WorldWideScience

Sample records for geographic differentiation patterns

  1. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

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    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  2. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  3. Geographic distribution and spatial differentiation in the color pattern of abdominal stripes of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae

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    Henrique Batalha-Filho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata Lepeletier, 1836, regionally known as "mandaçaia", has been traditionally divided in two distinct subspecies: M. quadrifasciata anthidioides and M. quadrifasciata quadrifasciata. The main difference between the subspecies refers to the yellow metasomal stripes which are continuous in M. q. quadrifasciata and discontinuous in M. q. anthidioides. This study investigated the geographic differentiation in the metasomal stripes and characterized the restriction sites in the mtDNA of both chromatic types. Specimens from 198 localities were examined, and the variation observed in the pattern of stripes was grouped into distinct classes. The distribution pattern found in the present work agrees with the previously reported pattern: M. q. quadrifasciata inhabits the southern portion of the distribution, from Misiones, Argentina, southeastern Paraguay and Rio Grande do Sul to southern São Paulo, and M. q. anthidioides ranges from northeastern São Paulo to the northern Diamantina Plateau, Bahia, and westwards to the central portion of the Goiás state. It is documented for the first time the occurrence of two populations with continuous stripes inhabiting disjunct areas in relation to M. q. quadrifasciata - one in northern Minas Gerais and another in northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The data of RFLP showed two restriction patterns, one present in M. q. quadrifasciata, and another in M. q. anthidioides and in populations with continuous metasomal stripes from northern Minas Gerais and northeastern Bahia and Sergipe. The observed patterns of geographic differentiation of M. quadrifasciata suggests the occurrence of repeated events of geographical isolation, followed by range expansion, that occurred probably during the cycles of climatic changes in the Pleistocene.

  4. Geographic differences in patterns of genetic differentiation among bitter and sweet manioc (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta; Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, E Jane; Duputié, Anne; Delêtre, Marc; Roullier, Caroline; Narváez-Trujillo, Alexandra; Manu-Aduening, Joseph A; Emshwiller, Eve; McKey, Doyle

    2013-05-01

    Manioc (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta), one of the most important tropical food crops, is commonly divided according to cyanide content into two use-categories, "sweet" and "bitter." While bitter and sweet varieties are genetically differentiated at the local scale, whether this differentiation is consistent across continents is yet unknown. • Using eight microsatellite loci, we genotyped 522 manioc samples (135 bitter and 387 sweet) from Ecuador, French Guiana, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, and Vanuatu. Genetic differentiation between use-categories was assessed using double principal coordinate analyses (DPCoA) with multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and Jost's measure of estimated differentiation (D(est)). Genetic structure was analyzed using Bayesian clustering analysis. • Manioc neutral genetic diversity was high in all sampled regions. Sweet and bitter manioc landraces are differentiated in South America but not in Africa. Correspondingly, bitter and sweet manioc samples share a higher proportion of neutral alleles in Africa than in South America. We also found seven clones classified by some farmers as sweet and by others as bitter. • Lack of differentiation in Africa is most likely due to postintroduction hybridization between bitter and sweet manioc. Inconsistent transfer from South America to Africa of ethnobotanical knowledge surrounding use-category management may contribute to increased hybridization in Africa. Investigating this issue requires more data on the variation in cyanogenesis in roots within and among manioc populations and how manioc diversity is managed on the farm.

  5. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

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    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  6. Contrasting geographic patterns of genetic differentiation in body size and development time with reproductive isolation in Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

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    Ryan R. Bracewell; Michael E. Pfrender; Karen E. Mock; Barbara J. Bentz

    2013-01-01

    Body size and development time are two critical phenotypic traits that can be highly adaptive in insects. Recent population genetic analyses and crossing experiments with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) have described substantial levels of neutral molecular genetic differentiation, genetic differences in phenotypic traits, and reproductive...

  7. [Differentiation of geographic biovariants of smallpox virus by PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkin, I V; Babkina, I N

    2010-01-01

    Comparative analysis of amino acid and nucleotides sequences of ORFs located in extended segments of the terminal variable regions in variola virus genome detected a promising locus for viral genotyping according to the geographic origin. This is ORF O1L of VARV. The primers were calculated for synthesis of this ORF fragment by PCR, which makes it possible to distinguish South America-Western Africa genotype from other VARV strains. Subsequent RFLP analysis reliably differentiated Asian strains from African strains (except Western Africa isolates). This method has been tested using 16 VARV strains from various geographic regions. The developed approach is simple, fast and reliable.

  8. Towards mapping land use patterns from volunteered geographic information

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    Jokar Arsanjani, J.; Helbich, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Bakillah, M.; Hagenauer, J.; Zipf, A.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of applications have been launched to gather geo-located information from the public. This article introduces an approach toward generating land-use patterns from volunteered geographic information (VGI) without applying remote-sensing techniques and/or engaging official data. Hence,

  9. On the geographical differentiation of Gymnodactylus geckoides Spix, 1825 (Sauria, Gekkonidae: speciation in the Brasilian caatingas

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    Vanzolini Paulo Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific concept of G. geckoides was initially ascertained based on a topotypical sample from Salvador, Bahia. Geographic differentiation was studied through the analysis of two meristic characters (tubercles in a paramedian row and fourth toe lamellae and color pattern of 327 specimens from 23 localities. It is shown that the population from the southernmost locality, Mucugê, is markedly divergent in all characters studied. A Holocene refuge model is proposed to explain the pattern. A decision about the rank to be attributed to the Mucugê population is deferred until more detailed sampling is effected and molecular methods are applied.

  10. Geographical ranges in macroecology: Processes, patterns and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe

    , are distributed over the entire Earth. Species’ ranges are one of the basic units of the science of macroecology, which deals with patterns in the distribution of life on Earth. An example of such patterns is the large geographic variation in species richness between areas. These patterns are closely linked...... for this relationship. In going through the mechanisms, I distinguish between ‘structural’ causes, such as differences between the niches of species; and ‘dynamic’ causes, such as dispersal of individuals among populations. A central conclusion is that both of these types of mechanisms contribute to creating...... group includes a popularly written book chapter, where the causes and consequences of the spatial distribution of organisms are introduced more generally. The second group consists of several papers investigating the link between ranges and richness patterns. Variation in species richness is probably...

  11. Genetic diversity and geographic differentiation analysis of duckweed using inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

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    Xue, Huiling; Xiao, Yao; Jin, Yanling; Li, Xinbo; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai; Zhao, Yun; Guan, Jiafa

    2012-01-01

    Duckweed, with rapid growth rate and high starch content, is a new alternate feedstock for bioethanol production. The genetic diversity among 27 duckweed populations of seven species in genus Lemna and Spirodela from China and Vietnam was analyzed by ISSR-PCR. Eight ISSR primers generating a reproducible amplification banding pattern had been screened. 89 polymorphic bands were scored out of the 92 banding patterns of 16 Lemna populations, accounting for 96.74% of the polymorphism. 98 polymorphic bands of 11 Spirodela populations were scored out of 99 banding patterns, and the polymorphism was 98.43%. The genetic distance of Lemna varied from 0.127 to 0.784, and from 0.138 to 0.902 for Spirodela, which indicated a high level of genetic variation among the populations studied. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA) cluster analysis corresponded well with the genetic distance. Populations from Sichuan China grouped together and so did the populations from Vietnam, which illuminated populations collected from the same region clustered into one group. Especially, the only one population from Tibet was included in subgroup A2 alone. Clustering analysis indicated that the geographic differentiation of collected sites correlated closely with the genetic differentiation of duckweeds. The results suggested that geographic differentiation had great influence on genetic diversity of duckweed in China and Vietnam at the regional scale. This study provided primary guidelines for collection, conservation, characterization of duckweed resources for bioethanol production etc.

  12. Geographical patterns in the beta diversity of China's woody plants

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    Wang, Zhiheng; Fang, Jingyun; Tang, Zhiyao

    2012-01-01

    Beta diversity (i.e. species turnover rate across space) is fundamental for understanding mechanisms controlling large-scale species richness patterns. However, the influences on beta diversity are still a matter of debate. In particular, the relative role of environmental and spatial processes (e.......g. environmental niche versus dispersal limitation of species) remains elusive, and the influence of species range size has been poorly tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11 405 woody species in China (ca 9.6 ¿ 106 km2), we investigated 1) the geographical and directional patterns of beta diversity for all...... with their environmental niches due to dispersal limitation induced by China’s topography and/or their low dispersal ability. The projected rapid climatic changes will likely endanger such species. Species dispersal processes should be taken into account in future conservation strategies in China....

  13. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

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    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  14. Geographical patterns of cholera in Mexico, 1991-1996.

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    Borroto, R J; Martinez-Piedra, R

    2000-08-01

    The seventh cholera pandemic has been ongoing in Mexico since 1991 and threatens to become endemic. This paper aims to determine the geographical pattern of cholera in Mexico to define areas at high risk of endemic cholera. Ecologic research was conducted based upon the cartography of disease incidence. The 32 Mexican states were grouped into five strata according to the value of the 1991-1996 cumulative incidence rate of cholera. Rate ratios were computed for strata of states classified by geographical situation, urbanization, and poverty level. Cholera incidence was 2.47 times higher in coastal states than in the interior (95% CI : 2.42-2.52). The disease was negatively associated with urbanization. Incidence in the least urbanized stratum was four times as high as in the most urban stratum (95% CI : 3.9-4.12). The poorest stratum showed the most remarkable incidence, i.e. 5.9 times higher than the rate in the least poor stratum (95% CI : 5.73-6.04). This ecologic research suggests that high poverty level, low urbanization, and southern location are the most important predictors of endemic cholera in Mexican states. It is hypothesized that the natural environment of the coastal plains in southern states may also play a significant role in cholera incidence. Poor communities residing in the southern, predominantly rural, coastal states should be prioritized when it comes to investing in safe water supply facilities, adequate excreta disposal systems and cholera surveillance.

  15. Geographic patterns of cigarette butt waste in the urban environment.

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    Marah, Maacah; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    This reports the initial phase of a study to quantify the spatial pattern of cigarette butt waste in an urban environment. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to create a weighted overlay analysis model which was then applied to the locations of businesses where cigarettes are sold or are likely to be consumed and venues where higher concentrations of butts may be deposited. The model's utility was tested using a small-scale litter audit in three zip codes of San Diego, California. We found that cigarette butt waste is highly concentrated around businesses where cigarettes are sold or consumed. The mean number of butts for predicted high waste sites was 38.1 (SD 18.87), for predicted low waste sites mean 4.8 (SD 5.9), psales and consumption. A GIS and weighted overlay model may be a useful tool in predicting urban locations of greater and lesser amounts of cigarette butt waste. These data can in turn be used to develop economic cost studies and plan mitigation strategies in urban communities.

  16. Geographical structure and differential natural selection among North European populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEvoy, Brian P; Montgomery, Grant W; McRae, Allan F

    2009-01-01

    polymorphism, in 2099 individuals from populations of Northern European origin (Ireland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and HapMap European-American). The major trends (PC1 and PC2) demonstrate an ability to detect geographic substructure, even over a small area like...

  17. Local knowledge, use pattern and geographical distribution of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) in Nigeria.

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    Popoola, Jacob O; Obembe, Olawole O

    2013-11-25

    studied areas. The sources of introduction, domestication and ethnic differentiation influenced the distribution pattern across the geographical areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ancient geographical barriers drive differentiation among Sonneratia caseolaris populations and recent divergence from S. lanceolata

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    Yuchen Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glacial vicariance is thought to influence population dynamics and speciation of many marine organisms. Mangroves, a plant group inhabiting intertidal zones, were also profoundly influenced by Pleistocene glaciations. In this study, we investigated phylogeographic patterns of a widespread mangrove species Sonneratia caseolaris and a narrowly distributed, closely related species S. lanceolata to infer their divergence histories and related it to historical geological events. We sequenced two chloroplast fragments and five nuclear genes for one population of S. lanceolata and 12 populations of S. caseolaris across the Indo-West Pacific (IWP region to evaluate genetic differentiation and divergence time among them. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS and a nuclear gene rpl9 for all Sonneratia species indicate that S. lanceolata individuals are nested within S. caseolaris. We found strong genetic structure among geographic regions (South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and eastern Australia inhabited by S. caseolaris. We estimated that divergence between the Indo-Malesia and Australasia populations occurred 4.035 million years ago (MYA, prior to the onset of Pleistocene. BARRIERS analysis suggested that complex geographic features in the IWP region had largely shaped the phylogeographic patterns of S. caseolaris. Furthermore, haplotype analyses provided convincing evidence for secondary contact of the South China Sea (SCS and the Indian Ocean lineages at the Indo-Pacific boundary. Demographic history inference under isolation and migration (IM model detected substantial gene flow from the Sri Lanka populations to the populations in the Java Island. Moreover, multi-locus sequence analysis indicated that S. lanceolata was most closely related to the Indian Ocean populations of S. caseolaris and the divergence time between them was 2.057 MYA, coinciding with the onset of the Pleistocene

  19. Cultural and economic determinants of geographical mortality patterns in The Netherlands

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    Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Looman, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The geographical pattern of mortality in The Netherlands is dominated by an area of relatively high mortality in the southern part of the country. The aim was to analyse the background of this geographical mortality pattern in the early 1980s, and its evolution over time since the

  20. Geographically differentiated pay in the labour market for nurses.

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    Elliott, Robert F; Ma, Ada H Y; Scott, Anthony; Bell, David; Roberts, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This novel application of spatial wage theory to health service labour markets analyses the competitiveness of nurse's pay and how this differs between local labour markets in Britain. A switching regression model is estimated to derive standardised spatial wage differentials (SSWDs) for nurses and their comparators. An SSWD gap is constructed and its relationship to vacancies estimated. A reduction in the gap in a local area is shown to result in an increase in the long-term vacancy rate for National Health Service (NHS) nurses. The competitiveness of nursing pay is shown to have a strong effect on the ability of the NHS to attract and retain nurses.

  1. Geographical constraints are stronger than invasion patterns for European urban floras.

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    Carlo Ricotta

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that affect invasion success of alien species is an important prerequisite for the effective management of present and future aliens. To gain insight into this matter we asked the following questions: Are the geographical patterns of species distributions in urban floras different for native compared with alien plant species? Does the introduction of alien species contribute to the homogenization of urban floras? We used a Mantel test on Jaccard dissimilarity matrices of 30 urban floras across the British Isles, Italy and central Europe to compare the spatial distribution of native species with four classes of alien species: archaeophytes, all neophytes, non-invasive neophytes, and invasive neophytes. Archaeophytes and neophytes are species that were introduced into Europe before and after 1500 AD, respectively. To analyze the homogenizing effect of alien species on the native urban floras, we tested for differences in the average dissimilarity of individual cities from their group centroid in ordination space. Our results show that the compositional patterns of native and alien species seem to respond to the same environmental drivers, such that all four classes of alien species were significantly related to native species across urban floras. In this framework, alien species may have an impact on biogeographic patterns of urban floras in ways that reflect their history of introduction and expansion: archaeophytes and invasive neophytes tended to homogenize, while non-invasive neophytes tended to differentiate urban floras.

  2. Geographical pattern analysis of income migration in the United States.

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    Plane, D A

    1999-01-01

    "How one conceptualises the impacts of migration depends on whether one takes the viewpoint of aggregate area-level income change, of per capita change, or of longer-term (future earnings) change. Several empirical analytical measures are proposed in order to conceptualise the various income impacts of migration.... [A] decomposition procedure is developed for examining how the changes in per capita income of states reflect three different income differentials: those between (a) in-migrants and 'stayers', (b) out-migrants and 'stayers', and (c) in-migrants and out-migrants. Examination of these measures, and of typologies based on them, highlights how income migration significantly and differentially impacts upon U.S. states. The methods are illustrated here in the context of an important new American data source: the 1993-94 migrant income data released by the U.S. Internal Revenue Service." excerpt

  3. Evolutionary and demographic processes shaping geographic patterns of genetic diversity in a keystone species, the African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis).

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    Ishida, Yasuko; Gugala, Natalie A; Georgiadis, Nicholas J; Roca, Alfred L

    2018-05-01

    The past processes that have shaped geographic patterns of genetic diversity may be difficult to infer from current patterns. However, in species with sex differences in dispersal, differing phylogeographic patterns between mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear (nu) DNA may provide contrasting insights into past events. Forest elephants ( Loxodonta cyclotis ) were impacted by climate and habitat change during the Pleistocene, which likely shaped phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial (mt) DNA that have persisted due to limited female dispersal. By contrast, the nuclear (nu) DNA phylogeography of forest elephants in Central Africa has not been determined. We therefore examined the population structure of Central African forest elephants by genotyping 94 individuals from six localities at 21 microsatellite loci. Between forest elephants in western and eastern Congolian forests, there was only modest genetic differentiation, a pattern highly discordant with that of mtDNA. Nuclear genetic patterns are consistent with isolation by distance. Alternatively, male-mediated gene flow may have reduced the previous regional differentiation in Central Africa suggested by mtDNA patterns, which likely reflect forest fragmentation during the Pleistocene. In species like elephants, male-mediated gene flow erases the nuclear genetic signatures of past climate and habitat changes, but these continue to persist as patterns in mtDNA because females do not disperse. Conservation implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

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    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  5. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to analyze geographic and demographic patterns related to forensic case recovery locations in Florida.

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    Kolpan, Katharine E; Warren, Michael

    2017-12-01

    This paper highlights how Geographic Information Systems (GIS) can be utilized to analyze biases and patterns related to physical and cultural geography in Florida. Using case recovery locations from the C. Addison Pound Human Identification Laboratory (CAPHIL), results indicate that the majority of CAPHIL cases are recovered from urban areas with medium to low population density and low rates of crime. The results also suggest that more accurate record keeping methods would enhance the data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The remarkable geographical pattern of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador.

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    Montero-Oleas, Nadia; Núñez-González, Solange; Simancas-Racines, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    This study was aimed to describe the gastric cancer mortality trend, and to analyze the spatial distribution of gastric cancer mortality in Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015. Data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics and Census (INEC) database. Crude gastric cancer mortality rates, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and indirect standardized mortality rates (ISMRs) were calculated per 100,000 persons. For time trend analysis, joinpoint regression was used. The annual percentage rate change (APC) and the average annual percent change (AAPC) was computed for each province. Spatial age-adjusted analysis was used to detect high risk clusters of gastric cancer mortality, from 2010 to 2015, using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. In Ecuador, between 2004 and 2015, gastric cancer caused a total of 19,115 deaths: 10,679 in men and 8436 in women. When crude rates were analyzed, a significant decline was detected (AAPC: -1.8%; p<0.001). ISMR also decreased, but this change was not statistically significant (APC: -0.53%; p=0.36). From 2004 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2011 the province with the highest ISMR was Carchi; and, from 2012 to 2015, was Cotopaxi. The most likely high occurrence cluster included Bolívar, Los Ríos, Chimborazo, Tungurahua, and Cotopaxi provinces, with a relative risk of 1.34 (p<0.001). There is a substantial geographic variation in gastric cancer mortality rates among Ecuadorian provinces. The spatial analysis indicates the presence of high occurrence clusters throughout the Andes Mountains. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Geographic patterns of genome admixture in Latin American Mestizos.

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    Sijia Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The large and diverse population of Latin America is potentially a powerful resource for elucidating the genetic basis of complex traits through admixture mapping. However, no genome-wide characterization of admixture across Latin America has yet been attempted. Here, we report an analysis of admixture in thirteen Mestizo populations (i.e. in regions of mainly European and Native settlement from seven countries in Latin America based on data for 678 autosomal and 29 X-chromosome microsatellites. We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. This observation is consistent with the genetic structure of pre-Columbian populations and with admixture having involved Natives from the area where the Mestizo examined are located. Our findings agree with available information on the demographic history of Latin America and have a number of implications for the design of association studies in population from the region.

  8. Ripple/Carcinoid pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation.

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    Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Sebaceoma is a benign sebaceous neoplasm, which has been reported to show characteristic growth patterns, such as, ripple, labyrinthine/sinusoidal, and carcinoid-like patterns. Another recent finding regarding in sebaceoma is the observation of apocrine differentiation within the sebaceoma lesion. This report describes a case of carcinoid (a partial ripple and labyrinthine) pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation with a literature review and immunohistochemical studies. The various characteristic growth patterns in sebaceoma were suggested to simply be variations of the same growth pattern arranged in cords, namely, a unified term "ripple/carcinoid pattern." The primitive sebaceous germinative cells in sebaceoma may still have the ability to undergo apocrine differentiation. Most of the reports so far on sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation, including the present case, describe a ripple/carcinoid pattern, thus suggesting that ripple/carcinoid pattern sebaceoma is composed of more primitive sebaceous germinative cells than conventional sebaceoma.

  9. Conservation genetics and geographic patterns of genetic variation of the vulnerable officinal herb Fritillaria walujewii (Liliaceae)

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    Zhihao Su; Borong Pan; Stewart C. Sanderson; Xiaojun Shi; Xiaolong Jiang

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese herb Fritillaria walujewii Regel is an important officinal species that is vulnerable because of over-harvesting. Here, we examined the geographic pattern of genetic variation across the species entire range, to study its evolution process and give implication needed for the conservation. Nine haplotypes were detected on the basis of three chloroplast...

  10. Geographic patterns of networks derived from extreme precipitation over the Indian subcontinent

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    Stolbova, Veronika; Bookhagen, Bodo; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen

    2014-05-01

    Complex networks (CN) and event synchronization (ES) methods have been applied to study a number of climate phenomena such as Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM), South-American Monsoon, and African Monsoon. These methods proved to be powerful tools to infer interdependencies in climate dynamics between geographical sites, spatial structures, and key regions of the considered climate phenomenon. Here, we use these methods to study the spatial temporal variability of the extreme rainfall over the Indian subcontinent, in order to filter the data by coarse-graining the network, and to identify geographic patterns that are signature features (spatial signatures) of the ISM. We find four main geographic patterns of networks derived from extreme precipitation over the Indian subcontinent using up-to-date satellite-derived, and high temporal and spatial resolution rain-gauge interpolated daily rainfall datasets. In order to prove that our results are also relevant for other climatic variables like pressure and temperature, we use re-analysis data provided by the National Center for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). We find that two of the patterns revealed from the CN extreme rainfall analysis coincide with those obtained for the pressure and temperature fields, and all four above mentioned patterns can be explained by topography, winds, and monsoon circulation. CN and ES enable to select the most informative regions for the ISM, providing realistic description of the ISM dynamics with fewer data, and also help to infer geographic pattern that are spatial signatures of the ISM. These patterns deserve a special attention for the meteorologists and can be used as markers of the ISM variability.

  11. Biometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. provenances

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    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric characters of seeds and wings served to describe interprovenance differentiation of Scots pine in Europe. Grouping analysis was applied, Mahalanobis distances were calculated as well as Hotellings T2 statistics were applied. The similarity of East European and Finnish provenances was conspicuous. The provenance from Scotland proved to be similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia. On the other hand, two southern provenances 54(Rychtal, Poland and 55(Luboml, Ukraine, were also found similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia (western Norway. The obtained pattern of reciprocal relations may indicate pathways of Scots pine migration in the postglacial period or may be a result of adaptation to certain similar environmental conditions. No relations were detected between size of seeds and geographic origin of provenances.

  12. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and conservation consequences in three South American rodents.

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    Miranda, Gustavo B; Andrades-Miranda, Jaqueline; Oliveira, Luiz F B; Langguth, Alfredo; Mattevi, Margarete S

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the geographic patterns of genetic variation of three rodent species belonging to the tribe Oryzomyini were investigated using the mitochondrial cytochrome b and nuclear IRBP genes in biomes that are undergoing degradation processes to a greater or lesser degree. The samples are from 25 collecting localities distributed throughout the Amazon, Cerrado, Atlantic Forest, and Pampa biomes. The results show that the three species have a population and geographic structure, besides being in demographic equilibrium. The phylogenetic analyses performed on Euryoryzomys russatus and Hylaeamys megacephalus showed these specimens grouped in three distinct clades forming geographic gradients (North-South direction in H. megacephalus). Intraspecific genetic divergence was higher in H. megacephalus (4.53%), followed by E. russatus (1.79%), and lowest in Sooretamys angouya (0.88%). The results obtained indicate that, necessarily, the management strategies to preserve genetic diversity should be different for each species, since each of them presented specific population parameters.

  13. Enhanced computational methods for quantifying the effect of geographic and environmental isolation on genetic differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botta, Filippo; Eriksen, Casper; Fontaine, Michaël C.

    2015-01-01

    1. In a recent paper, Bradburd et al. (Evolution, 67, 2013, 3258) proposed a model to quantify the relative effect of geographic and environmental distance on genetic differentiation. Here, we enhance this method in several ways. 2. We modify the covariance model so as to fit better with mainstre...... available as an R package called sunder. It takes as input georeferenced allele counts at the individual or population level for co-dominant markers. Program homepage: http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/~gigu/Sunder/....

  14. Geographical patterns and disasters management : case study of Alexandra Township / O.M. Mere

    OpenAIRE

    Mere, Oniccah Monimang

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the study is to explore Geographic patterns and Disasters Management in the context of Alexandra Township situated in the Johannesburg Metro. The research evaluates if the Disaster Management Unit in Johannesburg municipality is prepared in terms of policies, community campaigns on flood disasters as well as forming organizations that will assist in times of disaster. It also refers to other South African townships with regard to where most affected townships are l...

  15. Geographical diversity of cause-of-death patterns and trends in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Shkolnikov

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper performs a systematic analysis of all currently available Russian data on mortality by region, census year (1970, 1979, 1989, and 1994 and cause of death. It investigates what links may be found between these geographical variations in cause-specific mortality, the negative general trends observed since 1965, and the wide fluctuations of the last two decades. For that, four two-year periods of observation were selected where it was possible to calculate fairly reliable mortality indicators by geographic units using census data for 1970, 1979, 1989, and micro-census data for 1994, and used a clustering model. Behind the complexity of the studied universe, three main conclusions appeared. Firstly, in European Russia, there is a stark contrast between south-west and north-east, both in terms of total mortality and of cause-of-death patterns. Secondly, analysis of overall cause-of-death patterns for all periods combined clearly confirms that contrast at the whole country level by the prolongation of the southern part of European Russia through the continuation of the black soil ("chernoziom" belt along the Kazakhstan border, while the rest of Siberia presents a radically different picture to European Russia. Thirdly, while it is difficult to infer any permanent geographical pattern of mortality from that very fluctuating piece of history, 1988-89 appears to be a base period for at least the entire period from 1969-1994.

  16. Eco-geographical differentiation among Colombian populations of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Triana, Omar; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Dotson, Ellen M; Marcet, Paula L

    2013-12-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is currently the main vector of Chagas disease in Mexico, most Central American countries and several zones of Ecuador and Colombia. Although this species has been the subject of several recent phylogeographic studies, the relationship among different populations within the species remains unclear. To elucidate the population genetic structure of T. dimidiata in Colombia, we analyzed individuals from distinct geographical locations using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and 7 microsatellite loci. A clear genetic differentiation was observed among specimens from three Colombian eco-geographical regions: Inter Andean Valleys, Caribbean Plains and Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain (SNSM). Additionally, evidence of genetic subdivision was found within the Caribbean Plains region as well as moderate gene flow between the populations from the Caribbean Plains and SNSM regions. The genetic differentiation found among Colombian populations correlates, albeit weakly, with an isolation-by-distance model (IBD). The genetic heterogeneity among Colombian populations correlates with the eco-epidemiological and morphological traits observed in this species across regions within the country. Such genetic and epidemiological diversity should be taken into consideration for the development of vector control strategies and entomological surveillance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Geographical patterns of the standing and active human gut microbiome in health and IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Ateequr; Rausch, Philipp; Wang, Jun; Skieceviciene, Jurgita; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Bhagalia, Ketan; Amarapurkar, Deepak; Kupcinskas, Limas; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Baines, John F; Ott, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    A global increase of IBD has been reported, especially in countries that previously had low incidence rates. Also, the knowledge of the human gut microbiome is steadily increasing, however, limited information regarding its variation on a global scale is available. In the light of the microbial involvement in IBDs, we aimed to (1) identify shared and distinct IBD-associated mucosal microbiota patterns from different geographical regions including Europe (Germany, Lithuania) and South Asia (India) and (2) determine whether profiling based on 16S rRNA transcripts provides additional resolution, both of which may hold important clinical relevance. In this study, we analyse a set of 89 mucosal biopsies sampled from individuals of German, Lithuanian and Indian origins, using bacterial community profiling of a roughly equal number of healthy controls, patients with Crohn's disease and UC from each location, and analyse 16S rDNA and rRNA as proxies for standing and active microbial community structure, respectively. We find pronounced population-specific as well as general disease patterns in the major phyla and patterns of diversity, which differ between the standing and active communities. The geographical origin of samples dominates the patterns of β diversity with locally restricted disease clusters and more pronounced effects in the active microbial communities. However, two genera belonging to the Clostridium leptum subgroup, Faecalibacteria and Papillibacter, display consistent patterns with respect to disease status and may thus serve as reliable 'microbiomarkers'. These analyses reveal important interactions of patients' geographical origin and disease in the interpretation of disease-associated changes in microbial communities and highlight the added value of analysing communities on both the 16S rRNA gene (DNA) and transcript (RNA) level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  18. Geographical Pattern and Environmental Correlates of Regional-Scale General Flowering in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Shinya; Yasuda, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Ryo O.; Hosaka, Tetsuro; Noor, Nur Supardi Md.; Fletcher, Christine D.; Hashim, Mazlan

    2013-01-01

    In South-East Asian dipterocarp forests, many trees synchronize their reproduction at the community level, but irregularly, in a phenomenon known as general flowering (GF). Several proximate cues have been proposed as triggers for the synchronization of Southeast Asian GF, but the debate continues, as many studies have not considered geographical variation in climate and flora. We hypothesized that the spatial pattern of GF forests is explained by previously proposed climatic cues if there are common cues for GF among regions. During the study, GF episodes occurred every year, but the spatial occurrence varied considerably from just a few forests to the whole of Peninsular Malaysia. In 2001, 2002 and 2005, minor and major GF occurred widely throughout Peninsular Malaysia (GF2001, GF2002, and GF2005), and the geographical patterns of GF varied between the episodes. In the three regional-scale GF episodes, most major events occurred in regions where prolonged drought (PD) had been recorded prior, and significant associations between GF scores and PD were found in GF2001 and GF2002. However, the frequency of PD was higher than that of GF throughout the peninsula. In contrast, low temperature (LT) was observed during the study period only before GF2002 and GF2005, but there was no clear spatial relationship between GF and LT in the regional-scale episodes. There was also no evidence that last GF condition influenced the magnitude of GF. Thus, our results suggest that PD would be essential to trigger regional-scale GF in the peninsula, but also that PD does not fully explain the spatial and temporal patterns of GF. The coarse relationships between GF and the proposed climatic cues may be due to the geographical variation in proximate cues for GF, and the climatic and floristic geographical variations should be considered to understand the proximate factors of GF. PMID:24260159

  19. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Morales-Hojas

    Full Text Available Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic. Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  20. Phylogenetic patterns of geographical and ecological diversification in the subgenus Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Vieira, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. Members of the subgenus Drosophila are distributed across the globe and show a large diversity of ecological niches. Furthermore, taxonomic classification of Drosophila includes the rank radiation, which refers to closely related species groups. Nevertheless, it has never been tested if these taxonomic radiations correspond to evolutionary radiations. Here we present a study of the patterns of diversification of Drosophila to test for increased diversification rates in relation to the geographic and ecological diversification processes. For this, we have estimated and dated a phylogeny of 218 species belonging to the major species groups of the subgenus. The obtained phylogenies are largely consistent with previous studies and indicate that the major groups appeared during the Oligocene/Miocene transition or early Miocene, characterized by a trend of climate warming with brief periods of glaciation. Ancestral reconstruction of geographic ranges and ecological resource use suggest at least two dispersals to the Neotropics from the ancestral Asiatic tropical disribution, and several transitions to specialized ecological resource use (mycophagous and cactophilic). Colonisation of new geographic regions and/or of new ecological resources can result in rapid species diversification into the new ecological niches available. However, diversification analyses show no significant support for adaptive radiations as a result of geographic dispersal or ecological resource shift. Also, cactophily has not resulted in an increase in the diversification rate of the repleta and related groups. It is thus concluded that the taxonomic radiations do not correspond to adaptive radiations.

  1. Genetic Differentiation in Insular Lowland Rainforests: Insights from Historical Demographic Patterns in Philippine Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Luis Antonio; Hosner, Peter A; Moyle, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies of Philippine birds support that deep genetic structure occurs across continuous lowland forests within islands, despite the lack of obvious contemporary isolation mechanisms. To examine the pattern and tempo of diversification within Philippine island forests, and test if common mechanisms are responsible for observed differentiation, we focused on three co-distributed lowland bird taxa endemic to Greater Luzon and Greater Negros-Panay: Blue-headed Fantail (Rhipidura cyaniceps), White-browed Shama (Copsychus luzoniensis), and Lemon-throated Leaf-Warbler (Phylloscopus cebuensis). Each species has two described subspecies within Greater Luzon, and a single described subspecies on Greater Negros/Panay. Each of the three focal species showed a common geographic pattern of two monophyletic groups in Greater Luzon sister to a third monophyletic group found in Greater Negros-Panay, suggesting that common or similar biogeographic processes may have produced similar distributions. However, studied species displayed variable levels of mitochondrial DNA differentiation between clades, and genetic differentiation within Luzon was not necessarily concordant with described subspecies boundaries. Population genetic parameters for the three species suggested both rapid population growth from small numbers and geographic expansion across Luzon Island. Estimates of the timing of population expansion further supported that these events occurred asynchronously throughout the Pleistocene in the focal species, demanding particular explanations for differentiation, and support that co-distribution may be secondarily congruent.

  2. Geographic strain differentiation of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines using microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharleezelle J Moendeg

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites have been found to be useful in determining genetic diversities of various medically-important parasites which can be used as basis for an effective disease management and control program. In Asia and Africa, the identification of different geographical strains of Schistosoma japonicum, S. haematobium and S. mansoni as determined through microsatellites could pave the way for a better understanding of the transmission epidemiology of the parasite. Thus, the present study aims to apply microsatellite markers in analyzing the populations of S. japonicum from different endemic areas in the Philippines for possible strain differentiation.Experimental mice were infected using the cercariae of S. japonicum collected from infected Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi snails in seven endemic municipalities. Adult worms were harvested from infected mice after 45 days of infection and their DNA analyzed against ten previously characterized microsatellite loci. High genetic diversity was observed in areas with high endemicity. The degree of genetic differentiation of the parasite population between endemic areas varies. Geographical separation was considered as one of the factors accounting for the observed difference between populations. Two subgroups have been observed in one of the study sites, suggesting that co-infection with several genotypes of the parasite might be present in the population. Clustering analysis showed no particular spatial structuring between parasite populations from different endemic areas. This result could possibly suggest varying degrees of effects of the ongoing control programs and the existing gene flow in the populations, which might be attributed to migration and active movement of infected hosts from one endemic area to another.Based on the results of the study, it is reasonable to conclude that genetic diversity could be one possible criterion to assess the infection status in highly endemic areas. Genetic

  3. Geographic patterns and environmental factors associated with human yellow fever presence in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, Patricia Najera; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Machado, Gustavo; Leonel, Deise Galan; Vilca, Luz Maria; Uriona, Sonia; Schneider, Maria Cristina

    2017-09-01

    In the Americas, yellow fever virus transmission is a latent threat due to the proximity between urban and wild environments. Although yellow fever has nearly vanished from North and Central America, there are still 13 countries in the Americas considered endemic by the World Health Organization. Human cases usually occur as a result of the exposure to sylvatic yellow fever in tropical forested environments; but urban outbreaks reported during the last decade demonstrate that the risk in this environment still exists. The objective of this study was to identify spatial patterns and the relationship between key geographic and environmental factors with the distribution of yellow fever human cases in the Americas. An ecological study was carried out to analyze yellow fever human cases reported to the Pan American Health Organization from 2000 to 2014, aggregated by second administrative level subdivisions (counties). Presence of yellow fever by county was used as the outcome variable and eight geo-environmental factors were used as independent variables. Spatial analysis was performed to identify and examine natural settings per county. Subsequently, a multivariable logistic regression model was built. During the study period, 1,164 cases were reported in eight out of the 13 endemic countries. Nearly 83.8% of these cases were concentrated in three countries: Peru (37.4%), Brazil (28.1%) and Colombia (18.4%); and distributed in 57 states/provinces, specifically in 286 counties (3.4% of total counties). Yellow fever presence was significantly associated with altitude, rain, diversity of non-human primate hosts and temperature. A positive spatial autocorrelation revealed a clustered geographic pattern in 138/286 yellow fever positive counties (48.3%). A clustered geographic pattern of yellow fever was identified mostly along the Andes eastern foothills. This risk map could support health policies in endemic countries. Geo-environmental factors associated with presence

  4. Genetic differentiation and geographical Relationship of Asian barley landraces using SSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Naeem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in 403 morphologically distinct landraces of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare originating from seven geographical zones of Asia was studied using simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from regions of medium to high recombination in the barley genome. The seven polymorphic SSR markers representing each of the chromosomes chosen for the study revealed a high level of allelic diversity among the landraces. Genetic richness was highest in those from India, followed by Pakistan while it was lowest for Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Out of the 50 alleles detected, 15 were unique to a geographic region. Genetic diversity was highest for landraces from Pakistan (0.70 ± 0.06 and lowest for those from Uzbekistan (0.18 ± 0.17. Likewise, polymorphic information content (PIC was highest for Pakistan (0.67 ± 0.06 and lowest for Uzbekistan (0.15 ± 0.17. Diversity among groups was 40% compared to 60% within groups. Principal component analysis clustered the barley landraces into three groups to predict their domestication patterns. In total 51.58% of the variation was explained by the first two principal components of the barley germplasm. Pakistan landraces were clustered separately from those of India, Iran, Nepal and Iraq, whereas those from Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were clustered together into a separate group.

  5. Modeling the Geographic Consequence and Pattern of Dengue Fever Transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Collins; Pansombut, Tatdow; Riyapan, Pakwan; Kakchapati, Sampurna; Phon-On, Aniruth

    2017-05-04

    Dengue fever is one of the infectious diseases that is still a public health problem in Thailand. This study considers in detail, the geographic consequence, seasonal and pattern of dengue fever transmission among the 76 provinces of Thailand from 2003 to 2015. A cross-sectional study. The data for the study was from the Department of Disease Control under the Bureau of Epidemiology, Thailand. The quarterly effects and location on the transmission of dengue was modeled using an alternative additive log-linear model. The model fitted well as illustrated by the residual plots and the  Again, the model showed that dengue fever is high in the second quarter of every year from May to August. There was an evidence of an increase in the trend of dengue annually from 2003 to 2015. There was a difference in the distribution of dengue fever within and between provinces. The areas of high risks were the central and southern regions of Thailand. The log-linear model provided a simple medium of modeling dengue fever transmission. The results are very important in the geographic distribution of dengue fever patterns.

  6. The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Fritz, Susanne A

    2011-09-12

    Although the recent historical period is usually treated as a temporal base-line for understanding patterns of mammal extinction, mammalian biodiversity loss has also taken place throughout the Late Quaternary. We explore the spatial, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns of 241 mammal species extinctions known to have occurred during the Holocene up to the present day. To assess whether our understanding of mammalian threat processes has been affected by excluding these taxa, we incorporate extinct species data into analyses of the impact of body mass on extinction risk. We find that Holocene extinctions have been phylogenetically and spatially concentrated in specific taxa and geographical regions, which are often not congruent with those disproportionately at risk today. Large-bodied mammals have also been more extinction-prone in most geographical regions across the Holocene. Our data support the extinction filter hypothesis, whereby regional faunas from which susceptible species have already become extinct now appear less threatened; they may also suggest that different processes are responsible for driving past and present extinctions. We also find overall incompleteness and inter-regional biases in extinction data from the recent fossil record. Although direct use of fossil data in future projections of extinction risk is therefore not straightforward, insights into extinction processes from the Holocene record are still useful in understanding mammalian threat.

  7. Genetic structure of Quechua-speakers of the Central Andes and geographic patterns of gene frequencies in South Amerindian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, D; Simoni, L; Tarazona-Santos, E; Pastor, S; Pettener, D

    2000-09-01

    A sample of 141 Quechua-speaking individuals of the population of Tayacaja, in the Peruvian Central Andes, was typed for the following 16 genetic systems: ABO, Rh, MNSs, P, Duffy, AcP1, EsD, GLOI, PGM1, AK, 6-PGD, Hp, Gc, Pi, C3, and Bf. The genetic structure of the population was analyzed in relation to the allele frequencies available for other South Amerindian populations, using a combination of multivariate and multivariable techniques. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed independently for 13 alleles to identify patterns of gene flow in South America as a whole and in more specific geographic regions. We found a longitudinal cline for the AcP1*a and EsD*1 alleles which we interpreted as the result of an ancient longitudinal expansion of a putative ancestral population of modern Amerindians. Monmonnier's algorithm, used to identify areas of sharp genetic discontinuity, suggested a clear east-west differentiation of native South American populations, which was confirmed by analysis of the distribution of genetic distances. We suggest that this pattern of genetic structures is the consequence of the independent peopling of western and eastern South America or to low levels of gene flow between these regions, related to different environmental and demographic histories. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Differential and coherent processing patterns from small RNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Gorodkin, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Post-transcriptional processing events related to short RNAs are often reflected in their read profile patterns emerging from high-throughput sequencing data. MicroRNA arm switching across different tissues is a well-known example of what we define as differential processing. Here, short RNAs from...

  9. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997 – 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C.; Grau, Lauretta E.; Carver, H. Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths (“overdoses”) in CT over an 11-year period. Methods We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Results Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. Conclusions The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. PMID:21131140

  10. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Grau, Lauretta E; Carver, H Wayne; Kinzly, Mark; Heimer, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths ("overdoses") in CT over an 11-year period. We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção–Albuquerque, M. J. T.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘EU Council conclusions on biodiversity post–2010′ re–enforced Europe’s commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. Identifying areas of high–value for biodiversity conservation is an important issue to meet this target. We investigated the geographic pattern of terrestrial vertebrate diversity status in Europe by assessing the species richness, rarity, vulnerability (according to IUCN criteria, and a combined index of the three former for the amphibians, reptiles, bird and mammals of this region. We also correlated the value of all indices with climate and human influence variables. Overall, clear geographic gradients of species diversity were found. The combined biodiversity index indicated that high–value biodiversity areas were mostly located in the Mediterranean basin and the highest vulnerability was found in the Iberian peninsula for most taxa. Across all indexes, the proportion of variance explained by climate and human influence factors was moderate to low. The results obtained in this study have the potential to provide valuable support for nature conservation policies in Europe and, consequently, might contribute to mitigate biodiversity decline in this region.

  12. A New Skid Trail Pattern Design for Farm Tractors Using Linear Programing and Geographical Information Systems

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    Selcuk Gumus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm tractor skidding is one of the common methods of timber extraction in Turkey. However, the absence of an optimal skidding plan covering the entire production area can result in time loss and negative environmental impacts. In this study, the timber extraction by farm tractors was analyzed, and a new skid trail pattern design was developed using Linear Programming (LP and Geographical Information Systems (GIS. First, a sample skidding operation was evaluated with a time study, and an optimum skidding model was generated with LP. Then, the new skidding pattern was developed by an optimum skidding model and GIS analysis. At the end of the study, the developed new skid trail pattern was implemented in the study area and tested by running a time study. Using the newly developed “Direct Skid Trail Pattern (DSTP” model, a 16.84% increase in working time performance was observed when the products were extracted by farm tractors compared to the existing practices. On the other hand, the average soil compaction value measured in the study area at depths of 0–5 cm and 5–10 cm was found to be greater in the sample area skid trails than in the control points. The average density of the skid trails was 281 m/ha, while it decreased to 187 m/ha by using the developed pattern. It was also found that 44,829 ton/ha of soil losses were prevented by using the DSTP model; therefore, environmental damages were decreased.

  13. Patterns of geographic expansion of Aedes aegypti in the Peruvian Amazon.

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    Sarah Anne Guagliardo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Amazon, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti is abundant in large urban centers such as Iquitos. In recent years, it has also been found in a number of neighboring rural communities with similar climatic and socioeconomic conditions. To better understand Ae. aegypti spread, we compared characteristics of communities, houses, and containers in infested and uninfested communities.We conducted pupal-demographic surveys and deployed ovitraps in 34 communities surrounding the city of Iquitos. Communities surveyed were located along two transects: the Amazon River and a 95 km highway. We calculated entomological indices, mapped Ae. aegypti presence, and developed univariable and multivariable logistic regression models to predict Ae. aegypti presence at the community, household, or container level.Large communities closer to Iquitos were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Within infested communities, houses with Ae. aegypti had more passively-filled containers and were more often infested with other mosquito genera than houses without Ae. aegypti. For containers, large water tanks/drums and containers with solar exposure were more likely to be infested with Ae. aegypti. Maps of Ae. aegypti presence revealed a linear pattern of infestation along the highway, and a scattered pattern along the Amazon River. We also identified the geographical limit of Ae. aegypti expansion along the highway at 19.3 km south of Iquitos.In the Peruvian Amazon, Ae. aegypti geographic spread is driven by human transportation networks along rivers and highways. Our results suggest that urban development and oviposition site availability drive Ae. aegypti colonization along roads. Along rivers, boat traffic is likely to drive long-distance dispersal via unintentional transport of mosquitoes on boats.

  14. Patterns of geographic mobility predict barriers to engagement in HIV care and antiretroviral treatment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Barbara S; Reyes, Emily; Levine, Elizabeth A; Khan, Shah Z; Garduño, L Sergio; Donastorg, Yeycy; Hammer, Scott M; Brudney, Karen; Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    Migration and geographic mobility increase risk for HIV infection and may influence engagement in HIV care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Our goal is to use the migration-linked communities of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, and New York City, New York, to determine the impact of geographic mobility on HIV care engagement and adherence to treatment. In-depth interviews were conducted with HIV+Dominicans receiving antiretroviral therapy, reporting travel or migration in the past 6 months and key informants (n=45). Mobility maps, visual representations of individual migration histories, including lifetime residence(s) and all trips over the past 2 years, were generated for all HIV+ Dominicans. Data from interviews and field observation were iteratively reviewed for themes. Mobility mapping revealed five distinct mobility patterns: travel for care, work-related travel, transnational travel (nuclear family at both sites), frequent long-stay travel, and vacation. Mobility patterns, including distance, duration, and complexity, varied by motivation for travel. There were two dominant barriers to care. First, a fear of HIV-related stigma at the destination led to delays seeking care and poor adherence. Second, longer trips led to treatment interruptions due to limited medication supply (30-day maximum dictated by programs or insurers). There was a notable discordance between what patients and providers perceived as mobility-induced barriers to care and the most common barriers found in the analysis. Interventions to improve HIV care for mobile populations should consider motivation for travel and address structural barriers to engagement in care and adherence.

  15. Geographic distribution and morphometric differentiation of Triatoma nitida usinger 1939 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae in Guatemala

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    Monroy Carlota

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma nitida was found in 14 (0.4% out of 3,726 houses located in six departments across Guatemala, which were surveyed from 1994 to 1998 by the man-hour collection method. Compared to previous information, the distribution of T. nitida in Guatemala has increased from five to nine departments; the species is present in mild climates at altitudes from 960 to 1,500 m. Fourteen percent of the intradomestic T. nitida were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The species was often found in conjunction with other triatomines (T. dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus. The domestic and peridomestic presence of T. nitida in Guatemala was rare, but occasionally this species was colonizing human-made constructions. T. nitida appears to have a low importance as Chagas disease vector in Guatemala, as indicated by its scarce presence in the domestic habitats and defecation patterns. However, it clearly has potential to become a Chagas vector so we recommend an on-going study of the intradomestic presence of T. nitida following the control programs in Guatemala. Morphometric analysis of 47 T. nitida males from three localities showed quantitative differences between the populations, which indicates that geographic distance is an important factor in the structuring of T. nitida populations.

  16. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Spatial point pattern analysis of human settlements and geographical associations in eastern coastal China - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-03-10

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley's K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  18. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhonghao; Xiao, Rui; Shortridge, Ashton; Wu, Jiaping

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS) approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect) on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning. PMID:24619117

  19. Spatial Point Pattern Analysis of Human Settlements and Geographical Associations in Eastern Coastal China — A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial point pattern of human settlements and their geographical associations are important for understanding the drivers of land use and land cover change and the relationship between environmental and ecological processes on one hand and cultures and lifestyles on the other. In this study, a Geographic Information System (GIS approach, Ripley’s K function and Monte Carlo simulation were used to investigate human settlement point patterns. Remotely sensed tools and regression models were employed to identify the effects of geographical determinants on settlement locations in the Wen-Tai region of eastern coastal China. Results indicated that human settlements displayed regular-random-cluster patterns from small to big scale. Most settlements located on the coastal plain presented either regular or random patterns, while those in hilly areas exhibited a clustered pattern. Moreover, clustered settlements were preferentially located at higher elevations with steeper slopes and south facing aspects than random or regular settlements. Regression showed that influences of topographic factors (elevation, slope and aspect on settlement locations were stronger across hilly regions. This study demonstrated a new approach to analyzing the spatial patterns of human settlements from a wide geographical prospective. We argue that the spatial point patterns of settlements, in addition to the characteristics of human settlements, such as area, density and shape, should be taken into consideration in the future, and land planners and decision makers should pay more attention to city planning and management. Conceptual and methodological bridges linking settlement patterns to regional and site-specific geographical characteristics will be a key to human settlement studies and planning.

  20. Assessing spatial patterns of HIV knowledge in rural Mozambique using geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Charlotte P; Blevins, Meridith; Ossemane, Ezequiel B; González-Calvo, Lázaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Vermund, Sten H; Sidat, Mohsin; Olupona, Omo; Moon, Troy D

    2015-03-01

    To conduct a cross-sectional mapping analysis of HIV knowledge in Zambézia Province, Mozambique, and to examine spatial patterns of HIV knowledge and associated household characteristics. A population-based cluster survey was administered in 2010; data were analysed from 201 enumeration areas in three geographically diverse districts: Alto Molócuè, Morrumbala and Namacurra. We assessed HIV knowledge scores (0-9 points) using previously validated assessment tools. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we mapped hot spots of high and low HIV knowledge. Our multivariable linear regression model estimated HIV knowledge associations with distance to nearest clinic offering antiretroviral therapy, respondent age, education, household size, number of children under five, numeracy, literacy and district of residence. We found little overall HIV knowledge in all three districts. People in Alto Molócuè knew comparatively most about HIV, with a median score of 3 (IQR 2-5) and 22 of 51 (43%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 of 9 points. Namacurra district, closest to the capital city and expected to have the best HIV knowledge levels, had a median score of 1 (IQR 0-3) and only 3 of 57 (5%) enumeration areas scoring ≥4 points. More HIV knowledge was associated with more education, age, household size, numeracy and proximity to a health facility offering antiretroviral therapy. HIV knowledge is critical for its prevention and treatment. By pinpointing areas of poor HIV knowledge, programme planners can prioritize educational resources and outreach initiatives within the context of antiretroviral therapy expansion. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differential theory of learning for efficient neural network pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, John B., II; Vijaya Kumar, Bhagavatula

    1993-09-01

    We describe a new theory of differential learning by which a broad family of pattern classifiers (including many well-known neural network paradigms) can learn stochastic concepts efficiently. We describe the relationship between a classifier's ability to generate well to unseen test examples and the efficiency of the strategy by which it learns. We list a series of proofs that differential learning is efficient in its information and computational resource requirements, whereas traditional probabilistic learning strategies are not. The proofs are illustrated by a simple example that lends itself to closed-form analysis. We conclude with an optical character recognition task for which three different types of differentially generated classifiers generalize significantly better than their probabilistically generated counterparts.

  2. Identification of transcript regulatory patterns in cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusnanto, Arief; Gosling, John Paul; Pope, Christopher

    2017-10-15

    Studying transcript regulatory patterns in cell differentiation is critical in understanding its complex nature of the formation and function of different cell types. This is done usually by measuring gene expression at different stages of the cell differentiation. However, if the gene expression data available are only from the mature cells, we have some challenges in identifying transcript regulatory patterns that govern the cell differentiation. We propose to exploit the information of the lineage of cell differentiation in terms of correlation structure between cell types. We assume that two different cell types that are close in the lineage will exhibit many common genes that are co-expressed relative to those that are far in the lineage. Current analysis methods tend to ignore this correlation by testing for differential expression assuming some sort of independence between cell types. We employ a Bayesian approach to estimate the posterior distribution of the mean of expression in each cell type, by taking into account the cell formation path in the lineage. This enables us to infer genes that are specific in each cell type, indicating the genes are involved in directing the cell differentiation to that particular cell type. We illustrate the method using gene expression data from a study of haematopoiesis. R codes to perform the analysis are available in http://www1.maths.leeds.ac.uk/∼arief/R/CellDiff/. a.gusnanto@leeds.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Geographic Variation in Daily Temporal Activity Patterns of a Neotropical Marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson M Vieira

    Full Text Available The temporal activity of animals is an outcome of both biotic and abiotic factors, which may vary along the geographic range of the species. Therefore, studies conducted with a species in different localities with distinct features could elucidate how animals deal with such factors. In this study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to investigate the temporal activity patterns of the didelphid Gracilinanus agilis in two dry-woodland areas of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado. These areas were located about 660 km apart, one in Central Brazil and the other in Southeastern Brazil. We compared such patterns considering both reproductive and non-reproductive periods, and how it varies as a function of temperature on a seasonal basis. In Central Brazil, we found a constant, and temperature-independent activity during the night in both reproductive and non-reproductive periods. On the other hand, in Southeastern Brazil, we detected a constant activity during the reproductive period, but in the non-reproductive period G. agilis presented a peak of activity between two and four hours after sunset. Moreover, in this latter we found a relation between temporal activity and temperature during the autumn and spring. These differences in temporal activity between areas, observed during the non-reproductive period, might be associated with the higher seasonal variability in temperature, and lower mean temperatures in the Southeastern site in comparison to the Central one. In Southeastern Brazil, the decrease in temperature during the non-reproductive season possibly forced G. agilis to be active only at certain hours of the night. However, likely due to the reproductive activities (intensive foraging and searching for mates this marsupial showed constant, temperature-independent activity during the night in the reproductive period at both sites.

  4. Reliable and rapid characterization of functional FCN2 gene variants reveals diverse geographical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojurongbe Olusola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ficolin-2 coded by FCN2 gene is a soluble serum protein and an innate immune recognition element of the complement system. FCN2 gene polymorphisms reveal distinct geographical patterns and are documented to alter serum ficolin levels and modulate disease susceptibility. Methods We employed a real-time PCR based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET method to genotype four functional SNPs including -986 G > A (#rs3124952, -602 G > A (#rs3124953, -4A > G (#rs17514136 and +6424 G > T (#rs7851696 in the ficolin-2 (FCN2 gene. We characterized the FCN2 variants in individuals representing Brazilian (n = 176, Nigerian (n = 180, Vietnamese (n = 172 and European Caucasian ethnicity (n = 165. Results We observed that the genotype distribution of three functional SNP variants (−986 G > A, -602 G > A and -4A > G differ significantly between the populations investigated (p p  Conclusions The observed distribution of the FCN2 functional SNP variants may likely contribute to altered serum ficolin levels and this may depend on the different disease settings in world populations. To conclude, the use of FRET based real-time PCR especially for FCN2 gene will benefit a larger scientific community who extensively depend on rapid, reliable method for FCN2 genotyping.

  5. Patterns of divergence across the geographic and genomic landscape of a butterfly hybrid zone associated with a climatic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    The process of speciation is impacted by the interaction between the genomic architecture of diverging lineages and the environmental context they occupy. Yet, while climate can have a significant impact on this interaction, its role in determining the patterns of geographic and genomic divergence i...

  6. Geographic variation in the surgical management of lumbar spondylolisthesis: characterizing practice patterns and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Tej D; Vail, Daniel; O'Connell, Chloe; Han, Summer S; Veeravagu, Anand; Ratliff, John K

    2018-05-07

    The role of arthrodesis in the surgical management of lumbar spondylolisthesis remains controversial. We hypothesized that practice patterns and outcomes for this patient population may vary widely. To characterize geographic variation in surgical practices and outcomes for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. Retrospective analysis on a national longitudinal database between 2007 and 2014. We calculated arthrodesis rates, inpatient and long term costs, and key quality indicators (e.g. reoperation rates). Using linear and logistic regression models, we then calculated expected quality indicator values, adjusting for patient-level demographic factors, and compared these values to the observed values, to assess quality variation apart from differences in patient populations. We identified a cohort of 67,077 patients (60.7% female, mean age of 59.8 years (SD, 12.0) with lumbar spondylolisthesis who received either laminectomy or laminectomy with arthrodesis. The majority of patients received arthrodesis (91.8%). Actual rates of arthrodesis varied from 97.5% in South Dakota to 81.5% in Oregon. Geography remained a significant predictor of arthrodesis even after adjusting for demographic factors (pgeographic variation was also observed in initial costs ($32,485 in Alabama to $78,433 in Colorado), two-year post-operative costs ($15,612 in Arkansas to $34,096 in New Jersey), length of hospital stay (2.6 days in Arkansas to 4.5 in Washington, D.C.), 30-day complication rates (9.5% in South Dakota to 22.4% in Maryland), 30-day readmission rates (2.5% in South Dakota to 13.6% in Connecticut), and reoperation rates (1.8% in Maine to 12.7% in Alabama). There is marked geographic variation in the rates of arthrodesis in treatment of spondylolisthesis within the United States. This variation remains pronounced after accounting for patient-level demographic differences. Costs of surgery and quality outcomes also vary widely. Further study is necessary to understand the drivers

  7. Temporal patterns and geographic heterogeneity of Zika virus (ZIKV outbreaks in French Polynesia and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hen Hsieh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Zika virus (ZIKV transmission has been reported in 67 countries/territories in the Oceania region and the Americas since 2015, prompting the World Health Organization (WHO to declare ZIKV as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in February 2016, due to its strong association with medical complications such as microcephaly and Guillain–Barré Syndrome (GBS. However, a substantial gap in knowledge still exists regarding differing temporal pattern and potential of transmission of ZIKV in different regions of the world. Methods We use a phenomenological model to ascertain the temporal patterns and transmission potential of ZIKV in various countries/territories, by fitting the model to Zika case data from Yap Island and French Polynesia in the Oceania region and 11 countries/territories with confirmed case data, namely, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Puerto Rico, Saint Martin, and Suriname, to pinpoint the waves of infections in each country/territory and to estimate the respective basic reproduction number R0. Results Six of these time series datasets resulted in statistically significant model fit of at least one wave of reported cases, namely that of French Polynesia, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Guatemala, Suriname and Saint Martin. However, only Colombia and Guatemala exhibited two waves of cases while the others had only one wave. Temporal patterns of the second wave in Colombia and the single wave in Suriname are very similar, with the respective turning points separated by merely a week. Moreover, the mean estimates of R0 for Colombia, Guatemala and Suriname, all land-based populations, range between 1.05 and 1.75, while the corresponding mean estimates for R0 of island populations in French Polynesia, Puerto Rico and Saint Martin are significantly lower with a range of 5.70–6.89. We also fit the Richards model to Zika case data from six main archipelagos in French

  8. Differentiation of chocolates according to the cocoa's geographical origin using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambrai, Amandine; Marcic, Christophe; Morville, Stéphane; Sae Houer, Pierre; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2010-02-10

    The determination of the geographical origin of cocoa used to produce chocolate has been assessed through the analysis of the volatile compounds of chocolate samples. The analysis of the volatile content and their statistical processing by multivariate analyses tended to form independent groups for both Africa and Madagascar, even if some of the chocolate samples analyzed appeared in a mixed zone together with those from America. This analysis also allowed a clear separation between Caribbean chocolates and those from other origins. Height compounds (such as linalool or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) characteristic of chocolate's different geographical origins were also identified. The method described in this work (hydrodistillation, GC analysis, and statistic treatment) may improve the control of the geographical origin of chocolate during its long production process.

