement. In the final stage verification may lead into consideration of how to respond to non-compliance. Monitoring is perceived as the first level in the verification system. It is one generic form of collecting information on objects, activities or events and it involves a variety of instruments ranging from communications satellites to television cameras or human inspectors. Monitoring may also be used as a confidence-building measure

  6. Hot cell verification facility update

    Titzler, P.A.; Moffett, S.D.; Lerch, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) provides a prototypic hot cell mockup to check equipment for functional and remote operation, and provides actual hands-on training for operators. The facility arrangement is flexible and assists in solving potential problems in a nonradioactive environment. HCVF has been in operation for six years, and the facility is a part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

  7. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  8. Verification of safety critical software

    Son, Ki Chang; Chun, Chong Son; Lee, Byeong Joo; Lee, Soon Sung; Lee, Byung Chai

    1996-01-01

    To assure quality of safety critical software, software should be developed in accordance with software development procedures and rigorous software verification and validation should be performed. Software verification is the formal act of reviewing, testing of checking, and documenting whether software components comply with the specified requirements for a particular stage of the development phase[1]. New software verification methodology was developed and was applied to the Shutdown System No. 1 and 2 (SDS1,2) for Wolsung 2,3 and 4 nuclear power plants by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited(AECL) in order to satisfy new regulation requirements of Atomic Energy Control Boars(AECB). Software verification methodology applied to SDS1 for Wolsung 2,3 and 4 project will be described in this paper. Some errors were found by this methodology during the software development for SDS1 and were corrected by software designer. Outputs from Wolsung 2,3 and 4 project have demonstrated that the use of this methodology results in a high quality, cost-effective product. 15 refs., 6 figs. (author)

  9. Verification and the safeguards legacy

    Perricos, Demetrius

    2001-01-01

    A number of inspection or monitoring systems throughout the world over the last decades have been structured drawing upon the IAEA experience of setting up and operating its safeguards system. The first global verification system was born with the creation of the IAEA safeguards system, about 35 years ago. With the conclusion of the NPT in 1968, inspections were to be performed under safeguards agreements, concluded directly between the IAEA and non-nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty. The IAEA developed the safeguards system within the limitations reflected in the Blue Book (INFCIRC 153), such as limitations of routine access by the inspectors to 'strategic points', including 'key measurement points', and the focusing of verification on declared nuclear material in declared installations. The system, based as it was on nuclear material accountancy. It was expected to detect a diversion of nuclear material with a high probability and within a given time and therefore determine also that there had been no diversion of nuclear material from peaceful purposes. The most vital element of any verification system is the inspector. Technology can assist but cannot replace the inspector in the field. Their experience, knowledge, intuition and initiative are invaluable factors contributing to the success of any inspection regime. The IAEA inspectors are however not part of an international police force that will intervene to prevent a violation taking place. To be credible they should be technically qualified with substantial experience in industry or in research and development before they are recruited. An extensive training program has to make sure that the inspectors retain their professional capabilities and that it provides them with new skills. Over the years, the inspectors and through them the safeguards verification system gained experience in: organization and management of large teams; examination of records and evaluation of material balances

  10. Eggspectation : organic egg verification tool

    Ruth, van S.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 RIKILT conducted a study on about 2,000 eggs to evaluate three different analytical verification methods: carotenoid profiling, fatty acid profiling and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The eggs were collected from about 50 Dutch farms. The selection was based on the farms’ location and

  11. Original Misunderstanding

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  12. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  13. LEGAL INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PRODUCT IN INDONESIA

    Almusawir Nansa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As an archipelago country, Indonesia comprises of a large territory where every region is capable of producing distinctive and characterized products due to its geographical, social, and cultural factors, in addition to its higher quality compared to imported products. In the market, goods with distinct characterization as a result of various geographical locations of production regions is known as Geographical Indication Products. Geographical Indication defines as a characterization that indicates the origin of a product, which includes several influencing factors such as geographical factor, natural factor, human factor or the combination of both factors which eventually contribute to establish a certain distinction and quality upon a product. Several geographical indicated products in Indonesia are widely known to have excellent reputation on the market, namely Delinese tobacco, Temanggung tobacco, Ciancur rice, Muntok white pepper, Lampung black pepper, Kerinci cinnamon, Cilembu cassava, Bandanese nutmeg, Proboliggo sweet mango, Balinese Kintamani coffee, Kalosi coffee, Papuan matoa, etc. Those are several richness of goods from certain regions in Indonesia widely known for their characterization. Characterization of goods are resulted by variation of geographic locations of producing regions in Indonesia. These goods possess high quality and high economic value. Consequently, certain instruments are required to provide protection upon the regions producing those goods against the act of counterfeiting.

  14. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  15. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  16. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  17. Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations

    McEvoy, Brian P; Montgomery, Grant W; McRae, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism, in 2099 individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and HapMap European-American). The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like...

  18. Original Article

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  20. Original pedagogues

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  1. On the numerical verification of industrial codes

    Montan, Sethy Akpemado

    2013-01-01

    Numerical verification of industrial codes, such as those developed at EDF R and D, is required to estimate the precision and the quality of computed results, even more for code running in HPC environments where millions of instructions are performed each second. These programs usually use external libraries (MPI, BLACS, BLAS, LAPACK). In this context, it is required to have a tool as non intrusive as possible to avoid rewriting the original code. In this regard, the CADNA library, which implements the Discrete Stochastic Arithmetic, appears to be one of a promising approach for industrial applications. In the first part of this work, we are interested in an efficient implementation of the BLAS routine DGEMM (General Matrix Multiply) implementing Discrete Stochastic Arithmetic. The implementation of a basic algorithm for matrix product using stochastic types leads to an overhead greater than 1000 for a matrix of 1024 * 1024 compared to the standard version and commercial versions of xGEMM. Here, we detail different solutions to reduce this overhead and the results we have obtained. A new routine Dgemm- CADNA have been designed. This routine has allowed to reduce the overhead from 1100 to 35 compare to optimized BLAS implementations (GotoBLAS). Then, we focus on the numerical verification of Telemac-2D computed results. Performing a numerical validation with the CADNA library shows that more than 30% of the numerical instabilities occurring during an execution come from the dot product function. A more accurate implementation of the dot product with compensated algorithms is presented in this work. We show that implementing these kinds of algorithms, in order to improve the accuracy of computed results does not alter the code performance. (author)

  2. Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT)

    Kumar, Sujay V.

    2017-01-01

    LVT is a framework developed to provide an automated, consolidated environment for systematic land surface model evaluation Includes support for a range of in-situ, remote-sensing and other model and reanalysis products. Supports the analysis of outputs from various LIS subsystems, including LIS-DA, LIS-OPT, LIS-UE. Note: The Land Information System Verification Toolkit (LVT) is a NASA software tool designed to enable the evaluation, analysis and comparison of outputs generated by the Land Information System (LIS). The LVT software is released under the terms and conditions of the NASA Open Source Agreement (NOSA) Version 1.1 or later. Land Information System Verification Toolkit (LVT) NOSA.

  3. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.

    Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R

    2009-09-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

  4. Nuclear Data Verification and Standardization

    Karam, Lisa R.; Arif, Muhammad; Thompson, Alan K.

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this interagency program is to provide accurate neutron interaction verification and standardization data for the U.S. Department of Energy Division of Nuclear Physics programs which include astrophysics, radioactive beam studies, and heavy-ion reactions. The measurements made in this program are also useful to other programs that indirectly use the unique properties of the neutron for diagnostic and analytical purposes. These include homeland security, personnel health and safety, nuclear waste disposal, treaty verification, national defense, and nuclear based energy production. The work includes the verification of reference standard cross sections and related neutron data employing the unique facilities and capabilities at NIST and other laboratories as required; leadership and participation in international intercomparisons and collaborations; and the preservation of standard reference deposits. An essential element of the program is critical evaluation of neutron interaction data standards including international coordinations. Data testing of critical data for important applications is included. The program is jointly supported by the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

  5. Verification of RESRAD-build computer code, version 3.1

    2003-01-01

    RESRAD-BUILD is a computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material. It is part of a family of codes that includes RESRAD, RESRAD-CHEM, RESRAD-RECYCLE, RESRAD-BASELINE, and RESRAD-ECORISK. The RESRAD-BUILD models were developed and codified by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); version 1.5 of the code and the user's manual were publicly released in 1994. The original version of the code was written for the Microsoft DOS operating system. However, subsequent versions of the code were written for the Microsoft Windows operating system. The purpose of the present verification task (which includes validation as defined in the standard) is to provide an independent review of the latest version of RESRAD-BUILD under the guidance provided by ANSI/ANS-10.4 for verification and validation of existing computer programs. This approach consists of a posteriori V and V review which takes advantage of available program development products as well as user experience. The purpose, as specified in ANSI/ANS-10.4, is to determine whether the program produces valid responses when used to analyze problems within a specific domain of applications, and to document the level of verification. The culmination of these efforts is the production of this formal Verification Report. The first step in performing the verification of an existing program was the preparation of a Verification Review Plan. The review plan consisted of identifying: Reason(s) why a posteriori verification is to be performed; Scope and objectives for the level of verification selected; Development products to be used for the review; Availability and use of user experience; and Actions to be taken to supplement missing or unavailable development products. The purpose, scope and objectives for the level of verification selected are described in this section of the Verification Report. The development products that were used

  6. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  7. Embedding Local Places in Global Spaces: Geographical Indications as a Territorial Development Strategy

    Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Geographical indications (GIs) are place-based names that convey the geographical origin, as well as the cultural and historical identity, of agricultural products. GIs are unique, in that they provide a means of ensuring that control over production and sales of a product stays within a local area, but at the same time they make use of extralocal…

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  11. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  13. Original Article

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  15. Original Article

    Pezhman Kharazm

    treatment in 32 patients who were admitted in Shohada-E-Tajrish hospital with final diagnosis of AMI from March 1996 to March 2002. ... of the patient and diagnostic studies and early surgical or non surgical intervention is the most ... operative diagnosis of etiology was based on presence of pulse at the origin of mesenteric.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  17. Original Research

    A facility based comparative cross-sectional study ... Health care delivery should consider the desire for children by men and .... Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the .... For substitution, children are an important part of marriage, current child needs sibling, original desires .... does not, the only way to avoid the risk of.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    User

    source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de- termined and ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ..... ferral rate of females in comparison to males as pre- .... nors at blood bank of a medical college,. Australia. Med J Armed Forces 61: 131- 4.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  20. Original contributions

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  1. Original Copies

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    User

    there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... shown that, about 80.0% of women contracted HPV infection before ... 2010), age of initial sexual contact, and lack of symp- toms for ...

  3. [Differentiation of geographic biovariants of smallpox virus by PCR].

    Babkin, I V; Babkina, I N

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of amino acid and nucleotides sequences of ORFs located in extended segments of the terminal variable regions in variola virus genome detected a promising locus for viral genotyping according to the geographic origin. This is ORF O1L of VARV. The primers were calculated for synthesis of this ORF fragment by PCR, which makes it possible to distinguish South America-Western Africa genotype from other VARV strains. Subsequent RFLP analysis reliably differentiated Asian strains from African strains (except Western Africa isolates). This method has been tested using 16 VARV strains from various geographic regions. The developed approach is simple, fast and reliable.

