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Sample records for geographic areas induce

  1. Comparison of average global exposure of population induced by a macro 3G network in different geographical areas in France and Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Varsier, Nadège; Niksic, Stevan; Kocan, Enis; Pejanovic-Djurisic, Milica; Popovic, Milica; Koprivica, Mladen; Neskovic, Aleksandar; Milinkovic, Jelena; Gati, Azeddine; Person, Christian; Wiart, Joe

    2016-09-01

    This article is the first thorough study of average population exposure to third generation network (3G)-induced electromagnetic fields (EMFs), from both uplink and downlink radio emissions in different countries, geographical areas, and for different wireless device usages. Indeed, previous publications in the framework of exposure to EMFs generally focused on individual exposure coming from either personal devices or base stations. Results, derived from device usage statistics collected in France and Serbia, show a strong heterogeneity of exposure, both in time, that is, the traffic distribution over 24 h was found highly variable, and space, that is, the exposure to 3G networks in France was found to be roughly two times higher than in Serbia. Such heterogeneity is further explained based on real data and network architecture. Among those results, authors show that, contrary to popular belief, exposure to 3G EMFs is dominated by uplink radio emissions, resulting from voice and data traffic, and average population EMF exposure differs from one geographical area to another, as well as from one country to another, due to the different cellular network architectures and variability of mobile usage. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:382-390, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 47 CFR 22.911 - Cellular geographic service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.911 Cellular geographic service area. The... Watts (2) The distance from a cell transmitting antenna located in the Gulf of Mexico Service Area (GMSA... for unserved area applications proposing a cell with an ERP not exceeding 10 Watts, the value for...

  3. 47 CFR 22.503 - Paging geographic area authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in its sole discretion, the FCC determines that the public interest would be served by such replacement. (d) Filing windows. The FCC accepts applications for paging geographic area authorizations only during filing windows. The FCC issues Public Notices announcing in advance the dates of the filing...

  4. Spatial variation of vulnerability in geographic areas of North Lebanon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Peterdina; Nader, M.R.; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the spatial variation in vulnerability between different geographical areas of the northern coastal region of Lebanon within the context of armed conflict. The study is based on the ‘vulnerability of space’ approach and will be positioned in the academic debate on vulnerability

  5. Burn Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2000) [burn_preapproval_area_LOSCO_2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ burning, according...

  6. Military-geographic evaluation of the Julian Alps area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Bratun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Julian Alps have been of military significance since Roman times in a military geographic sense because of its valleys, mountain passes and lines of defence on mountain ridges. They became especially important in the 19th and 20th century. The largest mountain front in World War I was located there,and evidence of that front is still visible today. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the heart of the Julian Alps was clearly a line of demarcation along the Soča and Sava watersheds and was reinforced with fortification, obstacles and trenches. During the Cold War, there was an ideological line of demarcation along the western edge of the Julian Alps as well. Military strategy in that area included the use of military geographic approaches in both westerly and easterly directions. After the geopolitical changes of 1991, the Julian Alps no longer had same military geographic significance in terms of Slovenian national security. Today other military activities are more important: training under mountains conditions for NATO soldiers, non-commissioned and commissioned officers takes place in the Pokljuka region and on the Triglav mountain chain. Military facilities have been taken on significance in the terms of tourism as well.

  7. Tools for visualizing landscape pattern for large geographic areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmins, S.P. [Analysas Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunsaker, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Landscape pattern can be modelled on a grid with polygons constructed from cells that share edges. Although this model only allows connections in four directions, programming is convenient because both coordinates and attributes take discrete integer values. A typical raster land-cover data set is a multimegabyte matrix of byte values derived by classification of images or gridding of maps. Each matrix may have thousands of raster polygons (patches), many of them islands inside other larger patches. These data sets have complex topology that can overwhelm vector geographic information systems. The goal is to develop tools to quantify change in the landscape structure in terms of the shape and spatial distribution of patches. Three milestones toward this goal are (1) creating polygon topology on a grid, (2) visualizing patches, and (3) analyzing shape and pattern. An efficient algorithm has been developed to locate patches, measure area and perimeter, and establish patch topology. A powerful visualization system with an extensible programming language is used to write procedures to display images and perform analysis.

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Torrance Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Eddy Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Otero Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. 13 CFR 108.1940 - Procedures for designation of additional Low-Income Geographic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... additional Low-Income Geographic Areas 108.1940 Section 108.1940 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... for designation of additional Low-Income Geographic Areas (a) General. On its own initiative or upon...: (1) A substantial number of Low-Income Individuals reside in that census tract (or equivalent...

  12. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecast Discussions for Geographic Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the geographic areas where NWS regional weather forecast discussions for inland areas,...

  13. Burn Exclusion Areas from USCG source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [burn_exclusion_areas_USCG_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset delineating areas in the Gulf of Mexico that are excluded from Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of in-situ...

  14. Dispersant Pre-Approval Area, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) d[ispersant_preapproval_area_LOSCO_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a region dataset delineating the areas of offshore Louisiana having Regional Response Team VI (RRT 6) pre-approval for the use of dispersants to break up an...

  15. Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Geographic Area, Sex and Eligibility, December 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Recipients by Geographic Area, Sex and Eligibility (December 2010) is produced using the data found in Table 10 from the SSI...

  16. Nonattainment Areas in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, EPA (2006) [Nonattainment_LA_EPA_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — EPA Region 6 NonAttainment Areas in Louisiana, current as of May 2006. This shapefile contains parish boundaries and attributes that determine whether the parishes...

  17. A geographic information system-based method for estimating cancer rates in non-census defined geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Vincent L; Boylan, Emma E; Pugach, Oksana; Mclafferty, Sara L; Tossas-Milligan, Katherine Y; Watson, Karriem S; Winn, Robert A

    2017-08-20

    To address locally relevant cancer-related health issues, health departments frequently need data beyond that contained in standard census area-based statistics. We describe a geographic information system-based method for calculating age-standardized cancer incidence rates in non-census defined geographical areas using publically available data. Aggregated records of cancer cases diagnosed from 2009 through 2013 in each of Chicago's 77 census-defined community areas were obtained from the Illinois State Cancer Registry. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping of census blocks was used to redistribute populations and case counts from community areas to Chicago's 50 politically defined aldermanic wards, and ward-level age-standardized 5-year cumulative incidence rates were calculated. Potential errors in redistributing populations between geographies were limited to r = 0.99, mean difference = -4 persons). A map overlay of safety-net primary care clinic locations and ward-level incidence rates for advanced-staged cancers revealed potential pathways for prevention. Areal interpolation through dasymetric mapping can estimate cancer rates in non-census defined geographies. This can address gaps in local cancer-related health data, inform health resource advocacy, and guide community-centered cancer prevention and control.

  18. Geographical analysis of diapause inducibility in European Drosophila melanogaster populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Mirko; Zonato, Valeria; Tyler, Elizabeth R; Fedele, Giorgio; Kyriacou, Charalambos P; Tauber, Eran

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal overwintering in insects represents an adaptation to stressful environments and in European Drosophila melanogaster females, low temperatures and short photoperiods can induce an ovarian diapause. Diapause may represent a recent (melanogaster from tropical sub-Saharan Africa, because African D. melanogaster and the sibling species D. simulans, have been reported to fail to undergo diapause. Over the past few centuries, D. melanogaster have also invaded North America and Australia, and eastern populations on both continents show a predictable latitudinal cline in diapause induction. In Europe however, a new diapause-enhancing timeless allele, ls-tim, is observed at high levels in southern Italy (∼80%), where it appears to have arisen and has spread throughout the continent with a frequency of ∼20% in Scandinavia. Given the phenotype of ls-tim and its geographical distribution, we might predict that it would work against any latitudinal cline in diapause induction within Europe. Indeed we reveal that any latitudinal cline for diapause in Europe is very weak, as predicted by ls-tim frequencies. In contrast, we determine ls-tim frequencies in North America and observe that they would be expected to strengthen the latitudinal pattern of diapause. Our results reveal how a newly arisen mutation, can, via the stochastic nature of where it initially arose, blur an otherwise adaptive geographical pattern. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 27286 - McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Geographic Area, Samuel R. McKelvie National Forest, Bessey Ranger District in Nebraska. The original notice... allotments within the McKelvie Geographic Area on the McKelvie National Forest and analyze continuation of... Forest Service McKelvie Geographic Area Range Allotment Management Planning on the Samuel R. McKelvie...

  20. Area-to-point parameter estimation with geographically weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Daisuke; Tsutsumi, Morito

    2015-07-01

    The modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP) is a problem by which aggregated units of data influence the results of spatial data analysis. Standard GWR, which ignores aggregation mechanisms, cannot be considered to serve as an efficient countermeasure of MAUP. Accordingly, this study proposes a type of GWR with aggregation mechanisms, termed area-to-point (ATP) GWR herein. ATP GWR, which is closely related to geostatistical approaches, estimates the disaggregate-level local trend parameters by using aggregated variables. We examine the effectiveness of ATP GWR for mitigating MAUP through a simulation study and an empirical study. The simulation study indicates that the method proposed herein is robust to the MAUP when the spatial scales of aggregation are not too global compared with the scale of the underlying spatial variations. The empirical studies demonstrate that the method provides intuitively consistent estimates.

  1. Spatio-temporal Evolution on Geographic Boundaries of HFRS Endemic Areas in Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan Xun; WANG Zhi Qiang; GUO Jing; TANG Fang; SUN Xiu Bin; XUE Fu Zhong; KANG Dian Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. Methods The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. Results The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. Conclusion The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled.

  2. BAIKAL LAKE-TYPES OF LANDSCAPES IN THE GEOGRAPHICAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ POPA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Baikal lake is located in Central Asia, on Russian Federation territory, in the southern part of East Siberia, on the border between Irkutsk Region and the Buryat Autonomous Republic. The lake surface lies between 51° 29’ lat. N, extreme south point, and 55° 46’ lat. N, in north, and between 103° 43’ long. E, extreme west point and 109° 56’ long E, in the east.His elongated shape is orientated on NE-SV direction, having a 636 km maximum length; the length of the shoreline is around 2 000 km. The maximum width is 79.5 km, in the sector where Barguzin river flows into the Baikal Lake, between the villages of Onguren, in west, and Oust Barguzin, in east, and the minimum width is only 25 km, in the area of Selenga river delta.Today, the total surface of the Baikal is 31 722 km2, with 500 km2 wider, after the rising of the Irkutsk dam, on Angara river.

  3. Trajectory Networks and Their Topological Changes Induced by Geographical Infiltration

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2008-01-01

    In this article we investigate the topological changes undergone by trajectory networks as a consequence of progressive geographical infiltration. Trajectory networks, a type of knitted network, are obtained by establishing paths between geographically distributed nodes while following an associated vector field. For instance, the nodes could correspond to neurons along the cortical surface and the vector field could correspond to the gradient of neurotrophic factors, or the nodes could represent towns while the vector fields would be given by economical and/or geographical gradients. Therefore trajectory networks are natural models of a large number of geographical structures. The geographical infiltrations correspond to the addition of new local connections between nearby existing nodes. As such, these infiltrations could be related to several real-world processes such as contaminations, diseases, attacks, parasites, etc. The way in which progressive geographical infiltrations affect trajectory networks is ...

  4. The economic-geographical and environmental polarization as a factor of new functional relations between areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milinčić Miroljub A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical clustering, in the way of economic-geographical polarization represents regular and positive process of development of human society. These processes are characterized by stressed intensity, together with relatively short time dimension at the territory of Serbia. Extreme recent ecological polarization is the main consequence of this type of recomposition of economic-geographical elements in the territory of Serbia. At the one hand, anthropogenic or socio-economic areas (locations, axis and crossroads of development are formed, together with the numerous ecological problems as developing barriers, while at the other hand are territories of economic-geographical stagnation also with satisfying quality of basic natural resources and environmental condition. These differences generates and permanently increases their spatial, resource and ecological interdependence.

  5. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  6. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of Naharkhoran area in Gorgan using remote sensing and geographic information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladi, Jafar; Bozorgnia, Delavar

    2010-10-01

    Ecotourism may be defined as voluntary travels to intact natural areas in order to enjoy the natural attractions as well as to get familiar with the culture of local communities. The main factor contributing to inappropriate land uses and natural resource destruction is overaggregation of ecotourists in some specific natural areas such as forests and rangelands; while other parts remain unvisited due to the lack of a proper propagation about those areas. Evaluating the ecotourism potentials of each area would lead to a wider participation of local people in natural resource conservation activities. In order to properly introduce the ecotourism potential areas, at first, we carried out land preparation practices using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) techniques; then, the maps of height, slope and orientation were produced using the digital elevation model (DEM) of the study area. Afterwards, we overlaid these maps and the ecotourism potential areas were identified on the map. These specified areas were classified into two land uses of mass and alternative ecotourism, with three subclasses (including class1, class2 and an inappropriate class) considered for each land use. To classify the image, the training areas determined on the ground using a GPS device (Ground Positioning System) were transferred on the RS image. Subsequently, the ecotourism potential areas were determined using a hybrid method. At the final phase, these areas were compared with the areas determined on the ecotourism potential map; as a result of this comparison, the overlaid ecotourism potential areas were distinguished on the Geographic information System.

  7. Geographical Indication Protection and Brand Cultivation of Hefeng Tea in Wuling Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; TIAN; Zhiguo; SUN; Zhiyang; LIU; Guangping; DING

    2014-01-01

    Located in Wuling mountain area which is the main battlefield for poverty alleviation in the new stage,Hefeng County of Hubei Province has been recognized as a " National Key Tea-producing County in 2013"( ranking 17th) and one of the " Top Ten Ecological Rea Counties of China in 2012". As the first county of tea export in Hubei Province,it has been awarded the " Town of the Chinese Tea" certificate by the State Forestry Bureau. This paper introduced the characteristics of geographical indication and the current situation of brand of Hefeng Tea. Later,it analyzed its geographical indication protection and brand cultivation strategies and puts forward 9 suggestions.

  8. Use of geographical information systems for delimiting health service areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechen Xiong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of choosing a practical and valid method to delimit health service areas of regional health service centres to build a regional basic health service network, we first drew lessons from traditional geographic methods of delimiting trade areas and then applied two methods to delimit health service areas, i.e. the proximal method and the gravity method. We verified the effectiveness of these methods by an index of similarity with the aid of real in-patient data. Calculation of the similarity indices shows that health service areas delimited by the proximal method has an 87.3% similarity to the real health service area, while the gravity method gives 88.6%. Our conclusion is that both methods are suitable for delimiting health service areas at regional health service centres, but find that the proximal method is more practicable in operational terms for delimiting health service areas in region health planning.

  9. 76 FR 36515 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River and Oglala Geographic Areas, Pine Ridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Forest Service Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River and Oglala Geographic Areas... Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West Geographic Area of the Fall River Ranger District and... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the management of rangeland vegetation resources...

  10. [[Characterization of the potential geographical distribution area of parrot species in Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasencia Vázquez, Alexis Herminio; Escalona Segura, Griselda

    2014-12-01

    Psittacidae family is one of the most endangered groups in Mexico, since many of their habitats are disappearing. In this research, we characterized the land cover of the potential geographical distribu- tion area of eight extant parrot species within the Yucatan Peninsula. We used the Maximum Entropy algorithm (MaxEnt) and species historical records. To externally validate the models, we used presence and absence records from field observations (2010-2012). To characterize the distribution area, we used the vegetation and land use maps of INEGI Series IV (2007-2010). The models showed a good performance, according to the values of the area under the curve (AUC), which ranged between 0.88-0.95 with the training data and between 0.82-0.91 with test data. We located most of the species in sites where the models predicted their presence. In the Peninsula, over 76% of the parrots' potential geographical distribution area is forested, except for Amazona oratrix. The subhumid tropical forest is the best represented, and the livestock for land use. The most affected species within the Peninsula are: Amazona farinosa and A. oratrix. The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve is the most important area for parrots' protection in the Peninsula. Knowing the characteristics of distribution areas is an essential part in the establishment of parrots' conservation strategies.

  11. [Prevalence and geographic distribution of cancer in the health area of Guadalajara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Gordo, José M; Jiménez del Val, Dolores; Palacios Rojo, Juan José; Royo Sánchez, Carlos; Urbina Torija, Juan Román; Santiago González, Catalina; Bárcena Marugán, Aurora

    2004-01-01

    The total cancer prevalence falls within the range of 2%-3% of the population. Some data suggests differences in terms of whether the environment is urban or rural, other geographical factors and in the area surrounding nuclear power plants. This study is aimed at ascertaining said prevalences and the distribution thereof in the different geographical areas of the Guadalajara Healthcare District. Point prevalence study in 1999 based on a systematic review of cases at primary and secondary sources in the Guadalajara Health District, including invasive malignant tumors among individuals over age 14. The overall and specific distribution in terms of the place of residence, region and proximity to nuclear power plants is analyzed, raw and adjusted prevalences/100,000 inhabitants and CI 95% prevalence index. A total of 2,717 cases were detected (raw prevalence: 2034.6/10(5)), there being a 50%-50% ratio between the urban and rural environments. The adjusted prevalence (worldwide population) is 1295.2/10(5), being greater in the urban environment (1479.9/10(5)) than in the rural environment (1136.3/10(5)). With regard to the geographic regions, solely thyroid cancer is more prevalent among women in the most depressed, mountainous areas, although involving a low-level casuistic. The cancer prevalences found are similar to those published and, following an age-based adjustment, are greater in the urban than in the rural environment. The differences among regions are related to the demographic and geographical characteristics and to the environment being urban.

  12. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J; McGill, Brian J; Boyle, Brad; Jørgensen, Peter M; Ott, Jeffrey E; Peet, Robert K; Símová, Irena; Sloat, Lindsey L; Thiers, Barbara; Violle, Cyrille; Wiser, Susan K; Dolins, Steven; Donoghue, John C; Kraft, Nathan J B; Regetz, Jim; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-12-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~ 85 000 plant species across the New World. We assess prominent hypothesised range-size controls, finding that plant range sizes are codetermined by habitat area and long- and short-term climate stability. Strong short- and long-term climate instability in large parts of North America, including past glaciations, are associated with broad-ranged species. In contrast, small habitat areas and a stable climate characterise areas with high concentrations of small-ranged species in the Andes, Central America and the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region. The joint roles of area and climate stability strengthen concerns over the potential effects of future climate change and habitat loss on biodiversity.

  13. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85,000 ...... concerns over the potential effects of future climate change and habitat loss on biodiversity.......,000 plant species across the New World. We assess prominent hypothesised range-size controls, finding that plant range sizes are codetermined by habitat area and long- and short-term climate stability. Strong short- and long-term climate instability in large parts of North America, including past...... glaciations, are associated with broad-ranged species. In contrast, small habitat areas and a stable climate characterise areas with high concentrations of small-ranged species in the Andes, Central America and the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest region. The joint roles of area and climate stability strengthen...

  14. Geographic variations in heart failure hospitalizations among medicare beneficiaries in the Tennessee catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Modele O; Holt, James B; Croft, Janet B; Nwaise, Isaac A; Okafor, Henry E; Sawyer, Douglas B; Giles, Wayne H; Mensah, George A

    2012-01-01

    Although differences in heart failure (HF) hospitalization rates by race and sex are well documented, little is known about geographic variations in hospitalizations for HF, the most common discharge diagnosis for Medicare beneficiaries. Using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, the authors examined hospitalization rates for HF as the first-listed discharge diagnosis among Medicare beneficiaries in a 10-state Tennessee catchment area, based on the resident states reported by Tennessee hospitals from 2000 to 2004. The age-adjusted HF hospitalization rate (per 1000) among Medicare beneficiaries was 23.3 [95% confidence interval (CI), 23.3-23.4] for the Tennessee catchment area, 21.4 (95% CI, 21.4-21.5) outside the catchment area and 21.9 (95% CI, 21.9-22.0) for the overall United States. The age-adjusted HF hospitalization rates were also significantly higher in the catchment area than outside the catchment area and overall, among men, women and whites, whereas rates among the blacks were higher outside the catchment area. Beneficiaries in the catchment area also had higher age-specific HF hospitalization rates. Among states in the catchment area, the highest mean county-level rates were in Mississippi (30.6 ± 7.6) and Kentucky (29.2 ± 11.5), and the lowest were in North Carolina (21.7 ± 5.7) and Virginia (21.8 ± 6.6). Knowledge of these geographic differences in HF hospitalization rates can be useful in identifying needs of healthcare providers, allocating resources, developing comprehensive HF outreach programs and formulating policies to reduce these differences.

  15. Prescription opioid poisoning across urban and rural areas: identifying vulnerable groups and geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Gaidus, Andrew; Keyes, Katherine M; Ponicki, William; Martins, Silvia; Galea, Sandro; Gruenewald, Paul

    2017-01-01

    To determine (1) whether prescription opioid poisoning (PO) hospital discharges spread across space over time, (2) the locations of 'hot-spots' of PO-related hospital discharges, (3) how features of the local environment contribute to the growth in PO-related hospital discharges and (4) where each environmental feature makes the strongest contribution. Hierarchical Bayesian Poisson space-time analysis to relate annual discharges from community hospitals to postal code characteristics over 10 years. California, USA. Residents of 18 517 postal codes in California, 2001-11. Annual postal code-level counts of hospital discharges due to PO poisoning were related to postal code pharmacy density, measures of medical need for POs (i.e. rates of cancer and arthritis-related hospital discharges), economic stressors (i.e. median household income, percentage of families in poverty and the unemployment rate) and concentration of manual labor industries. PO-related hospital discharges spread from rural and suburban/exurban 'hot-spots' to urban areas. They increased more in postal codes with greater pharmacy density [rate ratio (RR) = 1.03; 95% credible interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.05], more arthritis-related hospital discharges (RR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.11), lower income (RR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.83, 0.87) and more manual labor industries (RR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.19 for construction; RR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.20 for manufacturing industries). Changes in pharmacy density primarily affected PO-related discharges in urban areas, while changes in income and manual labor industries especially affected PO-related discharges in suburban/exurban and rural areas. Hospital discharge rates for prescription opioid (PO) poisoning spread from rural and suburban/exurban hot-spots to urban areas, suggesting spatial contagion. The distribution of age-related and work-place-related sources of medical need for POs in rural areas and, to a lesser extent, the availability of

  16. A method for managing re-identification risk from small geographic areas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisa Angelica

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A common disclosure control practice for health datasets is to identify small geographic areas and either suppress records from these small areas or aggregate them into larger ones. A recent study provided a method for deciding when an area is too small based on the uniqueness criterion. The uniqueness criterion stipulates that an the area is no longer too small when the proportion of unique individuals on the relevant variables (the quasi-identifiers approaches zero. However, using a uniqueness value of zero is quite a stringent threshold, and is only suitable when the risks from data disclosure are quite high. Other uniqueness thresholds that have been proposed for health data are 5% and 20%. Methods We estimated uniqueness for urban Forward Sortation Areas (FSAs by using the 2001 long form Canadian census data representing 20% of the population. We then constructed two logistic regression models to predict when the uniqueness is greater than the 5% and 20% thresholds, and validated their predictive accuracy using 10-fold cross-validation. Predictor variables included the population size of the FSA and the maximum number of possible values on the quasi-identifiers (the number of equivalence classes. Results All model parameters were significant and the models had very high prediction accuracy, with specificity above 0.9, and sensitivity at 0.87 and 0.74 for the 5% and 20% threshold models respectively. The application of the models was illustrated with an analysis of the Ontario newborn registry and an emergency department dataset. At the higher thresholds considerably fewer records compared to the 0% threshold would be considered to be in small areas and therefore undergo disclosure control actions. We have also included concrete guidance for data custodians in deciding which one of the three uniqueness thresholds to use (0%, 5%, 20%, depending on the mitigating controls that the data recipients have in place, the

  17. The impact of area deprivation on differences in health: does the choice of the geographical classification matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Many studies show the average health status in deprived areas to be poorer and the use of health care to be higher, but there is hardly any information on the impact of the geographical classification on the size of these differences. This study examines the impact of the geographical clas

  18. The impact of area deprivation on differences in health: Does the choice of the geographical classification matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H.de

    2000-01-01

    Objective - Many studies show the average health status in deprived areas to be poorer and the use of health care to be higher, but there is hardly any information on the impact of the geographical classification on the size of these differences. This study examines the impact of the geographical cl

  19. Going beyond horizontal equity: an analysis of health expenditure allocation across geographic areas in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Laura; Lagarde, Mylène; Hanson, Kara

    2015-04-01

    In contexts where health services are mostly publicly provided and access is still limited, health financing systems require some mechanism for distributing financial resources across geographic areas according to population need. Equity in public health expenditure has been evaluated either by comparing allocations across spending units to equitable shares established using resource allocation formulae, or by using benefit incidence analysis to look at the distribution of expenditure across individual service users. In the latter case, the distribution across individuals has typically not been linked to the mechanisms that determine the allocation across geographic areas, and to the utilization of specific services by individuals. In this paper, we apply benefit incidence analysis in an innovative way to assess horizontal and vertical equity in the geographic allocation of recurrent expenditure for outpatient health care across districts in Mozambique. We compare the actual distribution of expenditure with horizontal and vertical equity benchmarks, set according to measures of economic status and need for health care. We quantify the observed inequities and the relative contributions of service use and resource allocation. We analyse government and donor expenditure separately and combined, for the years 2008-2011 to compare changes over time and funding source. We use data from a number of national routine sources. Results show improvements in both horizontal and vertical equity, along with the gradual alignment of government and donor resources over time, which resulted in almost horizontally and vertically equitable resource allocation in 2011. However, inequities in the distribution of expenditure across beneficiaries persisted and were driven by inequities in service use. The discrepancy between economic and need indicators highlighted initial differences in government and donor expenditure targets, raising questions about the purpose of public health

  20. Geographic structure of adelie penguin populations: overlap in colony-specific foraging areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, D.G.; Ribic, C.A.; Ballard, G.; Heath, S.; Gaffney, I.; Karl, B.J.; Barton, K.J.; Wilson, P.R.; Webb, S.