  9. Differentiation between diploid and tetraploid Centaurea phrygia: mating barriers, morphology and geographic distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutecký, P.; Štěpánek, Jan; Baďurová, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-32 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/1126 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : geographic distribution * polyploidy * reproductive isolation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.833, year: 2012

  10. Brand Coopetition with Geographical Indications: Which Information Does Lead to Brand Differentiation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.

    2013-01-01

    Farmers and managers marketing food products with Geographical Indications (GIs) have to play a brand coopetition game: they cooperate with each other to develop a collective GI equity, yet they compete to build their individual brand and to establish market channels. Based on an online experiment

  11. Broad geographic, taxonomic and ecological patterns of interpopulation variation in the dietary habits of snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luiselli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of their unique morphological and ecological characteristics (i.e. being obligate carnivorous, solitary, and ingesting their prey whole, snakes are expected to show unusual dietary patterns compared to other ectothermic vertebrates, and the best way to explore this is to analyse the snake dietary patterns globally. Here I review and analyse the peer-reviewed snake diet literature available in order to explore whether there are broad patterns in the interpopulation variability of diet composition in these unique ectothermic predators. I collated data for 181 independent populations belonging to 58 species of snakes from some of the main families (1 Boidae, 2 Pythonidae, 27 Colubridae, 10 Elapidae, and 18 Viperidae and from all the continents (4 from South and Central America, 13 from North America, 12 from Europe, 18 from Africa, 4 from Asia, and 7 from Australia. All these populations satisfied some precise criteria of inclusion, and were therefore re-analysed in a comparative perspective. I classified each literature entry according to 1 snake species, 2 snake family, 3 geographic position (continent of the study areas, 4 climatic region (temperate versus tropical, 5 guild (if the species is aquatic, terrestrial, or arboreal, 6 hunting strategy (sit-and-wait versus active forager, and 7 venom (if the species is venomous or not. All these seven factors were analysed by GLM procedures to evaluate their effects on the interpopulation diet variation within snake species, that was assessed by using a univariate similarity index. The various taxonomical categories of snake prey were grouped according to two different levels of taxonomic affinity: a general affinity, e.g. frogs and toads, salamanders, lizards, birds, etc., and b close affinity, by grouping prey types belonging to a same genus. My study revealed that, within-species snake populations showed a very low variability in terms of diet composition. As for the general affinity

  12. Dietary patterns as risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Przybylik-Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional factors are known to be important in the development of different metabolic diseases. The history of nodular or diffuse goiter is closely related to risk of thyroid carcinoma. On account of the function of the thyroid gland, many studies focus on iodine intake.The aim of the study was to assess whether dietary patterns could be risk factors of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.Material/Methods:The case-control study was based on a questionnaire, which included information about dietary patterns and was carried out on 284 patients comprising 30 males (mean age 58.4±13.7 years, and 254 females (mean age 52.1±13.8 years, as well as 345 randomly selected controls: 58 males (mean age 60.2±12 years and 287 females (mean age 53.4±14.3 years randomly selected from the Population Register and adjusted by age and gender to the group of TC. The main groups of nutritional products, i.e. starchy foods, meat, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and beverages, were analyzed.Results:Consumption of vegetables, fruits, saltwater fish and cottage cheese was significantly lower in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma than in controls, quite the contrary to starchy foods, especially white bread.Conclusions:Dietary patterns appear to modify the risk of thyroid carcinoma. A diet rich in vegetables and fruit, as well as saltwater fish (a source of iodine and low-fat meat, could be an important protective factor.

  13. Discordant genetic diversity and geographic patterns between Crassicutis cichlasomae (Digenea: Apocreadiidae) and its cichlid host, "Cichlasoma" urophthalmus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), in Middle-America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2013-12-01

    Genetic analyses of hosts and their parasites are key to understand the evolutionary patterns and processes that have shaped host-parasite associations. We evaluated the genetic structure of the digenean Crassicutis cichlasomae and its most common host, the Mayan cichlid "Cichlasoma" urophthalmus, encompassing most of their geographical range in Middle-America (river basins in southeastern Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala together with the Yucatan Peninsula). Genetic diversity and structure analyses were done based on 167 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences (330 bp) for C. cichlasomae from 21 populations and 161 cytochrome b sequences (599 bp) for "C." urophthalmus from 26 populations. Analyses performed included phylogenetic tree estimation under Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis, genetic diversity, distance and structure estimates, haplotype networks, and demographic evaluations. Crassicutis cichlasomae showed high genetic diversity values and genetic structuring, corresponding with 4 groups clearly differentiated and highly divergent. Conversely, "C." urophthalmus showed low levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation, defined as 2 groups with low divergence and with no correspondence with geographical distribution. Our results show that species of cichlids parasitized by C. cichlasomae other than "C." urophthalmus, along with multiple colonization events and subsequent isolation in different basins, are likely factors that shaped the genetic structure of the parasite. Meanwhile, historical long-distance dispersal and drought periods during the Holocene, with significant population size reductions and fragmentations, are factors that could have shaped the genetic structure of the Mayan cichlid.

  14. Examining geographic patterns of mortality: the atlas of mortality in small areas in Spain (1987-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benach, Joan; Yasui, Yutaka; Borrell, Carme; Rosa, Elisabeth; Pasarín, M Isabel; Benach, Núria; Español, Esther; Martínez, José Miguel; Daponte, Antonio

    2003-06-01

    Small-area mortality atlases have been demonstrated to be a useful tool for both showing general geographical patterns in mortality data and identifying specific high-risk locations. In Spain no study has so far systematically examined geographic patterns of small-area mortality for the main causes of death. This paper presents the main features, contents and potential uses of the Spanish Atlas of Mortality in small areas (1987-1995). Population data for 2,218 small areas were drawn from the 1991 Census. Aggregated mortality data for 14 specific causes of death for the period 1987-1995 were obtained for each small area. Empirical Bayes-model-based estimates of age-adjusted relative risk were displayed in small-area maps for each cause/gender/age group (0-64 or 65 and over) combination using the same range of values (i.e. septiles) and colour schemes. The 'Spanish Atlas of Mortality' includes multiple choropleth (area-shaded) small-area maps and graphs to answer different questions about the data. The atlas is divided into three main sections. Section 1 includes the methods and comments on the main maps. Section 2 presents a two-page layout for each leading cause of death by gender including 1) a large map with relative risk estimates, 2) a map that indicates high- and low-risk small areas, 3) a graph with median and interquartile range of relative risk estimates for 17 large regions of Spain, and 4) relative-risk maps for two age groups. Section 3 provides specific information on the geographical units of analysis, statistical methods and other supplemental maps. The 'Spanish Atlas of Mortality' is a useful tool for examining geographical patterns of mortality risk and identifying specific high-risk areas. Mortality patterns displayed in the atlas may have important implications for research and social/health policy planning purposes.

  15. A Geographic Information Science (GISc) Approach to Characterizing Spatiotemporal Patterns of Terrorist Incidents in Iraq, 2004-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Richard M [ORNL; Siebeneck, Laura K. [University of Utah; Hepner, George F. [University of Utah

    2011-01-01

    As terrorism on all scales continues, it is necessary to improve understanding of terrorist and insurgent activities. This article takes a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to advance the understanding of spatial, social, political, and cultural triggers that influence terrorism incidents. Spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal patterns of terrorist attacks are examined to improve knowledge about terrorist systems of training, planning, and actions. The results of this study aim to provide a foundation for understanding attack patterns and tactics in emerging havens as well as inform the creation and implementation of various counterterrorism measures.

  16. Differential harmony search algorithm to optimize PWRs loading pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursalehi, N., E-mail: npsalehi@yahoo.com [Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C, P.O.Box: 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A. [Engineering Department, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C, P.O.Box: 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Exploit of DHS algorithm in LP optimization reveals its flexibility, robustness and reliability. ► Upshot of our experiments with DHS shows that the search approach to optimal LP is quickly. ► On the average, the final band width of DHS fitness values is narrow relative to HS and GHS. -- Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop a core loading optimization technique using differential harmony search algorithm in the context of obtaining an optimal configuration of fuel assemblies in pressurized water reactors. To implement and evaluate the proposed technique, differential harmony search nodal expansion package for 2-D geometry, DHSNEP-2D, is developed. The package includes two modules; in the first modules differential harmony search (DHS) is implemented and nodal expansion code which solves two dimensional-multi group neutron diffusion equations using fourth degree flux expansion with one node per a fuel assembly is in the second module. For evaluation of DHS algorithm, classical harmony search (HS) and global-best harmony search (GHS) algorithms are also included in DHSNEP-2D in order to compare the outcome of techniques together. For this purpose, two PWR test cases have been investigated to demonstrate the DHS algorithm capability in obtaining near optimal loading pattern. Results show that the convergence rate of DHS and execution times are quite promising and also is reliable for the fuel management operation. Moreover, numerical results show the good performance of DHS relative to other competitive algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), classical harmony search (HS) and global-best harmony search (GHS) algorithms.

  17. Differential harmony search algorithm to optimize PWRs loading pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursalehi, N.; Zolfaghari, A.; Minuchehr, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exploit of DHS algorithm in LP optimization reveals its flexibility, robustness and reliability. ► Upshot of our experiments with DHS shows that the search approach to optimal LP is quickly. ► On the average, the final band width of DHS fitness values is narrow relative to HS and GHS. -- Abstract: The objective of this work is to develop a core loading optimization technique using differential harmony search algorithm in the context of obtaining an optimal configuration of fuel assemblies in pressurized water reactors. To implement and evaluate the proposed technique, differential harmony search nodal expansion package for 2-D geometry, DHSNEP-2D, is developed. The package includes two modules; in the first modules differential harmony search (DHS) is implemented and nodal expansion code which solves two dimensional-multi group neutron diffusion equations using fourth degree flux expansion with one node per a fuel assembly is in the second module. For evaluation of DHS algorithm, classical harmony search (HS) and global-best harmony search (GHS) algorithms are also included in DHSNEP-2D in order to compare the outcome of techniques together. For this purpose, two PWR test cases have been investigated to demonstrate the DHS algorithm capability in obtaining near optimal loading pattern. Results show that the convergence rate of DHS and execution times are quite promising and also is reliable for the fuel management operation. Moreover, numerical results show the good performance of DHS relative to other competitive algorithms such as genetic algorithm (GA), classical harmony search (HS) and global-best harmony search (GHS) algorithms

  18. Geographical patterns of Yunnan seed plants may be influenced by the Clockwise Rotation of the Simao-Indochina Geoblock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu eHua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floristic patterns of seed plants in Yunnan, southwestern China, were studied to assess the relationship between the floristic geography and geological history. A database of 38 regional floristic studies covering Yunnan was used and the patterns of seed plant distributions across these regional floras were quantified at the generic level. Genera with tropical Asian distributions are the most dominant geographical elements in the Yunnan flora. They show oblique patterns of abundance across Yunnan. They are most abundant in southern and western Yunnan, and their proportion in regional floras declines abruptly in eastern, central and northern Yunnan. The oblique abundance patterns of geographical elements in Yunnan differ from those of genera in southern and eastern China, which had a high correlation with latitudinal gradients controlled by climate. They cannot be explained by climate alone, but can be explained at least partly by the geological history. The oblique abundance patterns of Yunnan seed plants correspond well to the clockwise rotation and southeastward extrusion of the Simao-Indochina geoblock caused by the collision of India with Asia.

  19. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  20. Geographic patterns of genetic variation and population structure in Pinus aristata, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine

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    Anna W. Schoettle; Betsy A. Goodrich; Valerie Hipkins; Christopher Richards; Julie Kray

    2012-01-01

    Pinus aristata Engelm., Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine, has a narrow core geographic and elevational distribution, occurs in disjunct populations, and is threatened by rapid climate change, white pine blister rust, and bark beetles. Knowledge of genetic diversity and population structure will help guide gene conservation strategies for this species. Sixteen sites...

  1. Enhanced computational methods for quantifying the effect of geographic and environmental isolation on genetic differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, Filippo; Eriksen, Casper; Fontaine, Michael Christophe; Guillot, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper, Bradburd et al. (2013) proposed a model to quantify the relative effect ofgeographic and environmental distance on genetic differentiation. Here, we enhance this method in several ways. 1. We modify the covariance model so as to fit better with mainstream geostatistical models and

  2. The geographic distribution patterns of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users in a national methadone maintenance treatment program in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi-Biao; Liang, Song; Wang, Qi-Xing; Gong, Yu-Han; Nie, Shi-Jiao; Nan, Lei; Yang, Ai-Hui; Liao, Qiang; Song, Xiu-Xia; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2014-03-10

    HIV-, HCV- and HIV/HCV co-infections among drug users have become a rapidly emerging global public health problem. In order to constrain the dual epidemics of HIV/AIDS and drug use, China has adopted a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) since 2004. Studies of the geographic heterogeneity of HIV and HCV infections at a local scale are sparse, which has critical implications for future MMTP implementation and health policies covering both HIV and HCV prevention among drug users in China. This study aimed to characterize geographic patterns of HIV and HCV prevalence at the township level among drug users in a Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Southwest of China. Data on demographic and clinical characteristics of all clients in the 11 MMTP clinics of the Yi Autonomous Prefecture from March 2004 to December 2012 were collected. A GIS-based geographic analysis involving geographic autocorrelation analysis and geographic scan statistics were employed to identify the geographic distribution pattern of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections among drug users. A total of 6690 MMTP clients was analyzed. The prevalence of HIV-, HCV- and co-infections were 25.2%, 30.8%, and 10.9% respectively. There were significant global and local geographic autocorrelations for HIV-, HCV-, and co-infection. The Moran's I was 0.3015, 0.3449, and 0.3155, respectively (P geographic autocorrelation analysis and the geographic scan statistical analysis showed that HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections in the prefecture exhibited significant geographic clustering at the township level. The geographic distribution pattern of each infection group was different. HIV-, HCV-, and co-infections among drug users in the Yi Autonomous Prefecture all exhibited substantial geographic heterogeneity at the township level. The geographic distribution patterns of the three groups were different. These findings imply that it may be necessary to inform or invent site-specific intervention strategies to better devote currently

  3. Regional Patterns of Ethnicity in Nova Scotia: A Geographical Study. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh A.

    In this sixth volume of the Ethnic Heritage Series, the pattern of ethnicity in Nova Scotia (Canada) is examined by deriving indices of diversity for counties and larger towns. The historical development of ethnic patterns from 1767 to 1971 and recent changes in the ethnic pattern are discussed. Ethnic origin data is mapped for 1871 and 1971 and…

  4. Geographical and Cultivar Features Differentiate Grape Microbiota in Northern Italy and Spain Vineyards

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    Valerio Mezzasalma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted the role of the grapevine microbiome in addressing a wide panel of features, ranging from the signature of field origin to wine quality. Although the influence of cultivar and vineyard environmental conditions in shaping the grape microbiome have already been ascertained, several aspects related to this topic, deserve to be further investigated. In this study, we selected three international diffused grapevine cultivars (Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, and Sauvignon Blanc at three germplasm collections characterized by different climatic conditions [Northern Italy (NI, Italian Alps (AI, and Northern Spain (NS]. The soil and grape microbiome was characterized by 16s rRNA High Throughput Sequencing (HTS, and the obtained results showed that all grape samples shared some bacterial taxa, regardless of sampling locality (e.g., Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, and other genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. However, some Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs could act as geographical signatures and in some cases as cultivar fingerprint. Concerning the origin of the grape microbiome, our study confirms that vineyard soil represents a primary reservoir for grape associated bacteria with almost 60% of genera shared between the soil and grape. At each locality, grapevine cultivars shared a core of bacterial genera belonging to the vineyard soil, as well as from other local biodiversity elements such as arthropods inhabiting or foraging in the vineyard. Finally, a machine learning analysis showed that it was possible to predict the geographical origin and cultivar of grape starting from its microbiome composition with a high accuracy (9 cases out of 12 tested samples. Overall, these findings open new perspectives for the development of more comprehensive and integrated research activities to test which environmental variables have an effective role in shaping the microbiome

  5. The effect of modifiable risk factors on geographic mortality differentials: a modelling study

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    Stevenson Christopher E

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian mortality rates are higher in regional and remote areas than in major cities. The degree to which this is driven by variation in modifiable risk factors is unknown. Methods We applied a risk prediction equation incorporating smoking, cholesterol and blood pressure to a national, population based survey to project all-causes mortality risk by geographic region. We then modelled life expectancies at different levels of mortality risk by geographic region using a risk percentiles model. Finally we set high values of each risk factor to a target level and modelled the subsequent shift in the population to lower levels of mortality risk and longer life expectancy. Results Survival is poorer in both Inner Regional and Outer Regional/Remote areas compared to Major Cities for men and women at both high and low levels of predicted mortality risk. For men smoking, high cholesterol and high systolic blood pressure were each associated with the mortality difference between Major Cities and Outer Regional/Remote areas--accounting for 21.4%, 20.3% and 7.7% of the difference respectively. For women smoking and high cholesterol accounted for 29.4% and 24.0% of the difference respectively but high blood pressure did not contribute to the observed mortality differences. The three risk factors taken together accounted for 45.4% (men and 35.6% (women of the mortality difference. The contribution of risk factors to the corresponding differences for inner regional areas was smaller, with only high cholesterol and smoking contributing to the difference in men-- accounting for 8.8% and 6.3% respectively-- and only smoking contributing to the difference in women--accounting for 12.3%. Conclusions These results suggest that health intervention programs aimed at smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol could have a substantial impact on mortality inequities for Outer Regional/Remote areas.

  6. Geographical PCB and DDT patterns in shearwaters (Calonectris sp.) breeding across the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean archipelagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscales, Jose L; Muñoz-Arnanz, Juan; González-Solís, Jacob; Jiménez, Begoña

    2010-04-01

    Although seabirds have been proposed as useful biomonitors for organochlorine contaminants (OCs) in marine environments, their suitability is still unclear. To understand the geographic variability and the influence of seabird trophic ecology in OC levels, we analyzed PCBs, DDTs, delta(13)C, and delta(15)N in the blood of adult Calonectris shearwaters throughout a vast geographic range within the northeast Atlantic Ocean (from Cape Verde to Azores) and the Mediterranean Sea (from the Alboran Sea to Crete). OC concentrations were greater in birds from the Mediterranean than in those from the Atlantic colonies, showing higher and lower chlorinated PCB profiles, respectively. This large-scale pattern may reflect the influence of historical European runoffs in the Mediterranean basin and diffused sources for OCs in remote Atlantic islands. Spatial patterns also emerged within the Atlantic basin, probably associated with pollutant long-range transport and recent inputs of DDT in the food webs of shearwaters from Cape Verde and the Canary islands. Moreover, a positive association of OC concentrations with delta(15)N within each locality points out diet specialization as a major factor explaining differences in OCs at the intraspecific level. Overall, this study highlights wide range breeding seabirds, such as Calonectris shearwaters, as suitable organisms for biomonitoring large geographic trends of organochlorine contamination in the marine environment.

  7. Patterns of population differentiation of candidate genes for cardiovascular disease

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    Ding Keyue

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The basis for ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD susceptibility is not fully understood. We investigated patterns of population differentiation (FST of a set of genes in etiologic pathways of CVD among 3 ethnic groups: Yoruba in Nigeria (YRI, Utah residents with European ancestry (CEU, and Han Chinese (CHB + Japanese (JPT. We identified 37 pathways implicated in CVD based on the PANTHER classification and 416 genes in these pathways were further studied; these genes belonged to 6 biological processes (apoptosis, blood circulation and gas exchange, blood clotting, homeostasis, immune response, and lipoprotein metabolism. Genotype data were obtained from the HapMap database. Results We calculated FST for 15,559 common SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥ 0.10 in at least one population in genes that co-segregated among the populations, as well as an average-weighted FST for each gene. SNPs were classified as putatively functional (non-synonymous and untranslated regions or non-functional (intronic and synonymous sites. Mean FST values for common putatively functional variants were significantly higher than FST values for nonfunctional variants. A significant variation in FST was also seen based on biological processes; the processes of 'apoptosis' and 'lipoprotein metabolism' showed an excess of genes with high FST. Thus, putative functional SNPs in genes in etiologic pathways for CVD show greater population differentiation than non-functional SNPs and a significant variance of FST values was noted among pairwise population comparisons for different biological processes. Conclusion These results suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among ethnic groups.

  8. Rates and patterns of deforestation in the Philippines: application of geographic information system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawning S. Lui; Louis R. Iverson; Sandra Brown

    1993-01-01

    Land-use maps for 1934 and 1988, and a 1941 road map of the Philippines were digitized into a geographic information system. These maps were then analyzed to determine the rates of deforestation and their relationship with factors such as the distance of forests to roads and forest fragmentation (measured by perimeter-to-area ratio (P/A ratio) of forest patches) for...

  9. Correlates and geographic patterns of knowledge that physical activity decreases cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Vanderpool, Robin C; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-04-01

    While many lifestyle-related cancer risk factors including tobacco use, poor diet, and sun exposure are well recognized by the general public, the role of physical activity in decreasing cancer risk is less recognized. Studies have demonstrated gender-, race/ethnicity-, and age-based disparities in cancer risk factor knowledge; however, beliefs and geographic factors that may be related to knowledge are under-examined. In this study, we analyzed data from the 2008 Health Information National Trends Survey to determine correlates of knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and reduced cancer risk in the adult US population. We generated geographic information system maps to examine the geographic distribution of this knowledge. Results revealed that there is confusion among US adults about the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk: Respondents who believed that cancer is not preventable had significantly lower odds of knowing that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical activity guidelines were also significantly more likely to know that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical inactivity. Correlates of cancer risk factor knowledge point to opportunities for targeted interventions.

  10. Differential tolerance to cyanobacterial exposure between geographically distinct populations of Perca fluviatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Karl-Johan; Bergström, Kristofer; Mazur-Marzec, Hannah; Legrand, Catherine

    2013-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are an important problem worldwide. Cyanobacteria may negatively impact young-of-the-year (YOY) fish directly (toxin production, turbidity, decrease in water quality) or indirectly (trophic toxin transfer, changes in prey species composition). Here we test whether there are any differences in cyanobacterial tolerance between four geographically distinct populations of European perch (Perca fluviatilis). We show that P. fluviatilis may develop tolerance against cyanobacteria demonstrated by the ability of individuals from a marine site (exposed to annual cyanobacterial blooms) to increase their detoxification more than individuals from an oligotrophic site (rarely exposed to cyanobacteria). Our results also revealed significant interaction effects between genotypes within a population and response to cyanobacterial exposure in terms of absolute growth and detoxification activity. This genotype by treatment interaction may result in local adaptations to cyanobacterial exposure in P. fluviatilis. Hence, the sensitivity against cyanobacterial exposure may differ between within species populations increasing the importance of local management of fish populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinct patterns in human milk microbiota and fatty acid profiles across specific geographic locations

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    Himanshu Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast feeding results in long term health benefits in the prevention of communicable and non-communicable diseases at both individual and population levels. Geographical location directly impacts the composition of breast milk including microbiota and lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of geographical location, i.e., Europe (Spain and Finland, Africa (South Africa and Asia (China, on breast milk microbiota and lipid composition in samples obtained from healthy mothers after the first month of lactation. Altogether, 80 women (20 from each country participated in the study, with equal number of women who delivered by vaginal or caesarean section from each country. Lipid composition particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids differed between the countries, with the highest amount of n-6 PUFA (25.6% observed in the milk of Chinese women. Milk microbiota composition also differed significantly between the countries (p=0.002. Among vaginally delivered women, Spanish women had highest amount of Bacteroidetes whereas Chinese women had highest amount of Actinobacteria. Women who had had a caesarean section had higher amount of Proteobacteria as observed in the milk of the Spanish and South African women. Interestingly, the Spanish and South African women had significantly higher bacterial genes mapped to lipid, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism (p<0.05. Association of the lipid profile with the microbiota revealed that monounsaturated fatty acids were negatively associated with Proteobacteria (r= -0.43, p<0.05, while Lactobacillus genus was associated with monounsaturated fatty acids (r= -0.23, p=0.04. These findings reveal that the milk microbiota and lipid composition exhibit differences based on geographical locations in addition to the differences observed due to the mode of delivery.

  12. GST M1-T1 null allele frequency patterns in geographically assorted human populations: a phylogenetic approach.

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    Senthilkumar Pitchalu Kasthurinaidu

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity in drug metabolism and disposition is mainly considered as the outcome of the inter-individual genetic variation in polymorphism of drug-xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME. Among the XMEs, glutathione-S-transferases (GST gene loci are an important candidate for the investigation of diversity in allele frequency, as the deletion mutations in GST M1 and T1 genotypes are associated with various cancers and genetic disorders of all major Population Affiliations (PAs. Therefore, the present population based phylogenetic study was focused to uncover the frequency distribution pattern in GST M1 and T1 null genotypes among 45 Geographically Assorted Human Populations (GAHPs. The frequency distribution pattern for GST M1 and T1 null alleles have been detected in this study using the data derived from literatures representing 44 populations affiliated to Africa, Asia, Europe, South America and the genome of PA from Gujarat, a region in western India. Allele frequency counting for Gujarat PA and scattered plot analysis for geographical distribution among the PAs were performed in SPSS-21. The GST M1 and GST T1 null allele frequencies patterns of the PAs were computed in Seqboot, Gendist program of Phylip software package (3.69 versions and Unweighted Pair Group method with Arithmetic Mean in Mega-6 software. Allele frequencies from South African Xhosa tribe, East African Zimbabwe, East African Ethiopia, North African Egypt, Caucasian, South Asian Afghanistan and South Indian Andhra Pradesh have been identified as the probable seven patterns among the 45 GAHPs investigated in this study for GST M1-T1 null genotypes. The patternized null allele frequencies demonstrated in this study for the first time addresses the missing link in GST M1-T1 null allele frequencies among GAHPs.

  13. Geographical patterns in climate and agricultural technology drive soybean productivity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Jordana Moura; Tessarolo, Geiziane; de Oliveira, Guilherme; Souza, Kelly da Silva E; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Nabout, João Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The impacts of global climate change have been a worldwide concern for several research areas, including those dealing with resources essential to human well being, such as agriculture, which directly impact economic activities and food security. Here we evaluate the relative effect of climate (as indicated by the Ecological Niche Model-ENM) and agricultural technology on actual soybean productivity in Brazilian municipalities and estimate the future geographic distribution of soybeans using a novel statistical approach allowing the evaluation of partial coefficients in a non-stationary (Geographically Weighted Regression; GWR) model. We found that technology was more important than climate in explaining soybean productivity in Brazil. However, some municipalities are more dependent on environmental suitability (mainly in Southern Brazil). The future environmental suitability for soybean cultivation tends to decrease by up 50% in the central region of Brazil. Meanwhile, southern-most Brazil will have more favourable conditions, with an increase of ca. 25% in environmental suitability. Considering that opening new areas for cultivation can degrade environmental quality, we suggest that, in the face of climate change impacts on soybean cultivation, the Brazilian government and producers must invest in breeding programmes and more general ecosystem-based strategies for adaptation to climate change, including the development of varieties tolerant to climate stress, and strategies to increase productivity and reduce costs (social and environmental).

  14. [Predicting the impact of global warming on the geographical distribution pattern of Quercus variabilis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Zhang, Xing-wang; Fang, Yan-ming

    2014-12-01

    The geographical distribution of Quercus variabilis in China with its climate characteristics was analyzed based on DIVA-GIS which was also used to estimate the response of future potential distribution to global warming by Bioclim and Domain models. Analysis results showed the geographical distribution of Q. variabilis could be divided into 7 subregions: Henduan Mountains, Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, North China, East China, Liaodong-Shandong Peninsula, Taiwan Island, and Qinling-Daba Mountains. These subregions are across 7 temperature zones, 2 moisture regions and 17 climatic subregions, including 8 climate types. The modern abundance center of Q. variabilis is Qinling, Daba and Funiu mountains. The condition of mean annual temperature 7.5-19.8 degrees C annual precipitation 471-1511 mm, is suitable for Q. variabilis. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC values), of Domain and Boiclim models were 0.910, 0.779; the former predicted that the potential regions of high suitability for Q. variabilis are Qinling, Daba, Funiu, Tongbai, and Dabie mountains, eastern and western Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, hills of southern Jiangsu and Anhui, part of the mountains in North China. Global warming might lead to the shrinking in suitable region and retreating from the south for Q. variabilis.

  15. Geographical patterns of onchocerciasis in southern Venezuela: relationships between environment and infection prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botto, C; Escalona, E; Vivas-Martinez, S; Behm, V; Delgado, L; Coronel, P

    2005-03-01

    Onchocerciasis is a chronic filarial infection transmitted by Simulium flies that has a focal geographical distribution in Latin America. The southern Venezuelan focus has a gradient of endemicity that includes the largest number of hyperendemic communities in the continent, many of them in remote forest and mountainous areas, where it is an important public health problem among the Yanomami indigenous population. The recent introduction of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tools and a landscape epidemiology approach for study of vector borne diseases is helping to understand relationships between environment and transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis. Striking differences in the transmission dynamics of onchocerciasis between different river courses were detected. A significant relationship between onchocerciasis and temperature was also demonstrated. The geologic substrate, kind of landscape and vegetation seemed also to influence the transmission of onchocerciasis. In the Venezuelan Amazon, different kinds of landscapes associated with distinctive vector species, show different intensities of transmission of onchocerciasis. In this sense, landscape analysis aided by GIS, may prove to be a useful tool for better identification of the spatial distribution of onchocerciasis risk in the Orinoco basin.

  16. Geographical patterns of adaptation within a species' range : Interactions between drift and gene flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alleaume-Benharira, M; Pen, IR; Ronce, O

    We use individual-based stochastic simulations and analytical deterministic predictions to investigate the interaction between drift, natural selection and gene flow on the patterns of local adaptation across a fragmented species' range under clinally varying selection. Migration between populations

  17. Dietary patterns are associated with cognitive function in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Keith E; Wadley, Virginia G; McClure, Leslie A; Shikany, James M; Unverzagt, Fred W; Judd, Suzanne E

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that contribute to the preservation of cognitive function is imperative to maintaining quality of life in advanced years. Of modifiable risk factors, diet quality has emerged as a promising candidate to make an impact on cognition. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between empirically derived dietary patterns and cognitive function. This study included 18 080 black and white participants aged 45 years and older from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort. Principal component analysis on data from the Block98 FFQ yielded five dietary patterns: convenience, plant-based, sweets/fats, Southern, and alcohol/salads. Incident cognitive impairment was defined as shifting from intact cognitive status (score >4) at first assessment to impaired cognitive status (score ≤4) at latest assessment, measured by the Six-Item Screener. Learning, memory and executive function were evaluated with the Word List Learning, Word List Delayed Recall, and animal fluency assessments. In fully adjusted models, greater consumption of the alcohol/salads pattern was associated with lower odds of incident cognitive impairment (highest quintile (Q5) v . lowest quintile (Q1): OR 0·68; 95 % CI 0·56, 0·84; P for trend 0·0005). Greater consumption of the alcohol/salads pattern was associated with higher scores on all domain-specific assessments and greater consumption of the plant-based pattern was associated with higher scores in learning and memory. Greater consumption of the Southern pattern was associated with lower scores on each domain-specific assessment (all P  < 0·05). In conclusion, dietary patterns including plant-based foods and alcohol intake were associated with higher cognitive scores, and a pattern including fried food and processed meat typical of a Southern diet was associated with lower scores.

  18. Genetic differentiation in geographically close populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Maroja L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic structure and the effects of a bottleneck in populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a primary host of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight microsatellite loci were studied in 7 populations from the Sumidouro region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Our data, covering a four-year period during which a bottleneck occurred, revealed substantial variation (6-31 alleles per locus and high levels of both observed (0.718-0.789 and expected (0.748-0.832 heterozygosity. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without linkage disequilibrium between loci. Overall average genetic differentiation between populations (estimated with the F ST (q and R ST (r analogues was 0.037 for q and 0.060 for r. There was significant allelic and genotypic differentiation between populations, especially in pairwise comparisons that included the most geographically isolated population. Direct migration estimates showed a low rate of migration, indicating that infected N. squamipes populations had a limited ability to spread S. mansoni. When the pre- and post-bottleneck populations were compared there was no detectable reduction in heterozygosity or allele number, although a significant excess of heterozygosity was detected in the post-bottleneck population.

  19. Geographic patterns of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance distinguished by differential responses to amodiaquine and chloroquine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Juliana Martha; Twu, Olivia; Hayton, Karen; Reyes, Sahily; Fay, Michael P.; Ringwald, Pascal; Wellems, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) resistance (CQR) in Plasmodium falciparum originated from at least six foci in South America, Asia, and Oceania. Malaria parasites from these locations exhibit contrasting resistance phenotypes that are distinguished by point mutations and microsatellite polymorphisms in and near the CQR transporter gene, pfcrt, and the multidrug resistance transporter gene, pfmdr1. Amodiaquine (AQ), a 4-aminoquinoline related to CQ, is recommended and often used successfully against CQ-resistant P. falciparum in Africa, but it is largely ineffective across large regions of South America. The relationship of different pfcrt and pfmdr1 combinations to these drug-resistant phenotypes has been unclear. In two P. falciparum genetic crosses, particular pfcrt and pfmdr1 alleles from South America interact to yield greater levels of resistance to monodesethylamodiaquine (MDAQ; the active metabolite of AQ) than to CQ, whereas a pfcrt allele from Southeast Asia and Africa is linked to greater CQ than MDAQ resistance with all partner pfmdr1 alleles. These results, together with (i) available haplotype data from other parasites; (ii) evidence for an emerging focus of AQ resistance in Tanzania; and (iii) the persistence of 4-aminoquinoline-resistant parasites in South America, where CQ and AQ use is largely discontinued, suggest that different histories of drug use on the two continents have driven the selection of distinct suites of pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations. Increasing use of AQ in Africa poses the threat of a selective sweep of highly AQ-resistant, CQ-resistant parasites with pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations that are as advantaged and persistent as in South America. PMID:19884511

  20. Geographical patterns of Kaposi's sarcoma, nonHodgkin lymphomas, and cervical cancer associated with HIV infection in five African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabna, Karima; Boniol, Mathieu; de Vuyst, Hugo; Vanhems, Philippe; Antônio de Ávila Vitoria, Marco; Curado, Maria-Paula

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the most recent geographical patterns of incidence of AIDS-related cancers, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), nonHodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and cervical cancer in North African and subSaharan African populations. Data were extracted for the period 1998-2002 from five African population-based cancer registries: Kyadondo, Harare, Setif, Sousse, and Gharbiah. Age-standardized rates were calculated using the African standard population; a comparison was made between these populations by computing the standardized incidence ratio and 95% confidence intervals. The KS rate was found to be significantly higher in men than in women, and higher in Harare (women: 26.3/100,000; men: 50.4/100,000) and Kyadondo (women: 23.6/100,000; men: 30.2/100,000) than in the North African sites for both sexes (HIV/AIDS (15-49 years), and these rates were 4.5-fold higher in subSaharan populations than those in the North African sites. Thus, it was observed that the pattern of HIV prevalence is variable with the lowest prevalence in North African countries, intermediate prevalence in Uganda, and the highest prevalence in Zimbabwe. Our findings show that the incidence of NHL and cervical cancer, considered to be HIV/AIDS-related cancers, does not follow the pattern of HIV prevalence in the five studied African populations. Thus, the highest NHL incidence rate in both sexes in Gambia may be explained, at least in great part, by the highest hepatitis C virus prevalence observed there. Indeed, factors other than HIV infection likely contribute to their geographical patterns.

  1. Plant recolonization in the Himalaya from the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Geographical isolation contributed to high population differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cun, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2010-09-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region (HHM) in the southern and southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is considered an important reservoir and a differentiation center for temperate and alpine plants in the Cenozoic. To reveal how plants responded to the Quaternary climatic oscillations in the QTP, the phylogeographical histories of a few subalpine and alpine plants have been investigated, but nearly all studies used only uniparentally inherited cytoplasmic DNA markers, and only a couple of them included sampling from the Himalaya. In this study, range-wide genetic variation of the Himalayan hemlock (Tsuga dumosa), an important forest species in the HHM, was surveyed using DNA markers from three genomes. All markers revealed genetic depauperation in the Himalaya and richness in the Hengduan Mountains populations. Surprisingly, population differentiation of this wind-pollinated conifer is very high in all three genomes, with few common and many private nuclear gene alleles. These results, together with fossil evidence, clearly indicate that T. dumosa recolonized the Himalaya from the Hengduan Mountains before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), accompanied with strong founder effects, and the influence of the earlier glaciations on demographic histories of the QTP plants could be much stronger than that of the LGM. The strong population differentiation in T. dumosa could be attributed to restricted gene flow caused by the complicated topography in the HHM that formed during the uplift of the QTP, and thus sheds lights on the importance of geographical isolation in the development of high plant species diversity in this biodiversity hotspot. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vegetation geographical patterns as a key to the past, with emphasis on the dry vegetation types of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. Werger

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is characterized by a highly diversified vegetational cover with extremes as contrasting as desert, tropical forest, alpine grassland, or mediterranean type scrub, and many other types in between. This vegetational pattern is strongly correlated to the climatological pattern. It is therefore likely that past changes in climate can still be partly traced in the vegetational pattern, particularly in geographical anomalies, and that study of these patterns provides complementary evidence to palynological research. The following anomalies in the vegetational pattern are briefly discussed: 1. island-wise occurrence of Afro-montane vegetation on mesic, sheltered sites in the southern Sudano- Zambezian Region, in particular in the Highveld grassland/False Karoo transition area; 2. similar westward occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian scrub patches in the Karoo-Namib Region near the Orange/Vaal confluence; 3. scattered occurrence of Sudano-Zambezian woody species in a matrix of Karoo-Namib vegetation in the marginal Karoo-Namib Region; 4. island-wise occurrence of frost-tolerant, dry, karroid dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly C,-plants on isolated peaks in the winter rainfall area of Namaqualand; 5. peculiar patchy distribution of some succulents in wide areas of climatically rather homogeneous, succulent dwarf shrub vegetation of predominantly CAM-plants in the escarpment area of Namaqualand. a pattern reminiscent of that in many Cape fynbos species. Interpretation of these patterns logically leads to the conclusion that these result from a previously wetter, a previously cooler, or a previously wetter and cooler climate, respectively, over the parts of southern Africa under discussion. This conclusion is compared with published palynological views.

  3. Patterns of Geographic Synchrony in Growth and Reproduction of Oaks Within California and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter D. Koenig; Johannes M.H. Knops

    1997-01-01

    We measured patterns of spatial synchrony in growth and reproduction by oaks using direct acorn surveys, published data on acorn production, and tree-ring chronologies. The two data sets involving acorn production both indicate that acorn crops are detectably synchronous over areas of at least 500 to 1,000 km not only within individual species but among species that...

  4. Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83 cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27 cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to “jump” between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians. PMID:23243458

  5. Geographic and evolutionary patterns in the demography of scarine labrids, parrotfishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choat, John Howard; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Clements, Kendall

    2013-01-01

    . In this interval parrotfishes colonized the world's tropical reefs and today represent a numerically dominant assemblage of grazing fishes. Colonization occurred differentially resulting in distinctive taxonomic and functional assemblages in the tropical Atlantic vs the Indo-Pacific and in clearly partitioned...... that members of the Atlantic sparisomatinines manifest faster growth rates and generally shorter life spans than the scarinines of the Indo-Pacific, suggesting that for this group the demographic clocks are running faster in the Atlantic. Resolution of this issue requires taking phylogenetic influences, ocean...

  6. Relationships between cancer pattern, country income and geographical region in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chirk Jenn; Teo, Chin Hai; Abdullah, Nurdiana; Tan, Wei Phin; Tan, Hui Meng

    2015-09-03

    Cancer incidence and mortality varies across region, sex and country's economic status. While most studies focused on global trends, this study aimed to describe and analyse cancer incidence and mortality in Asia, focusing on cancer site, sex, region and income status. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates of cancer were extracted from the GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Cancer mortality to incidence ratios (MIRs) were calculated to represent cancer survival. The data were analysed based on the four regions in Asia and income. Cancer incidence rate is lower in Asia compared to the West but for MIR, it is the reverse. In Asia, the most common cancers in men are lung, stomach, liver, colorectal and oesophageal cancers while the most common cancers in women are breast, lung, cervical, colorectal and stomach cancers. The MIRs are the highest in lung, liver and stomach cancers and the lowest in colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Eastern and Western Asia have a higher incidence of cancer compared to South-Eastern and South-Central Asia but this pattern is the reverse for MIR. Cancer incidence rate increases with country income particularly in colorectal and breast cancers but the pattern is the opposite for MIR. This study confirms that there is a wide variation in cancer incidence and mortality across Asia. This study is the first step towards documenting and explaining the changing cancer pattern in Asia in comparison to the rest of the world.

  7. Trends in child immunization across geographical regions in India: focus on urban-rural and gender differentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Although child immunization is regarded as a highly cost-effective lifesaver, about fifty percent of the eligible children aged 12-23 months in India are without essential immunization coverage. Despite several programmatic initiatives, urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization pose an intimidating challenge to India's public health agenda. This study assesses the urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization coverage during 1992-2006 across six major geographical regions in India.Three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06 were analyzed. Bivariate analyses, urban-rural and gender inequality ratios, and the multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the trends and patterns of inequalities over time.The analysis of change over one and half decades (1992-2006 shows considerable variations in child immunization coverage across six geographical regions in India. Despite a decline in urban-rural and gender differences over time, children residing in rural areas and girls remained disadvantaged. Moreover, northeast, west and south regions, which had the lowest gender inequality in 1992 observed an increase in gender difference over time. Similarly, urban-rural inequality increased in the west region during 1992-2006.This study suggests periodic evaluation of the health care system is vital to assess the between and within group difference beyond average improvement. It is essential to integrate strong immunization systems with broad health systems and coordinate with other primary health care delivery programs to augment immunization coverage.

  8. Trends in child immunization across geographical regions in India: focus on urban-rural and gender differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prashant Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Although child immunization is regarded as a highly cost-effective lifesaver, about fifty percent of the eligible children aged 12-23 months in India are without essential immunization coverage. Despite several programmatic initiatives, urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization pose an intimidating challenge to India's public health agenda. This study assesses the urban-rural and gender difference in child immunization coverage during 1992-2006 across six major geographical regions in India. Three rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06 were analyzed. Bivariate analyses, urban-rural and gender inequality ratios, and the multivariate-pooled logistic regression model were applied to examine the trends and patterns of inequalities over time. The analysis of change over one and half decades (1992-2006) shows considerable variations in child immunization coverage across six geographical regions in India. Despite a decline in urban-rural and gender differences over time, children residing in rural areas and girls remained disadvantaged. Moreover, northeast, west and south regions, which had the lowest gender inequality in 1992 observed an increase in gender difference over time. Similarly, urban-rural inequality increased in the west region during 1992-2006. This study suggests periodic evaluation of the health care system is vital to assess the between and within group difference beyond average improvement. It is essential to integrate strong immunization systems with broad health systems and coordinate with other primary health care delivery programs to augment immunization coverage.

  9. Accessibility patterns and community integration among previously homeless adults: a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dara V; Gopal, Sucharita; Helfrich, Christine A

    2014-11-01

    Although a desired rehabilitation goal, research continues to document that community integration significantly lags behind housing stability success rates for people of a variety of ages who used to be homeless. While accessibility to resources is an environmental factor that may promote or impede integration activity, there has been little empirical investigation into the impact of proximity of community features on resource use and integration. Using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach, the current study examines how accessibility or proximity to community features in Boston, United States related to the types of locations used and the size of an individual's "activity space," or spatial presence in the community. Significant findings include an inverse relationship between activity space size and proximity to the number and type of community features in one's immediate area. Specifically, larger activity spaces were associated with neighborhoods with less community features, and smaller activity spaces corresponded with greater availability of resources within one's immediate area. Activity space size also varied, however, based on proximity to different types of resources, namely transportation and health care. Greater community function, or the ability to navigate and use community resources, was associated with better accessibility and feeling part of the community. Finally, proximity to a greater number of individual identified preferred community features was associated with better social integration. The current study suggests the ongoing challenges of successful integration may vary not just based on accessibility to, but relative importance of, specific community features and affinity with one's surroundings. Community integration researchers and housing providers may need to attend to the meaning attached to resources, not just presence or use in the community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of two-phase flow pattern by using specific spatial frequency of differential pressure signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bin; Tong Yunxian; Wu Shaorong

    1992-11-01

    It is a classical method by using analysis of differential pressure fluctuation signal to identify two-phase flow pattern. The method which uses trait peak in the frequency-domain will result confusion between bubble flow and intermittent flow due to the influence of gas speed. Considering the spatial geometric significance of two-phase slow patterns and using the differential pressure gauge as a sensor, the Strouhal number 'Sr' is taken as the basis for distinguishing flow patterns. Using Strouhal number 'Sr' to identify flow pattern has clear physical meaning. The experimental results using the spatial analytical technique to measure the flow pattern are also given

  11. Circumpolar diversity and geographic differentiation of mtDNA in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela L Sremba

    Full Text Available The Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia was hunted to near extinction between 1904 and 1972, declining from an estimated initial abundance of more than 250,000 to fewer than 400. Here, we describe mtDNA control region diversity and geographic differentiation in the surviving population of the Antarctic blue whale, using 218 biopsy samples collected under the auspices of the International Whaling Commission (IWC during research cruises from 1990-2009. Microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA sequences identified 166 individuals among the 218 samples and documented movement of a small number of individuals, including a female that traveled at least 6,650 km or 131° longitude over four years. mtDNA sequences from the 166 individuals were aligned with published sequences from 17 additional individuals, resolving 52 unique haplotypes from a consensus length of 410 bp. From this minimum census, a rarefaction analysis predicted that only 72 haplotypes (95% CL, 64, 86 have survived in the contemporary population of Antarctic blue whales. However, haplotype diversity was relatively high (0.968±0.004, perhaps as a result of the longevity of blue whales and the relatively recent timing of the bottleneck. Despite the potential for circumpolar dispersal, we found significant differentiation in mtDNA diversity (F(ST = 0.032, p<0.005 and microsatellite alleles (F(ST = 0.005, p<0.05 among the six Antarctic Areas historically used by the IWC for management of blue whales.

  12. Polyploidisation and Geographic Differentiation Drive Diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids—whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates—and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  13. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  14. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Pachschwöll

    Full Text Available Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene, polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae, whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid. Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s. and the Carpathians and (iii the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps; each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale

  15. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  16. Mapping rural community and dairy cow heat stress in Southern Ontario: A common geographic pattern from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Williams, Katherine E; Berke, Olaf; Pearl, David L; Kelton, David F

    2016-07-03

    Climate change has increased the occurrence of heat waves, causing heat stress among humans and livestock, with potentially fatal consequences. Heat stress maps provide information about related health risks and insight for control strategies. Weather data were collected throughout Southern Ontario, and the heat stress index (HSI) was estimated for 2010-2012. Geostatistical kriging was applied to map heat stress, heat waves, and control periods. Average HSI for each period ranged from 55 to 78 during control periods, and from 65 to 84 during heat waves, surpassing levels where morbidity is known to increase substantially. Heat stress followed a temporally consistent geographic pattern. HSI maps indicate high-risk areas for heat-related illness and indicate areas where agriculture and human health may be at increased risk in future.

  17. Patterns and processes in the genetic differentiation of the Brachionus calyciflorus complex, a passively dispersing freshwater zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xian-ling; Xi, Yi-long; Wen, Xin-li; Zhang, Gen; Wang, Jin-xia; Hu, Ke

    2011-05-01

    Elucidating the evolutionary patterns and processes of extant species is an important objective of any research program that seeks to understand population divergence and, ultimately, speciation. The island-like nature and temporal fluctuation of limnetic habitats create opportunities for genetic differentiation in rotifers through space and time. To gain further understanding of spatio-temporal patterns of genetic differentiation in rotifers other than the well-studied Brachionus plicatilis complex in brackish water, a total of 318 nrDNA ITS sequences from the B. calyciflorus complex in freshwater were analysed using phylogenetic and phylogeographic methods. DNA taxonomy conducted by both the sequence divergence and the GMYC model suggested the occurrence of six potential cryptic species, supported also by reproductive isolation among the tested lineages. The significant genetic differentiation and non-significant correlation between geographic and genetic distances existed in the most abundant cryptic species, BcI-W and Bc-SW. The large proportion of genetic variability for cryptic species Bc-SW was due to differences between sampling localities within seasons, rather than between different seasons. Nested Clade Analysis suggested allopatric or past fragmentation, contiguous range expansion and long-distance colonization possibly coupled with subsequent fragmentation as the probable main forces shaping the present-day phylogeographic structure of the B. calyciflorus species complex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dyslipidemia patterns are differentially associated with dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, SuJin; Paik, Hee Young; Park, Minseon; Song, YoonJu

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia, a strong predictor of cardiovascular diseases, is prevalent among Korean adults, but little is known about the associations between overall lipid profiles and dietary factors. We identified dyslipidemia patterns among lipid indicators and examined dietary factors associated with dyslipidemia patterns in Korean adults. Subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from the Family Medicine Division or the Health Examination Center of the general hospital in Seoul between 2010 and 2012. Measurements of biochemical and dietary variables repeated three times were collected from a total of 138 subjects at 3- to 4-month intervals when the subjects visited the hospital. Dietary intake data were obtained using 24-h recalls. In order to estimate typical values for biochemical and dietary variables, the averages of repeated measures for each subject were calculated. To identify dyslipidemia patterns, factor analysis was used based on total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two dyslipidemia patterns, (1) TC & LDLC and (2) TG & HDLC, were identified. Dietary fat and cholesterol intakes were positively associated with the TC & LDLC pattern score, but not associated with the TG & HDLC pattern score. The TG & HDLC pattern was significantly associated with low intakes of calcium, potassium, milk and dairy products. Two dyslipidemia patterns were associated with dietary factors in Korean adults. Further studies should investigate specific dietary recommendations according to lipid profiles in the prevention and management of dyslipidemia in Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Composition patterns of waterbirds from La Vieja River, Geographic Valley of Cauca River, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Urrea, Laura Milena; Arbelaez Cortes, Enrique; Marin Gomez, Oscar Humberto; Duque Montoya, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We compiled and analyzed data gathered from observations during the period 2001-2013 in three sectors along La Vieja River, located in the Cauca River Valley, Colombia. We describe spatial and temporal aspects of such dataset, focusing in indentify patterns of species' composition and abundance. We recorded 28 waterbird species in 33 transects, being 22 species observed in more than 50 % of these transects. The species richness among transects did not shows significant differences. However, two cluster analyses, considering both presence/absence and abundance data, showed that there is spatial structure in the species composition along the river. In contrast, although observations were conducted during more than ten years there is no evidence of temporal changes in species composition. Still, some species showed increase or decrease trends in their frequency. We present a new record for one species (Chloroceryle aenea) for the region. Despite that the landscape surrounding La Vieja River has faced a high anthropogenic impact; the river still presents a significant diversity of waterbirds, which could add value to the conservation plans in the zone.

  20. Using DNA Barcoding and Standardized Sampling to Compare Geographic and Habitat Differentiation of Crustaceans: A Hawaiian Islands Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Julian Caley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Census of Marine Life has explored methods to assess coral reef diversity by combining standardized sampling (to permit comparison across sites with molecular techniques (to make rapid counts of species possible. To date, this approach has been applied across geographically broad scales (seven sites spanning the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, focusing on similar habitats at all sites (10–12 m forereef. Here we examine crustacean spatial diversity patterns for a single atoll, comparing results for four sites (comprising forereef, backreef, and lagoon habitats at French Frigate Shoals (FFS, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA, within the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. The Bray-Curtis index of similarity across these habitats at FFS was the same or greater than the similarity between similar habitats on Heron Island and Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef and much greater than similarity between more widely separated localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean (e.g., Ningaloo, Moorea, French Polynesia or the Line Islands. These results imply that, at least for shallow reefs, sampling multiple locations versus sampling multiple habitats within a site maximizes the rate at which we can converge on the best global estimate of coral reef biodiversity.

  1. Relating neuronal firing patterns to functional differentiation of cerebral cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Shinomoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been empirically established that the cerebral cortical areas defined by Brodmann one hundred years ago solely on the basis of cellular organization are closely correlated to their function, such as sensation, association, and motion. Cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical areas have different densities and types of neurons. Thus, signaling patterns may also vary among cytoarchitectonically unique cortical areas. To examine how neuronal signaling patterns are related to innate cortical functions, we detected intrinsic features of cortical firing by devising a metric that efficiently isolates non-Poisson irregular characteristics, independent of spike rate fluctuations that are caused extrinsically by ever-changing behavioral conditions. Using the new metric, we analyzed spike trains from over 1,000 neurons in 15 cortical areas sampled by eight independent neurophysiological laboratories. Analysis of firing-pattern dissimilarities across cortical areas revealed a gradient of firing regularity that corresponded closely to the functional category of the cortical area; neuronal spiking patterns are regular in motor areas, random in the visual areas, and bursty in the prefrontal area. Thus, signaling patterns may play an important role in function-specific cerebral cortical computation.

  2. Geographical distribution and spatio-temporal patterns of hospitalization due to dengue infection at a leading specialist hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Gary K K; Papapreponis, Panayoti; Isa, Ridzuan M; Gan, Seng Chiew; Chee, Hui Yee; Te, Kian Keong; Hatta, Nadia M

    2018-05-07

    Increasing numbers of dengue infection worldwide have led to a rise in deaths due to complications caused by this disease. We present here a cross-sectional study of dengue patients who attended the Emergency and Trauma Department of Ampang Hospital, one of Malaysia's leading specialist hospitals. The objective was to search for potential clustering of severe dengue, in space and/or time, among the annual admissions with the secondary objective to describe the spatio-temporal pattern of all dengue cases admitted to this hospital. The dengue status of the patients was confirmed serologically with the geographic location of the patients determined by residency, but not more specific than the street level. A total of 1165 dengue patients were included in the analysis using SaTScan software. The mean age of these patients was 27.8 years, with a standard deviation of 14.2 years and an age range from 1 to 77 years, among whom 54 (4.6%) were cases of severe dengue. A cluster of general dengue cases was identified occurring from October to December in the study year of 2015 but the inclusion of severe dengue in that cluster was not statistically significant (P=0.862). The standardized incidence ratio was 1.51. General presence of dengue cases was, however, detected to be concentrated at the end of the year, which should be useful for hospital planning and management if this pattern holds.

  3. Patterns of drug treatment entry by Latino male injection drug users from different national/geographical backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso-Vallejo, Humberto; Chassler, Deborah; Witas, Julie; Lundgren, Lena M

    2008-02-01

    This study examined patterns of treatment entry by Puerto Rican, Central American, Dominican, and other Latino male injection drug users (IDUs) in the state of Massachusetts over the time period 1996-2002. Specifically, it explored whether these populations had different patterns relative to three paths: entry into detoxification only, entry into residential treatment, or entry into methadone maintenance. Using a state-level MIS dataset on all substance abuse treatment entries to all licensed treatment programs, bi-variate and logistic regression methods were employed to examine patterns of drug treatment utilization among Latino men residing in Massachusetts. Three logistic regression models, which controlled for age, education, homelessness, employment, history of mental health treatment, health insurance, criminal justice involvement, having injected drugs in the past month, and number of treatment entries, indicated that Puerto Rican men were significantly less likely to only use detoxification services and residential treatment services, and significantly more likely to enter methadone maintenance compared to Latino men from Central American, Dominican, or other Latino backgrounds. For example, Central American men were 2.4 times more likely to enter only detoxification programs and 54% less likely to enter methadone maintenance programs than Puerto Rican male IDUs. For program planning, include the need to (a) develop varied drug treatment services to meet the needs of non-homogenous Latino groups within the population, (b) tailor outreach efforts to effectively reach all Latino groups, and (c) increase awareness among practitioners of differential patterns of treatment utilization.

  4. Graphene-Based Patterning and Differentiation of C2C12 Myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajaj, Piyush; Rivera, Jose A; Marchwiany, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at generating highly aligned functional myotubes using graphene as the underlying scaffold. Graphene not only supports the growth of C2C12 muscle cells but also enhances its differentiation and leads to spontaneous patterning of myotubes....