  4. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  5. A review of geographic variation and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications in prescription drug use research.

    Wangia, Victoria; Shireman, Theresa I

    2013-01-01

    While understanding geography's role in healthcare has been an area of research for over 40 years, the application of geography-based analyses to prescription medication use is limited. The body of literature was reviewed to assess the current state of such studies to demonstrate the scale and scope of projects in order to highlight potential research opportunities. To review systematically how researchers have applied geography-based analyses to medication use data. Empiric, English language research articles were identified through PubMed and bibliographies. Original research articles were independently reviewed as to the medications or classes studied, data sources, measures of medication exposure, geographic units of analysis, geospatial measures, and statistical approaches. From 145 publications matching key search terms, forty publications met the inclusion criteria. Cardiovascular and psychotropic classes accounted for the largest proportion of studies. Prescription drug claims were the primary source, and medication exposure was frequently captured as period prevalence. Medication exposure was documented across a variety of geopolitical units such as countries, provinces, regions, states, and postal codes. Most results were descriptive and formal statistical modeling capitalizing on geospatial techniques was rare. Despite the extensive research on small area variation analysis in healthcare, there are a limited number of studies that have examined geographic variation in medication use. Clearly, there is opportunity to collaborate with geographers and GIS professionals to harness the power of GIS technologies and to strengthen future medication studies by applying more robust geospatial statistical methods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  7. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  8. Experimental verification of layout physical verification of silicon photonics

    El Shamy, Raghi S.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2018-02-01

    Silicon photonics have been approved as one of the best platforms for dense integration of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) due to the high refractive index contrast among its materials. Silicon on insulator (SOI) is a widespread photonics technology, which support a variety of devices for lots of applications. As the photonics market is growing, the number of components in the PICs increases which increase the need for an automated physical verification (PV) process. This PV process will assure reliable fabrication of the PICs as it will check both the manufacturability and the reliability of the circuit. However, PV process is challenging in the case of PICs as it requires running an exhaustive electromagnetic (EM) simulations. Our group have recently proposed an empirical closed form models for the directional coupler and the waveguide bends based on the SOI technology. The models have shown a very good agreement with both finite element method (FEM) and finite difference time domain (FDTD) solvers. These models save the huge time of the 3D EM simulations and can be easily included in any electronic design automation (EDA) flow as the equations parameters can be easily extracted from the layout. In this paper we present experimental verification for our previously proposed models. SOI directional couplers with different dimensions have been fabricated using electron beam lithography and measured. The results from the measurements of the fabricate devices have been compared to the derived models and show a very good agreement. Also the matching can reach 100% by calibrating certain parameter in the model.

  9. Verification and nuclear material security

    ElBaradei, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Director General will open the symposium by presenting a series of challenges facing the international safeguards community: the need to ensure a robust system, with strong verification tools and a sound research and development programme; the importance of securing the necessary support for the system, in terms of resources; the effort to achieve universal participation in the non-proliferation regime; and the necessity of re-energizing disarmament efforts. Special focus will be given to the challenge underscored by recent events, of strengthening international efforts to combat nuclear terrorism. (author)

  10. SHIELD verification and validation report

    Boman, C.

    1992-02-01

    This document outlines the verification and validation effort for the SHIELD, SHLDED, GEDIT, GENPRT, FIPROD, FPCALC, and PROCES modules of the SHIELD system code. Along with its predecessors, SHIELD has been in use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for more than ten years. During this time the code has been extensively tested and a variety of validation documents have been issued. The primary function of this report is to specify the features and capabilities for which SHIELD is to be considered validated, and to reference the documents that establish the validation

  11. Trojan technical specification verification project

    Bates, L.; Rickenback, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Trojan Technical Specification Verification (TTSV) project at the Trojan plant of Portland General Electric Company was motivated by the recognition that many numbers in the Trojan technical specifications (TTS) potentially lacked the consideration of instrument- and/or process-related errors. The plant setpoints were known to consider such errors, but many of the values associated with the limiting conditions for operation (LCO) did not. In addition, the existing plant instrument error analyses were based on industry values that do not reflect the Trojan plant-specific experience. The purpose of this project is to ensure that the Trojan plant setpoint and LCO values include plant-specific instrument error

  12. A verification environment for bigraphs

    Perrone, Gian David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present the BigMC tool for bigraphical reactive systems that may be instantiated as a verification tool for any formalism or domain-specific modelling language encoded as a bigraphical reactive system. We introduce the syntax and use of BigMC, and exemplify its use with two small examples......: a textbook “philosophers” example, and an example motivated by a ubiquitous computing application. We give a tractable heuristic with which to approximate interference between reaction rules, and prove this analysis to be safe. We provide a mechanism for state reachability checking of bigraphical reactive...

  13. Hot-cell verification facility

    Eschenbaum, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Hot Cell Verification Facility (HCVF) was established as the test facility for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) examination equipment. HCVF provides a prototypic hot cell environment to check the equipment for functional and remote operation. It also provides actual hands-on training for future FMEF Operators. In its two years of operation, HCVF has already provided data to make significant changes in items prior to final fabrication. It will also shorten the startup time in FMEF since the examination equipment will have been debugged and operated in HCVF

  14. Verification of Ganoderma (lingzhi) commercial products by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional IR correlation spectroscopy

    Choong, Yew-Keong; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun; Lan, Jin; Lee, Han-Lim; Chen, Xiang-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Ganoderma commercial products are typically based on two sources, raw material (powder form and/or spores) and extract (water and/or solvent). This study compared three types of Ganoderma commercial products using 1 Dimensional Fourier Transform infrared and second derivative spectroscopy. The analyzed spectra of Ganoderma raw material products were compared with spectra of cultivated Ganoderma raw material powder from different mushroom farms in Malaysia. The Ganoderma extract product was also compared with three types of cultivated Ganoderma extracts. Other medicinal Ganoderma contents in commercial extract product that included glucan and triterpenoid were analyzed by using FTIR and 2DIR. The results showed that water extract of cultivated Ganoderma possessed comparable spectra with that of Ganoderma product water extract. By comparing the content of Ganoderma commercial products using FTIR and 2DIR, product content profiles could be detected. In addition, the geographical origin of the Ganoderma products could be verified by comparing their spectra with Ganoderma products from known areas. This study demonstrated the possibility of developing verification tool to validate the purity of commercial medicinal herbal and mushroom products.

  15. Applying the neutron scatter camera to treaty verification and warhead monitoring

    Cooper, Robert Lee; Gerling, Mark; Brennan, James S.; Mascarenhas, Nicholas; Mrowka, Stanley; Marleau, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The neutron scatter camera was originally developed for a range of SNM detection applications. We are now exploring the feasibility of applications in treaty verification and warhead monitoring using experimentation, maximum likelihood estimation method (MLEM), detector optimization, and MCNP-PoliMi simulations.

  16. 19 CFR 10.470 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential treatment.

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting and financial records, information relating to the place of production, the number and...) Applicable accounting principles. When conducting a verification of origin to which Generally Accepted Accounting Principles may be relevant, CBP will apply and accept the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles...

  17. Dinosaurs reveal the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

    O'Donovan, Ciara; Meade, Andrew; Venditti, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial ecosystems across the globe for over 100 million years and provide a classic example of an evolutionary radiation. However, little is known about how these animals radiated geographically to become globally distributed. Here, we use a biogeographical model to reconstruct the dinosaurs' ancestral locations, revealing the spatial mechanisms that underpinned this 170-million-year-long radiation. We find that dinosaurs spread rapidly initially, followed by a significant continuous and gradual reduction in their speed of movement towards the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary (66 million years ago). This suggests that the predominant mode of dinosaur speciation changed through time with speciation originally largely driven by geographical isolation-when dinosaurs speciated more, they moved further. This was gradually replaced by increasing levels of sympatric speciation (species taking advantage of ecological opportunities within their existing environment) as terrestrial space became a limiting factor. Our results uncover the geographical signature of an evolutionary radiation.

  18. Particularities of Verification Processes for Distributed Informatics Applications

    Ion IVAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents distributed informatics applications and characteristics of their development cycle. It defines the concept of verification and there are identified the differences from software testing. Particularities of the software testing and software verification processes are described. The verification steps and necessary conditions are presented and there are established influence factors of quality verification. Software optimality verification is analyzed and some metrics are defined for the verification process.

  19. X-ray volume imaging in bladder radiotherapy verification

    Henry, Ann M.; Stratford, Julia; McCarthy, Claire; Davies, Julie; Sykes, Jonathan R.; Amer, Ali; Marchant, Tom; Cowan, Richard; Wylie, James; Logue, John; Livsey, Jacqueline; Khoo, Vincent S.; Moore, Chris; Price, Pat

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical utility of X-ray volume imaging (XVI) for verification of bladder radiotherapy and to quantify geometric error in bladder radiotherapy delivery. Methods and Materials: Twenty subjects undergoing conformal bladder radiotherapy were recruited. X-ray volume images and electronic portal images (EPIs) were acquired for the first 5 fractions and then once weekly. X-ray volume images were co-registered with the planning computed tomography scan and clinical target volume coverage assessed in three dimensions (3D). Interfraction bladder volume change was described by quantifying changes in bladder volume with time. Bony setup errors were compared from both XVI and EPI. Results: The bladder boundary was clearly visible on coronal XVI views in nearly all images, allowing accurate 3D treatment verification. In 93.5% of imaged fractions, the clinical target volume was within the planning target volume. Most subjects displayed consistent bladder volumes, but 25% displayed changes that could be predicted from the first three XVIs. Bony setup errors were similar whether calculated from XVI or EPI. Conclusions: Coronal XVI can be used to verify 3D bladder radiotherapy delivery. Image-guided interventions to reduce geographic miss and normal tissue toxicity are feasible with this technology

  20. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  1. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models

  2. RISKIND verification and benchmark comparisons

    Biwer, B.M.; Arnish, J.J.; Chen, S.Y.; Kamboj, S.

    1997-08-01

    This report presents verification calculations and benchmark comparisons for RISKIND, a computer code designed to estimate potential radiological consequences and health risks to individuals and the population from exposures associated with the transportation of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials. Spreadsheet calculations were performed to verify the proper operation of the major options and calculational steps in RISKIND. The program is unique in that it combines a variety of well-established models into a comprehensive treatment for assessing risks from the transportation of radioactive materials. Benchmark comparisons with other validated codes that incorporate similar models were also performed. For instance, the external gamma and neutron dose rate curves for a shipping package estimated by RISKIND were compared with those estimated by using the RADTRAN 4 code and NUREG-0170 methodology. Atmospheric dispersion of released material and dose estimates from the GENII and CAP88-PC codes. Verification results have shown the program to be performing its intended function correctly. The benchmark results indicate that the predictions made by RISKIND are within acceptable limits when compared with predictions from similar existing models.