    2004-01-01

    In an investigation of the factors leading to geographic structuring among Ade??lie Penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) populations, we studied the size and overlap of colony-specific foraging areas within an isolated cluster of colonies. The study area, in the southwestern Ross Sea, included one large and three smaller colonies, ranging in size from 3900 to 135000 nesting pairs, clustered on Ross and Beaufort Islands. We used triangulation of radio signals from transmitters attached to breeding penguins to determine foraging locations and to define colony-specific foraging areas during the chick-provisioning period of four breeding seasons, 1997-2000. Colony populations (nesting pairs) were determined using aerial photography just after egg-laying; reproductive success was estimated by comparing ground counts of chicks fledged to the number of breeding pairs apparent in aerial photos. Foraging-trip duration, meal size, and adult body mass were estimated using RFID (radio frequency identification) tags and an automated reader and weighbridge. Chick growth was assessed by weekly weighing. We related the following variables to colony size: foraging distance, area, and duration; reproductive success; chick meal size and growth rate; and seasonal variation in adult body mass. We found that penguins foraged closest to their respective colonies, particularly at the smaller colonies. However, as the season progressed, foraging distance, duration, and area increased noticeably, especially at the largest colony. The foraging areas of the smaller colonies overlapped broadly, but very little foraging area overlap existed between the large colony and the smaller colonies, even though the foraging area of the large colony was well within range of the smaller colonies. Instead, the foraging areas of the smaller colonies shifted as that of the large colony grew. Colony size was not related to chick meal size, chick growth, or parental body mass. This differed from the year previous to

  1. Geographic patterns of vertebrate diversity and identification of relevant areas for conservation in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunção–Albuquerque, M. J. T.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘EU Council conclusions on biodiversity post–2010′ re–enforced Europe’s commitment to halt biodiversity loss by 2020. Identifying areas of high–value for biodiversity conservation is an important issue to meet this target. We investigated the geographic pattern of terrestrial vertebrate diversity status in Europe by assessing the species richness, rarity, vulnerability (according to IUCN criteria, and a combined index of the three former for the amphibians, reptiles, bird and mammals of this region. We also correlated the value of all indices with climate and human influence variables. Overall, clear geographic gradients of species diversity were found. The combined biodiversity index indicated that high–value biodiversity areas were mostly located in the Mediterranean basin and the highest vulnerability was found in the Iberian peninsula for most taxa. Across all indexes, the proportion of variance explained by climate and human influence factors was moderate to low. The results obtained in this study have the potential to provide valuable support for nature conservation policies in Europe and, consequently, might contribute to mitigate biodiversity decline in this region.

  2. Geographical Distribution and Cluster Detection of Childhood Leukemia in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Garibaldi-Covarrubias, Roberto; Romo-Rubio, Hugo; Soto-Sumuano, Leonardo; Ruiz-Chávez, Carlos Fernando; Suárez-Arredondo, Mijail; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Acute leukemia is the most common cancer in childhood. Analyzing the spatial distribution of acute leukemia may generate the identification of risk factors. To study the incidence rate of acute leukemia, its geographic distribution, and cluster detection in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico. We included children under 15 years of age diagnosed with acute leukemia during the period 2010-2014 in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. Each case was geo-referenced to street level to latitude and longitude coordinates using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS). Spatial clusters were found in the location of the acute leukemia cases applying the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN) algorithm with R statistical software. A total of 269 cases of leukemia were registered, 227 (84%) were acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 42 (16%) acute myeloblastic leukemia. The mean age was 6 ± 4 years. The mean incidence of acute leukemia was 6.44 cases/100,000 inhabitants: El Salto 10.12/100,000, Guadalajara 7.55/100,000, and Tlaquepaque 6.74/100,000. The DBSCAN found three clusters, all located within the municipality of Guadalajara. The incidence of acute leukemia in our population is higher than that in Canada and the USA. We found three spatial clusters of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the municipality of Guadalajara, suggesting the presence of local predisposing factors.

  3. Phleboviruses associated with sand flies in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachraoui, K; Fares, W; Bichaud, L; Barhoumi, W; Beier, J C; Derbali, M; Cherni, S; Lamballerie, X de; Chelbi, I; Charrel, R N; Zhioua, E

    2016-06-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in 2014 at two sites located in Central Tunisia, one irrigated and another non-irrigated situated in arid bio-geographical areas. Sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius namely Phlebotomus perfiliewi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis are the most abundant sand fly species in the irrigated site. However, in the non-irrigated site, Phlebotomus papatasi of the Phlebotomus genus is the most abundant species. A total of 3191 sand flies were collected and pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool based on sex, trapping location and collection date, were tested for the presence of phleboviruses by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the polymerase gene and sequenced. Of a total of 117 pools, 4 were positive, yielding a minimum infection rate of sand flies with phleboviruses of 0.12%. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial nucleotide and amino acid sequence in the polymerase gene showed that these phleboviruses belonged to four different clusters corresponding to Toscana virus (TOSV), Saddaguia virus (SADV), Sandfly Fever Sicilian Virus (SFSV) and Utique virus (UTIV). This study provides more evidence that the abundance of P. perfiliewi is associated with the development of irrigation in arid bio-geographical areas of Central Tunisia which may have led to the emergence of phleboviruses. We report the first detection of TOSV from sand flies collected from Central Tunisia.

  4. Accessible Transportation, Geographic Elevation, and Masticatory Ability Among Elderly Residents of a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, rural residents who do not drive can find it difficult to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to masticatory ability. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between access to transportation and masticatory ability varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in Mizuho and Iwami counties, Japan. Objective masticatory ability was evaluated using a test gummy jelly and elevation was estimated by the geographic information systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 672 subjects (Mizuho = 401 and Iwami = 271 were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a driver was not significantly associated with masticatory ability among elderly people living at low elevation (≤313 m in Mizuho county. However, after the same adjustment, being a driver remained significantly associated with increased masticatory ability among elderly at high elevations. Similar findings were observed in Iwami county. Accessible transportation was significantly associated with increased mastication ability in elderly people living at high elevations, but not in those living at low elevations.

  5. [Geographic information system based spatial analysis on chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area, Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Wu, Liping; Lin, Kun

    2007-05-01

    To explore the spatial features of arsenic contamination and its association with chronic arsenic poisoning in a tin mining area of Thailand. Geographic information system(GIS) was built up with integration of arsenic concentration in varied environmental media and occurring location data of chronic arsenism patients. Then, the spatial interpolation (IDW), buffer zoning, query and rank correlation analysis were applied. Groundwater and surface farming land were classified according to local environmental arsenic standards; the relative risk areas were identified. The incidence of chronic arsenic poisoning was significantly correlated with arsenic level in groundwater and soil type (P water soluble arsenic in soil (P > 0.05). The arsenic content in drinking water could be critical to chronic arsenic poisoning. The soil type could be an important factor affecting such poisoning. Trend analysis in GIS could provide a valuable tool for understanding the pollution situation and disease surveillance.

  6. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Ivanildes Solange da Costa; Souza, Maria Aparecida; Pena, Janethe Deolinda de Oliveira; Machado, Gleyce Alves; Moura, Lísia Gomes Martins de; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC) patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF), Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG) and São Paulo (SP) regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total). Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  7. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán; Carolina Rojas Quezada

    2016-01-01

    Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA), the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted reg...

  8. Application of Geographically Weighted Regression for Vulnerable Area Mapping of Leptospirosis in Bantul District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Widayani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR is regression model that developed for data modeling with continuous respond variable and considering the spatial or location aspect. Leptospirosis case happened in some regions in Indonesia, including in Bantul District, Special Region of Yogyakarta. The purpose of this study are to determine local and global variable in making vulnerable area model of Leptospirosis disease, determine the best type of weighting function and make vulnerable area map of Leptospirosis. Alos satelite imagery as primary data to get settlement and paddy fields area. The others variable are the percentage of population’s age, flood risk, and the number of health facility that obtained from secondary data. Determinant variables that affect locally are flood risk, health facility, percentage of age 25-50 years old and the percentage of settlement area. Meanwhile, independent variable that affects globally is the percentage of paddy fields area. Vulnerability map of Leptospirosis disease resulted from the best GWR model which used weighting function Fixed Bisquare. There are 3 vulnerable area of Leptospirosis disease, high vulnerability area located in the middle of Bantul District, meanwhile the medium and low vulnerability area showed clustered pattern in the side of Bantul District.   Abstrak Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR adalah model regresi yang dikembangkan untuk memodelkan data dengan variabel respon yang bersifat kontinu dan mempertimbangkan aspek spasial atau lokasi.  Kejadian Leptospirosis terjadi di beberapa wilayah di Indonesia termasuk di wilayah Kabupaten Bantul Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan variabel lokal dan global dalam membuat model  kerentanan Leptospirosis dan menentukan jenis fungsi pembobot yang terbaik serta membuat peta kerentanan wilayah Leptospirosis menggunakan aplikasi GWR. Citra Satelit Alos digunakan untuk mendapatkan data penggunaan

  9. Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Camila; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A.; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico. PMID:22049037

  10. Geographic profiling to assess the risk of rare plant poaching in natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.A.; Van Manen, F.T.; Thatcher, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of an expert-assisted spatial model to examine geographic factors influencing the poaching risk of a rare plant (American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L.) in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, USA. Following principles of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), we identified a hierarchy of 11 geographic factors deemed important to poaching risk and requested law enforcement personnel of the National Park Service to rank those factors in a series of pair-wise comparisons. We used those comparisons to determine statistical weightings of each factor and combined them into a spatial model predicting poaching risk. We tested the model using 69 locations of previous poaching incidents recorded by law enforcement personnel. These locations occurred more frequently in areas predicted by the model to have a higher risk of poaching than random locations. The results of our study can be used to evaluate resource protection strategies and to target law enforcement activities. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2011.

  11. a Geographic Analysis of Optimal Signage Location Selection in Scenic Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Ling; Long, Ying; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Xiao Ling

    2016-06-01

    As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  12. A GEOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF OPTIMAL SIGNAGE LOCATION SELECTION IN SCENIC AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the scenic area infrastructure services, signage guiding system plays an indispensable role in guiding the way and improving the quality of tourism experience. This paper proposes an optimal method in signage location selection and direction content design in a scenic area based on geographic analysis. The object of the research is to provide a best solution to arrange limited guiding boards in a tourism area to show ways arriving at any scenic spot from any entrance. There are four steps to achieve the research object. First, the spatial distribution of the junction of the scenic road, the passageway and the scenic spots is analyzed. Then, the count of scenic roads intersection on the shortest path between all entrances and all scenic spots is calculated. Next, combing with the grade of the scenic road and scenic spots, the importance of each road intersection is estimated quantitatively. Finally, according to the importance of all road intersections, the most suitable layout locations of signage guiding boards can be provided. In addition, the method is applied in the Ming Tomb scenic area in China and the result is compared with the existing signage guiding space layout.

  13. Unexpected genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae caprine isolates from an endemic geographically restricted area of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De la Fe Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic diversity of Mycoplasma agalactiae (MA isolates collected in Spain from goats in an area with contagious agalactia (CA was assessed using a set of validated and new molecular typing methods. Validated methods included pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR typing, and Southern blot hybridization using a set of MA DNA probes, including those for typing the vpma genes repertoire. New approaches were based on PCR and targeted genomic regions that diverged between strains as defined by in silico genomic comparisons of sequenced MA genomes. Results Overall, the data showed that all typing tools yielded consistent results, with the VNTR analyses being the most rapid method to differentiate the MA isolates with a discriminatory ability comparable to that of PFGE and of a set of new PCR assays. All molecular typing approaches indicated that the Spanish isolates from the endemic area in Murcia were very diverse, with different clonal isolates probably restricted to separate, but geographically close, local areas. Conclusions The important genetic diversity of MA observed in infected goats from Spain contrasts with the overall homogeneity of the genomic background encountered in MA from sheep with CA in Southern France or Italy, suggesting that assessment of the disease status in endemic areas may require different approaches in sheep and in goats. A number of congruent sub-typing tools are now available for the differentiation of caprine isolates with comparable discriminatory powers.

  14. Robust Principal Component Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression: Urbanization in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted ...

  15. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Polidoro

    Full Text Available Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16% are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  16. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Carpenter, Kent E; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C; Ellison, Aaron M; Ellison, Joanna C; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J; Fernando, Edwino S; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E; Livingstone, Suzanne R; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E; Ngoc Nam, Vien; Ong, Jin Eong; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Salmo, Severino G; Sanciangco, Jonnell C; Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Wang, Yamin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2010-04-08

    Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  17. Genetic polymorphism in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildes Solange da Costa Barcelos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate genetic polymorphisms in Taenia solium metacestodes from different Brazilian geographical areas and to relate them to antibody recognition in serum samples of neurocysticercosis (NC patients. Metacestodes were obtained from the Distrito Federal (DF, Bahia, Minas Gerais (MG and São Paulo (SP regions of Brazil. Samples of human sera from 49 individuals with NC, 68 individuals with other helminthiasis and 40 healthy volunteers were analysed (157 individuals in total. Antigens were prepared and used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting assays to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies. Genetic distances between metacestode populations were analysed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis. Our results show that there was a higher frequency of reactivity in the DF region in the sera from NC patients (p < 0.05, while discrimination between active and inactive NC was seen only in extracts from the MG and SP regions (p < 0.05. Using RAPD, the sample from the DF region presented a greater increase compared to the other regions. A relationship between genetic polymorphisms among T. solium metacestodes from different areas in Brazil and the differences in antibody detection in patients with NC were established.

  18. Geographic predictors of primary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases in an endemic area of Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, L; Choi, H W; Berrang-Ford, L; Henostroza, G; Krapp, F; Zamudio, C; Heymann, S J; Kaufman, J S; Ciampi, A; Seas, C; Gotuzzo, E; Brewer, T F

    2014-11-01

    Peru reports among the highest multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) rates in the Americas, with a growing proportion in previously untreated tuberculosis (TB) cases. The identification of clusters of primary MDR-TB compared with drug-susceptible TB (DS-TB) could help prioritize interventions. To examine the clustering of primary MDR-TB case residences and their proximity to high-risk locations in San Juan de Lurigancho District, Lima, Peru. Enrolled primary MDR-TB and primary DS-TB cases were interviewed and their primary residence was recorded using handheld Global Positioning System devices. Kuldorff's spatial scan statistic was used for cluster detection (SaTScan(TM), v. 9.1.1). Identified clusters were visualized in Quantum Geographic Information Systems software (v1.8.0). The following cluster centers were tested: a health centre with the highest TB and MDR-TB rates (Clinic X), a hospital and two prisons. Using regression analyses, we examined predictors of primary MDR-TB cases. A statistically significant cluster of primary MDR-TB cases was identified within a 2.29 km radius around Clinic X. Proximity to Clinic X remained a significant predictor of primary MDR-TB in adjusted regression analyses. We identified a hotspot of primary MDR-TB cases around Clinic X in a TB-endemic area. Causes of this clustering require investigation; targeted interventions for this high-risk area should be considered.

  19. The biodiversity management of a marine protected area with a geographic information system in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguo; Huang, Weigen; li, Dongling

    2008-10-01

    This paper focus a very representatively marine protected area (MPA), named Nanji Islands National Natural Reserve. The MPA is built for protecting shellfish, algae and their inhabit environment. The MPA is located at East China Sea with 7.6 square kilometers land area, composed of about 50 islands greater than 500 square meters. The waters support particularly high levels of diversity among shellfish, seaweeds, or macro benthic algae and micro-algae. The purpose of the paper is to develop a GIS to manage the biodiversity and to assess the threat. Base geographic data are collected. More than four times survey data are collected since 1992, including shellfish and macro benthic algae. A spatial database is created to store spatial data including base map, survey site and threat factor distribution. Other biodiversity attribute information is stored in database. Aquiculture, tourism, and human over collection are synthesized as threat factors. The condition of biodiversity and threats to biodiversity at Aquaculture, tourism, environment pollution are analyzed and assessed.

  20. Infection of sand flies collected from different bio-geographical areas of Tunisia with phleboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, W; Charrel, R N; Dachraoui, K; Bichaud, L; Barhoumi, W; Derbali, M; Cherni, S; Chelbi, I; de Lamballerie, X; Zhioua, E

    2015-01-01

    An entomological investigation performed in 2013 covering different bio-geographical areas varying from humid in the north to the arid in the center showed that sand flies of the subgenus Larroussius including Phlebotomus perniciosus, Phlebotomus perfiliewi, and Phlebotomus longicuspis are abundant and widely distributed in Tunisia. A total of 3992 collected and pooled with up to 30 specimens per pool based on sex, trapping location and collection data were tested for the presence of phleboviruses by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Of a total of 135 pools, 23 were positive, yielding and minimum infection rate of 0.6%. Phylogenetic analysis performed using partial amino acid sequence in the polymerase gene showed that all these phleboviruses were grouped in one cluster clearly distinct from but closely related to Massilia virus and Granada virus. This putative novel virus, tentatively called Saddaguia virus (SADV), is widely distributed in Tunisia. Together with Toscana, Punique, and Utique viruses, SADV is the fourth recognized phlebovirus to be transmitted by sand flies in Tunisia. The medical and public health interest of SADV remains to be investigated.

  1. Geographical Area and Life History Traits Influence Diet in an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Tartu

    Full Text Available Global changes are thought to affect most Arctic species, yet some populations are more at risk. Today, the Barents Sea ecoregion is suffering the strongest sea ice retreat ever measured; and these changes are suspected to modify food access and thus diet of several species. Biochemical diet tracers enable investigation of diet in species such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus. We examined individual diet variation of female polar bears in Svalbard, Norway, and related it to year, season (spring and autumn, sampling area and breeding status (solitary, with cubs of the year or yearlings. Sampling areas were split according to their ice cover: North-West (less sea ice cover, South-East (larger amplitude in sea ice extent and North-East/South-West (NESW as bears from that zone are more mobile among all regions of Svalbard. We measured fatty acid (FA composition in adipose tissue and carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N stable isotopes in plasma and red blood cells. Females feeding in the North-West area had lower δ15N values than those from the NESW. In South-East females, δ13C values were lower in autumn compared to spring and females seemed less selective in their diet as depicted by large variances in stable isotope values. Considering the differences in FA composition and stable isotope values, we suggest that females from the North-West and South-East could ingest a higher proportion of avian prey. With regard to breeding status, solitary females had higher δ15N values and smaller variance in their stable isotopic values than females with cubs, suggesting that solitary females were more selective and prey on higher trophic level species (i.e. seals. Overall, our results indicate that prey availability for Svalbard polar bears varies according to geographical area and prey selectivity differs according to breeding status. Our findings suggest that complex changes in sea ice and prey availability will interact to affect Svalbard polar bear feeding

  2. 75 FR 33239 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas, Fall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Forest Service Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas..., Forest Service, will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the management of... Forest Revised Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan). A Notice of Intent (NOI) for this project...

  3. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Socorro County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  4. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mora County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe County, Area New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Tucumcari Area, Northern Quay County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  7. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cabezon Area, New Mexico (Sandoval County, New Mexico)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  8. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Mescalero-Apache Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  9. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for San Miguel County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  10. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Dona Ana County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for De Baca County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Ute Mountain Area, Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for McKinley County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  14. The geographic understanding of snail borne disease in endemic areas using satellite surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Malone

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of research on use of earth observing satellite sensors and geographic ifnormation systems for control program management of schistosomiais and fascioliasis is reviewed.

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sierra County Area, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Geographical analysis of 'conflict minerals' utilizing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hark, Richard R., E-mail: hark@juniata.edu [Department of Chemistry, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States); Remus, Jeremiah J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); East, Lucille J. [Applied Spectra, Inc., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Harmon, Russell S. [Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Wise, Michael A. [Department of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013 (United States); Tansi, Benjamin M.; Shughrue, Katrina M. [Department of Chemistry, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652 (United States); Dunsin, Kehinde S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699 (United States); Liu, Chunyi [Applied Spectra, Inc., Fremont, CA 94538 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a means of rapidly distinguishing different geographic sources for a mineral because the LIBS plasma emission spectrum provides information on the chemical composition (i.e. geochemical fingerprint) of a geomaterial. An application of this approach with potentially significant commercial and political importance is the spectral fingerprinting of 'conflict minerals' such as columbite-tantalite ('coltan'). Following a successful pilot study of a columbite-tantalite suite from North America, a more geographically diverse set of 57 samples from 37 locations around the world was analyzed using a commercially available LIBS system. The LIBS spectra were analyzed using advanced multivariate statistical signal processing techniques. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) resulted in a correct place-level geographic classification at success rates above 90%. The possible role of rare-earth elements (REEs) as a factor contributing to the high levels of sample discrimination was explored. These results provide additional evidence that LIBS has the potential to be utilized in the field as a real-time screening tool to discriminate between columbite-tantalite ores of different provenance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of columbite-tantalite using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemometric analysis (PLSDA) affords 90-100% correct sample classification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Possible role of rare-earth elements in the high level of sample discrimination.

  18. Identifying Geographic Areas at Risk of Soil-transmitted Helminthes Infection Using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems: Boaco, Nicaragua as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Parajon, David G.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Luvall, Jeffrey; Estes, Sue; Podest, Erika

    2011-01-01

    Several types of intestinal nematodes, that can infect humans and specially school-age children living in poverty, develop part of their life cycle in soil. Presence and survival of these parasites in the soil depend on given environmental characteristics like temperature and moisture that can be inferred with remote sensing (RS) technology. Prevalence of diseases caused by these parasitic worms can be controlled and even eradicated with anthelmintic drug treatments and sanitation improvement. Reliable and updated identification of geographic areas at risk is required to implement effective public health programs; to calculate amount of drug required and to distribute funding for sanitation projects. RS technology and geographical information systems (GIS) will be used to analyze for associations between in situ prevalence and remotely sensed data in order to establish RS proxies of environmental parameters that indicate the presence of these parasits. In situ data on helminthisasis will be overlaid over an ecological map derived from RS data using ARC Map 9.3 (ESRI). Temperature, vegetation, and distance to bodies of water will be inferred using data from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat TM and ETM+. Elevation will be estimated with data from The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Prevalence and intensity of infections are determined by parasitological survey (Kato Katz) of children enrolled in rural schools in Boaco, Nicaragua, in the communities of El Roblar, Cumaica Norte, Malacatoya 1, and Malacatoya 2). This study will demonstrate the importance of an integrated GIS/RS approach to define clusters and areas at risk. Such information will help to the implementation of time and cost efficient control programs and sanitation efforts.

  19. Geographical analysis of ``conflict minerals'' utilizing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; Remus, Jeremiah J.; East, Lucille J.; Harmon, Russell S.; Wise, Michael A.; Tansi, Benjamin M.; Shughrue, Katrina M.; Dunsin, Kehinde S.; Liu, Chunyi

    2012-08-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a means of rapidly distinguishing different geographic sources for a mineral because the LIBS plasma emission spectrum provides information on the chemical composition (i.e. geochemical fingerprint) of a geomaterial. An application of this approach with potentially significant commercial and political importance is the spectral fingerprinting of "conflict minerals" such as columbite-tantalite ("coltan"). Following a successful pilot study of a columbite-tantalite suite from North America, a more geographically diverse set of 57 samples from 37 locations around the world was analyzed using a commercially available LIBS system. The LIBS spectra were analyzed using advanced multivariate statistical signal processing techniques. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) resulted in a correct place-level geographic classification at success rates above 90%. The possible role of rare-earth elements (REEs) as a factor contributing to the high levels of sample discrimination was explored. These results provide additional evidence that LIBS has the potential to be utilized in the field as a real-time screening tool to discriminate between columbite-tantalite ores of different provenance.

  20. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengtian Cao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  1. Habitat area and climate stability determine geographical variation in plant species range sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morueta-Holme, Naia; Enquist, Brian J.; McGill, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a fundamental aspect of biodiversity, little is known about what controls species range sizes. This is especially the case for hyperdiverse organisms such as plants. We use the largest botanical data set assembled to date to quantify geographical variation in range size for ~85...