  5. Integration of HPLC-based fingerprint and quantitative analyses for differentiating botanical species and geographical growing origins of Rhizoma coptidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiumei; Li, Yan; Tang, Ce; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Gang

    2016-12-01

    Rhizoma coptidis is a broadly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The investigation of the influence of species and geographical origins on the phytochemicals of R. coptidis is crucial for its reasonable application and quality control. Development of an effective method to systematically study the phytochemical variations of the rhizomes of three Coptis species (Ranunculaceae) (Coptis chinensis Franch, Coptis deltoidea C.Y. Cheng et Hsiao and Coptis teeta Wall.) and a species (i.e., C. chinensis) obtained from both Daodi and non-Daodi production regions. The three species had significant differences in their phytochemicals. The rhizome of C. chinensis contained more epiberberine (13.52 ± 2.65 mg/g), palmatine (18.20 ± 2.89 mg/g), coptisine (23.32 ± 4.27 mg/g) and columbamine (4.89 ± 1.16 mg/g), whereas the rhizomes of C. deltoidea and C. teeta showed the highest level of jatrorrhizine (8.52 ± 1.36 mg/g) and berberine (81.06 ± 4.83 mg/g), respectively. Moreover, the rhizome of C. chinensis from three Daodi production regions (Shizhu, Lichuan and Emeishan) contained more alkaloids than those from three non-Daodi production regions (Mianyang, Shifang and Zhenping). It is necessary to use the three R. coptidis species differentially in TCM clinical practice. Daodi C. chinensis medicinal materials have better quality than most non-Daodi ones, and so they should be preferred for TCM prescription. The combination of HPLC-based fingerprint analysis and quantification of multi-ingredients with statistical analysis provided an effective approach for species discrimination and quality evaluation of R. coptidis.

  6. You're Just Like Your Dad: Intergenerational Patterns of Differential Treatment of Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; Whiteman, Shawn D; Rand, Joseph S; Fingerman, Karen L

    2017-10-01

    Past work highlights that parents' differential treatment has implications for offspring's mental and relational health across the life course. Although the current body of literature has examined offspring- and parent-level correlates of differential treatment, research has yet to consider whether and how patterns of differential treatment are transmitted across generations. As part of a two-wave longitudinal study of 157 families, both grandparents (M age = 76.50 years, SD = 6.20) and parents (M age = 51.10 years, SD = 4.41) reported on differential treatment of their own offspring at both phases. A series of residualized change models revealed support for both continuity and compensation hypotheses. Middle-aged parents tended to model the patterns of differential treatment exhibited by their fathers, but middle-aged men who experienced more differential treatment from their own parents in recent years tended to subsequently exhibit lower levels of differential treatment to their offspring. These findings suggest that patterns of differential treatment both continue and diverge across generations, and those patterns vary by gender. On a broader level, these results also suggest that siblings not only impact one another's development, but in adulthood, they may indirectly influence their nieces' and nephews' development by virtue of their influence on their siblings' parenting. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Differential DNA methylation patterns define status epilepticus and epileptic tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Delaney, Suzanne F C; Das, Sudipto; Sano, Takanori; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Bryan, Kenneth; Buckley, Patrick G; Stallings, Raymond L; Henshall, David C

    2012-02-01

    Prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) produce pathophysiological changes in the hippocampus that are associated with large-scale, wide-ranging changes in gene expression. Epileptic tolerance is an endogenous program of cell protection that can be activated in the brain by previous exposure to a non-harmful seizure episode before status epilepticus. A major transcriptional feature of tolerance is gene downregulation. Here, through methylation analysis of 34,143 discrete loci representing all annotated CpG islands and promoter regions in the mouse genome, we report the genome-wide DNA methylation changes in the hippocampus after status epilepticus and epileptic tolerance in adult mice. A total of 321 genes showed altered DNA methylation after status epilepticus alone or status epilepticus that followed seizure preconditioning, with >90% of the promoters of these genes undergoing hypomethylation. These profiles included genes not previously associated with epilepsy, such as the polycomb gene Phc2. Differential methylation events generally occurred throughout the genome without bias for a particular chromosomal region, with the exception of a small region of chromosome 4, which was significantly overrepresented with genes hypomethylated after status epilepticus. Surprisingly, only few genes displayed differential hypermethylation in epileptic tolerance. Nevertheless, gene ontology analysis emphasized the majority of differential methylation events between the groups occurred in genes associated with nuclear functions, such as DNA binding and transcriptional regulation. The present study reports select, genome-wide DNA methylation changes after status epilepticus and in epileptic tolerance, which may contribute to regulating the gene expression environment of the seizure-damaged hippocampus.

  8. Differential expression pattern of UBX family genes in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Seiji; Sasagawa, Yohei; Ogura, Teru; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi

    2007-01-01

    UBX (ubiquitin regulatory X)-containing proteins belong to an evolutionary conserved protein family and determine the specificity of p97/VCP/Cdc48p function by binding as its adaptors. Caenorhabditis elegans was found to possess six UBX-containing proteins, named UBXN-1 to -6. However, no general or specific function of them has been revealed. During the course of understanding not only their function but also specified function of p97, we investigated spatial and temporal expression patterns of six ubxn genes in this study. Transcript analyses showed that the expression pattern of each ubxn gene was different throughout worm's development and may show potential developmental dynamics in their function, especially ubxn-5 was expressed specifically in the spermatogenic germline, suggesting a crucial role in spermatogenesis. In addition, as ubxn-4 expression was induced by ER stress, it would function as an ERAD factor in C. elegans. In vivo expression analysis by using GFP translational fusion constructs revealed that six ubxn genes show distinct expression patterns. These results altogether demonstrate that the expression of all six ubxn genes of C. elegans is differently regulated

  9. Unraveling Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Halophytes: A Comparative Study on Four Mediterranean Limonium Species with Different Geographic Distribution Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed an extensive study on the responses to salt stress in four related Limonium halophytes with different geographic distribution patterns, during seed germination and early vegetative growth. The aims of the work were twofold: to establish the basis for the different chorology of these species, and to identify relevant mechanisms of salt tolerance dependent on the control of ion transport and osmolyte accumulation. Seeds were germinated in vitro, in the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations, and subjected to “recovery of germination” tests; germination percentages and velocity were determined to establish the relative tolerance and competitiveness of the four Limonium taxa. Salt treatments were also applied to young plants, by 1-month irrigation with NaCl up to 800 mM; then, growth parameters, levels of monovalent and divalent ions (in roots and leaves, and leaf contents of photosynthetic pigments and common osmolytes were determined in control and stressed plants of the four species. Seed germination is the most salt-sensitive developmental phase in Limonium. The different germination behavior of the investigated species appears to be responsible for their geographical range size: L. narbonense and L. virgatum, widespread throughout the Mediterranean, are the most tolerant and the most competitive at higher soil salinities; the endemic L. santapolense and L. girardianum are the most sensitive and more competitive only at lower salinities. During early vegetative growth, all taxa showed a strong tolerance to salt stress, although slightly higher in L. virgatum and L. santapolense. Salt tolerance is based on the efficient transport of Na+ and Cl− to the leaves and on the accumulation of fructose and proline for osmotic adjustment. Despite some species-specific quantitative differences, the accumulation patterns of the different ions were similar in all species, not explaining differences in tolerance, except for the

  10. Basic pattern in CT of the lung and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, V.; Thalhammer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Infectious, physical, chemical or other noxae elicit a limited number of reactions in lung tissue. As in the case of other organs and tissues, lung tissue has specific reactions that are often more indicative of the particular organ than the harmful agent. The resulting radiological features are usually ambiguous and therefore prevent definitive diagnosis. This complicates etiological categorization of the disease. Pathognomonic findings are rare. The same noxa can yield different radiographic features and clinical pictures for different patients. A diagnosis is generally not comprised of a single radiographic feature, but rather of a combination of a plurality of features. Although the number of possible diagnoses can be limited via radiological means, a final diagnosis is determined in conjunction with the medical history, the clinical picture, as well as lab and histopathological values. This article defines the most common pulmonary changes and also discusses differential diagnostic criteria. (orig.)

  11. Genetic diversity and differentiation among insular honey bee populations in the southwest Indian Ocean likely reflect old geographical isolation and modern introductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Maéva Angélique; Clémencet, Johanna; Simiand, Christophe; Turpin, Patrick; Garnery, Lionel; Reynaud, Bernard; Delatte, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    With globalization the Western honey bee has become a nearly cosmopolitan species, but it was originally restricted to the Old World. This renowned model of biodiversity has diverged into five evolutionary lineages and several geographic "subspecies." If Apis mellifera unicolor is indubitably an African subspecies endemic to Madagascar, its relationship with honey bees from three archipelagos in the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) hotspot of biodiversity is misunderstood. We compared recent mtDNA diversity data to an original characterization of the nuclear diversity from honey bees in the Mascarenes and Comoros archipelagos, using 14 microsatellites, but also additional mtDNA tRNALeu-cox2 analysis. Our sampling offers the most comprehensive dataset for the SWIO populations with a total of 3,270 colonies from 10 islands compared with 855 samples from Madagascar, 113 from Africa, and 138 from Europe. Comprehensive mitochondrial screening confirmed that honey bees from La Réunion, Mauritius, and Comoros archipelagos are mainly of African origin (88.1% out of 2,746 colonies) and that coexistence with European lineages occurs only in the Mascarenes. PCA, Bayesian, and genetic differentiation analysis showed that African colonies are not significantly distinct on each island, but have diversified among islands and archipelagos. FST levels progressively decreased in significance from European and African continental populations, to SWIO insular and continental populations, and finally among islands from the same archipelago. Among African populations, Madagascar shared a nuclear background with and was most closely related to SWIO island populations (except Rodrigues). Only Mauritius Island presented clear cytoplasmic disequilibrium and genetic structure characteristic of an admixed population undergoing hybridization, in this case, between A. m. unicolor and A. m. ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. mellifera-like individuals. Finally, global genetic clustering analysis

  12. Genetic diversity and differentiation among insular honey bee populations in the southwest Indian Ocean likely reflect old geographical isolation and modern introductions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maéva Angélique Techer

    Full Text Available With globalization the Western honey bee has become a nearly cosmopolitan species, but it was originally restricted to the Old World. This renowned model of biodiversity has diverged into five evolutionary lineages and several geographic "subspecies." If Apis mellifera unicolor is indubitably an African subspecies endemic to Madagascar, its relationship with honey bees from three archipelagos in the southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO hotspot of biodiversity is misunderstood. We compared recent mtDNA diversity data to an original characterization of the nuclear diversity from honey bees in the Mascarenes and Comoros archipelagos, using 14 microsatellites, but also additional mtDNA tRNALeu-cox2 analysis. Our sampling offers the most comprehensive dataset for the SWIO populations with a total of 3,270 colonies from 10 islands compared with 855 samples from Madagascar, 113 from Africa, and 138 from Europe. Comprehensive mitochondrial screening confirmed that honey bees from La Réunion, Mauritius, and Comoros archipelagos are mainly of African origin (88.1% out of 2,746 colonies and that coexistence with European lineages occurs only in the Mascarenes. PCA, Bayesian, and genetic differentiation analysis showed that African colonies are not significantly distinct on each island, but have diversified among islands and archipelagos. FST levels progressively decreased in significance from European and African continental populations, to SWIO insular and continental populations, and finally among islands from the same archipelago. Among African populations, Madagascar shared a nuclear background with and was most closely related to SWIO island populations (except Rodrigues. Only Mauritius Island presented clear cytoplasmic disequilibrium and genetic structure characteristic of an admixed population undergoing hybridization, in this case, between A. m. unicolor and A. m. ligustica, A. m. carnica and A. m. mellifera-like individuals. Finally, global genetic

  13. Contrasting patterns of diversity and population differentiation at the innate immunity gene toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in two sympatric rodent species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirren, Barbara; Andersson, Martin; Scherman, Kristin; Westerdahl, Helena; Råberg, Lars

    2012-03-01

    Comparing patterns of diversity and divergence between populations at immune genes and neutral markers can give insights into the nature and geographic scale of parasite-mediated selection. To date, studies investigating such patterns of selection in vertebrates have primarily focused on the acquired branch of the immune system, whereas it remains largely unknown how parasite-mediated selection shapes innate immune genes both within and across vertebrate populations. Here, we present a study on the diversity and population differentiation at the innate immune gene Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) across nine populations of yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in southern Sweden. In yellow-necked mice, TLR2 diversity was very low, as was TLR2 population differentiation compared to neutral loci. In contrast, several TLR2 haplotypes co-occurred at intermediate frequencies within and across bank vole populations, and pronounced isolation by distance between populations was observed. The diversity and differentiation at neutral loci was similar in the two species. These results indicate that parasite-mediated selection has been acting in dramatically different ways on a given immune gene in ecologically similar and sympatric species. Furthermore, the finding of TLR2 population differentiation at a small geographical scale in bank voles highlights that vertebrate innate immune defense may be evolutionarily more dynamic than has previously been appreciated. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. The non-linear, interactive effects of population density and climate drive the geographical patterns of waterfowl survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qing; Boomer, G. Scott; Kendall, William L.

    2018-01-01

    On-going climate change has major impacts on ecological processes and patterns. Understanding the impacts of climate on the geographical patterns of survival can provide insights to how population dynamics respond to climate change and provide important information for the development of appropriate conservation strategies at regional scales. It is challenging to understand the impacts of climate on survival, however, due to the fact that the non-linear relationship between survival and climate can be modified by density-dependent processes. In this study we extended the Brownie model to partition hunting and non-hunting mortalities and linked non-hunting survival to covariates. We applied this model to four decades (1972–2014) of waterfowl band-recovery, breeding population survey, and precipitation and temperature data covering multiple ecological regions to examine the non-linear, interactive effects of population density and climate on waterfowl non-hunting survival at a regional scale. Our results showed that the non-linear effect of temperature on waterfowl non-hunting survival was modified by breeding population density. The concave relationship between non-hunting survival and temperature suggested that the effects of warming on waterfowl survival might be multifaceted. Furthermore, the relationship between non-hunting survival and temperature was stronger when population density was higher, suggesting that high-density populations may be less buffered against warming than low-density populations. Our study revealed distinct relationships between waterfowl non-hunting survival and climate across and within ecological regions, highlighting the importance of considering different conservation strategies according to region-specific population and climate conditions. Our findings and associated novel modelling approach have wide implications in conservation practice.

  15. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatou Diouf

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal (L Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60% clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4. We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T, one in MSP1 (STM8789, MSP2 (ORS3359 and MSP3 (ORS3324. The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  16. Genetic and genomic diversity studies of Acacia symbionts in Senegal reveal new species of Mesorhizobium with a putative geographical pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Fatou; Diouf, Diegane; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Le Queré, Antoine; Bakhoum, Niokhor; Fall, Dioumacor; Neyra, Marc; Parrinello, Hugues; Diouf, Mayecor; Ndoye, Ibrahima; Moulin, Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Acacia senegal (L) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del. are highly nitrogen-fixing and moderately salt tolerant species. In this study we focused on the genetic and genomic diversity of Acacia mesorhizobia symbionts from diverse origins in Senegal and investigated possible correlations between the genetic diversity of the strains, their soil of origin, and their tolerance to salinity. We first performed a multi-locus sequence analysis on five markers gene fragments on a collection of 47 mesorhizobia strains of A. senegal and A. seyal from 8 localities. Most of the strains (60%) clustered with the M. plurifarium type strain ORS 1032T, while the others form four new clades (MSP1 to MSP4). We sequenced and assembled seven draft genomes: four in the M. plurifarium clade (ORS3356, ORS3365, STM8773 and ORS1032T), one in MSP1 (STM8789), MSP2 (ORS3359) and MSP3 (ORS3324). The average nucleotide identities between these genomes together with the MLSA analysis reveal three new species of Mesorhizobium. A great variability of salt tolerance was found among the strains with a lack of correlation between the genetic diversity of mesorhizobia, their salt tolerance and the soils samples characteristics. A putative geographical pattern of A. senegal symbionts between the dryland north part and the center of Senegal was found, reflecting adaptations to specific local conditions such as the water regime. However, the presence of salt does not seem to be an important structuring factor of Mesorhizobium species.

  17. Geographic distribution of lung and stomach cancers in England and Wales over 50 years: changing and unchanging patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, A J; dos Santos Silva, I

    1991-05-01

    The distribution of cancers of the lung and stomach in the counties of England and Wales in 1968-81 was mapped, and compared to the distribution in the country in 1921-30 described by Stocks. The high risk of stomach cancer in North Wales noted by Stocks was found still to exist in each sex, although its disparity from the rest of the country has diminished. In general the geographic distribution of stomach cancer in both periods has paralleled that of post-neonatal mortality, at the same time and earlier, as an index of general poverty, but postneonatal mortality in North Wales has not been exceptionally high. In 1921-30 the highest risk of lung cancer was in and around London. In the modern data this was still true for older women, but for men and women under 45 years of age, and to a lesser extent for older men, the pattern has changed greatly; the epidemic has moved north, and highest risk is now in Northumberland and Durham. This spread appears to have occurred earlier for men than for women, and for urban than for rural areas, occurring latest of all for women in rural areas. Regional disparity has also increased, especially in males: risks in the northern regions are now over twice those in much of Wales and the South.

  18. Geographic patterns of at-risk species: A technical document supporting the USDA Forest Service Interim Update of the 2000 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Michael S. Knowles; Jason McNees

    2008-01-01

    This technical document supports the Forest Service's requirement to assess the status of renewable natural resources as mandated by the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974. It updates past reports on the trends and geographic patterns of species formally listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. We...

  19. Combination of oriented partial differential equation and shearlet transform for denoising in electronic speckle pattern interferometry fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjun; Tang, Chen; Gu, Fan; Cheng, Jiajia

    2017-04-01

    It is a key step to remove the massive speckle noise in electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) fringe patterns. In the spatial-domain filtering methods, oriented partial differential equations have been demonstrated to be a powerful tool. In the transform-domain filtering methods, the shearlet transform is a state-of-the-art method. In this paper, we propose a filtering method for ESPI fringe patterns denoising, which is a combination of second-order oriented partial differential equation (SOOPDE) and the shearlet transform, named SOOPDE-Shearlet. Here, the shearlet transform is introduced into the ESPI fringe patterns denoising for the first time. This combination takes advantage of the fact that the spatial-domain filtering method SOOPDE and the transform-domain filtering method shearlet transform benefit from each other. We test the proposed SOOPDE-Shearlet on five experimentally obtained ESPI fringe patterns with poor quality and compare our method with SOOPDE, shearlet transform, windowed Fourier filtering (WFF), and coherence-enhancing diffusion (CEDPDE). Among them, WFF and CEDPDE are the state-of-the-art methods for ESPI fringe patterns denoising in transform domain and spatial domain, respectively. The experimental results have demonstrated the good performance of the proposed SOOPDE-Shearlet.

  20. Pattern of genetic differentiation of an incipient speciation process: The case of the high Andean killifish Orestias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Jiménez, Claudia Jimena; Peña, Fabiola; Morales, Pamela; Méndez, Marco; Sallaberry, Michel; Vila, Irma; Poulin, Elie

    2017-01-01

    During the Pleistocene and Holocene, the southwest Andean Altiplano (17°-22°S) was affected by repeated fluctuations in water levels, high volcanic activity and major tectonic movements. In the early Holocene the humid Tauca phase shifted to the arid conditions that have lasted until the present, producing endorheic rivers, lakes, lagoons and wetlands. The endemic fish Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) represents a good model to observe the genetic differentiation that characterizes an incipient speciation process in allopatry since the morphospecies described inhabit a restricted geographic area, with present habitat fragmentation. The genetic diversity and population structure of four endemic morphospecies of Orestias (Cyprinodontidae) found in the Lauca National Park (LNP) analyzed with mitochondrial markers (Control Region) and eight microsatellites, revealed the existence of genetic groups that matches the fragmentation of these systems. High values of genetic and phylogeographic differentiation indices were observed between Chungará Lake and Piacota lagoon. The group composed of the Lauca River, Copapujo and Chuviri wetlands sampling sites showed a clear signal of expansion, with a star-like haplotype network. Levels of genetic differentiation were lower than in Chungará and Piacota, suggesting that these localities would have differentiated after the bottlenecks linked to the collapse of Parinacota volcano. The Parinacota sample showed a population signal that differed from the other localities revealing greater genetic diversity and a disperse network, presenting haplotypes shared with other LNP localities. A mixing pattern of the different genetic groups was evident using the microsatellite markers. The chronology of the vicariance events in LNP may indicate that the partition process of the Orestias populations was gradual. Considering this, and in view of the genetic results, we may conclude that the morphospecies from LNP are populations in ongoing

  1. Investigation of differential HDAC4 methylation patterns in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Subha; Braun, Patricia R; Han, Shizhong; Potash, James B

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between methylation patterns of the histone deacetylase 4 gene and eating disorders in a site previously associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). Women with AN (N=28) or bulimia nervosa (BN) (N=19) were age-matched and sex-matched to controls (N=45). We obtained saliva-derived DNA and use bisulfite pyrosequencing to examine region-specific methylation differences between cases and controls. The region assayed includes 15 CpGs. We found no significant association between the previously implicated CpG and either AN or BN. We found that three CpGs were nominally associated with AN (P=0.02-0.03); the largest difference was a 9% hypermethylation in AN. One CpG was nominally associated with BN (P=0.04), with 4% hypomethylation. None of these results remained significant after correction for multiple testing. We did not replicate previous findings, though through expanded coverage, we identified additional CpGs that were nominally associated with eating disorders.

  2. Fear and disgust in women: Differentiation of cardiovascular regulation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comtesse, Hannah; Stemmler, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    Both fear and disgust facilitate avoidance of threat. From a functional view, however, cardiovascular responses to fear and disgust should differ as they prepare for appropriate behavior to protect from injury and infection, respectively. Therefore, we examined the cardiovascular responses to fear and contamination-related disgust in comparison to an emotionally neutral state induced with auditory scripts and film clips in female participants. Ten emotion and motivation self-reports and ninecardiovascular response factors derived from 23 cardiovascular variables served as dependent variables. Self-reports confirmed the specific induction of fear and disgust. In addition, fear and disgust differed in their cardiovascular response patterning. For fear, we observed specific increases in factors indicating vasoconstriction and cardiac pump function. For disgust, we found specific increases in vagal cardiac control and decreases in myocardial contractility. These findings provide support for the cardiovascular specificity of fear and disgust and are discussed in terms of a basic emotions approach. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Genetic Variation and Geographic Differentiation Among Populations of the Nonmigratory Agricultural Pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θII, and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  4. Genetic variation and geographic differentiation among populations of the nonmigratory agricultural pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θ(II), and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  5. Differentiation of Melipona quadrifasciata L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini subspecies using cytochrome b PCR-RFLP patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério O. Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata and M. quadrifasciata anthidioides are subspecies of M. quadrifasciata, a stingless bee species common in coastal Brazil. These subspecies are discriminated by the yellow stripe pattern of the abdominal tergites. We found Vsp I restriction patterns in the cytochrome b region closely associated to each subspecies in 155 M. quadrifasciata colonies of different geographical origin. This mitochondrial DNA molecular marker facilitates diagnosis of M. quadrifasciata subspecies matrilines and can be used to establish their natural distribution and identify hybrid colonies.

  6. Barcoding the butterflies of southern South America: Species delimitation efficacy, cryptic diversity and geographic patterns of divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo D Lavinia

    Full Text Available Because the tropical regions of America harbor the highest concentration of butterfly species, its fauna has attracted considerable attention. Much less is known about the butterflies of southern South America, particularly Argentina, where over 1,200 species occur. To advance understanding of this fauna, we assembled a DNA barcode reference library for 417 butterfly species of Argentina, focusing on the Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. We tested the efficacy of this library for specimen identification, used it to assess the frequency of cryptic species, and examined geographic patterns of genetic variation, making this study the first large-scale genetic assessment of the butterflies of southern South America. The average sequence divergence to the nearest neighbor (i.e. minimum interspecific distance was 6.91%, ten times larger than the mean distance to the furthest conspecific (0.69%, with a clear barcode gap present in all but four of the species represented by two or more specimens. As a consequence, the DNA barcode library was extremely effective in the discrimination of these species, allowing a correct identification in more than 95% of the cases. Singletons (i.e. species represented by a single sequence were also distinguishable in the gene trees since they all had unique DNA barcodes, divergent from those of the closest non-conspecific. The clustering algorithms implemented recognized from 416 to 444 barcode clusters, suggesting that the actual diversity of butterflies in Argentina is 3%-9% higher than currently recognized. Furthermore, our survey added three new records of butterflies for the country (Eurema agave, Mithras hannelore, Melanis hillapana. In summary, this study not only supported the utility of DNA barcoding for the identification of the butterfly species of Argentina, but also highlighted several cases of both deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergence that should be studied in more detail.

  7. Barcoding the butterflies of southern South America: Species delimitation efficacy, cryptic diversity and geographic patterns of divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinia, Pablo D; Núñez Bustos, Ezequiel O; Kopuchian, Cecilia; Lijtmaer, Darío A; García, Natalia C; Hebert, Paul D N; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2017-01-01

    Because the tropical regions of America harbor the highest concentration of butterfly species, its fauna has attracted considerable attention. Much less is known about the butterflies of southern South America, particularly Argentina, where over 1,200 species occur. To advance understanding of this fauna, we assembled a DNA barcode reference library for 417 butterfly species of Argentina, focusing on the Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. We tested the efficacy of this library for specimen identification, used it to assess the frequency of cryptic species, and examined geographic patterns of genetic variation, making this study the first large-scale genetic assessment of the butterflies of southern South America. The average sequence divergence to the nearest neighbor (i.e. minimum interspecific distance) was 6.91%, ten times larger than the mean distance to the furthest conspecific (0.69%), with a clear barcode gap present in all but four of the species represented by two or more specimens. As a consequence, the DNA barcode library was extremely effective in the discrimination of these species, allowing a correct identification in more than 95% of the cases. Singletons (i.e. species represented by a single sequence) were also distinguishable in the gene trees since they all had unique DNA barcodes, divergent from those of the closest non-conspecific. The clustering algorithms implemented recognized from 416 to 444 barcode clusters, suggesting that the actual diversity of butterflies in Argentina is 3%-9% higher than currently recognized. Furthermore, our survey added three new records of butterflies for the country (Eurema agave, Mithras hannelore, Melanis hillapana). In summary, this study not only supported the utility of DNA barcoding for the identification of the butterfly species of Argentina, but also highlighted several cases of both deep intraspecific and shallow interspecific divergence that should be studied in more detail.

  8. Long-term citizen-collected data reveal geographical patterns and temporal trends in lake water clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottig, Noah R.; Wagner, Tyler; Henry, Emily N.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Webster, Katherine E.; Downing, John A.; Stow, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    We compiled a lake-water clarity database using publically available, citizen volunteer observations made between 1938 and 2012 across eight states in the Upper Midwest, USA. Our objectives were to determine (1) whether temporal trends in lake-water clarity existed across this large geographic area and (2) whether trends were related to the lake-specific characteristics of latitude, lake size, or time period the lake was monitored. Our database consisted of >140,000 individual Secchi observations from 3,251 lakes that we summarized per lake-year, resulting in 21,020 summer averages. Using Bayesian hierarchical modeling, we found approximately a 1% per year increase in water clarity (quantified as Secchi depth) for the entire population of lakes. On an individual lake basis, 7% of lakes showed increased water clarity and 4% showed decreased clarity. Trend direction and strength were related to latitude and median sample date. Lakes in the southern part of our study-region had lower average annual summer water clarity, more negative long-term trends, and greater inter-annual variability in water clarity compared to northern lakes. Increasing trends were strongest for lakes with median sample dates earlier in the period of record (1938–2012). Our ability to identify specific mechanisms for these trends is currently hampered by the lack of a large, multi-thematic database of variables that drive water clarity (e.g., climate, land use/cover). Our results demonstrate, however, that citizen science can provide the critical monitoring data needed to address environmental questions at large spatial and long temporal scales. Collaborations among citizens, research scientists, and government agencies may be important for developing the data sources and analytical tools necessary to move toward an understanding of the factors influencing macro-scale patterns such as those shown here for lake water clarity.

  9. Geographic patterns of genetic variation in a broadly distributed marine vertebrate: new insights into loggerhead turtle stock structure from expanded mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Shamblin

    Full Text Available Previous genetic studies have demonstrated that natal homing shapes the stock structure of marine turtle nesting populations. However, widespread sharing of common haplotypes based on short segments of the mitochondrial control region often limits resolution of the demographic connectivity of populations. Recent studies employing longer control region sequences to resolve haplotype sharing have focused on regional assessments of genetic structure and phylogeography. Here we synthesize available control region sequences for loggerhead turtles from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic, and western Indian Ocean basins. These data represent six of the nine globally significant regional management units (RMUs for the species and include novel sequence data from Brazil, Cape Verde, South Africa and Oman. Genetic tests of differentiation among 42 rookeries represented by short sequences (380 bp haplotypes from 3,486 samples and 40 rookeries represented by long sequences (∼800 bp haplotypes from 3,434 samples supported the distinction of the six RMUs analyzed as well as recognition of at least 18 demographically independent management units (MUs with respect to female natal homing. A total of 59 haplotypes were resolved. These haplotypes belonged to two highly divergent global lineages, with haplogroup I represented primarily by CC-A1, CC-A4, and CC-A11 variants and haplogroup II represented by CC-A2 and derived variants. Geographic distribution patterns of haplogroup II haplotypes and the nested position of CC-A11.6 from Oman among the Atlantic haplotypes invoke recent colonization of the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic for both global lineages. The haplotypes we confirmed for western Indian Ocean RMUs allow reinterpretation of previous mixed stock analysis and further suggest that contemporary migratory connectivity between the Indian and Atlantic Oceans occurs on a broader scale than previously hypothesized. This study represents a valuable model for

  10. Differential and Cooperative Cell Adhesion Regulates Cellular Pattern in Sensory Epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Hideru

    2016-01-01

    Animal tissues are composed of multiple cell types arranged in complex and elaborate patterns. In sensory epithelia, including the auditory epithelium and olfactory epithelium, different types of cells are arranged in unique mosaic patterns. These mosaic patterns are evolutionarily conserved, and are thought to be important for hearing and olfaction. Recent progress has provided accumulating evidence that the cellular pattern formation in epithelia involves cell rearrangements, movements, and shape changes. These morphogenetic processes are largely mediated by intercellular adhesion systems. Differential adhesion and cortical tension have been proposed to promote cell rearrangements. Many different types of cells in tissues express various types of cell adhesion molecules. Although cooperative mechanisms between multiple adhesive systems are likely to contribute to the production of complex cell patterns, our current understanding of the cooperative roles between multiple adhesion systems is insufficient to entirely explain the complex mechanisms underlying cellular patterning. Recent studies have revealed that nectins, in cooperation with cadherins, are crucial for the mosaic cellular patterning in sensory organs. The nectin and cadherin systems are interacted with one another, and these interactions provide cells with differential adhesive affinities for complex cellular pattern formations in sensory epithelia, which cannot be achieved by a single mechanism.

  11. Mortality and survival patterns of childhood lymphomas: geographic and age-specific patterns in Southern-Eastern European and SEER/US registration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalexi, Maria A; Georgakis, Marios K; Dessypris, Nick; Ryzhov, Anton; Zborovskaya, Anna; Dimitrova, Nadya; Zivkovic, Snezana; Eser, Sultan; Antunes, Luis; Sekerija, Mario; Zagar, Tina; Bastos, Joana; Demetriou, Anna; Agius, Domenic; Florea, Margareta; Coza, Daniela; Bouka, Evdoxia; Dana, Helen; Hatzipantelis, Emmanuel; Kourti, Maria; Moschovi, Maria; Polychronopoulou, Sophia; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Pourtsidis, Apostolos; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2017-12-01

    Childhood (0-14 years) lymphomas, nowadays, present a highly curable malignancy compared with other types of cancer. We used readily available cancer registration data to assess mortality and survival disparities among children residing in Southern-Eastern European (SEE) countries and those in the United States. Average age-standardized mortality rates and time trends of Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin (NHL; including Burkitt [BL]) lymphomas in 14 SEE cancer registries (1990-2014) and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER, United States; 1990-2012) were calculated. Survival patterns in a total of 8918 cases distinguishing also BL were assessed through Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariate Cox regression models. Variable, rather decreasing, mortality trends were noted among SEE. Rates were overall higher than that in SEER (1.02/10 6 ), which presented a sizeable (-4.8%, P = .0001) annual change. Additionally, remarkable survival improvements were manifested in SEER (10 years: 96%, 86%, and 90% for HL, NHL, and BL, respectively), whereas diverse, still lower, rates were noted in SEE. Non-HL was associated with a poorer outcome and an amphi-directional age-specific pattern; specifically, prognosis was inferior in children younger than 5 years than in those who are 10 to 14 years old from SEE (hazard ratio 1.58, 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.96) and superior in children who are 5 to 9 years old from SEER/United States (hazard ratio 0.63, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.88) than in those who are 10 to 14 years old. In conclusion, higher SEE lymphoma mortality rates than those in SEER, but overall decreasing trends, were found. Despite significant survival gains among developed countries, there are still substantial geographic, disease subtype-specific, and age-specific outcome disparities pointing to persisting gaps in the implementation of new treatment modalities and indicating further research needs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  13. Following the cold: geographical differentiation between interglacial refugia and speciation in the arcto-alpine species complex Bombus monticola (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinet, B.; Lecocq, T.; Brasero, N.; Biella, Paolo; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Cornalba, M.; Gjershaugh, J. O.; Michez, D.; Rasmont, P.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 1 (2018), s. 200-217 ISSN 0307-6970 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-10035P Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 152/2016/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Bombus monticola * geographical differentiation * Hymenoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour; CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation (UOCHB-X) OBOR OECD: Ecology; Analytical chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.474, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/syen.12268/full

  14. Latitude, sunshine, and human lactase phenotype distributions may contribute to geographic patterns of modern disease: the inflammatory bowel disease model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szilagyi A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Andrew Szilagyi,1 Henry Leighton,2 Barry Burstein,3 Xiaoqing Xue41Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, 2Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 3Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, 4Department of Emergency Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, CanadaAbstract: Countries with high lactase nonpersistence (LNP or low lactase persistence (LP populations have lower rates of some “western” diseases, mimicking the effects of sunshine and latitude. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ie, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is putatively also influenced by sunshine. Recent availability of worldwide IBD rates and lactase distributions allows more extensive comparisons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which modern day lactase distributions interact with latitude, sunshine exposure, and IBD rates. National IBD rates, national distributions of LP/LNP, and population-weighted average national annual ultraviolet B exposure were obtained, estimated, or calculated from the literature. Negative binomial analysis was used to assess the relationship between the three parameters and IBD rates. Analyses for 55 countries were grouped in three geographic domains, ie, global, Europe, and non-Europe. In Europe, both latitude and ultraviolet B exposure correlate well with LP/LNP and IBD. In non-Europe, latitude and ultraviolet B exposure correlate weakly with LP/LNP, but the latter retains a more robust correlation with IBD. In univariate analysis, latitude, ultraviolet B exposure, and LP/LNP all had significant relationships with IBD. Multivariate analysis showed that lactase distributions provided the best model of fit for IBD. The model of IBD reveals the evolutionary effects of the human lactase divide, and suggests that latitude, ultraviolet B exposure, and LP/LNP mimic each other because LP/LNP follows latitudinal directions toward the equator

  15. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in the Netherlands : differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach – Ordered and

  16. Job characteristics and voluntary mobility in The Netherlands: Differential education and gender patterns?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gesthuizen, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to address the impact of the subjective evaluation of job characteristics on voluntary mobility, the impact of voluntary mobility on changes in these job characteristics, and differential education and gender patterns. Design/methodology/approach - Ordered and

  17. Preferential Trade Arrangements and the Pattern of Production and Trade when Inputs are Differentiated

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is concerned with rules of origin when intermediate goods are differentiated. An analytical model emphasizes trade patterns and the relative importance of trade in intermediates given trade preferences. Econometric evidence based on intra-OECD trade in motor vehicles and motor

  18. Genetic differentiation in Elaeocarpus photiniifolia (Elaeocarpaceae) associated with geographic distribution and habitat variation in the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Kyoko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Nagamitsu, Teruyoshi; Murakami, Noriaki; Kato, Hidetoshi; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Gene flow between populations in different environmental conditions can be limited due to divergent natural selection, thus promoting genetic differentiation. Elaeocarpus photiniifolia, an endemic tree species in the Bonin Islands, is distributed in two types of habitats, dry scrubs and mesic forests. We aim to elucidate the genetic differentiation in E. photiniifolia within and between islands and between the habitat types. We investigated genotypes of 639 individuals from 19 populations of E. photiniifolia and its closely-related E. sylvestris at 24 microsatellite loci derived from expressed sequence tags. The data revealed genetic differentiation (1) between E. photiniifolia and E. sylvestris (0.307 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.470), (2) between the E. photiniifolia populations of the Chichijima and Hahajima Island Groups in the Bonin Islands (0.033 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.121) and (3) between E. photiniifolia populations associated with dry scrubs and mesic forests in the Chichijima Island Group (0.005 ≤ F ST ≤ 0.071). Principal coordinate analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis also showed that genetically distinct groups were associated with the habitat types, and isolation by distance was not responsible for the genetic differentiation. These findings suggest that E. photiniifolia is divided into genetically differentiated groups associated with different environmental conditions in the Bonin Islands.

  19. "Contrasting patterns of selection at Pinus pinaster Ait. Drought stress candidate genes as revealed by genetic differentiation analyses".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveno, Emmanuelle; Collada, Carmen; Guevara, M Angeles; Léger, Valérie; Soto, Alvaro; Díaz, Luis; Léger, Patrick; González-Martínez, Santiago C; Cervera, M Teresa; Plomion, Christophe; Garnier-Géré, Pauline H

    2008-02-01

    The importance of natural selection for shaping adaptive trait differentiation among natural populations of allogamous tree species has long been recognized. Determining the molecular basis of local adaptation remains largely unresolved, and the respective roles of selection and demography in shaping population structure are actively debated. Using a multilocus scan that aims to detect outliers from simulated neutral expectations, we analyzed patterns of nucleotide diversity and genetic differentiation at 11 polymorphic candidate genes for drought stress tolerance in phenotypically contrasted Pinus pinaster Ait. populations across its geographical range. We compared 3 coalescent-based methods: 2 frequentist-like, including 1 approach specifically developed for biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) here and 1 Bayesian. Five genes showed outlier patterns that were robust across methods at the haplotype level for 2 of them. Two genes presented higher F(ST) values than expected (PR-AGP4 and erd3), suggesting that they could have been affected by the action of diversifying selection among populations. In contrast, 3 genes presented lower F(ST) values than expected (dhn-1, dhn2, and lp3-1), which could represent signatures of homogenizing selection among populations. A smaller proportion of outliers were detected at the SNP level suggesting the potential functional significance of particular combinations of sites in drought-response candidate genes. The Bayesian method appeared robust to low sample sizes, flexible to assumptions regarding migration rates, and powerful for detecting selection at the haplotype level, but the frequentist-like method adapted to SNPs was more efficient for the identification of outlier SNPs showing low differentiation. Population-specific effects estimated in the Bayesian method also revealed populations with lower immigration rates, which could have led to favorable situations for local adaptation. Outlier patterns are discussed

  20. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  1. Cross-border cattle marketing in Sub-Saharan Africa since 1990: geographical patterns and government induced change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); P. Quarles van Ufford (Paul); F. Zaal (fred)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter aims to study the impact of government policies on cross-border cattle marketing in Africa. It analyses the extent to which this type of cross-border trade has been created, diverted or contracted as a result of government policies. The chapter portrays the geographical

  2. Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jin Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC, periapical granuloma (PG, and periapical abscess (PA, are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. Materials and Methods The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC (n = 122, PG (n = 158, and PA (n = 39 obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF were used as positive controls. Results Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. Conclusions In this study all PCs (n = 122 were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium (n = 20. Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA.

  3. Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyo Jin; Park, Se-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Jin Woo

    2017-05-01

    Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. The collagen birefringence patterns of 319 cases of PC ( n = 122), PG ( n = 158), and PA ( n = 39) obtained using a polarizing microscope were compared. In addition, 6 cases of periodontal fibroma (PF) were used as positive controls. Collagen birefringence was condensed with a thick, linear band-like pattern in PC, but was short and irregularly scattered in PG, and scarce or absent in PA. PF showed intense collagen birefringence with a short, palisading pattern but no continuous band-like pattern. The linear band-like birefringence in PC was ascribed to pre-existing expansile tensile stress of the cyst wall. In this study all PCs ( n = 122) were distinguishable from PGs and PAs by their characteristic birefringence, despite the absence of lining epithelium ( n = 20). Therefore, the authors suggest that the presence of linear band-like collagen birefringence of the cyst wall aids the diagnostic differentiation of PC from PG and PA.

  4. Colchicine affects cell motility, pattern formation and stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium by altering calcium signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poloz, Yekaterina; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-04-01

    Previous work, verified here, showed that colchicine affects Dictyostelium pattern formation, disrupts morphogenesis, inhibits spore differentiation and induces terminal stalk cell differentiation. Here we show that colchicine specifically induces ecmB expression and enhances accumulation of ecmB-expressing cells at the posterior end of multicellular structures. Colchicine did not induce a nuclear translocation of DimB, a DIF-1 responsive transcription factor in vitro. It also induced terminal stalk cell differentiation in a mutant strain that does not produce DIF-1 (dmtA-) and after the treatment of cells with DIF-1 synthesis inhibitor cerulenin (100 μM). This suggests that colchicine induces the differentiation of ecmB-expressing cells independent of DIF-1 production and likely through a signaling pathway that is distinct from the one that is utilized by DIF-1. Depending on concentration, colchicine enhanced random cell motility, but not chemotaxis, by 3-5 fold (10-50 mM colchicine, respectively) through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving phospholipase C, calmodulin and heterotrimeric G proteins. Colchicine's effects were not due to microtubule depolymerization as other microtubule-depolymerizing agents did not have these effects. Finally normal morphogenesis and stalk and spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 10 mM colchicine were rescued through chelation of Ca2+ by BAPTA-AM and EDTA and calmodulin antagonism by W-7 but not PLC inhibition by U-73122. Morphogenesis or spore cell differentiation of cells treated with 50 mM colchicine could not be rescued by the above treatments but terminal stalk cell differentiation was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, EDTA and W-7, but not U-73122. Thus colchicine disrupts morphogenesis and induces stalk cell differentiation through a Ca(2+)-mediated signaling pathway involving specific changes in gene expression and cell motility. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B

  5. Spatiotemporal Pattern of PM2.5 Concentrations in Mainland China and Analysis of Its Influencing Factors using Geographically Weighted Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jieqiong; Du, Peijun; Samat, Alim; Xia, Junshi; Che, Meiqin; Xue, Zhaohui

    2017-01-01

    Based on annual average PM2.5 gridded dataset, this study first analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of PM2.5 across Mainland China during 1998-2012. Then facilitated with meteorological site data, land cover data, population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, etc., the contributions of latent geographic factors, including socioeconomic factors (e.g., road, agriculture, population, industry) and natural geographical factors (e.g., topography, climate, vegetation) to PM2.5 were explored through Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model. The results revealed that PM2.5 concentrations increased while the spatial pattern remained stable, and the proportion of areas with PM2.5 concentrations greater than 35 μg/m3 significantly increased from 23.08% to 29.89%. Moreover, road, agriculture, population and vegetation showed the most significant impacts on PM2.5. Additionally, the Moran’s I for the residuals of GWR was 0.025 (not significant at a 0.01 level), indicating that the GWR model was properly specified. The local coefficient estimates of GDP in some cities were negative, suggesting the existence of the inverted-U shaped Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) for PM2.5 in Mainland China. The effects of each latent factor on PM2.5 in various regions were different. Therefore, regional measures and strategies for controlling PM2.5 should be formulated in terms of the local impacts of specific factors.

  6. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N; Asmundsson, I M; Thomas, N J; Samuel, M D; Dubey, J P; Rosenthal, B M

    2008-03-25

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  7. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystic neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, N.; Asmundsson, I.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Samuel, M.D.; Dubey, J.P.; Rosenthal, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an important cause of neurological disease in horses (equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, EPM) and sea otters in the United States. In addition, EPM-like disease has been diagnosed in several other land and marine mammals. Opossums are its only definitive hosts. Little genetic diversity among isolates of S. neurona from different hosts has been reported. Here, we used 11 microsatellites to characterize S. neurona DNA isolated from natural infections in 22 sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from California and Washington and in 11 raccoons (Procyon lotor) and 1 striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) from Wisconsin. By jointly analyzing these 34 isolates with 26 isolates previously reported, we determined that geographic barriers may limit S. neurona dispersal and that only a limited subset of possible parasite genotypes may have been introduced to recently established opossum populations. Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

  8. Six1 is essential for differentiation and patterning of the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The organ of Corti in the cochlea is a two-cell layered epithelium: one cell layer of mechanosensory hair cells that align into one row of inner and three rows of outer hair cells interdigitated with one cell layer of underlying supporting cells along the entire length of the cochlear spiral. These two types of epithelial cells are derived from common precursors in the four- to five-cell layered primordium and acquire functionally important shapes during terminal differentiation through the thinning process and convergent extension. Here, we have examined the role of Six1 in the establishment of the auditory sensory epithelium. Our data show that prior to terminal differentiation of the precursor cells, deletion of Six1 leads to formation of only a few hair cells and defective patterning of the sensory epithelium. Previous studies have suggested that downregulation of Sox2 expression in differentiating hair cells must occur after Atoh1 mRNA activation in order to allow Atoh1 protein accumulation due to antagonistic effects between Atoh1 and Sox2. Our analysis indicates that downregulation of Sox2 in the differentiating hair cells depends on Six1 activity. Furthermore, we found that Six1 is required for the maintenance of Fgf8 expression and dynamic distribution of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in the organ of Corti during differentiation. Together, our analyses uncover essential roles of Six1 in hair cell differentiation and formation of the organ of Corti in the mammalian cochlea.

  9. Repetition suppression and multi-voxel pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit visual memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Emily J; Chun, Marvin M; Kuhl, Brice A

    2013-09-11

    Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus is associated with corresponding reductions in neural activity, particularly within visual cortical areas. It has been argued that this phenomenon of repetition suppression is related to increases in processing fluency or implicit memory. However, repetition of a visual stimulus can also be considered in terms of the similarity of the pattern of neural activity elicited at each exposure--a measure that has recently been linked to explicit memory. Despite the popularity of each of these measures, direct comparisons between the two have been limited, and the extent to which they differentially (or similarly) relate to behavioral measures of memory has not been clearly established. In the present study, we compared repetition suppression and pattern similarity as predictors of both implicit and explicit memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 20 participants while they viewed and categorized repeated presentations of scenes. Repetition priming (facilitated categorization across repetitions) was used as a measure of implicit memory, and subsequent scene recognition was used as a measure of explicit memory. We found that repetition priming was predicted by repetition suppression in prefrontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal regions; however, repetition priming was not predicted by pattern similarity. In contrast, subsequent explicit memory was predicted by pattern similarity (across repetitions) in some of the same occipitotemporal regions that exhibited a relationship between priming and repetition suppression; however, explicit memory was not related to repetition suppression. This striking double dissociation indicates that repetition suppression and pattern similarity differentially track implicit and explicit learning.

  10. Comparison of geographic methods to assess travel patterns of persons diagnosed with HIV in Philadelphia: how close is close enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, Michael G; Share, Amanda M; Shpaner, Mark; Brady, Kathleen A

    2015-02-01

    Travel distance to medical care has been assessed using a variety of geographic methods. Network analyses are less common, but may generate more accurate estimates of travel costs. We compared straight-line distances and driving distance, as well as average drive time and travel time on a public transit network for 1789 persons diagnosed with HIV between 2010 and 2012 to identify differences overall, and by distinct geographic areas of Philadelphia. Paired t-tests were used to assess differences across methods, and analysis of variance was used to assess between-group differences. Driving distances were significantly longer than straight-line distances (ptravel costs, and may improve models to predict medical care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multivoxel Patterns Reveal Functionally Differentiated Networks Underlying Auditory Feedback Processing of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Zane Z.; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N.

    2013-01-01

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. An important component of control is monitoring, detection, and processing of errors when auditory feedback does not correspond to the intended motor gesture. Here we show, using fMRI and converging operations...... within a multivoxel pattern analysis framework, that this sensorimotor process is supported by functionally differentiated brain networks. During scanning, a real-time speech-tracking system was used to deliver two acoustically different types of distorted auditory feedback or unaltered feedback while...... human participants were vocalizing monosyllabic words, and to present the same auditory stimuli while participants were passively listening. Whole-brain analysis of neural-pattern similarity revealed three functional networks that were differentially sensitive to distorted auditory feedback during...

  12. Evidence for universality and cultural variation of differential emotion response patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K R; Wallbott, H G

    1994-02-01

    The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate. Results show highly significant main effects and strong effect sizes for the response differences across 7 major emotions (joy, fear, anger, sadness, disgust, shame, and guilt). Profiles of cross-culturally stable differences among the emotions with respect to subjective feeling, physiological symptoms, and expressive behavior are also reported. The empirical evidence is interpreted as supporting theories that postulate both a high degree of universality of differential emotion patterning and important cultural differences in emotion elicitation, regulation, symbolic representation, and social sharing.

  13. Constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions for nonlinear time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arqub, Omar Abu; El-Ajou, Ahmad; Momani, Shaher

    2015-07-01

    Building fractional mathematical models for specific phenomena and developing numerical or analytical solutions for these fractional mathematical models are crucial issues in mathematics, physics, and engineering. In this work, a new analytical technique for constructing and predicting solitary pattern solutions of time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations is proposed based on the generalized Taylor series formula and residual error function. The new approach provides solutions in the form of a rapidly convergent series with easily computable components using symbolic computation software. For method evaluation and validation, the proposed technique was applied to three different models and compared with some of the well-known methods. The resultant simulations clearly demonstrate the superiority and potentiality of the proposed technique in terms of the quality performance and accuracy of substructure preservation in the construct, as well as the prediction of solitary pattern solutions for time-fractional dispersive partial differential equations.

  14. Spatiotemporal Pattern of Crime Using Geographic Information System (GIS) Approach in Dala L.G.A of Kano State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and spatial database of crime characteristics which helps in the determination of hotspots in Dala LGA of Kano State and also it identifies the challenges facing police departments that seek to implement computerized crime mapping systems. Different data sources were used, data from the Nigerian Police Force ( Dala and Jakara Division) of 2008 – 2010. For this study, the crime was divided into four categories: offence against...

  15. Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP) on microarray to identify genes related to metastatic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Lam C; Qin, Tingting; Slate, Elizabeth H; Zheng, W Jim

    2011-11-11

    To utilize the large volume of gene expression information generated from different microarray experiments, several meta-analysis techniques have been developed. Despite these efforts, there remain significant challenges to effectively increasing the statistical power and decreasing the Type I error rate while pooling the heterogeneous datasets from public resources. The objective of this study is to develop a novel meta-analysis approach, Consistent Differential Expression Pattern (CDEP), to identify genes with common differential expression patterns across different datasets. We combined False Discovery Rate (FDR) estimation and the non-parametric RankProd approach to estimate the Type I error rate in each microarray dataset of the meta-analysis. These Type I error rates from all datasets were then used to identify genes with common differential expression patterns. Our simulation study showed that CDEP achieved higher statistical power and maintained low Type I error rate when compared with two recently proposed meta-analysis approaches. We applied CDEP to analyze microarray data from different laboratories that compared transcription profiles between metastatic and primary cancer of different types. Many genes identified as differentially expressed consistently across different cancer types are in pathways related to metastatic behavior, such as ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and blood vessel development. We also identified novel genes such as AMIGO2, Gem, and CXCL11 that have not been shown to associate with, but may play roles in, metastasis. CDEP is a flexible approach that borrows information from each dataset in a meta-analysis in order to identify genes being differentially expressed consistently. We have shown that CDEP can gain higher statistical power than other existing approaches under a variety of settings considered in the simulation study, suggesting its robustness and insensitivity to data variation commonly associated with microarray

  16. Simulation of Cell Patterning Triggered by Cell Death and Differential Adhesion in Drosophila Wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao; Takemura, Masahiko

    2018-02-27

    The Drosophila wing exhibits a well-ordered cell pattern, especially along the posterior margin, where hair cells are arranged in a zigzag pattern in the lateral view. Based on an experimental result observed during metamorphosis of Drosophila, we considered that a pattern of initial cells autonomously develops to the zigzag pattern through cell differentiation, intercellular communication, and cell death (apoptosis) and performed computer simulations of a cell-based model of vertex dynamics for tissues. The model describes the epithelial tissue as a monolayer cell sheet of polyhedral cells. Their vertices move according to equations of motion, minimizing the sum total of the interfacial and elastic energies of cells. The interfacial energy densities between cells are introduced consistently with an ideal zigzag cell pattern, extracted from the experimental result. The apoptosis of cells is modeled by gradually reducing their equilibrium volume to zero and by assuming that the hair cells prohibit neighboring cells from undergoing apoptosis. Based on experimental observations, we also assumed wing elongation along the proximal-distal axis. Starting with an initial cell pattern similar to the micrograph experimentally obtained just before apoptosis, we carried out the simulations according to the model mentioned above and successfully reproduced the ideal zigzag cell pattern. This elucidates a physical mechanism of patterning triggered by cell apoptosis theoretically and exemplifies, to our knowledge, a new framework to study apoptosis-induced patterning. We conclude that the zigzag cell pattern is formed by an autonomous communicative process among the participant cells. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic differentiation among geographically isolated populations of Criollo cattle and their divergence from other Bos taurus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, N D; Rios, J; Erosa, G; Remmenga, M D; Hawkins, D E

    2000-09-01

    The microsatellites HEL5, HEL9, INRA063, and BM2113 were used to analyze genetic similarities and differences of geographically isolated Criollo cattle herds in Mexico. Criollo cattle from five counties within the state of Chihuahua and one county from the state of Tamaulipas (n = 60) were sampled. The five counties in Chihuahua included Cerocahui (n = 14), Chinipas (n = 10), Guachochi (n = 15), Morelos (n = 30), and Temoris (n = 9). Samples of DNA were amplified by PCR and separated on a 7% polyacrylamide gel. Microsatellite size was established by comparison to M13mp18 DNA ladder and a documented set of four bovine controls. Allele frequencies and genotypic deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were tested using the GENEPOP program. Eleven alleles were generated at HEL5 for the populations sampled (149 to 169 bp). Allele frequencies were greatest for the 163-bp allele in Criollo cattle from Cerocahui, Chinipas, Moralos, and Tamaulipas (0.23 to 0.5). Cattle from Guachochi had an allele frequency of 0.38 for the 151-bp allele, and cattle from Temoris had an allele frequency of 0.25 for the 149- and 167-bp alleles, with no 163-bp allele. Amplification with HEL9 produced 12 alleles (145, 149 to 169 bp) and showed common high-frequency alleles at 149, 157, and 159 bp for animals from all regions. The Chinipas population showed a moderate allele frequency at 145 bp; no other regions contained this allele. For INRA063 there were five alleles with 182 and 184 bp in low frequency. For BM2113 there were 10 alleles in the Criollo cattle (125 to 143 bp), with an equal distribution of frequencies for all alleles. In two regions, Guachochi and Morelos, genotypic frequencies deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cattle from the Temoris region were genetically most distant from Criollo cattle of the other five regions.

  18. Determination of distribution pattern of the heavy metal concentrations in the potable network of Gachsaran by Geographical Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Paraham

    2013-12-01

    . Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, samples were taken from11 spots of the drinking water distribution network and tested for concentration of 10 metals by Inductivity Coupled Ions Plasma (ICP method in summer of 2010. The research data were compared with national and international water standards. Then the distribution map of heavy metals concentrations in the drinking water wells of the region was prepared by using the Geographical Information System (GIS software. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: In all samples, the average concentration of heavy metals were: Arsenic 0.54, Cadmium 0.05, Zinc 55.9, Lead 0.18, Copper .82, Chromium 1.6, Barium 36.5, Selenium0.5, Mercury 0.1 and Silver 0.05 micrograms per liter and was less than the water quality standard. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that concentrations of heavy metals in Gachsaran’s drinking water distribution network are not higher than national and international standards and therefore not harmful for people. Key words: Heavy metals, Distribution network, Gachsaran, geographical information system (GIS

  19. Genetic Structure and Eco-Geographical Differentiation of Wild Sheep Fescue (Festuca ovina L. in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glaciation and mountain orogeny have generated new ecologic opportunities for plants, favoring an increase in the speciation rate. Moreover, they also act as corridors or barriers for plant lineages and populations. High genetic diversity ensures that species are able to survive and adapt. Gene flow is one of the most important determinants of the genetic diversity and structure of out-crossed species, and it is easily affected by biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity and structure of an alpine species, Festuca ovina L., in Xinjiang, China. A total of 100 individuals from 10 populations were analyzed using six amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP primer pairs. A total of 583 clear bands were generated, of which 392 were polymorphic; thus, the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB was 67.24%. The total and average genetic diversities were 0.2722 and 0.2006 (0.1686–0.2225, respectively. The unweighted group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA tree, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA and Structure analyses revealed that these populations or individuals could be clustered into two groups. The analysis of molecular variance analysis (AMOVA suggested that most of the genetic variance existed within a population, and the genetic differentiation (Fst among populations was 20.71%. The Shannon differentiation coefficient (G’st among populations was 0.2350. Limited gene flow (Nm = 0.9571 was detected across all sampling sites. The Fst and Nm presented at different levels under the genetic barriers due to fragmentation. The population genetic diversity was significant relative to environmental factors such as temperature, altitude and precipitation.

  20. [Characteristics of temporal-spatial differentiation in landscape pattern vulnerability in Nansihu Lake wetland, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jia Xin; Li, Xin Ju

    2018-02-01

    With remote sensing images from 1985, 2000 Lantsat 5 TM and 2015 Lantsat 8 OLI as data sources, we tried to select the suitable research scale and examine the temporal-spatial diffe-rentiation with such scale in the Nansihu Lake wetland by using landscape pattern vulnerability index constructed by sensitivity index and adaptability index, and combined with space statistics such as semivariogram and spatial autocorrelation. The results showed that 1 km × 1 km equidistant grid was the suitable research scale, which could eliminate the influence of spatial heterogeneity induced by random factors. From 1985 to 2015, the landscape pattern vulnerability in the Nansihu Lake wetland deteriorated gradually. The high-risk area of landscape pattern vulnerability dramatically expanded with time. The spatial heterogeneity of landscape pattern vulnerability increased, and the influence of non-structural factors on landscape pattern vulnerability strengthened. Spatial variability affected by spatial autocorrelation slightly weakened. Landscape pattern vulnerability had strong general spatial positive correlation, with the significant form of spatial agglomeration. The positive spatial autocorrelation continued to increase and the phenomenon of spatial concentration was more and more obvious over time. The local autocorrelation mainly based on high-high accumulation zone and low-low accumulation zone had stronger spatial autocorrelation among neighboring space units. The high-high accumulation areas showed the strongest level of significance, and the significant level of low-low accumulation zone increased with time. Natural factors, such as temperature and precipitation, affected water-level and landscape distribution, and thus changed the landscape patterns vulnerability of Nansihu Lake wetland. The dominant driver for the deterioration of landscape patterns vulnerability was human activities, including social economy activity and policy system.