  3. Quantitative reactive modeling and verification.

    Henzinger, Thomas A

    Formal verification aims to improve the quality of software by detecting errors before they do harm. At the basis of formal verification is the logical notion of correctness , which purports to capture whether or not a program behaves as desired. We suggest that the boolean partition of software into correct and incorrect programs falls short of the practical need to assess the behavior of software in a more nuanced fashion against multiple criteria. We therefore propose to introduce quantitative fitness measures for programs, specifically for measuring the function, performance, and robustness of reactive programs such as concurrent processes. This article describes the goals of the ERC Advanced Investigator Project QUAREM. The project aims to build and evaluate a theory of quantitative fitness measures for reactive models. Such a theory must strive to obtain quantitative generalizations of the paradigms that have been success stories in qualitative reactive modeling, such as compositionality, property-preserving abstraction and abstraction refinement, model checking, and synthesis. The theory will be evaluated not only in the context of software and hardware engineering, but also in the context of systems biology. In particular, we will use the quantitative reactive models and fitness measures developed in this project for testing hypotheses about the mechanisms behind data from biological experiments.

  4. Guidance and Control Software Project Data - Volume 3: Verification Documents

    Hayhurst, Kelly J. (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    The Guidance and Control Software (GCS) project was the last in a series of software reliability studies conducted at Langley Research Center between 1977 and 1994. The technical results of the GCS project were recorded after the experiment was completed. Some of the support documentation produced as part of the experiment, however, is serving an unexpected role far beyond its original project context. Some of the software used as part of the GCS project was developed to conform to the RTCA/DO-178B software standard, "Software Considerations in Airborne Systems and Equipment Certification," used in the civil aviation industry. That standard requires extensive documentation throughout the software development life cycle, including plans, software requirements, design and source code, verification cases and results, and configuration management and quality control data. The project documentation that includes this information is open for public scrutiny without the legal or safety implications associated with comparable data from an avionics manufacturer. This public availability has afforded an opportunity to use the GCS project documents for DO-178B training. This report provides a brief overview of the GCS project, describes the 4-volume set of documents and the role they are playing in training, and includes the verification documents from the GCS project. Volume 3 contains four appendices: A. Software Verification Cases and Procedures for the Guidance and Control Software Project; B. Software Verification Results for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; C. Review Records for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software; and D. Test Results Logs for the Pluto Implementation of the Guidance and Control Software.

  5. Verification and Performance Analysis for Embedded Systems

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems.......This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems....

  6. Safety Verification for Probabilistic Hybrid Systems

    Zhang, Lijun; She, Zhikun; Ratschan, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The interplay of random phenomena and continuous real-time control deserves increased attention for instance in wireless sensing and control applications. Safety verification for such systems thus needs to consider probabilistic variations of systems with hybrid dynamics. In safety verification o...... on a number of case studies, tackled using a prototypical implementation....

  7. On the organisation of program verification competitions

    Huisman, Marieke; Klebanov, Vladimir; Monahan, Rosemary; Klebanov, Vladimir; Beckert, Bernhard; Biere, Armin; Sutcliffe, Geoff

    In this paper, we discuss the challenges that have to be addressed when organising program verification competitions. Our focus is on competitions for verification systems where the participants both formalise an informally stated requirement and (typically) provide some guidance for the tool to

  8. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  9. HTGR analytical methods and design verification

    Neylan, A.J.; Northup, T.E.

    1982-05-01

    Analytical methods for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) include development, update, verification, documentation, and maintenance of all computer codes for HTGR design and analysis. This paper presents selected nuclear, structural mechanics, seismic, and systems analytical methods related to the HTGR core. This paper also reviews design verification tests in the reactor core, reactor internals, steam generator, and thermal barrier

  10. Face Verification for Mobile Personal Devices

    Tao, Q.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we presented a detailed study of the face verification problem on the mobile device, covering every component of the system. The study includes face detection, registration, normalization, and verification. Furthermore, the information fusion problem is studied to verify face

  11. The monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons

    Garwin, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper partially reviews and updates the potential for monitoring and verification of nuclear weapons, including verification of their destruction. Cooperative monitoring with templates of the gamma-ray spectrum are an important tool, dependent on the use of information barriers

  12. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis.

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah

    2015-07-01

    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Validation of Embedded System Verification Models

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    The result of a model-based requirements verification shows that the model of a system satisfies (or not) formalised system requirements. The verification result is correct only if the model represents the system adequately. No matter what modelling technique we use, what precedes the model

  14. A Model for Collaborative Runtime Verification

    Testerink, Bas; Bulling, Nils; Dastani, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Runtime verification concerns checking whether a system execution satisfies a given property. In this paper we propose a model for collaborative runtime verification where a network of local monitors collaborates in order to verify properties of the system. A local monitor has only a local view on

  15. On Verification Modelling of Embedded Systems

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.

    Computer-aided verification of embedded systems hinges on the availability of good verification models of the systems at hand. Such models must be much simpler than full design models or specifications to be of practical value, because of the unavoidable combinatorial complexities in the

  16. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  17. Original Thinking

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  18. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  19. The Importance of Geographical Indications in Regional Tourism Development: The Case of Çanakkale

    Şefik Okan Mercan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many products unique to Turkey, the origins of which are recognized with the name of region. Turkey, its geographical location and climatic zone having three different soil structure and cultural heritage and human capital due to a rich variety of geographical product has the potential. Features of geographical environment revealed  this product wealth, this product also requires the protection of geographical indications through. In this study, in Çanakkale who have registered geographical indication products, to examine the importance of the development of regional tourism and how these products can be assessed on a tourism product relevant institutions/organizations are intended to be of the opinion. According to the findings, the general opinion of Canakkale geographical indication products are properly and effectively with the regional tourism promotion and marketing work done in the development of a tool is that it will undertake the task. 

  20. Quench origins

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss the quench origins. I shall first establish a method of classification and introduce the notions of conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. Next the paper will be devoted to the study of conductor-limited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of plateau and of fraction of short sample. Also the paper will be devoted to the study of energy-deposited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of training and of minimum energy deposit; I shall then review the possible causes of energy release. Lastly, I shall introduce the notion of operating margin, and I shall indicate how to optimize the operating margin in order to limit the risk of premature quenching. 112 refs., 14 figs

  1. MFTF sensor verification computer program

    Chow, H.K.

    1984-01-01

    The design, requirements document and implementation of the MFE Sensor Verification System were accomplished by the Measurement Engineering Section (MES), a group which provides instrumentation for the MFTF magnet diagnostics. The sensors, installed on and around the magnets and solenoids, housed in a vacuum chamber, will supply information about the temperature, strain, pressure, liquid helium level and magnet voltage to the facility operator for evaluation. As the sensors are installed, records must be maintained as to their initial resistance values. Also, as the work progresses, monthly checks will be made to insure continued sensor health. Finally, after the MFTF-B demonstration, yearly checks will be performed as well as checks of sensors as problem develops. The software to acquire and store the data was written by Harry Chow, Computations Department. The acquired data will be transferred to the MFE data base computer system

  2. Numerical Verification Of Equilibrium Chemistry

    Piro, Markus; Lewis, Brent; Thompson, William T.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Besmann, Theodore M.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical tool is in an advanced state of development to compute the equilibrium compositions of phases and their proportions in multi-component systems of importance to the nuclear industry. The resulting software is being conceived for direct integration into large multi-physics fuel performance codes, particularly for providing boundary conditions in heat and mass transport modules. However, any numerical errors produced in equilibrium chemistry computations will be propagated in subsequent heat and mass transport calculations, thus falsely predicting nuclear fuel behaviour. The necessity for a reliable method to numerically verify chemical equilibrium computations is emphasized by the requirement to handle the very large number of elements necessary to capture the entire fission product inventory. A simple, reliable and comprehensive numerical verification method is presented which can be invoked by any equilibrium chemistry solver for quality assurance purposes.

  3. Seismic verification of underground explosions

    Glenn, L.A.

    1985-06-01

    The first nuclear test agreement, the test moratorium, was made in 1958 and lasted until the Soviet Union unilaterally resumed testing in the atmosphere in 1961. It was followed by the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963, which prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater. In 1974 the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was signed, limiting underground tests after March 1976 to a maximum yield of 250 kt. The TTBT was followed by a treaty limiting peaceful nuclear explosions and both the United States and the Soviet Union claim to be abiding by the 150-kt yield limit. A comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT), prohibiting all testing of nuclear weapons, has also been discussed. However, a verifiable CTBT is a contradiction in terms. No monitoring technology can offer absolute assurance that very-low-yield illicit explosions have not occurred. The verification process, evasion opportunities, and cavity decoupling are discussed in this paper

  4. Retail applications of signature verification

    Zimmerman, Thomas G.; Russell, Gregory F.; Heilper, Andre; Smith, Barton A.; Hu, Jianying; Markman, Dmitry; Graham, Jon E.; Drews, Clemens

    2004-08-01

    The dramatic rise in identity theft, the ever pressing need to provide convenience in checkout services to attract and retain loyal customers, and the growing use of multi-function signature captures devices in the retail sector provides favorable conditions for the deployment of dynamic signature verification (DSV) in retail settings. We report on the development of a DSV system to meet the needs of the retail sector. We currently have a database of approximately 10,000 signatures collected from 600 subjects and forgers. Previous work at IBM on DSV has been merged and extended to achieve robust performance on pen position data available from commercial point of sale hardware, achieving equal error rates on skilled forgeries and authentic signatures of 1.5% to 4%.

  5. The verification of ethnographic data.

    Pool, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Anthropologists are increasingly required to account for the data on which they base their interpretations and to make it available for public scrutiny and re-analysis. While this may seem straightforward (why not place our data in online repositories?), it is not. Ethnographic 'data' may consist of everything from verbatim transcripts ('hard data') to memories and impressions ('soft data'). Hard data can be archived and re-analysed; soft data cannot. The focus on hard 'objective' data contributes to the delegitimizing of the soft data that are essential for ethnographic understanding, and without which hard data cannot be properly interpreted. However, the credibility of ethnographic interpretation requires the possibility of verification. This could be achieved by obligatory, standardised forms of personal storage with the option for audit if required, and by being more explicit in publications about the nature and status of the data and the process of interpretation.

  6. The NRC measurement verification program

    Pham, T.N.; Ong, L.D.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A perspective is presented on the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach for effectively monitoring the measurement methods and directly testing the capability and performance of licensee measurement systems. A main objective in material control and accounting (MC and A) inspection activities is to assure the accuracy and precision of the accounting system and the absence of potential process anomalies through overall accountability. The primary means of verification remains the NRC random sampling during routine safeguards inspections. This involves the independent testing of licensee measurement performance with statistical sampling plans for physical inventories, item control, and auditing. A prospective cost-effective alternative overcheck is also discussed in terms of an externally coordinated sample exchange or ''round robin'' program among participating fuel cycle facilities in order to verify the quality of measurement systems, i.e., to assure that analytical measurement results are free of bias

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  17. Formal verification of algorithms for critical systems

    Rushby, John M.; Von Henke, Friedrich

    1993-01-01

    We describe our experience with formal, machine-checked verification of algorithms for critical applications, concentrating on a Byzantine fault-tolerant algorithm for synchronizing the clocks in the replicated computers of a digital flight control system. First, we explain the problems encountered in unsynchronized systems and the necessity, and criticality, of fault-tolerant synchronization. We give an overview of one such algorithm, and of the arguments for its correctness. Next, we describe a verification of the algorithm that we performed using our EHDM system for formal specification and verification. We indicate the errors we found in the published analysis of the algorithm, and other benefits that we derived from the verification. Based on our experience, we derive some key requirements for a formal specification and verification system adequate to the task of verifying algorithms of the type considered. Finally, we summarize our conclusions regarding the benefits of formal verification in this domain, and the capabilities required of verification systems in order to realize those benefits.