  2. Relationship between Emergency Restoration Time of Power Distribution Line after a Disaster and Geographical Characteristics of its Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagai, Shigeo; Terano, Takao

    The effect of an outage caused by a disaster is serious to the society, because the power distribution line is a common basic infrastructure for life support. And the time estimation of emergency restoration process of power distribution line after a disaster is an emerging problem for the safety and security of the society. But the time estimation is a difficult problem and the only practical method in use is a simple approximation method, which doesn't take account of geographical characteristics of the objective area. So, we developed a method which can take account of the influences caused by the geographical characteristics of the objective area on the estimation of the emergency restoration. In this article, we describe an experimental analysis by the method.

  3. Culture supernatants from V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic areas induce cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity Cepas de V. cholerae O1 biotipo ElTor aisladas de diferente origen geográfico inducen vacuolización celular y citotoxicidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Vidal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is produced by V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains isolated from different geographic origins, including Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Supernatant-induced haemolysis, vacuolating activity and cytotoxicity in Vero cells were recorded. PCR, RFLP analysis and molecular cloning were performed. RESULTS: All ElTor strains analyzed induced cellular vacuolation. Ribotype 2 strains isolates from the U.S. gulf coast yielded the highest titer of vacuolating activity. Eight of nine strains were haemolytic, while all strains were PCR positive for the hlyA gene. We cloned the hlyA gene from two ElTor strains, a toxigenic (2514-88, ctxAB+ and a non-toxigenic Mexican strain (CM 91-3, ctxAB-. Supernatant from those recombinant E. coli strains induced haemolysis, cell vacuolation and cytotoxicity. RFLP-PCR analysis revealed similarities in the hlyA gene from all strains tested. CONCLUSION: The HlyA-induced vacuolating effect is a widespread phenotype of epidemic V. cholerae O1 ElTor strains.OBJETIVO: Analizar el efecto vacuolizante de cepas de V. cholerae O1 ElTor aisladas de diferente origen geográfico, incluyendo México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron pruebas de hemolisis, vacuolización y citotoxicidad en células Vero, así como PCR, análisis por RFLP y clonación molecular. RESULTADOS: Todas las cepas indujeron el efecto vacuolizante. Las cepas del ribotipo 2, aisladas de las costas del Golfo en Estados Unidos, presentaron títulos altos de vacuolización. El gen hlyA fue amplificado en las nueve cepas mediante PCR, aunque sólo ocho fueron hemolíticas. Se clonó el gen hlyA de una cepa toxigénica (2514-88, ctxAB+ y de una cepa no toxigénica aislada en México (CM 91-3, ctxAB-. El sobrenadante de las clonas recombinantes indujo hemólisis, efecto vacuolizante y citotoxicidad. El RFLP mostró alta similitud del gen hlyA de las cepas estudiadas. CONCLUSIÓN: El efecto vacuolizante es un

  4. Geographic information system (GIS) representation of coal-bearing areas in India and Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. Prior to this study, no GIS file representing the occurrence of coal-bearing units in India or Bangladesh was known to exist. This Open-File Report contains downloadable shapefiles representing the coalfields of India and Bangladesh and a limited number of chemical and petrographic analyses of India and Bangladesh coal samples. Also included are maps of India and Bangladesh showing the locations of the coalfields and coal samples in the shapefiles, figures summarizing the stratigraphic units in the coalfields of India and Bangladesh, and a brief report summarizing the stratigraphy and geographic locations of coal-bearing deposits in India and Bangladesh.

  5. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Valéria Machado da Silva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  6. Ecological study and risk mapping of leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil based on a geographical information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado da Silva, Alba Valéria; Magalhães, Monica de Avelar Figueiredo Mafra; Peçanha Brazil, Reginaldo; Carreira, João Carlos Araujo

    2011-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease highly influenced by eco-epidemiological factors. Geographical information systems (GIS) have proved to be a suitable approach for the analysis of environmental components that affect the spatial distribution of diseases. Exploiting this methodology, a model was developed for the mapping of the distribution and incidence of canine leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil. Local variations were observed with respect to infection incidence and distribution of serological titers, i.e. high titers were noted close to areas with preserved vegetation, while low titers were more frequent in areas where people kept chickens. Based on these results, we conclude that the environment plays an important role in generating relatively protected areas within larger endemic regions, but that it can also contribute to the creation of hotspots with clusters of comparatively high serological titers indicating a high level of transmission compared with neighbouring areas.

  7. Robust Principal Component Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression: Urbanization in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area of Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debarchana; Manson, Steven M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a hybrid approach, robust principal component geographically weighted regression (RPCGWR), in examining urbanization as a function of both extant urban land use and the effect of social and environmental factors in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. We used remotely sensed data to treat urbanization via the proxy of impervious surface. We then integrated two different methods, robust principal component analysis (RPCA) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to create an innovative approach to model urbanization. The RPCGWR results show significant spatial heterogeneity in the relationships between proportion of impervious surface and the explanatory factors in the TCMA. We link this heterogeneity to the "sprawling" nature of urban land use that has moved outward from the core Twin Cities through to their suburbs and exurbs.

  8. Geografski pristopi k proučevanju kriznih območij = Geographical attempts to research of crisis areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals on the phenomenon of crisis areas in the world in the light of international relations in transformation of world political map. Analysing the physiognomy, structures and functions the paper is seeking the reasons for the confl icts, describe their genesis, characteristical developmental stages and particulary the spatial and social consequences. Those mostly regenerate their confl ictual potential and are relatively constant geopolitcial neuralgic areas. They are the crossroads of world-power interesses, even they are poor world periphery by their structure. The paper undertake the geographic point of research of crisis areas. The shown cases of North Dalmatia (Croatia and Kosovo (South Serbia the author ilustrate the characteristical development of two different crisis areas.

  9. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Maupome

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76. The variables that had the most significant effect on the DMFT score were proportion of paved roads between the community and dental services, and the availability of piped potable water. The DMFT score increased in proportion to the percentage of paved roads. In contrast, the DMFT score decreased with the availability of piped potable water. Similar results were found for untreated tooth decay. The main variable associated with a significant increase in dental fillings was proportion of paved roads. Together with Brazilian reports, this is one of the first investigations of the association between geographical factors and oral health in an underdeveloped setting.

  10. The association between geographical factors and dental caries in a rural area in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupome, Gerardo; Martínez-Mier, E Angeles; Holt, Alanna; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Mantilla-Rodríguez, Andrés; Carlton, Brittany

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between markers of oral disease and geographical factors influencing access to dental care (DMFT score) among school children in Central Mexico. Retrospective data were collected during an international service-learning program between 2002 and 2009. A sample of 1,143 children (55% females; mean age 12.7±13.1years) was analyzed. The mean DMFT score, represented largely by untreated tooth decay, was 4.02 (4.76). The variables that had the most significant effect on the DMFT score were proportion of paved roads between the community and dental services, and the availability of piped potable water. The DMFT score increased in proportion to the percentage of paved roads. In contrast, the DMFT score decreased with the availability of piped potable water. Similar results were found for untreated tooth decay. The main variable associated with a significant increase in dental fillings was proportion of paved roads. Together with Brazilian reports, this is one of the first investigations of the association between geographical factors and oral health in an underdeveloped setting.

  11. Using Spatial Analysis to Investigate Geographic Variations in Heart Failure Hospitalizations among Medicare Beneficiaries in the Tennessee Catchment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Modele O.; Holt, James B.; Croft, Janet B.; Nwaise, Isaac A.; Okafor, Henry E.; Sawyer, Douglas B.; Giles, Wayne H.; Mensah, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although differences in heart failure hospitalization rates by race and sex are well documented, little is known about geographic variations in hospitalization rates for heart failure among Medicare beneficiaries. Methods Using exploratory spatial data analysis techniques, we examined hospitalization rates for heart failure as the first-listed discharge diagnosis among Medicare beneficiaries in a 10-state Tennessee catchment area, based on the resident states reported by Tennessee hospitals from 2000 to 2004. Results The age-adjusted heart failure hospitalization rate (per 1,000) among Medicare beneficiaries was 23.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.3–23.4) for the Tennessee catchment area, 21.4 (95% CI, 21.4 -21.5) for the non-catchment US area and 21.9 (95% CI, 21.9–22.0) for the overall US. The age-adjusted HF hospitalization rates were also significantly higher in the catchment area than the non catchment US area and the overall US, among men, women, and whites, whereas rates among the blacks were higher outside the catchment area. Beneficiaries in the catchment area also had higher age-specific HF hospitalization rates. Among states in the catchment area, the highest mean county-level rates were in Mississippi (30.6±7.6) and Kentucky (29.2±11.5), and the lowest were in North Carolina (21.7±5.7), closely and Virginia (21.8±6.6). Conclusions Knowledge of geographic differences in rates of hospitalization for heart failure can be useful in identifying needs of health care providers, allocating resources, developing comprehensive heart failure outreach programs, and formulating policies designed to reduce these differences. PMID:21804374

  12. Oculina Banks Habitat Area of Particular Concern Geographic Information System 2002 (NODC Accession 0090252)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — OGIS provides a comprehensive, interactive data source for the Oculina Banks Habitat Area of Particular Concern (OHAPC), a marine protected area off the east coast...

  13. Oculina Banks Habitat Area of Particular Concern Geographic Information System 2002 (NODC Accession 0090252)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oculina GIS CD provides a comprehensive, interactive data source for the Oculina Banks Habitat Area of Particular Concern (OHAPC), a marine protected area off...

  14. Output power levels from mobile phones in different geographical areas; implications for exposure assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lonn, S; Forssen, U; P. Vecchia; Ahlbom, A; Feychting, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The power level used by the mobile phone is one of the most important factors determining the intensity of the radiofrequency exposure during a call. Mobile phone calls made in areas where base stations are densely situated (normally urban areas) should theoretically on average use lower output power levels than mobile phone calls made in areas with larger distances between base stations (rural areas).

  15. Utilizing Geographic Information System for Prediction of Soil Erosion in Sono Sragen Catchment Area

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Mukhlisin; Sukoco

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Embung is a small dam created by manmade lakes and used to catch water during rainy season for an irrigation source. In Sragen area, Embung Sono is one of around twenty embung that used to catch rain water for irrigation. Soil erosions in catchment area are potential to reduce water capacity of the embung. Although many embung have been constructed in Sragen areas, the numbers of soil erosion in catchment area of embung are not well considered. Approach:...

  16. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in

  17. Integrating TM and Ancillary Geographical Data with Classification Trees for Land Cover Classification of Marsh Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NA Xiaodong; ZHANG Shuqing; ZHANG Huaiqing; LI Xiaofeng; YU Huan; LIU Chunyue

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to determine the capacity of land cover classification combining spectral and textural features of Landsat TM imagery with ancillary geographical data in wetlands of the Sanjiang Plain, Heilongjiang Province, China. Semi-variograms and Z-test value were calculated to assess the separability of grey-level co-occurrence texture measures to maximize the difference between land cover types. The degree of spatial autocorrelation showed that window sizes of 3×3 pixels and 11×11 pixels were most appropriate for Landsat TM image texture calculations. The texture analysis showed that co-occurrence entropy, dissimilarity, and variance texture measures, derived from the Landsat TM spectrum bands and vegetation indices provided the most significant statistical differentiation between land cover types. Subsequently, a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) algorithm was applied to three different combinations of predictors: 1) TM imagery alone (TM-only); 2) TM imagery plus image texture (TM+TXT model); and 3) all predictors including TM imagery, image texture and additional ancillary GIS information (TM+TXT+GIS model). Compared with traditional Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) supervised classification, three classification trees predictive models reduced the overall error rate significantly. Image texture measures and ancillary geographical variables depressed the speckle noise effectively and reduced classification error rate of marsh obviously. For classification trees model making use of all available predictors, omission error rate was 12.90% and commission error rate was 10.99% for marsh. The developed method is portable, relatively easy to implement and should be applicable in other settings and over larger extents.

  18. Geographic Elevation and Cognitive Function among Elderly Residents in Rural Mountainous Areas: Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test whether there is an association between elevation and cognitive function among elderly residents in rural mountainous areas. Data were collected in 2012 from a cross-sectional study conducted in Ohnan Town, which is located in a rural mountainous area in the southern part of Shimane Prefecture, Japan. Cognitive function was evaluated using CADi (Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version and elevation was estimated by using Geographic Information Systems according to the participant’s address. After excluding subjects with missing data, 866 participants were analyzed. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, higher elevation was significantly associated with decreased cognitive function. This finding suggests that it is important to consider the physical environment, i.e., elevation, that would affect accessibility to health-promoting goods, services, and resources when seeking to maintain cognitive function in elderly people living in rural mountainous areas.

  19. Study of Social and Cultural Characteristics of Drug Offenders in Ahwaz Municipal Areas Using Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Fathtabar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the social and cultural structure of drug offenses in Ahwaz municipal areas using GIS. Method: The population of the study consisted of drug offenders in Correction and Rehabilitation Center of Ahwaz in 2013. Statistical tests and graphs, including Mean Center test, Standard Deviation Ellipse, Kernel Density Estimation were used in this study. Results: The most important centers of drug crime are in the same border with informal settlement areas, such as Kut Abdullah, Lashkar Abad, and Khashayar (urban areas 5 and 6 of Ahwaz city. In addition, there is a direct relationship between illiteracy rate & population density and crime rate. Discussion and Conclusion: Spatial analysis of geographic crime and punishment can act as a means for security and safety policy making in the fight against drugs.

  20. Geographically weighted regression for modelling the accessibility to the public hospital network in Concepción Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Martínez Bascuñán

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility models in transport geography based on geographic information systems have proven to be an effective method in determining spatial inequalities associated with public health. This work aims to model the spatial accessibility from populated areas within the Concepción metropolitan area (CMA, the second largest city in Chile. The city’s public hospital network is taken into consideration with special reference to socio-regional inequalities. The use of geographically weighted regression (GWR and ordinary least squares (OLS for modelling accessibility with socioeconomic and transport variables is proposed. The explanatory variables investigated are: illiterate population, rural housing, alternative housing, homes with a motorised vehicle, public transport routes, and connectivity. Our results identify that approximately 4.1% of the population have unfavourable or very unfavourable accessibility to public hospitals, which correspond to rural areas located south of CMA. Application of a local GWR model (0.87 R2 adjusted helped to improve the settings over the use of traditional OLS methods (multiple regression (0.67 R2 adjusted and to find the spatial distribution of both coefficients of the explanatory variables, demonstrating the local significance of the model. Thus, accessibility studies have enormous potential to contribute to the development of public health and transport policies in turn to achieve equality in spatial accessibility to specialised health care.

  1. Does Fear of Terrorism Differ From Fear of Crime and Sexual Assault: A Question of Geographical Location and Residential Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory-Bitton, Mally; Cohen-Louck, Keren

    2016-07-05

    The study describes an examination of three types of fear: crime, sexual assault, and terrorism. The sample consisted of 507 adults from three different geographical locations in Israel with different levels of crime and terror attacks. With regard to fear of crime and fear of sexual assault, the results were compatible with the findings of many studies that indicate the effect of residential area features on levels of fear. Fear of terrorism was found to be more complex. The theoretical framework used to assess fear of crime is not fully suitable for assessing and examining fear of terrorism. Other variables should be taken into consideration, such as religion and ideology.

  2. Characterization of class 1 integrons associated with R-plasmids in clinical Aeromonas salmonicida isolates from various geographical areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A.S.; Bruun, Morten Sichlau; Larsen, J.L.;

    2001-01-01

    Class 1 integrons were found in 26 of 40 antibiotic-resistant isolates of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from Northern Europe and North America. Three different dhfr genes, conferring trimethoprim resistance, and one ant(3 " )1a aminoglycoside resistance gene were identified as gene...... inserts. The gene cassettes tended to be conserved among isolates from a particular geographical area. Nineteen isolates transferred R- plasmids carrying different tet determinants to Escherichia coli in filter mating assays, and in 15 cases, the class 1 integrons were co-transferred. Transferable...

  3. Polymorphism of viral dsRNA in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains isolated from different geographic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libkind Diego

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strains of the astaxanthin producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous have been isolated from different cold regions around the earth, and the presence of double stranded RNA (dsRNA elements was described in some isolates. This kind of viruses is widely distributed among yeasts and filamentous fungi and, although generally are cryptic in function, their studies have been a key factor in the knowledge of important fungi. In this work, the characterization and genetic relationships among dsRNA elements were determined in strains representatives of almost all regions of the earth where X. dendrorhous have been isolated. Results Almost all strains of X. dendrorhous analyzed carry one, two or four dsRNA elements, of molecular sizes in the range from 0.8 to 5.0 kb. Different dsRNA-patterns were observed in strains with different geographic origin, being L1 (5.0 kb the common dsRNA element. By hybridization assays a high genomic polymorphism was observed among L1 dsRNAs of different X. dendrorhous strains. Contrary, hybridization was observed between L1 and L2 dsRNAs of strains from same or different regions, while the dsRNA elements of minor sizes (M, S1, and S2 present in several strains did not show hybridization with neither L1 or L2 dsRNAs. Along the growth curve of UCD 67-385 (harboring four dsRNAs an increase of L2 relative to L1 dsRNA was observed, whiles the S1/L1 ratio remains constant, as well as the M/L1 ratio of Patagonian strain. Strains cured of S2 dsRNA were obtained by treatment with anisomycin, and comparison of its dsRNA contents with uncured strain, revealed an increase of L1 dsRNA while the L2 and S1 dsRNA remain unaltered. Conclusion The dsRNA elements of X. dendrorhous are highly variable in size and sequence, and the dsRNA pattern is specific to the geographic region of isolation. Each L1 and L2 dsRNA are viral elements able to self replicate and to coexist into a cell, and L1 and S2 dsRNAs elements could

  4. Spatial Analysis in Determination Of Flood Prone Areas Using Geographic Information System and Analytical Hierarchy Process at Sungai Sembrong's Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukari, S. M.; Ahmad, M. A.; Wai, T. L.; Kaamin, M.; Alimin, N.

    2016-07-01

    Floods that struck Johor state in 2006 and 2007 and the East Coastal in 2014 have triggered a greatly impact to the flood management here in Malaysia. Accordingly, this study conducted to determine potential areas of flooding, especially in Batu Pahat district since it faces terrifying experienced with heavy flood. This objective is archived by using the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) on study area of flood risk location at the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong. GIS functions as spatial analysis is capable to produce new information based on analysis of data stored in the system. Meanwhile the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used as a method for setting up in decision making concerning the existing data. By using AHP method, preparation and position of the criteria and parameters required in GIS are neater and easier to analyze. Through this study, a flood prone area in the watershed of Sungai Sembrong was identified with the help of GIS and AHP. Analysis was conducted to test two different cell sizes, which are 30 and 5. The analysis of flood prone areas were tested on both cell sizes with two different water levels and the results of the analysis were displayed by GIS. Therefore, the use of AHP and GIS are effective and able to determine the potential flood plain areas in the watershed area of Sungai Sembrong.

  5. The method of assessment of solar potential for selected area with use Geographical Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netzel P.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for analyse the spatial distribution of solar energy potential based on calculated solar irradiation with use of GIS (Geographical Information System. Program GIS GRASS gives opportunity to create spatial distribution of solar radiation which is taking into account such important elements like: terrain, atmosphere, pollutants, water and aerosol in atmosphere, clouds. The use of GIS GRASS module – named r.sun gives opportunity to generate spatial distribution of solar radiation on Lower Silesia (south – west part of Poland. In this work the analyse of solar potential to obtain hot water in the individual household were done. This analyse was based on the amount of total solar radiation monthly sums generated by r.sun module. Spatial distribution of solar potential was used to classify the Lower Silesia region in terms of work efficiency solar installations. It is very usefully because it gives people information about the date of the return of the funds invested in the purchase of the solar collectors.

  6. Geographic variation in species richness, rarity, and the selection of areas for conservation: An integrative approach with Brazilian estuarine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Ciro C.; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Spach, Henry L.

    2017-09-01

    While the number of species is a key indicator of ecological assemblages, spatial conservation priorities solely identified from species richness are not necessarily efficient to protect other important biological assets. Hence, the results of spatial prioritization analysis would be greatly enhanced if richness were used in association to complementary biodiversity measures. In this study, geographic patterns in estuarine fish species rarity (i.e. the average range size in the study area), endemism and richness, were mapped and integrated to identify regions important for biodiversity conservation along the Brazilian coast. Furthermore, we analyzed the effectiveness of the national system of protected areas to represent these regions. Analyses were performed on presence/absence data of 412 fish species in 0.25° latitudinal bands covering the entire Brazilian biogeographical province. Species richness, rarity and endemism patterns differed and strongly reflected biogeographical limits and regions. However, among the existing 154 latitudinal bands, 48 were recognized as conservation priorities by concomitantly harboring high estuarine fish species richness and assemblages of geographically rare species. Priority areas identified for all estuarine fish species largely differed from those identified for Brazilian endemics. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between the different aspects of the fish assemblages considered (i.e. species richness, endemism or rarity), suggesting that designating reserves based on a single variable may lead to large gaps in the overall protection of biodiversity. Our results further revealed that the existing system of protected areas is insufficient for representing the priority bands we identified. This highlights the urgent need for expanding the national network of protected areas to maintain estuarine ecosystems with high conservation value.

  7. USGS compilation of geographic information system (GIS) data representing coal mines and coal-bearing areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung; Trippi, Michael H.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Dai, Shifeng; Tewalt, Susan J.; Chou, Chiu-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) information may facilitate energy studies, which in turn provide input for energy policy decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled geographic information system (GIS) data representing the known coal mine locations and coal-mining areas of China as of 2001. These data are now available for download, and may be used in a GIS for a variety of energy resource and environmental studies of China. Province-scale maps were also created to display the point locations of coal mines and the coal-mining areas. In addition, coal-field outlines from a previously published map by Dai and others (2012) were also digitized and are available for download as a separate GIS data file, and shown in a nation-scale map of China. Chemical data for 332 coal samples from a previous USGS study of China and Taiwan (Tewalt and others, 2010) are included in a downloadable GIS point shapefile, and shown on a nation-scale map of China. A brief report summarizes the methodology used for creation of the shapefiles and the chemical analyses run on the samples.

  8. Coexistence and geographical distribution of Leguminosae in an area of Atlantic forest in the semi-arid region of Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacira R. LIMA; Vidal F. MANSANO; Francisca S. ARA(U)JO

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect plant species distribution and coexistence in areas with high plant species diversity is a challenge for ecologists.According to some authors,species occupy specific niches,but for others,species coexistence and geographical distribution patterns are random.Floristic composition of the family Leguminosae was studied on moist and dry slopes of the Baturité mountains in semi-arid northeastern Brazil and was compared with findings for other plant formations elsewhere in Brazil.Substantial floristic differences were found between the moist windward and dry leeward slopes of the Baturité mountains despite their close geographical proximity.The leeward slope was slightly more diverse than the windward slope.Similarity analyses showed that the windward face is floristically allied to the Amazon forest,whereas the leeward slope is similar to other dry-area formations of northeastern Brazil,such as thorny woodland (caatinga) and seasonal forests.The strong floristic differences that were observed between the windward and leeward slopes corroborate the theory of ecological niche conservatism,which holds that species occurrence is closely linked to environmental factors,such as temperature and precipitation.

  9. Geographical distribution of indoor radon and related geological characteristics in Bonghwa County, a provisional radon-prone area in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E R; Chang, B U; Kim, H J; Song, M H; Kim, Y J

    2015-12-01

    The detailed indoor radon survey was conducted during a year (from September 2012 to August 2013) quarterly in Bonghwa county, one of the provisional radon-prone areas in Korea. The surveyed area was selected on the basis of previously conducted nationwide radon survey results. In order to minimise statistical and environmental uncertainties, ∼3 % of the entire dwellings were carefully selected based on the statistical annual report of Bonghwa county. The measurement is carried out by using solid-state nuclear track detector. The range of indoor radon concentration in each dwelling was 4.36-858 Bq m(-3) and that of annual effective dose due to inhaled radon of the resident in each dwelling was 0.19-23.5 mSv y(-1). Each dwelling was determined for geology criterion using one-way Analysis of Variance for the purpose of comparing indoor radon distribution with geology. Geographical distribution of indoor radon is closely related to the geological characteristics of basement rocks. In addition, the comparison between geographical distribution of indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation was done.