  1. Geographic variation in the song of Willow Flycatchers: Differentiation between Empidonax traillii adastus and E. t. extimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The vocal signatures of the primary song form (“fitz-bew”) of the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and its northern counterpart, E. t. adastus, are distinctive. Songs of the extimus subspecies are longer (total song, note, internote) and frequencies at maximum amplitude are lower than those of adastus. I used vocal evidence to clarify the distributional limits of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher and that of the geographically adjacent subspecies, E. t. adastus. Unweighted pair-group method using averaging (UPGMA) cluster analysis and canonical discriminant analysis revealed that (1) low elevation, southerly desert populations (Arizona, New Mexico, and southern Utah) have a unique vocal identity corresponding to populations in the range of E. t. extimus; (2) northerly song groups (Oregon, Colorado, and northern Utah) share a different song type corresponding to populations in the range of E. t. adastus; and (3) a departure from vocal and morphological congruence occurs for a population of high-elevation Arizona birds that, although in the currently accepted range of E. t. extimus, sings songs acoustically similar to more northern populations (E. t. adastus). Multiple regression of song distance on latitude and elevation, and a comparison of a matrix of song distances with a matrix of latitude and elevation dissimilarities, demonstrated that song populations sort out by both latitude and elevation: birds with the vocal identity of extimus occur as far north as 37°N if at low elevation, and those acoustically similar to adastus occur as far south as 33.7°N if at high elevation. The vocal background of northern New Mexico birds appears to be intermediate between that of extimus and adastus, suggesting that northern New Mexico is a zone of intermixing and intergradation between the subspecies. Pure forms of E. t. extimus apparently do not occur in Colorado because even the southernmost populations are acoustically similar to

  2. Robust stratification of breast cancer subtypes using differential patterns of transcript isoform expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas P Stricker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death of women worldwide, is a heterogenous disease with multiple different subtypes. These subtypes carry important implications for prognosis and therapy. Interestingly, it is known that these different subtypes not only have different biological behaviors, but also have distinct gene expression profiles. However, it has not been rigorously explored whether particular transcriptional isoforms are also differentially expressed among breast cancer subtypes, or whether transcript isoforms from the same sets of genes can be used to differentiate subtypes. To address these questions, we analyzed the patterns of transcript isoform expression using a small set of RNA-sequencing data for eleven Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+ subtype and fourteen triple negative (TN subtype tumors. We identified specific sets of isoforms that distinguish these tumor subtypes with higher fidelity than standard mRNA expression profiles. We found that alternate promoter usage, alternative splicing, and alternate 3'UTR usage are differentially regulated in breast cancer subtypes. Profiling of isoform expression in a second, independent cohort of 68 tumors confirmed that expression of splice isoforms differentiates breast cancer subtypes. Furthermore, analysis of RNAseq data from 594 cases from the TCGA cohort confirmed the ability of isoform usage to distinguish breast cancer subtypes. Also using our expression data, we identified several RNA processing factors that were differentially expressed between tumor subtypes and/or regulated by estrogen receptor, including YBX1, YBX2, MAGOH, MAGOHB, and PCBP2. RNAi knock-down of these RNA processing factors in MCF7 cells altered isoform expression. These results indicate that global dysregulation of splicing in breast cancer occurs in a subtype-specific and reproducible manner and is driven by specific differentially expressed RNA processing factors.

  3. AGAMOUS controls GIANT KILLER, a multifunctional chromatin modifier in reproductive organ patterning and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian-Hong Ng

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arabidopsis homeotic protein AGAMOUS (AG, a MADS domain transcription factor, specifies reproductive organ identity during flower development. Using a binding assay and expression analysis, we identified a direct target of AG, GIANT KILLER (GIK, which fine-tunes the expression of multiple genes downstream of AG. The GIK protein contains an AT-hook DNA binding motif that is widely found in chromosomal proteins and that binds to nuclear matrix attachment regions of DNA elements. Overexpression and loss of function of GIK cause wide-ranging defects in patterning and differentiation of reproductive organs. GIK directly regulates the expression of several key transcriptional regulators, including ETTIN/AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 3 (ETT/ARF3 that patterns the gynoecium, by binding to the matrix attachment regions of target promoters. Overexpression of GIK causes a swift and dynamic change in repressive histone modification in the ETT promoter. We propose that GIK acts as a molecular node downstream of the homeotic protein AG, regulating patterning and differentiation of reproductive organs through chromatin organization.

  4. Tremor pattern differentiates drug-induced resting tremor from Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisticò, R; Fratto, A; Vescio, B; Arabia, G; Sciacca, G; Morelli, M; Labate, A; Salsone, M; Novellino, F; Nicoletti, A; Petralia, A; Gambardella, A; Zappia, M; Quattrone, A

    2016-04-01

    DAT-SPECT, is a well-established procedure for distinguishing drug-induced parkinsonism from Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the usefulness of blink reflex recovery cycle (BRrc) and of electromyographic parameters of resting tremor for the differentiation of patients with drug-induced parkinsonism with resting tremor (rDIP) from those with resting tremor due to PD. This was a cross-sectional study. In 16 patients with rDIP and 18 patients with PD we analysed electrophysiological parameters (amplitude, duration, burst and pattern) of resting tremor. BRrc at interstimulus intervals (ISI) of 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 750 msec was also analysed in patients with rDIP, patients with PD and healthy controls. All patients and controls underwent DAT-SPECT. Rest tremor amplitude was higher in PD patients than in rDIP patients (p tremor showed a synchronous pattern in all patients with rDIP, whereas it had an alternating pattern in all PD patients (p tremor can be considered a useful investigation for differentiating rDIP from PD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher; Taylor, Robert; Lane, Oksana; Hall, Jeff; Evers, David; Schamber, Jason

    2017-04-15

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31±0.19 mean±SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04±0.02 mean±SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification and differentiation of nuclear tracks in SSNTD by simulation of their diffraction pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, D.; Palacios, F.; Vitoria, T.

    2001-01-01

    An alternative method to count and differentiate nuclear tracks in SSNTD is described. The method is based on the simulation and analysis of Fraunhofer diffraction pattern formed when coherent light passes through tracks of an etched detector. Transformation of the optical system was carried out by a digital procedure of Fourier Transform. Spectral analysis of the radial intensity distribution facilitated to quantify and differentiate tracks for its diameters. The formalism outlined is also applicable to elliptic tracks. Different components of the developed software (TRACKS) are shown. Results obtained by simulation and by the theoretical model gave satisfactory concordance. With the purpose of optimizing the proposed method, technical variants of optic microscopy are discussed. A model that considers the correction for track overlapping was developed and applied. Count error is small when track distribution changes in the field of view. The proposed method can differentiate genuine tracks from defects and anomalies of the detector. Analyzing the influence of illumination conditions and focus of the microscope on track counting and discrimination, the preliminary treatment of images obtained by the CCD camera was established. The proposed method allows, with low cost and operation simplicity, guaranteeing high speed in the obtaining of results, to calculate with good approximation track density in CR-39 detectors and to differentiate the energy of incident ions by track diameters with satisfactory accuracy and precision

  7. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  8. Bayesian geostatistical modelling of malaria and lymphatic filariasis infections in Uganda: predictors of risk and geographical patterns of co-endemicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Erling M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, malaria and lymphatic filariasis (causative agent Wuchereria bancrofti are transmitted by the same vector species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and thus are likely to share common environmental risk factors and overlap in geographical space. In a comprehensive nationwide survey in 2000-2003 the geographical distribution of W. bancrofti was assessed by screening school-aged children for circulating filarial antigens (CFA. Concurrently, blood smears were examined for malaria parasites. In this study, the resultant malariological data are analysed for the first time and the CFA data re-analysed in order to identify risk factors, produce age-stratified prevalence maps for each infection, and to define the geographical patterns of Plasmodium sp. and W. bancrofti co-endemicity. Methods Logistic regression models were fitted separately for Plasmodium sp. and W. bancrofti within a Bayesian framework. Models contained covariates representing individual-level demographic effects, school-level environmental effects and location-based random effects. Several models were fitted assuming different random effects to allow for spatial structuring and to capture potential non-linearity in the malaria- and filariasis-environment relation. Model-based risk predictions at unobserved locations were obtained via Bayesian predictive distributions for the best fitting models. Maps of predicted hyper-endemic malaria and filariasis were furthermore overlaid in order to define areas of co-endemicity. Results Plasmodium sp. parasitaemia was found to be highly endemic in most of Uganda, with an overall population adjusted parasitaemia risk of 47.2% in the highest risk age-sex group (boys 5-9 years. High W. bancrofti prevalence was predicted for a much more confined area in northern Uganda, with an overall population adjusted infection risk of 7.2% in the highest risk age-group (14-19 year olds. Observed overall prevalence of individual co

  9. Geographical distribution patterns of iodine in drinking-water and its associations with geological factors in Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yi; Bian, Jianchao; Jiang, Wen; Wang, Xiaoming; Sun, Liqian; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-05-19

    County-based spatial distribution characteristics and the related geological factors for iodine in drinking-water were studied in Shandong Province (China). Spatial autocorrelation analysis and spatial scan statistic were applied to analyze the spatial characteristics. Generalized linear models (GLMs) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) studies were conducted to explore the relationship between water iodine level and its related geological factors. The spatial distribution of iodine in drinking-water was significantly heterogeneous in Shandong Province (Moran's I = 0.52, Z = 7.4, p water were identified in the south-western and north-western parts of Shandong Province by the purely spatial scan statistic approach. Both GLMs and GWR indicated a significantly global association between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors. Furthermore, GWR showed obviously spatial variability across the study region. Soil type and distance to Yellow River were statistically significant at most areas of Shandong Province, confirming the hypothesis that the Yellow River causes iodine deposits in Shandong Province. Our results suggested that the more effective regional monitoring plan and water improvement strategies should be strengthened targeting at the cluster areas based on the characteristics of geological factors and the spatial variability of local relationships between iodine in drinking-water and geological factors.

  10. Southern Dietary Pattern is Associated with Hazard of Acute Coronary Heart Disease in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikany, James M.; Safford, Monika M.; Newby, P. K.; Durant, Raegan W.; Brown, Todd M.; Judd, Suzanne E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association of overall diet, as characterized by dietary patterns, with risk of incident acute coronary heart disease (CHD) has not been studied extensively in samples including sociodemographic and regional diversity. Methods and Results We used data from 17,418 participants in Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS), a national, population-based, longitudinal study of white and black adults aged ≥45 years, enrolled from 2003-2007. We derived dietary patterns with factor analysis, and used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine hazard of incident acute CHD events – nonfatal myocardial infarction and acute CHD death – associated with quartiles of consumption of each pattern, adjusted for various levels of covariates. Five primary dietary patterns emerged: Convenience, Plant-based, Sweets, Southern, and Alcohol and Salad. A total of 536 acute CHD events occurred over a median (IQR) 5.8 (2.1) years of follow-up. After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and energy intake, highest consumers of the Southern pattern (characterized by added fats, fried food, eggs, organ and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages) experienced a 56% higher hazard of acute CHD (comparing quartile 4 to quartile 1: HR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.08; P for trend across quartiles = 0.003). Adding anthropometric and medical history variables to the model attenuated the association somewhat (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.85; P = 0.036). Conclusions A dietary pattern characteristic of the southern US was associated with greater hazard of CHD in this sample of white and black adults in diverse regions of the US. PMID:26260732

  11. Assessing public aesthetic preferences towards some urban landscape patterns: the case study of two different geographic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziyue; Xu, Bing; Devereux, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Landscape aesthetics is closely linked to people's daily life, and a large body of studies has been conducted to understand the public's landscape preferences. These studies commonly focused on comprehensive landscape configuration, yet limited emphasis was placed on the patterns of individual landscape features. This research explored people's preferences towards the composition and patterns of some specific urban features. Questionnaire-based survey was conducted in two cities: Cambridge, UK and Nanjing, China and more than 180 responses were collected, respectively. Respondents from both sites showed similar preferences towards freely growing trees, individual houses, gable roofs and mixed design of green spaces. On the other hand, respondents from Cambridge and Nanjing have different preferences towards the height of trees, the size of green spaces, and the height diversity of buildings. This survey also proved that the factors of age, education, status and length of living have larger influences on landscape preferences than the factors of gender, and major. Furthermore, strong correlations were found between people's aesthetic preferences towards comparative landscape patterns, building types, tree shapes and roof structures. The existence of generally shared landscape preferences makes it feasible to conduct international and standardized projects for acquiring comparable and transferable criteria. The methodology and findings of this research provides landscape planners and decision makers with useful reference to compare, evaluate and improve urban landscape configurations to meet people's needs.

  12. Differentiation of tea varieties using UV-Vis spectra and pattern recognition techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Morillo, Ana; Alcázar, Ángela.; de Pablos, Fernando; Jurado, José Marcos

    2013-02-01

    Tea, one of the most consumed beverages all over the world, is of great importance in the economies of a number of countries. Several methods have been developed to classify tea varieties or origins based in pattern recognition techniques applied to chemical data, such as metal profile, amino acids, catechins and volatile compounds. Some of these analytical methods become tedious and expensive to be applied in routine works. The use of UV-Vis spectral data as discriminant variables, highly influenced by the chemical composition, can be an alternative to these methods. UV-Vis spectra of methanol-water extracts of tea have been obtained in the interval 250-800 nm. Absorbances have been used as input variables. Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables and several pattern recognition methods, such as linear discriminant analysis, support vector machines and artificial neural networks, have been applied in order to differentiate the most common tea varieties. A successful classification model was built by combining principal component analysis and multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks, allowing the differentiation between tea varieties. This rapid and simple methodology can be applied to solve classification problems in food industry saving economic resources.

  13. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  14. Differential gene expression patterns between smokers and non‐smokers: cause or consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rick; Brooks, Andy; Willemsen, Gonneke; van Grootheest, Gerard; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Jan H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The molecular mechanisms causing smoking‐induced health decline are largely unknown. To elucidate the molecular pathways involved in cause and consequences of smoking behavior, we conducted a genome‐wide gene expression study in peripheral blood samples targeting 18 238 genes. Data of 743 smokers, 1686 never smokers and 890 ex‐smokers were available from two population‐based cohorts from the Netherlands. In addition, data of 56 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for ever smoking were used. One hundred thirty‐two genes were differentially expressed between current smokers and never smokers (P smokers into account, expression of these 132 genes was classified into reversible (94 genes), slowly reversible (31 genes), irreversible (6 genes) or inconclusive (1 gene). Expression of 6 of the 132 genes (three reversible and three slowly reversible) was confirmed to be reactive to smoking as they were differentially expressed in monozygotic pairs discordant for smoking. Cis‐expression quantitative trait loci for GPR56 and RARRES3 (downregulated in smokers) were associated with increased number of cigarettes smoked per day in a large genome‐wide association meta‐analysis, suggesting a causative effect of GPR56 and RARRES3 expression on smoking behavior. In conclusion, differential gene expression patterns in smokers are extensive and cluster in several underlying disease pathways. Gene expression differences seem mainly direct consequences of smoking, and largely reversible after smoking cessation. However, we also identified DNA variants that may influence smoking behavior via the mediating gene expression. PMID:26594007

  15. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  16. Markov chain analysis of the rainfall patterns of five geographical locations in the south eastern coast of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Tettey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study develops an objective rainfall pattern assessment through Markov chain analysis using daily rainfall data from 1980 to 2010, a period of 30 years, for five cities or towns along the south eastern coastal belt of Ghana; Cape Coast, Accra, Akuse, Akatsi and Keta. Transition matrices were computed for each town and each month using the conditional probability of rain or no rain on a particular day given that it rained or did not rain on the previous day. The steady state transition matrices and the steady state probability vectors were also computed for each town and each month. It was found that, the rainy or dry season pattern observed using the monthly steady state rainfall vectors tended to reflect the monthly rainfall time series trajectory. Overall, the probability of rain on any day was low to average: Keta 0.227, Akuse 0.382, Accra 0.467, Cape Coast, 0.50 and Akatsi 0.50. In particular, for Accra, the rainy season was observed to be in the months of May to June and September to October. We also determined that the probability of rainfall generally tended to increase from east to west along the south eastern coast of Ghana.

  17. Detecting consistent patterns of directional adaptation using differential selection codon models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, Sahar; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2017-06-23

    Phylogenetic codon models are often used to characterize the selective regimes acting on protein-coding sequences. Recent methodological developments have led to models explicitly accounting for the interplay between mutation and selection, by modeling the amino acid fitness landscape along the sequence. However, thus far, most of these models have assumed that the fitness landscape is constant over time. Fluctuations of the fitness landscape may often be random or depend on complex and unknown factors. However, some organisms may be subject to systematic changes in selective pressure, resulting in reproducible molecular adaptations across independent lineages subject to similar conditions. Here, we introduce a codon-based differential selection model, which aims to detect and quantify the fine-grained consistent patterns of adaptation at the protein-coding level, as a function of external conditions experienced by the organism under investigation. The model parameterizes the global mutational pressure, as well as the site- and condition-specific amino acid selective preferences. This phylogenetic model is implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework. After validation with simulations, we applied our method to a dataset of HIV sequences from patients with known HLA genetic background. Our differential selection model detects and characterizes differentially selected coding positions specifically associated with two different HLA alleles. Our differential selection model is able to identify consistent molecular adaptations as a function of repeated changes in the environment of the organism. These models can be applied to many other problems, ranging from viral adaptation to evolution of life-history strategies in plants or animals.

  18. Strong and stable geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo maternal and paternal lineages indicates domestication in the China/Indochina border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Lu, Yongfang; Yindee, Marnoch; Li, Kuan-Yi; Kuo, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yu-Ten; Ye, Shaohui; Faruque, Md Omar; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yachun; Cuong, Vu Chi; Pham, Lan Doan; Bouahom, Bounthong; Yang, Bingzhuang; Liang, Xianwei; Cai, Zhihua; Vankan, Dianne; Manatchaiworakul, Wallaya; Kowlim, Nonglid; Duangchantrasiri, Somphot; Wajjwalku, Worawidh; Colenbrander, Ben; Zhang, Yuan; Beerli, Peter; Lenstra, Johannes A; Barker, J Stuart F

    2016-04-01

    The swamp type of the Asian water buffalo is assumed to have been domesticated by about 4000 years BP, following the introduction of rice cultivation. Previous localizations of the domestication site were based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation within China, accounting only for the maternal lineage. We carried out a comprehensive sampling of China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Nepal and Bangladesh and sequenced the mtDNA Cytochrome b gene and control region and the Y-chromosomal ZFY, SRY and DBY sequences. Swamp buffalo has a higher diversity of both maternal and paternal lineages than river buffalo, with also a remarkable contrast between a weak phylogeographic structure of river buffalo and a strong geographic differentiation of swamp buffalo. The highest diversity of the swamp buffalo maternal lineages was found in south China and north Indochina on both banks of the Mekong River, while the highest diversity in paternal lineages was in the China/Indochina border region. We propose that domestication in this region was later followed by introgressive capture of wild cows west of the Mekong. Migration to the north followed the Yangtze valley as well as a more eastern route, but also involved translocations of both cows and bulls over large distances with a minor influence of river buffaloes in recent decades. Bayesian analyses of various migration models also supported domestication in the China/Indochina border region. Coalescence analysis yielded consistent estimates for the expansion of the major swamp buffalo haplogroups with a credibility interval of 900 to 3900 years BP. The spatial differentiation of mtDNA and Y-chromosomal haplotype distributions indicates a lack of gene flow between established populations that is unprecedented in livestock. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Differential expression patterns of housekeeping genes increase diagnostic and prognostic value in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Using DNA microarrays, we previously identified 451 genes expressed in 19 different human tissues. Although ubiquitously expressed, the variable expression patterns of these “housekeeping genes” (HKGs could separate one normal human tissue type from another. Current focus on identifying “specific disease markers” is problematic as single gene expression in a given sample represents the specific cellular states of the sample at the time of collection. In this study, we examine the diagnostic and prognostic potential of the variable expressions of HKGs in lung cancers. Methods Microarray and RNA-seq data for normal lungs, lung adenocarcinomas (AD, squamous cell carcinomas of the lung (SQCLC, and small cell carcinomas of the lung (SCLC were collected from online databases. Using 374 of 451 HKGs, differentially expressed genes between pairs of sample types were determined via two-sided, homoscedastic t-test. Principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering classified normal lung and lung cancers subtypes according to relative gene expression variations. We used uni- and multi-variate cox-regressions to identify significant predictors of overall survival in AD patients. Classifying genes were selected using a set of training samples and then validated using an independent test set. Gene Ontology was examined by PANTHER. Results This study showed that the differential expression patterns of 242, 245, and 99 HKGs were able to distinguish normal lung from AD, SCLC, and SQCLC, respectively. From these, 70 HKGs were common across the three lung cancer subtypes. These HKGs have low expression variation compared to current lung cancer markers (e.g., EGFR, KRAS and were involved in the most common biological processes (e.g., metabolism, stress response. In addition, the expression pattern of 106 HKGs alone was a significant classifier of AD versus SQCLC. We further highlighted that a panel of 13 HKGs was an independent predictor of

  20. Differential pattern of semantic memory organization between bipolar I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Seung; Choi, Sungwon; Ha, Kyooseob; Ha, Tae Hyon; Cho, Hyun Sang; Choi, Jung Eun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo

    2011-06-01

    Semantic cognition is one of the key factors in psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to explore the differences in pattern of semantic memory organization between euthymic patients with bipolar I and II disorders using the category fluency task. Study participants included 23 euthymic subjects with bipolar I disorder, 23 matched euthymic subjects with bipolar II disorder and 23 matched control subjects. All participants were assessed for verbal learning, recall, learning strategies, and fluency. The combined methods of hierarchical clustering and multidimensional scaling were used to compare the pattern of semantic memory organization among the three groups. Quantitative measures of verbal learning, recall, learning strategies, and fluency did not differ between the three groups. A two-cluster structure of semantic memory organization was identified for the three groups. Semantic structure was more disorganized in the bipolar I disorder group compared to the bipolar II disorder. In addition, patients with bipolar II disorder used less elaborate strategies of semantic memory organization than those of controls. Compared to healthy controls, strategies for categorization in semantic memory appear to be less knowledge-based in patients with bipolar disorders. A differential pattern of semantic memory organization between bipolar I and II disorders indicates a higher risk of cognitive abnormalities in patients with bipolar I disorder compared to patients with bipolar II disorder. Exploring qualitative nature of neuropsychological domains may provide an explanatory insight into the characteristic behaviors of patients with bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Discordant patterns of genetic and phenotypic differentiation in five grasshopper species codistributed across a microreserve network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Joaquín; García-Navas, Vicente; Noguerales, Víctor; Cordero, Pedro J

    2015-12-01

    Conservation plans can be greatly improved when information on the evolutionary and demographic consequences of habitat fragmentation is available for several codistributed species. Here, we study spatial patterns of phenotypic and genetic variation among five grasshopper species that are codistributed across a network of microreserves but show remarkable differences in dispersal-related morphology (body size and wing length), degree of habitat specialization and extent of fragmentation of their respective habitats in the study region. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that species with preferences for highly fragmented microhabitats show stronger genetic and phenotypic structure than codistributed generalist taxa inhabiting a continuous matrix of suitable habitat. We also hypothesized a higher resemblance of spatial patterns of genetic and phenotypic variability among species that have experienced a higher degree of habitat fragmentation due to their more similar responses to the parallel large-scale destruction of their natural habitats. In partial agreement with our first hypothesis, we found that genetic structure, but not phenotypic differentiation, was higher in species linked to highly fragmented habitats. We did not find support for congruent patterns of phenotypic and genetic variability among any studied species, indicating that they show idiosyncratic evolutionary trajectories and distinctive demographic responses to habitat fragmentation across a common landscape. This suggests that conservation practices in networks of protected areas require detailed ecological and evolutionary information on target species to focus management efforts on those taxa that are more sensitive to the effects of habitat fragmentation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Molecular differentiation and phylogenetic relationships of three Angiostrongylus species and Angiostrongylus cantonensis geographical isolates based on a 66-kDa protein gene of A. cantonensis (Nematoda: Angiostrongylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik Eem; Zhang, Hongman; Gan, Xiaoxian; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2010-12-01

    The phylogenetic relationships and molecular differentiation of three species of angiostrongylid nematodes (Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Angiostrongylus costaricensis and Angiostrongylus malaysiensis) were studied using the AC primers for a 66-kDa protein gene of A. cantonensis. The AC primers successfully amplified the genomic DNA of these angiostrongylid nematodes. No amplification was detected for the DNA of Ascaris lumbricoides, Ascaris suum, Anisakis simplex, Gnathostoma spinigerum, Toxocara canis, and Trichinella spiralis. The maximum-parsimony (MP) consensus tree and the maximum-likelihood (ML) tree both showed that the Angiostrongylus taxa could be divided into two major clades - Clade 1 (A. costaricensis) and Clade 2 (A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis) with a full support bootstrap value. A. costaricensis is the most distant taxon. A. cantonensis is a sister group to A. malaysiensis; these two taxa (species) are clearly separated. There is no clear distinction between the A. cantonensis samples from four different geographical localities (Thailand, China, Japan and Hawaii); only some of the samples are grouped ranging from no support or low support to moderate support of bootstrap values. The published nucleotide sequences of A. cantonensis adult-specific native 66kDa protein mRNA, clone L5-400 from Taiwan (U17585) appear to be very distant from the A. cantonensis samples from Thailand, China, Japan and Hawaii, with the uncorrected p-distance values ranging from 26.87% to 29.92%.

  3. Gastric cancer differentiation using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy with unsupervised pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wei-song; Cui, Dian-sheng; Li, Zhi; Wu, Lan-lan; Shen, Ai-guo; Hu, Ji-ming

    2013-01-01

    The manuscript has investigated the application of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for differentiation gastric cancer. The 90 spectra from cancerous and normal tissues were collected from a total of 30 surgical specimens using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) equipped with a fiber-optic probe. Major spectral differences were observed in the CH-stretching second overtone (9000-7000 cm-1), CH-stretching first overtone (6000-5200 cm-1), and CH-stretching combination (4500-4000 cm-1) regions. By use of unsupervised pattern recognition, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA), all spectra were classified into cancerous and normal tissue groups with accuracy up to 81.1%. The sensitivity and specificity was 100% and 68.2%, respectively. These present results indicate that CH-stretching first, combination band and second overtone regions can serve as diagnostic markers for gastric cancer.

  4. Apparent diffusion coefficient values and dynamic contrast enhancement patterns in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous testicular neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsili, Athina C.; Sylakos, Anastasios; Ntorkou, Alexandra; Stavrou, Sotirios; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Sofikitis, Nikolaos; Argyropoulou, Maria I.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional MRI in the characterization of testicular germ cell tumors was assessed. • ADC values proved useful in the characterization of testicular germ cell tumors. • Testicular germ cell tumors had similar enhancement patterns of dynamic MRI. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) patterns in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). Materials and methods: The MRI examinations of the scrotum of 26 men with histologically proven testicular GCTs were reviewed. DWI was performed in all patients, using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s/mm 2 . Subtraction DCE-MRI was performed in 20 cases using a 3D fast-field echo sequence after gadolinium administration. Time-signal intensity curves were created and semi-quantitative parameters (peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in and wash-out rate) were calculated. The Student's t-test was used to compare the mean values of ADC, peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in and wash-out rate between seminomas and NSGCTs. ROC analysis was also performed. Results: Histopathology disclosed the presence of 15 seminomas and 11 NSGCTs. The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (× 10 −3 mm 2 /s) of seminomas (0.59 ± 0.009) were significantly lower than those of NSGCTs (0.90 ± 0.33) (P = 0.01). The optimal ADC cut-off value was 0.68 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s. No differences between the two groups were observed for peak enhancement (P = 0.18), time to peak (P = 0.63) wash-in rate (P = 0.32) and wash-out rate (P = 0.18). Conclusions: ADC values may be used to preoperatively differentiate seminomas from NSGCTs

  5. Differential consolidation and pattern reverberations within episodic cell assemblies in the mouse hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Oşan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One hallmark feature of consolidation of episodic memory is that only a fraction of original information, which is usually in a more abstract form, is selected for long-term memory storage. How does the brain perform these differential memory consolidations? To investigate the neural network mechanism that governs this selective consolidation process, we use a set of distinct fearful events to study if and how hippocampal CA1 cells engage in selective memory encoding and consolidation. We show that these distinct episodes activate a unique assembly of CA1 episodic cells, or neural cliques, whose response-selectivity ranges from general-to-specific features. A series of parametric analyses further reveal that post-learning CA1 episodic pattern replays or reverberations are mostly mediated by cells exhibiting event intensity-invariant responses, not by the intensity-sensitive cells. More importantly, reactivation cross-correlations displayed by intensity-invariant cells encoding general episodic features during immediate post-learning period tend to be stronger than those displayed by invariant cells encoding specific features. These differential reactivations within the CA1 episodic cell populations can thus provide the hippocampus with a selection mechanism to consolidate preferentially more generalized knowledge for long-term memory storage.

  6. Differential resting-state EEG patterns associated with comorbid depression in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Park, Su Mi; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2014-04-03

    Many researchers have reported a relationship between Internet addiction and depression. In the present study, we compared the resting-state quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) activity of treatment-seeking patients with comorbid Internet addiction and depression with those of treatment-seeking patients with Internet addiction without depression, and healthy controls to investigate the neurobiological markers that differentiate pure Internet addiction from Internet addiction with comorbid depression. Thirty-five patients diagnosed with Internet addiction and 34 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with Internet addiction were divided into two groups according to the presence (N=18) or absence (N=17) of depression. Resting-state, eye-closed QEEG was recorded, and the absolute and relative power of the brain were analyzed. The Internet addiction group without depression had decreased absolute delta and beta powers in all brain regions, whereas the Internet addiction group with depression had increased relative theta and decreased relative alpha power in all regions. These neurophysiological changes were not related to clinical variables. The current findings reflect differential resting-state QEEG patterns between both groups of participants with Internet addiction and healthy controls and also suggest that decreased absolute delta and beta powers are neurobiological markers of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation Dose-rate Reduction Pattern in Well-differentiated Thyroid Cancer Treated with I-131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shahbaz Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Arif, Muhammad; Durr-e-Sabih; Rahim, Muhammad Kashif; Ahmad, Israr

    2015-07-01

    To determine the patterns of dose rate reduction in single and multiple radioiodine (I-131) therapies in cases of well differentiated thyroid cancer patients. Analytical series. Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Physics, Multan Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (MINAR), Multan, Pakistan, from December 2006 to December 2013. Ninety three patients (167 therapies) with well differentiated thyroid cancer treated with different doses of I-131 as an in-patient were inducted. Fifty four patients were given only single I-131 therapy dose ranging from 70 mCi (2590 MBq) to 150 mCi (5550 MBq). Thirty nine patients were treated with multiple I-131 radioisotope therapy doses ranging from 80 mCi (2960 MBq) to 250 mCi (9250 MBq). T-test was applied on the sample data showed statistically significant difference between the two groups with p-value (p < 0.01) less than 0.05 taken as significant. There were 68 females and 25 males with an age range of 15 to 80 years. Mean age of the patients were 36 years. Among the 93 cases of first time Radio Active Iodine (RAI) therapy, 59 cases (63%) were discharged after 48 hours. Among 39 patients who received RAI therapy second time or more, most were discharged earlier after achieving acceptable discharge dose rate i.e 25 µSv/hour; 2 out of 39 (5%) were discharged after 48 hours. In 58% patients, given single I-131 therapy dose, majority of these were discharged after 48 hours without any major complications. For well differentiated thyroid cancer patients, rapid dose rate reduction is seen in patients receiving second or subsequent radioiodine (RAI) therapy, as compared to first time receiving RAI therapy.

  8. Differential Infection Patterns and Recent Evolutionary Origins of Equine Hepaciviruses in Donkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stephanie; Rasche, Andrea; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Pfaender, Stephanie; Bletsa, Magda; Corman, Victor Max; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro; García-Lacy, Fernando; Hans, Aymeric; Todt, Daniel; Schuler, Gerhard; Shnaiderman-Torban, Anat; Steinman, Amir; Roncoroni, Cristina; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Rusenova, Nikolina; Sandev, Nikolay; Rusenov, Anton; Zapryanova, Dimitrinka; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Jores, Joerg; Carluccio, Augusto; Veronesi, Maria Cristina; Cavalleri, Jessika M. V.; Drosten, Christian; Lemey, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    , limiting the time span for potential horse-to-human infections in the past. Horses are genetically related to donkeys, and EqHV may have cospeciated with these host species. Here, we investigated a large panel of donkeys from various countries using serologic and molecular tools. We found EqHV to be globally widespread in donkeys and identify potential differences in EqHV infection patterns, with donkeys potentially showing enhanced EqHV clearance compared to horses. We provide strong evidence against EqHV cospeciation and for its capability to switch hosts among equines. Differential hepacivirus infection patterns in horses and donkeys may enable new insights into the chronic infection pattern associated with HCV. PMID:27795428

  9. Differential Infection Patterns and Recent Evolutionary Origins of Equine Hepaciviruses in Donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stephanie; Rasche, Andrea; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Pfaender, Stephanie; Bletsa, Magda; Corman, Victor Max; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro; García-Lacy, Fernando; Hans, Aymeric; Todt, Daniel; Schuler, Gerhard; Shnaiderman-Torban, Anat; Steinman, Amir; Roncoroni, Cristina; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Rusenova, Nikolina; Sandev, Nikolay; Rusenov, Anton; Zapryanova, Dimitrinka; García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Jores, Joerg; Carluccio, Augusto; Veronesi, Maria Cristina; Cavalleri, Jessika M V; Drosten, Christian; Lemey, Philippe; Steinmann, Eike; Drexler, Jan Felix

    2017-01-01

    potential horse-to-human infections in the past. Horses are genetically related to donkeys, and EqHV may have cospeciated with these host species. Here, we investigated a large panel of donkeys from various countries using serologic and molecular tools. We found EqHV to be globally widespread in donkeys and identify potential differences in EqHV infection patterns, with donkeys potentially showing enhanced EqHV clearance compared to horses. We provide strong evidence against EqHV cospeciation and for its capability to switch hosts among equines. Differential hepacivirus infection patterns in horses and donkeys may enable new insights into the chronic infection pattern associated with HCV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. A novel approach to parasite population genetics: experimental infection reveals geographic differentiation, recombination and host-mediated population structure in Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterial parasite of Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andras, J P; Ebert, D

    2013-02-01

    The population structure of parasites is central to the ecology and evolution of host-parasite systems. Here, we investigate the population genetics of Pasteuria ramosa, a bacterial parasite of Daphnia. We used natural P. ramosa spore banks from the sediments of two geographically well-separated ponds to experimentally infect a panel of Daphnia magna host clones whose resistance phenotypes were previously known. In this way, we were able to assess the population structure of P. ramosa based on geography, host resistance phenotype and host genotype. Overall, genetic diversity of P. ramosa was high, and nearly all infected D. magna hosted more than one parasite haplotype. On the basis of the observation of recombinant haplotypes and relatively low levels of linkage disequilibrium, we conclude that P. ramosa engages in substantial recombination. Isolates were strongly differentiated by pond, indicating that gene flow is spatially restricted. Pasteuria ramosa isolates within one pond were segregated completely based on the resistance phenotype of the host-a result that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported for a nonhuman parasite. To assess the comparability of experimental infections with natural P. ramosa isolates, we examined the population structure of naturally infected D. magna native to one of the two source ponds. We found that experimental and natural infections of the same host resistance phenotype from the same source pond were indistinguishable, indicating that experimental infections provide a means to representatively sample the diversity of P. ramosa while reducing the sampling bias often associated with studies of parasite epidemics. These results expand our knowledge of this model parasite, provide important context for the large existing body of research on this system and will guide the design of future studies of this host-parasite system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient values and dynamic contrast enhancement patterns in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous testicular neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsili, Athina C., E-mail: a_tsili@yahoo.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Sylakos, Anastasios, E-mail: anasylakos@yahoo.gr [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Ntorkou, Alexandra, E-mail: alexdorkou@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Stavrou, Sotirios, E-mail: s.sotiris@yahoo.gr [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Astrakas, Loukas G., E-mail: astrakas@uoi.gr [Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Sofikitis, Nikolaos, E-mail: akrosnin@hotmail.com [Department of Urology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I., E-mail: margyrop@cc.uoi.gr [Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Functional MRI in the characterization of testicular germ cell tumors was assessed. • ADC values proved useful in the characterization of testicular germ cell tumors. • Testicular germ cell tumors had similar enhancement patterns of dynamic MRI. - Abstract: Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE) patterns in differentiating seminomas from nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCTs). Materials and methods: The MRI examinations of the scrotum of 26 men with histologically proven testicular GCTs were reviewed. DWI was performed in all patients, using a single shot, multi-slice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s/mm{sup 2}. Subtraction DCE-MRI was performed in 20 cases using a 3D fast-field echo sequence after gadolinium administration. Time-signal intensity curves were created and semi-quantitative parameters (peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in and wash-out rate) were calculated. The Student's t-test was used to compare the mean values of ADC, peak enhancement, time to peak, wash-in and wash-out rate between seminomas and NSGCTs. ROC analysis was also performed. Results: Histopathology disclosed the presence of 15 seminomas and 11 NSGCTs. The mean ± s.d. of ADC values (× 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) of seminomas (0.59 ± 0.009) were significantly lower than those of NSGCTs (0.90 ± 0.33) (P = 0.01). The optimal ADC cut-off value was 0.68 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s. No differences between the two groups were observed for peak enhancement (P = 0.18), time to peak (P = 0.63) wash-in rate (P = 0.32) and wash-out rate (P = 0.18). Conclusions: ADC values may be used to preoperatively differentiate seminomas from NSGCTs.

  12. A stochastic model for identifying differential gene pair co-expression patterns in prostate cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of gene differential co-expression patterns between cancer stages is a newly developing method to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Most researches of this subject lack an algorithm useful for performing a statistical significance assessment involving cancer progression. Lacking this specific algorithm is apparently absent in identifying precise gene pairs correlating to cancer progression. Results In this investigation we studied gene pair co-expression change by using a stochastic process model for approximating the underlying dynamic procedure of the co-expression change during cancer progression. Also, we presented a novel analytical method named 'Stochastic process model for Identifying differentially co-expressed Gene pair' (SIG method. This method has been applied to two well known prostate cancer data sets: hormone sensitive versus hormone resistant, and healthy versus cancerous. From these data sets, 428,582 gene pairs and 303,992 gene pairs were identified respectively. Afterwards, we used two different current statistical methods to the same data sets, which were developed to identify gene pair differential co-expression and did not consider cancer progression in algorithm. We then compared these results from three different perspectives: progression analysis, gene pair identification effectiveness analysis, and pathway enrichment analysis. Statistical methods were used to quantify the quality and performance of these different perspectives. They included: Re-identification Scale (RS and Progression Score (PS in progression analysis, True Positive Rate (TPR in gene pair analysis, and Pathway Enrichment Score (PES in pathway analysis. Our results show small values of RS and large values of PS, TPR, and PES; thus, suggesting that gene pairs identified by the SIG method are highly correlated with cancer progression, and highly enriched in disease-specific pathways. From

  13. Geographic distribution, age pattern and sites of lesions in a cohort of Buruli ulcer patients from the Mapé Basin of Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin W Bratschi

    Full Text Available Buruli ulcer (BU, a neglected tropical disease of the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, occurs most frequently in children in West Africa. Risk factors for BU include proximity to slow flowing water, poor wound care and not wearing protective clothing. Man-made alterations of the environment have been suggested to lead to increased BU incidence. M. ulcerans DNA has been detected in the environment, water bugs and recently also in mosquitoes. Despite these findings, the mode of transmission of BU remains poorly understood and both transmission by insects or direct inoculation from contaminated environment have been suggested. Here, we investigated the BU epidemiology in the Mapé basin of Cameroon where the damming of the Mapé River since 1988 is believed to have increased the incidence of BU. Through a house-by-house survey in spring 2010, which also examined the local population for leprosy and yaws, and continued surveillance thereafter, we identified, till June 2012, altogether 88 RT-PCR positive cases of BU. We found that the age adjusted cumulative incidence of BU was highest in young teenagers and in individuals above the age of 50 and that very young children (<5 were underrepresented among cases. BU lesions clustered around the ankles and at the back of the elbows. This pattern neither matches any of the published mosquito biting site patterns, nor the published distribution of small skin injuries in children, where lesions on the knees are much more frequent. The option of multiple modes of transmission should thus be considered. Analyzing the geographic distribution of cases in the Mapé Dam area revealed a closer association with the Mbam River than with the artificial lake.

  14. Modeling spatial patterns of soil respiration in maize fields from vegetation and soil property factors with the use of remote sensing and geographical information system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Huang

    Full Text Available To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS, Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI, canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m(-2 s(-1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China.

  15. Modeling Spatial Patterns of Soil Respiration in Maize Fields from Vegetation and Soil Property Factors with the Use of Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    To examine the method for estimating the spatial patterns of soil respiration (Rs) in agricultural ecosystems using remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS), Rs rates were measured at 53 sites during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. Through Pearson's correlation analysis, leaf area index (LAI), canopy chlorophyll content, aboveground biomass, soil organic carbon (SOC) content, and soil total nitrogen content were selected as the factors that affected spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize. The use of a structural equation modeling approach revealed that only LAI and SOC content directly affected Rs. Meanwhile, other factors indirectly affected Rs through LAI and SOC content. When three greenness vegetation indices were extracted from an optical image of an environmental and disaster mitigation satellite in China, enhanced vegetation index (EVI) showed the best correlation with LAI and was thus used as a proxy for LAI to estimate Rs at the regional scale. The spatial distribution of SOC content was obtained by extrapolating the SOC content at the plot scale based on the kriging interpolation method in GIS. When data were pooled for 38 plots, a first-order exponential analysis indicated that approximately 73% of the spatial variability in Rs during the peak growing season of maize can be explained by EVI and SOC content. Further test analysis based on independent data from 15 plots showed that the simple exponential model had acceptable accuracy in estimating the spatial patterns of Rs in maize fields on the basis of remotely sensed EVI and GIS-interpolated SOC content, with R2 of 0.69 and root-mean-square error of 0.51 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1. The conclusions from this study provide valuable information for estimates of Rs during the peak growing season of maize in three counties in North China. PMID:25157827

  16. The bioinvasion of Guam: inferring geographic origin, pace, pattern and process of an invasive lizard (Carlia) in the Pacific using multi-locus genomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, C.C.; Rittmeyer, E.N.; Oliver, L.A.; Andermann, J.O.; Zug, G.R.; Rodda, G.H.; Jackson, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species often have dramatic negative effects that lead to the deterioration and loss of biodiversity frequently coupled with the burden of expensive biocontrol programs and subversion of socioeconomic stability. The fauna and flora of oceanic islands are particularly susceptible to invasive species and the increase of global movements of humans and their products since WW II has caused numerous anthropogenic translocations and increased the ills of human-mediated invasions. We use a multi-locus genomic dataset to identify geographic origin, pace, pattern and historical process of an invasive scincid lizard (Carlia) that has been inadvertently introduced to Guam, the Northern Marianas, and Palau. This lizard is of major importance as its introduction is thought to have assisted in the establishment of the invasive brown treesnake (Boiga irregularis) on Guam by providing a food resource. Our findings demonstrate multiple waves of introductions that appear to be concordant with movements of Allied and Imperial Japanese forces in the Pacific during World War II.

  17. PatternLab for proteomics: a tool for differential shotgun proteomics

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    Yates John R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A goal of proteomics is to distinguish between states of a biological system by identifying protein expression differences. Liu et al. demonstrated a method to perform semi-relative protein quantitation in shotgun proteomics data by correlating the number of tandem mass spectra obtained for each protein, or "spectral count", with its abundance in a mixture; however, two issues have remained open: how to normalize spectral counting data and how to efficiently pinpoint differences between profiles. Moreover, Chen et al. recently showed how to increase the number of identified proteins in shotgun proteomics by analyzing samples with different MS-compatible detergents while performing proteolytic digestion. The latter introduced new challenges as seen from the data analysis perspective, since replicate readings are not acquired. Results To address the open issues above, we present a program termed PatternLab for proteomics. This program implements existing strategies and adds two new methods to pinpoint differences in protein profiles. The first method, ACFold, addresses experiments with less than three replicates from each state or having assays acquired by different protocols as described by Chen et al. ACFold uses a combined criterion based on expression fold changes, the AC test, and the false-discovery rate, and can supply a "bird's-eye view" of differentially expressed proteins. The other method addresses experimental designs having multiple readings from each state and is referred to as nSVM (natural support vector machine because of its roots in evolutionary computing and in statistical learning theory. Our observations suggest that nSVM's niche comprises projects that select a minimum set of proteins for classification purposes; for example, the development of an early detection kit for a given pathology. We demonstrate the effectiveness of each method on experimental data and confront them with existing strategies

  18. Salinity induced differential methylation patterns in contrasting cultivars of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Garima; Yadav, Chandra Bhan; Sahu, Pranav Pankaj; Muthamilarasan, Mehanathan; Prasad, Manoj

    2017-05-01

    Genome-wide methylation analysis of foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in salinity tolerance revealed DNA demethylation events occurring in tolerant cultivar under salinity stress, eventually modulating the expression of stress-responsive genes. Reduced productivity and significant yield loss are the adverse effects of environmental conditions on physiological and biochemical pathways in crop plants. In this context, understanding the epigenetic machinery underlying the tolerance traits in a naturally stress tolerant crop is imperative. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) is known for its better tolerance to abiotic stresses compared to other cereal crops. In the present study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique was used to quantify the salt-induced methylation changes in two foxtail millet cultivars contrastingly differing in their tolerance levels to salt stress. The study highlighted that the DNA methylation level was significantly reduced in tolerant cultivar compared to sensitive cultivar. A total of 86 polymorphic MSAP fragments were identified, sequenced and functionally annotated. These fragments showed sequence similarity to several genes including ABC transporter, WRKY transcription factor, serine threonine-protein phosphatase, disease resistance, oxidoreductases, cell wall-related enzymes and retrotransposon and transposase like proteins, suggesting salt stress-induced methylation in these genes. Among these, four genes were chosen for expression profiling which showed differential expression pattern between both cultivars of foxtail millet. Altogether, the study infers that salinity stress induces genome-wide DNA demethylation, which in turn, modulates expression of corresponding genes.

  19. Differential gene expression patterns during embryonic development of sea urchin exposed to triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinik; Suh, Sung-Suk; Park, Mirye; Park, So Yun; Lee, Sukchan; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2017-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS; 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent used in common industrial, personal care and household products which are eventually rinsed down the drain and discharged with wastewater effluent. It is therefore commonly found in the aquatic environment, leading to the continual exposure of aquatic organisms to TCS and the accumulation of the antimicrobial and its harmful degradation products in their bodies. Toxic effects of TCS on reproductive and developmental progression of some aquatic organisms have been suggested but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been defined. We investigated the expression patterns of genes involved in the early development of TCS-treated sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus using cDNA microarrays. We observed that the predominant consequence of TCS treatment in this model system was the widespread repression of TCS-modulated genes. In particular, empty spiracles homeobox 1 (EMX-1), bone morphogenic protein, and chromosomal binding protein genes showed a significant decrease in expression in response to TCS. These results suggest that TCS can induce abnormal development of sea urchin embryos through the concomitant suppression of a number of genes that are necessary for embryonic differentiation in the blastula stage. Our data provide new insight into the crucial role of genes associated with embryonic development in response to TCS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 426-433, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Positive schizotypy and negative schizotypy are associated with differential patterns of episodic memory impairment

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    Lili Sahakyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25. Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks. The positive schizotypy group did not demonstrate deficits on the above mentioned tasks. However, in contrast to the other groups, the positive schizotypy group showed an unexpected set-size effect on the cued-recall task. Set-size effect, which refers to the finding that words that have smaller networks of associates tend to have a memory advantage, is usually found in associative-cuing, but not cued-recall, tasks. The finding for the positive schizotypy group is consistent with heightened spreading activation and reduced executive control suggested to underlie psychotic symptoms. The findings support a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia, and suggest that positive and negative schizotypy involve differential patterns of cognitive impairment.

  1. Differential trends in the codon usage patterns in HIV-1 genes.

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    Aridaman Pandit

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions underlie one of the most complex evolutionary phenomena resulting in continual adaptive genetic changes, where pathogens exploit the host's molecular resources for growth and survival, while hosts try to eliminate the pathogen. Deciphering the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions is useful in understanding the factors governing pathogen evolution and disease propagation. In host-pathogen context, a balance between mutation, selection, and genetic drift is known to maintain codon bias in both organisms. Studies revealing determinants of the bias and its dynamics are central to the understanding of host-pathogen evolution. We considered the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV type 1 and its human host to search for evolutionary signatures in the viral genome. Positive selection is known to dominate intra-host evolution of HIV-1, whereas high genetic variability underlies the belief that neutral processes drive inter-host differences. In this study, we analyze the codon usage patterns of HIV-1 genomes across all subtypes and clades sequenced over a period of 23 years. We show presence of unique temporal correlations in the codon bias of three HIV-1 genes illustrating differential adaptation of the HIV-1 genes towards the host preferred codons. Our results point towards gene-specific translational selection to be an important force driving the evolution of HIV-1 at the population level.

  2. Glucose metabolite patterns as markers of functional differentiation in freshly isolated and cultured mouse mammary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerman, J.T.; Bartley, J.C.; Bissel, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In the mammary gland of non-ruminant animals, glucose is utilized in a characteristic and unique way during lacation. By measuring the incorporation of glucose carbon from [U- 14 C]glucose into intermediary metabolitees and metabolic products in mammary epithelia cells from virgin, pregnant, and lacating mice, we domonstrate that glucose metabolite patterns can be used to recognize stages of differentiated function. For these cells, the rates of synthesis of glycogen and lactose, the ratio of lactate to alanine, and the ratio of citrate to malate are important parameters in identifying the degree of expression of differentiation. We further show that these patterns can be used as markers to determine the differentiated state of cultured mammary epithelial cells. Cells maintained on plastic substrates lose their distinctive glucose metabolite patterns while those on floating collagen gels do not. Cells isolated from pregnant mice and cultured on collagen gels have a pattern similar to that of their freshly isolated counter-parts. When isolated from lacating mice, the metabolite patterns of cells cultured on collagen gels are different from that of the cells of origin, and resembles that of freshly isolated cells from pregnant mice. Our findings suggest that the floating collagen gels under the culture conditions used in these experiments provide an environment for the functional expression of the pregnant state, while additional factors are needed for the expression of the lactating state

  3. Present spatial diversity patterns of Theobroma cacao L. in the neotropics reflect genetic differentiation in pleistocene refugia followed by human-influenced dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Loo, Judy; Hodgkin, Toby; Galluzzi, Gea; van Etten, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) is indigenous to the Amazon basin, but is generally believed to have been domesticated in Mesoamerica for the production of chocolate beverage. However, cacao's distribution of genetic diversity in South America is also likely to reflect pre-Columbian human influences that were superimposed on natural processes of genetic differentiation. Here we present the results of a spatial analysis of the intra-specific diversity of cacao in Latin America, drawing on a dataset of 939 cacao trees genotypically characterized by means of 96 SSR markers. To assess continental diversity patterns we performed grid-based calculations of allelic richness, Shannon diversity and Nei gene diversity, and distinguished different spatially coherent genetic groups by means of cluster analysis. The highest levels of genetic diversity were observed in the Upper Amazon areas from southern Peru to the Ecuadorian Amazon and the border areas between Colombia, Peru and Brazil. On the assumption that the last glaciation (22,000-13,000 BP) had the greatest pre-human impact on the current distribution and diversity of cacao, we modeled the species' Pleistocene niche suitability and overlaid this with present-day diversity maps. The results suggest that cacao was already widely distributed in the Western Amazon before the onset of glaciation. During glaciations, cacao populations were likely to have been restricted to several refugia where they probably underwent genetic differentiation, resulting in a number of genetic clusters which are representative for, or closest related to, the original wild cacao populations. The analyses also suggested that genetic differentiation and geographical distribution of a number of other clusters seem to have been significantly affected by processes of human management and accompanying genetic bottlenecks. We discuss the implications of these results for future germplasm collection and in situ, on farm and ex situ conservation of cacao.

  4. New methodologies for measuring Brugada ECG patterns cannot differentiate the ECG pattern of Brugada syndrome from Brugada phenocopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Byron H; Garcia-Niebla, Javier; Anselm, Daniel D; Jaidka, Atul; De Luna, Antoni Bayés; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Brugada phenocopies (BrP) are clinical entities characterized by ECG patterns that are identical to true Brugada syndrome (BrS), but are elicited by various clinical circumstances. A recent study demonstrated that the patterns of BrP and BrS are indistinguishable under the naked eye, thereby validating the concept that the patterns are identical. The aim of our study was to determine whether recently developed ECG criteria would allow for discrimination between type-2 BrS ECG pattern and type-2 BrP ECG pattern. Ten ECGs from confirmed BrS (aborted sudden death, transformation into type 1 upon sodium channel blocking test and/or ventricular arrhythmias, positive genetics) cases and 9 ECGs from confirmed BrP were included in the study. Surface 12-lead ECGs were scanned, saved in JPEG format for blind measurement of two values: (i) β-angle; and (ii) the base of the triangle. Cut-off values of ≥58° for the β-angle and ≥4mm for the base of the triangle were used to determine the BrS ECG pattern. Mean values for the β-angle in leads V1 and V2 were 66.7±25.5 and 55.4±28.1 for BrS and 54.1±26.5 and 43.1±16.1 for BrP respectively (p=NS). Mean values for the base of the triangle in V1 and V2 were 7.5±3.9 and 5.7±3.9 for BrS and 5.6±3.2 and 4.7±2.7 for BrP respectively (p=NS). The β-angle had a sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 78% (LR+ 2.7, LR- 0.5). The base of the triangle had a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 40% (LR+ 1.4, LR- 0.5). New ECG criteria presented relatively low sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values to discriminate between BrS and BrP ECG patterns, providing further evidence that the two patterns are identical. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential expression pattern of antimicrobial peptides in nasal mucosa and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Martin; Dressel, Stefanie; Harder, Jürgen; Gläser, Regine

    2011-03-01

    The intact nasal barrier is a prerequisite for a functioning defense of the upper airway system, in particular the permanent threat by inhaled potentially harmful microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) play an important role in maintaining barrier function. There is few data about AMP in respect of nasal mucosa. This study is addressed to gain further insight into the differential AMP expression and secretion pattern according to defined anatomical regions of the vestibulum nasi and turbinates. ELISA was applied to quantify concentrations of AMP RNase-7, psoriasin, hBD-2, hBD-3 and LL-37 in nasal secretions of 20 healthy volunteers. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the local cellular sources of AMP in the vestibulum nasi (squamous epithelium) and compared to the mucosa of the turbinates (pseudostratified epithelium) in 10 healthy volunteers. Expression of RNase 7 and psoriasin was detected in all nasal secretion specimens, whereas LL-37 was detected in 16, hBD-2 in 5 and hBD-3 in 6 specimens. In the vestibulum nasi, luminal cell layers were demonstrated as local cellular sources for hBD-3 and RNase 7, whereas psoriasin was found in all layers of the stratified squamous epithelium. LL-37 was detected in 1 stroma cells sample, whereas hBD-2 was not detected at all. In turbinate biopsie,s hBD-3 and LL-37 were detectable in the epithelium, stroma cells and submucosal glands. RNase 7 was only present in submucosal glands. HBD-2 and psoriasin were not detected. These data demonstrate that the nasal epithelium contains a chemical defense shield through the expression and secretion of various AMP.

  6. Patterns of population differentiation and natural selection on the celiac disease background risk network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Aaron; Hawks, John

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory condition induced by wheat gluten and related proteins from rye and barley. Left untreated, the clinical presentation of CD can include failure to thrive, malnutrition, and distension in juveniles. The disease can additionally lead to vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and osteoporosis. Therefore, CD potentially negatively affected fitness in past populations utilizing wheat, barley, and rye. Previous analyses of CD risk variants have uncovered evidence for positive selection on some of these loci. These studies also suggest the possibility that risk for common autoimmune conditions such as CD may be the result of positive selection on immune related loci in the genome to fight infection. Under this evolutionary scenario, disease phenotypes may be a trade-off from positive selection on immunity. If this hypothesis is generally true, we can expect to find a signal of natural selection when we survey across the network of loci known to influence CD risk. This study examines the non-HLA autosomal network of gene loci associated with CD risk in Europe. We reject the null hypothesis of neutrality on this network of CD risk loci. Additionally, we can localize evidence of selection in time and space by adding information from the genome of the Tyrolean Iceman. While we can show significant differentiation between continental regions across the CD network, the pattern of evidence is not consistent with primarily recent (Holocene) selection across this network in Europe. Further localization of ancient selection on this network may illuminate the ecological pressures acting on the immune system during this critically interesting phase of our evolution.

  7. Patterns of population differentiation and natural selection on the celiac disease background risk network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sams

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a common small intestinal inflammatory condition induced by wheat gluten and related proteins from rye and barley. Left untreated, the clinical presentation of CD can include failure to thrive, malnutrition, and distension in juveniles. The disease can additionally lead to vitamin deficiencies, anemia, and osteoporosis. Therefore, CD potentially negatively affected fitness in past populations utilizing wheat, barley, and rye. Previous analyses of CD risk variants have uncovered evidence for positive selection on some of these loci. These studies also suggest the possibility that risk for common autoimmune conditions such as CD may be the result of positive selection on immune related loci in the genome to fight infection. Under this evolutionary scenario, disease phenotypes may be a trade-off from positive selection on immunity. If this hypothesis is generally true, we can expect to find a signal of natural selection when we survey across the network of loci known to influence CD risk. This study examines the non-HLA autosomal network of gene loci associated with CD risk in Europe. We reject the null hypothesis of neutrality on this network of CD risk loci. Additionally, we can localize evidence of selection in time and space by adding information from the genome of the Tyrolean Iceman. While we can show significant differentiation between continental regions across the CD network, the pattern of evidence is not consistent with primarily recent (Holocene selection across this network in Europe. Further localization of ancient selection on this network may illuminate the ecological pressures acting on the immune system during this critically interesting phase of our evolution.