  18. A Scala DSL for RETE-Based Runtime Verification

    Havelund, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Runtime verification (RV) consists in part of checking execution traces against formalized specifications. Several systems have emerged, most of which support specification notations based on state machines, regular expressions, temporal logic, or grammars. The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has for an even longer period of time studied rule-based production systems, which at a closer look appear to be relevant for RV, although seemingly focused on slightly different application domains, such as for example business processes and expert systems. The core algorithm in many of these systems is the Rete algorithm. We have implemented a Rete-based runtime verification system, named LogFire (originally intended for offline log analysis but also applicable to online analysis), as an internal DSL in the Scala programming language, using Scala's support for defining DSLs. This combination appears attractive from a practical point of view. Our contribution is in part conceptual in arguing that such rule-based frameworks originating from AI may be suited for RV.

  19. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  20. A framework for nuclear agreement and verification

    Ali, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter assesses the prospects for a nuclear agreement between India and Pakistan. The chapter opens with a review of past and present political environments of the two countries. The discussion proceeds to describe the linkage of global arms control agreements, prospects for verification of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the role of nuclear power in any agreements, the intrusiveness of verification, and possible post-proliferation agreements. Various monitoring and verification technologies are described (mainly satellite oriented). The chapter concludes with an analysis of the likelihood of persuading India and Pakistan to agree to a nonproliferation arrangement

  1. Verification of DRAGON: the NXT tracking module

    Zkiek, A.; Marleau, G.

    2007-01-01

    The version of DRAGON-IST that has been verified for the calculation of the incremental cross sections associated with CANDU reactivity devices is version 3.04Bb that was released in 2001. Since then, various improvements were implemented in the code including the NXT: module that can track assemblies of clusters in 2-D and 3-D geometries. Here we will discuss the verification plan for the NXT: module of DRAGON, illustrate the verification procedure we selected and present our verification results. (author)

  2. Geographic variability of Escherichia coli ribotypes from animals in Idaho and Georgia.

    Hartel, Peter G; Summer, Jacob D; Hill, Jennifer L; Collins, J Victoria; Entry, James A; Segars, William I

    2002-01-01

    Several genotypic methods have been developed for determining the host origin of fecal bacteria in contaminated waters. Some of these methods rely on a host origin database to identify environmental isolates. It is not well understood to what degree these host origin isolates are geographically variable (i.e., cosmopolitan or endemic). This is important because a geographically limited host origin database may or may not be universally applicable. The objective of our study was to use one genotypic method, ribotyping, to determine the geographic variability of the fecal bacterium, Escherichia coli, from one location in Idaho and three locations in Georgia for cattle (Bos taurus), horse (Equus caballus), swine (Sus scrofa), and chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). A total of 568 fecal E. coli isolates from Kimberly, ID (125 isolates), Athens, GA (210 isolates), Brunswick, GA (102 isolates), and Tifton, GA (131 isolates), yielded 213 ribotypes. The percentage of ribotype sharing within an animal species increased with decreased distance between geographic locations for cattle and horses, but not for swine and chicken. When the E. coli ribotypes among the four host species were compared at one location, the percent of unshared ribotypes was 86, 89, 81, and 79% for Kimberly, Athens, Brunswick, and Tifton, respectively. These data suggest that there is good ribotype separation among host animal species at each location. The ability to match environmental isolates to a host origin database may depend on a large number of environmental and host origin isolates that ideally are not geographically separated.

  3. Verification of data files of TREF-computer program; TREF-ohjelmiston ohjaustiedostojen soveltuvuustutkimus

    Ruottu, S.; Halme, A.; Ruottu, A. [Einco Oy, Karhula (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Originally the aim of Y43 project was to verify TREF data files for several different processes. However, it appeared that deficient or missing coordination between experimental and theoretical works made meaningful verifications impossible in some cases. Therefore verification calculations were focused on catalytic cracking reactor which was developed by Neste. The studied reactor consisted of prefluidisation and reaction zones. Verification calculations concentrated mainly on physical phenomena like vaporization near oil injection zone. The main steps of the cracking process can be described as follows oil (liquid) -> oil (gas) -> oil (catal) -> product (catal) + char (catal) -> product (gas). Catalytic nature of cracking reaction was accounted by defining the cracking pseudoreaction into catalyst phase. This simplified reaction model was valid only for vaporization zone. Applied fluid dynamic theory was based on the results of EINCO`s earlier LIEKKI-projects. (author)

  4. A Systematic Method for Verification and Validation of Gyrokinetic Microstability Codes

    Bravenec, Ronald [Fourth State Research, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-11-14

    My original proposal for the period Feb. 15, 2014 through Feb. 14, 2017 called for an integrated validation and verification effort carried out by myself with collaborators. The validation component would require experimental profile and power-balance analysis. In addition, it would require running the gyrokinetic codes varying the input profiles within experimental uncertainties to seek agreement with experiment before discounting a code as invalidated. Therefore, validation would require a major increase of effort over my previous grant periods which covered only code verification (code benchmarking). Consequently, I had requested full-time funding. Instead, I am being funded at somewhat less than half time (5 calendar months per year). As a consequence, I decided to forego the validation component and to only continue the verification efforts.

  5. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  6. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  7. ROMANIA: GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOPOLITICAL POSITION

    Ciprian Beniamin Benea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to bring to the reader’s attention the importance of understanding the role education plays in creating a good geopolitical position for a state which has a good geographical position, and which is well endowed in natural resources. The case of Romania is the main focus of the paper. There is presented a peculiar strange situation of a country (Romania which is very well located from geographical point of view but which is incapable to exploit its natural endowments and special location. One reason for this situation is the fact that most people living in present Romania belong to a category named in this paper ‘individuals’. Individuals are not aware of their country’s geography and history, let alone its possible future development possibilities. They do not know the role their country could play, and living in an atomized society, they choose emigration as the easiest way to escape harsh social and economic environment. Contrary to this attitude is that of a citizen, a man conscious about his country’s potential, and which is dedicated to work hardly together with his fellows in order to promote national interests in a peaceful manner. Even there was found remnants of an ancient city close to present day Romanian territory – proves of well endowed environment – moral and psychological factors have contributed after 1990 in an crucial manner to push Romania from its civilization path back to the archaic spirit, from active urban spirit to rural mentality. In such a situation it is not uncommon for a nation to lose its means for projecting power, which could promote the value and the importance of a geographical position – transportation; rural mentality has nothing to do with modern transportation as they are technical tools with geopolitical essence for controlling space. It is a well known fact that transportation and geopolitics are closely interrelated. Furthermore, social dissolution in post communist

  8. Data Exchanges and Verifications Online (DEVO)

    Social Security Administration — DEVO is the back-end application for processing SSN verifications and data exchanges. DEVO uses modern technology for parameter driven processing of both batch and...

  9. 10 CFR 300.11 - Independent verification.

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLIMATE CHANGE VOLUNTARY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING PROGRAM: GENERAL GUIDELINES § 300.11... managing an auditing or verification process, including the recruitment and allocation of other individual.... (c) Qualifications of organizations accrediting verifiers. Organizations that accredit individual...

  10. Engineering drawing field verification program. Revision 3

    Ulk, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Safe, efficient operation of waste tank farm facilities is dependent in part upon the availability of accurate, up-to-date plant drawings. Accurate plant drawings are also required in support of facility upgrades and future engineering remediation projects. This supporting document establishes the procedure for performing a visual field verification of engineering drawings, the degree of visual observation being performed and documenting the results. A copy of the drawing attesting to the degree of visual observation will be paginated into the released Engineering Change Notice (ECN) documenting the field verification for future retrieval and reference. All waste tank farm essential and support drawings within the scope of this program will be converted from manual to computer aided drafting (CAD) drawings. A permanent reference to the field verification status will be placed along the right border of the CAD-converted drawing, referencing the revision level, at which the visual verification was performed and documented

  11. HDM/PASCAL Verification System User's Manual

    Hare, D.

    1983-01-01

    The HDM/Pascal verification system is a tool for proving the correctness of programs written in PASCAL and specified in the Hierarchical Development Methodology (HDM). This document assumes an understanding of PASCAL, HDM, program verification, and the STP system. The steps toward verification which this tool provides are parsing programs and specifications, checking the static semantics, and generating verification conditions. Some support functions are provided such as maintaining a data base, status management, and editing. The system runs under the TOPS-20 and TENEX operating systems and is written in INTERLISP. However, no knowledge is assumed of these operating systems or of INTERLISP. The system requires three executable files, HDMVCG, PARSE, and STP. Optionally, the editor EMACS should be on the system in order for the editor to work. The file HDMVCG is invoked to run the system. The files PARSE and STP are used as lower forks to perform the functions of parsing and proving.

  12. Standard Verification System Lite (SVS Lite)

    Social Security Administration — SVS Lite is a mainframe program used exclusively by the Office of Child Support Enforcement (OCSE) to perform batch SSN verifications. This process is exactly the...

  13. Investigation of a Verification and Validation Tool with a Turbofan Aircraft Engine Application

    Uth, Peter; Narang-Siddarth, Anshu; Wong, Edmond

    2018-01-01

    The development of more advanced control architectures for turbofan aircraft engines can yield gains in performance and efficiency over the lifetime of an engine. However, the implementation of these increasingly complex controllers is contingent on their ability to provide safe, reliable engine operation. Therefore, having the means to verify the safety of new control algorithms is crucial. As a step towards this goal, CoCoSim, a publicly available verification tool for Simulink, is used to analyze C-MAPSS40k, a 40,000 lbf class turbo-fan engine model developed at NASA for testing new control algorithms. Due to current limitations of the verification software, several modifications are made to C-MAPSS40k to achieve compatibility with CoCoSim. Some of these modifications sacrifice fidelity to the original model. Several safety and performance requirements typical for turbofan engines are identified and constructed into a verification framework. Preliminary results using an industry standard baseline controller for these requirements are presented. While verification capabilities are demonstrated, a truly comprehensive analysis will require further development of the verification tool.

  14. Inventory verification measurements using neutron multiplicity counting

    Ensslin, N.; Foster, L.A.; Harker, W.C.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a series of neutron multiplicity measurements of large plutonium samples at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The measurements were corrected for bias caused by neutron energy spectrum shifts and nonuniform multiplication, and are compared with calorimetry/isotopics. The results show that multiplicity counting can increase measurement throughput and yield good verification results for some inventory categories. The authors provide recommendations on the future application of the technique to inventory verification

  15. Verification of Open Interactive Markov Chains

    Brazdil, Tomas; Hermanns, Holger; Krcal, Jan; Kretinsky, Jan; Rehak, Vojtech

    2012-01-01

    Interactive Markov chains (IMC) are compositional behavioral models extending both labeled transition systems and continuous-time Markov chains. IMC pair modeling convenience - owed to compositionality properties - with effective verification algorithms and tools - owed to Markov properties. Thus far however, IMC verification did not consider compositionality properties, but considered closed systems. This paper discusses the evaluation of IMC in an open and thus compositional interpretation....