  10. [Ecological and hygienic condition urbanized area in the geographical center of New Moscow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of ecological and hygienic condition of the environment was performed by ourselves in the geographical center of New Moscow--in the city of Troitsk. There was made an analysis as the published results of similar assessments in the times of the 1990s, data of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare concerning the control for soils quality (at a single point of the city) and drinking water for 2010-2011, and the author's materials on the chemical contamination of soils and grounds in July 2013. Local foci of moderately dangerous pollution of soil were found at lots close to the motorway and in the Worsted factory: Zc (SrBaCrVNiCoCuAgZnPbBeMoWB) = 17-20, benzo (a) pyrene to 218 mcg/kg and Zn up to 233.4 mg/kg. At the point of monitoring soils complied with the requirements according to toxicological, microbiological and parasitological characteristics.. In the drinking tap water there was observed, along with the increased total hardness, the presence up to 1.6 MAC of such natural pollutants as F and Li. In the undergrounds potable water the situation is worsening according to the content of Si, As, B, Br, U. There was no monitoring of surface water and air. However, pockets of soil contamination trace the possible occurrence in the air near the ground of hygienically dangerous anomalies of heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Modern ecological and sanitary situation in Troitsk, in general, can be considered to be quite safe if compared to the quality of the environment in industrialized cities. The thing that does cause concern is the quality of drinking water.

  11. Educating Geographers in Spain: Geography Teaching Renewal by Implementing the European Higher Education Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel González, Rafael; de Lázaro y Torres, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the current state of the geography discipline in Spanish Universities after putting into action the European Higher Education Area. After decades of geography teaching, following theoretical and expository discourse models, the so-called "Bologna Process" has been a great opportunity to reflect what geography…

  12. Investigating flood susceptible areas in inaccessible regions using remote sensing and geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Joongbin; Lee, Kyoo-Seock

    2017-03-01

    Every summer, North Korea (NK) suffers from floods, resulting in decreased agricultural production and huge economic loss. Besides meteorological reasons, several factors can accelerate flood damage. Environmental studies about NK are difficult because NK is inaccessible due to the division of Korea. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate flood inundated areas in inaccessible regions such as NK. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial characteristics of flood susceptible areas (FSAs) using multi-temporal RS data and digital elevation model data. Such study will provide basic information to restore FSAs after reunification. Defining FSAs at the study site revealed that rice paddies with low elevation and low slope were the most susceptible areas to flood in NK. Numerous sediments from upper streams, especially streams through crop field areas on steeply sloped hills, might have been transported and deposited into stream channels, thus disturbing water flow. In conclusion, NK floods may have occurred not only due to meteorological factors but also due to inappropriate land use for flood management. In order to mitigate NK flood damage, reforestation is needed for terraced crop fields. In addition, drainage capacity for middle stream channel near rice paddies should be improved.

  13. Lineament analysis of South Jenein Area (Southern Tunisia using remote sensing data and geographic information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochdi Chaabouni

    2012-12-01

    The results will be compared with the surface data in the Mesozoic series of the Tataouine basin and the subsurface data of the northern border of the Palaeozoic Ghadames basin. The fracture measurements and their distribution provided a good opportunity to characterize the petroleum reservoir in this area.

  14. A comparative analysis of the clotting and fibrinolytic activities of the snake venom (Bothrops atrox) from different geographical areas in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana Maria; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis; Girón, Maria E; Aguilar, Irma; Guerrero, Belsy

    2007-01-01

    Venom constitution within the same snake species can present considerable geographical variations. Bothrops atrox venoms were obtained from adult snakes captured at different geographical locations: Parguasa (Bolívar state); Puerto Ayacucho 1, Serranía del Cuao and Puerto Ayacucho 2 (Amazon state). The coagulant and fibrinolytic activities of these venoms were compared. Amidolytic activity of crude snake venom was measured by a micromethod designed in our laboratory. Coagulant activity on plasma and fibrinogen due to thrombin-like activity in venoms was also determined. Crude snake venom fibrinolytic activity by the fibrin plate method was assayed. Chromatographic studies were developed on Protein-Pack 300 column. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out under reduced conditions. After SDS-PAGE of samples, the fibrin-zymography was tested on agarose-fibrin plates. The results demonstrated several differences among B. atrox venoms from different geographical areas. Chromatograms and SDS-PAGE profiles indicated that venoms from the same species presented differences in the molecular mass of their components. The procoagulant activity depended on the utilized method (amidolytic versus clotting). Parguasa and Puerto Ayacucho 2 venoms presented procoagulant activity for both methods. Furthermore, Parguasa venom had also the highest hemorrhagic activity and the lowest LD50. In relation to the fibrinolytic activity, Puerto Ayacucho 1 venom was the most active, equally for fibrin plates as for the amidolytic method (t-PA like). This venom had the lowest coagulant activity, which induced us to think that probably its procoagulant activity was interfered by its fibrinolytic activity.

  15. Geographic Elevation, Car Driving, and Depression among Elderly Residents in Rural Areas: The Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hamano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that public transportation networks are often worse in rural areas than in urban areas, it is difficult for elderly non-drivers to access health-promoting goods, services, and resources related to mental health. Moreover, geographical location, assessed by elevation, could modify this association in a rural area. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between car driving (being a driver or not and depression, as measured by the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, varied by elevation. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted in the town of Ohnan located in a rural area of Japan. After excluding participants with missing data (n = 26, 876 participants were analysed in this study. After adjustment for potential confounders, being a non-driver had a significantly higher odds ratio of SDS (40+ among elderly people living at a low elevation (odds ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval = 1.28–3.71. However, similar findings were not observed among elderly people living at a high elevation. These results suggest that car driving importantly predicts depression in elderly people living at relatively low elevations in rural areas.

  16. A Synopsis of Marine Animal Underwater Sounds in Eight Geographic Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-05-28

    34. Since then we have found that migrating gray whales produce moans, under- water sounds associated with their blows, and knocking sounds. Moans last...the whales are in a given area, usually as they migrate past, between their summer sojourns to polar waters and their winter movements toward the...its vocali- zations are available from Dr. W. C. Cummings, NUC Code 5054. : ii V, , 71 Delphinapterus leucas--(white- whale or beluga ) The beluga is

  17. Geographic aspects of poverty and health in Tanzania: does living in a poor area matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud Khan, M; Hotchkiss, David R; Berruti, Andrés A; Hutchinson, Paul L

    2006-03-01

    Previous studies have consistently found an inverse relationship between household-level poverty and health status. However, what is not well understood is whether and how the average economic status at the community level plays a role in the poverty-health relationship. The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of poverty at the community level in Tanzania and its association with the availability and quality of primary health care services, the utilization of services, and health outcomes among household categories defined by wealth scores. A principal component method has been applied to rank households separately by urban/rural location using reported levels of asset ownership and living conditions. The household wealth scores were also used to classify communities into three cluster-types based on the proportion of households belonging to the poorest wealth tercile. On average, all the wealth terciles living in low poverty concentration areas were found to have better health outcomes and service utilization rates than their counterparts living in high poverty concentration clusters. Consistent with the finding is that high poverty concentration areas were further away from facilities offering primary health care than low poverty concentration areas. Moreover, the facilities closest to the high poverty concentration areas had fewer doctors, medical equipment and drugs. Among the high poverty concentration clusters, the 10 communities with the best women's body mass index (BMI) measures were found to have access to facilities with a greater availability of equipment and drugs than the 10 communities with the worst BMI measures. Although this study does not directly measure quality, the characteristics that differentiate high poverty concentration clusters from low poverty concentration clusters point to quality as more important than physical access among the study population.

  18. The application of geographic information systems (GIS) in identifying the priority areas for maternal care and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Fatemeh; Ahmadian, Leila

    2017-07-12

    Improving maternal health is globally introduced as an important health priority. The purpose of this study is to identify the high priority areas which require more maternal health services in Kerman, Iran. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed in 2015. The literatures were first explored in order to extract geographic indicators and sub indicators relevant to the maternal health. Data were collected by the use of a questionnaire designed on the basis of AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) method. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed by three medical informatics experts and test-retest method, respectively. Data were analyzed by Expert Choice software in order to specify the weight and importance of each indicator. The information were then added to Geographic Information System (GIS) to analyze and create the related maps. Women's access to hospitals plays an important role in identifying high priority areas which need maternal care and services. More than half of the mothers in Kerman have a moderate level of access to maternal care services. There is an association between facilities that are provided for pregnant women and the existence of healthcare centers. Moreover, there is a negative correlation between maternal death and the number of facilities provided for medical care and services for pregnant women. The application of GIS provides us with the capability to identify high priority areas which need maternal care. According to current population policies in Iran and the probable increase in the fertility rate, it is wise to plan proper schedules to improve health care services for pregnant women in Kerman.

  19. Severity Prediction of Drought in A Large Geographical Area Using Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dappin, Satish G; Nair, G Nithya; Nair, T R Gopalakrsihnan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the severity prediction of drought through the implementation of modern sensor networks is discussed. We describe how to design a drought prediction system using wireless sensor networks. This paper will describe a terrestrial interconnected wireless sensor network paradigm for the prediction of severity of drought over a vast area of 10,000 sq km. The communication architecture for sensor network is outlined and the protocols developed for each layer is explored. The data integration model and sensor data analysis at the central computer is explained. The advantages and limitations are discussed along with the use of wireless standards. They are analyzed for its relevance. Finally a conclusion is presented along with open research issues.

  20. GIS: Geographic Information System An application for socio-economical data collection for rural area

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, S K; Kalyankar, N V

    2010-01-01

    The country India follows the planning through planning commission. This is on the basis of information collected by traditional, tedious and manual method which is too slow to sustain. Now we are in the age of 21th century. We have seen in last few decades that the progress of information technology with leaps and bounds, which have completely changed the way of life in the developed nations. While internet has changed the established working practice and opened new vistas and provided a platform to connect, this gives the opportunity for collaborative work space that goes beyond the global boundary. We are living in the global economy and India leading towards Liberalize Market Oriented Economy (LMOE). Considering this things, focusing on GIS, we proposed a system for collection of socio economic data and water resource management information of rural area via internet.

  1. A Geographic Mosaic of Climate Change Impacts on Terrestrial Vegetation: Which Areas Are Most at Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D Ackerly

    Full Text Available Changes in climate projected for the 21st century are expected to trigger widespread and pervasive biotic impacts. Forecasting these changes and their implications for ecosystem services is a major research goal. Much of the research on biotic responses to climate change has focused on either projected shifts in individual species distributions or broad-scale changes in biome distributions. Here, we introduce a novel application of multinomial logistic regression as a powerful approach to model vegetation distributions and potential responses to 21st century climate change. We modeled the distribution of 22 major vegetation types, most defined by a single dominant woody species, across the San Francisco Bay Area. Predictor variables included climate and topographic variables. The novel aspect of our model is the output: a vector of relative probabilities for each vegetation type in each location within the study domain. The model was then projected for 54 future climate scenarios, spanning a representative range of temperature and precipitation projections from the CMIP3 and CMIP5 ensembles. We found that sensitivity of vegetation to climate change is highly heterogeneous across the region. Surprisingly, sensitivity to climate change is higher closer to the coast, on lower insolation, north-facing slopes and in areas of higher precipitation. While such sites may provide refugia for mesic and cool-adapted vegetation in the face of a warming climate, the model suggests they will still be highly dynamic and relatively sensitive to climate-driven vegetation transitions. The greater sensitivity of moist and low insolation sites is an unexpected outcome that challenges views on the location and stability of climate refugia. Projections provide a foundation for conservation planning and land management, and highlight the need for a greater understanding of the mechanisms and time scales of potential climate-driven vegetation transitions.

  2. A Geographical Information System to Manage the Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. L.; Hillier, M. C. J.; Thornborough, K. J.; Jenkyns, R.; Juniper, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Endeavour Hydrothermal Vents Marine Protected Area (EHVMPA) is located approximately 250 km offshore of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Since its discovery in 1982, there have been hundreds of dives, samples collected, measurements made, and debris left behind at the EHVMPA. In 2003, the Canadian government declared the region as a Marine Protected Area (MPA) under Canada's Oceans Act, to be managed by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO). Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) operates a cabled observatory in the EHVMPA, and streams data in near real-time via the Internet to science communities worldwide. ONC's observatory data, combined with observations made during maintenance expeditions provides insight assisting the management and preservation of the MPA. In 2014, DFO partnered with ONC to build a geodatabase to enhance and inform the knowledge base of the EHVMPA Management Plan. The geodatabase, built in ArcGIS, contains data integrated from ONC's Oceans 2.0 database, third parties, and relevant publications. Layers include annual observatory infrastructure deployments, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dive tracks, sampling activity, anthropogenic debris, high-resolution bathymetry, observations of species of interest, and locations of hydrothermal vents. The combined data show both efforts to better understand the environment and the resulting stressors that impact the MPA. The tool also links observed features such as debris and biological observations to the time-correlated ROV dive video using ONC's SeaTube video viewing tool allowing for further analysis. Through 2017, the geodatabase will be maintained by ONC and enriched with expedition data from organizations such as Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, and the University of Washington. The end result is a tool that can integrate many types of data obtained from the MPA, and encourages systematic management of a remote, dynamic and fragile environment.

  3. Defining health catchment areas in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia: an example demonstrating the utility of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkader A. Murad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A tool, based on a geographical information system (GIS approach, has been developed for the location and organization of public health care centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The potential of GIS for visualizing and modeling available information on health-care has been utilized to produce a “best-fit application”. This paper identifies and deals with the manner in which GIS can successfully be used for evaluating the demand and supply of health care facilities as well as be applied for defining health catchment areas. The study uses the essential achievements gained to analyze the advantages of GIS for health care planning and the location of health care centers. Some specific GIS tools, as well as single and multiple spatial search functions, are presented.

  4. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves.

  5. Determining geographic areas and populations with timely access to cardiac catheterization facilities for acute myocardial infarction care in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Nigel M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses geographic information systems (GIS as a tool to evaluate and visualize the general accessibility of areas within the province of Alberta (Canada to cardiac catheterization facilities. Current American and European guidelines suggest performing catheterization within 90 minutes of the first medical contact. For this reason, this study evaluates the populated places that are within a 90 minute transfer time to a city with a catheterization facility. The three modes of transport considered in this study are ground ambulance, rotary wing air ambulance and fixed wing air ambulance. Methods Reference data from the Alberta Chart of Call were interpolated into continuous travel time surfaces. These continuous surfaces allowed for the delineation of isochrones: lines that connect areas of equal time. Using Dissemination Area (DA centroids to represent the adult population, the population numbers were extracted from the isochrones using Statistics Canada census data. Results By extracting the adult population from within isochrones for each emergency transport mode analyzed, it was found that roughly 70% of the adult population of Alberta had access within 90 minutes to catheterization facilities by ground, roughly 66% of the adult population had access by rotary wing air ambulance and that no population had access within 90 minutes using the fixed wing air ambulance. An overall understanding of the nature of air vs. ground emergency travel was also uncovered; zones were revealed where the use of one mode would be faster than the others for reaching a facility. Conclusion Catheter intervention for acute myocardial infarction is a time sensitive procedure. This study revealed that although a relatively small area of the province had access within the 90 minute time constraint, this area represented a large proportion of the population. Within Alberta, fixed wing air ambulance is not an effective means of transporting

  6. Determining geographic areas and populations with timely access to cardiac catheterization facilities for acute myocardial infarction care in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Alka B; Waters, Nigel M; Ghali, William A

    2007-10-16

    This study uses geographic information systems (GIS) as a tool to evaluate and visualize the general accessibility of areas within the province of Alberta (Canada) to cardiac catheterization facilities. Current American and European guidelines suggest performing catheterization within 90 minutes of the first medical contact. For this reason, this study evaluates the populated places that are within a 90 minute transfer time to a city with a catheterization facility. The three modes of transport considered in this study are ground ambulance, rotary wing air ambulance and fixed wing air ambulance. Reference data from the Alberta Chart of Call were interpolated into continuous travel time surfaces. These continuous surfaces allowed for the delineation of isochrones: lines that connect areas of equal time. Using Dissemination Area (DA) centroids to represent the adult population, the population numbers were extracted from the isochrones using Statistics Canada census data. By extracting the adult population from within isochrones for each emergency transport mode analyzed, it was found that roughly 70% of the adult population of Alberta had access within 90 minutes to catheterization facilities by ground, roughly 66% of the adult population had access by rotary wing air ambulance and that no population had access within 90 minutes using the fixed wing air ambulance. An overall understanding of the nature of air vs. ground emergency travel was also uncovered; zones were revealed where the use of one mode would be faster than the others for reaching a facility. Catheter intervention for acute myocardial infarction is a time sensitive procedure. This study revealed that although a relatively small area of the province had access within the 90 minute time constraint, this area represented a large proportion of the population. Within Alberta, fixed wing air ambulance is not an effective means of transporting patients to a catheterization facility within the 90 minute time

  7. Dissemination of an evidence-based multicomponent fall risk-assessment and -management strategy throughout a geographic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dorothy I; King, Mary B; Fortinsky, Richard H; Graff, Louis G; Gottschalk, Margaret; Acampora, Denise; Preston, Jeanette; Brown, Cynthia J; Tinetti, Mary E

    2005-04-01

    To report on the penetration of, and identified barriers to and facilitators of, efforts to incorporate evidence-based fall risk assessment and management into clinical practice throughout a defined geographic area. Dissemination project. North central Connecticut. Hospitals, home care agencies, primary care providers, and outpatient rehabilitation facilities. Multiple professional behavior-change strategies were used to encourage providers to incorporate evidence-based fall assessment and management into their practices. Penetration of dissemination efforts over 36 months; barriers and facilitators identified by provider working groups during the first 2 years of the project. All seven hospitals and 26 home care agencies in the area, 119 of 130 rehabilitation facilities, and 138 of 212 primary care offices participated. Most provider working groups expressed similar barriers and facilitating factors. Reported barriers specific to fall risk management included lack of awareness of fall morbidity and preventability, perceived lack of expertise and Medicare coverage, inadequate referral patterns among providers, and lack of a federal mandate for physicians. Facilitating factors specific to falls included the opportunity to market new services and to develop new networks of professional relationships across disciplines and the Medicare mandate that home care agencies focus on functional outcomes. Dissemination efforts showed notable successes as well as challenges. Although many of the barriers were general to diffusing new practices, several were specific to fall assessment and management that span disciplines and sites. Project results have implications for efforts to diffuse evidence-based practices for multifactorial geriatric conditions such as falls.

  8. Potential distribution of the endangered endemic lizard Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 (Liolaemidae: are there other suitable areas for a geographically restricted species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GR. Winck

    Full Text Available In this study we attempted to access further information on the geographical distribution of the endangered lizard Liolaemus lutzae, estimating its potential distribution through the maximum entropy algorithm. For this purpose, we related its points of occurrence with matrices of environmental variables. After examining the correlation between environmental matrices, we selected 10 for model construction. The main variables influencing the current geographic distribution of L. lutzae were the diurnal temperature range and altitude. The species endemism seemed to be a consequence of a reduction of the original distribution area. Alternatively, the resulting model may reflect the geographic distribution of an ancestral lineage, since the model selected areas of occurrence of the two other species of Liolaemus from Brazil (L. arambarensis and L. occipitalis, all living in sand dune habitats and having psamophilic habits. Due to the high loss rate of habitat occupied by the species, the conservation and recovery of the remaining areas affected by human actions is essential.

  9. Predicting habitat suitability and geographic distribution of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) due to climate change in the coastal areas off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Andrade, Isabel; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Hormazabal, Samuel; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio; Böhm, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    results of this work show that the model has produced robust estimates of habitat suitability and geographic distribution off Chile and has been especially effective in capturing the spatial and temporal variability of CPUE. Using IDRISI geographical information system (GIS), these HSI models simulated monthly changes in the habitat suitability (i.e., relative abundance) and distribution of anchovy off Chile forced by changes in the regionalised SST and Chl-a as projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a moderate negative change of 17% and 13% for the north and central-south areas, respectively, in the habitat suitability (i.e., potential relative abundance) of anchovy by 2055.

  10. Crossing physical simulations of snow conditions and a geographic model of ski area to assess ski resorts vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Hugues; Spandre, Pierre; Morin, Samuel; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Lejeune, Yves

    2016-04-01

    In order to face climate change, meteorological variability and the recurrent lack of natural snow on the ground, ski resorts adaptation often rely on technical responses. Indeed, since the occurrence of episodes with insufficient snowfalls in the early 1990's, snowmaking has become an ordinary practice of snow management, comparable to grooming, and contributes to optimise the operation of ski resorts. It also participates to the growth of investments and is associated with significant operating costs, and thus represents a new source of vulnerability. The assessment of the actual effects of snowmaking and of snow management practices in general is a real concern for the future of the ski industry. The principal model use to simulate snow conditions in resorts, Ski Sim, has also been moving this way. Its developers introduced an artificial input of snow on ski area to complete natural snowfalls and considered different organisations of ski lifts (lower and upper zones). However the use of a degree-day model prevents them to consider the specific properties of artificial snow and the impact of grooming on the snowpack. A first proof of concept in the French Alps has shown the feasibility and the interest to cross the geographic model of ski areas and the output of the physically-based reanalysis of snow conditions SAFRAN - Crocus (François et al., CRST 2014). Since these initial developments, several ways have been explored to refine our model. A new model of ski areas has been developed. Our representation is now based on gravity derived from a DEM and ski lift localisation. A survey about snow management practices also allowed us to define criteria in order to model snowmaking areas given ski areas properties and tourism infrastructures localisation. We also suggest to revisit the assessment of ski resort viability based on the "one hundred days rule" based on natural snow depth only. Indeed, the impact of snow management must be considered so as to propose

  11. [Cartography and geographical spread of the adventitious species of brome (Bromus spp.) among cereals in the Sais area of Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamal, A; Benbella, M; Rzozi, S B; Bouhache, M; Msatef, Y

    2001-01-01

    Bromus spp is causing serious problems in wheat in the Sais area. However, the damage of this weed varies from one region to another according to the agro-climatic conditions and crop systems. The characterization of the infestation level in each situation is a prerequisite to develop a control strategy adapted to each environment. This study was undertaken in order to determine the infestation level and geographical spread of the weedy brome (Bromus spp) on wheat in Sais following crop systems and pedo-climatic conditions. The results obtained during two consecutive years (1998-99 and 1999-2000) revealed that ripgut brome (Bromus rigidus Roth.) was the most dominant species in wheat fields in the surveyed regions, followed by B. rubens L., B. sterilis L., B. madritensis L. and B. mollus L. Among, 18 regions and 100 infested wheat fields, 16.67% of fields were slightly infested (Plant density of Bromus (Dbr 400 plants/m2). The maximum relative frequency was obtained with Bromus rigidus (47.15%) and the coverage was 40.43%. But, for B.rubens, B. madritensis and B. sterilis, the relative frequencies were respectively 31.42; 26 and 15% and their coverages were respectively 28.9, 20.4 and 12.5%.

  12. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Sandoval County Area, New Mexico (Parts of Los Alamos, Sandoval and Rio Arriba Counties)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  13. nowCOAST's Map Service for Geo-Referenced Hyperlinks to Forecasts for Geographic Areas or Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST geolinks map service provides maps depicting the locations of geographic zones and points where NWS forecasts are available along with...

  14. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Lincoln National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Lincoln and Otero Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Rio Arriba Area, New Mexico, Parts of Rio Arriba and Sandoval Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola Area, New Mexico, Parts of Cibola, McKinley, and Valencia Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Shiprock Area, Parts of San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Geographic Distribution of the Tortoises and Freshwater Turtles of Colombia and their Representation in the Protected Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Forero-Medina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has a remarkable diversity of tortoises and freshwater turtles. However, a considerable portion of these species is threatened, and for others there is not enough information to make an adequate evaluation of their conservation status. This study is a first approximation to the quantitative evaluation of the geographic distribution of Colombia’s non-marine chelonians. Based on records of occurrence for each species, we evaluated the geographic distribution using statistical models (Maxent, hydrological basins, and the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy. Based on the presence data and the models, we studied the representation of each species in National Natural Parks (NNP, which correspond to the most rigorous conservation category of IUCN classification in Colombia, and other types of protected areas such as Private Reserves. We generated distribution models and estimated the area (km2 for 25 out of 27 species in the country. This information will be valuable for updating and evaluating the threat categories at the national level. The areas with the highest species richness correspond to the riverine ecosystems of the Amazon and Orinoco river basins and the Caribbean region, particularly the western Caribbean. This region is a top priority not only because of its richness butalso because of the presence of endemics and its high levelof threat. Only 56 % of the species have confirmed recordswithin National Parks. A greater portion could be present in these areas according to the statistical models, but only ten of those species would have more than 10 % of their ranges within a park’s boundary. Although the resulting models have certain limitations due to the nature of the data and analyses, they can be a starting point for research on the occurrence of turtles in NNP. Endemic species are poorly represented in protected areas, both in NNP and in other categories. Thus, protected areas that can assure the persistence of their

  19. Systemic pathological effects induced by cobra (Naja naja) venom from geographically distinct origins of Indian peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidharamurthy, R; Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Ragupathi, L; Vishwanath, B S; Kemparaju, K

    2010-11-01

    Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom from different geographical locations varied in its composition and biochemical, pharmacological and immunological properties. Recently it has been shown that the variation in composition of venom from different geographical origin of Indian peninsula is due to the quantitative difference in the same components and also the presence of different biochemical entities with respect to their origin. This disparity in venom composition may be due to several environmental factors. However, very little is known about the systemic effects on vital organs caused by the venom due to regional variation. In the present investigation, the venom samples procured from eastern, western and southern regions were compared for histopathological effects on skeletal muscle and some vital organs (heart, lungs, liver and kidney) in the mouse model. All the three venom samples damaged vital organs such as cardiac muscle, gastrocnemius muscle, liver, lungs and kidneys; however, the extent of damage varied greatly. Eastern venom predominantly damaged cardiac muscle and kidney, western venom injured the liver and the southern venom affected the lung. In addition, the eastern venom caused the recruitment of a flux of inflammatory cells in the skeletal muscle unlike southern and western venom samples. These results suggest the diversity of target-specific toxins in all the three regional venoms. Thus, the study explores the possible variations in the pathological effects of cobra (Naja naja) venom samples on vital organs due to geographical distribution in the Indian subcontinent. It also emphasizes the importance of intra-specific variation of venom samples for the production of efficacious and region-specific therapeutic antivenom. Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Blood pressure patterns in relation to geographic area of residence: a cross-sectional study of adolescents in Kogi state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugwu Chidi E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, is increasing in the developing countries and this may be connected with the economic transition in those countries. Adult hypertension is thought to be related to childhood and adolescent increases in blood pressure, and hence the need to monitor patterns in early life. This study investigates the BP patterns, and their correlates, of adolescents from different geographic areas of residence in Nigeria. Methods A total of 1,088 Nigerian adolescents from different geographic areas of residence were recruited for the study. Their blood pressures and anthropometric indices were measured using standard procedures. The association of blood pressure with height, weight, body mass index (BMI and geographic area of residence was assessed. Results Male and female urban-dwelling adolescents had significantly (p 2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females than those in the non-urban areas (20.33 ± 3.11 kg/m2 for males and 21.35 ± 3.37 kg/m2 for females though the difference was significant (p Conclusion These findings underscore the need for efforts to be made towards addressing adolescent blood pressure elevation (in both urban and non-urban areas as they are a reflection of adult morbidity and mortality from hypertension and the associated disorders.