  8. Neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells in 3-D cultures for studying biomolecule-directed differential cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanwei; Bejoy, Julie; Xia, Junfei; Guan, Jingjiao; Zhou, Yi; Li, Yan

    2016-09-15

    Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells/tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capacity of signaling factors that regulate 3-D neural tissue patterning in vitro and differential responses of the resulting neural populations to various biomolecules have not yet been fully understood. By tuning neural patterning of hiPSCs with small molecules targeting sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, this study generated different 3-D neuronal cultures that were mainly comprised of either cortical glutamatergic neurons or motor neurons. Abundant glutamatergic neurons were observed following the treatment with an antagonist of SHH signaling, cyclopamine, while Islet-1 and HB9-expressing motor neurons were enriched by an SHH agonist, purmorphamine. In neurons derived with different neural patterning factors, whole-cell patch clamp recordings showed similar voltage-gated Na(+)/K(+) currents, depolarization-evoked action potentials and spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents. Moreover, these different neuronal populations exhibited differential responses to three classes of biomolecules, including (1) matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors that affect extracellular matrix remodeling; (2) N-methyl-d-aspartate that induces general neurotoxicity; and (3) amyloid β (1-42) oligomers that cause neuronal subtype-specific neurotoxicity. This study should advance our understanding of hiPSC self-organization and neural tissue development and provide a transformative approach to establish 3-D models for neurological disease modeling and drug discovery. Appropriate neural patterning of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) is critical to generate specific neural cells, tissues and even mini-brains that are physiologically relevant to model neurological diseases. However, the capability of sonic hedgehog-related small molecules to tune

  9. Cancer stem cell markers in patterning differentiation and in prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Simple; Siddappa, Gangotri; Valiyaveedan, Sindhu Govindan; Dodda Thimmasandra Ramanjanappa, Ravindra; Das, Debashish; Pandian, Ramanan; Khora, Samanta Sekhar; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Suresh, Amritha

    2017-06-01

    Differentiation is a major histological parameter determining tumor aggressiveness and prognosis of the patient; cancer stem cells with their slow dividing and undifferentiated nature might be one of the factors determining the same. This study aims to correlate cancer stem cell markers (CD44 and CD147) with tumor differentiation and evaluate their subsequent effect on prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis in treatment naïve oral cancer patients (n = 53) indicated that the expression of CD147 was associated with poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma patients were CD44 high /CD147 high as compared to only 10% of patients with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. A three-way analysis indicated that differentiation correlated with recurrence and survival (p oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines originating from different grades of oral cancer. Flowcytometry-based analysis indicated an increase in CD44 + /CD147 + cells in cell lines of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (94.35 ± 1.14%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (93.49 ± 0.47%, p squamous cell carcinoma origin (23.12% ± 0.49%). Expression profiling indicated higher expression of cancer stem cell and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in SCC029B (poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma originated; p ≤ 0.001), which was further translated into increased spheroid formation, migration, and invasion (p squamous cell carcinoma origin. This study suggests that CD44 and CD147 together improve the prognostic efficacy of tumor differentiation; in vitro results further point out that these markers might be determinant of differentiation characteristics, imparting properties of increased self-renewal, migration, and invasion.

  10. Second-order oriented partial-differential equations for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chen; Han, Lin; Ren, Hongwei; Zhou, Dongjian; Chang, Yiming; Wang, Xiaohang; Cui, Xiaolong

    2008-10-01

    We derive the second-order oriented partial-differential equations (PDEs) for denoising in electronic-speckle-pattern interferometry fringe patterns from two points of view. The first is based on variational methods, and the second is based on controlling diffusion direction. Our oriented PDE models make the diffusion along only the fringe orientation. The main advantage of our filtering method, based on oriented PDE models, is that it is very easy to implement compared with the published filtering methods along the fringe orientation. We demonstrate the performance of our oriented PDE models via application to two computer-simulated and experimentally obtained speckle fringes and compare with related PDE models.

  11. Multilineage differentiation of porcine bone marrow stromal cells associated with specific gene expression pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong; Chen, Li

    2007-01-01

    There are increasing reports regarding differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) from human and various species of animals including pigs. The phenotype and function of BMSC along a mesenchymal lineage differentiation are well characterized by specific transcription factors and marker g...

  12. [Variables related to the emergence of differential patterns in work motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Carlos; Navarro, José; Vicente, Susana

    2008-11-01

    Several longitudinal studies have shown that motivation at work acts chaotically. In very few cases, it may be linear or random. However, the factors that might explain why these different patterns emerge have not been analysed to date. In this exploratory study, we interviewed 73 employees whose motivational patterns were previously known. The results revealed that chaotic patterns were associated with high levels of motivation, self-efficacy beliefs, and perceptions of instrumentality, and also with intrinsic personal goal orientation and a perception of high work control. Linear patterns were associated with extrinsic goals and a perception of work as difficult, and random patterns were linked to high flexibility at work.

  13. Different patterns of amygdala priming differentially affect dentate gyrus plasticity and corticosterone, but not CA1 plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose-Marie eVouimba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced activation of the amygdala is involved in the modulation of memory processes in the hippocampus. However, stress effects on amygdala and memory remain complex. The activation of the basolateral amygdala (BLA was found to modulate plasticity in other brain areas, including the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated a differential effect of BLA priming on LTP in the CA1 and the dentate gyrus (DG. While BLA priming suppressed long term potentiation (LTP in CA1, it was found to enhance it in the DG. However, since the amygdala itself is amenable to experience-induced plasticity it is thus conceivable that when activity within the amygdala is modified this will have impact on the way the amygdala modulates activity and plasticity in other brain areas. In the current study we examined the effects of different patterns of BLA activation on the modulation of LTP in the DG and CA1, as well as on serum corticosterone (CORT. In CA1, BLA priming impaired LTP induction as was reported before. In contrast, in the DG, varying BLA stimulation intensity and frequency resulted in differential effects on LTP, ranging from no effect to strong impairment or enhancement. Varying BLA stimulation patterns resulted in also differential alterations in Serum CORT, leading to higher CORT levels being positively correlated with LTP magnitude in DG but not in CA1.The results support the notion of a differential role for the DG in aspects of memory, and add to this view the possibility that DG-associated aspects of memory will be enhanced under more emotional or stressful conditions. It is interesting to think of BLA patterns of activation and the differential levels of circulating CORT as two arms of the emotional and stress response that attempt to synchronize brain activity to best meet the challenge. It is foreseeable to think of abnormal such synchronization under extreme conditions, which would lead to the development of maladaptive behavior.

  14. Differential Resting-State Connectivity Patterns of the Right Anterior and Posterior Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices (DLPFC in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Chechko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In schizophrenia (SCZ, dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been linked to the deficits in executive functions and attention. It has been suggested that, instead of considering the right DLPFC as a cohesive functional entity, it can be divided into two parts (anterior and posterior based on its whole-brain connectivity patterns. Given these two subregions' differential association with cognitive processes, we investigated the functional connectivity (FC profile of both subregions through resting-state data to determine whether they are differentially affected in SCZ. Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans were obtained from 120 patients and 172 healthy controls (HC at 6 different MRI sites. The results showed differential FC patterns for the anterior and posterior parts of the right executive control-related DLPFC in SCZ with the parietal, the temporal and the cerebellar regions, along with a convergent reduction of connectivity with the striatum and the occipital cortex. An increased psychopathology level was linked to a higher difference in posterior vs. anterior FC for the left IFG/anterior insula, regions involved in higher-order cognitive processes. In sum, the current analysis demonstrated that even between two neighboring clusters connectivity could be differentially disrupted in SCZ. Lacking the necessary anatomical specificity, such notions may in fact be detrimental to a proper understanding of SCZ pathophysiology.

  15. Differential diagnosis between obsessive compulsive disorder and restrictive and repetitive behavioural patterns, activities and interests in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula-Pérez, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and the restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities inherent to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) share a number of features that can make the differential diagnosis between them extremely difficult and lead to erroneous overdiagnosis of OCD in people with autism. In both cases there may appear to have a fixation on routine, ritualized patterns of verbal and nonverbal behavior, resistance to change, and highly restrictive interests, which becomes a real challenge for differentiating rituals, stereotypes and adherence to routines in ASD from obsessions and compulsions in OCD. This article provides key points to clarify this differential diagnosis through the analysis of emotional valence, content, function and psychological theories that explain the obsessions and compulsions in OCD, and the desire for sameness, stereotyped movements and limited interest in autism. The terms "obsession" and "compulsion" should no longer be used when referring to patterns of behavior, interests or restricted and repetitive activities in autism due to syntonic characteristics, low perception of personal responsibility and low neutralizing efforts. Treatment focuses on changing the environment, the use of socio-communicative compensatory strategies and behavioral modification techniques to improve cognitive and behavioral flexibility. When there is comorbidity between, exposure behavioral and response prevention techniques are then used, followed by others of more cognitive orientation if necessary. Copyright © 2012 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatic resection: Patterns of uptake and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peungjesada, Silanath [University New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aloia, Thomas A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411, Houston, TX (United States); Chasen, Beth [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Unit 1483, Houston, TX (United States); Shin, Sooyoung; Loyer, Evelyne M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States); Baiomy, Ali [Cairo University, National Cancer Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the patterns of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatectomy to identify features that may differentiate benign and malignant uptake. Patients who had undergone a PET/CT after hepatectomy were identified. Delay between resection and PET/CT, presence of uptake at the surgical margin, pattern of uptake, and maximal standardized value were recorded. The PET/CT findings were correlated with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. There were 26 patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake; uptake was diffuse in seven and focal in 19. Diffuse uptake was due to inflammation in all cases. Focal uptake was due to recurrence in 12 and inflammation in seven cases. Defining a focal pattern only as a positive for malignancy yielded 100 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, 37 % false positive rate. As expected, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher for recurrence than inflammation, but did overlap. Contrast-enhanced CT allowed differentiation between malignant and benign uptake in all cases. F-FDG uptake after hepatectomy does not equate to recurrence and yields a high false positive rate. Diffuse uptake did not require additional evaluation in our sample. Focal uptake, however, may be due to recurrence; differentiating benign and malignant nodular uptake relies on optimal contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (orig.)

  17. Cell adhesion molecules expression pattern indicates that somatic cells arbitrate gonadal sex of differentiating bipotential fetal mouse gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piprek, Rafal P; Kolasa, Michal; Podkowa, Dagmara; Kloc, Malgorzata; Kubiak, Jacek Z

    2017-10-01

    Unlike other organ anlagens, the primordial gonad is sexually bipotential in all animals. In mouse, the bipotential gonad differentiates into testis or ovary depending on the genetic sex (XY or XX) of the fetus. During gonad development cells segregate, depending on genetic sex, into distinct compartments: testis cords and interstitium form in XY gonad, and germ cell cysts and stroma in XX gonad. However, our knowledge of mechanisms governing gonadal sex differentiation remains very vague. Because it is known that adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a key role in organogenesis, we suspected that diversified expression of CAMs should also play a crucial role in gonad development. Using microarray analysis we identified 129 CAMs and factors regulating cell adhesion during sexual differentiation of mouse gonad. To identify genes expressed differentially in three cell lines in XY and XX gonads: i) supporting (Sertoli or follicular cells), ii) interstitial or stromal cells, and iii) germ cells, we used transgenic mice expressing EGFP reporter gene and FACS cell sorting. Although a large number of CAMs expressed ubiquitously, expression of certain genes was cell line- and genetic sex-specific. The sets of CAMs differentially expressed in supporting versus interstitial/stromal cells may be responsible for segregation of these two cell lines during gonadal development. There was also a significant difference in CAMs expression pattern between XY supporting (Sertoli) and XX supporting (follicular) cells but not between XY and XX germ cells. This indicates that differential CAMs expression pattern in the somatic cells but not in the germ line arbitrates structural organization of gonadal anlagen into testis or ovary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation and patterns of endogenous and exogenous gene expression during differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astigiano, S.; Sherman, M.I.; Abarzua, P.

    1989-01-01

    Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells offer an interesting model system for evaluating differentiation because the cells are pluripotent, thus resembling germ cells and embryonic stem cells, and because a number of agents have been defined that are capable of promoting the differentiation of these cells. This chapter examines how EC cells might be triggered to differentiate, with emphasis on retinoic acid because this compound is a potent, naturally occurring inducer that has been studied extensively in this system. The nature of alterations in gene expression during EC cell differentiation is reviewed from the perspective of evaluating whether these changes are likely to be responsible for, or a result of, the differentiation event. Finally, the authors consider in molecular terms why EC cells, but not their differentiated derivatives, are refractory to the expression of many viral genomes following infection. Based upon these studies, they propose that fundamental changes in gene expression that are observed when differentiation is triggered in EC cells are likely to be due to the disappearance or neutralization of strong repressor elements

  19. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  20. Differential diagnosis of periapical cyst using collagen birefringence pattern of the cyst wall

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Hyo Jin; Park, Se-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Lee, Suk Keun; Kim, Jin Woo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Periapical lesions, including periapical cyst (PC), periapical granuloma (PG), and periapical abscess (PA), are frequently affected by chemical/physical damage during root canal treatment or severe bacterial infection, and thus, the differential diagnosis of periapical lesions may be difficult due to the presence of severe inflammatory reaction. The aim of this study was to make differential diagnosis among PC, PG, and PA under polarizing microscope. Materials and Methods ...

  1. Seasonal patterns in nutrients, carbon, and algal responses in wadeable streams within three geographically distinct areas of the United States, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Lorenz, David L.; Petersen, James C.; Greene, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey determined seasonal variability in nutrients, carbon, and algal biomass in 22 wadeable streams over a 1-year period during 2007 or 2008 within three geographically distinct areas in the United States. The three areas are the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMIS) in Minnesota, the Ozark Plateaus (ORZK) in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, and the Upper Snake River Basin (USNK) in southern Idaho. Seasonal patterns in some constituent concentrations and algal responses were distinct. Nitrate concentrations were greatest during the winter in all study areas potentially because of a reduction in denitrification rates and algal uptake during the winter, along with reduced surface runoff. Decreases in nitrate concentrations during the spring and summer at most stream sites coincided with increased streamflow during the snowmelt runoff or spring storms indicating dilution. The continued decrease in nitrate concentrations during summer potentially is because of a reduction in nitrate inputs (from decreased surface runoff) or increases in biological uptake. In contrast to nitrate concentrations, ammonia concentrations varied among study areas. Ammonia concentration trends were similar at UMIS and USNK sampling sites with winter peak concentrations and rapid decreases in ammonia concentrations by spring or early summer. In contrast, ammonia concentrations at OZRK sampling sites were more variable with peak concentrations later in the year. Ammonia may accumulate in stream water in the winter under ice and snow cover at the UMIS and USNK sites because of limited algal metabolism and increased mineralization of decaying organic matter under reducing conditions within stream bottom sediments. Phosphorus concentration patterns and the type of phosphorus present changes with changing hydrologic conditions and seasons and varied among study areas. Orthophosphate concentrations tended to be greater in the summer at UMIS sites, whereas total

  2. Impatience versus achievement strivings in the Type A pattern: Differential effects on students' health and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Pred, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychometric analyses of college students' responses to the Jenkins Activity Survey, a self-report measure of the Type A behavior pattern, revealed the presence of two relatively independent factors. Based on these analyses, two scales, labeled Achievement Strivings (AS) and Impatience and Irritability (II), were developed. In two samples of male and female college students, scores on AS but not on II were found to be significantly correlated with grade point average. Responses to a health survey, on the other hand, indicated that frequency of physical complaints was significantly correlated with II but not with AS. These results suggest that there are two relatively independent factors in the Type A pattern that have differential effects on performance and health. Future research on the personality factors related to coronary heart disease and other disorders might more profitably focus on the syndrome reflected in the II scale than on the Type A pattern.

  3. Heterogeneous Patterns of Genetic Diversity and Differentiation in European and Siberian Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita abietinus/P. tristis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talla, Venkat; Kalsoom, Faheema; Shipilina, Daria; Marova, Irina; Backström, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    Identification of candidate genes for trait variation in diverging lineages and characterization of mechanistic underpinnings of genome differentiation are key steps toward understanding the processes underlying the formation of new species. Hybrid zones provide a valuable resource for such investigations, since they allow us to study how genomes evolve as species exchange genetic material and to associate particular genetic regions with phenotypic traits of interest. Here, we use whole-genome resequencing of both allopatric and hybridizing populations of the European (Phylloscopus collybita abietinus) and the Siberian chiffchaff (P. tristis)—two recently diverged species which differ in morphology, plumage, song, habitat, and migration—to quantify the regional variation in genome-wide genetic diversity and differentiation, and to identify candidate regions for trait variation. We find that the levels of diversity, differentiation, and divergence are highly heterogeneous, with significantly reduced global differentiation, and more pronounced differentiation peaks in sympatry than in allopatry. This pattern is consistent with regional differences in effective population size and recurrent background selection or selective sweeps reducing the genetic diversity in specific regions prior to lineage divergence, but the data also suggest that postdivergence selection has resulted in increased differentiation and fixed differences in specific regions. We find that hybridization and backcrossing is common in sympatry, and that phenotype is a poor predictor of the genomic composition of sympatric birds. The combination of a differentiation scan approach with identification of fixed differences pinpoint a handful of candidate regions that might be important for trait variation between the two species. PMID:29054864

  4. Differential Effects of Psychological and Physical Stress on the Sleep Pattern in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ranji; Li, Bingjin; Suemaru, Katsuya; Araki, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the acute effects of 2 different kinds of stress, namely physical stress (foot shock) and psychological stress (non-foot shock) induced by the communication box method, on the sleep patterns of rats. The sleep patterns were recorded for 6 h immediately after 1 h of stress. Physical and psychological stress had almost opposite effects on the sleep patterns: In the physical stress group, hourly total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and total non-REM sleep we...

  5. Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood populations in East and southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouma, J.O.; Marquez, J.G.; Krafsur, E.S

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity and differentiation within and among nine G. morsitans morsitans populations from East and southern Africa was assessed by examining variation at seven microsatellite loci and a mitochondrial locus, cytochrome oxidase (COI). Mean COI diversity within populations was 0.63 ± 0.33 and 0.81 taken over all populations. Diversities averaged over microsatellite loci were high (mean number of alleles/locus ≥7.4; mean HE ≥ 65%) in all populations. Diversities averaged across populations were greater in East Africa (mean number of alleles = 22 ± 2.6; mean he = 0.773 ± 0.033) than in southern Africa (mean number of alleles = 18.7 ± 4.0; mean he = 0.713 ± 0.072). Differentiation among all populations was highly significant (RST = 0.25, FST = 0.132). Nei’s Gij statistics were 0.09 and 0.19 within regions for microsatellites and mitochondria, respectively; between regions, Gij was 0.14 for microsatellites and 0.23 for mitochondria. GST among populations was 0.23 for microsatellite loci and 0.40 for mitochondria. The F, G and R statistics indicate highly restricted gene flow among G. m. morsitans populations separated over geographic scales of 12–917 km. (author)

  6. Basal cell carcinoma: CD56 and cytokeratin 5/6 staining patterns in the differential diagnosis with Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panse, Gauri; McNiff, Jennifer M; Ko, Christine J

    2017-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) can resemble Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) on histopathological examination and while CK20 is a useful marker in this differential, it is occasionally negative in MCC. CD56, a sensitive marker of neuroendocrine differentiation, is sometimes used to identify MCC, but has been reportedly variably positive in BCC as well. In contrast, CK5/6 consistently labels BCC but is not expressed in neuroendocrine tumors. We evaluated 20 cases of BCC for the pattern of CD56 and cytokeratin 5/6 (CK5/6) staining, hypothesizing that these 2 stains could differentiate BCC from MCC in difficult cases. Seventeen cases of MCC previously stained with CD56 were also examined. All BCCs showed patchy expression of CD56 except for 2 cases, which showed staining of greater than 70% of tumor. CK5/6 was diffusely positive in all cases of BCC. Fifteen of 17 MCCs were diffusely positive for CD56. The difference in the pattern of CD56 expression between MCC and BCC (diffuse vs patchy, respectively) was statistically significant (P < .05). BCC typically shows patchy CD56 expression and diffuse CK5/6 positivity. These 2 markers can be used to distinguish between BCC and MCC in challenging cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Geographical Network Analysis and Spatial Econometrics as Tools to Enhance Our Understanding of Student Migration Patterns and Benefits in the U.S. Higher Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Canché, Manuel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study measures the extent to which student outmigration outside the 4-year sector takes place and posits that the benefits from attracting non-resident students exist regardless of sector of enrollment. The study also provides empirical evidence about the relevance of employing geographical network analysis (GNA) and spatial econometrics in…

  8. Geographic variation in gorilla limb bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Rebecca S; Pearman, Tessa L

    2016-06-01

    Gorilla systematics has received increased attention over recent decades from primatologists, conservationists, and paleontologists. Studies of geographic variation in DNA, skulls, and teeth have led to new taxonomic proposals, such as recognition of two gorilla species, Gorilla gorilla (western gorilla) and Gorilla beringei (eastern gorilla). Postcranial differences between mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei) and western lowland gorillas (G. g. gorilla) have a long history of study, but differences between the limb bones of the eastern and western species have not yet been examined with an emphasis on geographic variation within each species. In addition, proposals for recognition of the Cross River gorilla as Gorilla gorilla diehli and gorillas from Tshiaberimu and Kahuzi as G. b. rex-pymaeorum have not been evaluated in the context of geographic variation in the forelimb and hindlimb skeletons. Forty-three linear measurements were collected from limb bones of 266 adult gorillas representing populations of G. b. beringei, Gorilla beringei graueri, G. g. gorilla, and G. g. diehli in order to investigate geographic diversity. Skeletal elements included the humerus, radius, third metacarpal, third proximal hand phalanx, femur, tibia, calcaneus, first metatarsal, third metatarsal, and third proximal foot phalanx. Comparisons of means and principal components analyses clearly differentiate eastern and western gorillas, indicating that eastern gorillas have absolutely and relatively smaller hands and feet, among other differences. Gorilla subspecies and populations cluster consistently by species, although G. g. diehli may be similar to the eastern gorillas in having small hands and feet. The subspecies of G. beringei are distinguished less strongly and by different variables than the two gorilla species. Populations of G. b. graueri are variable, and Kahuzi and Tshiaberimu specimens do not cluster together. Results support the possible influence of

  9. Differentiation of wines according to grape variety and geographical origin based on volatiles profiling using SPME-MS and SPME-GC/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Angelika; Wąsowicz, Erwin; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2016-12-15

    Among methods to detect wine adulteration, profiling volatiles is one with a great potential regarding robustness, analysis time and abundance of information for subsequent data treatment. Volatile fraction fingerprinting by solid-phase microextraction with direct analysis by mass spectrometry without compounds separation (SPME-MS) was used for differentiation of white as well as red wines. The aim was to differentiate between varieties used for wine production and to also differentiate wines by country of origin. The results obtained were compared to SPME-GC/MS analysis in which compounds were resolved by gas chromatography. For both approaches the same type of statistical procedure was used to compare samples: principal component analysis (PCA) followed by linear discriminant analysis (LDA). White wines (38) and red wines (41) representing different grape varieties and various regions of origin were analysed. SPME-MS proved to be advantageous in use due to better discrimination and higher sample throughput. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hedonic, Instrumental, and Normative Motives: Differentiating Patterns for Popular, Accepted, and Rejected Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Kretschmer, Tina; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    This study examined to what extent motives for behavior differentiated between popular, accepted, and rejected adolescents. Based on goal-framing theory, three types of motives were distinguished: hedonic (aimed at short-term gratification), instrumental (aimed at improvement of one's situation), and normative (aimed at acting in accordance with…

  11. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Arismendi; Brooke E. Penaluna; Jason B. Dunham; Carlos Garcia de Leaniz; Doris Soto; Ian A. Fleming; Daniel Gomez-Uchida; Gonzalo Gajardo; Pamela V. Varga; Jorge León-Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including...

  12. Identification and expression patterns of adipokine genes during adipocyte differentiation in the Tibetan goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueying; Wang, Yan; Guo, Jiazhong; Zhong, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2018-02-15

    Adipokines are secreted by adipose tissue and play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. However, the information regarding adipokines in goats is limited. PPARγ is a key gene in adipocyte differentiation and activates adipokine genes. Rosiglitazone is a PPARγ agonist and can promote the expression of PPARγ to increase the expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Therefore, investigation of the relationship between rosiglitazone and adipokines will help us to better understand the function of PPARγ in lipid metabolism in Tibetan goats. In this study, we cloned the resistin (RETN), apelin (APLN), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and visfatin (NAMPT) genes from non-pregnant female Tibetan goat adipose tissue. APLN and NAMPT were predominantly expressed in the kidney, and FGF21 was expressed at the highest levels in the liver in vivo. In fat tissues, the highest expression levels of FGF21 and RETN were detected in omental fat, whereas their expression in perirenal and subcutaneous fat was extremely weak. APLN and NAMPT were abundantly expressed in omental and subcutaneous fat in vivo. In addition, the four adipokines had different expression profiles during goat adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Oil red O staining showed that rosiglitazone could promote adipocyte differentiation and lipid droplet formation. In addition, rosiglitazone significantly increased the expression of FGF21 and RETN (pgoat adipocyte differentiation. And PPARγ could regulate the expression of the four adipokines, but the detailed regulatory mechanism still needs to be elucidated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface N-glycoproteome patterns reveal key proteins of neuronal differentiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tylečková, Jiřina; Valeková, Ivona; Žižková, Martina; Rákocyová, Michaela; Maršala, S.; Maršala, M.; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2016), s. 13-20 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA TA ČR(CZ) TA01011466 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : cell adhesion proteins * cell surface capture * neuronal differentiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.914, year: 2016

  14. Gene expression patterns related to osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during ex vivo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granchi, Donatella; Ochoa, Gorka; Leonardi, Elisa; Devescovi, Valentina; Baglìo, Serena Rubina; Osaba, Lourdes; Baldini, Nicola; Ciapetti, Gabriela

    2010-06-01

    Bone marrow is commonly used as a source of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), defined for their ability to differentiate in vitro into multiple lineages. The ex vivo-expanded MSCs are currently being evaluated as a strategy for the restoration of function in damaged skeletal tissue, both in cell therapy and tissue engineering applications. The aim of this study was to define gene expression patterns underlying the differentiation of MSCs into mature osteoblasts during the expansion in vitro, and to explore a variety of cell functions that cannot be easily evaluated using morphological, cytochemical, and biochemical assays. Cell cultures were obtained from bone marrow samples of six individuals undergoing total hip replacement, and a large-scale transcriptome analysis, using Affymetrix HG-U133A Plus 2.0 array (Affymetrix((R)), Santa Clara, CA), was performed at the occurrence of specific events, including the appearance of MSC surface markers, formation of colonies, and deposition of mineral nodules. We focused our attention on 213 differentially upregulated genes, some belonging to well-known pathways and some having one or more Gene Ontology annotations related to bone cell biology, including angiogenesis, bone-related genes, cell communication, development and morphogenesis, transforming growth factor-beta signaling, and Wnt signaling. Twenty-nine genes, whose role in bone cell pathophysiology has not been described yet, were found. In conclusion, gene expression patterns that characterize the early, intermediate, and late phases of the osteogenic differentiation process of ex vivo-expanded MSCs were defined. These signatures represent a useful tool to monitor the osteogenic process, and to analyze a broad spectrum of functions of MSCs cultured on scaffolds, especially when the constructs are conceived for releasing growth factors or other signals to promote bone regeneration.

  15. Multilayered epithelium in a rat model and human Barrett's esophagus: Similar expression patterns of transcription factors and differentiation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA without concomitant chemical carcinogen treatment leads to gastroesophageal reflux disease, multilayered epithelium (MLE, a presumed precursor in intestinal metaplasia, columnar-lined esophagus, dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previously we have shown that columnar-lined esophagus in EGDA rats resembled human Barrett's esophagus (BE in its morphology, mucin features and expression of differentiation markers (Lab. Invest. 2004;84:753–765. The purpose of this study was to compare the phenotype of rat MLE with human MLE, in order to gain insight into the nature of MLE and its potential role in the development of BE. Methods Serial sectioning was performed on tissue samples from 32 EGDA rats and 13 patients with established BE. Tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for a variety of transcription factors and differentiation markers of esophageal squamous epithelium and intestinal columnar epithelium. Results We detected MLE in 56.3% (18/32 of EGDA rats, and in all human samples. As expected, both rat and human squamous epithelium, but not intestinal metaplasia, expressed squamous transcription factors and differentiation markers (p63, Sox2, CK14 and CK4 in all cases. Both rat and human intestinal metaplasia, but not squamous epithelium, expressed intestinal transcription factors and differentiation markers (Cdx2, GATA4, HNF1α, villin and Muc2 in all cases. Rat MLE shared expression patterns of Sox2, CK4, Cdx2, GATA4, villin and Muc2 with human MLE. However, p63 and CK14 were expressed in a higher proportion of rat MLE compared to humans. Conclusion These data indicate that rat MLE shares similar properties to human MLE in its expression pattern of these markers, not withstanding small differences, and support the concept that MLE may be a transitional stage in the metaplastic conversion of squamous to columnar epithelium in BE.

  16. An ancestral human genetic variant linked to an ancient disease: A novel association of FMO2 polymorphisms with tuberculosis (TB in Ethiopian populations provides new insight into the differential ethno-geographic distribution of FMO2*1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrem Mekonnen

    Full Text Available The human FMO2 (flavin-containing monooxygenase 2 gene has been shown to be involved in innate immunity against microbial infections, including tuberculosis (TB, via the modulation of oxidative stress levels. It has also been found to possess a curious loss-of-function mutation (FMO2*1/FMO2*2 that demonstrates a distinctive differentiation in expression, function and ethno-geographic distribution. However, despite evidences of ethnic-specific genetic associations in the inflammatory profile of TB, no studies were done to investigate whether these patterns of variations correlate with evidences for the involvement of FMO2 in antimicrobial immune responses and ethnic differences in the distribution of FMO2 polymorphisms except for some pharmacogenetic data that suggest a potentially deleterious role for the functional variant (FMO2*1. This genetic epidemiological study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between FMO2 polymorphisms and TB, an ancient malady that remains a modern global health concern, in a sub-Saharan Africa setting where there is not only a relatively high co-prevalence of the disease and the ancestral FMO2*1 variant but also where both Mycobcaterium and Homo sapiens are considered to have originated and co-evolved. Blood samples and TB related clinical data were collected from ascertained TB cases and unrelated household controls (n = 292 from 3 different ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Latent Mtb infection was determined using Quantiferon to develop reliable TB progression phenotypes. We sequenced exonic regions of FMO2.We identified for the first time an association between FMO2 and TB both at the SNP and haplotype level. Two novel SNPs achieved a study-wide significance [chr1:171181877(A, p = 3.15E-07, OR = 4.644 and chr1:171165749(T, p = 3.32E-06, OR = 6.825] while multiple SNPs (22 showed nominal signals. The pattern of association suggested a protective effect of FMO2 against both active and latent TB

  17. Differentiation of specific ripple patterns helps to identify epileptogenic areas for surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Karolin; Dümpelmann, Matthias; Schelter, Björn; Le Van, Pierre; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Jacobs, Julia

    2014-07-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) at 80-500 Hz are promising markers of epileptic areas. Several retrospective studies reported that surgical removal of areas generating HFOs was associated with a good seizure outcome. Recent reports suggested that ripple (80-200 Hz) HFO patterns co-existed with different background EEG activities. We hypothesized that the coexisting background EEG pattern may distinguish physiological from epileptic ripples. Rates of HFOs were analyzed in intracranial EEG recordings of 22 patients. Additionally, ripple patterns were classified for each channel depending either as coexisting with a flat or oscillatory background activity. A multi-variate analysis was performed to determine whether removal of areas showing the above EEG markers correlated with seizure outcome. Removal of areas generating high rates of 'fast ripples (>200 Hz)' and 'ripples on a flat background activity' showed a significant correlation with a seizure-free outcome. In contrast, removal of high rates of 'ripples' or 'ripple patterns in a continuously oscillating background' was not significantly associated with seizure outcome. Ripples occurring in an oscillatory background activity may be suggestive of physiological activity, while those on a flat background reflect epileptic activity. Consideration of coexisting background patterns may improve the delineation of the epileptogenic areas using ripple oscillations. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential expression pattern of extracellular matrix molecules during chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Niemeyer, P; Kaiser, S

    2006-01-01

    Adipose-derived adult stem cells (ADASCs) or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered as alternative cell sources for cell-based cartilage repair due to their ability to produce cartilage-specific matrix. This article addresses the differential expression pattern...... chondroinduction. TGF-beta1 induces alternative splicing of the alpha(1)-procollagen type II transcript in BMSCs, but not in ADASCs. These findings may direct the development of a cell-specific culture environment either to prevent hypertrophy in BMSCs or to promote chondrogenic maturation in ADASCs....

  19. Different patterns of contingent stimulation differentially affect attention span in prelinguistic infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer L; Ables, Erin M; King, Andrew P; West, Meredith J

    2009-06-01

    The ability to sustain attention influences different domains including cognitive, motor, and communicative behavior. Previous research has demonstrated how an infant's parent can influence sustained attention. The purpose of our study was to expose infants systematically to both sensitive and redirective patterns of behavior to examine how unfamiliar individuals could influence attention. Results revealed infants changed their patterns of looking with the unfamiliar individuals. Infants had longer durations of sustained attention when interacting with a sensitive unfamiliar individual who followed into their attentional focus as opposed to an intrusive person who led their attentional focus. This study demonstrates that infants discriminate patterns of contingency to persons seen for only a short period of time broadening the range of potential mentors for learning.

  20. Cellular automata for spatiotemporal pattern formation from reaction–diffusion partial differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Shousuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Ultradiscrete equations are derived from a set of reaction–diffusion partial differential equations, and cellular automaton rules are obtained on the basis of the ultradiscrete equations. Some rules reproduce the dynamical properties of the original reaction–diffusion equations, namely, bistability and pulse annihilation. Furthermore, other rules bring about soliton-like preservation and periodic pulse generation with a pacemaker, which are not obtained from the original reaction–diffusion equations. (author)

  1. Diversity and Geographical Distribution of Flavobacterium psychrophilum Isolates and Their Phages: Patterns of Susceptibility to Phage Infection and Phage Host Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Espejo, Romilio

    2014-01-01

    in disease control requires detailed knowledge about the diversity and dynamics of host susceptibility to phage infection. For this reason, we examined the genetic diversity of 49 F. psychrophilum strains isolated in three different areas (Chile, Denmark, and USA) through direct genome restriction enzyme...... analysis (DGREA) and their susceptibility to 33 bacteriophages isolated in Chile and Denmark, thus covering large geographical (>12,000 km) and temporal (>60 years) scales of isolation. An additional 40 phage-resistant isolates obtained from culture experiments after exposure to specific phages were...... examined for changes in phage susceptibility against the 33 phages. The F. psychrophilum and phage populations isolated from Chile and Denmark clustered into geographically distinct groups with respect to DGREA profile and host range, respectively. However, cross infection between Chilean phage isolates...

  2. Population genomic analysis reveals differential evolutionary histories and patterns of diversity across subgenomes and subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eGazave

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this species. We used sequence-based genotyping to identify and genotype 30,881 SNPs in a diversity panel of 782 B. napus accessions, representing samples of winter and spring growth habits originating from 33 countries across Europe, Asia and America. We detected strong population structure broadly concordant with growth habit and geography, and identified three major genetic groups: spring (SP, winter Europe (WE, and winter Asia (WA. Subpopulation-specific polymorphism patterns suggest enriched genetic diversity within the WA group and a smaller effective breeding population for the SP group compared to WE. Interestingly, the two subgenomes of B. napus appear to have different geographic origins, with phylogenetic analysis placing WE and WA as basal clades for the other subpopulations in the C and A subgenomes, respectively. Finally, we identified 16 genomic regions where the patterns of diversity differed markedly from the genome-wide average, several of which are suggestive of genomic inversions. The results obtained in this study constitute a valuable resource for worldwide breeding efforts and the genetic dissection and prediction of complex B. napus traits.

  3. Temporal lobe epilepsy subtypes, differential patterns of cerebral perfusion on ictal SPECT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, SS; Berkovic, SF; McKay, WJ; Kalnins, RM; Bladin, PF

    Purpose: We studied cerebral perfusion patterns in the various subtypes of TLE, as determined by pathology and good outcome after temporal lobectomy (as confirmation of temporal origin). Methods: We studied clinical features and ictal technetium 99m hexamethyl-propyleneamineoxime (Tc-99m-HMPAO)

  4. Natural enemies drive geographic variation in plant defenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuest, Tobias; Heichinger, Christian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack by natural enemies, and these defenses vary widely across populations. However, whether communities of natural enemies are a sufficiently potent force to maintain polymorphisms in defensive traits is largely unknown. Here, we exploit the genetic resources...... of Arabidopsis thaliana, coupled with 39 years of field data on aphid abundance, to (i) demonstrate that geographic patterns in a polymorphic defense locus (GS-ELONG) are strongly correlated with changes in the relative abundance of two specialist aphids; and (ii) demonstrate differential selection by the two...... aphids on GS-ELONG, using a multigeneration selection experiment. We thereby show a causal link between variation in abundance of the two specialist aphids and the geographic pattern at GS-ELONG, which highlights the potency of natural enemies as selective forces....

  5. Differential Gene Expression Patterns in Chicken Cardiomyocytes during Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chunyun; Xiang, Jinmei; Li, Youwen; Guo, Dingzong

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is both an exogenous and endogenous cytotoxic agent that can reliably induce apoptosis in numerous cell types for studies on apoptosis signaling pathways. However, little is known of these apoptotic processes in myocardial cells of chicken, a species prone to progressive heart failure. Sequencing of mRNA transcripts (RNA-Seq) allows for the identification of differentially expressed genes under various physiological and pathological conditions to elucidate the molecular pathways involved, including cellular responses to exogenous and endogenous toxins. We used RNA-seq to examine genes differentially expressed during H2O2-induced apoptosis in primary cultures of embryonic chicken cardiomyocytes. Following control or H2O2 treatment, RNA was extracted and sequencing performed to identify novel transcripts up- or downregulated in the H2O2 treatment group and construct protein-protein interaction networks. Of the 19,268 known and 2,160 novel transcripts identified in both control and H2O2 treatment groups, 4,650 showed significant differential expression. Among them, 55.63% were upregulated and 44.37% downregulated. Initiation of apoptosis by H2O2 was associated with upregulation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes API5 and TRIA1. Many other differentially expressed genes were associated with metabolic pathways (including 'Fatty acid metabolism', 'Alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism', and 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids') and cell signaling pathways (including 'PPAR signaling pathway', 'Adipocytokine signaling pathway', 'TGF-beta signaling pathway', 'MAPK signaling pathway', and 'p53 signaling pathway'). In chicken cardiomyocytes, H2O2 alters the expression of numerous genes linked to cell signaling and metabolism as well as genes directly associated with apoptosis. In particular, H2O2 also affects the biosynthesis and processing of proteins and unsaturated fatty acids. These

  6. Re-visioning local biologies: HIV-2 and the pattern of differential valuation in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of HIV-2, a distinctly West African variant of HIV, is often portrayed as the result of a straightforward, if serendipitous, error. This article reframes the history of how HIV-2 came to be a knowable scientific identity. Relying on narratives from an African laboratory and clinic, it suggests that the rise and fall of HIV-2 as a viable research entity is indicative of a differential visibility and valuation of both human bodies and viruses. Understanding how HIV-2 emerged as a local biology reveals the complex set of relations that contemporary African scientists face in navigating local moral economies and the mercurial politics of the contemporary global health industry.

  7. Does Violence in Adolescence Differentially Predict Offending Patterns in Early Adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Stephanie M; Piquero, Alex R

    2018-05-01

    Previous research is mixed on whether the commission of a violent offense in adolescence is predictive of criminal career characteristics. In the current study, we addressed the following: (a) What factors predict the commission of serious violence in mid-adolescence? and (b) Does involvement in serious violence in mid-adolescence lead to more chronic and/or more heterogeneous patterns of offending in early adulthood? Data were obtained from the Pathways to Desistance Study, a longitudinal study of serious adolescent offenders in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Phoenix, Arizona. Prior arrests, violence exposure, and gang involvement distinguished adolescents who engaged in violence at baseline. A violent offense at baseline was not predictive of a higher frequency of rearrests but was associated with membership in the low offending trajectory. In conclusion, violent offending in adolescence might be a poor predictor of chronic and heterogeneous patterns of offending throughout the life course.

  8. Patterns of genetic differentiation at MHC class I genes and microsatellites identify conservation units in the giant panda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Yu, Bin; Ge, Yun-Fa; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2013-10-22

    Evaluating patterns of genetic variation is important to identify conservation units (i.e., evolutionarily significant units [ESUs], management units [MUs], and adaptive units [AUs]) in endangered species. While neutral markers could be used to infer population history, their application in the estimation of adaptive variation is limited. The capacity to adapt to various environments is vital for the long-term survival of endangered species. Hence, analysis of adaptive loci, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, is critical for conservation genetics studies. Here, we investigated 4 classical MHC class I genes (Aime-C, Aime-F, Aime-I, and Aime-L) and 8 microsatellites to infer patterns of genetic variation in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and to further define conservation units. Overall, we identified 24 haplotypes (9 for Aime-C, 1 for Aime-F, 7 for Aime-I, and 7 for Aime-L) from 218 individuals obtained from 6 populations of giant panda. We found that the Xiaoxiangling population had the highest genetic variation at microsatellites among the 6 giant panda populations and higher genetic variation at Aime-MHC class I genes than other larger populations (Qinling, Qionglai, and Minshan populations). Differentiation index (FST)-based phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses for Aime-MHC-I and microsatellite loci both supported that most populations were highly differentiated. The Qinling population was the most genetically differentiated. The giant panda showed a relatively higher level of genetic diversity at MHC class I genes compared with endangered felids. Using all of the loci, we found that the 6 giant panda populations fell into 2 ESUs: Qinling and non-Qinling populations. We defined 3 MUs based on microsatellites: Qinling, Minshan-Qionglai, and Daxiangling-Xiaoxiangling-Liangshan. We also recommended 3 possible AUs based on MHC loci: Qinling, Minshan-Qionglai, and Daxiangling-Xiaoxiangling-Liangshan. Furthermore, we recommend

  9. Practice patterns in the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer in Ontario Canada 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the variations in practice prior to diagnosis and for the first year after diagnosis, including the investigations, the extent of surgery and the use of RAI 131, for all patients with thyroid cancer (TC) treated Jan 1 2000 to Dec 2008 across Ontario Canada. Method Population-based study of all patients who had a therapeutic surgical procedure for TC based on the data holdings of the Institute of Clinical Investigative Sciences (ICES) linking the Ontario Cancer Registry to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and to the Canadian Institutes of Health Information. The analysis includes comparisons between health care utilization/geographic regions and between treating specialties. The study population was 12957 patients. Results There was a 112% increase in case detection over 9 years. Overall the initial (index) surgery was less-than-total thyroidectomy (LTT) in 37.6% and 63.4% of the patients who had total thyroidectomy (TT) as an index surgery went on to adjuvant RAI, however there was wide variation in all aspects of patient care across the province, between Local Health Networks and between surgical specialties. Conclusion In Ontario, there was wide variation for most aspects of the management of TC and, as the incidence of TC is increasing at least 7% per year in females, these data provide a foundation for future discussions, the provision of health care services and research. PMID:25055715

  10. Differential patterns of cortical activation as a function of fluid reasoning complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Bernardo; Saggino, Aristide; Ferretti, Antonio; Caulo, Massimo; Romani, Gian Luca; Onofrj, Marco

    2009-02-01

    Fluid intelligence (gf) refers to abstract reasoning and problem solving abilities. It is considered a human higher cognitive factor central to general intelligence (g). The regions of the cortex supporting gf have been revealed by recent bioimaging studies and valuable hypothesis on the neural correlates of individual differences have been proposed. However, little is known about the interaction between individual variability in gf and variation in cortical activity following task complexity increase. To further investigate this, two samples of participants (high-IQ, N = 8; low-IQ, N = 10) with significant differences in gf underwent two reasoning (moderate and complex) tasks and a control task adapted from the Raven progressive matrices. Functional magnetic resonance was used and the recorded signal analyzed between and within the groups. The present study revealed two opposite patterns of neural activity variation which were probably a reflection of the overall differences in cognitive resource modulation: when complexity increased, high-IQ subjects showed a signal enhancement in some frontal and parietal regions, whereas low-IQ subjects revealed a decreased activity in the same areas. Moreover, a direct comparison between the groups' activation patterns revealed a greater neural activity in the low-IQ sample when conducting moderate task, with a strong involvement of medial and lateral frontal regions thus suggesting that the recruitment of executive functioning might be different between the groups. This study provides evidence for neural differences in facing reasoning complexity among subjects with different gf level that are mediated by specific patterns of activation of the underlying fronto-parietal network.

  11. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A; Sanmiguel, Claudia P; Van Horn, John D; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42 morphological features, achieved 69

  12. Modeling the differentiation of A- and C-type baroreceptor firing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdy, Jacob; Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The baroreceptor neurons serve as the primary transducers of blood pressure for the autonomic nervous system and are thus critical in enabling the body to respond effectively to changes in blood pressure. These neurons can be separated into two types (A and C) based on the myelination...... of their axons and their distinct firing patterns elicited in response to specific pressure stimuli. This study has developed a comprehensive model of the afferent baroreceptor discharge built on physiological knowledge of arterial wall mechanics, firing rate responses to controlled pressure stimuli, and ion...

  13. Patterns of brain structural connectivity differentiate normal weight from overweight subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Mayer, Emeran A.; Sanmiguel, Claudia P.; Van Horn, John D.; Woodworth, Davis; Ellingson, Benjamin M.; Fling, Connor; Love, Aubrey; Tillisch, Kirsten; Labus, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in the hedonic component of ingestive behaviors have been implicated as a possible risk factor in the pathophysiology of overweight and obese individuals. Neuroimaging evidence from individuals with increasing body mass index suggests structural, functional, and neurochemical alterations in the extended reward network and associated networks. Aim To apply a multivariate pattern analysis to distinguish normal weight and overweight subjects based on gray and white-matter measurements. Methods Structural images (N = 120, overweight N = 63) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) (N = 60, overweight N = 30) were obtained from healthy control subjects. For the total sample the mean age for the overweight group (females = 32, males = 31) was 28.77 years (SD = 9.76) and for the normal weight group (females = 32, males = 25) was 27.13 years (SD = 9.62). Regional segmentation and parcellation of the brain images was performed using Freesurfer. Deterministic tractography was performed to measure the normalized fiber density between regions. A multivariate pattern analysis approach was used to examine whether brain measures can distinguish overweight from normal weight individuals. Results 1. White-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 17 regional connections, achieved 97% accuracy in discriminating overweight individuals from normal weight individuals. For both brain signatures, greater connectivity as indexed by increased fiber density was observed in overweight compared to normal weight between the reward network regions and regions of the executive control, emotional arousal, and somatosensory networks. In contrast, the opposite pattern (decreased fiber density) was found between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior insula, and between thalamus and executive control network regions. 2. Gray-matter classification: The classification algorithm, based on 2 signatures with 42

  14. Identification of differential gene expression patterns in human arteries from patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubbe, Jane; Skov, Vibe; Thiesson, Helle Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uremia accelerates atherosclerosis but little is known about affected pathways in human vasculature. This study aimed to identify differentially expressed arterial transcripts in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) Methods: Global mRNA expression was estimated by microarray...... hybridization in iliac arteries (n=14) from renal transplant recipients and compared with renal arteries from healthy living kidney donors (n=19) in study 1. Study 2 compared non-atherosclerotic internal mammary arteries (IMA) from five patients with elevated plasma creatinine levels and age and gender matched...... controls with normal levels. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry for selected proteins was performed on a subset of study 1 samples. RESULTS: 15 gene transcripts with fold changes (FC)>1.05 were significantly different between the two groups in study 1, with false discovery rates (FDR) of

  15. Temporal expression pattern of genes during the period of sex differentiation in human embryonic gonads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn S; Ernst, Emil H; Borup, Rehannah

    2017-01-01

    The precise timing and sequence of changes in expression of key genes and proteins during human sex-differentiation and onset of steroidogenesis was evaluated by whole-genome expression in 67 first trimester human embryonic and fetal ovaries and testis and confirmed by qPCR and immunohistochemistry...... (IHC). SRY/SOX9 expression initiated in testis around day 40 pc, followed by initiation of AMH and steroidogenic genes required for androgen production at day 53 pc. In ovaries, gene expression of RSPO1, LIN28, FOXL2, WNT2B, and ETV5, were significantly higher than in testis, whereas GLI1...... was significantly higher in testis than ovaries. Gene expression was confirmed by IHC for GAGE, SOX9, AMH, CYP17A1, LIN28, WNT2B, ETV5 and GLI1. Gene expression was not associated with the maternal smoking habits. Collectively, a precise temporal determination of changes in expression of key genes involved in human...

  16. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    As a universally common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, the polycystic ovarian syndrome is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes reflecting the contributions of reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying symptoms resulting from...... interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS...... in the DNA methylome from ovarian tissue under PCOS condition. Most importantly, our genome-wide profiling focusing on PCOS patients revealed a large number of DNA methylation sites and their enriched functional pathways significantly associated with diverse clinical features (levels of prolactin, estradiol...

  17. Differential DNA methylation patterns of polycystic ovarian syndrome in whole blood of Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuxia; Zhu, Dongyi; Duan, Hongmei; Ren, Anran; Glintborg, Dorte; Andersen, Marianne; Skov, Vibe; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben; Tan, Qihua

    2017-03-28

    As a universally common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age, the polycystic ovarian syndrome is characterized by composite clinical phenotypes reflecting the contributions of reproductive impact of ovarian dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities with widely varying symptoms resulting from interference of the genome with the environment through integrative biological mechanisms including epigenetics. We have performed a genome-wide DNA methylation analysis on polycystic ovarian syndrome and identified a substantial number of genomic sites differentially methylated in the whole blood of PCOS patients and healthy controls (52 sites, false discovery rate ovarian tissue under PCOS condition. Most importantly, our genome-wide profiling focusing on PCOS patients revealed a large number of DNA methylation sites and their enriched functional pathways significantly associated with diverse clinical features (levels of prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and menstrual cycle) that could serve as novel molecular basis of the clinical heterogeneity observed in PCOS women.

  18. Leukoencephalopathy with swelling in children and adolescents: MRI patterns and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaap, M.S. van der; Valk, J.; Barth, P.G.; Smit, L.M.E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Tortori Donati, P.

    1995-01-01

    In children, several neurological disorders are characterised by spongiform leukoencephalopathy. MRI of the brain typically shows white matter swelling, but does not enable differentiation of the various underlying disorders. The aim of this article is optimisation of the diagnostic value of MRI in leukoencephalopathy accompanied by swelling. MRI-based inclusion criteria were met by 20 patients in our database. The images were analysed using a detailed scoring list. In 13 of the 20 patients the clinical diagnosis was known (11 definite and 2 probable diagnoses). Characteristic MRI abnormalities could be defined in these patients. Of the 7 patients without a diagnosis, 5 had identical MRI abnormalities: diffuse hemisphere swelling and typical cysts in frontoparietal subcortical white matter and the tips of the temporal lobes. The clinical picture was also similar in these patients, suggesting a similar disease. (orig.). With 10 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Differential Lectin Binding Patterns Identify Distinct Heart Regions in Giant Danio (Devario aequipinnatus) and Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manalo, Trina; May, Adam; Quinn, Joshua; Lafontant, Dominique S.; Shifatu, Olubusola; He, Wei; Gonzalez-Rosa, Juan M.; Burns, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, Alan R.; Lafontant, Pascal J.

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins commonly used as biochemical and histochemical tools to study glycoconjugate (glycoproteins, glycolipids) expression patterns in cells, tissues, including mammalian hearts. However, lectins have received little attention in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and giant danio (Devario aequipinnatus) heart studies. Here, we sought to determine the binding patterns of six commonly used lectins—wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin, Bandeiraea simplicifolia lectin (BS lectin), concanavalin A (Con A), Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), and Lycopersicon esculentum agglutinin (tomato lectin)—in these hearts. Con A showed broad staining in the myocardium. WGA stained cardiac myocyte borders, with binding markedly stronger in the compact heart and bulbus. BS lectin, which stained giant danio coronaries, was used to measure vascular reconstruction during regeneration. However, BS lectin reacted poorly in zebrafish. RCA I stained the compact heart of both fish. Tomato lectin stained the giant danio, and while low reactivity was seen in the zebrafish ventricle, staining was observed in their transitional cardiac myocytes. In addition, we observed unique staining patterns in the developing zebrafish heart. Lectins’ ability to reveal differential glycoconjugate expression in giant danio and zebrafish hearts suggests they can serve as simple but important tools in studies of developing, adult, and regenerating fish hearts. PMID:27680670

  20. Differentiation of organic and non-organic winter wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial by crystallization patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Johannes; Busscher, Nicolaas; Mergardt, Gaby; Mäder, Paul; Torp, Torfinn; Ploeger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for authentication tools in order to verify the existing certification system. Recently, markers for analytical authentication of organic products were evaluated. Herein, crystallization with additives was described as an interesting fingerprint approach which needs further evidence, based on a standardized method and well-documented sample origin. The fingerprint of wheat cultivars from a controlled field trial is generated from structure analysis variables of crystal patterns. Method performance was tested on factors such as crystallization chamber, day of experiment and region of interest of the patterns. Two different organic treatments and two different treatments of the non-organic regime can be grouped together in each of three consecutive seasons. When the k-nearest-neighbor classification method was applied, approximately 84% of Runal samples and 95% of Titlis samples were classified correctly into organic and non-organic origin using cross-validation. Crystallization with additive offers an interesting complementary fingerprint method for organic wheat samples. When the method is applied to winter wheat from the DOK trial, organic and non-organic treated samples can be differentiated significantly based on pattern recognition. Therefore crystallization with additives seems to be a promising tool in organic wheat authentication. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Garreth; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve; Ingamells, Ed; Gathercole, Susan; Baddeley, Alan; Green, Gary G R

    2013-01-01

    The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  2. Differential patterns of prefrontal MEG activation during verbal & visual encoding and retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garreth Prendergast

    Full Text Available The spatiotemporal profile of activation of the prefrontal cortex in verbal and non-verbal recognition memory was examined using magnetoencephalography (MEG. Sixteen neurologically healthy right-handed participants were scanned whilst carrying out a modified version of the Doors and People Test of recognition memory. A pattern of significant prefrontal activity was found for non-verbal and verbal encoding and recognition. During the encoding, verbal stimuli activated an area in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and non-verbal stimuli activated an area in the right. A region in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex also showed significant activation during the encoding of non-verbal stimuli. Both verbal and non-verbal stimuli significantly activated an area in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the right anterior prefrontal cortex during successful recognition, however these areas showed temporally distinct activation dependent on material, with non-verbal showing activation earlier than verbal stimuli. Additionally, non-verbal material activated an area in the left anterior prefrontal cortex during recognition. These findings suggest a material-specific laterality in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex during encoding for verbal and non-verbal but also support the HERA model for verbal material. The discovery of two process dependent areas during recognition that showed patterns of temporal activation dependent on material demonstrates the need for the application of more temporally sensitive techniques to the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in recognition memory.

  3. Differential patterns of implicit emotional processing in Alzheimer's disease and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, Beatriz; Fusari, Anna; Rodríguez, Beatriz; Hernández, José Martín Zurdo; Ellgring, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Implicit memory for emotional facial expressions (EFEs) was investigated in young adults, healthy old adults, and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Implicit memory is revealed by the effect of experience on performance by studying previously encoded versus novel stimuli, a phenomenon referred to as perceptual priming. The aim was to assess the changes in the patterns of priming as a function of aging and dementia. Participants identified EFEs taken from the Facial Action Coding System and the stimuli used represented the emotions of happiness, sadness, surprise, fear, anger, and disgust. In the study phase, participants rated the pleasantness of 36 faces using a Likert-type scale. Subsequently, the response to the 36 previously studied and 36 novel EFEs was tested when they were randomly presented in a cued naming task. The results showed that implicit memory for EFEs is preserved in AD and aging, and no specific age-related effects on implicit memory for EFEs were observed. However, different priming patterns were evident in AD patients that may reflect pathological brain damage and the effect of stimulus complexity. These findings provide evidence of how progressive neuropathological changes in the temporal and frontal areas may affect emotional processing in more advanced stages of the disease.

  4. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.

  5. Differential Diptera succession patterns onto partially burned and unburned pig carrion in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Oliveira-Costa

    Full Text Available In the present contribution we compared the entomological succession pattern of a burned carcass with that of an unburned one. For that, we used domestic pig carcasses and focused on Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae flies, because they are the ones most commonly used in Postmortem Interval estimates. Adult and immature flies were collected daily. A total of 27 species and 2,498 specimens were collected, 1,295 specimens of 26 species from the partially burned carcass and 1,203 specimens of 22 species from the control carcass (unburned. The species composition in the two samples differed, and the results of the similarity measures were 0.875 by Sorensen and 0.756 by Bray-Curtis index. The results obtained for both carcasses also differ with respect to the decomposition process, indicating that the post mortem interval would be underestimated if the entomological succession pattern observed for a carcass under normal conditions was applied to a carbonized carcass.