  16. Towards automatic verification of ladder logic programs

    Zoubek , Bohumir; Roussel , Jean-Marc; Kwiatkowska , Martha

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Control system programs are usually validated by testing prior to their deployment. Unfortunately, testing is not exhaustive and therefore it is possible that a program which passed all the required tests still contains errors. In this paper we apply techniques of automatic verification to a control program written in ladder logic. A model is constructed mechanically from the ladder logic program and subjected to automatic verification against requirements that include...

  17. Transmutation Fuel Performance Code Thermal Model Verification

    Gregory K. Miller; Pavel G. Medvedev

    2007-09-01

    FRAPCON fuel performance code is being modified to be able to model performance of the nuclear fuels of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). The present report documents the effort for verification of the FRAPCON thermal model. It was found that, with minor modifications, FRAPCON thermal model temperature calculation agrees with that of the commercial software ABAQUS (Version 6.4-4). This report outlines the methodology of the verification, code input, and calculation results.

  18. Verification and Validation in Systems Engineering

    Debbabi, Mourad; Jarraya, Yosr; Soeanu, Andrei; Alawneh, Luay

    2010-01-01

    "Verification and validation" represents an important process used for the quality assessment of engineered systems and their compliance with the requirements established at the beginning of or during the development cycle. Debbabi and his coauthors investigate methodologies and techniques that can be employed for the automatic verification and validation of systems engineering design models expressed in standardized modeling languages. Their presentation includes a bird's eye view of the most prominent modeling languages for software and systems engineering, namely the Unified Model

  19. Verification and validation for waste disposal models

    1987-07-01

    A set of evaluation criteria has been developed to assess the suitability of current verification and validation techniques for waste disposal methods. A survey of current practices and techniques was undertaken and evaluated using these criteria with the items most relevant to waste disposal models being identified. Recommendations regarding the most suitable verification and validation practices for nuclear waste disposal modelling software have been made

  20. Verification and Examination Management of Complex Systems

    Stian Ruud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available As ship systems become more complex, with an increasing number of safety-critical functions, many interconnected subsystems, tight integration to other systems, and a large amount of potential failure modes, several industry parties have identified the need for improved methods for managing the verification and examination efforts of such complex systems. Such needs are even more prominent now that the marine and offshore industries are targeting more activities and operations in the Arctic environment. In this paper, a set of requirements and a method for verification and examination management are proposed for allocating examination efforts to selected subsystems. The method is based on a definition of a verification risk function for a given system topology and given requirements. The marginal verification risks for the subsystems may then be evaluated, so that examination efforts for the subsystem can be allocated. Two cases of requirements and systems are used to demonstrate the proposed method. The method establishes a systematic relationship between the verification loss, the logic system topology, verification method performance, examination stop criterion, the required examination effort, and a proposed sequence of examinations to reach the examination stop criterion.

  1. Concepts for inventory verification in critical facilities

    Cobb, D.D.; Sapir, J.L.; Kern, E.A.; Dietz, R.J.

    1978-12-01

    Materials measurement and inventory verification concepts for safeguarding large critical facilities are presented. Inspection strategies and methods for applying international safeguards to such facilities are proposed. The conceptual approach to routine inventory verification includes frequent visits to the facility by one inspector, and the use of seals and nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements to verify the portion of the inventory maintained in vault storage. Periodic verification of the reactor inventory is accomplished by sampling and NDA measurement of in-core fuel elements combined with measurements of integral reactivity and related reactor parameters that are sensitive to the total fissile inventory. A combination of statistical sampling and NDA verification with measurements of reactor parameters is more effective than either technique used by itself. Special procedures for assessment and verification for abnormal safeguards conditions are also considered. When the inspection strategies and inventory verification methods are combined with strict containment and surveillance methods, they provide a high degree of assurance that any clandestine attempt to divert a significant quantity of fissile material from a critical facility inventory will be detected. Field testing of specific hardware systems and procedures to determine their sensitivity, reliability, and operational acceptability is recommended. 50 figures, 21 tables

  2. Tomotherapy: IMRT and tomographic verification

    Mackie, T.R.

    2000-01-01

    include MLC's and many clinics use them to replace 90% or more of the field-shaping requirements of conventional radiotherapy. Now, several academic centers are treating patients with IMRT using conventional MLC's to modulate the field. IMRT using conventional MLC's have the advantage that the patient is stationary during the treatment and the MLC's can be used in conventional practice. Nevertheless, tomotherapy using the Peacock system delivers the most conformal dose distributions of any commercial system to date. The biggest limitation with the both the NOMOS Peacock tomotherapy system and conventional MLC's for IMRT delivery is the lack of treatment verification. In conventional few-field radiotherapy one relied on portal images to determine if the patient was setup correctly and the beams were correctly positioned. With IMRT the image contrast is superimposed on the beam intensity variation. Conventional practice allowed for monitor unit calculation checks and point dosimeters placed on the patient's surface to verify that the treatment was properly delivered. With IMRT it is impossible to perform hand calculations of monitor units and dosimeters placed on the patient's surface are prone to error due to high gradients in the beam intensity. NOMOS has developed a verification phantom that allows multiple sheets of film to be placed in a light-tight box that is irradiated with the same beam pattern that is used to treat the patient. The optical density of the films are adjusted, normalized, and calibrated and then quantitatively compared with the dose calculated for the phantom delivery. However, this process is too laborious to be used for patient-specific QA. If IMRT becomes ubiquitous and it can be shown that IMRT is useful on most treatment sites then there is a need to design treatment units dedicated to IMRT delivery and verification. Helical tomotherapy is such a redesign. Helical tomotherapy is the delivery of a rotational fan beam while the patient is

  3. Verification of excess defense material

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials

  4. Dosimetric verification of IMRT plans

    Bulski, W.; Cheimicski, K.; Rostkowska, J.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a complex procedure requiring proper dosimetric verification. IMRT dose distributions are characterized by steep dose gradients which enable to spare organs at risk and allow for an escalation of the dose to the tumor. They require large number of radiation beams (sometimes over 10). The fluence measurements for individual beams are not sufficient for evaluation of the total dose distribution and to assure patient safety. The methods used at the Centre of Oncology in Warsaw are presented. In order to measure dose distributions in various cross-sections the film dosimeters were used (radiographic Kodak EDR2 films and radiochromic Gafchromic EBT films). The film characteristics were carefully examined. Several types of tissue equivalent phantoms were developed. A methodology of comparing measured dose distributions against the distributions calculated by treatment planning systems (TPS) was developed and tested. The tolerance level for this comparison was set at 3% difference in dose and 3 mm in distance to agreement. The so called gamma formalism was used. The results of these comparisons for a group of over 600 patients are presented. Agreement was found in 87 % of cases. This film dosimetry methodology was used as a benchmark to test and validate the performance of commercially available 2D and 3D matrices of detectors (ionization chambers or diodes). The results of these validations are also presented. (authors)

  5. Place Branding – Geographical Approach. Case Study: Waterloo

    Marius-Cristian Neacşu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an exploratory analysis of the evolution of the place branding concept, with an important focus on the geographical perspective. How has this notion, a newcomer into the geographers' analysis, changed over time and what role does it have in the decision making process of intervening into the way a certain place is organised or as an instrument of economic revival and territorial development? At least from the perspective of Romanian geographical literature, the originality and novelty of this study is obvious. An element of the originality of this research is the attempt of redefining the concept of place branding so that it is more meaningful from the perspective of spatial analyses. The reason for which Waterloo was chosen as a case study is multi-dimensional: the case studies so far have mainly focused on large cities (urban branding instead of place branding and this site has all the theoretical elements to create a stand-alone brand.

  6. Globes, Maps, Photographs: Geographic Tools.

    McDermott, Paul D.; And Others

    This compilation of reprinted articles that originally appeared in the Journal of Geography from September 1969 through the May 1970 issues, is intended to help teachers use globes, maps, and photographs with skill and understanding. The articles were designed with several objectives in mind: 1) to provide information regarding the design,…

  7. TLM.open: a SystemC/TLM Frontend for the CADP Verification Toolbox

    Claude Helmstetter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SystemC/TLM models, which are C++ programs, allow the simulation of embedded software before hardware low-level descriptions are available and are used as golden models for hardware verification. The verification of the SystemC/TLM models is an important issue since an error in the model can mislead the system designers or reveal an error in the specifications. An open-source simulator for SystemC/TLM is provided but there are no tools for formal verification.In order to apply model checking to a SystemC/TLM model, a semantics for standard C++ code and for specific SystemC/TLM features must be provided. The usual approach relies on the translation of the SystemC/TLM code into a formal language for which a model checker is available.We propose another approach that suppresses the error-prone translation effort. Given a SystemC/TLM program, the transitions are obtained by executing the original code using g++ and an extended SystemC library, and we ask the user to provide additional functions to store the current model state. These additional functions generally represent less than 20% of the size of the original model, and allow it to apply all CADP verification tools to the SystemC/TLM model itself.

  8. Monitoring and verification R and D

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, Kory W.; Fearey, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) report outlined the Administration's approach to promoting the agenda put forward by President Obama in Prague on April 5, 2009. The NPR calls for a national monitoring and verification R and D program to meet future challenges arising from the Administration's nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament agenda. Verification of a follow-on to New START could have to address warheads and possibly components along with delivery capabilities. Deeper cuts and disarmament would need to address all of these elements along with nuclear weapon testing, nuclear material and weapon production facilities, virtual capabilities from old weapon and existing energy programs and undeclared capabilities. We only know how to address some elements of these challenges today, and the requirements may be more rigorous in the context of deeper cuts as well as disarmament. Moreover, there is a critical need for multiple options to sensitive problems and to address other challenges. There will be other verification challenges in a world of deeper cuts and disarmament, some of which we are already facing. At some point, if the reductions process is progressing, uncertainties about past nuclear materials and weapons production will have to be addressed. IAEA safeguards will need to continue to evolve to meet current and future challenges, and to take advantage of new technologies and approaches. Transparency/verification of nuclear and dual-use exports will also have to be addressed, and there will be a need to make nonproliferation measures more watertight and transparent. In this context, and recognizing we will face all of these challenges even if disarmament is not achieved, this paper will explore possible agreements and arrangements; verification challenges; gaps in monitoring and verification technologies and approaches; and the R and D required to address these gaps and other monitoring and verification challenges.