  1. Application of human and animal viral microbial source tracking tools in fresh and marine waters from five different geographical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Fernandez-Cassi, Xavier; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Vieira, Carmen; Kern, Anita; Eriksson, Irene; Ziros, Panos; Kay, David; Miagostovich, Marize; Vargha, Marta; Allard, Annika; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Wyn-Jones, Peter; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2014-08-01

    due to the low temperatures and/or the lack of solar inactivation. Porcine and bovine markers were detected where intensive livestock and agricultural activities were present; mean concentration values of 10(3) GC/L indicated that farms were sometimes unexpected and important sources of fecal contamination in water. During spring and summer, when livestock is outdoors and river flows are low, animal pollution increases due to diffuse contamination and direct voiding of feces onto the catchment surface. The field studies described here demonstrate the dynamics of fecal contamination in all catchments studied, and the data obtained is currently being used to develop dissemination models of fecal contamination in water with respect to future climate change scenarios. The results concerning human and animal targets presented in this study demonstrate the specificity and applicability of the viral quantitative parameters developed to widely divergent geographical areas and their high interest as new indicators of human and animal fecal contamination in water and as MST tools.

  2. Geocomputation and Spatial Modelling for Geographical Drought Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Hustopeče Area, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Aleš; Kolejka, Jaromír; Batelková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon of drought is serious in many landscapes with continental patterns of climate. In fact, drought risk is usually assessed in terms of prevailing issue (meteorological, hydrological, agronomical, etc.) and not in terms of complex landscape features. A procedure for detailed geographical drought risk modelling has been developed using recent meteorological data of dry period and prior precipitations, as well as a digital elevation model and geographic data layers of natural landscape features and land cover. The current version of the procedure starts with meteorological data (temperature and precipitation) processing followed by the use of soil and geological data and land cover, the national CORINE LC 2006 CZ database, for assessing the impact of the local natural features on drought risk. The methodology is based on GIS tools, geodata of the geological structure of the area (water holding capacity of the substrate, the horizontal and vertical water conductivity), soil cover (in agricultural and forested areas, soil types and kinds), landscape cover (land use), relief (digital elevation model and its derivatives), temperature and precipitation data from neighbouring representative meteorological and climate stations. The procedure uses regression equation for temperature and precipitation risk modelling, fuzzy standardization for estimation of different water retention within land cover categories and expert estimation for risk categories within rocks and soils. The final calculation is based on spatial decision-making techniques, especially the weighted sum method with a natural breaks reclassification algorithm. Combining geodata of soils, the geological environment and the active surface with their computed humidity conditions, it is possible to identify areas with a graded risk of geographic drought. The final results do not represent partial values, but identify five risk classes in the study area illustrating a possible level of geographical

  3. Geocomputation and Spatial Modelling for Geographical Drought Risk Assessment: A Case Study of the Hustopeče Area, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, Aleš; Kolejka, Jaromír; Batelková, Kateřina

    2017-02-01

    The phenomenon of drought is serious in many landscapes with continental patterns of climate. In fact, drought risk is usually assessed in terms of prevailing issue (meteorological, hydrological, agronomical, etc.) and not in terms of complex landscape features. A procedure for detailed geographical drought risk modelling has been developed using recent meteorological data of dry period and prior precipitations, as well as a digital elevation model and geographic data layers of natural landscape features and land cover. The current version of the procedure starts with meteorological data (temperature and precipitation) processing followed by the use of soil and geological data and land cover, the national CORINE LC 2006 CZ database, for assessing the impact of the local natural features on drought risk. The methodology is based on GIS tools, geodata of the geological structure of the area (water holding capacity of the substrate, the horizontal and vertical water conductivity), soil cover (in agricultural and forested areas, soil types and kinds), landscape cover (land use), relief (digital elevation model and its derivatives), temperature and precipitation data from neighbouring representative meteorological and climate stations. The procedure uses regression equation for temperature and precipitation risk modelling, fuzzy standardization for estimation of different water retention within land cover categories and expert estimation for risk categories within rocks and soils. The final calculation is based on spatial decision-making techniques, especially the weighted sum method with a natural breaks reclassification algorithm. Combining geodata of soils, the geological environment and the active surface with their computed humidity conditions, it is possible to identify areas with a graded risk of geographic drought. The final results do not represent partial values, but identify five risk classes in the study area illustrating a possible level of geographical

  4. The relationship between genus richness and geographic area in Late Cretaceous marine biotas: epicontinental sea versus open-ocean-facing settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarcino, Anne J; Miller, Arnold I

    2012-01-01

    For present-day biotas, close relationships have been documented between the number of species in a given region and the area of the region. To date, however, there have been only limited studies of these relationships in the geologic record, particularly for ancient marine biotas. The recent development of large-scale marine paleontological databases, in conjunction with enhanced geographical mapping tools, now allow for their investigation. At the same time, there has been renewed interest in comparing the environmental and paleobiological properties of two broad-scale marine settings: epicontinental seas, broad expanses of shallow water covering continental areas, and open-ocean-facing settings, shallow shelves and coastlines that rim ocean basins. Recent studies indicate that spatial distributions of taxa and the kinetics of taxon origination and extinction may have differed in these two settings. Against this backdrop, we analyze regional Genus-Area Relationships (GARs) of Late Cretaceous marine invertebrates in epicontinental sea and open-ocean settings using data from the Paleobiology Database. We present a new method for assessing GARs that is particularly appropriate for fossil data when the geographic distribution of these data is patchy and uneven. Results demonstrate clear relationships between genus richness and area for regions worldwide, but indicate that as area increases, genus richness increases more per unit area in epicontinental seas than in open-ocean settings. This difference implies a greater degree of compositional heterogeneity as a function of geographic area in epicontinental sea settings, a finding that is consistent with the emerging understanding of physical differences in the nature of water masses between the two marine settings.

  5. Size and shape variability in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae from two geographic areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bornholdt

    Full Text Available We present a quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and geographic variation in the skull of Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 assessed by geometric morphometrics. Differences in size and shape of skulls were investigated using 30 landmarks plotted on two-dimensional images of lateral and ventral views. Results of geometric morphometrics revealed sexual dimorphism in the centroid size of the skull in both views. Females were larger than males. Nevertheless, there was no sexual dimorphism in skull shape of M. nigricans. Geographic variation was detected in size and shape of the skull. South Brazilian specimens were significantly larger than Ceará specimens only in the lateral view. Differences in skull shape were statistically significant in both views: specimens from South Brazil were brevirostri and presented a more expanded skull in the posterior region while Ceará specimens were longirostri and do not present any expansion in the brain case. Ecological factors for these phenomena are discussed in the text.

  6. A comparison of complementary and alternative medicine users and use across geographical areas: A national survey of 1,427 women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence indicates that people who reside in non-urban areas have a higher use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) than people who reside in urban areas. However, there is sparse research on the reasons for such differences. This paper investigates the reasons for geographical differences in CAM use by comparing CAM users from four geographical areas (major cities, inner regional, outer region, rural/remote) across a range of health status, healthcare satisfaction, neighbourhood and community factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1,427 participants from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) conducted in 2009. Results The average total cost of consultations with CAM practitioners was $416 per annum and was highest for women in the major cities, declining with increasing distance from capital cities/remoteness (p < 0.001). The average total cost of self-prescribed CAM was $349 per annum, but this did not significantly differ across geographical areas. The increased use of CAM in rural and remote areas appears to be influenced by poorer access to conventional medical care (p < 0.05) and a greater sense of community (p < 0.05) amongst these rural and remote residents. In contrast to the findings of previous research this study found that health status was not associated with the differences in CAM use between urban and non-urban areas. Conclusion It appears that a number of factors influence the different levels of CAM use across the urban/non-urban divide. Further research is needed to help tease out and understand these factors. Such research will help support health care policy and practice with regards to this topic. PMID:21981986

  7. On the geographical distribution of induced time-varying crustal magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thebault, E.; Hemant, K.; Hulot, G.

    2009-01-01

    A long standing question in geomagnetism is whether the time variation of the induced crustal field is a detectable quantity and, if so, at which spatial wavelengths. We tackle this problem with the help of a forward modeling approach using a vertically integrated susceptibility (VIS) grid of the......, and repeat station measurements are available over several decades....

  8. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  9. Short communication: Conservation of Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule and the sua gene in strains of Streptococcus uberis isolated from geographically diverse areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Dego, Oudessa Kerro; Chen, Xueyan; Abadin, Eurife; Chan, Shangfeng; Jory, Lauren; Kovacevic, Steven; Almeida, Raul A; Oliver, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to identify and sequence the sua gene (GenBank no. DQ232760; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) and detect Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) expression by Western blot using serum from naturally S. uberis-infected cows in strains of S. uberis isolated in milk from cows with mastitis from geographically diverse areas of the world. All strains evaluated yielded a 4.4-kb sua-containing PCR fragment that was subsequently sequenced. Deduced SUAM AA sequences from those S. uberis strains evaluated shared >97% identity. The pepSUAM sequence located at the N terminus of SUAM was >99% identical among strains of S. uberis. Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule expression was detected in all strains of S. uberis tested. These results suggest that sua is ubiquitous among strains of S. uberis isolated from diverse geographic locations and that SUAM is immunogenic.

  10. Do turtles follow the rules? Latitudinal gradients in species richness, body size, and geographic range area of the world's turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angielczyk, Kenneth D; Burroughs, Robert W; Feldman, Chris R

    2015-05-01

    Understanding how and why biodiversity is structured across the globe has been central to ecology, evolution, and biogeography even before those disciplines took their modern forms. Three global-scale patterns in particular have been the focus of research and debate for decades: latitudinal gradients in species richness (richness decreases with increasing latitude), body size (body size increases with increasing latitude in endotherms; Bergmann's rule), and geographic range size (range size increases with increasing latitude; Rapoport's rule). Despite decades of study, the generality and robustness of these trends have been debated, as have their underlying causes. Here we investigate latitudinal gradients in species richness, body size, and range size in the world's turtles (Testudines), and add more evidence that these rules do not seem to apply across all taxa. We show that turtle diversity actually peaks at 25° north, a highly unusual global pattern. Turtles also fail to follow Bergmann's Rule, and may show the converse (larger at lower latitudes), though trends are weak. Turtles also show a complex relationship between latitude and range size that does not directly follow Rapoport's rule. Body size and geographic range size are significantly correlated, and multiple abiotic and biotic variables help explain the relationships between latitude and species diversity, body size, and range size. Although we show that turtles do not strictly follow some classic biogeographical rules, we also call for further in-depth research to investigate potential causal mechanisms for these atypical patterns.

  11. Geographic trends and spread of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the metropolitan areas of Japan studied from the national sentinel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaida, Shinako; Yasui, Yoshinori; Tada, Yuki; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The identification of geographic trends of an influenza pandemic is important for analyzing its social epidemic factors. We performed spatiotemporal analyses focusing on the metropolitan areas in Japan by using the influenza-like illness (ILI) sentinel surveillance data for the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal influenza. The epidemic curves and spread features expressed by the kriging method of geographic information system (GIS) and correlations between reported cases and demographic data were analyzed. The incidence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 increased gradually at the beginning and showed more sporadic epidemic features compared to seasonal influenza. However, there were coincidental locations of patient clusters affected by the seasonal influenza, with a significant coefficient for the total sentinel reported cases (r = 0.71, P < 0.01). This suggested similar patterns of the epidemic over seasons. Patient clusters tended to be located in suburban areas, and there seemed to be stronger relationships between epidemics and higher ratio of larger families (with r = 0.26-0.35, P < 0.01, between ratio of families having more than 3 members and total reported cases in Tokyo and Nagoya areas). Whether populous areas had a greater probability of maintaining the epidemic patterns needs to be determined. Nonetheless, the patterns found in this study can be useful for further analyses for epidemic modeling and designing relevant controls.

  12. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Toxicity and persistence of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) in human have raised considerable concern and several biomonitoring studies throughout the world reported the widespread occurrence of these compounds in human tissues. However, information regarding influence of geographic, lifestyle and demographic factor on PFAS levels in human blood tissues is limited. In this study, whole blood samples collected in 2006–2007 from 319 donors from suburban Seoul (Suwon and Yongin), Busan and Yeosu in Korea were analyzed for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Blood donors classified into seven age groups with ages ranging from 8 to 82 years, and different lifestyles and socio-economic status. PFOS (median = 4.15 ng/mL) was found at the highest concentration with a maximum concentration of 59.1 ng/mL. The concentrations of other PFASs were in the decreasing order of; PFOA (median = 1.30 ng/mL) > PFNA (median = 0.85 ng/mL) > PFHxS (median = 0.47 ng/mL) > PFOSA (median = 0.12 ng/mL). Geographical differences in the concentrations of five target PFASs were found. Significant positive relationships between PFAS concentrations and the age of the donors were found. Gender-related differences were found in the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. No association was found between PFAS levels and several lifestyle factors and socio-economic status which included drinking habit, furniture/carpet in an indoor environment and monthly income. Occupation was an important determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations in the whole blood. Except for PFOSA, significant associations were noted between PFASs concentrations and smoking habit. The results of this study provide information for further public health monitoring and safety management for PFASs in Korea. - Highlights: • Significant geographical differences in PFAS levels in whole

  13. Geographic information systems and applied spatial statistics are efficient tools to study Hansen's disease (leprosy) and to determine areas of greater risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, José Wilton; Dias, Gutemberg H; Nobre, Maurício Lisboa; De Sousa Dias, Márcia C; Araújo, Sérgio F; Barbosa, James D; Bezerra da Trindade-Neto, Pedro; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Jeronimo, Selma M B

    2010-02-01

    Applied Spatial Statistics used in conjunction with geographic information systems (GIS) provide an efficient tool for the surveillance of diseases. Here, using these tools we analyzed the spatial distribution of Hansen's disease in an endemic area in Brazil. A sample of 808 selected from a universe of 1,293 cases was geocoded in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Hansen's disease cases were not distributed randomly within the neighborhoods, with higher detection rates found in more populated districts. Cluster analysis identified two areas of high risk, one with a relative risk of 5.9 (P = 0.001) and the other 6.5 (P = 0.001). A significant relationship between the geographic distribution of disease and the social economic variables indicative of poverty was observed. Our study shows that the combination of GIS and spatial analysis can identify clustering of transmissible disease, such as Hansen's disease, pointing to areas where intervention efforts can be targeted to control disease.

  14. Sustainable Growth in Urbanised Delta Areas: the Opportunities of a Geographical Approach to the Pearl River Delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.; Nillisen, A.L.; Schamhart, C.; Lugt, N.

    2006-01-01

    The attractions of delta areas have boomed economies and founded major cities, but the threats of the adjacent water have persisted and natural resources have declined. The objective to facilitate sustainable urban growth in delta areas can only be met by a simultaneous approach of all the stakehold

  15. Time trends and geographic variations for thyroid cancer in New Caledonia, a very high incidence area (1985-1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thérèse; Rougier, Yannick; Dubourdieu, Dominique; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Orsi, Laurent; Hémon, Denis; Guénel, Pascal

    2007-02-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence in New Caledonia is the highest reported in the world and is approximately 10-fold higher than in most developed countries. We describe the incidence patterns in this country according to histological and sociodemographic characteristics to give clues about potential etiologic factors. Another objective is to see whether the incidence figures are related to enhanced detection of small size carcinomas. The study included all 498 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed in 1985-1999. Pathology reports were systematically reviewed to determine the histological type of the tumor and the size of the cancerous nodules. The incidence of carcinomas 10 mm was also observed among women. The analysis by municipality of residence in Melanesian women showed that the incidence was twice as high in 1995-1999 in the Loyalty Islands as in the rest of the country. The sharp increase of thyroid cancer incidence in 1985-1999 in New Caledonia was partly related to enhanced detection of small size carcinomas. The elevated incidence of thyroid cancers, as well as the ethnic and geographic disparities, may result from common environmental or lifestyle risk factors that need to be identified.

  16. Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between the elevation of the static water level in wells and the elevation of the accounting surface within the Colorado River aquifer in the vicinity of Vidal, California, the Chemehuevi Indian Reservation, California, and on Mohave Mesa, Arizona, were used to determine which wells outside the flood plain of the Colorado River are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Wells that have a static water-level elevation equal to or below the elevation of the accounting surface are presumed to yield water that will be replaced by water from the Colorado River. Geographic Information System (GIS) interpolation tools were used to produce maps of areas where water levels are above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the accounting surface. Calculated water-level elevations and interpolated accounting-surface elevations were determined for 33 wells in the vicinity of Vidal, 16 wells in the Chemehuevi area, and 35 wells on Mohave Mesa. Water-level measurements generally were taken in the last 10 years with steel and electrical tapes accurate to within hundredths of a foot. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) was used to determine land-surface elevations to within an operational accuracy of ? 0.43 foot, resulting in calculated water-level elevations having a 95-percent confidence interval of ? 0.84 foot. In the Vidal area, differences in elevation between the accounting surface and measured water levels range from -2.7 feet below to as much as 17.6 feet above the accounting surface. Relative differences between the elevation of the water level and the elevation of the accounting surface decrease from west to east and from north to south. In the Chemehuevi area, differences in elevation range from -3.7 feet below to as much as 8.7 feet above the accounting surface, which is established at 449.6 feet in the vicinity of Lake Havasu. In all of the Mohave Mesa area, the water-level elevation is near or below the

  17. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and multinodular non-toxic goiter in an inpatient population from a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, D; De Filippo, G; Mossetti, G; Zampa, G; Muscariello, R; Benvenuto, G; Vivona, C L; Ippolito, S; Galante, F; Lombardi, G; Biondi, B; Strazzullo, P

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance predispose individuals to the development of both metabolic syndrome and non-toxic nodular thyroid diseases. The aim of this observational, cross-sectional study is to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and multinodular nontoxic goiter in an inpatient population from a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency. We examined 1422 Caucasian euthyroid inpatients. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound of the neck. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed to evaluate single thyroid nodules and dominant nodules ≥15 mm in euthyroid multinodular goiter. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the criteria of the American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Of the sample, 277 patients had clinical evidence of multinodular nontoxic goiter, 461 met the criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, and 132 were found to have both conditions. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, nicotinism, parity, alcohol intake, thyroid function, and metabolic syndrome- related pharmacological treatment, metabolic syndrome was found to be an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multinodular non-toxic goiter. The relationship between metabolic syndrome and multi nodular non-toxic goiter was apparent in both men and women. In this study of euthyroid inpatients, we demonstrate that metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of multinodular non-toxic goiter in a geographic area with moderate iodine deficiency. We propose that patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome should be screened for the presence of multinodular non-toxic goiter.

  18. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Feng Wan

    Full Text Available Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province during a continuous three-year (2010-2012 investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  19. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province) during a continuous three-year (2010-2012) investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  20. Bend-Induced Distortion in Large Mode Area Holey Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Xiao-Ling; GENG You-Fu; ZHANG Tie-Li; WANG Wei-Neng; WANG Peng; YAO Jian-Quan

    2008-01-01

    A simplified scheme of bend-induced mode distortion is introduced into bent holey fibres,the distorted mode distribution and mode effective area reduction are investigated using the finite difference method.Numerical results show that the modes of bent holey fibres with small bend radius shift away from the core and are deformed greatly,and the mode areas drop significantly as the bend radius decreases,which severely affects the fibre laser performance.The propagation characteristics of bent holey fibres at given wavelength are determined by fill factor and normalized bend radius.Finally,the transition normalized bend radius that represents the location of the mode area beginning to fall off is obtained.

  1. Be-safe travel, a web-based geographic application to explore safe-route in an area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utamima, Amalia; Djunaidy, Arif

    2017-08-01

    In large cities in developing countries, the various forms of criminality are often found. For instance, the most prominent crimes in Surabaya, Indonesia is 3C, that is theft with violence (curas), theft by weighting (curat), and motor vehicle theft (curanmor). 3C case most often occurs on the highway and residential areas. Therefore, new entrants in an area should be aware of these kind of crimes. Route Planners System or route planning system such as Google Maps only consider the shortest distance in the calculation of the optimal route. The selection of the optimal path in this study not only consider the shortest distance, but also involves other factors, namely the security level. This research considers at the need for an application to recommend the safest road to be passed by the vehicle passengers while drive an area. This research propose Be-Safe Travel, a web-based application using Google API that can be accessed by people who like to drive in an area, but still lack of knowledge of the pathways which are safe from crime. Be-Safe Travel is not only useful for the new entrants, but also useful for delivery courier of valuables goods to go through the safest streets.

  2. Development of a Geographical Information System for the monitoring of the health infrastructure in rural areas in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Setting up Geographical Information Systems (GIS on the existing health infrastructure and ongoing and planned interventions in public health in Tanzania is still in its infancy. While there are several activities on gathering information and attempts of documentation there does not exist an overall systematic approach of generally capturing all health related facts and bringing them together into a unique information system yet. In order to strengthen the information system in the health sector in general, and to assist Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW in better receiving an overview of health related infrastructure and intervention data for management purpose, a first-pilot GIS was built up in the Mbeya Region in cooperation with Tanzanian German Programme to Support Health (TGPSH/Gesellschaft für technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ.

    Methods: The Health-GIS contains information on all health facilities (HF in the region and their infrastructure. Therefore, personal interviews were conducted in selected HF based on a comprehensive questionnaire. The spatial coordinates of the HF were taken with a Global Positioning System (GPS. In a relational database, the newly coded HF are linked to the gathered information pertaining to them and in a second step are analysed and visualised with help of GIS. Results: First results show newly collected geometry and attribute data for a considerable number of HFs in Mbeya Region, which are then supplemented by information on the street network lately surveyed during the fieldtrip. With the help of a database management system (DBMS all information are stored and maintained within one health database. By their spatial relation, data may be analysed and mapped with a Health-GIS. Because of the targeted cooperation with people and institutions from the local health sector, the way for integrating the Health-GIS into the health

  3. Mapping the geographical diffusion of new words

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenstein, Jacob; Smith, Noah A; Xing, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Language in social media is rich with linguistic innovations, most strikingly in the new words and spellings that constantly enter the lexicon. Despite assertions about the power of social media to connect people across the world, we find that many of these neologisms are restricted to geographically compact areas. Even for words that become ubiquituous, their growth in popularity is often geographical, spreading from city to city. Thus, social media text offers a unique opportunity to study the diffusion of lexical change. In this paper, we show how an autoregressive model of word frequencies in social media can be used to induce a network of linguistic influence between American cities. By comparing the induced network with the geographical and demographic characteristics of each city, we can measure the factors that drive the spread of lexical innovation.