  6. Differential scaling patterns of vertebrae and the evolution of neck length in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Amson, Eli; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-06-01

    Almost all mammals have seven vertebrae in their cervical spines. This consistency represents one of the most prominent examples of morphological stasis in vertebrae evolution. Hence, the requirements associated with evolutionary modifications of neck length have to be met with a fixed number of vertebrae. It has not been clear whether body size influences the overall length of the cervical spine and its inner organization (i.e., if the mammalian neck is subject to allometry). Here, we provide the first large-scale analysis of the scaling patterns of the cervical spine and its constituting cervical vertebrae. Our findings reveal that the opposite allometric scaling of C1 and C2-C7 accommodate the increase of neck bending moment with body size. The internal organization of the neck skeleton exhibits surprisingly uniformity in the vast majority of mammals. Deviations from this general pattern only occur under extreme loading regimes associated with particular functional and allometric demands. Our results indicate that the main source of variation in the mammalian neck stems from the disparity of overall cervical spine length. The mammalian neck reveals how evolutionary disparity manifests itself in a structure that is otherwise highly restricted by meristic constraints. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Identifying differential miR and gene consensus patterns in peripheral blood of patients with cardiovascular diseases from literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šatrauskienė, Agnė; Navickas, Rokas; Laucevičius, Aleksandras; Huber, Heinrich J

    2017-06-30

    Numerous recent studies suggest the potential of circulating MicroRNAs (miRs) in peripheral blood samples as diagnostic or prognostic markers for coronary artery disease (CAD), acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and heart failure (HF). However, literature often remains inconclusive regarding as to which markers are most indicative for which of the above diseases. This shortcoming is mainly due to the lack of a systematic analyses and absence of information on the functional pathophysiological role of these miRs and their target genes. We here provide an-easy-to-use scoring approach to investigate the likelihood of regulation of several miRs and their target genes from literature by identifying consensus patterns of regulation. We therefore have screened over 1000 articles that study mRNA markers in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, and devised a scoring algorithm to identify consensus means for miRs and genes regulation across several studies. We then aimed to identify differential markers between CAD, ACS and HF. We first identified miRs (miR-122, -126, -223, -138 and -370) as commonly regulated within a group of metabolic disease, while investigating cardiac-related pathologies (CAD, ACS, HF) revealed a decisive role of miR-1, -499, -208b, and -133a. Looking at differential markers between cardiovascular disease revealed miR-1, miR-208a and miR-133a to distinguish ACS and CAD to HF. Relating differentially expressed miRs to their putative gene targets using MirTarBase, we further identified HCN2/4 and LASP1 as potential markers of CAD and ACS, but not in HF. Likewise, BLC-2 was found oppositely regulated between CAD and HF. Interestingly, while studying overlap in target genes between CAD, ACS and HF only revealed little similarities, mapping these genes to gene ontology terms revealed a surprising similarity between CAD and ACS compared to HF. We conclude that our analysis using gene and miR scores allows the extraction of meaningful markers and the elucidation

  8. Electromyographic Pattern during Gait Initiation Differentiates Yoga Practitioners among Physically Active Older Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lelard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During gait initiation, postural adjustments are needed to deal with balance and movement. With aging, gait initiation changes and reflects functional degradation of frailty individuals. However, physical activities have demonstrated beneficial effects of daily motor tasks. The aim of our study was to compare center of pressure (COP displacement and ankle muscle co-activation during gait initiation in two physically active groups: a group of walkers (n = 12; mean age ± SD 72.6 ± 3.2 years and a yoga group (n = 11; 71.5 ± 3.8 years. COP trajectory and electromyography of leg muscles were recorded simultaneously during five successive trials of gait initiation. Our main finding was that yoga practitioners had slower COP displacements (p < 0.01 and lower leg muscles % of coactivation (p < 0.01 in comparison with walkers. These parameters which characterized gait initiation control were correlated (r = 0.76; p < 0.01. Our results emphasize that lengthy ankle muscle co-activation and COP path in gait initiation differentiate yoga practitioners among physically active subjects.

  9. Differential patterns of contextual organization of memory in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; McKinney, Rachel A; DuBrow, Sarah; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Haas, Gretchen L; Luna, Beatriz

    2018-02-15

    Contextual information is used to support and organize episodic memory. Prior research has reliably shown memory deficits in psychosis; however, little research has characterized how this population uses contextual information during memory recall. We employed an approach founded in a computational framework of free recall to quantify how individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP, N = 97) and controls (CON, N = 55) use temporal and semantic context to organize memory recall. Free recall was characterized using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R). We compared FEP and CON on three measures of free recall: proportion recalled, temporal clustering, and semantic clustering. Measures of temporal/semantic clustering quantified how individuals use contextual information to organize memory recall. We also assessed to what extent these measures relate to antipsychotic use and differentiated between different types of psychosis. We also explored the relationship between these measures and intelligence. In comparison to CON, FEP had reduced recall and less temporal clustering during free recall (p contextual organization of memory. IQ was related to free recall accuracy, but not the use of contextual information during recall in either group (p < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected). These results show that in addition to deficits in memory recall, FEP differed in how they organize memories compared to CON.

  10. IDH1-associated primary glioblastoma in young adults displays differential patterns of tumour and vascular morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Popov

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive tumour with marked heterogeneity at the morphological level in both the tumour cells and the associated highly prominent vasculature. As we begin to develop an increased biological insight into the underlying processes driving the disease, fewer attempts have thus far been made to understand these phenotypic differences. We sought to address this by carefully assessing the morphological characteristics of both the tumour cells and the associated vasculature, relating these observations to the IDH1/MGMT status, with a particular focus on the early onset population of young adults who develop primary glioblastoma. 276 primary glioblastoma specimens were classified into their predominant cell morphological type (fibrillary, gemistocytic, giant cell, small cell, oligodendroglial, sarcomatous, and assessed for specific tumour (cellularity, necrosis, palisades and vascular features (glomeruloid structures, arcades, pericyte proliferation. IDH1 positive glioblastomas were associated with a younger age at diagnosis, better clinical outcome, prominent oligodendroglial and small cell tumour cell morphology, pallisading necrosis and glomeruloid vascular proliferation in the absence of arcade-like structures. These features widen the phenotype of IDH1 mutation-positive primary glioblastoma in young adults and provide correlative evidence for a functional role of mutant IDH1 in the differential nature of neo-angiogenesis in different subtypes of glioblastoma.

  11. Different pattern of contamination by legacy POPs in two populations from the same geographical area but with completely different lifestyles: Canary Islands (Spain) vs. Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Arellano, José Luis Pérez; Carranza, Cristina; Sánchez, Nieves Jaén; Almeida-González, Maira; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D

    2016-01-15

    The archipelago of the Canary Islands is one of the so-called ultra-peripheral territories of the European Union due to its geographical location away from the continent. Although the level of socioeconomic development and lifestyle of this region is comparable to that of any other of the European Union, it is just 100 km off the coast of Morocco, in the African continent. The population of the Canaries has been extensively studied with respect to their levels of POPs, and it has been described that their levels are relatively high compared to other European regions. It has been speculated with that the proximity to Africa may be associated with this level of contamination, but so far this theory has not been verified. This paper describes for the first time the levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a sample of the population of Morocco (n = 131), which were compared with those of a similar sample of the population of permanent residents in the Canary Islands (n = 100) in order to check this hypothesis. Our results showed that Moroccans have higher median values of OCPs than the residents in the Canaries (∑ OCP = 150.2 ng/g lw vs. 83.4 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). Regarding the PCBs, although recent studies have reported that new environmental sources of PCBs exist in several African countries (including Morocco), the plasma levels of most congeners were significantly higher in Canarians than in Moroccans, especially for the dioxin-like PCBs (median = 7.3 ng/g lw vs. 0.0 ng/g lw, p = 0.0001). The detailed analysis of our results suggests that the levels of these pollutants in the Canarian people are more influenced by their lifestyle and the previous use of these chemicals in the archipelago than by its geographical vicinity with Morocco.

  12. Levels and patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) from four different lakes in Tanzania: geographical differences and implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Müller, M B; Lyche, J L; Mdegela, R H; Nonga, H E; Mabiki, F P; Mbise, T J; Skaare, J U; Sandvik, M; Skjerve, E; Lie, E

    2014-08-01

    In Tanzania fish is one of the most important protein sources for the rapidly increasing population. Wild fish is threatened by overfishing and pollution from agriculture, industries, mining, household effluents and vector control. To monitor possible implications for public health, the geographical differences of the occurrence and levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in tilapia fish (Oreochromis sp.) from four different Tanzanian lakes were investigated in 2011. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyls (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) were determined in pooled samples of tilapia muscle from Lake (L) Victoria, L. Tanganyika, L. Nyasa (also called L. Malawi) and L. Babati in Tanzania in 2011. Levels of Σ-DDTs (274 ng/g lipid weight (lw)) and sum of 7 indicator PCBs (Σ-7PCBs) (17 ng/g lw) were significantly higher in tilapia from L. Tanganyika compared to the other lakes. The highest levels of Σ-endosulfan (94 ng/g lw) were detected in tilapia from L. Victoria. Toxaphenes were detected in low levels in fish from L. Tanganyika and L. Babati. Results revealed a geographic difference in the use of DDT and endosulfan between L. Victoria and L. Tanganyika. Low ratios of DDE/DDT in tilapia from L. Tanganyika indicated an on-going use of DDT in the area. Median levels of ΣBDEs, including BDE-209, were highest in L. Victoria (19.4 ng/g lw) and BDE-209 was present in 68% of the samples from this lake. The presence of BDE-209 indicates increasing influence of imported products from heavy industrialized countries. The measured POP levels in the studied tilapia were all below MRLs of EU or were lower than recommended levels, and thus the fish is considered as safe for human consumption. They may, however, pose a risk to the fish species and threaten biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Patterns of accentuated grey-white differentiation on diffusion-weighted imaging or the apparent diffusion coefficient maps in comatose survivors after global brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.; Sohn, C.-H.; Chang, K.-H.; Chang, H.-W.; Lee, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine what disease entities show accentuated grey-white differentiation of the cerebral hemisphere on diffusion-weighted images (DWI) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and whether there is a correlation between the different patterns and the cause of the brain injury. Methods and materials: The DWI and ADC maps of 19 patients with global brain injury were reviewed and evaluated to investigate whether there was a correlation between the different patterns seen on the DWI and ADC maps and the cause of global brain injury. The ADC values were measured for quantitative analysis. Results: There were three different patterns of ADC decrease: a predominant ADC decrease in only the cerebral cortex (n = 8; pattern I); an ADC decrease in both the cerebral cortex and white matter (WM) and a predominant decrease in the WM (n = 9; pattern II); and a predominant ADC decrease in only the WM (n = 3; pattern III). Conclusion: Pattern I is cerebral cortical injury, suggesting cortical laminar necrosis in hypoxic brain injury. Pattern II is cerebral cortical and WM injury, frequently seen in brain death, while pattern 3 is mainly WM injury, especially found in hypoglycaemic brain injury. It is likely that pattern I is decorticate injury and pattern II is decerebrate injury in hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.Patterns I and II are found in severe hypoxic brain injury, and pattern II is frequently shown in brain death, whereas pattern III was found in severe hypoglycaemic injury.

  14. Differential bioaccumulation patterns of nanosized and dissolved silver in a land snail Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanzhen; Si, Youbin; Zhou, Dongmei; Dang, Fei

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing application in antimicrobial products, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are inevitably released into the terrestrial environment, and pose potential risks to invertebrates such as land snails Achatina fulica, which take up AgNP from food and water. Here we differentiate Ag uptake biodynamic between Ag forms (i.e., PVP-AgNP vs. AgNO 3 ) and between exposure pathways. Snails assimilated Ag efficiently from lettuce leaves pre-exposed to AgNP, with assimilation efficiencies (AEs) averaging 62-85% and food ingestion rates of 0.11 ± 0.03 g g -1  d -1 . Dietary Ag bioavailability was independent on Ag forms, as revealed by comparable AEs between AgNP and AgNO 3 . However, the uptake rate constant from water was much lower for AgNP relative to AgNO 3 (2 × 10 -4 vs. 0.12 L g -1  d -1 ). The elimination rate constants were 0.0093 ± 0.0037 d -1 for AgNP and 0.019 ± 0.0077 d -1 for AgNO 3 . Biodynamic modeling further showed that dietary exposure was the dominant uptake pathway for AgNP in most circumstances, while for AgNO 3 the relative importance of waterborne and dietary exposure depended on Ag concentrations in food and water. Our findings highlight the importance of dietary uptake of AgNP during bioaccumulation, which should be considered in the risk assessment of these nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential pattern of deposition of nanoparticles in the airways of exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fireman, Elizabeth, E-mail: fireman@tlvmc.gov.il [Tel Aviv University, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases (Israel); Edelheit, Rinat [Tel Aviv University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine (Israel); Stark, Moshe [Tel Aviv University, Laboratory of Pulmonary and Allergic Diseases (Israel); Shai, Amir Bar [Tel Aviv University, Pulmonology Department, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine (Israel)

    2017-02-15

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) have been postulated to significantly contribute to the adverse health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM). Due to their extremely small size (aerodynamic diameter <100 nm), UFP are able to deposit deep within the lung after inhalation and evade many mechanisms responsible for the clearance of larger particles. There is a lack of biologically relevant personal exposure metrics for exposure to occupational- and environmental-related micro- and nano-sized PM. The aim of the present study is to assess UFP in induced sputum (IS) and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as possible biomarkers for assessing lung function impairment. Sputum induction and EBC testing were performed by conventional methods. UFP particles were assessed with the NanoSight LM20 (NanoSight Ltd, London, UK). The subjects included 35 exposed and 25 non-exposed workers. There were no group differences in pulmonary function test results and differential cell counts, but 63.6% of the exposed subjects had a higher percentage of neutrophils (OR3.28 p = 0.03) compared to the non-exposed subjects. The exposed subjects had higher percentages of UFP between 10 and 50 nm (69.45 ± 18.70 vs 60.11 ± 17.52 for the non-exposed group, p = 0.004). No differences were found in the IS samples. Years of exposure correlated positively to UFP content (r = 0.342 p = 0.01) and macrophage content (r = −0.327 p = 0.03). The percentage of small fraction of UFP in EBC, but not IS, is higher in exposed workers, and EBC may be a sensitive biomarker to assess exposure to nanoparticles.

  16. Treatment patterns, health state, and health care resource utilization of patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Flores, Natalia M; Pelletier, Corey L; Forsythe, Anna; Wolfe, Gregory R; Taylor, Matthew H

    2016-01-01

    Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) often respond well to treatment but some become refractory to radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment, and treatment options are limited. Despite the humanistic and economic burden RAI refractory disease imposes on patients, published research concerning treatment patterns and health care resource utilization is sparse. Data were collected from an online retrospective chart review study in the US and five European Union (EU) countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and UK) with physicians recruited from an online panel. Physicians (N=211) provided demographics, disease history, treatment information, and health care resource utilization for one to four of their patients with radioactive iodine refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC). The majority of the patients with RR-DTC (N=623) were female (56%), and their mean age was 58.2 years. In this sample, 63.2% had papillary thyroid cancer and 57.0% were in Stage IV when deemed RAI refractory. Patients with RR-DTC experienced regional recurrence in the thyroid bed/central neck area (25.3%) and had distant metastatic disease (53.6%). At the time data were collected, 50.7% were receiving systemic treatment. Of those, 78.5% were on first-line treatment and 62.7% were receiving multikinase inhibitors. Regional differences for prescribed treatments were observed; the US was more likely to have patients receiving multikinase inhibitors (79.2%) compared with UK (41.2%) and Italy (17.1%). Additional details regarding treatment patterns and resource utilization are discussed. The current study aimed to obtain a greater understanding of RR-DTC treatment globally. These results can assist in the development and implementation of treatment guidelines and ultimately enhance the care of patients with RR-DTC

  17. Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Onder; Yulug, Isik G; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs. A total of 96 BCC and 10 normal skin samples were included for the immunohistochemical study. Eleven frozen BCC samples were also studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect the gene expression profile. NM23-H1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all types of BCC. Significant cytoplasmic expression of NDRG1 and E-cadherin was also detected. However, AKAP12 and CD82/KAI1 expression was significantly decreased. The expressions of the other proteins were somewhere between the two extremes. Similarly, qRT-PCR analysis showed down-regulation of AKAP12 and up-regulation of NM23-H1 and NDRG1 in BCC. Morphologically aggressive BCCs showed significantly higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression scores and lower CD82/KAI1 scores than non-aggressive BCCs. The relatively preserved levels of NM23-H1, NDRG1, and E-cadherin proteins may have a positive effect on the non-metastasizing features of these tumors. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  18. Differential evolution of members of the rhomboid gene family with conservative and divergent patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Liangsheng; Ma, Hong

    2015-04-01

    Rhomboid proteins are intramembrane serine proteases that are involved in a plethora of biological functions, but the evolutionary history of the rhomboid gene family is not clear. We performed a comprehensive molecular evolutionary analysis of the rhomboid gene family and also investigated the organization and sequence features of plant rhomboids in different subfamilies. Our results showed that eukaryotic rhomboids could be divided into five subfamilies (RhoA-RhoD and PARL). Most orthology groups appeared to be conserved only as single or low-copy genes in all lineages in RhoB-RhoD and PARL, whereas RhoA genes underwent several duplication events, resulting in multiple gene copies. These duplication events were due to whole genome duplications in plants and animals and the duplicates might have experienced functional divergence. We also identified a novel group of plant rhomboid (RhoB1) that might have lost their enzymatic activity; their existence suggests that they might have evolved new mechanisms. Plant and animal rhomboids have similar evolutionary patterns. In addition, there are mutations affecting key active sites in RBL8, RBL9 and one of the Brassicaceae PARL duplicates. This study delineates a possible evolutionary scheme for intramembrane proteins and illustrates distinct fates and a mechanism of evolution of gene duplicates. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Distinct spinning patterns gain differentiated loading tolerance of silk thread anchorages in spiders with different ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; van der Meijden, Arie; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-07-26

    Building behaviour in animals extends biological functions beyond bodies. Many studies have emphasized the role of behavioural programmes, physiology and extrinsic factors for the structure and function of buildings. Structure attachments associated with animal constructions offer yet unrealized research opportunities. Spiders build a variety of one- to three-dimensional structures from silk fibres. The evolution of economic web shapes as a key for ecological success in spiders has been related to the emergence of high performance silks and thread coating glues. However, the role of thread anchorages has been widely neglected in those models. Here, we show that orb-web (Araneidae) and hunting spiders (Sparassidae) use different silk application patterns that determine the structure and robustness of the joint in silk thread anchorages. Silk anchorages of orb-web spiders show a greater robustness against different loading situations, whereas the silk anchorages of hunting spiders have their highest pull-off resistance when loaded parallel to the substrate along the direction of dragline spinning. This suggests that the behavioural 'printing' of silk into attachment discs along with spinneret morphology was a prerequisite for the evolution of extended silk use in a three-dimensional space. This highlights the ecological role of attachments in the evolution of animal architectures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Differential patterns of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in relict amphibian populations following severe disease-associated declines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Steven M; Alvarado, Gilbert; Abarca, Juan; Zumbado, Hector; Zuñiga, Ibrahim; Wainwright, Mark; Kerby, Jacob

    2017-09-20

    Global amphibian biodiversity has declined dramatically in the past 4 decades, and many amphibian species have declined to near extinction as a result of emergence of the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). However, persistent or recovering populations of several amphibian species have recently been rediscovered, and such populations may illustrate how amphibian species that are highly susceptible to chytridiomycosis may survive in the presence of Bd. We conducted field surveys for Bd infection in 7 species of Costa Rican amphibians (all species that have declined to near extinction but for which isolated populations persist) to characterize infection profiles in highly Bd-susceptible amphibians post-decline. We found highly variable patterns in infection, with some species showing low prevalence (~10%) and low infection intensity and others showing high infection prevalence (>80%) and either low or high infection intensity. Across sites, infection rates were negatively associated with mean annual precipitation, and infection intensity across sites was negatively associated with mean average temperatures. Our results illustrate that even the most Bd-susceptible amphibians can persist in Bd-enzootic ecosystems, and that multiple ecological or evolutionary mechanisms likely exist for host-pathogen co-existence between Bd and the most Bd-susceptible amphibian species. Continued monitoring of these populations is necessary to evaluate population trends (continuing decline, stability, or population growth). These results should inform efforts to mitigate impacts of Bd on amphibians in the field.

  1. Admixture patterns and genetic differentiation in negrito groups from West Malaysia estimated from genome-wide SNP data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinam, Timothy A; Phipps, Maude E; Saitou, Naruya

    2013-01-01

    Southeast Asia houses various culturally and linguistically diverse ethnic groups. In Malaysia, where the Malay, Chinese, and Indian ethnic groups form the majority, there exist minority groups such as the "negritos" who are believed to be descendants of the earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. Here we report patterns of genetic substructure and admixture in two Malaysian negrito populations (Jehai and Kensiu), using ~50,000 genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. We found traces of recent admixture in both the negrito populations, particularly in the Jehai, with the Malay through principal component analysis and STRUCTURE analysis software, which suggested that the admixture was as recent as one generation ago. We also identified significantly differentiated nonsynonymous SNPs and haplotype blocks related to intracellular transport, metabolic processes, and detection of stimulus. These results highlight the different levels of admixture experienced by the two Malaysian negritos. Delineating admixture and differentiated genomic regions should be of importance in designing and interpretation of molecular anthropology and disease association studies. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  2. Genetic diversity of maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) in communities of the western highlands of Guatemala: geographical patterns and processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etten, van J.; Fuentes, M.R.; Molina, L.G.; Ponciano, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study concerns spatial genetic patterning, seed flow and the impact of modern varieties in maize populations in Chimaltenango, Guatemala. It uses a collection of 79 maize seed samples from farmers in the area and five samples derived from modern varieties. Bulked SSR markers employed with

  3. Differential distribution patterns in cerebellar irrigation. A study with autopsy material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Yesid Estupiñan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this investigation was characterize morphologically the cerebellar artery and its branches in a specimen of autopsy material. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated the anatomical characteristics of the cerebellar arteries and their branches in 93 brain stem and cerebellum blocks obtained from fresh cadavers. The specimens were perfused bilaterally channeling the proximal segments of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries with a semi-synthetic resin (Palatal GP40L 85%; styrene 15% impregnated with mineral red dye. We evaluated the distribution patterns of the cerebellar artery and its branches. Results: The calibers of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA, anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA were 1.46 ± 0.2 mm, 1.02 ± 0.35 mm and 1.45 ± 0.37 mm, respectively. Agenesis of the SCA was observed in six specimens (3.2%, AICA in 30 (16.1%, and PICA in 14 (7.5% specimens. Usual irrigation was observed in 44 (47.3% cerebellar blocks, whereas 49 (52.7% specimens showed irrigation variants, 23 (46.9% of which appeared bilaterally. The dominant distribution of the cerebellar arteries corresponded to SCA in 9 (12.5% cases, AICA in 46 (63.9% and PICA in 7 (9.7% specimens; shared dominance was found in 10 (13.9% specimens. Conclusion: The high variability of the cerebellar arteries observed in the present study is consistent with previous reports. The diverse anatomic expressions of the cerebellar arteries were typified in relation to their dominance and territories irrigated, useful for the diagnosis and clinical-surgical management of the cerebellum blood supply.

  4. Modelling effects of diquat under realistic exposure patterns in genetically differentiated populations of the gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Virginie; Péry, Alexandre R R; Lagadic, Laurent

    2010-11-12

    Pesticide use leads to complex exposure and response patterns in non-target aquatic species, so that the analysis of data from standard toxicity tests may result in unrealistic risk forecasts. Developing models that are able to capture such complexity from toxicity test data is thus a crucial issue for pesticide risk assessment. In this study, freshwater snails from two genetically differentiated populations of Lymnaea stagnalis were exposed to repeated acute applications of environmentally realistic concentrations of the herbicide diquat, from the embryo to the adult stage. Hatching rate, embryonic development duration, juvenile mortality, feeding rate and age at first spawning were investigated during both exposure and recovery periods. Effects of diquat on mortality were analysed using a threshold hazard model accounting for time-varying herbicide concentrations. All endpoints were significantly impaired at diquat environmental concentrations in both populations. Snail evolutionary history had no significant impact on their sensitivity and responsiveness to diquat, whereas food acted as a modulating factor of toxicant-induced mortality. The time course of effects was adequately described by the model, which thus appears suitable to analyse long-term effects of complex exposure patterns based upon full life cycle experiment data. Obtained model outputs (e.g. no-effect concentrations) could be directly used for chemical risk assessment.

  5. Spine formation pattern of adult-born neurons is differentially modulated by the induction timing and location of hippocampal plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Ohkawa

    Full Text Available In the adult hippocampus dentate gyrus (DG, newly born neurons are functionally integrated into existing circuits and play important roles in hippocampus-dependent memory. However, it remains unclear how neural plasticity regulates the integration pattern of new neurons into preexisting circuits. Because dendritic spines are major postsynaptic sites for excitatory inputs, spines of new neurons were visualized by retrovirus-mediated labeling to evaluate integration. Long-term potentiation (LTP was induced at 12, 16, or 21 days postinfection (dpi, at which time new neurons have no, few, or many spines, respectively. The spine expression patterns were investigated at one or two weeks after LTP induction. Induction at 12 dpi increased later spinogenesis, although the new neurons at 12 dpi didn't respond to the stimulus for LTP induction. Induction at 21 dpi transiently mediated spine enlargement. Surprisingly, LTP induction at 16 dpi reduced the spine density of new neurons. All LTP-mediated changes specifically appeared within the LTP-induced layer. Therefore, neural plasticity differentially regulates the integration of new neurons into the activated circuit, dependent on their developmental stage. Consequently, new neurons at different developmental stages may play distinct roles in processing the acquired information by modulating the connectivity of activated circuits via their integration.

  6. A Hybrid One-Way ANOVA Approach for the Robust and Efficient Estimation of Differential Gene Expression with Multiple Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Manir Hossain Mollah

    Full Text Available Identifying genes that are differentially expressed (DE between two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression is one of the primary objectives of gene expression data analysis. Several statistical approaches, including one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, are used to identify DE genes. However, most of these methods provide misleading results for two or more conditions with multiple patterns of expression in the presence of outlying genes. In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a hybrid one-way ANOVA approach that unifies the robustness and efficiency of estimation using the minimum β-divergence method to overcome some problems that arise in the existing robust methods for both small- and large-sample cases with multiple patterns of expression.The proposed method relies on a β-weight function, which produces values between 0 and 1. The β-weight function with β = 0.2 is used as a measure of outlier detection. It assigns smaller weights (≥ 0 to outlying expressions and larger weights (≤ 1 to typical expressions. The distribution of the β-weights is used to calculate the cut-off point, which is compared to the observed β-weight of an expression to determine whether that gene expression is an outlier. This weight function plays a key role in unifying the robustness and efficiency of estimation in one-way ANOVA.Analyses of simulated gene expression profiles revealed that all eight methods (ANOVA, SAM, LIMMA, EBarrays, eLNN, KW, robust BetaEB and proposed perform almost identically for m = 2 conditions in the absence of outliers. However, the robust BetaEB method and the proposed method exhibited considerably better performance than the other six methods in the presence of outliers. In this case, the BetaEB method exhibited slightly better performance than the proposed method for the small-sample cases, but the the proposed method exhibited much better performance than the BetaEB method for both the small- and large

  7. Differential expression patterns and clinical significance of estrogen receptor-α and β in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yanhong; Dong, Wenwu; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is markedly higher in women than men during the reproductive years. In vitro studies have suggested that estrogen may play an important role in the development and progression of PTC through estrogen receptors (ERs). This study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of the two main ER subtypes, α and β1 (wild-type ERβ), in PTC tissue and their clinical significance. Immunohistochemical staining of thyroid tissue sections was performed to detect ER expression in female patients with PTC (n = 89) and nodular thyroid goiter (NTG; n = 30) using the Elivision™ plus two-step system. The relationships between ER subtype expression and clinicopathological/biological factors were further analyzed. The positive percentage and expression levels of ERα were significantly higher in female PTC patients of reproductive age (18–45 years old; n = 50) than age-matched female NTG patients (n = 30), while ERβ1 exhibited the opposite pattern. There was no difference in ERα or ERβ1 expression between female PTC patients of reproductive age and those of advanced reproductive age (>45 years old; n = 39). In the female PTC patients of reproductive age, ERα expression level was positively correlated with that of Ki-67, while ERβ1 was negatively correlated with mutant P53. Furthermore, more patients with exclusively nuclear ERα expression had extrathyroidal extension (ETE) as compared with those with extranuclear ERα localization. VEGF expression was significantly decreased in female PTC patients of reproductive age with only nuclear ERβ1 expression when compared with those with extranuclear ERβ1 localization. In PTC patients of advanced reproductive age, neither ERα nor ERβ1 expression showed any correlation with that of Ki-67, mutant P53, VEGF, tumor size, TNM stage, ETE, or lymph node metastases. The differential expression patterns of the two ER subtypes between PTC and NTG indicate that ERα may be a useful

  8. Equity in children's dental caries before and after cessation of community water fluoridation: differential impact by dental insurance status and geographic material deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Lindsay; McNeil, Deborah A; Potestio, Melissa; Patterson, Steve; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; Shi, Congshi; Shwart, Luke

    2016-02-11

    One of the main arguments made in favor of community water fluoridation is that it is equitable in its impact on dental caries (i.e., helps to offset inequities in dental caries). Although an equitable effect of fluoridation has been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies, it has not been studied in the context of cessation of community water fluoridation (CWF). The objective of this study was to compare the socio-economic patterns of children's dental caries (tooth decay) in Calgary, Canada, in 2009/10 when CWF was in place, and in 2013/14, after it had been discontinued. We analyzed data from population-based samples of schoolchildren (grade 2) in 2009/10 and 2013/14. Data on dental caries (decayed, missing, and filled primary and permanent teeth) were gathered via open mouth exams conducted in schools by registered dental hygienists. We examined the association between dental caries and 1) presence/absence of dental insurance and 2) small area index of material deprivation, using Poisson (zero-inflated) and logistic regression, for both time points separately. For small-area material deprivation at each time point, we also computed the concentration index of inequality for each outcome variable. Statistically significant inequities by dental insurance status and by small area material deprivation were more apparent in 2013/14 than in 2009/10. Results are consistent with increasing inequities in dental caries following cessation of CWF. However, further research is needed to 1) confirm the effects in a study that includes a comparison community, and 2) explore possible alternative reasons for the findings, including changes in treatment and preventive programming.

  9. Suitability of elemental fingerprinting for assessing the geographic origin of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandoniene, Donata; Zettl, Daniela; Meisel, Thomas; Maneiko, Marija

    2013-02-15

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the classification of the geographical origin of pumpkin seeds and oil from Austria, China and Russia. The distribution of element traces in pumpkin seed and pumpkin seed oils in relation to the geographical origin of soils of several agricultural farms in Austria was studied in detail. Samples from several geographic origins were taken from parts of the pumpkin, pumpkin flesh, seeds, the oil extracted from the seeds and the oil-extraction cake as well as the topsoil on which the plants were grown. Plants from different geographical origin show variations of the elemental patterns that are significantly large, reproducible over the years and ripeness period and show no significant influence of oil production procedure, to allow to a discrimination of geographical origin. A successful differentiation of oils from different regions in Austria, China and Russia classified with multivariate data analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The geographical patterns of symbiont diversity in the invasive legume Mimosa pudica can be explained by the competitiveness of its symbionts and by the host genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Rémy; Moulin, Lionel; Béna, Gilles; Tisseyre, Pierre; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Heulin, Karine; Rezkallah, Naïma; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Gonzalez, Sophie; Simon, Marcelo; Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2014-07-01

    Variations in the patterns of diversity of symbionts have been described worldwide on Mimosa pudica, a pan-tropical invasive species that interacts with both α and β-rhizobia. In this study, we investigated if symbiont competitiveness can explain these variations and the apparent prevalence of β- over α-rhizobia. We developed an indirect method to measure the proportion of nodulation against a GFP reference strain and tested its reproducibility and efficiency. We estimated the competitiveness of 54 strains belonging to four species of β-rhizobia and four of α-rhizobia, and the influence of the host genotype on their competitiveness. Our results were compared with biogeographical patterns of symbionts and host varieties. We found: (i) a strong strain effect on competitiveness largely explained by the rhizobial species, with Burkholderia phymatum being the most competitive species, followed by B. tuberum, whereas all other species shared similar and reduced levels of competitiveness; (ii) plant genotype can increase the competitiveness of Cupriavidus taiwanensis. The latter data support the likelihood of the strong adaptation of C. taiwanensis with the M. pudica var. unijuga and help explain its prevalence as a symbiont of this variety over Burkholderia species in some environments, most notably in Taiwan. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Genome-wide SNPs lead to strong signals of geographic structure and relatedness patterns in the major arbovirus vector, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašić, Gordana; Filipović, Igor; Weeks, Andrew R; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2014-04-11

    Genetic markers are widely used to understand the biology and population dynamics of disease vectors, but often markers are limited in the resolution they provide. In particular, the delineation of population structure, fine scale movement and patterns of relatedness are often obscured unless numerous markers are available. To address this issue in the major arbovirus vector, the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), we used double digest Restriction-site Associated DNA (ddRAD) sequencing for the discovery of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We aimed to characterize the new SNP set and to test the resolution against previously described microsatellite markers in detecting broad and fine-scale genetic patterns in Ae. aegypti. We developed bioinformatics tools that support the customization of restriction enzyme-based protocols for SNP discovery. We showed that our approach for RAD library construction achieves unbiased genome representation that reflects true evolutionary processes. In Ae. aegypti samples from three continents we identified more than 18,000 putative SNPs. They were widely distributed across the three Ae. aegypti chromosomes, with 47.9% found in intergenic regions and 17.8% in exons of over 2,300 genes. Pattern of their imputed effects in ORFs and UTRs were consistent with those found in a recent transcriptome study. We demonstrated that individual mosquitoes from Indonesia, Australia, Vietnam and Brazil can be assigned with a very high degree of confidence to their region of origin using a large SNP panel. We also showed that familial relatedness of samples from a 0.4 km2 area could be confidently established with a subset of SNPs. Using a cost-effective customized RAD sequencing approach supported by our bioinformatics tools, we characterized over 18,000 SNPs in field samples of the dengue fever mosquito Ae. aegypti. The variants were annotated and positioned onto the three Ae. aegypti chromosomes. The new SNP set provided much

  12. A SELDI mass spectrometry study of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: sample preparation, reproducibility, and differential protein expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Sausan; Broadwater, Laurie; Li, Shuo; Freeman, Ernest J; McDonough, Jennifer; Gregory, Roger B

    2013-05-01

    Da) levels were lower in EAE samples with advanced disease relative to controls, while an MBP fragment (12. 4kDa), likely due to calpain digestion, was increased in EAE relative to controls. The appearance of MBP in mitochondrially enriched fractions is due to tissue freezing and storage, as MBP was not found associated with mitochondria obtained from fresh tissue. SELDI mass spectrometry can be employed to explore the proteome of a complex tissue (brain) and obtain protein profiles of differentially expressed proteins from protein fractions. Appropriate homogenization protocols and protein fractionation using anion exchange beads can be employed to reduce sample complexity without introducing significant additional variation into the SELDI mass spectra beyond that inherent in the SELDI- MS method itself. SELDI-MS coupled with principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis provides protein patterns that can clearly distinguish the disease state from controls. However, identification of individual differentially expressed proteins requires a separate purification of the proteins of interest by polyacrylamide electrophoresis prior to trypsin digestion and peptide mass fingerprint analysis, and unambiguous identification of differentially expressed proteins can be difficult if protein bands consist of several proteins with similar molecular weights.

  13. Cultural Diversity, Geographical Isolation, and the Origin of the Wealth of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Quamrul Ashraf; Oded Galor

    2011-01-01

    This research argues that variations in the interplay between cultural assimilation and cultural diffusion have played a significant role in giving rise to differential patterns of economic development across the globe. Societies that were geographically less vulnerable to cultural diffusion benefited from enhanced assimilation, lower cultural diversity, and more intense accumulation of society-specific human capital. Thus, they operated more efficiently with respect to their production-possi...

  14. Differential SPL gene expression patterns reveal candidate genes underlying flowering time and architectural differences in Mimulus and Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Stacy A; Preston, Jill C

    2014-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions in growth habit and flowering time responses to variable environmental signals have occurred multiple times independently across angiosperms and have major impacts on plant fitness. Proteins in the SPL family of transcription factors collectively regulate flowering time genes that have been implicated in interspecific shifts in annuality/perenniality. However, their potential importance in the evolution of angiosperm growth habit has not been extensively investigated. Here we identify orthologs representative of the major SPL gene clades in annual Arabidopsis thaliana and Mimulus guttatus IM767, and perennial A. lyrata and M. guttatus PR, and characterize their expression. Spatio-temporal expression patterns are complex across both diverse tissues of the same taxa and comparable tissues of different taxa, consistent with genic sub- or neo-functionalization. However, our data are consistent with a general role for several SPL genes in the promotion of juvenile to adult phase change and/or flowering time in Mimulus and Arabidopsis. Furthermore, several candidate genes were identified for future study whose differential expression correlates with growth habit and architectural variation in annual versus perennial taxa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-uniform distribution pattern for differentially expressed genes of transgenic rice Huahui 1 at different developmental stages and environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Liu

    Full Text Available DNA microarray analysis is an effective method to detect unintended effects by detecting differentially expressed genes (DEG in safety assessment of genetically modified (GM crops. With the aim to reveal the distribution of DEG of GM crops under different conditions, we performed DNA microarray analysis using transgenic rice Huahui 1 (HH1 and its non-transgenic parent Minghui 63 (MH63 at different developmental stages and environmental conditions. Considerable DEG were selected in each group of HH1 under different conditions. For each group of HH1, the number of DEG was different; however, considerable common DEG were shared between different groups of HH1. These findings suggested that both DEG and common DEG were adequate for investigation of unintended effects. Furthermore, a number of significantly changed pathways were found in all groups of HH1, indicating genetic modification caused everlasting changes to plants. To our knowledge, our study for the first time provided the non-uniformly distributed pattern for DEG of GM crops at different developmental stages and environments. Our result also suggested that DEG selected in GM plants at specific developmental stage and environment could act as useful clues for further evaluation of unintended effects of GM plants.

  16. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Stephen J; Busa, Michael A; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A; Bollt, Erik M

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control.

  17. Coexistence of atrial myxoma and lung cancer on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography: The impact of distinct fluorodeoxyglucose uptake pattern on differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koc, Kevser; Aras, Mustafa; Inanir, Sabahat

    2014-01-01

    The information regarding fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in benign and malignant cardiac tumors is limited in the literature and most of the currrently available data were derived from single case reports. Herein we reported coexistence of atrial myxoma and lung cancer on FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography with the aim of emphasizing the importance of distinct FDG uptake pattern on differential diagnosis

  18. Genetic variation and geographical differentiation revealed using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    there are a few reports on the genetic evaluation of tung tree germplasm. .... bES, Enshi in Hubei province; SN, Suining in Sichuan province. Journal of Genetics Vol. 94, Online Resources e6 ... gene diversity. Journal of Genetics Vol. 94, Online Resources e7 .... Pan Y., Pan L., Chen L., Zhang L. L., Nevo E. and Peng J. H..

  19. High cell density suppresses BMP4-induced differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to produce macroscopic spatial patterning in a unidirectional perfusion culture chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Shota; Le, Minh Nguyen Tuyet; Kusama, Yuta; Nakatani, Eri; Suga, Mika; Furue, Miho K; Satoh, Taku; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2018-04-19

    Spatial pattern formation is a critical step in embryogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and its inhibitors are major factors for the formation of spatial patterns during embryogenesis. However, spatial patterning of the human embryo is unclear because of ethical issues and isotropic culture environments resulting from conventional culture dishes. Here, we utilized human pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and a simple anisotropic (unidirectional perfusion) culture chamber, which creates unidirectional conditions, to measure the cell community effect. The influence of cell density on BMP4-induced differentiation was explored during static culture using a conventional culture dish. Immunostaining of the early differentiation marker SSEA-1 and the mesendoderm marker BRACHYURY revealed that high cell density suppressed differentiation, with small clusters of differentiated and undifferentiated cells formed. Addition of five-fold higher concentration of BMP4 showed similar results, suggesting that suppression was not caused by depletion of BMP4 but rather by high cell density. Quantitative RT-PCR array analysis showed that BMP4 induced multi-lineage differentiation, which was also suppressed under high-density conditions. We fabricated an elongated perfusion culture chamber, in which proteins were transported unidirectionally, and hiPSCs were cultured with BMP4. At low density, the expression was the same throughout the chamber. However, at high density, SSEA-1 and BRACHYURY were expressed only in upstream cells, suggesting that some autocrine/paracrine factors inhibited the action of BMP4 in downstream cells to form the spatial pattern. Human iPSCs cultured in a perfusion culture chamber might be useful for studying in vitro macroscopic pattern formation in human embryogenesis. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographical differences in food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartra, Joan; García-Moral, Alba; Enrique, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Food allergy represents a health problem worldwide and leads to life-threatening reactions and even impairs quality of life. Epidemiological data during the past decades is very heterogeneous because of the use of different diagnostic procedures, and most studies have only been performed in specific geographical areas. The aim of this article is to review the available data on the geographical distribution of food allergies at the food source and molecular level and to link food allergy patterns to the aeroallergen influence in each area. Systematic reviews, meta-analysis, studies performed within the EuroPrevall Project and EAACI position papers regarding food allergy were analysed. The prevalence of food allergy sensitization differs between geographical areas, probably as a consequence of differences among populations, their habits and the influence of the cross-reactivity of aeroallergens and other sources of allergens. Geographical differences in food allergy are clearly evident at the allergenic molecular level, which seems to be directly influenced by the aeroallergens of each region and associated with specific clinical patterns.

  1. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  2. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  3. Particles from wood smoke and traffic induce differential pro-inflammatory response patterns in co-cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, Anette; Herseth, Jan Inge; Lag, Marit; Refsnes, Magne; Schwarze, Per E.

    2008-01-01

    The inflammatory potential of particles from wood smoke and traffic has not been well elucidated. In this study, a contact co-culture of monocytes and pneumocytes was exposed to 10-40 μg/cm 2 of particles from wood smoke and traffic for 12, 40 and 64 h to determine their influence on pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8) and viability. To investigate the role of organic constituents in cytokine release the response to particles, their organic extracts and the washed particles were compared. Antagonists were used to investigate source-dependent differences in intercellular signalling (TNF-α, IL-1). The cytotoxicity was low after exposure to particles from both sources. However, wood smoke, and to a lesser degree traffic-derived particles, induced a reduction in cell number, which was associated with the organic fraction. The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines was similar for both sources after 12 h, but traffic induced a greater release than wood smoke particles with increasing exposure time. The organic fraction accounted for the majority of the cytokine release induced by wood smoke, whereas the washed traffic particles induced a stronger response than the corresponding organic extract. TNF-α and IL-1 antagonists reduced the release of IL-8 induced by particles from both sources. In contrast, the IL-6 release was only reduced by the IL-1 antagonist during exposure to traffic-derived particles. In summary, particles from wood smoke and traffic induced differential pro-inflammatory response patterns with respect to cytokine release and cell number. Moreover, the influence of the organic particle fraction and intercellular signalling on the pro-inflammatory response seemed to be source-dependent

  4. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  5. Composing Models of Geographic Physical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Barbara; Frank, Andrew U.

    Processes are central for geographic information science; yet geographic information systems (GIS) lack capabilities to represent process related information. A prerequisite to including processes in GIS software is a general method to describe geographic processes independently of application disciplines. This paper presents such a method, namely a process description language. The vocabulary of the process description language is derived formally from mathematical models. Physical processes in geography can be described in two equivalent languages: partial differential equations or partial difference equations, where the latter can be shown graphically and used as a method for application specialists to enter their process models. The vocabulary of the process description language comprises components for describing the general behavior of prototypical geographic physical processes. These process components can be composed by basic models of geographic physical processes, which is shown by means of an example.

  6. Validation of botanical origins and geographical sources of some Saudi honeys using ultraviolet spectroscopy and chemometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad; Khan, Khalid Ali; Adgaba, Nuru; El-Ahmady, Sherweit H; Gad, Haidy A; Roshan, Abdulrahman; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Kolyali, Sevgi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims at distinguishing honey based on botanical and geographical sources. Different floral honey samples were collected from diverse geographical locations of Saudi Arabia. UV spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis including Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) were used to classify honey samples. HCA and PCA presented the initial clustering pattern to differentiate between botanical as well as geographical sources. The SIMCA model clearly separated the Ziziphus sp. and other monofloral honey samples based on different locations and botanical sources. The results successfully discriminated the honey samples of different botanical and geographical sources validating the segregation observed using few physicochemical parameters that are regularly used for discrimination.

  7. GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Ferrara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop some concept on new economic geography. The authors presented a case study of a newborn carmaker that applies an innovative business model in auto industry. The current business environment is analyzed, problems of sustainability discussed, and a new business model proposed.

  8. Differential bioaccumulation and translocation patterns in three mangrove plants experimentally exposed to iron. Consequences for environmental sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Campos, Caroline Quenupe; Souza, Iara da Costa; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle were experimentally exposed to increasing levels of iron (0, 10, 20 and 100 mg L(-1) added Fe(II) in Hoagland's nutritive medium). The uptake and translocation of iron from roots to stems and leaves, Fe-secretion through salt glands (Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) as well as anatomical and histochemical changes in plant tissues were evaluated. The main goal of this work was to assess the diverse capacity of these plants to detect mangroves at risk in an area affected by iron pollution (Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Results show that plants have differential patterns with respect to bioaccumulation, translocation and secretion of iron through salt glands. L. racemosa showed the best environmental sensing capacity since the bioaccumulation of iron in both Fe-plaque and roots was higher and increased as the amount of added-iron rose. Fewer changes in translocation factors throughout increasing added-iron were observed in this species. Furthermore, the amount of iron secreted through salt glands of L. racemosa was strongly inhibited when exposed to added-iron. Among three studied species, A. schaueriana showed the highest levels of iron in stems and leaves. On the other hand, Rhizophora mangle presented low values of iron in these compartments. Even so, there was a significant drop in the translocation factor between aerial parts with respect to roots, since the bioaccumulation in plaque and roots of R. mangle increased as iron concentration rose. Moreover, rhizophores of R. mangle did not show changes in bioaccumulation throughout the studied concentrations. So far, we propose L. racemosa as the best species for monitoring iron pollution in affected mangroves areas. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the response of these plants to increasing iron concentration under controlled conditions, complementing existing data on the behavior of the same plants

  9. Geographic patterns of carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel burning, hydraulic cement production, and gas flaring on a one degree by one degree grid cell basis: 1950 to 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenkert, A.L. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Andres, R.J. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Fung, I. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Matthews, E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies

    1997-03-01

    Data sets of one degree latitude by one degree longitude carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in units of thousand metric tons of carbon (C) per year from anthropogenic sources have been produced for 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980 and 1990. Detailed geographic information on CO{sub 2} emissions can be critical in understanding the pattern of the atmospheric and biospheric response to these emissions. Global, regional and national annual estimates for 1950 through 1992 were published previously. Those national, annual CO{sub 2} emission estimates were based on statistics on fossil-fuel burning, cement manufacturing and gas flaring in oil fields as well as energy production, consumption and trade data, using the methods of Marland and Rotty. The national annual estimates were combined with gridded one-degree data on political units and 1984 human populations to create the new gridded CO{sub 2} emission data sets. The same population distribution was used for each of the years as proxy for the emission distribution within each country. The implied assumption for that procedure was that per capita energy use and fuel mix is uniform over a political unit. The consequence of this first-order procedure is that the spatial changes observed over time are solely due to changes in national energy consumption and nation-based fuel mix. Increases in emissions over time are apparent for most areas.

  10. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  11. Droplet Microarray Based on Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces Prevents Stem Cell Differentiation and Enables High-Throughput Stem Cell Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronser, Tina; Popova, Anna A; Jaggy, Mona; Bastmeyer, Martin; Levkin, Pavel A

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades, stem cells have attracted growing interest in fundamental biological and biomedical research as well as in regenerative medicine, due to their unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Long-term maintenance of the self-renewal ability and inhibition of spontaneous differentiation, however, still remain challenging and are not fully understood. Uncontrolled spontaneous differentiation of stem cells makes high-throughput screening of stem cells also difficult. This further hinders investigation of the underlying mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and the factors that might affect it. In this work, a dual functionality of nanoporous superhydrophobic-hydrophilic micropatterns is demonstrated in their ability to inhibit differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and at the same time enable formation of arrays of microdroplets (droplet microarray) via the effect of discontinuous dewetting. Such combination makes high-throughput screening of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells possible. The droplet microarray is used to investigate the development, differentiation, and maintenance of stemness of mESC, revealing the dependence of stem cell behavior on droplet volume in nano- and microliter scale. The inhibition of spontaneous differentiation of mESCs cultured on the droplet microarray for up to 72 h is observed. In addition, up to fourfold increased cell growth rate of mESCs cultured on our platform has been observed. The difference in the behavior of mESCs is attributed to the porosity and roughness of the polymer surface. This work demonstrates that the droplet microarray possesses the potential for the screening of mESCs under conditions of prolonged inhibition of stem cells' spontaneous differentiation. Such a platform can be useful for applications in the field of stem cell research, pharmacological testing of drug efficacy and toxicity, biomedical research as well as in the field of

  12. Early ethanol and water consumption: accumulating experience differentially regulates drinking pattern and bout parameters in male alcohol preferring (P) vs. Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    Alcohol-preferring (P) rats develop high ethanol intake over several weeks of water/10% ethanol (10E) choice drinking. However, it is not yet clear precisely what components of drinking behavior undergo modification to achieve higher intake. Our concurrent report compared precisely measured daily intake in P vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Here we analyze their drinking patterns and bouts to clarify microbehavioral components that are common to rats of different genetic backgrounds, vs. features that are unique to each. Under sole-fluid conditions P, Wistar and SD rats all consumed water at a high initial rate followed by a slow maintenance phase, but 10E - in a distinctly different step-like pattern of evenly distributed bouts. During choice period, 10E vs. water patterns for P rat appeared as an overlap of sole-fluid patterns. The SD rat choice patterns resembled sole-fluid patterns but were less regular. Choice patterns in Wistar differed from both P and SD rats, by consisting of intermixed small frequent episodes of drinking both 10E and water. Wistar and SD rats increased choice ethanol intake by elevating the number of bouts. A key finding was that P rat increased choice ethanol intake through a gradual increase of the bout size and duration, but kept bout number constant. This supports the hypothesis that genetic selection modifies microbehavioral machinery controlling drinking bout initiation, duration, and other pattern features. Precision analysis of drinking patterns and bouts allows differentiation between genetic lines, and provides a venue for study of localized circuit and transmitter influences mediating mesolimbic control over ethanol consumption. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  13. Differentiation of mass-forming focal pancreatitis from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: value of characterizing dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity color mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mimi [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hanyang Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kang, Tae Wook; Kim, Young Kon; Cha, Dong Ik [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyunga [Samsung Medical Center, Biostatics and Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research Institute for Future Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the value of dynamic enhancement patterns on contrast-enhanced MR images by adding signal intensity colour mapping (SICM) to differentiate mass-forming focal pancreatitis (MFFP) from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Forty-one clinicopathologically proven MFFPs and 144 surgically confirmed PDACs were enrolled. Laboratory and MR imaging parameters were used to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. In particular, enhancement patterns on MR images adding SICM were evaluated. By using classification tree analysis (CTA), we determined the predictors for the differentiation of MFFP from PDAC. In the CTA, with all parameters except enhancement pattern on SICM images, ductal obstruction grade and T1 hypointensity grade of the pancreatic lesion were the first and second splitting predictor for differentiation of MFFP from PDAC, in order. By adding an enhancement pattern on the SICM images to CTA, the enhancement pattern was the only splitting predictor to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. The CTA model including enhancement pattern on SICM images has sensitivity of 78.0 %, specificity of 99.3 %, and accuracy of 94.6 % for differentiating MFFP from PDAC. The characterization of enhancement pattern for pancreatic lesions on contrast-enhanced MR images adding SICM would be helpful to differentiate MFFP from PDAC. (orig.)

  14. The evolution of cooperation on geographical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixiao; Wang, Yi; Sheng, Jichuan

    2017-11-01

    We study evolutionary public goods game on geographical networks, i.e., complex networks which are located on a geographical plane. The geographical feature effects in two ways: In one way, the geographically-induced network structure influences the overall evolutionary dynamics, and, in the other way, the geographical length of an edge influences the cost when the two players at the two ends interact. For the latter effect, we design a new cost function of cooperators, which simply assumes that the longer the distance between two players, the higher cost the cooperator(s) of them have to pay. In this study, network substrates are generated by a previous spatial network model with a cost-benefit parameter controlling the network topology. Our simulations show that the greatest promotion of cooperation is achieved in the intermediate regime of the parameter, in which empirical estimates of various railway networks fall. Further, we investigate how the distribution of edges' geographical costs influences the evolutionary dynamics and consider three patterns of the distribution: an approximately-equal distribution, a diverse distribution, and a polarized distribution. For normal geographical networks which are generated using intermediate values of the cost-benefit parameter, a diverse distribution hinders the evolution of cooperation, whereas a polarized distribution lowers the threshold value of the amplification factor for cooperation in public goods game. These results are helpful for understanding the evolution of cooperation on real-world geographical networks.

  15. Differential sensing using proteins: exploiting the cross-reactivity of serum albumin to pattern individual terpenes and terpenes in perfume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michelle M; Anslyn, Eric V

    2009-12-02

    There has been a growing interest in the use of differential sensing for analyte classification. In an effort to mimic the mammalian senses of taste and smell, which utilize protein-based receptors, we have introduced serum albumins as nonselective receptors for recognition of small hydrophobic molecules. Herein, we employ a sensing ensemble consisting of serum albumins, a hydrophobic fluorescent indicator (PRODAN), and a hydrophobic additive (deoxycholate) to detect terpenes. With the aid of linear discriminant analysis, we successfully applied our system to differentiate five terpenes. We then extended our terpene analysis and utilized our sensing ensemble for terpene discrimination within the complex mixtures found in perfume.

  16. Three members of a peptide family are differentially distributed and elicit differential state-dependent responses in a pattern generator-effector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Armstrong, Matthew K; Dickinson, Evyn S; Fernandez, Rebecca; Miller, Alexandra; Pong, Sovannarath; Powers, Brian; Pupo Wiss, Alixander; Stanhope, Meredith E; Walsh, Patrick J; Wiwatpanit, Teerawat; Christie, Andrew E

    2018-01-31

    C-type allatostatins (AST-Cs) are pleiotropic neuropeptides that are broadly conserved within arthropods; the presence of three AST-C isoforms, encoded by paralog genes, is common. However, these peptides are hypothesized to act through a single receptor, thereby exerting similar bioactivities within each species. We investigated this hypothesis in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, mapping the distributions of AST-C isoforms within relevant regions of the nervous system and digestive tract, and comparing their modulatory influences on the cardiac neuromuscular system. Immunohistochemistry showed that in the pericardial organ, a neuroendocrine release site, AST-C I and/or III and AST-C II are contained within distinct populations of release terminals. Moreover, AST-C I/III-like immunoreactivity was seen in midgut epithelial endocrine cells and the cardiac ganglion (CG), whereas AST-C II-like immunoreactivity was not seen in these tissues. These data suggest that AST-C I and/or III can modulate the CG both locally and hormonally; AST-C II likely acts on the CG solely as a hormonal modulator. Physiological studies demonstrated that all three AST-C isoforms can exert differential effects, including both increases and decreases, on contraction amplitude and frequency when perfused through the heart. However, in contrast to many state-dependent modulatory changes, the changes in contraction amplitude and frequency elicited by the AST-Cs were not functions of the baseline parameters. The responses to AST-C I and III, neither of which is C-terminally amidated, are more similar to one another than they are to the responses elicited by AST-C II, which is C-terminally amidated. These results suggest that the three AST-C isoforms are differentially distributed in the lobster nervous system/midgut and can elicit distinct behaviors from the cardiac neuromuscular system, with particular structural features, e.g., C-terminal amidation, likely important in determining the

  17. The combination of disease and Zheng (syndrome on the basic of differentiation of six channels: a new pattern of disease diagnosis and treatment of traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM was formed two thousand years ago, and developed in the following centuries. TCM has a unique way of looking at health and illness. Zheng (syndrome is the basic unit and key term in TCM theory. Zheng is the pathological generalization of a certain stage in the development of disease. Treatment based on syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation of TCM is the basic principle to know and treat diseases,and a kind of special method to study diseases in TCM. In Han Dynasty (200 AD, doctor Zhang Zhongjing proposed Liujing Bianzheng (the differential diagnosis in accordance with the theory of six channels to diagnose and treat diseases in Treatise on Febrile and Miscellaneous Diseases. In other words, he divided diseases into six channels diseases based on patient’s Zhengs. Six channels diseases almost include all of the disease according to his classification standards. In addition, there are development rules in the progress of six channels diseases.Therefore, we hypothesized that combination of six channels disease and Zheng on the basic of differentiation of six channels is a new pattern of diagnosis and treatment diseases in TCM, which is beneficial to the understanding of a certain disease and makes disease treatment more convenient, fast and effective.

  18. Surveying and Mapping Geographical Information from the Perspective of Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÜ Guonian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It briefly reviewed the history of geographic information content development since the existence of geographic information system. It pointed out that the current definition of geographic information is always the extension from the "spatial+ attributes" basic mapping framework of geographic information. It is increasingly difficult to adapt to the analysis and application of spatial-temporal big data. From the perspective of geography research subject and content, it summarized systematically that the content and extension of the "geographic information" that geography needs. It put forward that a six-element expression model of geographic information, including spatial location, semantic description, attribute characteristics, geometric form, evolution process, and objects relationship.Under the guidance of the laws of geography, for geographical phenomenon of spatial distribution, temporal pattern and evolution process, the interaction mechanism of the integrated expression, system analysis and efficient management, it designed that a unified GIS data model which is expressed by six basic elements, a new GIS data structure driven by geographical rules and interaction, and key technologies of unstructured spatio-temporal data organization and storage. It provided that a theoretical basis and technical support for the shift from the surveying and mapping geographic information to the scientific geographic information, and it can help improving the organization, management, analysis and expression ability of the GIS of the geographical laws such as geographical pattern, evolution process, and interaction between elements.

  19. Hair biology and its comprehensive sequence in female pattern baldness: clinical connotation diagnosis and differential diagnosis--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Srivastava, Govind; Aggarwal, Ashok K; Midha, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Hair can become a source of concern when there is a change in its texture, number, and thinning. Although female pattern baldness is common, it has received little attention compared with male pattern baldness. Thinning that affects the vertex is insidious and progressive. Hair loss in women has accordingly been interpreted and classified differently than that in men. The Ludwig scale is the most accepted classification. The gross anatomy and the general microanatomy of the hair follicle, including that of the anagen, catagen, and telogen phase, are presented. The hair growth cycle, encompassing anagen, catagen, telogen, exogen, and kenogen, is also discussed to address pattern hair loss in women and provide therapeutic options that are currently available.

  20. hESC Differentiation toward an Autonomic Neuronal Cell Fate Depends on Distinct Cues from the Co-Patterning Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette M. Acevedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the cellular and molecular cues that promote neurovascular co-patterning at the earliest stages of human embryogenesis, we developed a human embryonic stem cell model to mimic the developing epiblast. Contact of ectoderm-derived neural cells with mesoderm-derived vasculature is initiated via the neural crest (NC, not the neural tube (NT. Neurovascular co-patterning then ensues with specification of NC toward an autonomic fate requiring vascular endothelial cell (EC-secreted nitric oxide (NO and direct contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs via T-cadherin-mediated homotypic interactions. Once a neurovascular template has been established, NT-derived central neurons then align themselves with the vasculature. Our findings reveal that, in early human development, the autonomic nervous system forms in response to distinct molecular cues from VSMCs and ECs, providing a model for how other developing lineages might coordinate their co-patterning.