  9. Exploring implementation practices in results-based financing: the case of the verification in Benin.

    Antony, Matthieu; Bertone, Maria Paola; Barthes, Olivier

    2017-03-14

    Results-based financing (RBF) has been introduced in many countries across Africa and a growing literature is building around the assessment of their impact. These studies are usually quantitative and often silent on the paths and processes through which results are achieved and on the wider health system effects of RBF. To address this gap, our study aims at exploring the implementation of an RBF pilot in Benin, focusing on the verification of results. The study is based on action research carried out by authors involved in the pilot as part of the agency supporting the RBF implementation in Benin. While our participant observation and operational collaboration with project's stakeholders informed the study, the analysis is mostly based on quantitative and qualitative secondary data, collected throughout the project's implementation and documentation processes. Data include project documents, reports and budgets, RBF data on service outputs and on the outcome of the verification, daily activity timesheets of the technical assistants in the districts, as well as focus groups with Community-based Organizations and informal interviews with technical assistants and district medical officers. Our analysis focuses on the actual practices of quantitative, qualitative and community verification. Results show that the verification processes are complex, costly and time-consuming, and in practice they end up differing from what designed originally. We explore the consequences of this on the operation of the scheme, on its potential to generate the envisaged change. We find, for example, that the time taken up by verification procedures limits the time available for data analysis and feedback to facility staff, thus limiting the potential to improve service delivery. Verification challenges also result in delays in bonus payment, which delink effort and reward. Additionally, the limited integration of the verification activities of district teams with their routine tasks

  10. Louisiana Coastal Marsh Vegetative Type (poly), Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [marsh_veg_type_poly_LDWF_2001

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains vector line information. The original data set was collected through visual field observation by Greg Linscombe of LDWF and Robert H. Chabreck...

  11. The Role of Geographical Indication in Supporting Food Safety: A not Taken for Granted Nexus

    2014-01-01

    The paper focuses on the role of geographical indication in supporting strategies of food safety. Starting from the distinction between generic and specific quality, the article analyses the main factors influencing food safety in cases of geographical indication products, by stressing the importance of traceability systems and biodiversity in securing generic and specific quality. In the second part, the paper investigates the coordination problems behind a designation of origin and conditions to foster an effective collective action, a prerequisite to grant food safety through geographical indications. PMID:27800417

  12. SHADOW BANKING - A Geographical Interpretation

    Gianfranco Battisti

    2014-01-01

    Basically, shadow banking is an original kind of business organization, or better a set of institutions and markets, finalized to disinvest fixed assets and convey them to the financial markets. Nowadays, tackling the subject means penetrating the hard core of financialization. Shadow banking manifests itself through a variety of activities carried out since time immemorial. Some authors go back to the 17th century, but certain procedures and entire phases were established well before the ins...

  13. Efficient and Secure Fingerprint Verification for Embedded Devices

    Sakiyama Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a secure and memory-efficient embedded fingerprint verification system. It shows how a fingerprint verification module originally developed to run on a workstation can be transformed and optimized in a systematic way to run real-time on an embedded device with limited memory and computation power. A complete fingerprint recognition module is a complex application that requires in the order of 1000 M unoptimized floating-point instruction cycles. The goal is to run both the minutiae extraction and the matching engines on a small embedded processor, in our case a 50 MHz LEON-2 softcore. It does require optimization and acceleration techniques at each design step. In order to speed up the fingerprint signal processing phase, we propose acceleration techniques at the algorithm level, at the software level to reduce the execution cycle number, and at the hardware level to distribute the system work load. Thirdly, a memory trace map-based memory reduction strategy is used for lowering the system memory requirement. Lastly, at the hardware level, it requires the development of specialized coprocessors. As results of these optimizations, we achieve a 65% reduction on the execution time and a 67% reduction on the memory storage requirement for the minutiae extraction process, compared against the reference implementation. The complete operation, that is, fingerprint capture, feature extraction, and matching, can be done in real-time of less than 4 seconds

  14. Representations built from a true geographic database

    Bodum, Lars

    2005-01-01

    the whole world in 3d and with a spatial reference given by geographic coordinates. Built on top of this is a customised viewer, based on the Xith(Java) scenegraph. The viewer reads the objects directly from the database and solves the question about Level-Of-Detail on buildings, orientation in relation...... a representation based on geographic and geospatial principles. The system GRIFINOR, developed at 3DGI, Aalborg University, DK, is capable of creating this object-orientation and furthermore does this on top of a true Geographic database. A true Geographic database can be characterized as a database that can cover...

  15. Java bytecode verification via static single assignment form

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian W.; Franz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) traditionally perform bytecode verification by way of an iterative data-flow analysis. Bytecode verification is necessary to ensure type safety because temporary variables in the JVM are not statically typed. We present an alternative verification mechanism that trans......Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) traditionally perform bytecode verification by way of an iterative data-flow analysis. Bytecode verification is necessary to ensure type safety because temporary variables in the JVM are not statically typed. We present an alternative verification mechanism...

  16. CONTEMPORARY TRENDS IN GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    M. Wasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geography includes rich, diverse and comprehensive themes that give us an understanding of our changing environment and interconnected world. It includes the study of the physical environment and resources; cultures, economies and societies; people and places; and global development and civic participation. As a subject, geography is particularly valuable because it provides information for exploring contemporary issues from a different perspective. This geographical information affects us all at work and in our daily lives and helps us make informed decisions that shape our future. All these facts result in a wide discussion on many topical issues in contemporary geography didactics. Subjects of research are the new geography and economics curriculum as well as construction of modern learning process. The paper presents briefly some of the current trends and key issues of geodidactics. As central notions we consider and analyze the training/educational goals, geography curriculum, target groups and environment of geography training, training methods as well as the information sources used in geography education. We adhere that all the above-mentioned finds its reflection in planning, analysis and assessment of education and thus in its quality and effectiveness.

  17. A GIS support system for declaration and verification

    Poucet, A.; Contini, S.; Bellezza, F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The timely detection of a diversion of a significant amount of nuclear material from the civil cycle represents a complex activity that requires the use of powerful support systems. In this field the authors developed SIT (Safeguards Inspection Tool), an integrated platform for collecting, managing and analysing data from a variety of sources to support declarations and verification activities. Information dealt with is that requested by both INFCIRC/153 and INFCIRC/540 protocols. SIT is based on a low-cost Geographic Information System platform and extensive use is made of commercial software to reduce maintenance costs. The system has been developed using ARCVIEW GIS for Windows NT platforms. SIT is conceived as an integrator of multimedia information stored into local and remote databases; efforts have been focused on the automation of several tasks in order to produce a user-friendly system. Main characteristics of SIT are: Capability to deal with multimedia data, e.g. text, images, video, using user-selected COTS; Easy access to external databases, e.g. Oracle, Informix, Sybase, MS-Access, directly from the site map; Selected access to open source information via Internet; Capability to easily geo-reference site maps, to generate thematic layers of interest and to perform spatial analysis; Capability of performing aerial and satellite image analysis operations, e.g. rectification, change detection, feature extraction; Capability to easily add and run external models for e.g. material data accounting, completeness check, air dispersion models, material flow graph generation and to describe results in graphical form; Capability to use a Geo-positioning systems (GPS) with a portable computer, SIT is at an advanced stage of development and will be very soon interfaced with VERITY, a powerful Web search engine in order to allow open source information retrieval from geographical maps. The paper will describe the main features of SIT and the advantages of

  18. A GIS support system for declaration and verification

    Poucet, A; Contini, S; Bellezza, F [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Systems Informatics and Safety (ISIS), Ispra (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Full text: The timely detection of a diversion of a significant amount of nuclear material from the civil cycle represents a complex activity that requires the use of powerful support systems. In this field the authors developed SIT (Safeguards Inspection Tool), an integrated platform for collecting, managing and analysing data from a variety of sources to support declarations and verification activities. Information dealt with is that requested by both INFCIRC/153 and INFCIRC/540 protocols. SIT is based on a low-cost Geographic Information System platform and extensive use is made of commercial software to reduce maintenance costs. The system has been developed using ARCVIEW GIS for Windows NT platforms. SIT is conceived as an integrator of multimedia information stored into local and remote databases; efforts have been focused on the automation of several tasks in order to produce a user-friendly system. Main characteristics of SIT are: Capability to deal with multimedia data, e.g. text, images, video, using user-selected COTS; Easy access to external databases, e.g. Oracle, Informix, Sybase, MS-Access, directly from the site map; Selected access to open source information via Internet; Capability to easily geo-reference site maps, to generate thematic layers of interest and to perform spatial analysis; Capability of performing aerial and satellite image analysis operations, e.g. rectification, change detection, feature extraction; Capability to easily add and run external models for e.g. material data accounting, completeness check, air dispersion models, material flow graph generation and to describe results in graphical form; Capability to use a Geo-positioning systems (GPS) with a portable computer, SIT is at an advanced stage of development and will be very soon interfaced with VERITY, a powerful Web search engine in order to allow open source information retrieval from geographical maps. The paper will describe the main features of SIT and the advantages of

  19. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  20. Crowd-Sourced Help with Emergent Knowledge for Optimized Formal Verification (CHEKOFV)

    2016-03-01

    up game Binary Fission, which was deployed during Phase Two of CHEKOFV. Xylem: The Code of Plants is a casual game for players using mobile ...there are the design and engineering challenges of building a game infrastructure that integrates verification technology with crowd participation...the backend processes that annotate the originating software. Allowing players to construct their own equations opened up the flexibility to receive

  1. Heavy water physical verification in power plants

    Morsy, S.; Schuricht, V.; Beetle, T.; Szabo, E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a report on the Agency experience in verifying heavy water inventories in power plants. The safeguards objectives and goals for such activities are defined in the paper. The heavy water is stratified according to the flow within the power plant, including upgraders. A safeguards scheme based on a combination of records auditing, comparing records and reports, and physical verification has been developed. This scheme has elevated the status of heavy water safeguards to a level comparable to nuclear material safeguards in bulk facilities. It leads to attribute and variable verification of the heavy water inventory in the different system components and in the store. The verification methods include volume and weight determination, sampling and analysis, non-destructive assay (NDA), and criticality check. The analysis of the different measurement methods and their limits of accuracy are discussed in the paper

  2. Packaged low-level waste verification system

    Tuite, K.T.; Winberg, M.; Flores, A.Y.; Killian, E.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, states and low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site operators have no method of independently verifying the radionuclide content of packaged LLW that arrive at disposal sites for disposal. At this time, disposal sites rely on LLW generator shipping manifests and accompanying records to insure that LLW received meets the waste acceptance criteria. An independent verification system would provide a method of checking generator LLW characterization methods and help ensure that LLW disposed of at disposal facilities meets requirements. The Mobile Low-Level Waste Verification System (MLLWVS) provides the equipment, software, and methods to enable the independent verification of LLW shipping records to insure that disposal site waste acceptance criteria are being met. The MLLWVS system was developed under a cost share subcontract between WMG, Inc., and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies through the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  3. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  4. Hierarchical Representation Learning for Kinship Verification.

    Kohli, Naman; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Noore, Afzel; Majumdar, Angshul

    2017-01-01

    Kinship verification has a number of applications such as organizing large collections of images and recognizing resemblances among humans. In this paper, first, a human study is conducted to understand the capabilities of human mind and to identify the discriminatory areas of a face that facilitate kinship-cues. The visual stimuli presented to the participants determine their ability to recognize kin relationship using the whole face as well as specific facial regions. The effect of participant gender and age and kin-relation pair of the stimulus is analyzed using quantitative measures such as accuracy, discriminability index d' , and perceptual information entropy. Utilizing the information obtained from the human study, a hierarchical kinship verification via representation learning (KVRL) framework is utilized to learn the representation of different face regions in an unsupervised manner. We propose a novel approach for feature representation termed as filtered contractive deep belief networks (fcDBN). The proposed feature representation encodes relational information present in images using filters and contractive regularization penalty. A compact representation of facial images of kin is extracted as an output from the learned model and a multi-layer neural network is utilized to verify the kin accurately. A new WVU kinship database is created, which consists of multiple images per subject to facilitate kinship verification. The results show that the proposed deep learning framework (KVRL-fcDBN) yields the state-of-the-art kinship verification accuracy on the WVU kinship database and on four existing benchmark data sets. Furthermore, kinship information is used as a soft biometric modality to boost the performance of face verification via product of likelihood ratio and support vector machine based approaches. Using the proposed KVRL-fcDBN framework, an improvement of over 20% is observed in the performance of face verification.