  4. [Geographical distribution of medical expenditure for the aged insured by National Health Insurance in secondary medical care areas in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T; Tanihara, S; Yanagawa, H

    1998-06-01

    To determine what factors affect medical expenditure for the aged insured by the National Health Insurance among secondary medical care areas. The original data of municipalities were combined and converted into the data of secondary medical areas. The original data included medical expenditure of the aged in 1994, medical supply factors per 100,000 population (numbers of doctors, numbers of general beds in hospitals, numbers of clinics, etc.) and socio-economic factors (income, proportion of employees for three sectors of industries, population density, average size of family, etc.). Medical expenditures for inpatients and outpatients were used separately as independent variables. The medical supply and socio-economic factors have been used as dependent variables. Multiple regression models were applied to clarify the differences in the contributing factors between inpatient and outpatient. 1. The maximum inpatient and outpatient medical expenditures for the aged are respectively 4 times and 2.6 times more expensive than minimum expenditures among secondary medical care areas. 2. The numbers of beds, income per capita, numbers of doctor, average size of family, proportion of employees for third level industry and income accounted for 57.4% of variance in inpatient medical expenditure of the aged. 3. The proportion of employees for first level industry, the numbers of beds and average members of family accounted for 21.4% of variance in outpatient medical expenditure of the aged. 4. Medical expenditure for inpatients related with medical supply and socioeconomic factors differently from that of outpatients.

  5. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  6. Influence of Changes in Political Barriers and of Geographic Distance on Kinship Inferred from Surnames and Migration Data in Olivenza, Spain, and Surrounding Portuguese Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Busto, J

    2015-04-01

    The existing relationship between human populations is a function of their migratory and genetic exchange, which will be inversely proportional to the distance separating them. The effect of geographic distance on population structure may be estimated by means of isonymic methods that use information on the surnames present in a territory as an approximation to the distribution of allele frequencies. The objective of this study was to analyze whether the 1801 modification of the political border in an area surrounding the town of Olivenza, which experienced a change of sovereignty from Portugal to Spain, has had a noticeable influence on the migration pattern and isolation by distance in that region. For this purpose, data from marriage records of Olivenza and the neighboring Portuguese municipalities of Alandroal, Juromenha, Elvas, Vila Boim (and Terrugem), Terena, Monsaraz, and Vila Viçosa were analyzed. Rates of diversity and inbreeding coefficients were determined to analyze the population structure before (1775-1801) and after (1802-1825) the change of domain. The results show that after the border modification the migration matrices changed differently according to sex, therefore altering the relationship between the various localities of the territory. In Olivenza inbreeding declined slightly and surnames became more heterogeneous. Moreover, after the change of domain the isolation-by-distance models illustrate a temporal reduction in the relative weight of geographical distance on interpopulation kinship. The political border acted as a factor in population differentiation in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal).

  7. Geographic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  8. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin-Fernandez Judith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2 and overweight (BMI ≥ 25 were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55 and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age, and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men ( Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and obesity prevention.

  9. Geographical venom variations of the Southeast Asian monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia): venom-induced neuromuscular depression and antivenom neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kae Yi; Tan, Choo Hock; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Nget Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Southeast Asian monocled cobras (Naja kaouthia) exhibit geographical variations in their venom proteomes, especially on the composition of neurotoxins. This study compared the neuromuscular depressant activity of the venoms of N. kaouthia from Malaysia (NK-M), Thailand (NK-T) and Vietnam (NK-V), and the neutralization of neurotoxicity by a monospecific antivenom. On chick biventer cervicis nerve-muscle preparation, all venoms abolished the indirect twitches, with NK-T venom being the most potent (shortest t90, time to 90% twitch inhibition), followed by NK-V and NK-M. Acetylcholine and carbachol failed to reverse the blockade, indicating irreversible/pseudo-irreversible post-synaptic neuromuscular blockade. KCl restored the twitches variably (NK-M preparation being the least responsive), consistent with different degree of muscle damage. The findings support that NK-T venom has the most abundant curarimimetic alpha-neurotoxins, while NK-M venom contains more tissue-damaging cytotoxins. Pre-incubation of tissue with N. kaouthia monovalent antivenom (NKMAV) prevented venom-induced twitch depression, with the NK-T preparation needing the largest antivenom dose. NKMAV added after the onset of neuromuscular depression could only halt the inhibitory progression but failed to restore full contraction. The findings highlight the urgency of early antivenom administration to sequester as much circulating neurotoxins as possible, thereby hastening toxin elimination from the circulation. In envenomed mice, NKMAV administered upon the first neurological sign neutralized the neurotoxic effect, with the slowest full recovery noticed in the NK-T group. This is consistent with the high abundance of neurotoxins in the NK-T venom, implying that a larger amount or repeated dosing of NKMAV may be required in NK-T envenomation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Antimicrobial Effect of 15 Medicinal Plant Species and their Dependency on Climatic Conditions of Growth in Different Geographical and Ecological Areas of Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abdollahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of medicinal plants are variable in different conditions. Here, the antimicrobial effect of 15 medicinal plant species and their dependency on the climatic condition of growth in different geographical and ecological areas of Fars Province were studied. Materials and Methods: In This empirical study, the antimicrobial effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of 15 medicinal plant species was examined against standard bacterial strains comparing to conventional therapeutic antibiotics using disk diffusion assay and serial broth dilution. Results: All Extracts were effective against S.aureus ATCC 25923 growth; also Peganum harmala, Myrtus communis, Mentha pulegium, Mentha spp, and Zataria multiflora extracts were observed to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli ATCC 25922. This antimicrobial activity had partially similar results, comparing to conventional antibioticsConclusion: Medicinal plants produce various amounts of antimicrobial substances under the climatic and ecological conditions of each zone, which must be considered in manufacturing herbal medicines.

  11. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pui-Jen; Yeh, Hsi-Chyi

    2013-04-29

    The Taiwan area comprises the main island of Taiwan and several small islands located off the coast of the Southern China. The eastern two-thirds of Taiwan are characterized by rugged mountains covered with tropical and subtropical vegetation. The western region of Taiwan is characterized by flat or gently rolling plains. Geographically, the Taiwan area is diverse in ecology and environment, although scrub typhus threatens local human populations. In this study, we investigate the effects of seasonal and meteorological factors on the incidence of scrub typhus infection among 10 local climate regions. The correlation between the spatial distribution of scrub typhus and cultivated forests in Taiwan, as well as the relationship between scrub typhus incidence and the population density of farm workers is examined. We applied Pearson's product moment correlation to calculate the correlation between the incidence of scrub typhus and meteorological factors among 10 local climate regions. We used the geographically weighted regression (GWR) method, a type of spatial regression that generates parameters disaggregated by the spatial units of analysis, to detail and map each regression point for the response variables of the standardized incidence ratio (SIR)-district scrub typhus. We also applied the GWR to examine the explanatory variables of types of forest-land use and farm worker density in Taiwan in 2005. In the Taiwan Area, scrub typhus endemic areas are located in the southeastern regions and mountainous townships of Taiwan, as well as the Pescadore, Kinmen, and Matou Islands. Among these islands and low-incidence areas in the central western and southwestern regions of Taiwan, we observed a significant correlation between scrub typhus incidence and surface temperature. No similar significant correlation was found in the endemic areas (e.g., the southeastern region and the mountainous area of Taiwan). Precipitation correlates positively with scrub typhus incidence in

  12. Meropenem dosing requirements against Enterobacteriaceae in critically ill patients: influence of renal function, geographical area and presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, A; Canut, A; Arribas, J; Asín-Prieto, E; Rodríguez-Gascón, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the influence of the susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, specifically the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases and the geographical area (Europe and USA), on the meropenem dosing requirements in critically ill patients with different degrees of renal function by estimation of the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) target attainment. Additionally, estimation of the PK/PD breakpoints according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) approach was also an objective. Six dosing regimens were evaluated: 0.5 g, 1 g and 2 g every 8 h given as 0.5-h or 3-h infusions. Pharmacokinetic data were obtained from the literature, and susceptibility data to meropenem for E. coli and K. pneumoniae were collected from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T.) surveillance study. For the same dose level, the 3-h infusion provided a probability of target attainment (PTA) ≥90 % for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values up to two-fold dilution higher than those obtained with the 0.5-h infusion. For E. coli, the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) was 100 % in most cases, and neither the dose nor the infusion length nor the geographical area significantly affected the probability to reach the target. With regards to K. pneumoniae, the CFR increased when increasing the dose and decreasing the creatinine clearance (CLCR). The CFR for Spanish and USA strains was higher than that calculated for European strains. Meropenem PK/PD breakpoints are dependent on the dose, infusion length and CLCR, ranging from 2 to 32 mg/L. Based on our results, meropenem administered as a extended infusion is the best option to treat infections due to E. coli and K. pneumoniae.

  13. Estimation of Hazard Functions in the Log-Linear Age-Period-Cohort Model: Application to Lung Cancer Risk Associated with Geographical Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengiz Mdzinarishvili

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient computing procedure for estimating the age-specific hazard functions by the log-linear age-period-cohort (LLAPC model is proposed. This procedure accounts for the influence of time period and birth cohort effects on the distribution of age-specific cancer incidence rates and estimates the hazard function for populations with different exposures to a given categorical risk factor. For these populations, the ratio of the corresponding age-specific hazard functions is proposed for use as a measure of relative hazard. This procedure was used for estimating the risks of lung cancer (LC for populations living in different geographical areas. For this purpose, the LC incidence rates in white men and women, in three geographical areas (namely: San Francisco-Oakland, Connecticut and Detroit, collected from the SEER 9 database during 1975–2004, were utilized. It was found that in white men the averaged relative hazard (an average of the relative hazards over all ages of LC in Connecticut vs. San Francisco-Oakland is 1.31 ± 0.02, while in Detroit vs. San Francisco-Oakland this averaged relative hazard is 1.53 ± 0.02. In white women, analogous hazards in Connecticut vs. San Francisco-Oakland and Detroit vs. San Francisco-Oakland are 1.22 ± 0.02 and 1.32 ± 0.02, correspondingly. The proposed computing procedure can be used for assessing hazard functions for other categorical risk factors, such as gender, race, lifestyle, diet, obesity, etc.

  14. The endemic and threatened lizard Liolaemus lutzae (Squamata: Liolaemidae: current geographic distribution and areas of occurrence with estimated population densities

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    Carlos F. D. Rocha

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938 is a critically endangered lizard endemic to the restinga habitat of the state of Rio de Janeiro. We surveyed 25 restinga habitats in order to locate remaining populations, evaluate the status of the species, and determine the nature of local habitat degradation. We found remnant populations of L. lutzae in 18 restinga habitats of six municipalities. The conservation status of each population varied between areas: the population of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro municipality, is the most preserved and the population of Praia do Forte, in Cabo Frio, is the most disturbed. No L. lutzae were found in Niterói municipality. The most destructive type of habitat degradation identified was the removal of beach vegetation associated with the construction of coastal roads and/or sidewalks, destruction of the vegetation due to trampling, vehicle traffic and garbage dumping. Our data revealed that generally, beach habitats under a larger number of impact sources were those with smaller population sizes of L. lutzae. We consider that the most effective conservation measure for L. lutzae is the strict protection of its habitat, with restoration of the original beach vegetation. Finally, we recommend vegetation recovery to be followed by a program of reintroduction of the species in localities where it has been eradicated.

  15. Hantavirus infection prevalence in wild rodents and human anti-hantavirus serological profiles from different geographic areas of South Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboni, Sonia M; Delfraro, Adriana; de Borba, Luana; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Stella, Vanessa; de Araujo, Marina R; Carstensen, Suzana; Rubio, Giselia; Maron, Angela; Lemos, Elba R S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N

    2012-08-01

    Paraná state presents the fourth highest number of accumulated cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil. To map the risk areas for hantavirus transmission we carried out a study based on rodent trapping and determined the anti-hantavirus seroprevalence in these animals and in the inhabitants of these localities. Overall seroprevalence in rodents and humans were 2.5% and 2.4%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of the seropositive rodents were genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that hantaviruses from rodent samples cluster with Araucária (Juquitiba-like) or Jaborá hantavirus genotypes. The Jaborá strain was identified in Akodon serrensis and Akodon montensis, whereas the Araucária strain was detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, A. montensis, and Akodon paranaensis, with the latter species being identified for the first time as a natural host. These findings expose the complex relationships between virus and reservoirs in Brazil, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and human epidemiology.

  16. Fault Control on Copper Depositsin the Sar Cheshmeh Area Indicated by Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Ollah Safari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Sar Cheshmeh copper deposit and indications of other deposits are located in the Dehaj-Sarduieh belt in the Kerman region (Khadem and Nedimovic, 1973. This belt is one of the most important provinces of Cu mineralization in Iran, with approximately 300 Cu deposits and prospects, includingtwenty of the porphyry copper type (Ghorbani, 2013. This belt, 300 km in length and 30–45 km width, is situated in the southern part of the Uramia-Dokhtar volcanic belt in central Iran (Shafiei, 2010. Zarasvandi (2004 has proposed that faulting has played a role in the location of copper deposition in this area. Methods of Investigation In order to check Zarasvandi’s hypothesis, the spatial relationship between faults and Cu deposits was investigated using remote sensing and GIS techniques together with field investigations in the Sar Cheshmeh area. The the following steps were used in this research: 1. Review of available data 2. Surface geology field studies 3. Preparation of digital overlay of Copper occurrences 4. Analysis of the relationshipof faulting to Copper occurrences Using remote sensing techniques, a geometrically corrected satellite image was filtered with high pass and Sharpen Edge filters to detect possible lineaments (Lillesand and Keifer, 2008; Sabins, 1996. Directional filters (45º, 90º, 135º and 180º were then applied to the processed image to enhance the linear structures. Subsequently,the major lineaments were documented in the field as major and minor faults (Safari et al., 2011. Four main faults, designated as the Rafsanjan, Mani, Gaud-e-Ahmar and Sar Cheshmeh faultswere determined to be major. These faults were digitized and overlaid on other data layers in GIS environment. The strikes, dips, striae and directions of movementof the faultswere measured at 20 locations in the field. Structural analyses were done with Rose diagrams, calculation of P-axes and preparation of a structural map. Copper occurrences on the

  17. Development of a Geographical Information System (GIS for the Integration of Solar Energy in the Energy Planning of a Wide Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelamaria Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy planning has become one of the most powerful tools for urban planning even if several constraints, (i.e., aesthetic, archaeological, landscape and technological (low diffusion of Renewable Energy Sources, RES reduce its spreading. An efficient and sustainable urban planning process should be based on detailed energy issues, such as: (i the effective energetic characteristics and needs of the area like urban density and energy consumption, (ii the integration of different RES and (iii the diffusion of high efficiency technologies for energy production like cogeneration and district heating. The above-mentioned energetic issues and constraints must be constantly updated, in order to evaluate the consequences on environment and landscape due to new distributed generation technologies. Moreover, energy strategies and policies must be adapted to the actual evolution of the area. In this paper the authors present a Geographical Information Database System (GIS DB based on: (i the availability of land use (Land Capability Classification, LCC to evaluate the productive potential; (ii the estimation of residential energy consumptions (e.g., electricity, (iii the integration of RES. The GIS DB model has been experimented in a wide area of Central Italy, considering exclusively the solar energy source for energy generation.

  18. A Combination of Geographically Weighted Regression, Particle Swarm Optimization and Support Vector Machine for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Case Study at Wanzhou in the Three Gorges Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianyu; Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Hu, Youjian

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a novel coupling model for landslide susceptibility mapping is presented. In practice, environmental factors may have different impacts at a local scale in study areas. To provide better predictions, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) technique is firstly used in our method to segment study areas into a series of prediction regions with appropriate sizes. Meanwhile, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is exploited in each prediction region for landslide susceptibility mapping. To further improve the prediction performance, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used in the prediction regions to obtain optimal parameters for the SVM classifier. To evaluate the prediction performance of our model, several SVM-based prediction models are utilized for comparison on a study area of the Wanzhou district in the Three Gorges Reservoir. Experimental results, based on three objective quantitative measures and visual qualitative evaluation, indicate that our model can achieve better prediction accuracies and is more effective for landslide susceptibility mapping. For instance, our model can achieve an overall prediction accuracy of 91.10%, which is 7.8%-19.1% higher than the traditional SVM-based models. In addition, the obtained landslide susceptibility map by our model can demonstrate an intensive correlation between the classified very high-susceptibility zone and the previously investigated landslides.

  19. Geographical/Ecological Differentials in Insecticide-Treated Net Use among Under-Five Children in Somolu Local Government Area, Lagos State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Oreoluwa O; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Awolola, Taiwo S

    2014-01-01

    Malaria control efforts currently lay emphasis on reducing transmission by limiting human-vector contact. More studies have been carried out on mosquito avoidance practices in the rural areas, leaving the urban areas understudied. This study was conducted to identify knowledge of malaria transmission and to investigate geographical/ecological differentials in the use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among caregivers of under-fives in Somolu Local Government Area, Lagos State. A household survey was conducted by interviewing 394 female caregivers of under-fives selected using the WHO Lot Quality Technique from communities stratified based on level of planning and drainage. The mean age of the respondents was 33.6 ± 7.7 years. Malaria transmission was attributed mostly to mosquito bites in all strata: S1 (58.3%), S2 (56.1%) and S3 (61.4%). Mosquito net was mentioned as a preventive measure by: 59.3% (S1), 80.7% (S2) and 64.3% (S3). Ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets was: 76.0% (S1), 75.4% (S2) and 68.6% (S3), and of these, 73.1% (S1), 70.7% (S2) and 72.4% (S3) reported that their child slept under the net the night before the survey. There is a need to reinforce education on transmission and ownership of ITNs especially among caregivers in unplanned, poorly drained communities.

  20. Geographical Analysis for Detecting High-Risk Areas for Bovine/Human Rabies Transmitted by the Common Hematophagous Bat in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begot, Alberto L.; Ramos, Ofir de S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The common hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus, is one of the main wild reservoirs of rabies virus in several regions in Latin America. New production practices and changed land use have provided environmental features that have been very favorable for D. rotundus bat populations, making this species the main transmitter of rabies in the cycle that involves humans and herbivores. In the Amazon region, these features include a mosaic of environmental, social, and economic components, which together creates areas with different levels of risk for human and bovine infections, as presented in this work in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Methodology We geo-referenced a total of 175 cases of rabies, of which 88% occurred in bovines and 12% in humans, respectively, and related these cases to a number of different geographical and biological variables. The spatial distribution was analyzed using the Kernel function, while the association with independent variables was assessed using a multi-criterion Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Findings The spatiotemporal analysis of the occurrence of rabies in bovines and humans found reduction in the number of cases in the eastern state of Pará, where no more cases were recorded in humans, whereas high infection rates were recorded in bovines in the northeastern part of the state, and low rates in the southeast. The areas of highest risk for bovine rabies are found in the proximity of rivers and highways. In the case of human rabies, the highest concentration of high-risk areas was found where the highway network coincides with high densities of rural and indigenous populations. Conclusion The high-risk areas for human and bovine rabies are patchily distributed, and related to extensive deforested areas, large herds of cattle, and the presence of highways. These findings provide an important database for the generation of epidemiological models that could support the development of effective prevention

  1. Ecological and geographical analysis of the distribution of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: importance of protected areas in future scenarios of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador.

  2. Ecological and Geographical Analysis of the Distribution of the Mountain Tapir (Tapirus pinchaque) in Ecuador: Importance of Protected Areas in Future Scenarios of Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andrade, H. Mauricio; Prieto-Torres, David A.; Gómez-Lora, Ignacio; Lizcano, Diego J.

    2015-01-01

    In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17%) occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque’s potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48%) of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador. PMID:25798851

  3. Ecological and geographical analysis of the distribution of the mountain tapir (Tapirus pinchaque in Ecuador: importance of protected areas in future scenarios of global warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mauricio Ortega-Andrade

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, Tapirus pinchaque is considered to be critically endangered. Although the species has been registered in several localities, its geographic distribution remains unclear, and the effects of climate change and current land uses on this species are largely unknown. We modeled the ecological niche of T. pinchaque using MaxEnt, in order to assess its potential adaptation to present and future climate change scenarios. We evaluated the effects of habitat loss due by current land use, the ecosystem availability and importance of Ecuadorian System of Protected Areas into the models. The model of environmental suitability estimated an extent of occurrence for species of 21,729 km2 in all of Ecuador, mainly occurring along the corridor of the eastern Ecuadorian Andes. A total of 10 Andean ecosystems encompassed ~98% of the area defined by the model, with herbaceous paramo, northeastern Andean montane evergreen forest and northeastern Andes upper montane evergreen forest being the most representative. When considering the effect of habitat loss, a significant reduction in model area (~17% occurred, and the effect of climate change represented a net reduction up to 37.86%. However, the synergistic effect of both climate change and habitat loss, given current land use practices, could represent a greater risk in the short-term, leading to a net reduction of 19.90 to 44.65% in T. pinchaque's potential distribution. Even under such a scenarios, several Protected Areas harbor a portion (~36 to 48% of the potential distribution defined by the models. However, the central and southern populations are highly threatened by habitat loss and climate change. Based on these results and due to the restricted home range of T. pinchaque, its preference for upland forests and paramos, and its small estimated population size in the Andes, we suggest to maintaining its current status as Critically Endangered in Ecuador.

  4. Prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in current, previous, and never smokers in a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, D; De Palma, D; De Filippo, G; De Pascale, F; Muscariello, R; Ippolito, R; Fazio, V; Fiengo, A; Benvenuto, D; Strazzullo, P; Galletti, F

    2015-03-01

    Simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are 2 frequent nonmalignant thyroid diseases. Tobacco smoking has detrimental effects on the endocrine system and in particular on thyroid function and morphology. The objective of this cross-sectional study, involving 1800 Caucasian adults from a geographical area with mild iodine deficiency, was to evaluate the relationship between tobacco smoking, smoking cessation, and the prevalence of simple nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid status was evaluated by ultrasonic exploration of the neck, measurement of FT3, FT4, TSH, antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, and urinary iodine excretion. The fine-needle aspiration biopsy of significant nodules was also performed. Smoking habits were evaluated by a specific questionnaire and the calculation of number of pack years. Both current and previous smokers showed an increased risk of simple nodular goiter compared to never smokers after adjustment for potential confounders and known goitrogen factors. Interestingly, the simple nodular goiter risk was similar for never smokers and for previous smokers declaring a time since cessation of smoking for more than 69 months. Smoking habit was not associated to an increased risk of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.Smoking appears to be an independent risk factor for simple nodular goiter but not for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an area with mild iodine deficiency. A prolonged withdrawal of smoking dramatically reduces the risk of simple nodular goiter occurrence.

  5. Variola minor in coalfield areas of England and Wales, 1921-34: Geographical determinants of a national smallpox epidemic that spread out of effective control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, Matthew R; Rafferty, Sarah; Cliff, Andrew D

    2017-05-01

    This paper uses techniques of binary logistic regression to identify the spatial determinants of the last national epidemic of smallpox to spread in England and Wales, the variola minor epidemic of 1921-34. Adjusting for age and county-level variations in vaccination coverage in infancy, the analysis identifies a dose-response gradient with increasing odds of elevated smallpox rates in local government areas with (i) medium (odds ratio [OR] = 5.32, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.96-14.41) and high (OR = 11.32, 95% CI 4.20-31.59) coal mining occupation rates and (ii) medium (OR = 16.74, 95% CI 2.24-125.21) and high (OR = 63.43, 95% CI 7.82-497.21) levels of residential density. The results imply that the spatial transmission of variola virus was facilitated by the close spatial packing of individuals, with a heightened transmission risk in coal mining areas of the country. A syndemic interaction between common respiratory conditions arising from exposure to coal dust and smallpox virus transmission is postulated to have contributed to the findings. We suggest that further studies of the geographical intersection of coal mining and acute infections that are transmitted via respiratory secretions are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-05-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  7. Development of an Evaluation Methodology for Loss of Large Area induced from extreme events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sok Chul; Park, Jong Seuk; Kim, Byung Soon; Jang, Dong Ju; Lee, Seung Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    USNRC announced several regulatory requirements and guidance documents regarding the event of loss of large area including 10CFR 50.54(hh), Regulatory Guide 1.214 and SRP 19.4. In Korea, consideration of loss of large area has been limitedly taken into account for newly constructing NPPs as voluntary based. In general, it is hardly possible to find available information on methodology and key assumptions for the assessment of LOLA due to 'need to know based approach'. Urgent needs exists for developing country specific regulatory requirements, guidance and evaluation methodology by themselves with the consideration of their own geographical and nuclear safety and security environments. Currently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) has developed an Extended Damage Mitigation Guideline (EDMG) for APR1400 under contract with foreign consulting company. The submittal guidance NEI 06-12 related to B.5.b Phase 2 and 3 focused on unit-wise mitigation strategy instead of site level mitigation or response strategy. Phase 1 mitigating strategy and guideline for LOLA (Loss of Large Area) provides emphasis on site level arrangement including cooperative networking outside organizations and agile command and control system. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety has carried out a pilot in-house research project to develop the methodology and guideline for evaluation of LOLA since 2014. This paper introduces the summary of major results and outcomes of the aforementioned research project. After Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident, the awareness on countering the event of loss of large area induced from extreme man-made hazards or extreme beyond design basis external event. Urgent need exists to develop regulatory guidance for coping with this undesirable situation, which has been out of consideration at existing nuclear safety regulatory framework due to the expectation of rare possibility of occurrence.