  1. Patterns of proliferation and differentiation of irradiated haemopoietic stem cells cultured on normal 'stromal' cell colonies in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, K.J.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments were designed to elucidate whether or not the irradiated bone marrow cells receive any stimulation for the self-replication and differentiation from normal 'stromal' cell colonies in the bone marrow cell culture in vitro. When irradiated or unirradiated bone marrow cells were overlaid on the normal adherent cell colonies, the proliferation of haemopoietic stem cells was supported, the degree of the stimulation depending on the starting cellular concentration. There was, however, no significant changes in the concentration of either CFUs or CFUc regardless of the dose of irradiation on the bone marrow cells overlaid. This was a great contrast to the dose-dependent decrease of CFUs or CFUc within the culture in which both the stem cells and stromal cells were simultaneously irradiated. These results suggest that the balance of self-replication and differentiation of the haemopoietic stem cells is affected only when haemopoietic microenvironment is perturbed. (author)

  2. A framework for investigating geographical variation in diseases, based on a study of Legionnaires' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, R S

    1991-11-01

    Demonstration of geographical variations in disease can yield powerful insight into the disease pathway, particularly for environmentally acquired conditions, but only if the many problems of data interpretation can be solved. This paper presents the framework, methods and principles guiding a study of the geographical epidemiology of Legionnaires' Disease in Scotland. A case-list was constructed and disease incidence rates were calculated by geographical area; these showed variation. Five categories of explanation for the variation were identified: short-term fluctuations of incidence in time masquerading as differences by place; artefact; and differences in host-susceptibility, agent virulence, or environment. The methods used to study these explanations, excepting agent virulence, are described, with an emphasis on the use of previously existing data to test hypotheses. Examples include the use of mortality, census and hospital morbidity data to assess the artefact and host-susceptibility explanations; and the use of ratios of serology tests to disease to examine the differential testing hypothesis. The reasoning and process by which the environmental focus of the study was narrowed and the technique for relating the geographical pattern of disease to the putative source are outlined. This framework allows the researcher to plan for the parallel collection of the data necessary both to demonstrate geographical variation and to point to the likely explanation.

  3. In vivo analysis of homing pattern and differentiation potential of cells deriving from embryonic and adult haematopoietic regions

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, Suzana

    2004-01-01

    The experimental work of this thesis addresses the questions of whether established cell lines injected into murine blastocysts find their way back home and seed preferentially at the site of their origin. Furthermore, can they change their fate and differentiate to unrelated cell types when exposed to the embryonic environment. This survey was based on the fact that different cell lines have different potentials in developing embryos, dependent on their cellular identity. The cell lines used...

  4. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  5. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  6. West Nile virus outbreak in Israel in 2015: phylogenetic and geographic characterization in humans and mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Y; Kaufman, Z; Mannasse, B; Koren, R; Katz-Likvornik, S; Orshan, L; Glatman-Freedman, A; Mendelson, E

    2017-12-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and was responsible for several outbreaks in the past 16 years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of WNV acute infections from an outbreak that occurred in 2015 in Israel and report the molecular and geographic characterization of WNV isolates from human cases and mosquito pools obtained during this outbreak. Using a geographical layer comprising 51 continuous areas of Israel, the number of WNV infection cases per 100 000 people in each area and the locations of WNV-infected mosquitoes in 2015 were analysed. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses followed by geographic localization were performed on 13 WNV human isolates and 19 WNV-infected mosquito pools. Substantial geographical variation in the prevalence of acute WNV in patients in Israel was found and an overall correlation with WNV-infected mosquitoes. All human patients sequenced were infected only with the Mediterranean subtype of WNV Lineage 1 and resided primarily in the coastal regions in central Israel. In contrast, mosquitoes were infected with both the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of WNV lineage 1; however, only the Mediterranean subtype was found in mosquitoes from the coastal region in central Israel. These results demonstrate differential geographic dispersion in Israel of the two WNV subtypes and may also point to a differential pattern of human infections. As a geographical bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa, analysis of WNV circulation in humans and mosquitoes in Israel provides information relevant to WNV infections in Eurasia. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic variables affecting the diverse degrees of consanguineous marriages in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2004-02-01

    In a population the inbreeding coefficient alpha is determined by the relative incidence of the various degrees of consanguineous marriages--uncle-niece or aunt-nephew (C12), first cousin (C22), first cousin once removed (C23), second cousin (C33)--which may be related to temporal, geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Using published information from Spain corresponding to urban and rural areas, in this article we seek to establish how each specific relationship behaves with respect to geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic factors, to determine differential urban-rural patterns, and to study whether the diverse types of consanguineous matings relate homogeneously to these factors. For this purpose we performed multiple regressions in which the dependent variables were the different degrees of consanguinity previously selected and the independent variables were geographic, demographic, and economic factors. Our results indicate that the various types of consanguineous marriages in Spain are more conditioned by geographic, demographic, and economic variables than by the inbreeding level alpha (the coefficient of determination was between 0.22 and 0.72; the maximum for alpha was 0.35). A regional pattern exists in Spain and corresponds to close and to remote kinship, which may be mainly related to economic and family factors. Close relationships appear to be more associated with economic variables, whereas second-cousin marriages correspond largely to rural areas of the Spanish Central Plateau.

  8. Differential Roles of the Fan-Shaped Body and the Ellipsoid Body in "Drosophila" Visual Pattern Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yufeng; Zhou, Yanqiong; Guo, Chao; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2009-01-01

    The central complex is a prominent structure in the "Drosophila" brain. Visual learning experiments in the flight simulator, with flies with genetically altered brains, revealed that two groups of horizontal neurons in one of its substructures, the fan-shaped body, were required for "Drosophila" visual pattern memory. However,…

  9. Differential Recognition of Pitch Patterns in Discrete and Gliding Stimuli in Congenital Amusia: Evidence from Mandarin Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi; Patel, Aniruddh D.; Francart, Tom; Jiang, Cunmei

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether "melodic contour deafness" (insensitivity to the direction of pitch movement) in congenital amusia is associated with specific types of pitch patterns (discrete versus gliding pitches) or stimulus types (speech syllables versus complex tones). Thresholds for identification of pitch direction were obtained using discrete…

  10. Geographic information systems: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calistri, Paolo; Conte, Annamaria; Freier, Jerome E; Ward, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    The recent exponential growth of the science and technology of geographic information systems (GIS) has made a tremendous contribution to epidemiological analysis and has led to the development of new powerful tools for the surveillance of animal diseases. GIS, spatial analysis and remote sensing provide valuable methods to collect and manage information for epidemiological surveys. Spatial patterns and trends of disease can be correlated with climatic and environmental information, thus contributing to a better understanding of the links between disease processes and explanatory spatial variables. Until recently, these tools were underexploited in the field of veterinary public health, due to the prohibitive cost of hardware and the complexity of GIS software that required a high level of expertise. The revolutionary developments in computer performance of the last decade have not only reduced the costs of equipment but have made available easy-to-use Web-based software which in turn have meant that GIS are more widely accessible by veterinary services at all levels. At the same time, the increased awareness of the possibilities offered by these tools has created new opportunities for decision-makers to enhance their planning, analysis and monitoring capabilities. These technologies offer a new way of sharing and accessing spatial and non-spatial data across groups and institutions. The series of papers included in this compilation aim to: - define the state of the art in the use of GIS in veterinary activities - identify priority needs in the development of new GIS tools at the international level for the surveillance of animal diseases and zoonoses - define practical proposals for their implementation. The topics addressed are presented in the following order in this book: - importance of GIS for the monitoring of animal diseases and zoonoses - GIS application in surveillance activities - spatial analysis in veterinary epidemiology - data collection and remote

  11. Hourly pattern of allergenic alder and birch pollen concentrations in the air: Spatial differentiation and the effect of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycka, K.; Kasprzyk, I.

    2018-06-01

    In temperate climate widespread alder and birch are an important source of strong aeroallergens. The diurnal pattern of airborne pollen concentrations depends on the rhythm of pollen release from anthers as well as weather conditions, convection air currents, long-distance transport, pollen trap location and local vegetation. The aim of the study was to present a diurnal pattern of Alnus (alder) and Betula (birch) pollen concentrations in the air in a horizontal and vertical gradient and examine the weather parameters that had the greatest impact on the pattern. The study was conducted in Rzeszów City, southeast Poland over three years. Pollen grains were collected using a Hirst volumetric spore trap at three sampling points: two at 12 m the agl, and one at 1.5 m agl. Data were analysed using circular statistics and a nonlinear function. For alder, three models of hourly patterns were elaborated and the most common presented early morning minimum and early afternoon maximum. For birch, the most common model has one peak at night and a marked decrease in concentrations in early morning, although a second model has peak during early afternoon. A model with 3 peaks is much less common. These models are characteristic for warm temperate climate regions, where alders and birches are common. The diurnal patterns did not depend on the localization of traps or proximity of the pollen source, although these factors influenced the hourly concentrations, with higher values observed at roof level. Significant relationships between the hourly pollen counts and meteorological parameters were observed only for alder. Three incidents of increasing birch pollen concentrations were observed during the first two hours of precipitation and linked to a convection effect. Unstable weather conditions caused by air convection might strongly modify the circadian pattern and cause the nightly peaks concentrations. The general results are that people suffering from allergies may be exposed

  12. Patrones de distribución geográfica de los mamíferos de Jalisco, México Mammal geographic distribution patterns in Jalisco State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Ramos-Vizcaíno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de la riqueza de mamíferos en el estado de Jalisco y sus relaciones con algunos factores ambientales. Se obtuvo información de registros de mamíferos de Jalisco de diferentes colecciones biológicas nacionales y extranjeras. Se utilizaron las localidades de recolecta para realizar una cobertura de puntos. El estado se dividió en 159 unidades de clasificación geográfica (UCG´s de 15' por 15'. Se sobrepuso la cobertura de puntos, las UCG y algunos mapas de CONABIO para formar una matriz de presencia-ausencia. Se analizó la distribución de la riqueza por tipo de vegetación y altitud. Se observó un gradiente de riqueza que va desde las zonas tropicales hasta las semiáridas. Por altitud, la mayor riqueza se encontró entre los 1500 y 2000 m y la menor de los 4000 a 4500 m. Se aplicó una ordenación de Bray-Curtis y una clasificación con TWINSPAN. Ambas fueron consistentes en formar 2 grupos de mamíferos; uno con especies de la costa y el otro del noreste del estado, lo que refleja un gradiente climático. El porcentaje de variación acumulada fue del 94% y las variables del medio con mayor influencia fueron precipitación, temperatura, evaporación, altitud y vegetación.We analyzed the patterns of distribution of mammal species richness in Jalisco State and their relationships with some environmental factors. We retrieved distribution data from several national and foreign biological collections. We used the collecting localities to generate a spatial record of distribution points. The state was divided into 159 geographic units of classification (GUC's of 15' by 15'. We overlap the point cover, GUCs and some maps from CONABIO to create a presence-absence matrix. We analyzed the richness distribution by vegetation type and elevation. A richness gradient was observed from tropical to semiarid vegetation types and according to elevation; we observed higher richness between 1500 and 2000 m a. s

  13. Differential abundances of four forms of Binder of SPerm 1 in the seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Marcos Jorge; Martins, Leonardo Franco; Senra, Renato Lima; Santos, Thaís Ferreira Dos; Okano, Denise Silva; Pereira, Paulo Roberto Gomes; Faria-Campos, Alessandra; Campos, Sérgio Vale Aguiar; Guimarães, José Domingos; Baracat-Pereira, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The Binder of SPerm 1 (BSP1) protein is involved in the fertilization and semen cryopreservation processes and is described to be both beneficial and detrimental to sperm. Previously, the relationship of BSP1 with freezability events has not been completely understood. The objective of this work was to determine the differential abundance of the forms of the BSP1 protein in cryopreserved seminal plasma of Bos taurus indicus bulls with different patterns of semen freezability using proteomics. A wide cohort of adult bulls with high genetic value from an artificial insemination center was used as donors of high quality, fresh semen. Nine bulls presenting different patterns of semen freezability were selected. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed differential abundance in a group of seven protein spots in the frozen/thawed seminal plasma from the bulls, ranging from 15 to 17 kDa, with pI values from 4.6 to 5.8. Four of these spots were confirmed to be BSP1 using mass spectrometry, proteomics, biochemical, and computational analysis (Tukey's test at P semen freezability and its absence in bulls presenting high semen freezability. This is the first report showing that more than two forms of BSP1 are found in the seminal plasma of Nelore adult bulls and not all animals have a similar abundance of each BSP1 form. Different BSP1 forms may be involved in different events of fertilization and the cryopreservation process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Differentiation of several interstitial lung disease patterns in HRCT images using support vector machine: role of databases on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Mandar; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta; Dash, Jatindra K.; Garg, Mandeep; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-03-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is complicated group of pulmonary disorders. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) considered to be best imaging technique for analysis of different pulmonary disorders. HRCT findings can be categorised in several patterns viz. Consolidation, Emphysema, Ground Glass Opacity, Nodular, Normal etc. based on their texture like appearance. Clinician often find it difficult to diagnosis these pattern because of their complex nature. In such scenario computer-aided diagnosis system could help clinician to identify patterns. Several approaches had been proposed for classification of ILD patterns. This includes computation of textural feature and training /testing of classifier such as artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) etc. In this paper, wavelet features are calculated from two different ILD database, publically available MedGIFT ILD database and private ILD database, followed by performance evaluation of ANN and SVM classifiers in terms of average accuracy. It is found that average classification accuracy by SVM is greater than ANN where trained and tested on same database. Investigation continued further to test variation in accuracy of classifier when training and testing is performed with alternate database and training and testing of classifier with database formed by merging samples from same class from two individual databases. The average classification accuracy drops when two independent databases used for training and testing respectively. There is significant improvement in average accuracy when classifiers are trained and tested with merged database. It infers dependency of classification accuracy on training data. It is observed that SVM outperforms ANN when same database is used for training and testing.

  15. Step-down vs. step-up noxious stimulation: differential effects on pain perception and patterns of brain activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J C; Kim, J; Kang, E; Choi, J-H; Park, W Y; Choi, Y-S; Cha, J; Han, C; Park, S K; Kim, M H; Lee, G H; Do, H-J; Jung, S W; Lee, J-M

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesize that pain and brain responses are affected by changes in the presentation sequence of noxious stimuli that are, overall, identical in intensity and duration. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning, 21 participants experienced three patterns of noxious stimulation: Up-type (step-up noxious stimulation, 15 s), Down-type (step-down noxious stimulation, 15 s), and Down-up-type (decreasing and increasing pattern of noxious stimulation, 15 s). The total intensity and duration of the three noxious stimulation patterns were identical, but the stimulation sequences were different. Pain and unpleasantness ratings in the Down- and Down-up-type noxious stimulations were lower than in the Up-type noxious stimulation. The left prefrontal cortex [(PFC, BA (Brodmann area) 10, (-45, 50, 1)] was more highly activated in the Down- and Down-up-type noxious stimulations than in the Up-type noxious stimulation. The S1, S2, insula, bilateral PFC (BA 46), and midcingulate cortex were more highly activated in the Up-type noxious stimulation than in the Down-type noxious stimulation. PFC BA 10 was located at an inferior level compared to the bilateral PFC BA 46 (Z axis = 1 for BA 10, compared to 22 and 25 for the right and left BA 46, respectively). When cortisol level was increased, the left hippocampal cortex, along with the left parahippocampal cortex, was greatly activated for the Up-type noxious stimulation. When pain cannot be avoided in clinical practice, noxious stimuli should be applied to patients in a step-down pattern that delivers the most intense pain first and the least intense pain last. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Nanoengineered Polystyrene Surfaces with Nanopore Array Pattern Alters Cytoskeleton Organization and Enhances Induction of Neural Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ae Ryang; Kim, Richard Y; Kim, Hyung Woo; Shrestha, Kshitiz Raj; Jeon, Seung Hwan; Cha, Kyoung Je; Park, Yong Hyun; Kim, Dong Sung; Lee, Ji Youl

    2015-07-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) can differentiate into various cell types depending on chemical and topographical cues. One topographical cue recently noted to be successful in inducing differentiation is the nanoengineered polystyrene surface containing nanopore array-patterned substrate (NP substrate), which is designed to mimic the nanoscale topographical features of the extracellular matrix. In this study, efficacies of NP and flat substrates in inducing neural differentiation of hADSCs were examined by comparing their substrate-cell adhesion rates, filopodia growth, nuclei elongation, and expression of neural-specific markers. The polystyrene nano Petri dishes containing NP substrates were fabricated by a nano injection molding process using a nickel electroformed nano-mold insert (Diameter: 200 nm. Depth of pore: 500 nm. Center-to-center distance: 500 nm). Cytoskeleton and filopodia structures were observed by scanning electron microscopy and F-actin staining, while cell adhesion was tested by vinculin staining after 24 and 48 h of seeding. Expression of neural specific markers was examined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Results showed that NP substrates lead to greater substrate-cell adhesion, filopodia growth, nuclei elongation, and expression of neural specific markers compared to flat substrates. These results not only show the advantages of NP substrates, but they also suggest that further study into cell-substrate interactions may yield great benefits for biomaterial engineering.

  17. Alternative splicing of the porcine glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β gene with differential expression patterns and regulatory functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjie Wang

    Full Text Available Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3α and GSK3β are serine/threonine kinases involved in numerous cellular processes and diverse diseases including mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and cancer. However, in pigs, the information on GSK3 is very limited. Identification and characterization of pig GSK3 are not only important for pig genetic improvement, but also contribute to the understanding and development of porcine models for human disease prevention and treatment.Five different isoforms of GSK3β were identified in porcine different tissues, in which three isoforms are novel. These isoforms had differential expression patterns in the fetal and adult of the porcine different tissues. The mRNA expression level of GSK3β isoforms was differentially regulated during the course of the insulin treatment, suggesting that different GSK3β isoforms may have different roles in insulin signaling pathway. Moreover, GSK3β5 had a different role on regulating the glycogen synthase activity, phosphorylation and the expression of porcine GYS1 and GYS2 gene compared to other GSK3β isoforms.We are the first to report five different isoforms of GSK3β identified from the porcine different tissues. Splice variants of GSK3β exhibit differential activity towards glycogen synthase. These results provide new insight into roles of the GSK3β on regulating glycogen metabolism.

  18. Geographic mosaic of plant evolution: extrafloral nectary variation mediated by ant and herbivore assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Nogueira

    Full Text Available Herbivory is an ecological process that is known to generate different patterns of selection on defensive plant traits across populations. Studies on this topic could greatly benefit from the general framework of the Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution (GMT. Here, we hypothesize that herbivory represents a strong pressure for extrafloral nectary (EFN bearing plants, with differences in herbivore and ant visitor assemblages leading to different evolutionary pressures among localities and ultimately to differences in EFN abundance and function. In this study, we investigate this hypothesis by analyzing 10 populations of Anemopaegma album (30 individuals per population distributed through ca. 600 km of Neotropical savanna and covering most of the geographic range of this plant species. A common garden experiment revealed a phenotypic differentiation in EFN abundance, in which field and experimental plants showed a similar pattern of EFN variation among populations. We also did not find significant correlations between EFN traits and ant abundance, herbivory and plant performance across localities. Instead, a more complex pattern of ant-EFN variation, a geographic mosaic, emerged throughout the geographical range of A. album. We modeled the functional relationship between EFNs and ant traits across ant species and extended this phenotypic interface to characterize local situations of phenotypic matching and mismatching at the population level. Two distinct types of phenotypic matching emerged throughout populations: (1 a population with smaller ants (Crematogaster crinosa matched with low abundance of EFNs; and (2 seven populations with bigger ants (Camponotus species matched with higher EFN abundances. Three matched populations showed the highest plant performance and narrower variance of EFN abundance, representing potential plant evolutionary hotspots. Cases of mismatched and matched populations with the lowest performance were associated

  19. Landscape patterns of phenotypic variation and population structuring in a selfing grass, Elymus glaucus (blue wildrye).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicky J. Erickson; Nancy L. Mandel; Frank C. Sorensen

    2004-01-01

    Source-related phenotypic variance was investigated in a common garden study of populations of Elymus glaucus Buckley (blue wildrye) from the Blue Mountain Ecological Province of northeastern Oregon and adjoining Washington. The primary objective of this study was to assess geographic patterns of potentially adaptive differentiation in this self-...

  20. Genome-Wide analysis of allelic imbalance in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue using the Affymetrix 50K Mapping array identifies genomic patterns associated with metastasis and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Borre, Michael; Sørensen, Karina

    2007-01-01

    , patterns of allelic imbalance were discovered in PCa, consisting allelic loss as an early event in tumour development, and distinct patterns of allelic amplification related to tumour progression and poor differentiation.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 23 January 2007; doi:10.1038/sj...

  1. Differential N-glycan patterns identified in lung adenocarcinoma by N-glycan profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoning; Deng, Zaian; Huang, Chuncui; Zhu, Tong; Lou, Jiatao; Wang, Lin; Li, Yan

    2018-02-10

    N-glycan profiling is a powerful approach for analyzing the functional relationship between N-glycosylation and cancer. Current methods rely on either serum or fresh tissue samples; however, N-glycan patterns may differ between serum and tissue, as the proteins of serum originate from a variety of tissues. Furthermore, fresh tissue samples are difficult to ship and store. Here, we used a profiling method based on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections from lung adenocarcinoma patients. We found that our method was highly reproducible. We identified 58 N-glycan compositions from lung adenocarcinoma FFPE samples, 51 of which were further used for MS n -based structure prediction. We show that high mannose type N-glycans are upregulated, while sialylated N-glycans are downregulated in our FFPE lung adenocarcinoma samples, compared to the control samples. Our receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis shows that high mannose type and sialylated N-glycans are useful discriminators to distinguish between lung adenocarcinoma and control tissue. Together, our results indicate that expression levels of specific N-glycans correlate well with lung adenocarcinoma, and strongly suggest that our FFPE-based method will be useful for N-glycan profiling of cancer tissues. Glycosylation is one of the most important post-translational protein modifications, and is associated with several physiopathological processes, including carcinogenesis. In this study, we tested the feasibility of using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections to identify changes in N-glycan patterns and identified the differentially expressed N-glycans of lung adenocarcinoma. Our study shows that the FFPE-based N-glycan profiling method is useful for clinical diagnosis as well as identification of potential biomarkers, and our data expand current knowledge of differential N-glycan patterns of lung adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Caloric beverage drinking patterns are differentially associated with diet quality and adiposity among Spanish girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Helmut; Mendez, Michelle A; Ribas, Lourdes; Funtikova, Anna N; Gomez, Santiago F; Fíto, Montserrat; Aranceta, Javier; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2014-09-01

    The present study assesses the impact of beverage consumption pattern on diet quality and anthropometric proxy measures for abdominal adiposity in Spanish adolescents. Data were obtained from a representative national sample of 1,149 Spanish adolescents aged 10-18 years. Height, weight, and waist circumferences were measured. Dietary assessment was performed with a 24-h recall. Beverage patterns were identified by cluster analysis. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the KIDMED index. Three beverage clusters were identified for boys--"whole milk" (62.5 %), "low-fat milk" (17.5 %) and "soft drinks" (20.1 %)-and for girls--"whole milk" (57.8 %), "low-fat milk" (20.8 %) and juice (21.4 %), accounting for 8.3, 9.6, 13.9, 8.6, 11.5 and 12.9 % of total energy intake, respectively. Each unit of increase in the KIDMED index was associated with a 14.0 % higher (p = 0.004) and 11.0 % lower (p = 0.048) probability of membership in the "low-fat milk" and "soft drinks" cluster in girls and boys, respectively, compared with the "whole milk" cluster. Boys in the "soft drinks" cluster had a higher risk of 1-unit increase in BMI z score (29.0 %, p = 0.040), 1-cm increase in waist circumference regressed on height and age (3.0 %, p = 0.027) and 0.1-unit increase in waist/height ratio (21.4 %, p = 0.031) compared with the "whole milk" cluster. A caloric beverage pattern dominated by intake of "soft drinks" is related to general and abdominal adiposity and diet quality in Spanish male adolescents.

  3. Pointing towards visuospatial patterns in short-term memory: differential effects on familiarity- and recollection-based judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Spataro, Pietro; Marques, Valeria R S; Longobardi, Emiddia

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that pointing toward to-be-remembered visuospatial patterns enhances short-term memory (STM) when the presentation of pointing and no-pointing trials is mixed (Chum et al., 2007; Dodd & Shumborski, 2009; Rossi-Arnaud et al., 2012). By contrast, when presentation is blocked, pointing has inhibitory effects on memory (Dodd & Shumborski, 2009; Rossi-Arnaud et al., 2012). In the present study, we demonstrated that pointing has different effects on short-term recollection- and familiarity-based judgments, depending on the length of the visuospatial patterns (5- vs. 7-item arrays) and the interval between the encoding and test phases (2 vs. 5 s). More specifically, pointing decreased the accuracy of recollection-based judgments for 5-item arrays, but not for 7-item arrays (this negative effect did not interact with interval length). In contrast, pointing facilitated familiarity-based judgments when the interval between the study and test phases was 5 s, but not when it was 2 s (this positive effect did not interact with pattern length). We proposed that the negative effects might be accounted for by the simultaneous recruitment of attention resources in the planning and execution of pointing movements. As a consequence, executive resources are diverted from the primary memory task, resulting in a less efficient use of attention-demanding retrieval strategies, like chunking. By contrast, the positive effects on familiarity judgments might reflect the unitization of the to-be-remembered items into a single shape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Differential fragmentation patterns of pectin oligogalacturonides observed by nanoelectrospray quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry using automated spectra interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutenda, Kudzai E; Matthiesen, Rune; Roepstorff, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Oligogalacturonides of different degrees of polymerization (DP) and methyl esterification (DE) were structurally analyzed by nanoESI quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometry. The fragmentation patterns of the oligogalacturonides were compared using the program 'Virtual Expert Mass Spectrometrist...... with free carboxylic acid groups underwent higher water loss compared to fully methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides under the same fragmentation conditions. Cross-ring cleavage, in which fragmentation occurs across the ring system of the galacturonate residue and signified by unique mass losses...... water loss than methyl-esterified ones will be postulated. In addition, the VEMS program was extended to automatically interpret and assign the fragment ions peaks generated in this study....

  5. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  6. High-resolution computed tomography to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases with predominant ground-glass pattern using logical analysis of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Sophie Grivaud; Brauner, Michel W.; Rety, Frederique; Kronek, Louis-Philippe; Brauner, Nadia; Valeyre, Dominique; Nunes, Hilario; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to differentiate chronic diffuse interstitial lung diseases (CDILD) with predominant ground-glass pattern by using logical analysis of data (LAD). A total of 162 patients were classified into seven categories: sarcoidosis (n = 38), connective tissue disease (n = 32), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (n = 18), drug-induced lung disease (n = 15), alveolar proteinosis (n = 12), idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia (n = 10) and miscellaneous (n = 37). First, 40 CT attributes were investigated by the LAD to build up patterns characterising a category. From the association of patterns, LAD determined models specific to each CDILD. Second, data were recomputed by adding eight clinical attributes to the analysis. The 20 x 5 cross-folding method was used for validation. Models could be individualised for sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease and alveolar proteinosis. An additional model was individualised for drug-induced lung disease by adding clinical data. No model was demonstrated for idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia and the miscellaneous category. The results showed that HRCT had a good sensitivity (≥64%) and specificity (≥78%) and a high negative predictive value (≥93%) for diseases with a model. Higher sensitivity (≥78%) and specificity (≥89%) were achieved by adding clinical data. The diagnostic performance of HRCT is high and can be increased by adding clinical data. (orig.)

  7. Differential Temporal Evolution Patterns in Brain Temperature in Different Ischemic Tissues in a Monkey Model of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain temperature is elevated in acute ischemic stroke, especially in the ischemic penumbra (IP. We attempted to investigate the dynamic evolution of brain temperature in different ischemic regions in a monkey model of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The brain temperature of different ischemic regions was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS, and the evolution processes of brain temperature were compared among different ischemic regions. We found that the normal (baseline brain temperature of the monkey brain was 37.16°C. In the artery occlusion stage, the mean brain temperature of ischemic tissue was 1.16°C higher than the baseline; however, this increase was region dependent, with 1.72°C in the IP, 1.08°C in the infarct core, and 0.62°C in the oligemic region. After recanalization, the brain temperature of the infarct core showed a pattern of an initial decrease accompanied by a subsequent increase. However, the brain temperature of the IP and oligemic region showed a monotonously and slowly decreased pattern. Our study suggests that in vivo measurement of brain temperature could help to identify whether ischemic tissue survives.

  8. Expression profile of the Schistosoma japonicum degradome reveals differential protease expression patterns and potential anti-schistosomal intervention targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood fluke proteases play pivotal roles in the processes of invasion, nutrition acquisition, immune evasion, and other host-parasite interactions. Hundreds of genes encoding putative proteases have been identified in the recently published schistosome genomes. However, the expression profiles of these proteases in Schistosoma species have not yet been systematically analyzed. We retrieved and culled the redundant protease sequences of Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, Echinococcus multilocularis, and Clonorchis sinensis from public databases utilizing bioinformatic approaches. The degradomes of the four parasitic organisms and Homo sapiens were then comparatively analyzed. A total of 262 S. japonicum protease sequences were obtained and the expression profiles generated using whole-genome microarray. Four main clusters of protease genes with different expression patterns were identified: proteases up-regulated in hepatic schistosomula and adult worms, egg-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, cercaria-specific or predominantly expressed proteases, and constantly expressed proteases. A subset of protease genes with different expression patterns were further validated using real-time quantitative PCR. The present study represents the most comprehensive analysis of a degradome in Schistosoma species to date. These results provide a firm foundation for future research on the specific function(s of individual proteases and may help to refine anti-proteolytic strategies in blood flukes.

  9. Differential SPECT activation patterns associated with PASAT performance may indicate frontocerebellar functional dissociation in chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Naoya; Swan, Megan; Stobbe, Gary A; Uomoto, Jay M; Minoshima, Satoshi; Djang, David; Krishnananthan, Ruben; Lewis, David H

    2009-07-01

    Patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often complain of cognitive fatigue during the chronic recovery phase. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) is a complex psychologic measure that may demonstrate subtle deficiencies in higher cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain activation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with PASAT in patients with mild TBI to explore mechanisms for the cognitive fatigue. Two groups consisting of 15 patients with mild TBI and 15 healthy control subjects underwent (99m)Tc-ethylene cysteine dimer SPECT at rest and during PASAT on a separate day. Cortical rCBF was extracted using a 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection and statistically analyzed to identify areas of activation, which were compared with PASAT performance scores. Image analysis demonstrated a difference in the pattern of activation between patients with mild TBI and healthy control subjects. Healthy control subjects activated the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann area [BA] 22) bilaterally, the precentral gyrus (BA 9) on the left, and the precentral gyrus (BA 6) and cerebellum bilaterally. Patients with mild TBI demonstrated a larger area of supratentorial activation (BAs 9, 10, 13, and 46) but a smaller area of activation in the cerebellum, indicating frontocerebellar dissociation. Patients with mild TBI and cognitive fatigue demonstrated a different pattern of activation during PASAT. Frontocerebellar dissociation may explain cognitive impairment and cognitive fatigue in the chronic recovery phase of mild traumatic brain injury.

  10. Differential associations between sensory response patterns and language, social, and communication measures in children with autism or other developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill

    2011-12-01

    To examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities (DDs). Children with autistic disorder (AD; n = 72, mean age = 52.3 months) and other DDs (n = 44, mean age = 48.1 months) participated in a protocol measuring sensory response patterns; social-communicative symptoms of autism; and language, social, and communication skills. Hyporesponsiveness was positively associated with social-communicative symptom severity, with no significant group difference in the association. Hyperresponsiveness was not significantly associated with social-communicative symptom severity. A group difference emerged for sensory seeking and social-communicative symptom severity, with a positive association for the AD group only. For the 2 groups of children combined, hyporesponsiveness was negatively associated with language skills and social adaptive skills. Sensory seeking also was negatively associated with language skills. These associations did not differ between the 2 groups. Aberrant sensory processing may play an important role in the pathogenesis of autism and other DDs as well as in the rate of acquisition of language, social, and communication skills.

  11. Genetic diversity and differentiation patterns in Micromeria from the Canary Islands are congruent with multiple colonization dynamics and the establishment of species syngameons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curto, M; Puppo, P; Kratschmer, S; Meimberg, H

    2017-08-22

    Especially on islands closer to the mainland, such as the Canary Islands, different lineages that originated by multiple colonization events could have merged by hybridization, which then could have promoted radiation events (Herben et al., J Ecol 93: 572-575, 2005; Saunders and Gibson, J Ecol 93: 649-652, 2005; Caujapé-Castells, Jesters, red queens, boomerangs and surfers: a molecular outlook on the diversity of the Canarian endemic flora, 2011). This is an alternative to the scenario where evolution is mostly driven by drift (Silvertown, J Ecol 92: 168-173, 2004; Silvertown et al., J Ecol 93: 653-657, 2005). In the former case hybridization should be reflected in the genetic structure and diversity patterns of island species. In the present work we investigate Micromeria from the Canary Islands by extensively studying their phylogeographic pattern based on 15 microsatellite loci and 945 samples. These results are interpreted according to the hypotheses outlined above. Genetic structure assessment allowed us to genetically differentiate most Micromeria species and supported their current classification. We found that populations on younger islands were significantly more genetically diverse and less differentiated than those on older islands. Moreover, we found that genetic distance on younger islands was in accordance with an isolation-by-distance pattern, while on the older islands this was not the case. We also found evidence of introgression among species and islands. These results are congruent with a scenario of multiple colonizations during the expansion onto new islands. Hybridization contributes to the grouping of multiple lineages into highly diverse populations. Thus, in our case, islands receive several colonization events from different sources, which are combined into sink populations. This mechanism is in accordance with the surfing syngameon hypothesis. Contrary to the surfing syngameon current form, our results may reflect a slightly different

  12. Differential recognition of pitch patterns in discrete and gliding stimuli in congenital amusia: evidence from Mandarin speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi; Patel, Aniruddh D; Francart, Tom; Jiang, Cunmei

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether "melodic contour deafness" (insensitivity to the direction of pitch movement) in congenital amusia is associated with specific types of pitch patterns (discrete versus gliding pitches) or stimulus types (speech syllables versus complex tones). Thresholds for identification of pitch direction were obtained using discrete or gliding pitches in the syllable /ma/ or its complex tone analog, from nineteen amusics and nineteen controls, all healthy university students with Mandarin Chinese as their native language. Amusics, unlike controls, had more difficulty recognizing pitch direction in discrete than in gliding pitches, for both speech and non-speech stimuli. Also, amusic thresholds were not significantly affected by stimulus types (speech versus non-speech), whereas controls showed lower thresholds for tones than for speech. These findings help explain why amusics have greater difficulty with discrete musical pitch perception than with speech perception, in which continuously changing pitch movements are prevalent. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anthropogenic fragmentation may not alter pre-existing patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation in perennial shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Tanya M; Ayre, David J; Whelan, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    Many plant species have pollination and seed dispersal systems and evolutionary histories that have produced strong genetic structuring. These genetic patterns may be consistent with expectations following recent anthropogenic fragmentation, making it difficult to detect fragmentation effects if no prefragmentation genetic data are available. We used microsatellite markers to investigate whether severe habitat fragmentation may have affected the structure and diversity of populations of the endangered Australian bird-pollinated shrub Grevillea caleyi R.Br., by comparing current patterns of genetic structure and diversity with those of the closely related G. longifolia R.Br. that has a similar life history but has not experienced anthropogenic fragmentation. Grevillea caleyi and G. longifolia showed similar and substantial population subdivision at all spatial levels (global F' ST  = 0.615 and 0.454; S p  = 0.039 and 0.066), marked isolation by distance and large heterozygous deficiencies. These characteristics suggest long-term effects of inbreeding in self-compatible species that have poor seed dispersal, limited connectivity via pollen flow and undergo population bottlenecks because of periodic fires. Highly structured allele size distributions, most notably in G. caleyi, imply historical processes of drift and mutation were important in isolated subpopulations. Genetic diversity did not vary with population size but was lower in more isolated populations for both species. Through this comparison, we reject the hypothesis that anthropogenic fragmentation has impacted substantially on the genetic composition or structure of G. caleyi populations. Our results suggest that highly self-compatible species with limited dispersal may be relatively resilient to the genetic changes predicted to follow habitat fragmentation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Differential expression analysis of balding and nonbalding dermal papilla microRNAs in male pattern baldness with a microRNA amplification profiling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, H R; Abbasi, A; Saffari, M; Fazelzadeh Haghighi, M; Tabei, M B; Noori Daloii, M R

    2012-05-01

      Male pattern baldness or androgenetic alopecia is a common disorder affecting almost 50% of men throughout their lifetime, with androgens and genetics having significant contributing aetiologies. In contrast to the positive regulatory effect of androgens on body hair growth, they are thought to alter scalp hair follicle behaviour pathophysiologically, leading to male pattern baldness. However, the exact mechanisms of this paradoxical action have not yet been elucidated. The role of microRNAs, a novel group of noncoding RNAs impacting almost every aspect of biology, health and human diseases, has been documented in hair follicle formation. In addition, their deregulation in cancer of the prostate, a target organ of androgens, has also been well established. To investigate the possible contribution of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of male pattern baldness. We initially screened microRNA expression profiles of balding and nonbalding hair follicle papillae with a sensitive microRNA cloning method, microRNA amplification profiling, and statistically analysed significant differentially expressed microRNAs in balding relative to nonbalding dermal papillae, with real-time polymerase chain reaction as a confirmatory method to quantify expression in eight individuals affected with the disorder.   We detected the significant upregulation of miR-221, miR-125b, miR-106a and miR-410 in balding papilla cells.   We found four microRNAs that could participate in the pathogenesis of male pattern baldness. Regarding the strong therapeutic potential of microRNAs and the easy accessibility of hair follicles for gene therapy, microRNAs are possible candidates for a new generation of revolutionary treatments. © 2011 The Authors. BJD © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Differential ontogenetic patterns of levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin NT2 receptors and of NT1 receptors in the rat brain revealed by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépée-Lorgeoux, I; Betancur, C; Rostène, W; Pélaprat, D

    1999-03-12

    The postnatal ontogeny of the levocabastine-sensitive neurotensin receptor (NT2) mRNA was studied by in situ hybridization in the rat brain and compared with the distribution of the levocabastine-insensitive NT1 receptor. NT2 receptor mRNA was absent at birth from all brain structures except the ependymal cell layer lining the ventricles. The development of NT2 receptor mRNA followed three ontogenetic patterns. The first pattern, involving the majority of the cerebral gray matter, was characterized by a continuous increase from postnatal day 5 (P5) to P30. The second one, involving regions rich in myelinated fibers such as the corpus callosum and lacunosum moleculare layer of the hippocampus, exhibited a pronounced increase between P5 and P10, peaked at P15 and was followed by a plateau or a slight decrease. The third pattern was observed in the ependymal cell layer lining the olfactory and lateral ventricles, where the high labeling already present at birth continued to increase during development. These different developmental patterns could reflect the variety of cells expressing NT2 receptor mRNA, including neurons, protoplasmic astrocytes in gray matter, fibrous astrocytes present in myelinated fibers tracts, and ependymal cells. In contrast, NT1 receptor mRNA, which seems to be associated only with neurons, was highly and transiently expressed during the perinatal period in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatal neuroepithelium. Other regions, notably the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra compacta, exhibited a gradual increase in NT1 receptor signal, reaching adult levels by P21. Both the differential localization and ontogenetic profiles of NT1 and NT2 receptor mRNAs suggest different involvement of these two receptors in brain functions and development. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Geographic Mobility and Social Inequality among Peruvian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ryan; Cuenca, Ricardo; Blanco Ramirez, Gerardo; Aragón, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore geographic mobility among university students in Peru and to understand how mobility patterns differ by region and by demographic indicators of inequality. The ways that students may be able to move geographically in order to access quality higher education within the educational system can be a driver of…

  17. Attentional Bias for Pain and Sex, and Automatic Appraisals of Sexual Penetration: Differential Patterns in Dyspareunia vs Vaginismus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Reinhilde J; Dewitte, Marieke D; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Peters, Madelon M L; de Jong, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Current information processing models propose that heightened attention bias for sex-related threats (eg, pain) and lowered automatic incentive processes ("wanting") may play an important role in the impairment of sexual arousal and the development of sexual dysfunctions such as genitopelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD). Differential threat and incentive processing may also help explain the stronger persistence of coital avoidance in women with vaginismus compared to women with dyspareunia. As the first aim, we tested if women with GPPPD show (1) heightened attention for pain and sex, and (2) heightened threat and lower incentive associations with sexual penetration. Second, we examined whether the stronger persistence of coital avoidance in vaginismus vs dyspareunia might be explained by a stronger attentional bias or more dysfunctional automatic threat/incentive associations. Women with lifelong vaginismus (n = 37), dyspareunia (n = 29), and a no-symptoms comparison group (n = 51) completed a visual search task to assess attentional bias, and single target implicit-association tests to measure automatic sex-threat and sex-wanting associations. There were no group differences in attentional bias or automatic associations. Correlational analysis showed that slowed detection of sex stimuli and stronger automatic threat associations were related to lowered sexual arousal. The findings do not corroborate the view that attentional bias for pain or sex contributes to coital pain, or that differences in coital avoidance may be explained by differences in attentional bias or automatic threat/incentive associations. However, the correlational findings are consistent with the view that automatic threat associations and impaired attention for sex stimuli may interfere with the generation of sexual arousal. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification, functional characterization and expression pattern of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in Sepiella japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liping; Bao, Miaomiao; Lv, Zhenming; Chi, Changfeng; Wang, Tianming; Liu, Huihui

    2018-05-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein involved in the interleukin-1 receptor and Toll-like receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this study a novel isoform of MyD88 in Sepiella japonica (SjMyD88) was cloned and functionally characterized (GenBank accession no. AQY56781.1). The complete cDNA sequence of SjMyD88 was 1912 bp and contained a 1017 bp open reading frame encoding 338 amino acid residues, which was similar to its mollusk orthologues in the length. BLASTp analysis suggested the deduced amino acids sequence of SjMyD88 shared high identity to the known MyD88, for instance, 64% identity with Octopus bimaculoides. Sequence analysis revealed two conserved domains, the N-terminal DD and the C-terminal TIR domain appeared in SjMyD88, which was consistent with MyD88 proteins from other species. The fusion expression of SjMyD88 and green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in HEK293 cells was conducted and cytoplasm localization was detected. Meanwhile, the TIR-pmCherry fusion protein showed red fluorescence and mainly distributed in the cytoplasm. After cotransfection MyD88-EGFP and TIR-pmCherry red obviously overlapped and changed to yellowish green. The results suggested that there was the interaction between homologous TIR-pmcherry and MyD88-EGFP. Tissues expression profiles analysis showed that SjMyD88 ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues with the highest expression in the gills and livers except reproductive related tissue, and it was significantly induced in livers under LPS stress. These data provide insight into the roles of SjMyD88 in the TLR signaling pathway of S. japonica in response to pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The Ultrasound pattern sum score - UPSS. A new method to differentiate acute and subacute neuropathies using ultrasound of the peripheral nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alexander; Décard, Bernhard F; Axer, Hubertus; Fuhr, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasound differentiation of neuropathies is a great challenge. We, therefore, suggest a standardized score to operationalize differentiation between several acute and subacute onset neuropathies. We retrospectively analyzed the ultrasound data of 61 patients with acute or subacute neuropathies, e.g. chronic immune-mediated neuropathies, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and axonal/vasculitic neuropathies. We compared these data to 28 healthy controls. Based on these results an ultrasound pattern sum score (UPSS) with three sub-scores (UPS-A for the sensorimotor nerves, UPS-B for the cervical roots and the vagal nerve and UPS-C for the sural nerve) was developed. Afterwards, the applicability of the score was prospectively validated in 10 patients with chronic neuropathies and in 14 patients with unknown acute and subacute PNP before performing additional tests. UPS-A and UPSS were significantly higher in CIDP than in other neuropathies and controls (p85%. Vasculitic neuropathies showed an intermediate type of UPSS compared to other axonal neuropathies (ppower to the method of the peripheral nerve ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adaptation of the Pivotal-Differential Genome Pattern for the Induction of Intergenomic Chromosome Recombination in Hybrids of Synthetic Amphidiploids within Triticeae Tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal T. Kwiatek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S. cereale (UUMMRR and triticale (AABBRR where R-genome was pivotal. We observed chromosome recombination events which were induced by both: (1 random chromosome fragmentation and non-homologous chromosome end joining at mitosis of root meristem cells and (2 intergenomic chromosome associations at meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs of F1 hybrids. Reciprocal chromosome translocations were identified in six F1 plants and 15 plants of F2 generation using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with DNA clones (pTa-86, pTa-k374, pTa-465, pTa-535, pTa-k566, and pTa-713. We observed signals of pTa-86, pTa-535, and pTa-k566 probes in several chromosome breakpoints. The comparison of the DNA clone sequences distinguished a number of common motifs, which can be considered as characteristics of chromosome breakpoint loci. Immunodetection of synaptonemal complex proteins and genomic in situ hybridization analysis at meiosis of PMCs of F1 hybrids showed, that the homologous pairing of pivotal R—genome chromosomes is crucial for the fertility of F1 hybrids, however, these chromosomes can be also involved in the intergeneric recombination.

  1. Lack of differential pattern in central adiposity and metabolic syndrome in Barrett's esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Healy, L A

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma, although the mechanism is unclear. A pathway from reflux to inflammation through metaplasia is the dominant hypothesis, and an added role relating to visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome has been mooted in Barrett\\'s esophagus (BE) patients. Whether BE differs from gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in obesity and metabolic syndrome profiles is unclear, and this was the focus of this study. Patients with proven BE or GERD were randomly selected from the unit data registry and invited to attend for metabolic syndrome screening, anthropometry studies including segmental body composition analysis, and laboratory tests including fasting lipids, insulin, and C-reactive protein. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. One hundred and eighteen BE patients and 113 age- and sex-matched GERD controls were studied. The incidence of obesity (body mass index >30 kg\\/m(2)) was 36% and 38%, respectively, with the pattern of fat deposition predominantly central and an estimated trunk fat mass of 13 and 14 kg, respectively. Using the NCEP criteria, metabolic syndrome was significantly more common in the BE cohort (30% vs 20%, P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference using IDF criteria (42% vs 37%, P= 0.340). Central obesity and the metabolic syndrome are common in both Barrett\\'s and GERD cohorts, but not significantly different, suggesting that central obesity and the metabolic syndrome does not per se impact on the development of BE in a reflux population. In BE, the importance of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in disease progression merits further study.

  2. Dark or short nights: differential latitudinal constraints in nestling provisioning patterns of a nocturnally hunting bird species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Zárybnická

    Full Text Available In diurnal bird species, individuals breeding at high latitudes have larger broods than at lower latitudes, which has been linked to differences in the daily time available for foraging. However, it remains unclear how latitude is linked with parental investment in nocturnal species. Here, we investigate nestling provisioning rates of male Tengmalm's owls in two populations at different latitudes (Czech Republic 50 °N; Finland 63 °N with the help of cameras integrated into nest boxes. Clutch sizes were smaller in the Czech population (CZ: 5.1 ± 0.1; FIN: 6.6 ± 0.1, but given the higher nestling mortality in the Finnish population, the number of fledglings did not differ between the two populations (CZ: 3.5 ± 0.3; FIN: 3.9 ± 0.2. Nestling provisioning patterns varied within days, over the reproductive season and between the two sites. Males delivered most food at dusk and dawn, having peak delivery rates at sun angles of -11° to -15° at both sites, and males increased the prey delivery rates with higher nestling requirements. Given the longer nights during summer in the Czech Republic compared to Finland, Czech males only showed a small shift in their delivery peak during the night from -17° in April to -14° in July. In contrast, Finnish males shifted their peak of prey delivery from -11° in April to -1° in July. Consequently, Czech males had a longer hunting time per night around midsummer when feeding young (360 min than Finnish males (270 min. This suggests that nocturnal owl species in northern populations are constrained by the short nights during the breeding season, which can limit the number of young they can raise. Moreover, owls in northern populations are additionally constrained through the unpredictable changes in food availability between years, and both these factors are likely to influence the reproductive investment between populations.

  3. Differential response of Acidobacteria subgroups to forest-to-pasture conversion and their biogeographic patterns in the western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion - particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability - we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6 was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils.

  4. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio A.; Venturini, Andressa M.; Meyer, Kyle M.; Klein, Ann M.; Tiedje, James M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M.; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion—particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability—we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils. PMID:26733981

  5. Differential Change Patterns of Main Antimicrobial Peptide Genes During Infection of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsouei, Reyhaneh; Karimi, Javad; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mojtaba

    2017-08-01

    cecropin expression was greater than that of a monoxenic nematode; this result provided deep insight into the expression pattern parallels and fluctuations of the main AMPs during nematode infection.

  6. Geographic variation in genetic and demographic performance: new insights from an old biogeographical paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pironon, Samuel; Papuga, Guillaume; Villellas, Jesús; Angert, Amy L; García, María B; Thompson, John D

    2017-11-01

    The 'centre-periphery hypothesis' (CPH) is a long-standing postulate in ecology that states that genetic variation and demographic performance of a species decrease from the centre to the edge of its geographic range. This hypothesis is based on an assumed concordance between geographical peripherality and ecological marginality such that environmental conditions become harsher towards the limits of a species range. In this way, the CPH sets the stage for understanding the causes of distribution limits. To date, no study has examined conjointly the consistency of these postulates. In an extensive literature review we discuss the birth and development of the CPH and provide an assessment of the CPH by reviewing 248 empirical studies in the context of three main themes. First, a decrease in species occurrence towards their range limits was observed in 81% of studies, while only 51% demonstrated reduced abundance of individuals. A decline in genetic variation, increased differentiation among populations and higher rates of inbreeding were demonstrated by roughly one in two studies (47, 45 and 48%, respectively). However, demographic rates, size and population performance less often followed CPH expectations (20-30% of studies). We highlight the impact of important methodological, taxonomic, and biogeographical biases on such validation rates. Second, we found that geographic and ecological marginality gradients are not systematically concordant, which casts doubt on the reliability of a main assumption of the CPH. Finally, we attempt to disentangle the relative contribution of geographical, ecological and historical processes on the spatial distribution of genetic and demographic parameters. While ecological marginality gradients explain variation in species' demographic performance better than geographic gradients, contemporary and historical factors may contribute interactively to spatial patterns of genetic variation. We thereby propose a framework that integrates

  7. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Ruuskanen

    Full Text Available Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  8. Differential effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation and neurodevelopmental treatment/Bobath on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Ji; Kwak, Eunmi E; Park, Eun Sook; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the effects of rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) on gait patterns in comparison with changes after neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT/Bobath) in adults with cerebral palsy. A repeated-measures analysis between the pretreatment and posttreatment tests and a comparison study between groups. Human gait analysis laboratory. Twenty-eight cerebral palsy patients with bilateral spasticity participated in this study. The subjects were randomly allocated to either neurodevelopmental treatment (n = 13) or rhythmic auditory stimulation (n = 15). Gait training with rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment was performed three sessions per week for three weeks. Temporal and kinematic data were analysed before and after the intervention. Rhythmic auditory stimulation was provided using a combination of a metronome beat set to the individual's cadence and rhythmic cueing from a live keyboard, while neurodevelopmental treatment was implemented following the traditional method. Temporal data, kinematic parameters and gait deviation index as a measure of overall gait pathology were assessed. Temporal gait measures revealed that rhythmic auditory stimulation significantly increased cadence, walking velocity, stride length, and step length (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation (P rhythmic auditory stimulation showed aggravated maximal internal rotation in the transverse plane (P rhythmic auditory stimulation or neurodevelopmental treatment elicited differential effects on gait patterns in adults with cerebral palsy.

  9. Immunohistochemical study of Ulex europaeus agglutinin 1 (UEA-1) binding of megakaryocytes in bone marrow biopsy specimens: demonstration of heterogeneity in staining pattern reflecting the stages of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S M; Li, C Y

    1996-01-01

    During differentiation, megakaryocytes undergo nuclear endoreplication, an increase in cell size, cytoplasmic granulation, and release of platelets. The changes in highly lobulated nuclei with varying degree of polyploidy and increasing cell size are easily recognized morphologically. However, the actual cytoplasmic changes are more difficult to perceive morphologically. With the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method using UEA-1 as the binding protein to the alpha-L-fucose of glycoprotein synthesized by megakaryocytes, we observed significant variation in cytoplasmic staining of megakaryocytes in routinely processed bone marrow biopsy sections. A total of 3344 megakaryocytes in bone marrow sections from 10 patients with nonhematologic diseases and from 10 patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) was studied. According to the intensity and pattern of cytoplasmic staining, we divided megakaryocytes into at least six groups: (1) low granular (LG), (2) diffuse granular (DG), (3) diffuse dense granular (DDG), (4) marginal granular (MG), (5) denuded (DMK), and (6) endomitotic (EndoM). Most of the megakaryocytes were DG (mean, 42.75% +/- 19.21%) and DDG (mean, 50.25% +/- 21.23%). In correlation with nuclear morphology and cell size, it appears that substances binding to UEA-1 are located in the paranuclear region in early megakaryocytes and produce a low granular focal staining pattern (LG cells). Next, the granules spread throughout the cytoplasm (DG cells) and increase in quantity (DDG). This is followed by migration of granules to the periphery of the cytoplasm (MG cells) and is associated with the liberation of platelets and eventual formation of DMK megakaryocytes. Endomitosis, regulated by unknown factors, occurred in the MG stage. In comparing the group with nonhematologic disease (mean DG, 35.4% +/- 18.48%; DDG, 58.4% +/- 21.8%) and the group with ITP (mean DG, 50.1% +/- 17.82%; DDG, 42.1% +/- 18.12%), we found an increasing proportion of DG

  10. Volunteered Geographic Information in Wikipedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Darren

    2010-01-01

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) refers to the geographic subset of online user-generated content. Through Geobrowsers and online mapping services, which use geovisualization and Web technologies to share and produce VGI, a global digital commons of geographic information has emerged. A notable example is Wikipedia, an online collaborative…

  11. Consumo de antiinflamatorios no esteroideos en atención primaria en Costa Rica: evolución y variabilidad geográfica Consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in primary care in Costa Rica: changing patterns and geographical variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Morera Salas

    2007-12-01

    consumption increased by 48% and the annual cost rose by 184%. The drugs with greatest consumption and participation in cost were sulindac and indomethacin. NSAID consumption varied between 0.1 and 61.8 DID according to health areas, with a CVw of 66.8%. Variability was greatest with penicillamine (CVw = 449.89% and tenoxicam (CVw = 315.26%. Conclusions: Clearly differentiated geographical patterns in NSAID consumption were found in Costa Rica, with very different rates within the same region. According to the results obtained, two factors associated with this variability were the supply of health services and the percentage of the population aged 65 years or more within the catchment area.

  12. Oxidative stress status, antioxidant metabolism and polypeptide patterns in Juncus maritimus shoots exhibiting differential mercury burdens in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the oxidative stress status, antioxidant metabolism and polypeptide patterns in salt marsh macrophyte Juncus maritimus shoots exhibiting differential mercury burdens in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon at reference and the sites with highest, moderate and the lowest mercury contamination. In order to achieve these goals, shoot-mercury burden and the responses of representative oxidative stress indices, and the components of both non-glutathione- and glutathione-based H2O2-metabolizing systems were analyzed and cross-talked with shoot-polypeptide patterns. Compared to the reference site, significant elevations in J. maritimus shoot mercury and the oxidative stress indices such as H2O2, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage and reactive carbonyls were maximum at the site with highest followed by moderate and the lowest mercury contamination. Significantly elevated activity of non-glutathione-based H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase and catalase accompanied the studied damage-endpoint responses, whereas the activity of glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione sulfo-transferase was inhibited. Concomitantly, significantly enhanced glutathione reductase activity and the contents of both reduced and oxidized glutathione were perceptible in high mercury-exhibiting shoots. It is inferred that high mercury-accrued elevations in oxidative stress indices were obvious, where non-glutathione-based H2O2-decomposing enzyme system was dominant over the glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging enzyme system. In particular, the glutathione-based H2O2-scavenging system failed to coordinate with elevated glutathione reductase which in turn resulted into increased pool of oxidized glutathione and the ratio of oxidized glutathione-to-reduced glutathione. The substantiation of the studied oxidative stress indices and antioxidant metabolism with approximately 53-kDa polypeptide warrants further studies.

  13. Differential gene expression patterns in developing sexually dimorphic rat brain regions exposed to antiandrogenic, estrogenic, or complex endocrine disruptor mixtures: glutamatergic synapses as target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtensteiger, Walter; Bassetti-Gaille, Catherine; Faass, Oliver; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Georgijevic, Jelena Kühn; Hass, Ulla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Schlumpf, Margret

    2015-04-01

    The study addressed the question whether gene expression patterns induced by different mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) administered in a higher dose range, corresponding to 450×, 200×, and 100× high-end human exposure levels, could be characterized in developing brain with respect to endocrine activity of mixture components, and which developmental processes were preferentially targeted. Three EDC mixtures, A-Mix (anti-androgenic mixture) with 8 antiandrogenic chemicals (di-n-butylphthalate, diethylhexylphthalate, vinclozolin, prochloraz, procymidone, linuron, epoxiconazole, and DDE), E-Mix (estrogenic mixture) with 4 estrogenic chemicals (bisphenol A, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, and butylparaben), a complex mixture, AEP-Mix, containing the components of A-Mix and E-Mix plus paracetamol, and paracetamol alone, were administered by oral gavage to rat dams from gestation day 7 until weaning. General developmental endpoints were not affected by EDC mixtures or paracetamol. Gene expression was analyzed on postnatal day 6, during sexual brain differentiation, by exon microarray in medial preoptic area in the high-dose group, and by real-time RT-PCR in medial preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus in all dose groups. Expression patterns were mixture, sex, and region specific. Effects of the analgesic drug paracetamol, which exhibits antiandrogenic activity in peripheral systems, differed from those of A-Mix. All mixtures had a strong, mixture-specific impact on genes encoding for components of excitatory glutamatergic synapses and genes controlling migration and pathfinding of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, as well as genes linked with increased risk of autism spectrum disorders. Because development of glutamatergic synapses is regulated by sex steroids also in hippocampus, this may represent a general target of ECD mixtures.