  5. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  6. 25 CFR 571.10 - Geographical location.

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geographical location. 571.10 Section 571.10 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Subpoenas and Depositions § 571.10 Geographical location. The attendance of...

  7. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  8. Hierarchical spatial organization of geographical networks

    Travencolo, Bruno A N; Costa, Luciano da F

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we propose a hierarchical extension of the polygonality index as the means to characterize geographical planar networks. By considering successive neighborhoods around each node, it is possible to obtain more complete information about the spatial order of the network at progressive spatial scales. The potential of the methodology is illustrated with respect to synthetic and real geographical networks

  9. Future Prospects for Geographical Education in Slovenia

    Resnic Planinc, Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with future prospects for geographical education in Slovenia, with special emphasis on the development and aims of the didactics of geography. The author discusses the past development of geographical curricula and of competencies of geography teachers, and the education of future teachers of the subject in Slovenia. Her ideas are…

  10. Socioeconomic Development Inequalities among Geographic Units ...

    Socio-economic development inequality among geographic units is a phenomenon common in both the developed and developing countries. Regional inequality may result in dissension among geographic units of the same state due to the imbalance in socio-economic development. This study examines the inequality ...

  11. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. Geographical inventory

    2009-01-01

    A geographical inventory of the radioactive wastes present on the French territory (as recorded until the 31 of december, 2007) is presented, region by region. The various types of waste sites (production, processing, conditioning and storage sites, Uranium mines, ANDRA storage centers, historical storage sites and polluted sites where wastes are stored) are listed and located on maps. Details are given on the nature and origin of these wastes (nuclear industry, medical domain, scientific research, conventional industry, Defense...). A total of 1121 sites have been recorded, among which 163 are presented with details and charts

  12. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    Pabian, Frank Vincent [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-16

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  13. The new geospatial tools: global transparency enhancing safeguards verification

    Pabian, Frank Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance and potential role of the new, freely available, geospatial tools for enhancing IAEA safeguards and how, together with commercial satellite imagery, they can be used to promote 'all-source synergy'. As additional 'open sources', these new geospatial tools have heralded a new era of 'global transparency' and they can be used to substantially augment existing information-driven safeguards gathering techniques, procedures, and analyses in the remote detection of undeclared facilities, as well as support ongoing monitoring and verification of various treaty (e.g., NPT, FMCT) relevant activities and programs. As an illustration of how these new geospatial tools may be applied, an original exemplar case study provides how it is possible to derive value-added follow-up information on some recent public media reporting of a former clandestine underground plutonium production complex (now being converted to a 'Tourist Attraction' given the site's abandonment by China in the early 1980s). That open source media reporting, when combined with subsequent commentary found in various Internet-based Blogs and Wikis, led to independent verification of the reporting with additional ground truth via 'crowdsourcing' (tourist photos as found on 'social networking' venues like Google Earth's Panoramio layer and Twitter). Confirmation of the precise geospatial location of the site (along with a more complete facility characterization incorporating 3-D Modeling and visualization) was only made possible following the acquisition of higher resolution commercial satellite imagery that could be correlated with the reporting, ground photos, and an interior diagram, through original imagery analysis of the overhead imagery.

  14. On Backward-Style Anonymity Verification

    Kawabe, Yoshinobu; Mano, Ken; Sakurada, Hideki; Tsukada, Yasuyuki

    Many Internet services and protocols should guarantee anonymity; for example, an electronic voting system should guarantee to prevent the disclosure of who voted for which candidate. To prove trace anonymity, which is an extension of the formulation of anonymity by Schneider and Sidiropoulos, this paper presents an inductive method based on backward anonymous simulations. We show that the existence of an image-finite backward anonymous simulation implies trace anonymity. We also demonstrate the anonymity verification of an e-voting protocol (the FOO protocol) with our backward anonymous simulation technique. When proving the trace anonymity, this paper employs a computer-assisted verification tool based on a theorem prover.

  15. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities: Safeguards and Beyond

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  16. 340 and 310 drawing field verification

    Langdon, J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the drawing field verification work plan is to provide reliable drawings for the 310 Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) and 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility). The initial scope of this work plan is to provide field verified and updated versions of all the 340 Facility essential drawings. This plan can also be used for field verification of any other drawings that the facility management directs to be so updated. Any drawings revised by this work plan will be issued in an AutoCAD format

  17. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities - Safeguards and Beyond

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  18. Experimental preparation and verification of quantum money

    Guan, Jian-Yu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan; Zhang, Weijun; Li, Hao; You, Lixing; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-03-01

    A quantum money scheme enables a trusted bank to provide untrusted users with verifiable quantum banknotes that cannot be forged. In this work, we report a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration of the preparation and verification of unforgeable quantum banknotes. We employ a security analysis that takes experimental imperfections fully into account. We measure a total of 3.6 ×106 states in one verification round, limiting the forging probability to 10-7 based on the security analysis. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing and verifying quantum banknotes using currently available experimental techniques.

  19. Core power capability verification for PWR NPP

    Xian Chunyu; Liu Changwen; Zhang Hong; Liang Wei

    2002-01-01

    The Principle and methodology of pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant core power capability verification for reload are introduced. The radial and axial power distributions of normal operation (category I or condition I) and abnormal operation (category II or condition II) are simulated by using neutronics calculation code. The linear power density margin and DNBR margin for both categories, which reflect core safety, are analyzed from the point view of reactor physics and T/H, and thus category I operating domain and category II protection set point are verified. Besides, the verification results of reference NPP are also given

  20. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  1. Verification and quality control of routine hematology analyzers

    Vis, J Y; Huisman, A

    2016-01-01

    Verification of hematology analyzers (automated blood cell counters) is mandatory before new hematology analyzers may be used in routine clinical care. The verification process consists of several items which comprise among others: precision, accuracy, comparability, carryover, background and

  2. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    Kristensen, C.H.; Andersen, J.H.; Skou, A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  3. Specification and Automated Verification of Real-Time Behaviour

    Andersen, J.H.; Kristensen, C.H.; Skou, A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties.......In this paper we sketch a method for specification and automatic verification of real-time software properties....

  4. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  5. Privacy preservation and authentication on secure geographical routing in VANET

    Punitha, A.; Manickam, J. Martin Leo

    2017-05-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) play an important role in vehicle-to-vehicle communication as it offers a high level of safety and convenience to drivers. In order to increase the level of security and safety in VANETs, in this paper, we propose a Privacy Preservation and Authentication on Secure Geographical Routing Protocol (PPASGR) for VANET. It provides security by detecting and preventing malicious nodes through two directional antennas such as forward (f-antenna) and backward (b-antenna). The malicious nodes are detected by direction detection, consistency detection and conflict detection. The location of the trusted neighbour is identified using TNT-based location verification scheme after the implementation of the Vehicle Tamper Proof Device (VTPD), Trusted Authority (TA) is generated that produces the anonymous credentials. Finally, VTPD generates pseudo-identity using TA which retrieves the real identity of the sender. Through this approach, the authentication, integrity and confidentiality for routing packets can be achieved. The simulation results show that the proposed approach reduces the packet drop due to attack and improves the packet delivery ratio.

  6. Geographic information systems for power system planning

    1997-01-01

    This glossary contains a list, in English alphabetical order, of about 2000 terms in Arabic, English and French concerning the question of verification related to nuclear test ban. It is compiled mostly on the basis of the documents of the Ad Hoc Committee on a Nuclear Test Ban issues under symbol 'CD/NTB/WP...'

  7. Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project: Verification and Validation

    Jenner, Jeff; Policelli, Fritz; Fletcher, Rosea; Holecamp, Kara; Owen, Carolyn; Nicholson, Lamar; Dartez, Deanna

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the Earth Science Enterprise Scientific Data Purchase Project's verification,and validation process. The topics include: 1) What is Verification and Validation? 2) Why Verification and Validation? 3) Background; 4) ESE Data Purchas Validation Process; 5) Data Validation System and Ingest Queue; 6) Shipment Verification; 7) Tracking and Metrics; 8) Validation of Contract Specifications; 9) Earth Watch Data Validation; 10) Validation of Vertical Accuracy; and 11) Results of Vertical Accuracy Assessment.

  8. A Syntactic-Semantic Approach to Incremental Verification

    Bianculli, Domenico; Filieri, Antonio; Ghezzi, Carlo; Mandrioli, Dino

    2013-01-01

    Software verification of evolving systems is challenging mainstream methodologies and tools. Formal verification techniques often conflict with the time constraints imposed by change management practices for evolving systems. Since changes in these systems are often local to restricted parts, an incremental verification approach could be beneficial. This paper introduces SiDECAR, a general framework for the definition of verification procedures, which are made incremental by the framework...

  9. 24 CFR 5.512 - Verification of eligible immigration status.

    2010-04-01

    ... immigration status. 5.512 Section 5.512 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of... Noncitizens § 5.512 Verification of eligible immigration status. (a) General. Except as described in paragraph...) Primary verification—(1) Automated verification system. Primary verification of the immigration status of...

  10. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  11. Standardized Definitions for Code Verification Test Problems

    Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-14

    This document contains standardized definitions for several commonly used code verification test problems. These definitions are intended to contain sufficient information to set up the test problem in a computational physics code. These definitions are intended to be used in conjunction with exact solutions to these problems generated using Exact- Pack, www.github.com/lanl/exactpack.

  12. 9 CFR 417.8 - Agency verification.

    2010-01-01

    ....8 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.8 Agency verification. FSIS will verify the... plan or system; (f) Direct observation or measurement at a CCP; (g) Sample collection and analysis to...

  13. Timed verification with µCRL

    Blom, S.C.C.; Ioustinova, N.; Sidorova, N.; Broy, M.; Zamulin, A.V.

    2003-01-01

    µCRL is a process algebraic language for specification and verification of distributed systems. µCRL allows to describe temporal properties of distributed systems but it has no explicit reference to time. In this work we propose a manner of introducing discrete time without extending the language.

  14. Programmable electronic system design & verification utilizing DFM

    Houtermans, M.J.M.; Apostolakis, G.E.; Brombacher, A.C.; Karydas, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DIM) during the design and verification of programmable electronic safety-related systems. The safety system consists of hardware as well as software. This paper explains and demonstrates the use of DIM to

  15. Verification of Software Components: Addressing Unbounded Paralelism

    Adámek, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2007), s. 300-309 ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : software components * formal verification * unbounded parallelism Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  16. A Comparison of Modular Verification Techniques

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Maretti, Niels

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents and compares three techniques for mechanized verification of state oriented design descriptions. One is a traditional forwardgeneration of a fixed point characterizing the reachable states. The two others can utilize a modular structure provided by the designer. Onerequires...