  8. A MODEL OF PARTNERSHIP PROJECT FOR HEALTH AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BETWEEN UNIVERSITY OF PITESTI AND A RURAL POPULATION, FROM A DISADVANTAGED GEOGRAPHICAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Ciucurel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project aimed to apply a sanogenetic intervention on a rural population, from a disadvantaged geographical area. 50 students in Physical Therapy and 4 teachers were involved in assessment and intervention activities for optimization of the individual and collective health status of inhabitants of a village located in the Caras-Severin district, in the Cerna Mountains. The project results consisted in: a database regarding the health of the subjects; a model of therapeutic education and promoting of a healthy lifestyle among inhabitants; creating a network of social interaction among project participants; professional and transversal skills development of students; developing research skills of teachers. The activities referred to: subjects health assessment (medical diagnostic, anthropometric and physiometric measurements; recommending and implementing of programs of kinetic prophylaxis and rehabilitation; conducting activities to provide opportunities for social interaction and support. The project offered also the possibility of optimizing the students training by developing their professional skills of assessment and physiotherapeutic intervention, their transversal skills of teamwork, respect for the principles for professional ethics and self-assessment of needs for professional training and also for developing good inter-institutional relations, designed to facilitate the development of specific research activities, in benefit of both parts.

  9. Health Professional Shortage Areas, Insurance Status, and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Todd M.; Parmar, Gaurav; Durant, Raegan W.; Halanych, Jewell H.; Hovater, Martha; Muntner, Paul; Prineas, Ronald J.; Roth, David L.; Samdarshi, Tandaw E.; Safford, Monika M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD) living in Health Professional Shortage Areas (HPSA) may receive less preventive care than others. The Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke Study (REGARDS) surveyed 30,221 African American (AA) and White individuals older than 45 years of age between 2003–2007. We compared medication use for CVD prevention by HPSA and insurance status, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health behaviors, and health status. Individuals residing in partial HPSA counties were excluded. Mean age was 64±9 years, 42% were AA, 55% were women, and 93% had health insurance; 2,545 resided in 340 complete HPSA counties and 17,427 in 1,145 non-HPSA counties. Aspirin, beta-blocker, and ACE-inhibitor use were similar by HPSA and insurance status. Compared with insured individuals living in non-HPSA counties, statin use was lower among uninsured participants living in non-HPSA and HPSA counties. Less medication use for CVD prevention was not associated with HPSA status, but less statin use was associated with lack of insurance. PMID:22080702

  10. Integrating Spatial Multi Criteria Decision Making (SMCDM) with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for delineation of the most suitable areas for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani Amineh, Zainab Banoo; Hashemian, Seyyed Jamal Al-Din; Magholi, Alireza

    2017-08-01

    Hamoon-Jazmoorian plain is located in southeast of Iran. Overexploitation of groundwater in this plain has led to water level decline and caused serious problems such as land subsidence, aquifer destruction and water quality degradation. The increasing population and agricultural development along with drought and climate change, have further increased the pressure on water resources in this region over the last years. In order to overcome such crisis, introduction of surface water into an aquifer at particular locations can be a suitable solution. A wide variety of methods have been developed to recharge groundwater, one of which is aquifer storage and recovery (ASR). One of the fundamental principles of making such systems is delineation of suitable areas based on scientific and natural facts in order to achieve relevant objectives. To that end, the Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) in conjunction with the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was applied in this study. More specifically, nine main parameters including depth of runoff as the considered source of water, morphology of the earth surface features such as geology, geomorphology, land use and land cover, drainage and aquifer characteristics along with quality of water in the aquifer were considered as the main layers in GIS. The runoff water available for artificial recharge in the basin was estimated through Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method. The weighted curve number for each watershed was derived through spatial intersection of land use and hydrological soil group layers. Other thematic layers were extracted from satellite images, topographical map, and other collateral data sources, then weighed according to their influence in locating process. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was then used to calculate weights of individual parameters. The normalized weighted layers were then overlaid to build up the recharge potential map. The results revealed that 34% of the

  11. [Bibliometric study of original articles in the Revista Española de Salud Pública (1991-2000). Part II: authors' productivity, their institutions and geographical areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada Lorenzo, José Manuel; Villar Alvarez, Fernando; Pérez Andrés, Cristina; Rebollo Rodríguez, M José

    2003-01-01

    When characterizing a scientific journal from the bibliometric standpoint, it is of importance to know how many authors were involved in the studies published as well as the geographical areas where these authors are located and the type of institutions by which they are employed. The aim of this article is that of analyzing the geographical spread of these authors and the institutions by which they are employed, as well as its evolution as regards the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the 1991-2000 period. Of the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the studied ten-year period, a calculation has been made as to the total number of authors, the number of occasional authors (authors having published solely one article), transitivity index, the ratio between the number of male and female authors, the productivity of the authors and their institutions and the spread of authors and the institutions by which they are employed by Autonomous Communities. Of the original articles published in the Revista Española de Salud Pública throughout the 1991-2000 period, a total of 1,052 different authors were involved, 1,000 of whom were Spanish and 52 foreigners. The ratio of male authors to female authors for the period in question was 1.29. The Autonomous Communities from which the largest number of authors came were Community of Madrid (16.3%), Andalusia (13.4%) and the Community of Valencia (12.5%). The institutions by which the authors are employed are located most often in Community of Madrid (16.5%), in Community of Valencia (11.3%) and Andalusia and Catalonia (10.5%). A total of 37.6% of the authors work at centers devoted to health care, followed by authors who work at Universities (26.3%). On calculating the spread of the type of institution by Autonomous Communities, in the Community of Madrid and in the Community of Valencia and Andalusia, the most frequent institution is

  12. Analysis of matched geographical areas to study potential links between environmental exposure to oil refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramis Rebeca

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emissions from refineries include a wide range of substances, such as chrome, lead, nickel, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, benzene, dioxins and furans, all of which are recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC as carcinogens. Various studies have shown an association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and residence in the vicinity of industrial areas; however, evidence of specific association between refineries and residence in the vicinity has been suggested but not yet established. The aim of this study is to investigate potential links between environmental exposure to emissions from refineries and non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in Spain. The spatial distribution of NHL in Spain has an unusual pattern with regions some showing higher risk than others. Methods We designed an analysis of matched geographical areas to examine non-Hodgkin lymphoma mortality in the vicinity of the 10 refineries sited in Spain over the period 1997-2006. Population exposure to refineries was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to the facility in a 10 km buffer. We defined 10 km radius areas to perform the matching, accounting for population density, level of industrialization and socio-demographic factors of the area using principal components analysis. For the matched towns we evaluated the risk of NHL mortality associated with residence in the vicinity of the refineries and with different regions using mixed Poisson models. Then we study the residuals to assess a possible risk trend with distance. Results Relative risks (RRs associated with exposure showed similar values for women and for men, 1.09 (0.97-1.24 and 1.12 (0.99-1.27. RRs for two regions were statistically significant: Canary Islands showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.05-1.72 for women and 1.50 (1.18-1.92 for men, whilst Galicia showed an excess of risk of 1.35 (1.04-1.75 for men, but not significant excess for women. Conclusions The results

  13. Measuring geographical accessibility to palliative and end of life (PEoLC) related facilities: a comparative study in an area with well-developed specialist palliative care (SPC) provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Clare; Verne, Julia; Wells, Claudia; Polato, Giovanna M; Higginson, Irene J; Gao, Wei

    2017-01-26

    Geographical accessibility is important in accessing healthcare services. Measuring it has evolved alongside technological and data analysis advances. High correlations between different methods have been detected, but no comparisons exist in the context of palliative and end of life care (PEoLC) studies. To assess how geographical accessibility can affect PEoLC, selection of an appropriate method to capture it is crucial. We therefore aimed to compare methods of measuring geographical accessibility of decedents to PEoLC-related facilities in South London, an area with well-developed SPC provision. Individual-level death registration data in 2012 (n = 18,165), from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) were linked to area-level PEoLC-related facilities from various sources. Simple and more complex measures of geographical accessibility were calculated using the residential postcodes of the decedents and postcodes of the nearest hospital, care home and hospice. Distance measures (straight-line, travel network) and travel times along the road network were compared using geographic information system (GIS) mapping and correlation analysis (Spearman rho). Borough-level maps demonstrate similarities in geographical accessibility measures. Strong positive correlation exist between straight-line and travel distances to the nearest hospital (rho = 0.97), care home (rho = 0.94) and hospice (rho = 0.99). Travel times were also highly correlated with distance measures to the nearest hospital (rho range = 0.84-0.88), care home (rho = 0.88-0.95) and hospice (rho = 0.93-0.95). All correlations were significant at p < 0.001 level. Distance-based and travel-time measures of geographical accessibility to PEoLC-related facilities in South London are similar, suggesting the choice of measure can be based on the ease of calculation.

  14. Geographical Tatoos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cazetta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with maps tattooed on bodies. My interest in studying the corporeality is inserted in a broader project entitled Geographies and (in Bodies. There is several published research on tattoos, but none in particular about tattooed maps. However some of these works interested me because they present important discussions in contemporary about body modification that helped me locate the body modifications most within the culture than on the nature. At this time, I looked at pictures of geographical tattoos available in several sites of the internet.

  15. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Cibola National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Catron, Cibola, McKinley, Sandoval, Sierra and Socorro Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  16. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Santa Fe National Forest Area, New Mexico, Parts of Mora, Rio Arriba, Sandoval and San Miguel Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  17. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Chinle Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona and San Juan County, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  18. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for Fort Defiance Area, Parts of Apache and Navajo Counties, Arizona, and McKinley and San Juan Counties, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  19. Identification, assessment and prioritization of ecotoxicological risks on the scale of a territory: Application to WWTP discharges in a geographical area located in northeast Lyon, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Alain; Perrodin, Yves

    2017-09-13

    The ecotoxicological risk assessment methodologies developed up to now mainly focus on local pollution and do not incorporate an evaluation and prioritization of the different risk situations present in the same territory. This article presents the different phases of formulating an innovative methodology developed to fill this gap, and its application to all the 18 WasteWater Treatment Plants (WWTP) of a geographical area located northeast of Lyon, France. The aim was also take into account emerging pollutants that are very often "forgotten" in ecotoxicological risk assessments. The results of the study show the extreme diversity of the ecotoxicity of the pollutants present in discharges, with "minimum" PNEC values in the region of a millionth of a microgram (10(-6) μg/l) and "maximum" PNEC values in the region of several tens of micrograms. They also show very considerable diversity of the flows of the receiving watercourses in the territory concerned (from several m(3)/s to 600 m(3)/s). The Risk Quotients (RQ) resulting from these 2 datasets, calculated for each WWTP and for each of the 10 pollutants most implicated in ecotoxicological risks (Diclofenac, Amoxicillin, Trimethoprim, Roxithromycin, 17β-estradiol, 17α-Ethynylestradiol, Estrone, Nonylphenol, Octylphenol, Nickel, et NH4(+)), vary from 0.000002 to 187.7 when using the median concentration values of these pollutants, and from 0.000007 to 3750 when using their maximum concentration values. Globally, they show that: (1) the risks are higher for small streams that receive WWTP discharges of average size, (2) the risks are low to very low for discharges into watercourses with high flow rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  1. Seasonal patterns in nutrients, carbon, and algal responses in wadeable streams within three geographically distinct areas of the United States, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Lorenz, David L.; Petersen, James C.; Greene, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey determined seasonal variability in nutrients, carbon, and algal biomass in 22 wadeable streams over a 1-year period during 2007 or 2008 within three geographically distinct areas in the United States. The three areas are the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMIS) in Minnesota, the Ozark Plateaus (ORZK) in southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, and the Upper Snake River Basin (USNK) in southern Idaho. Seasonal patterns in some constituent concentrations and algal responses were distinct. Nitrate concentrations were greatest during the winter in all study areas potentially because of a reduction in denitrification rates and algal uptake during the winter, along with reduced surface runoff. Decreases in nitrate concentrations during the spring and summer at most stream sites coincided with increased streamflow during the snowmelt runoff or spring storms indicating dilution. The continued decrease in nitrate concentrations during summer potentially is because of a reduction in nitrate inputs (from decreased surface runoff) or increases in biological uptake. In contrast to nitrate concentrations, ammonia concentrations varied among study areas. Ammonia concentration trends were similar at UMIS and USNK sampling sites with winter peak concentrations and rapid decreases in ammonia concentrations by spring or early summer. In contrast, ammonia concentrations at OZRK sampling sites were more variable with peak concentrations later in the year. Ammonia may accumulate in stream water in the winter under ice and snow cover at the UMIS and USNK sites because of limited algal metabolism and increased mineralization of decaying organic matter under reducing conditions within stream bottom sediments. Phosphorus concentration patterns and the type of phosphorus present changes with changing hydrologic conditions and seasons and varied among study areas. Orthophosphate concentrations tended to be greater in the summer at UMIS sites, whereas total

  2. Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, William F; Delmerico, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    spatial data and related phenomena. The capabilities of GIS are much more than just mapping, although map production is one of the most utilized features. GIS applications are relevant in a tremendous number of areas ranging from basic geographic inventories to simulation models.This chapter presents a general overview of geographic information system topics. The purpose is to provide the reader with a basic understanding of a GIS, the types of data that are needed, the basic functionality of these systems, the role of spatial analysis, and an example in the form of a case study. The chapter is designed to provide advanced students and experts outside of the field of GIS sufficient information to begin to utilize GIS and spatial analytic concepts, but it is not designed to be the sole basis for becoming a GIS expert. There is a tremendous level of sophistication related to the digital cartographic databases and manipulation of those databases underlying the display and use of GIS that is more appropriately a part of geographic information science (i.e., basic research issues associated with geographic data including technical as well as theoretical aspects such as the impact on society [1]) rather than being relevant to this chapter. The utilization of GIS for conducting spatial analysis is the guiding theme for the chapter.

  3. Telephone Service Areas, TelephoneServiceAreas-This data set represents the service areas of companies providing (dial tone) telephone service in Utah., Published in 2001, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Telephone Service Areas dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2001. It is described as...

  4. Self-induced transparency mode-locking, and area theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipov, R M; Babushkin, I

    2015-01-01

    Self-induced transparency mode-locking (or coherent mode-locking, CML) which is based on intracavity self-induced transparency soliton dynamics, allows potentially to achieve nearly single cycle intracavity pulse durations, much below the phase relaxation time $T_2$ in a laser, which, despite of great promise, has not yet been realized experimentally. We develop a diagram technique which allows to predict the main features of CML regimes in a generic two-section laser. We show that CML can arise directly at the first laser threshold if the phase relaxation time is large enough. Furthermore, CML regimes can be unconditionally stable. We also predict the existence of ``super-CML regimes``, with a pulse coupled to several Rabi oscillations in the nonlinear medium.

  5. Predicting Ground Motion from Induced Earthquakes in Geothermal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, J.; Edwards, B.; Convertito, V.; Sharma, N.; Tramelli, A.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Cabrera, B. M.; Maercklin, N.; Troise, C.

    2013-06-01

    Induced seismicity from anthropogenic sources can be a significant nuisance to a local population and in extreme cases lead to damage to vulnerable structures. One type of induced seismicity of particular recent concern, which, in some cases, can limit development of a potentially important clean energy source, is that associated with geothermal power production. A key requirement for the accurate assessment of seismic hazard (and risk) is a ground-motion prediction equation (GMPE) that predicts the level of earthquake shaking (in terms of, for example, peak ground acceleration) of an earthquake of a certain magnitude at a particular distance. Few such models currently exist in regard to geothermal-related seismicity, and consequently the evaluation of seismic hazard in the vicinity of geothermal power plants is associated with high uncertainty. Various ground-motion datasets of induced and natural seismicity (from Basel, Geysers, Hengill, Roswinkel, Soultz, and Voerendaal) were compiled and processed, and moment magnitudes for all events were recomputed homogeneously. These data are used to show that ground motions from induced and natural earthquakes cannot be statistically distinguished. Empirical GMPEs are derived from these data; and, although they have similar characteristics to recent GMPEs for natural and mining-related seismicity, the standard deviations are higher. To account for epistemic uncertainties, stochastic models subsequently are developed based on a single corner frequency and with parameters constrained by the available data. Predicted ground motions from these models are fitted with functional forms to obtain easy-to-use GMPEs. These are associated with standard deviations derived from the empirical data to characterize aleatory variability. As an example, we demonstrate the potential use of these models using data from Campi Flegrei.

  6. Vegetation succession process induced by reforestation in erosion areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feixin WANG; Zhaoyin WANG; Zhengming YANG; Xining JI

    2008-01-01

    Reforestation is one of the most important and efficient measures of water and soil conservation. Based on field investigations in the Shangyang Soil Conservation and Reforestation Station in Huizhou, Guangdong Province, China, we studied the variation in vegetation development, vegetation succession processes and soil erosion. The regional vegetation consists mainly of monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forests (MEBF). The area was deforested and became a denuded hill area with extremely high soil erosion in the 1960s and 1970s. Then, the area was closed in order to allow recovery of the vegetation. Under natural condi-tions the vegetation development and succession processes were slow during which soil erosion and strong sunshine and evaporation slowed down the development of the vegetation. About 25 years later, the vegetation cover was still merely 35% or so. The dominant vegetation types were heliophilous herbage and shrubs which formed a poorly developed shrub-herbage community and erosion remained high. In contrast, reforestation with selected tree species dramatically speeded up the vegetation succession process. About 12 years after reforestation, vegetation cover of the Acacia auriculiformis plantations in the Shangyang Station was 90% and erosion was under control. After 23 years, understory vegetation, consisting of indigenous species, had developed in the plantations. The planted trees and naturally developing herbage, shrubs, bamboo, local trees and liana formed a complex vegetation community in three layers. It will take 60 years for the vegetation to succeed from bare land to a secondary growth forest under natural conditions. Reforestation may speed up the vegetation suc-cession process. The time may be reduced to 20 years. Reforestation is the most effective measure of vegetation restoration and erosion control in this area.

  7. Vegetation Changes in the Permafrost Regions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 1982-2012: Different Responses Related to Geographical Locations and Vegetation Types in High-Altitude Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qian; Wu, Xiaodong; Zhao, Lin; Yue, Guangyang; Nan, Zhuotong; Wang, Puchang; Yi, Shuhua; Zou, Defu; Qin, Yu; Wu, Tonghua; Shi, Jianzong

    2017-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) contains the largest permafrost area in a high-altitude region in the world, and the unique hydrothermal environments of the active layers in this region have an important impact on vegetation growth. Geographical locations present different climatic conditions, and in combination with the permafrost environments, these conditions comprehensively affect the local vegetation activity. Therefore, the responses of vegetation to climate change in the permafrost region of the QTP may be varied differently by geographical location and vegetation condition. In this study, using the latest Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) product based on turning points (TPs), which were calculated using a piecewise linear model, 9 areas within the permafrost region of the QTP were selected to investigate the effect of geographical location and vegetation type on vegetation growth from 1982 to 2012. The following 4 vegetation types were observed in the 9 selected study areas: alpine swamp meadow, alpine meadow, alpine steppe and alpine desert. The research results show that, in these study areas, TPs mainly appeared in 2000 and 2001, and almost 55.1% and 35.0% of the TPs were located in 2000 and 2001. The global standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and 7 meteorological variables were selected to analyze their correlations with NDVI. We found that the main correlative variables to vegetation productivity in study areas from 1982 to 2012 were precipitation, surface downward long-wave radiation and temperature. Furthermore, NDVI changes exhibited by different vegetation types within the same study area followed similar trends. The results show that regional effects rather than vegetation type had a larger impact on changes in vegetation growth in the permafrost regions of the QTP, indicating that climatic factors had a larger impact in the permafrost regions than the

  8. The National Map - geographic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  9. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI.

  10. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  11. Comparative efficacy of different in vitro cultivation media for Trypanosoma evansi isolated from different mammalian hosts inhabiting different geographical areas of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajender; Singh, Jarnail; Singh, Rubi; Kumar, Sanjay; Yadav, S C

    2015-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish an optimal medium for primary culture initiation and maintenance of T. evansi isolated from different mammalian hosts of diverse geographical regions of India viz. donkey/1 (Hardoi, Uttar Pradesh), donkey/2 (Junagarh, Gujarat), pony/1 (Hisar, Haryana), camel/1 (Bikaner, Rajasthan) which represented isolates 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Primary cultures were initiated with all four isolates in five different in vitro cultivation media with seeding density of 1 × 10(6) trypanosomes/ml. The parasites of all four isolates could remain viable only for 48 h in medium E (Alsever's solution) and for 72 h in medium A, C and D. Parasites reached to a maximum density (2.5-3.75 × 10(6)/ml) within 24 h and thereafter, a sharp decline (0.5-0.75 × 10(6)/ml) in the next 72 h was observed in 1, 2 and 3 isolates cultured in medium B. In isolate 4, parasite counts got more than doubled in 24 h and then decreased gradually up to sixth day post initiation of cultivation which thereafter increased gradually up to 34 days and a constant parasite number of 10(5)/ml could be achieved for 90 days in medium B. During this prolonged culture the trypanosomes retained their long slender morphology and infectivity to mice.

  12. Operation and design of gas pipeline with cross geographical areas with big altitude changes: importance of the dynamic analysis; Diseno y operacion de gasoductos en zonas de elevadas diferencias altimetricas: importancia del analisis dinamico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Oscar [Transportadora de Gas del Norte S.A. (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    The Natural Gas Demand has increased constantly in the last decades. It was mainly due to the discovery of enormous gas reserves, the opening of the energetic markets and its utilization as fuel for power generation The supply of new markets in Latin America has meant the development of several interconnection projects among countries. The development of projects crossing the Andes Mountains, with big altitude differences, impose new requirements for the design and pipeline operation The purpose of this paper is to continue the analysis of the gas pipeline modeling methods which cross geographical areas with big altitude changes, specifically under the dynamic point of view In these cases, the operating parameters are strongly linked to the analysis and comprehension of transient phenomenon and consequently an efficient line pack management. The demand suing is fundamental when systems crossing this kind of geographical areas are designed and operated The design should consider the response time, having capacity to support a demand variation. Finally the impact in the commercial operation of this phenomenon is analyzed, due to the possibility to detect idle capacity or optimize solutions, reducing investment and assurance an operation without risks. Thus in the design period , the capability of bringing a reliability service at a reduced cost is emphasized in benefit of the customers. (author)

  13. Geographic Projection of Cluster Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nerbonne, J.; Bosveld-de Smet, L.M.; Kleiweg, P.; Blackwell, A.; Marriott, K.; Shimojima, A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite cluster map displays a fuzzy categorisation of geographic areas. It combines information from several sources to provide a visualisation of the significance of cluster borders. The basic technique renders the chance that two neighbouring locations are members of different clusters as the

  14. Geographic Determinants of Chinese Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccord, G. C.; Christensen, P.

    2011-12-01

    In the first years of the 21st century, the human race became primarily urban for the first time in history. With countries like India and China rapidly undergoing structural change from rural agricultural-based economies to urbanized manufacturing- and service-based economies, knowing where the coming waves of urbanization will occur would be of interest for infrastructure planning and for modeling consequences for ecological systems. We employ spatial econometric methods (geographically weighted regression, spatial lag models, and spatial errors models) to estimate two determinants of urbanization in China. The first is the role of physical geography, measured as topography-adjusted distance to major ports and suitability of land for agriculture. The second is the spatial agglomeration effect, which we estimate with a spatial lag model. We find that Chinese urbanization between 1990 and 2000 exhibited important spatial agglomeration effects, as well as significant explanatory power of nearby agricultural suitability and distance to ports, both in a nationwide model and in a model of local regression estimates. These results can help predict the location of new Chinese urbanization, and imply that climate change-induced changes in agricultural potential can affect the spatial distribution of urban areas.

  15. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  16. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  17. Notes on Southeast Asian and Malesian Myristica and description of new taxa (Myristicaceae). With keys arranged per geographical area (New Guinea excepted)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Following the introductory sections, a general key, and regional keys, noteworthy observations are given for selected species of Myristica covering the whole distributional area of the genus west of New Guinea. New taxa, i.e. species (14), subspecies (10), and varieties (2) are fully described and a

  18. Sodium Accumulation at Potential-Induced Degradation Shunted Areas in Polycrystalline Silicon Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Steven P.; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Hacke, Peter; Guthrey, Harvey; Johnston, Steve; Al-Jassim, Mowafak

    2016-11-01

    We investigated potential-induced degradation (PID) in silicon mini-modules that were subjected to accelerated stressing to induce PID conditions. Shunted areas on the cells were identified with photoluminescence and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT) imaging. The identical shunted areas were then analyzed via time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS) imaging, 3-D tomography, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The TOF-SIMS imaging indicates a high concentration of sodium in the shunted areas, and 3-D tomography reveals that the sodium extends more than 2 um from the surface below shunted regions. Transmission electron microscopy investigation reveals that a stacking fault is present at an area identified as shunted by DLIT imaging. After the removal of surface sodium, tomography reveals persistent sodium present around the junction depth of 300 nm and a drastic difference in sodium content at the junction when comparing shunted and nonshunted regions.