  14. Traditional Chinese medicine for stable angina pectoris via TCM pattern differentiation and TCM mechanism: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yang; Du, Yi; Zhang, Huiyong; Kong, Dezhao; Liu, Yue; Yang, Guanlin

    2014-10-30

    Stable angina pectoris is experienced as trans-sternal or retro-sternal pressure or pain that may radiate to the left arm, neck or back. Although available evidence relating to its effectiveness and mechanism are weak, traditional Chinese medicine is used as an alternative therapy for stable angina pectoris. We report a protocol of a randomized controlled trial using traditional Chinese medicine to investigate the effectiveness, mechanism and safety for patients with stable angina pectoris. This is a north-east Chinese, multi-center, multi-blinded, placebo-controlled and superiority randomized trail. A total of 240 patients with stable angina pectoris will be randomly assigned to three groups: two treatment groups and a control group. The treatment groups will receive Chinese herbal medicine consisting of Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Zhuo granule and Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Yu granule, respectively, and conventional medicine. The control group will receive placebo medicine in addition to conventional medicine. All 3 groups will undergo a 12-week treatment and 2-week follow-up. Four visits in sum will be scheduled for each subject: 1 visit each in week 0, week 4, week 12 and week 14. The primary outcomes include: the frequency of angina pectoris attack; the dosage of nitroglycerin; body limited dimension of Seattle Angina Questionnaire. The secondary outcomes include: except for the body limited dimension of SAQ, traditional Chinese medicine pattern questionnaire and so on. Therapeutic mechanism outcomes, safety outcomes and endpoint outcomes will be also assessed. The primary aim of this trial is to develop a standard protocol to utilize high-quality EBM evidence for assessing the effectiveness and safety of SAP via TCM pattern differentiation as well as exploring the efficacy mechanism and regulation with the molecular biology and systems biology. ChiCTR-TRC-13003608, registered 18 June 2013.

  15. Different Factors of Llap as a Geographic Region

    OpenAIRE

    , F. Isufi; , S. Halimi; , F. Humolli

    2011-01-01

    In this work attempts were made to express in the best possible manner the factors which differentiate the Llap as geographic region. The Llap Region is located in the north-east of Kosovo. Within the ethnic geography, the Llap area is having peripheric position, but within the Balkan Penninsula it is having a central position, while along Llap goes the Highway which connects Kosovo and Serbia. The Llap region has important natural conditions; such as very good geographic position, running an...

  16. Geographic Ontologies, Gazetteers and Multilingualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Laurini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different languages imply different visions of space, so that terminologies are different in geographic ontologies. In addition to their geometric shapes, geographic features have names, sometimes different in diverse languages. In addition, the role of gazetteers, as dictionaries of place names (toponyms, is to maintain relations between place names and location. The scope of geographic information retrieval is to search for geographic information not against a database, but against the whole Internet: but the Internet stores information in different languages, and it is of paramount importance not to remain stuck to a unique language. In this paper, our first step is to clarify the links between geographic objects as computer representations of geographic features, ontologies and gazetteers designed in various languages. Then, we propose some inference rules for matching not only types, but also relations in geographic ontologies with the assistance of gazetteers.

  17. Innate immune humoral factors, C1q and factor H, with differential pattern recognition properties, alter macrophage response to carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondman, Kirsten M; Pednekar, Lina; Paudyal, Basudev; Tsolaki, Anthony G; Kouser, Lubna; Khan, Haseeb A; Shamji, Mohamed H; Ten Haken, Bennie; Stenbeck, Gudrun; Sim, Robert B; Kishore, Uday

    2015-11-01

    Interaction between the complement system and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can modify their intended biomedical applications. Pristine and derivatised CNTs can activate complement primarily via the classical pathway which enhances uptake of CNTs and suppresses pro-inflammatory response by immune cells. Here, we report that the interaction of C1q, the classical pathway recognition molecule, with CNTs involves charge pattern and classical pathway activation that is partly inhibited by factor H, a complement regulator. C1q and its globular modules, but not factor H, enhanced uptake of CNTs by macrophages and modulated the pro-inflammatory immune response. Thus, soluble complement factors can interact differentially with CNTs and alter the immune response even without complement activation. Coating CNTs with recombinant C1q globular heads offers a novel way of controlling classical pathway activation in nanotherapeutics. Surprisingly, the globular heads also enhance clearance by phagocytes and down-regulate inflammation, suggesting unexpected complexity in receptor interaction. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) maybe useful in the clinical setting as targeting drug carriers. However, it is also well known that they can interact and activate the complement system, which may have a negative impact on the applicability of CNTs. In this study, the authors functionalized multi-walled CNT (MWNT), and investigated the interaction with the complement pathway. These studies are important so as to gain further understanding of the underlying mechanism in preparation for future use of CNTs in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Use of enriched 74Se and 77Se in combination with isotope pattern deconvolution to differentiate and determine endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Iglesias, H.; Fernandez Sanchez, M.L.; Garcia Alonso, J.I.; Sanz-Medel, A.

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative methodology has been developed to differentiate between endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats using two enriched selenium isotopes. Lactating rats were fed for 2 weeks with formula milk containing one enriched Se isotope, 77 Se, as the metabolic tracer. The isotopic composition of selenium in serum and urine samples was then measured by collision cell ICP-MS after the addition of a solution containing another enriched isotope, 74 Se, as quantitation tracer, before analysis. Isotope pattern deconvolution allowed the transformation of measured Se isotopic abundances into concentrations of natural abundance (endogenous) selenium and enriched 77 Se (supplemented) present in the samples. The proposed methodology was validated using serum and urine reference materials spiked with both 77 Se and 74 Se. The obtained results are discussed in terms of selenium exchange and half-life in lactating rats (11-12 days) and selenium levels in serum in comparison with non-supplemented rats and control rats after maternal feeding. (orig.)

  19. Use of enriched {sup 74}Se and {sup 77}Se in combination with isotope pattern deconvolution to differentiate and determine endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Iglesias, H.; Fernandez Sanchez, M.L.; Garcia Alonso, J.I.; Sanz-Medel, A. [University of Oviedo, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    A quantitative methodology has been developed to differentiate between endogenous and supplemented selenium in lactating rats using two enriched selenium isotopes. Lactating rats were fed for 2 weeks with formula milk containing one enriched Se isotope, {sup 77}Se, as the metabolic tracer. The isotopic composition of selenium in serum and urine samples was then measured by collision cell ICP-MS after the addition of a solution containing another enriched isotope, {sup 74}Se, as quantitation tracer, before analysis. Isotope pattern deconvolution allowed the transformation of measured Se isotopic abundances into concentrations of natural abundance (endogenous) selenium and enriched {sup 77}Se (supplemented) present in the samples. The proposed methodology was validated using serum and urine reference materials spiked with both {sup 77}Se and {sup 74}Se. The obtained results are discussed in terms of selenium exchange and half-life in lactating rats (11-12 days) and selenium levels in serum in comparison with non-supplemented rats and control rats after maternal feeding. (orig.)

  20. Using geographic information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winsor, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A true Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer mapping system with spatial analysis ability and cartographic accuracy that will offer many different projections. GIS has evolved to become an everyday tool for a wide range of users including oil companies, worldwide. Other systems are designed to allow oil and gas companies to keep their upstream data in the same format. Among these are the Public Petroleum Data Model developed by Gulf Canada, Digitech and Applied Terravision Systems of Calgary, the system developed and marketed by the Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation in the United States, and the Mercury projects by IBM. These have been developed in an effort to define an industry standard. The advantages and disadvantages of open and closed systems were discussed. Factors to consider when choosing a GIS system such as overall performance, area of use and query complexity, were reviewed. 3 figs

  1. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  2. Patterns of regional development in Serbia: A multivariate statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čoček Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to examine patterns of regional development in Serbia and to identify underlying geographical factors of these patterns. Principal component analysis is used to reveal the basic dimensions of regional differentiation. Its results are described in the context of findings from thematically similar research on Central European countries. An area's position in the national settlement system hierarchy has been identified as the strongest determinant of regional differentiation in Serbia. Other strong patterns seem to be connected with macro-geographical position. Success in economic development is most apparent in regions near the metropolitan area of Belgrade, and the general development level, along with a predisposition for agriculture, exhibits a strong north-south polarization. Specific attention is directed at demographic development, which is characterized by a west-east gradient. Central patterns of regional differentiation are similar to those uncovered in previous Central European research. Regional policy in Serbia should, therefore, try to learn from experience within this region to cope with processes and problems that are often quite similar. .

  3. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  4. Differential models in ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barco Gomez, Carlos; Barco Gomez, German

    2002-01-01

    The models mathematical writings with differential equations are used to describe the populational behavior through the time of the animal species. These models can be lineal or no lineal. The differential models for unique specie include the exponential pattern of Malthus and the logistical pattern of Verlhust. The lineal differential models to describe the interaction between two species include the competition relationships, predation and symbiosis

  5. A Comparison of Seasonal Patterns Observed in ERS 1 / 2 Differential InSAR, Groundwater Level Data, and Groundwater Production Data in Reno, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, G. L.; Goudy, C.; Widmer, M.

    2005-12-01

    We report on a comparison of repeating seasonal patterns observed in ERS 1 / 2 differential InSAR, (D-InSAR) groundwater level (GWL) data, and water production volume data in Reno, Nevada, USA. Over the 1992-2002 study period we found municipal groundwater utilization in the Reno study area was associated with centimeter and sub-centimeter surface elevation changes which are distributed over aquifer related zones several kilometers in width. In the central Reno area observations define two active anomaly areas which show cyclical surface deflation and inflation with elevation changes of 10 to 30 millimeters over one to nine years. Seasonal groundwater level change associated with these D-InSAR features ranged between 0.3 and 3 meters. Some D-InSAR pattern perimeters are localized by geologic structure while others are more mobile. Most surface deflation appears to be periodically restored by natural and managed aquifer recharge. The area's of active surface inflation-deflation nominally correspond with the area's most significantly utilized groundwater aquifers. To evaluate evidence for the direct relation between D-InSAR and groundwater production in the study area, comparisons between 1992-2002 groundwater levels, production rates and D-InSAR surface inflation-deflation features were developed. Groundwater level change maps showed good direct correlations with D-InSAR observations only in areas where the GWL changes were relatively large (~10 meters), spatially uniform and sustained over several years. Several factors probably contribute to the weak correlation of many GWL's and D-InSAR features including: incomplete GWL coverages, GWL monitoring data representing different aquifer horizons, proximity to production wells, delayed development of aquifer volume change when water levels are altered, and lateral change in aquifer composition. Consistency of the D-InSAR features suggests atmospheric artifacts were not the source of the discrepancies. Some of the

  6. Unique mitochondrial localization of arginase 1 and 2 in hepatocytes of air-breathing walking catfish, Clarias batrachus and their differential expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Bodhisattwa; Koner, Debaprasad; Lal, Priyanka; Saha, Nirmalendu

    2017-07-30

    Arginase (ARG) catalyzes the final step of ornithine-urea cycle (OUC) leading to a conversion of L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. Several isoforms of ARG have been reported in vertebrates, out of which the two predominant isoforms are the cytosolic ARG1 and the mitochondrial ARG2. The air-breathing walking catfish (Clarias batrachus) is frequently being challenged by different environmental insults such as hyper-ammonia, dehydration and osmotic stresses in their natural habitats throughout the year. The present study investigated the active presence of ARG1 and ARG2 isoforms in hepatocytes along with unique localization of both the isoforms inside the mitochondria, and also their specific expression patterns under hyper-ammonia stress (5mM NH 4 Cl) in isolated hepatocytes of walking catfish. Initially, full length sequences of both arg1 and arg2 genes were obtained by RACE-PCR. Studies on molecular characterization demonstrated the presence of all the conserved amino acids required for stability and activity of binuclear metal center in both the isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of ARG isoforms showed a differentiation of the ARG1 and ARG2 into two distinct clusters with their respective isoforms from other species. Most interestingly, both the isoforms of ARG in hepatocytes were found to be localized inside the mitochondria as evidenced by the presence of mitochondrial target peptide (mTP) in N-terminal of the derived amino acid sequences, and exclusive localization of ARG activity in the mitochondrial fraction. This was additionally confirmed by Western blot analysis of ARGs in mitochondrial and cytosolic fractions, and by immunocytochemical analysis in isolated hepatocytes. Although the possible reasons associated with the presence of both the isoforms of ARGs inside the mitochondria is not clearly understood, perhaps this mitochondrial localization of ARG is functionally advantageous in this catfish for the synthesis of N

  7. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Andrea P.; Santos, Mirian C.; Lemos, Sherlan G.; Ferreira, Marcia M.C.; Nogueira, Ana Rita A.; Nobrega, Joaquim A.

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaca) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaca were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaca of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachacas, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees

  8. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  9. Restricted gene flow at the micro- and macro-geographical scale in marble trout based on mtDNA and microsatellite polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patarnello Tomaso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic structure of the marble trout Salmo trutta marmoratus, an endemic salmonid of northern Italy and the Balkan peninsula, was explored at the macro- and micro-scale level using a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and microsatellite data. Results Sequence variation in the mitochondrial control region showed the presence of nonindigenous haplotypes indicative of introgression from brown trout into marble trout. This was confirmed using microsatellite markers, which showed a higher introgression at nuclear level. Microsatellite loci revealed a strong genetic differentiation across the geographical range of marble trout, which suggests restricted gene flow both at the micro-geographic (within rivers and macro-geographic (among river systems scale. A pattern of Isolation-by-Distance was found, in which genetic samples were correlated with hydrographic distances. A general West-to-East partition of the microsatellite polymorphism was observed, which was supported by the geographic distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusion While introgression at both mitochondrial and nuclear level is unlikely to result from natural migration and might be the consequence of current restocking practices, the pattern of genetic substructuring found at microsatellites has been likely shaped by historical colonization patterns determined by the geological evolution of the hydrographic networks.

  10. TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSES REVEAL DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS BETWEEN THE LIFE-CYCLE STAGES OF EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) AND REFLECT SPECIALIZATION TO DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL NICHES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokitta, Sebastian D; de Nooijer, Lennart J; Trimborn, Scarlett; de Vargas, Colomban; Rost, Björn; John, Uwe

    2011-08-01

    Coccolithophores, especially the abundant, cosmopolitan species Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. W. Hay et H. P. Mohler, are one of the main driving forces of the oceanic carbonate pump and contribute significantly to global carbon cycling, due to their ability to calcify. A recent study indicates that termination of diploid blooms by viral infection induces life-cycle transition, and speculation has arisen about the role of the haploid, noncalcifying stage in coccolithophore ecology. To explore gene expression patterns in both life-cycle stages, haploid and diploid cells of E. huxleyi (RCC 1217 and RCC 1216) were acclimated to limiting and saturating photon flux densities. Transcriptome analyses were performed to assess differential genomic expression related to different ploidy levels and acclimation light intensities. Analyses indicated that life-cycle stages exhibit different properties of regulating genome expression (e.g., pronounced gene activation and gene silencing in the diploid stage), proteome maintenance (e.g., increased turnover of proteins in the haploid stage), as well as metabolic processing (e.g., pronounced primary metabolism and motility in the haploid stage and calcification in the diploid stage). Furthermore, higher abundances of transcripts related to endocytotic and digestive machinery were observed in the diploid stage. A qualitative feeding experiment indicated that both life-cycle stages are capable of particle uptake (0.5 μm diameter) in late-stationary growth phase. Results showed that the two life-cycle stages represent functionally distinct entities that are evolutionarily shaped to thrive in the environment they typically inhabit. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Relationship of coping and patterns of dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis of biliary and alcoholic etiology in aspect of differentiation of its medical and psychological support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маріанна Владиславівна Маркова

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Choric pancreatitis is an actual medical and psychological problem in Ukraine. The aim of the work was to study the features of coping in patients with chronic pancreatitis of alcoholic and biliary etiology.Methods. For detecting coping-mechanisms the standard method WCQ Р of Lazarus was used. The study of addictive tendencies was carried out with the help of questionnaire AUDIT and UDIT-tests oriented on patterns of dependent behavior.Results. The study of features of coping-mechanisms and an addiction to dependent behavior in patients with chronic pancreatitis revealed intergroup and intragroup differences. Confrontation and low levels of self-control, responsibility and positive assessment were intrinsic for respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Women demonstrated the high addiction to the search of social support, men – to distancing. As to an addictive behavior there was revealed that the typical common tendencies were the consumption of coffee, alcohol, internet-dependence, the specific ones for women – TV, shopping-dependencies, for men – workaholism in patients with biliary and computer-addiction in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Intergroup differences were demonstrated by an addiction to disorder of food behavior in patients with biliary and consumption of alcohol and smoking in respondents with alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis.Conclusions. The revealed differences in coping-strategies of patients with different nosological forms of chronic pancreatitis give important information for detecting the targets of medical and psychological influence and constructing of differentiated program of medical and psychological help to patients of this type

  12. Thousands of exon skipping events differentiate among splicing patterns in sixteen human tissues [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/1p0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Florea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. However, despite many efforts, the repertoire of gene splicing variation is still incompletely characterized, even in humans. Here we describe a new computational system, ASprofile, and its application to RNA-seq data from Illumina’s Human Body Map project (>2.5 billion reads.  Using the system, we identified putative alternative splicing events in 16 different human tissues, which provide a dynamic picture of splicing variation across the tissues. We detected 26,989 potential exon skipping events representing differences in splicing patterns among the tissues. A large proportion of the events (>60% were novel, involving new exons (~3000, new introns (~16000, or both. When tracing these events across the sixteen tissues, only a small number (4-7% appeared to be differentially expressed (‘switched’ between two tissues, while 30-45% showed little variation, and the remaining 50-65% were not present in one or both tissues compared.  Novel exon skipping events appeared to be slightly less variable than known events, but were more tissue-specific. Our study represents the first effort to build a comprehensive catalog of alternative splicing in normal human tissues from RNA-seq data, while providing insights into the role of alternative splicing in shaping tissue transcriptome differences. The catalog of events and the ASprofile software are freely available from the Zenodo repository (http://zenodo.org/record/7068; doi:10.5281/zenodo.7068 and from our web site http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/ASprofile.

  13. Thousands of exon skipping events differentiate among splicing patterns in sixteen human tissues [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2dl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Florea

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing is widely recognized for its roles in regulating genes and creating gene diversity. However, despite many efforts, the repertoire of gene splicing variation is still incompletely characterized, even in humans. Here we describe a new computational system, ASprofile, and its application to RNA-seq data from Illumina’s Human Body Map project (>2.5 billion reads.  Using the system, we identified putative alternative splicing events in 16 different human tissues, which provide a dynamic picture of splicing variation across the tissues. We detected 26,989 potential exon skipping events representing differences in splicing patterns among the tissues. A large proportion of the events (>60% were novel, involving new exons (~3000, new introns (~16000, or both. When tracing these events across the sixteen tissues, only a small number (4-7% appeared to be differentially expressed (‘switched’ between two tissues, while 30-45% showed little variation, and the remaining 50-65% were not present in one or both tissues compared.  Novel exon skipping events appeared to be slightly less variable than known events, but were more tissue-specific. Our study represents the first effort to build a comprehensive catalog of alternative splicing in normal human tissues from RNA-seq data, while providing insights into the role of alternative splicing in shaping tissue transcriptome differences. The catalog of events and the ASprofile software are freely available from the Zenodo repository (http://zenodo.org/record/7068; doi:10.5281/zenodo.7068 and from our web site http://ccb.jhu.edu/software/ASprofile.

  14. European regional efficiency and geographical externalities: a spatial nonparametric frontier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramajo, Julián; Cordero, José Manuel; Márquez, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    This paper analyses region-level technical efficiency in nine European countries over the 1995-2007 period. We propose the application of a nonparametric conditional frontier approach to account for the presence of heterogeneous conditions in the form of geographical externalities. Such environmental factors are beyond the control of regional authorities, but may affect the production function. Therefore, they need to be considered in the frontier estimation. Specifically, a spatial autoregressive term is included as an external conditioning factor in a robust order- m model. Thus we can test the hypothesis of non-separability (the external factor impacts both the input-output space and the distribution of efficiencies), demonstrating the existence of significant global interregional spillovers into the production process. Our findings show that geographical externalities affect both the frontier level and the probability of being more or less efficient. Specifically, the results support the fact that the spatial lag variable has an inverted U-shaped non-linear impact on the performance of regions. This finding can be interpreted as a differential effect of interregional spillovers depending on the size of the neighboring economies: positive externalities for small values, possibly related to agglomeration economies, and negative externalities for high values, indicating the possibility of production congestion. Additionally, evidence of the existence of a strong geographic pattern of European regional efficiency is reported and the levels of technical efficiency are acknowledged to have converged during the period under analysis.

  15. Geographic variation in the photosynthetic responses and life history of Mastocarpus papillatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupan, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Population differentiation in Mastocarpus papillatus, a red alga occurring from Baja California to Alaska, was assessed by (1) characterizing the geographic pattern of variation in reproductive behavior and (2) determining the range of variation in photosynthesis and respiration. Examining these two aspects of the biology of M. papillatus yielded different estimates of population differentiation. Carpospores of females collected from 8 locations between Baja California and northern California were grown in laboratory culture and their subsequent development followed. The 8 locations could be divided into 3 groups based on life history patterns. Photosynthetic responses to temperature and photon flux density were measured foliose gametophytes and crustose tetrasporophytes from 4 locations. Gametophytes had maximal net photosynthetic rates 4-5 times higher than tetrasporophytes. Tetrasporophyte populations were uniform in photosynthetic responses to temperature. Maximal rates occurred at 15 0 C Gametophyte populations appeared to be slightly differentiated. The photosynthetic temperature optima were between 20 0 C and 25 0 C for 3 populations and between 15 0 C and 20 0 C for 1 population. A preliminary study of carbon metabolism in M. papillatus gametophytes was conducted using 14 C. Partitioning of early products of photosynthetic carbon fixation between low molecular weight and polymeric, high molecular weight compounds appeared to differ under emerged and submerged conditions

  16. Determinants of Dentists' Geographic Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beazoglou, Tryfon J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A model for explaining the geographic distribution of dentists' practice locations is presented and applied to particular market areas in Connecticut. Results show geographic distribution is significantly related to a few key variables, including demography, disposable income, and housing prices. Implications for helping students make practice…

  17. O processo de reconhecimento das indicações geográficas de alimentos e bebidas brasileiras: regulamento de uso, delimitação da área e diferenciação do produto The process of geographical indications recognition for food and beverages in Brazil: regulation of use, delimitation aerea and product differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Rodrigues Valente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As denominações de origem e as indicações de procedência compõem as espécies de indicação geográfica (IG previstas pela legislação brasileira e têm sido vistas como formas de mobilização e valorização dos territórios e de agregação de valor aos produtos típicos e de qualidade diferenciada. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a condução das etapas de elaboração do regulamento de uso, delimitação da área e comprovação da notoriedade e da relação entre produto e meio geográfico das IGs brasileiras. A metodologia adotada foi pesquisa survey, realizada por meio de questionários semiestruturados. Os resultados revelaram que, apesar das lacunas da legislação brasileira sobre IGs, vários órgãos têm viabilizado o processo de construção das IGs brasileiras atuando de forma decisiva nas etapas de elaboração do regulamento de uso (universidades, ONGs, INPI, delimitação da área (universidades, Embrapa, Emater, IMA, comprovação da notoriedade (SEBRAE e da relação entre meio geográfico e qualidade (universidades. A comprovação da influência do território nas características qualitativas do produto constitui, atualmente, o principal entrave ao desenvolvimento das denominações de origem no País.The appellations of origin and indication of source are species of geographical indication (GI provided by the Brazilian industrial property law that could be seen as one of the ways of mobilization and recovering of the rural territories adding value to local products with differentiated quality. This study aimed to characterize the stages of the construction of the regulations of use of GI, the geographical area delimitation, the evidence of reputation and the relationship between product and geographical environment of GIs in Brazil. The survey research was the methodology adopted conducted through semi-structured questionnaires. The results showed that despite the shortcomings of the Brazilian

  18. Bathymetric and geographic population structure in the pan-Atlantic deep-sea bivalve Deminucula atacellana (Schenck, 1939).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardus, John D; Etter, Ron J; Chase, Michael R; Rex, Michael A; Boyle, Elizabeth E

    2006-03-01

    The deep-sea soft-sediment environment hosts a diverse and highly endemic fauna of uncertain origin. We know little about how this fauna evolved because geographic patterns of genetic variation, the essential information for inferring patterns of population differentiation and speciation are poorly understood. Using formalin-fixed specimens from archival collections, we quantify patterns of genetic variation in the protobranch bivalve Deminucula atacellana, a species widespread throughout the Atlantic Ocean at bathyal and abyssal depths. Samples were taken from 18 localities in the North American, West European and Argentine basins. A hypervariable region of mitochondrial 16S rDNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced from 130 individuals revealing 21 haplotypes. Except for several important exceptions, haplotypes are unique to each basin. Overall gene diversity is high (h = 0.73) with pronounced population structure (Phi(ST) = 0.877) and highly significant geographic associations (P < 0.0001). Sequences cluster into four major clades corresponding to differences in geography and depth. Genetic divergence was much greater among populations at different depths within the same basin, than among those at similar depths but separated by thousands of kilometres. Isolation by distance probably explains much of the interbasin variation. Depth-related divergence may reflect historical patterns of colonization or strong environmental selective gradients. Broadly distributed deep-sea organisms can possess highly genetically divergent populations, despite the lack of any morphological divergence.

  19. Geographical assemblages of European raptors and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Pascual; Benavent-Corai, José; García-Ripollés, Clara

    2008-09-01

    In this work we look for geographical structure patterns in European raptors (Order: Falconiformes) and owls (Order: Strigiformes). For this purpose we have conducted our research using freely available tools such as statistical software and databases. To perform the study, presence-absence data for the European raptors and owl species (Class Aves) were downloaded from the BirdLife International website. Using the freely available "pvclust" R-package, we applied similarity Jaccard index and cluster analysis in order to delineate biogeographical relationships for European countries. According to the cluster of similarity, we found that Europe is structured into two main geographical assemblages. The larger length branch separated two main groups: one containing Iceland, Greenland and the countries of central, northern and northwestern Europe, and the other group including the countries of eastern, southern and southwestern Europe. Both groups are divided into two main subgroups. According to our results, the European raptors and owls could be considered structured into four meta-communities well delimited by suture zones defined by Remington (1968) [Remington, C.L., 1968. Suture-zones of hybrid interaction between recently joined biotas. Evol. Biol. 2, 321-428]. Climatic oscillations during the Quaternary Ice Ages could explain at least in part the modern geographical distribution of the group.

  20. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  1. Control of Authenticity and Geographic Origin of Austrian, Slovenian, Romanian, Montenegrin and Argentinean wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacek, Micha; Papesch, Wolfgang; Ogrinc, Nives; Magdas, Alina; Wunderlin, Daniel; Misurovic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Consumers are willing to pay elevated prices for specific product qualities, e.g. for food from a certain region, thus there is the need to control the correct declaration of origin of these products. Conventionally this is done by estimating the flow of goods and by controlling the documentation accompanying the products. However, this means are often not sufficient to detect intentional deception. Since the 1990-ies the EU controls the authenticity of wine by isotope analyses of authentic wine samples from every wine-producing EU-country. Initially this was implemented to counteract adulteration of wine, but the produced data can also be used for the control geographic origin of wine samples. The measurement of the stable isotope composition of wine offers the possibility to investigate the product itself. The stable isotope ratios of the elements C and O are varying geographically due to diverse environmental conditions (e.g.: climate, soil, altitude, geography, cultivation…) thus creating individual patterns for different regions. Therefore analysis of the stable isotope pattern can be a potent tool for geographic differentiation. We investigated the stable isotope composition (C and O) of wine samples from Austria, Slovenia, Romania, Montenegro and Argentina from the years 2008 and 2009. Significant isotope variations are identified within samples from the same country as well as between samples from different countries, evidencing the potential of identifying wine from different regions in an individual country as well as discriminating wine from different countries. Also differences between the two investigated vintages exist, due to variations in the respective climate conditions.

  2. Geographic Differentiation of Francisella Tularensis using Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Department of Animal Health, Facultad de Veterinaria , Leon, Spain, 4 for contribution of his entire F. tularensis strain DNA collection. I thank Dr...Medicina Veterinaria , 1998. 15: p. 418-423. 32. de la Puente-Redondo, V.A., et al., Comparison of different PCR approaches for typing of Francisella

  3. Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measuring Geographic Distribution of Economic Activity in Nigeria Using Gross Domestic Product. ... and environmental factors in planning. There is need for adequate understanding of spatial pattern and centrographic analysis of economic activity to support evidence based economic and regional development policies.

  4. Following America? : Dutch geographical car diffusion, 1900 to 1980

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The main issue addressed in this thesis is the interpretation of the Dutch geographical car diffusion pattern, in comparison to the American example. This topic is analyzed in quantitative terms. In the first part of this dissertation, we give a first impression of what characterizes the ggregate

  5. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines spe...

  6. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow.

  7. Computer tomographic diagnosis and differential diagnosis of juvenile angiofibromas and angiomatous polyps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irnberger, T.

    1985-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibromas (JAF) and angiomatous polyps (AP) are vascular histologically benign tumors presenting with an identical clinical triad. Both lesions can be differentiated by their typical geographic pattern of growth, different pattern of tumor extension and their highly characteristic angiographic and angiocomputertomographic appearance. Time-density curves were of no use in differentiating the big variety of hypervascular lesions from each other. CT images of the vascular tumor phase after bolus injection of contrast medium however showed interesting pathomorphological details, which were extremely useful in differentiating JAF from AP and other vascular tumors. It is our opinion, that invasive angiography for diagnosing JAF has been surpassed, but is further essential for mapping of tumor perfusion, feeding vessels and praeoperative embolization therapy. (orig.) [de

  8. Geographical distribution pattern and climate characteristics of adaptation for Kobresia in China%中国嵩草属植物地理分布模式和适应的气候特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建国; 周巧富

    2012-01-01

    Aims Our objective was to determine the distribution pattern and climate characteristics of Kobresia in China. Methods Distribution information was collected from the literature and floras. Climate information was collected from China's meteorological stations. ArcGIS software and cluster analysis methods in SPSS software were applied to analyze data.Important findings Kobresia is mainly distributed on the Tibetan Plateau and in northern China. Fifteen species have wide distributions, and ten have disjunct distributions. The ranges of elevation, latitude and longitude of Ko-bresia's distribution are 1 400-5 000 m, 23-46° N and 81-112 °E, respectively. Mean values of climatic factors are Holdridge annual biotemperature of 4-19 °C, annual mean air temperature of 0-20 °C, annual mean maximum and minimum air temperatures of 7-28 and -6-16 °C, respectively, extreme high and low air temperatures of 25-40 and -37-0 °C, respectively, mean air temperature in January and July of-14-13 and 11-24 °C, respectively, highest air temperature in January and July of-7-23 and 18-30 °C, respectively, lowest air temperature in January and July of-22-7 and 5-20 °C, respectively, mean air temperature in spring, summer, autumn and winter of-4-19, 9-23, 6-21 and -11-15 °C, respectively, Kira warmth index and coldness index of 23-159 and -36-0 °C, respectively, annual precipitation of 154-1 500 mm, precipitation in spring, summer, autumn and winter of 19-135, 53-662,48-545 and 5-92 mm, respectively, Holdridge annual potential evapotranspiration of 261-1 100 mm, Thornthwaite annual potential evapotranspiration, aridity index and humidity index of 399-895 mm,167-786 and 179-816, respectively, and sunshine duration from April to October of 990-2 100 h. Generally, there is a high richness of Kobresia under lower or medium mean value of thermal factors, medium mean value of precipitation, aridity or humidity or higher mean value of sunshine duration. As for extreme value of climatic

  9. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells reveals novel patterns of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Anyasi Ambele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have undertaken an in-depth transcriptome analysis of adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs induced to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Gene expression was assessed on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 post-induction and genes differentially expressed numbered 128, 218, 253 and 240 respectively. Up-regulated genes were associated with blood vessel development, leukocyte migration, as well as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. They also shared common pathways with certain obesity-related pathophysiological conditions. Down-regulated genes were enriched for immune response processes. KLF15, LMO3, FOXO1 and ZBTB16 transcription factors were up-regulated throughout the differentiation process. CEBPA, PPARG, ZNF117, MLXIPL, MMP3 and RORB were up-regulated only on days 14 and 21, which coincide with the maturation of adipocytes and could possibly serve as candidates for controlling fat accumulation and the size of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified genes that were up-regulated only on days 1 and 7 or days 14 and 21 that could serve as potential early and late-stage differentiation markers.

  10. Genome-wide patterns of differentiation and spatially varying selection between postglacial recolonization lineages of Populus alba (Salicaceae), a widespread forest tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölting, Kai N; Paris, Margot; Meier, Cécile; Heinze, Berthold; Castiglione, Stefano; Bartha, Denes; Lexer, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Studying the divergence continuum in plants is relevant to fundamental and applied biology because of the potential to reveal functionally important genetic variation. In this context, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides the necessary rigour for uncovering footprints of selection. We resequenced populations of two divergent phylogeographic lineages of Populus alba (n = 48), thoroughly characterized by microsatellites (n = 317), and scanned their genomes for regions of unusually high allelic differentiation and reduced diversity using > 1.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from WGS. Results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. On average, 9134 high-differentiation (≥ 4 standard deviations) outlier SNPs were uncovered between populations, 848 of which were shared by ≥ three replicate comparisons. Annotation revealed that 545 of these were located in 437 predicted genes. Twelve percent of differentiation outlier genome regions exhibited significantly reduced genetic diversity. Gene ontology (GO) searches were successful for 327 high-differentiation genes, and these were enriched for 63 GO terms. Our results provide a snapshot of the roles of 'hard selective sweeps' vs divergent selection of standing genetic variation in distinct postglacial recolonization lineages of P. alba. Thus, this study adds to our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the origin of functionally relevant variation in temperate trees. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of differential co-expression patterns reveal transcriptional dysregulation mechanism and identify novel prognostic lncRNAs in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Z

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Zhen Li,1 Qianlan Yao,1 Songjian Zhao,1 Yin Wang,2,3 Yixue Li,1,4 Zhen Wang4 1School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2Shanghai Center for Bioinformation Technology, Shanghai Academy of Science and Technology, 3Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Fudan University, 4Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and occurs at a relatively high frequency in People’s Republic of China. However, the molecular mechanism underlying ESCC is still unclear. In this study, the mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA expression profiles of ESCC were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, and then differential co-expression analysis was used to reveal the altered co-expression relationship of gene pairs in ESCC tumors. A total of 3,709 mRNAs and 923 lncRNAs were differentially co-expressed between normal and tumor tissues, and we found that most of the gene pairs lost associations in the tumor tissues. The differential regulatory networking approach deciphered that transcriptional dysregulation was ubiquitous in ESCC, and most of the differentially regulated links were modulated by 37 TFs. Our study also found that two novel lncRNAs (ADAMTS9-AS1 and AP000696.2 might be essential in the development of ectoderm and epithelial cells, which could significantly stratify ESCC patients into high-risk and low-risk groups, and were much better than traditional clinical tumor markers. Further inspection of two risk groups showed that the changes in TF-target regulation in the high-risk patients were significantly higher than those in the low-risk patients. In addition, four signal transduction-related DCmRNAs (ERBB3, ENSA, KCNK7, MFSD5

  12. Multiple sclerosis: a geographical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlyle, I P

    1997-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis remains a rare neurological disease of unknown aetiology, with a unique distribution, both geographically and historically. Rare in equatorial regions, it becomes increasingly common in higher latitudes; historically, it was first clinically recognized in the early nineteenth century. A hypothesis, based on geographical reasoning, is here proposed: that the disease is the result of a specific vitamin deficiency. Different individuals suffer the deficiency in separate and often unique ways. Evidence to support the hypothesis exists in cultural considerations, in the global distribution of the disease, and in its historical prevalence.

  13. Phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits explains dispersal limitation and genomic differentiation of Streptomyces sister-taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2018-06-07

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a pattern of biogeography observed broadly in plants and animals but largely undocumented in terrestrial microbial systems. Although patterns of microbial biogeography across broad taxonomic scales have been described in a range of contexts, the mechanisms that generate biogeographic patterns between closely related taxa remain incompletely characterized. Adaptive processes are a major driver of microbial biogeography, but there is less understanding of how microbial biogeography and diversification are shaped by dispersal limitation and drift. We recently described a latitudinal diversity gradient of species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity in Streptomyces by using a geographically explicit culture collection. Within this geographically explicit culture collection, we have identified Streptomyces sister-taxa whose geographic distribution is delimited by latitude. These sister-taxa differ in geographic distribution, genomic diversity, and ecological traits despite having nearly identical SSU rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomic analysis reveals genomic differentiation of these sister-taxa consistent with restricted gene flow across latitude. Furthermore, we show phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits between the sister-taxa suggesting that thermal trait adaptation limits dispersal and gene flow across climate regimes as defined by latitude. Such phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits is commonly associated with latitudinal diversity gradients for plants and animals. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that the Streptomyces latitudinal diversity gradient was formed as a result of historical demographic processes defined by dispersal limitation and driven by paleoclimate dynamics.

  14. Identification Of Geographical Origin Of Coffee Before And After Roasting By Electronic Noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Ongo, E.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.

    2011-09-01

    Geographical origin traceability of food is a relevant issue for both producers' business protection and customers' rights safeguard. Differentiation of coffees on the basis of geographical origin is still a challenging issue, though possible by means of chemical techniques [1]. Between the most widely consumed beverage, coffee is a valuable one, with an aroma constituted by hundreds of volatiles [2]. Since the final global volatile composition is also determined by the cultivation climatic conditions, Electronic Noses (ENs) could be interesting candidates for distinguishing the geographical provenience by exploiting differences in chemical volatile profile. The present investigation is directed toward the characterization of green and roasted coffees samples according to their geographical origin.

  15. Wavelet-based feature extraction applied to small-angle x-ray scattering patterns from breast tissue: a tool for differentiating between tissue types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falzon, G; Pearson, S; Murison, R; Hall, C; Siu, K; Evans, A; Rogers, K; Lewis, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of wavelet decomposition to small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns from human breast tissue produced by a synchrotron source. The pixel intensities of SAXS patterns of normal, benign and malignant tissue types were transformed into wavelet coefficients. Statistical analysis found significant differences between the wavelet coefficients describing the patterns produced by different tissue types. These differences were then correlated with position in the image and have been linked to the supra-molecular structural changes that occur in breast tissue in the presence of disease. Specifically, results indicate that there are significant differences between healthy and diseased tissues in the wavelet coefficients that describe the peaks produced by the axial d-spacing of collagen. These differences suggest that a useful classification tool could be based upon the spectral information within the axial peaks

  16. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  17. Educational Geographers and Applied Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, John W.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the development of applied geography programs and restructuring of curricula with an emphasis on new technique and methodology courses, though retaining the liberal arts role. Educational geographers can help the programs to succeed through curriculum analysis, auditing, advising students, and liaison with other geography sources. (CK)

  18. Geographical Simulation and Optimization System (GeoSOS and Its Application in the Analysis of Geographic National Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Xia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the Chinese first survey on geographic national conditions has completed, an urgent need is to analyze these geographical data, such as mining of spatial distribution patterns, land use transition rules, development trends. The analysis is crucial for extracting the knowledge from these big data about geographic national conditions. The remote sensing interpretation data and land use/cover data generated by these geographic national conditions monitoring projects are the basic data sources for a variety of research and applications in terms of land use change detection, urban dynamic analysis, and urban/land use planning. The information can be used for assisting in the coordination of land resource use and decision making for urban and rural development, ecological environment protection and other issues that depends on spatial intelligent decisions. We proposed the theoretical framework of geographical simulation and optimization system (GeoSOS, which coupled geographic process simulation/prediction and spatial optimization, provides powerful theoretical support and practical tools for above researches. This paper develops the extension of GeoSOS software-GeoSOS for ArcGIS, which is an ArcGIS Add-In runs on ArcGIS platform for facilitating the above analyses. We take the urban expansion and ecological protection research in rapid urbanization area as an example, use the software to tackle a series of urbanization issues in the study area. The simulation results show that the predicted land development intensity of Guangdong Province will exceed the constraint index in 2020 according to the national development plan. However, the urbanization expansion based on the constraints of land development intensity and ecological protection can satisfy these constraints, and obtain a more compact landscape pattern. The analysis has shown that GeoSOS can be a useful tool for assisting in the analysis of geographic national conditions information

  19. Effects of geographical extent on the determinants of woody plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Rahbek, Carsten; Fang, Jingyun

    2012-01-01

    the quantitative effects of geographical extent are rarely tested. Here, using distribution maps of 11,405 woody species found in China and associated environmental data to the domain, we investigated the influence of geographical extent on the determinants of species richness patterns. Our results revealed...

  20. E-Government and Geographical Information Based Collaboration Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2010-01-01

    In order to achieve an efficient e-Government many factors must be considered. In the UN e-Government Survey from 2008 a holistic approach is recommended incorporating human capacity, infrastructure development and access to information and knowledge. In the same survey Denmark is ranked second i...

  1. Classification of Korean forests: patterns along geographic and environmental gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, T.; Kopecký, Martin; Petřík, Petr; Song, J.-S.; Šrůtek, M.; Valachovič, M.; Altman, Jan; Doležal, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2015), s. 5-22 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0119; GA ČR GA13-13368S; GA AV ČR IAA600050802 Grant - others:AVČR & Korean Science and Engeneering Foundation (KOSEF)(CZ) M200050902 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : altitudinal zones * East Asia * ISOPAM Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.308, year: 2015

  2. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  3. An Analysis of Differential Response Patterns on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB in Struggling Adult Readers and Third-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Hye K.; Greenberg, Daphne; Williams, Rihana S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IIIB (PPVT-IIIB) performance of 130 adults identified as struggling readers, in comparison to 175 third-grade children. Response patterns to the items on the PPVT-IIIB by these two groups were investigated, focusing on items, semantic categories, and lexical features, including word length,…

  4. Comparison by restriction fragment pattern analyses and molecular characterization of some European isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1: A contribution to strain differentiation of European isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig

    1988-01-01

    Eleven European isolates of Suid herpesvirus type 1 (SHV-1) were compared by restriction fragment pattern analyses and Southern blot hybridization using different genomic probes. The presence of strain discriminative 4 major genome types and several subtypes as well as the molecular distinctions...

  5. Perfusion pattern and time of vascularisation with CEUS increase accuracy in differentiating between benign and malignant tumours in 216 musculoskeletal soft tissue masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Marchi, Armanda, E-mail: armanda.demarchi@tiscali.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Prever, Elena Brach del, E-mail: elena.brach@unito.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cavallo, Franco, E-mail: franco.cavallo@unito.it [Department of Public health and Paediatrics, University of Turin, Via Santena 5-bis, 10126 Torino (Italy); Pozza, Simona, E-mail: simona.pozza@tin.it [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Linari, Alessandra, E-mail: linaralessandra@libero.it [Department of Pathology, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, Regina Margherita Hospital, Piazza Polonia, 10126 Torino (Italy); Lombardo, Paolo, E-mail: pao.lombardo82@gmail.com [Department of DiagnosticImaging and Radiotherapy of the University of Turin, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Via Genova 3, 10126 Torino (Italy); Comandone, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.comandone@gradenigo.it [Department of Oncology, Gradenigo Hospital, Corso Regina Margherita, 8/10.10153 Torino (Italy); Piana, Raimondo, E-mail: raimondo.piana@libero.it [Department of OrthopaedicOncology and ReconstructiveSurgery, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Faletti, Carlo [Department of Imaging, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, CTO Hospital, Via Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Introduction: Musculoskeletal Soft Tissue Tumours (STT) are frequent heterogeneous lesions. Guidelines consider a mass larger than 5 cm and deep with respect to the deep fascia potentially malignant. Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) can detect both vascularity and tumour neoangiogenesis. We hypothesised that perfusion patterns and vascularisation time could improve the accuracy of CEUS in discriminating malignant tumours from benign lesions. Materials and methods: 216 STT were studied: 40% benign lesions, 60% malignant tumours, 56% in the lower limbs. Seven CEUS perfusion patterns and three types of vascularisation (arterial-venous uptake, absence of uptake) were applied. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing imaging with the histological diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis, Chi-square test and t-test for independent variables were applied; significance was set at p < 0.05 level, 95% computed CI. Results: CEUS pattern 6 (inhomogeneous perfusion), arterial uptake and location in the lower limb were associated with high risk of malignancy. CEUS pattern has PPV 77%, rapidity of vascularisation PPV 69%; location in the limbs is the most sensitive indicator, but NPV 52%, PPV 65%. The combination of CEUS-pattern and vascularisation has 74% PPV, 60% NPV, 70% sensitivity. No correlation with size and location in relation to the deep fascia was found. Conclusion: US with CEUS qualitative analysis could be an accurate technique to identify potentially malignant STT, for which second line imaging and biopsy are indicated in Referral Centers. Intense inhomogeneous enhancement with avascular areas and rapid vascularisation time could be useful in discriminating benign from malignant SST, overall when the lower limbs are involved.

  6. SCHOOL LINGUISTIC CREATIVITY BASED ON SCIENTIFIC GEOGRAPHICAL TEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIORICA BLÎNDĂ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and observation of the natural environment and of the social and economic one, observing phenomena, objects, beings, and geographical events are at the basis of producing geographical scientific texts. The symbols of iconotexts and cartotexts are another source of inspiration for linguistic interpretation. The linguistic creations that we selected for our study are the scientific analysis, the commentary, the characterization, the parallel, the synthesis, epitomizing and abstracting, the scientific communication, the essay, and the scientific description. The representations on maps, photos, graphics and profiles are translated into verbal or written expression in order to render geographical scientific information from diagrams and images through diverse discursive procedures. Through school linguistic creations, teachers develop their students’ observation spirit, in a written and oral form, their geographical thinking through metaphors, they develop and stimulate their students’ imagination and fantasy, their cognitive, reflexive and affective sensitivity, their abilities to express themselves, to present and argument in a scientific way according to different criteria (sufficiency, demonstrative reasoning, lineal reasoning, pros and cons, giving examples, inferential deduction through using truth tables, etc.. Trough description, students give names and define geographical objects and beings (plants, animals, and people according to their form and aspect, they explain toponyms and appellatives, they classify and make hierarchies, they define their identity through processes of differentiation, emblematizing, personification, location in time and space.

  7. Coefficient shifts in geographical ecology: an empirical evaluation of spatial and non-spatial regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bini, L. M.; Diniz-Filho, J. A. F.; Rangel, T. F. L. V. B.

    2009-01-01

    A major focus of geographical ecology and macroecology is to understand the causes of spatially structured ecological patterns. However, achieving this understanding can be complicated when using multiple regression, because the relative importance of explanatory variables, as measured by regress...

  8. The role of the micro-pattern and nano-topography of hydroxyapatite bioceramics on stimulating osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cancan; Wang, Xiaoya; Gao, Long; Jing, Linguo; Zhou, Quan; Chang, Jiang

    2018-06-01

    The micro/nano hybrid structure is considered to be a biomaterial characteristic to stimulate osteogenesis by mimicking the three-dimensional structure of the bone matrix. However, the mechanism of the hybrid structure induced osteogenic differentiation of stem cells is still unknown. For elucidating the mechanisms, one of the challenge is to directly fabricate micro/nano hybrid structure on bioceramics because of its brittleness. In this study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with the micro/nano hybrid structure were firstly fabricated via a hydrothermal treatment and template method, and the effect of the different surface structures on the expression of integrins, BMP2 signaling pathways and cell-cell communication was investigated. Interestingly, the results suggested that the osteogenic differentiation induced by micro/nano structures was modulated first through activating integrins and then further activating BMP2 signaling pathway and cell-cell communication, while activated BMP2 could in turn activate integrins and Cx43-related cell-cell communication. Furthermore, differences in activation of integrins, BMP2 signaling pathway, and gap junction-mediated cell-cell communication were observed, in which nanorod and micropattern structures activated different integrin subunits, BMP downstream receptors and Cx43. This finding may explain the synergistic effect of the micro/nano hybrid structure on the activation of osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Based on our study, we concluded that the different activation mechanisms of micro- and nano-structures led to the synergistic stimulatory effect on integrin activation and osteogenesis, in which not only the direct contact of cells on micro/nano structure played an important role, but also other surface characteristics such as protein adsorption might contribute to the bioactive effect. The micro/nano hybrid structure has been found to have synergistic bioactivity on osteogenesis. However, it is still a challenge

  9. Differential Expression Patterns in Chemosensory and Non-Chemosensory Tissues of Putative Chemosensory Genes Identified by Transcriptome Analysis of Insect Pest the Purple Stem Borer Sesamia inferens (Walker)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Jin, Jun-Yan; Jin, Rong; Xia, Yi-Han; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Deng, Jian-Yu; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, am...

  10. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2017-09-15

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg -1 ) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T 3 and T 4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T 4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na + /K + -ATPase, H + /K + -ATPase and Na + /NH 4 + -ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential

  11. Geographic analysis of road accident severity index in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyanda, Ayodeji E

    2018-05-28

    Before 2030, deaths from road traffic accidents (RTAs) will surpass cerebrovascular disease, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS. Yet, there is little knowledge on the geographic distribution of RTA severity in Nigeria. Accident Severity Index is the proportion of deaths that result from a road accident. This study analysed the geographic pattern of RTA severity based on the data retrieved from Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC). The study predicted a two-year data from a historic road accident data using exponential smoothing technique. To determine spatial autocorrelation, global and local indicators of spatial association were implemented in a geographic information system. Results show significant clusters of high RTA severity among states in the northeast and the northwest of Nigeria. Hence, the findings are discussed from two perspectives: Road traffic law compliance and poor emergency response. Conclusion, the severity of RTA is high in the northern states of Nigeria, hence, RTA remains a public health concern.

  12. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  13. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  14. Effects of global climate changes on geographical distribution patterns of economically important plant species in cerrado Efeitos das mudanças climáticas globais sobre os padrões de distribuição geográfica das espécies de plantas economicamente importantes no cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Mendes Simon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Different climate models, modeling methods and carbon emission scenarios were used in this paper to evaluate the effects of future climate changes on geographical distribution of species of economic and cultural importance across the Cerrado biome. As the results of several studies have shown, there are still many uncertainties associated with these projections, although bioclimatic models are still widely used and effective method to evaluate the consequences for biodiversity of these climate changes. In this article, it was found that 90% of these uncertainties are related to methods of modeling, although, regardless of the uncertainties, the results revealed that the studied species will reduce about 78% of their geographic distribution in Cerrado. For an effective work on the conservation of these species, many studies still need to be carried out, although it is already possible to observe that climate change will have a strong influence on the pattern of distribution of these species.Neste trabalho, diferentes modelos climáticos, métodos de modelagem e cenários de emissão de carbono foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos das mudanças climáticas sobre a distribuição geográfica de espécies de importância econômica e cultural das regiões abrangidas pelo bioma Cerrado. Assim como os resultados de vários trabalhos têm evidenciado ao longo dos anos, ainda há muitas incertezas relacionadas a essas projeções, apesar de os modelos bioclimáticos ainda serem a metodologia mais utilizada e eficaz para avaliar as consequências dessas mudanças climáticas para a biodiversidade. Neste artigo, foi possível observar que 90% dessas incertezas estão relacionadas aos métodos de modelagem. Contudo, independente disso, os resultados revelaram que as espécies estudadas reduzirão, em média, 78% de sua distribuição geográfica no Cerrado. Para que haja trabalho eficaz sobre a conservação dessas espécies, muitos estudos ainda

  15. Differential patterns of accumulation and retention of dietary trace elements associated with coal ash during larval development and metamorphosis of an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Andrew; Rowe, Christopher L; Conrad, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We performed an experiment in which larval gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were raised through metamorphosis on diets increased with a suite of elements associated with coal combustion residues (silver [Ag], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], mercury [Hg], lead [Pb], selenium [Se], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) at "low" and "high" concentrations. We quantified accumulation of metals at three life stages (mid-larval development, initiation of metamorphosis, and completion of metamorphosis) as well as effects on survival, metabolic rate, size at metamorphosis, and duration and loss of weight during metamorphosis. Most elements were accumulated in a dose-dependent pattern by some or all life stages, although this was not the case for Hg. For most elements, larval body burdens exceeded those of later life stages in some or all treatments (control, low, or high). However for Se, As, and Hg, body burdens in control and low concentrations were increased in later compared with earlier life stages. A lack of dose-dependent accumulation of Hg suggests that the presence of high concentrations of other elements (possibly Se) either inhibited accumulation or increased depuration of Hg. The duration of metamorphosis (forelimb emergence through tail resorption) was lengthened in individuals exposed to the highest concentrations of elements, but there were no other statistically significant biological effects. This study shows that patterns of accumulation and possibly depuration of metals and trace elements are complex in animals possessing complex life cycles. Further study is required to determine specific interactions affecting these patterns, in particular which elements may be responsible for affecting accumulation or retention of Hg when organisms are exposed to complex mixtures of elements.

  16. The pattern recognition molecule ficolin-1 exhibits differential binding to lymphocyte subsets, providing a novel link between innate and adaptive immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Ma, Ying Jie; Munthe-Fog, Lea

    2014-01-01

    is unknown. Recognition of healthy host cells by a pattern recognition molecule constitutes a potential hazard to self cells and tissues, emphasizing the importance of further elucidating the reported self-recognition. In the current study we investigated the potential recognition of lymphocytes by ficolin-1...... and demonstrated that CD56(dim) NK-cells and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets of activated T-cells were recognized by ficolin-1. In contrast we did not detect binding of ficolin-1 to CD56(bright) NK-cells, NKT-cells, resting T-cells or B-cells. Furthermore, we showed that the protein-lymphocyte interaction occurred...

  17. Different patterns of motor activity induce differential plastic changes in pyramidal neurons in the motor cortex of rats: A Golgi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Hernández, Nallely; González-Tapia, Diana C; Martínez-Torres, Nestor I; González-Tapia, David; González-Burgos, Ignacio

    2017-09-14

    Rehabilitation is a process which favors recovery after brain damage involving motor systems, and neural plasticity is the only real resource the brain has for inducing neurobiological events in order to bring about re-adaptation. Rats were placed on a treadmill and made to walk, in different groups, at different velocities and with varying degrees of inclination. Plastic changes in the spines of the apical and basal dendrites of fifth-layer pyramidal neurons in the motor cortices of the rats were detected after study with the Golgi method. Numbers of dendritic spines increased in the three experimental groups, and thin, mushroom, stubby, wide, and branched spines increased or decreased in proportion depending on the motor demands made of each group. Along with the numerical increase of spines, the present findings provide evidence that dendritic spines' geometrical plasticity is involved in the differential performance of motor activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential expression patterns of Nqo1, AKR1B8 and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice treated with sulforaphane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article entitled “butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice” (Luo et al., 2015 [1], which defined the basal and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA-induced expression patterns of Phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinylbutane] (SFN, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase II cytoprotective enzymes. This dataset reports the histological changes of Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in wild-type (WT and Nrf2-/- mice induced by SFN. The mice were given a 25 mg/kg single oral dose of SFN for 24 h and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, in the liver from WT mice, SFN increased Nqo1 staining in hepatocytes with slight higher staining in the pericentral region. The induction of AKR1B8 appeared mostly in hepatocytes in the periportal region. The basal and inducible Ho-1 was located predominately in Kupffer cells. In the small intestine from WT mice, the inducible expression of Nqo1 and AKR1B8 appeared more obvious in the villus than that in the crypt.

  19. Regionally and climatically restricted patterns of distribution of genetic diversity in a migratory bat species, Miniopterus schreibersii (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çoraman Emrah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various mechanisms such as geographic barriers and glacial episodes have been proposed as determinants of intra-specific and inter-specific differentiation of populations, and the distribution of their genetic diversity. More recently, habitat and climate differences, and corresponding adaptations have been shown to be forces influencing the phylogeographic evolution of some vertebrates. In this study, we examined the contribution of these various factors on the genetic differentiation of the bent-winged bat, Miniopterus schreibersii, in southeastern Europe and Anatolia. Results and conclusion Our results showed differentiation in mitochondrial DNA coupled with weaker nuclear differentiation. We found evidence for restriction of lineages to geographical areas for hundreds of generations. The results showed that the most likely ancestral haplotype was restricted to the same geographic area (the Balkans for at least 6,000 years. We were able to delineate the migration routes during the population expansion process, which followed the coasts and the inland for different nested mitochondrial clades. Hence, we were able to describe a scenario showing how multiple biotic and abiotic events including glacial periods, climate and historical dispersal patterns complemented each other in causing regional and local differentiation within a species.

  20. Investigation of bacterial communities within the digestive organs of the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata provide insights into holobiont geographic clustering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique A Cowart

    Full Text Available Prokaryotic communities forming symbiotic relationships with the vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, are well studied components of hydrothermal ecosystems at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR. Despite the tight link between host and symbiont, the observed lack of spatial genetic structure seen in R. exoculata contrasts with the geographic differentiation detected in specific bacterial ectosymbionts. The geographic clustering of bacterial lineages within a seemingly panmictic host suggests either the presence of finer scale restriction to gene flow not yet detected in the host, horizontal transmission (environmental selection of its endosymbionts as a consequence of unique vent geochemistry, or vertically transmitted endosymbionts that exhibit genetic differentiation. To identify which hypothesis best fits, we tested whether bacterial assemblages exhibit differentiation across sites or host populations by performing a 16S rRNA metabarcoding survey on R. exoculata digestive prokaryote samples (n = 31 taken from three geochemically distinct vents across MAR: Rainbow, Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse (TAG and Logatchev. Analysis of communities across two organs (digestive tract, stomach, three molt colors (white, red, black and three life stages (eggs, juveniles, adults also provided insights into symbiont transmission mode. Examining both whole communities and operational taxonomic units (OTUs confirmed the presence of three main epibionts: Epsilonproteobacteria, Mollicutes and Deferribacteres. With these findings, we identified a clear pattern of geographic segregation by vent in OTUs assigned to Epsilonproteobacteria. Additionally, we detected evidence for differentiation among all communities associated to vents and life stages. Overall, results suggest a combination of environmental selection and vertical inheritance of some of the symbiotic lineages.

  1. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes.

  2. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  3. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  4. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  5. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  6. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Surv