  17. Formal Verification of Circuits and Systems

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The problem of validation and verification of correctness of present day hardware and soft- ware systems has become extemely complex due to the enormous growth in the size of the designs. Today typically 50% to 70% of the design cycle time is spent in verifying correct- ness. While simulation remains a predominant form ...

  18. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 7. Model Checking - Automated Verification of Computational Systems. Madhavan Mukund. General Article Volume 14 Issue 7 July 2009 pp 667-681. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Formal Verification of Quasi-Synchronous Systems

    2015-07-01

    pg. 215-226, Springer-Verlag: London, UK, 2001. [4] Nicolas Halbwachs and Louis Mandel, Simulation and Verification of Asynchronous Systems by...Huang, S. A. Smolka, W. Tan , and S. Tripakis, Deep Random Search for Efficient Model Checking of Timed Automata, in Proceedings of the 13th Monterey

  20. Behaviour Protocols Verification: Fighting State Explosion

    Mach, M.; Plášil, František; Kofroň, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2005), s. 22-30 ISSN 1525-9293 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0672 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : formal verification * software components * stateexplos ion * behavior protocols * parse trees Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software

  1. Verification of Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    Jacobsen, Lasse; Jacobsen, Morten; Møller, Mikael Harkjær

    2011-01-01

    of interesting theoretical properties distinguishing them from other time extensions of Petri nets. We shall give an overview of the recent theory developed in the verification of TAPN extended with features like read/transport arcs, timed inhibitor arcs and age invariants. We will examine in detail...

  2. Unification & sharing in timed automata verification

    David, Alexandre; Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2003-01-01

    We present the design of the model-checking engine and internal data structures for the next generation of UPPAAL. The design is based on a pipeline architecture where each stage represents one independent operation in the verification algorithms. The architecture is based on essentially one shar...

  3. A Verification Framework for Agent Communication

    Eijk, R.M. van; Boer, F.S. de; Hoek, W. van der; Meyer, J-J.Ch.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a verification method for the correctness of multiagent systems as described in the framework of acpl (Agent Communication Programming Language). The computational model of acpl consists of an integration of the two different paradigms of ccp (Concurrent Constraint

  4. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  5. Zero leakage quantization scheme for biometric verification

    Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics gain increasing interest as a solution for many security issues, but privacy risks exist in case we do not protect the stored templates well. This paper presents a new verification scheme, which protects the secrets of the enrolled users. We will show that zero leakage is achieved if

  6. Hydrostatic Paradox: Experimental Verification of Pressure Equilibrium

    Kodejška, C.; Ganci, S.; Ríha, J.; Sedlácková, H.

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the experimental verification of the balance between the atmospheric pressure acting on the sheet of paper, which encloses the cylinder completely or partially filled with water from below, where the hydrostatic pressure of the water column acts against the atmospheric pressure. First of all this paper solves a theoretical…

  7. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    Matsubara, Sachito; Murayama, Kazunari; Yoshida, Hirohisa; Igei, Shigemitsu; Izumida, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  8. Using timing information in speaker verification

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of temporal information as a feature for use in speaker verification systems. The relevance of temporal information in a speaker’s utterances is investigated, both with regard to improving the robustness of modern...

  9. Sampling for the verification of materials balances

    Avenhaus, R.; Goeres, H.J.; Beedgen, R.

    1983-08-01

    The results of a theory for verification of nuclear materials balance data are presented. The sampling theory is based on two diversion models where also a combination of models is taken into account. The theoretical considerations are illustrated with numerical examples using the data of a highly enriched uranium fabrication plant. (orig.) [de

  10. Post-silicon and runtime verification for modern processors

    Wagner, Ilya

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to survey the state of the art and evolving directions in post-silicon and runtime verification. The authors start by giving an overview of the state of the art in verification, particularly current post-silicon methodologies in use in the industry, both for the domain of processor pipeline design and for memory subsystems. They then dive into the presentation of several new post-silicon verification solutions aimed at boosting the verification coverage of modern processors, dedicating several chapters to this topic. The presentation of runtime verification solution

  11. Geographic Education--Where Have We Failed?

    Gritzner, Charles F.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses geography's rather low status and relatively poor public image in the United States and some of the consequences. Among the world's educated industrial nations, the United States ranks among the least literate in a geographical sense. (RM)

  12. Medicare Geographic Variation - Public Use File

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Geographic Variation Public Use File provides the ability to view demographic, utilization and quality indicators at the state level (including...

  13. Geographic information system planning and monitoring best ...

    Poor urbanization policies, inefficient planning and monitoring technologies are evident. The consequences include some of the worst types of environmental hazards. Best urbanization practices require integrated planning approaches that result in environmental conservation. Geographic Information systems (GIS) provide ...

  14. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  15. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  16. CTF Validation and Verification Manual

    Salko, Robert K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blyth, Taylor S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Dances, Christopher A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Magedanz, Jeffrey W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Jernigan, Caleb [Holtec International, Marlton, NJ (United States); Kelly, Joeseph [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Toptan, Aysenur [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Gergar, Marcus [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Gosdin, Chris [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Avramova, Maria [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Palmtag, Scott [Core Physics, Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Gehin, Jess C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Coolant-Boiling in Rod Arrays- Two Fluids (COBRA-TF) is a Thermal/Hydraulic (T/H) simulation code designed for Light Water Reactor (LWR) analysis. It uses a two-fluid, three-field (i.e. fluid film, fluid drops, and vapor) modeling approach. Both sub-channel and 3D Cartesian forms of nine conservation equations are available for LWR modeling. The code was originally developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1980 and has been used and modified by several institutions over the last several decades. COBRA-TF is also used at the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) by the Reactor Dynamics and Fuel Management Group (RDFMG), and has been improved, updated, and subsequently became the PSU RDFMG version of COBRA-TF (CTF). One part of the improvement process includes validating the methods in CTF. This document seeks to provide a certain level of certainty and confidence in the predictive capabilities of the code for the scenarios it was designed to model--rod bundle geometries with operating conditions that are representative of prototypical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)s and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)s in both normal and accident conditions. This is done by modeling a variety of experiments that simulate these scenarios and then presenting a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results that demonstrates the accuracy to which CTF is capable of capturing specific quantities of interest.

  17. Rights to Designaton Focusing on Protected Designations and Geographical Indications of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs

    Ilková Zuzana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue covered by the field of industrial property, it deals with the right to designation, especially with characteristics of legal regulation of labeling of products with regard to their geographical origin at the Slovak, communitarian and international levels. Individual objects of the industrial property may be the result of intellectual creative activity of its creator/creators (e.g. inventions, utility models, designs or they are not the result of creative activity of a particular natural person and are considered as industrial property rights to designation. The group of rights to designation includes: business names, trademarks, designation of origin for products and geographical indications for products. The rights to designation, inter alia, shall ensure uniqueness and competitive advantage for entrepreneurs and easy identification on the market of goods and services for the consumers. The paper closely analyzes the harmonized legal regulation of designations of origin and geographical indications of agricultural products, foodstuffs, spirit drinks, and wines. At the example of Tokaj wine region, it demonstrates the importance of protected designations at the EU level, in case of which demonstrable geographical origin of the product with controlled product specification by authorized national bodies brings a guarantee of quality of this product for consumers and the competitive advantage during their commercial implementation for the entrepreneurs.

  18. Geographical provenance of palm oil by fatty acid and volatile compound fingerprinting techniques

    Tres, A.; Ruiz - Samblas, C.; Veer, van der G.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical methods are required in addition to administrative controls to verify the geographical origin of vegetable oils such as palm oil in an objective manner. In this study the application of fatty acid and volatile organic compound fingerprinting in combination with chemometrics have been

  19. Verification and validation in computational fluid dynamics

    Oberkampf, William L.; Trucano, Timothy G.

    2002-04-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess accuracy and reliability in computational simulations. This paper presents an extensive review of the literature in V&V in computational fluid dynamics (CFD), discusses methods and procedures for assessing V&V, and develops a number of extensions to existing ideas. The review of the development of V&V terminology and methodology points out the contributions from members of the operations research, statistics, and CFD communities. Fundamental issues in V&V are addressed, such as code verification versus solution verification, model validation versus solution validation, the distinction between error and uncertainty, conceptual sources of error and uncertainty, and the relationship between validation and prediction. The fundamental strategy of verification is the identification and quantification of errors in the computational model and its solution. In verification activities, the accuracy of a computational solution is primarily measured relative to two types of highly accurate solutions: analytical solutions and highly accurate numerical solutions. Methods for determining the accuracy of numerical solutions are presented and the importance of software testing during verification activities is emphasized. The fundamental strategy of validation is to assess how accurately the computational results compare with the experimental data, with quantified error and uncertainty estimates for both. This strategy employs a hierarchical methodology that segregates and simplifies the physical and coupling phenomena involved in the complex engineering system of interest. A hypersonic cruise missile is used as an example of how this hierarchical structure is formulated. The discussion of validation assessment also encompasses a number of other important topics. A set of guidelines is proposed for designing and conducting validation experiments, supported by an explanation of how validation experiments are different

  20. SU-F-T-494: A Multi-Institutional Study of Independent Dose Verification Using Golden Beam Data

    Itano, M; Yamazaki, T [Inagi Municipal Hospital, Inagi, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, R; Uchida, Y [National Cancer Center Hospital East, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Yamashita, M [Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Shimizu, H [Kitasato University Medical Center, Kitamoto, Saitama (Japan); Sugawara, Y; Kotabe, K [National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kamima, T [Cancer Institute Hospital Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, R [Cancer Institute Hospital of Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Koto, Tokyo (Japan); Ishibashi, S [Sasebo City General Hospital, Sasebo, Nagasaki (Japan); Tachibana, H [National Cancer Center, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In general, beam data of individual linac is measured for independent dose verification software program and the verification is performed as a secondary check. In this study, independent dose verification using golden beam data was compared to that using individual linac’s beam data. Methods: Six institutions were participated and three different beam data were prepared. The one was individual measured data (Original Beam Data, OBD) .The others were generated by all measurements from same linac model (Model-GBD) and all linac models (All-GBD). The three different beam data were registered to the independent verification software program for each institute. Subsequently, patient’s plans in eight sites (brain, head and neck, lung, esophagus, breast, abdomen, pelvis and bone) were analyzed using the verification program to compare doses calculated using the three different beam data. Results: 1116 plans were collected from six institutes. Compared to using the OBD, the results shows the variation using the Model-GBD based calculation and the All-GBD was 0.0 ± 0.3% and 0.0 ± 0.6%, respectively. The maximum variations were 1.2% and 2.3%, respectively. The plans with the variation over 1% shows the reference points were located away from the central axis with/without physical wedge. Conclusion: The confidence limit (2SD) using the Model-GBD and the All-GBD was within 0.6% and 1.2%, respectively. Thus, the use of golden beam data may be feasible for independent verification. In addition to it, the verification using golden beam data provide quality assurance of planning from the view of audit. This research is partially supported by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development(AMED)