  19. Geographic Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukinbeal, Chris

    2014-01-01

    While the use of media permeates geographic research and pedagogic practice, the underlying literacies that link geography and media remain uncharted. This article argues that geographic media literacy incorporates visual literacy, information technology literacy, information literacy, and media literacy. Geographic media literacy is the ability…

  20. Changes of ecological conditions induced by rock tunneling in Laoshan Mountain area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaozhao LI; Xiaobao ZHAO; Zhongsheng WANG

    2008-01-01

    Through field investigation, this paper exam-ined the changes of ecological conditions induced by tun-nel construction in Laoshan Mountain area, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, P. R. China. The effects of habitat frag-mentation and edge effect are examined and discussed. It is found that the environmental factors and vegetation situation have been influenced by the tunneling activity, and the disturbed area is approaching the sampling patch centre. The changed ecological conditions are beneficial for the settlement and growth of some herb and shrub species, and are unfavorable for the existence and growth of saplings, especially for the predominant species (e.g., robur) in this area. If the time of habitat fragmentation is long enough and there is no supplement from external areas, some vegetation species in the engineering influ-encing area will deteriorate, or even diminish in the future. The results can be used as a reference for the long-term ecological study in this area.

  1. Awareness and management of chronic disease, insurance status, and health professional shortage areas in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durant Raegan W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited financial and geographic access to primary care can adversely influence chronic disease outcomes. We examined variation in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia according to both geographic and financial access to care. Methods We analyzed data on 17,458 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study with either hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or diabetes and living in either complete Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA counties or non-HPSA counties in the U.S. All analyses were stratified by insurance status and adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors. Results 2,261 residents lived in HPSA counties and 15,197 in non-HPSA counties. Among the uninsured, HPSA residents had higher awareness of both hypertension (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.08, 4.89 and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.01, 2.22 compared to non-HPSA residents. Also among the uninsured, HPSA residents with hypertension had lower blood pressure control (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.29, 0.71 compared with non-HPSA residents. Similar differences in awareness and control according to HPSA residence were absent among the insured. Conclusions Despite similar or higher awareness of some chronic diseases, uninsured HPSA residents may achieve control of hypertension at lower rates compared to uninsured non-HPSA residents. Federal allocations in HPSAs should target improved quality of care as well as increasing the number of available physicians.

  2. Assessment of the susceptibility of roads to flooding based on geographical information - test in a flash flood prone area (the Gard region, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Gaume, E.; Andrieu, H.

    2010-04-01

    In flash flood prone areas, roads are often the first assets affected by inundations which make rescue operations difficult and represent a major threat to lives: almost half of the victims are car passengers trapped by floods. In the past years, the Gard region (France) road management services have realized an extensive inventory of the known road submersions that occurred during the last 40 years. This inventory provided an unique opportunity to analyse the causes of road flooding in an area frequently affected by severe flash floods. It will be used to develop a road submersion susceptibility rating method, representing the first element of a road warning system. This paper presents the results of the analysis of this data set. A companion paper will show how the proposed road susceptibility rating method can be combined with distributed rainfall-runoff simulations to provide accurate road submersion risk maps. The very low correlation between the various possible explanatory factors and the susceptibility to flooding measured by the number of past observed submersions implied the use of particular statistical analysis methods based on the general principals of the discriminant analysis. The analysis led to the definition of four susceptibility classes for river crossing road sections. Validation tests confirmed that this classification is robust, at least in the considered area. One major outcome of the analysis is that the susceptibility to flooding is rather linked to the location of the road sections than to the size of the river crossing structure (bridge or culvert).

  3. Epidemiological investigations in regard to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in Quebec, Canada. Part 1: biosecurity practices and their geographical distribution in two areas of different swine density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Marie-Ève; Poljak, Zvonimir; Arsenault, Julie; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2012-04-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a considerable threat to the swine industry and implementing biosecurity measures is essential for the control of its transmission. The aims of this study were: (1) to describe biosecurity practices in production sites located in a moderate density (MD) and a high density (HD) pig area according to production type; (2) to group sites in different patterns according to their biosecurity practices; and (3) to determine the geographical distribution of sites according to biosecurity patterns. Biosecurity practices were selected based on PRRS epidemiology. A questionnaire was completed on 125 breeding sites (MD=54; HD=71) and 120 growing (HD) sites, between 2005 and 2008. Depending on area and production type, the frequency of biosecurity practices used ranged from 0 to 2% for barrier at site entrance, 0 to 19% for use of shower, 25 to 35% for washing truck between loads of pigs, 51 to 57% for absence of rendering or rendering without access to the site, and 26 to 51% for absence of gilt purchase or purchase with quarantine. Better practices pertaining to entrance protocol (i.e. "no-entry" sign, shower, ≥24 h downtime) were reported more frequently on breeding sites in the MD than the HD area (Pbiosecurity than breeding sites. Using a two-step clustering procedure performed separately for breeding and growing sites, two different patterns were obtained for each production type, which corresponded to a high and low level of biosecurity. For breeding sites, a higher biosecurity level was observed at sites located away from other pig sites, set at more than 300 m from the public road, having higher sow inventory, or being part of an integrated production (Pbiosecurity pattern were detected. This study identified some shortcomings regarding biosecurity that should be addressed before implementing any PRRSV regional control. Vicinity of sites with different biosecurity levels also suggests difficulties in

  4. Assessment of the susceptibility of roads to flooding based on geographical information – test in a flash flood prone area (the Gard region, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.-A. Versini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In flash flood prone areas, roads are often the first assets affected by inundations which make rescue operations difficult and represent a major threat to lives: almost half of the victims are car passengers trapped by floods. In the past years, the Gard region (France road management services have realized an extensive inventory of the known road submersions that occurred during the last 40 years. This inventory provided an unique opportunity to analyse the causes of road flooding in an area frequently affected by severe flash floods. It will be used to develop a road submersion susceptibility rating method, representing the first element of a road warning system.

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of this data set. A companion paper will show how the proposed road susceptibility rating method can be combined with distributed rainfall-runoff simulations to provide accurate road submersion risk maps.

    The very low correlation between the various possible explanatory factors and the susceptibility to flooding measured by the number of past observed submersions implied the use of particular statistical analysis methods based on the general principals of the discriminant analysis.

    The analysis led to the definition of four susceptibility classes for river crossing road sections. Validation tests confirmed that this classification is robust, at least in the considered area. One major outcome of the analysis is that the susceptibility to flooding is rather linked to the location of the road sections than to the size of the river crossing structure (bridge or culvert.

  5. A study of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaolong; Yang, Pengtao; Zhang, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    The features of earthquakes induced by water injection in the Changning salt mine area of China were analyzed using the pore pressure diffusion method. The relationships between maximum magnitude, cumulative seismic moment, and cumulative water loss volume were investigated. Results show that increased seismic activities near the Changning salt mine in recent years are closely related to water injection during salt mining. High-pressure water injection over a long period of time caused water to diffuse into rock cracks, which increased pore pressure on faults and induced ruptures. Injection-induced earthquakes were located below the injection sites, mainly aligned NW-SE, with most occurring southeast of the mine area. Such a distribution indicates that seismic activities were affected by anticline structures in the Changning area. Based on pore pressure diffusion considerations, the diffusion coefficient was estimated to be ∼0.15 m2/s, with a slightly lower value west of the injection site than to the east. A semi-logarithmic linear relationship was found between cumulative seismic moment and cumulative water loss volume, while maximum magnitude increased with increasing volume of cumulative water loss. This study may provide reference material for analysis of injection-induced earthquakes and evaluation of the danger of earthquakes induced by water injection.

  6. Geographic variation of persistent organic pollutant levels in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding areas of the North Pacific and North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfes, Cristiane T; Vanblaricom, Glenn R; Boyd, Daryle; Calambokidis, John; Clapham, Phillip J; Pearce, Ronald W; Robbins, Jooke; Salinas, Juan Carlos; Straley, Janice M; Wade, Paul R; Krahn, Margaret M

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal feeding behavior and high fidelity to feeding areas allow humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to be used as biological indicators of regional contamination. Biopsy blubber samples from male individuals (n = 67) were collected through SPLASH, a multinational research project, in eight North Pacific feeding grounds. Additional male samples (n = 20) were collected from one North Atlantic feeding ground. Persistent organic pollutants were measured in the samples and used to assess contaminant distribution in the study areas. North Atlantic (Gulf of Maine) whales were more contaminated than North Pacific whales, showing the highest levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and chlordanes. The highest dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels were detected in whales feeding off southern California, USA. High-latitude regions were characterized by elevated levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) but generally nondetectable concentrations of PBDEs. Age was shown to have a positive relationship with SigmaPCBs, SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordanes, and total percent lipid. Contaminant levels in humpback whales were comparable to other mysticetes and lower than those found in odontocete cetaceans and pinnipeds. Although these concentrations likely do not represent a significant conservation threat, levels in the Gulf of Maine and southern California may warrant further study.

  7. VT ZIP Code Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) A ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA) is a statistical geographic entity that approximates the delivery area for a U.S. Postal Service five-digit...

  8. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs: implications for policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Augusto; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-05-01

    Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts. It has been hypothesized that the outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts could result in either improved or worsened forest conservation and likewise increased or decreased conflict. Hence, for this study we explore potential interactions between forest carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts, with Colombia as a case study. Spatial associations between biomass carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected by armed-conflict. Our findings moreover highlight three possible roles played by Colombian forested municipalities in armed groups’ military strategies: venues for battle, hideouts, and sources of natural resources to finance war.

  9. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  10. Grapes from the geographical areas of the Black Sea: Agroclimatic growing conditions and evaluation of stable isotopes compositions in scientific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnov Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The report considers the agroclimatic conditions in the Black Sea districts of cultivation and processing of grapes - the Black Sea Lowland, the Crimean Peninsula and the South-west coastal areas of the Greater Caucasus. The IRMS/SIRA techniques - Flash combustion (FC-IRMS/SIRA & Isotopic equilibration (EQ-IRMS/SIRA - were first applied for the evaluation of carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios in the components of grapes from the Crimean Peninsula. The 13C/12C ratios were studied by the FC-IRMS/SIRA in carbohydrates and organic acids in authentic samples of 8 grape varieties from the 2015 harvest. The EQ-IRMS/SIRA was applied to measure the 18O/16O ratios in intracellular water of grapes. The measured δ13CVPDB value ranges from − 25.01 to − 21.01‰ (for carbohydrates, and from − 25.09 to − 21.30‰ (for organic acids. To evaluate the extent of biological isotope fractionation the 18O/16O ratios were measured in ground water and water of atmospheric precipitates from the Crimean Peninsula. Compared to ground (δ18OVSMOW from − 10.85 to − 8.14‰ and atmospheric (average δ18OVSMOW− 2.85‰ waters, the intracellular water of Crimean grape varieties is found to be enriched with 18O isotope. The δ18OVSMOW value of the grape intracellular water varies from 2.34 to 5.29‰ according to agroclimatic conditions of the season in 2015.

  11. Vulnerabilities induced by relief in the location of the roman geosites in Drobeta area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Irimus

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of numerous evidence of anthropogenic interventions in the proximity of Drobeta, during II-VI centuries, were the starting points for developing a strategy for interdisciplinary research of the valences of sites / targets with historic and archaeological potential of this area defined as geosites.The initiative to combine geographical and geomorphological arguments, with the historical and archeological one to envisage the reception of these values in terms of interdisciplinarity, has as a final aim the valuing and enhancement of the geosites in this location.Research results lead to an easier perception of the dependence of human activities of area morphology and of the relief role in locating and arranging Roman geosites. Using specific methods for geomorphology I identified landforms preferred by the Romans for sites location (settlements, fortifications, roads, cemeteries etc., but also the vulnerability of the geosites and geomorfosites at contemporary geomorphological processes.The analyze performed on the roman architectural ensemble from Drobeta shows a number of impediments or vulnerabilities due to location morphology in the development and settlement of Roman geosite.

  12. 地理学视角下的独立工矿区研究%Geographical research on isolated mining and industrial areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李倩; 张文忠; 王岱

    2013-01-01

    独立工矿区是因矿产资源开发而兴起,以资源开采加工为主导产业,矿业职工及其家属为居民主体,远离人口集聚区,经济社会功能相对独立的区域.独立工矿区作为重要的能源资源供给地,为国家经济建设和社会发展做出了重要贡献,但现在却成为当前全国经济发展方式转型过程中不平衡、不协调和不可持续的问题最为集中的地区之一.本文按照“从实践中总结理论”的思路,基于实地调研资料和既往研究成果,结合现有界定标准和相关概念的差异,对独立工矿区的概念进行辨析;并应用经济成长周期、地域生产综合体和演化经济地理等相关理论,分析了独立工矿区形成和发展的特征和规律,认为其本质上是资源丰富地区内部与外部系统之间相互作用和协调的结果;独立工矿区未来需以社会、经济和生态环境的协调为目标,立足其自身属性,实现多元化发展或特色发展.最后,对独立工矿区的未来研究方向进行了展望,主要包括独立工矿区界定标准的量化、资源环境承载力评价、地域功能演化机理研究和可持续发展模式的探讨.%With the social and economic development since the founding of PRC,numerous projects were initiated by the government at all levels to meet the increasing demand for energy and minimal resource,leading to the formation of resource exploitation and processing industry.Isolated mining and industrial area (IMIA),which evolved from long term exploitation of mineral resources in resource-rich regions,has made huge contributions to the social and economic development of China as a base of resource supply.After a great deal of achievements,however,the development of IMIA gradually slowed down in terms of diversified industrial development,equalization of public services,and integration of regional development,due to various historical restrictions.In addition to the IMIA related

  13. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  14. Tourism Areas, backc - back country areas- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'backc - back...

  15. Recreation-induced changes in boreal bird communities in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, K; Luoto, M; Ihantola, A; Tomppo, E; Siikamäki, P

    2010-09-01

    The impacts of human-induced disturbance on birds have been studied in growing extent, but there are relatively few studies about the effects of recreation on forest bird communities in protected areas. In this paper, the relative importance of recreation as well as environmental variables on bird communities in Oulanka National Park, in northeastern Finland, was investigated using general additive models (GAM). Bird data collected using the line transect method along hiking trails and in undisturbed control areas were related to number of visits, area of tourism infrastructure, and habitat variables. We further examined the impact of spatial autocorrelation by calculating an autocovariate term for GAMs. Our results indicate that number of visits affects the occurrence and composition of bird communities, but it had no impact on total species richness. Open-cup nesters breeding on the ground showed strongest negative response to visitor pressure, whereas the open-cup nesters nesting in trees and shrubs were more tolerant. For cavity-nesting species, recreation had no significant impact. The contribution of the number of visits was generally low also in models in which it was selected, and the occurrence of birds was mainly determined by habitat characteristics of the area. However, our results show that the recreation-induced disturbance with relatively low visitor pressure can have negative impacts on some bird species and groups of species and should be considered in management of protected areas with recreational activities.

  16. Assessing Geographic Information Enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.; Zevenbergen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of geographic information infrastructures (or spatial data infrastructures) is increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in the Geographic information (GI) domain. Especially the assessment of value added GI appears to be complex. By applying the concept of value chain analysis

  17. Environmental geographic information system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Dennis W; Helfrich, Donald Alan; Gorman, Susan

    2010-08-01

    This document describes how the Environmental Geographic Information System (EGIS) was used, along with externally received data, to create maps for the Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement (SWEIS) Source Document project. Data quality among the various classes of geographic information system (GIS) data is addressed. A complete listing of map layers used is provided.

  18. Moxonidine and rilmenidine injected into the medial septal area reduces the salivation induced by pilocarpine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Wilson Abrão; de Arruda Camargo, Luis Antonio; Simões, Silvio; Saad, William Abrão; Guarda, Renata Saad; Guarda, Ismael Francisco Mota Siqueira

    2004-05-31

    We determined the effects of moxonidine and rilmenidine 20 nmol (alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonists) injected into the medial septal area (MSA) on the pilocarpine-induced salivation, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p.), of male Holtzman rats weighing 250-300 g, with stainless-steel cannula implanted into the MSA. The rats were anesthetized with zoletil 50 mg kg(-1) b.wt. (tiletamine chloridrate 125.0 mg and zolazepan chloridrate 125.0 mg) into quadriceps muscle intramuscularly (IM), saliva was collected using pre-weighed small cotton balls inserted in the animal's mouth. The pre-treatment with moxonidine injected into the MSA reduced the salivation induced by pilocarpine (1 mg kg(-1)) injected i.p. (12+/-3 mg min(-1)) vs. control (99+/-9 mg min(-1)). The pre-treatment with rilmenidine 40 nmol also reduced the salivation induce by pilocarpine injected i.p. (20+/-5 mg min(-1)) vs. control (94+/-7 mg min(-1)). Idazoxan 40 nmol (imidazoline receptor antagonist) injected into the MSA previous to moxonidine and rilmenidine partially blocked the effect of moxonidine and totally blocked the rilmenidine effect in pilocarpine-induced salivation injected i.p. (60+/-8 and 95+/-10 mg min(-1), respectively). Yohimbine 40 nmol (alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist) injected into the MSA previously to moxonidine and rilmenidine partially blocked the moxonidine effect but produced no change on the rilmenidine effect on i.p. pilocarpine-induced salivation (70+/-6 and 24+/-6 mg min(-1), respectively). Injection of these alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline agonists and antagonists agents i.p. produced no change on i.p. pilocarpine-induced salivation. These results show that central, but not peripheral, injection of alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline agonists' agents inhibit pilocarpine-induced salivation. Idazoxan, an imidazoline receptor antagonist, totally inhibits the rilmenidine effect and partially inhibits the moxonidine effect on pilocarpine-induced

  19. The role of men in induced abortion decision making in an urban area of the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirz, Alanna E; Avila, Josephine L; Gipson, Jessica D

    2017-09-01

    To understand beliefs about unintended pregnancy and abortion, and perceptions about male roles related to pregnancy decision-making among men in the Philippines. Qualitative data were collected during in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with men in an urban area of the Philippines between October 2007 and July 2008. Interview participants were purposively sampled from a local survey based on their having reported being "afraid or troubled" or "afraid and planned to terminate" in response to a recent pregnancy. Focus group participants were selected from the same communities. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. In-depth interview data from 15 men-each interviewed twice-and five focus group discussions were included. Male interview participants reported feeling morally responsible for the pregnancy and as wanting to avoid the "sin" of induced abortion; however, they were concerned about being able to support a family financially. Participants expressed resentment towards partners who attempted or completed an induced abortion without their knowledge. In such cases, men would disparage their partner and cease interacting with them to avoid the "sin" of induced abortion. Participants described negative feelings towards women seeking induced abortions, and their own desire to avoid associated "sin". This highlights the effects of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion on young Filipino men, including their own experience of abortion stigma. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Cold-induced thermogenesis mediated by GABA in the preoptic area of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Toshimasa

    2004-08-01

    Bilateral microinjections of GABA (300 mM, 100 nl) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (100 microM, 100 nl) into the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus increased the rate of whole body O(2) consumption (VO(2)) and the body core (colonic) temperature of urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. The most sensitive site was the dorsomedial POA at the level of the anterior commissure. The GABA-induced thermogenesis was accompanied by a tachycardic response and electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from the femoral or neck muscles. Pretreatment with muscle relaxants (1 mg/kg pancuronium bromide + 4 mg/kg vecuronium bromide i.v.) prevented GABA-induced EMG activity but had no significant effect on GABA-induced thermogenesis. However, pretreatment with the beta-adrenoceptor propranolol (5 mg/kg i.v.) greatly attenuated the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) and tachycardic responses. Accordingly, the GABA-induced increase in VO(2) reflected mainly nonshivering thermogenesis. On the other hand, cooling of the shaved back of the rat by contact with a plastic bag containing 28 degrees C water also elicited thermogenic, tachycardic, and EMG responses. Bilateral microinjections of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (500 microM, 100 nl), but not the vehicle saline, into the POA blocked these skin cooling-induced responses. These results suggest that GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the POA mediate cold information arising from the skin for eliciting cold-induced thermogenesis.

  1. Hepatitis C virus and HIV seroprevalences, sociodemographic characteristics, behaviors and access to syringes among drug users, a comparison of geographical areas in France, ANRS-Coquelicot 2011 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weill-Barillet, L; Pillonel, J; Semaille, C; Léon, L; Le Strat, Y; Pascal, X; Barin, F; Jauffret-Roustide, M

    2016-09-01

    People who use drugs (PWUDs) are at a high risk for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but they have different characteristics depending on the local context. In France, seroprevalence, sociodemographic, and behavior information have only been studied at a national level rather than at a local level. The aim of this study was to describe and examine profile and drug use practice differences in seven French cities and departments and to assess whether these differences can explain HCV and HIV seroprevalence variations between French geographical areas. Data were collected from the cross-sectional ANRS-Coquelicot survey conducted for the second time in 2011 among drug users having injected or snorted drugs at least once in their life. Professional interviewers administrated a face-to-face questionnaire in six different areas in France: Paris, Marseille, Bordeaux, Lille, Strasbourg and the Seine-Saint-Denis department (Paris suburbs). Participants were asked to self-collect a fingerpick blood sample in order to search for the presence of anti-HIV and anti-HCV antibodies and to estimate seroprevalence in PWUDs. Overall, HCV and HIV seroprevalence was 44% [95% CI: 39.6-47.9] and 10% [95% CI: 7.5-12.6] respectively. The highest HCV seroprevalence was 56% in Marseille and the lowest was 24% in Bordeaux and for HIV the highest was 18% in Seine-Saint-Denis and the lowest was 0% in Lille. The population's age differed between areas and could mostly explain HCV seroprevalence variation but not exclusively. Profiles and practices, different in each area, can also explain this variation. In multivariate analysis, HCV seroprevalence was lower in Bordeaux (prevalence ratio [PR]=0.64), Strasbourg (PR=0.76), and Seine-Saint-Denis (PR=0.8) than in Paris. Nearly one-third of injectors declared having had difficulties to obtain syringes in the 6 previous months, but disparities existed between areas. HCV risk exposure in PWUDs remains high in France and

  2. MULTIMEDIA ON GEOGRAPHIC NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Merlanti, Danilo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the topic of the multimedia contents distribution on a geo- graphic network which is a rarefied and huge field. First of all we have to classify the main parts necessary in the multimedia distribution on a geographic network. The main aspects of a geographic network that will be highlighted in this thesis are: the mechanism used to retrieve the sources of the multimedia content; in the case of the peer-to-peer network on geographic network one of t...

  3. Identifying Geographic Clusters: A Network Analytic Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Catini, Roberto; Penner, Orion; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of networks and clusters in the global economy. Despite being a popular research topic in economics, sociology and urban studies, geographical clustering of human activity has often studied been by means of predetermined geographical units such as administrative divisions and metropolitan areas. This approach is intrinsically time invariant and it does not allow one to differentiate between different activities. Our goal in this paper is to present a new methodology for identifying clusters, that can be applied to different empirical settings. We use a graph approach based on k-shell decomposition to analyze world biomedical research clusters based on PubMed scientific publications. We identify research institutions and locate their activities in geographical clusters. Leading areas of scientific production and their top performing research institutions are consistently identified at different geographic scales.

  4. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, L.M. E-mail: lalit.pant@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de; Biswas, D.C.; Dinesh, B.V.; Thomas, R.G.; Saxena, A.; Sawant, Y.S.; Choudhury, R.K

    2002-12-11

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with {alpha} particles from {sup 241}Am-{sup 239}Pu source, fission fragments from {sup 252}Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  5. Data on the role of accessible surface area on osmolytes-induced protein stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safikur Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes data related to the research article “Testing the dependence of stabilizing effect of osmolytes on the fractional increase in the accessible surface area on thermal and chemical denaturations of proteins” [1]. Heat- and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl-induced denaturation of three disulfide free proteins (bovine cytochrome c (b-cyt-c, myoglobin (Mb and barstar in the presence of different concentrations of methylamines (sarcosine, glycine-betaine (GB and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO was monitored by [ϴ]222, the mean residue ellipticity at 222 nm at pH 7.0. Methylamines belong to a class of osmolytes known to protect proteins from deleterious effect of urea. This paper includes comprehensive thermodynamic data obtained from the heat- and GdmCl-induced denaturations of barstar, b-cyt-c and Mb.

  6. A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber for heavy-ion-induced reaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, L M; Dinesh, B V; Thomas, R G; Saxena, A; Sawant, Y S; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    A large area position-sensitive ionization chamber with a wide dynamic range has been developed to measure the mass, charge and energy of the heavy ions and the fission fragments produced in heavy-ion-induced reactions. The split anode geometry of the detector makes it suitable for both particle identification and energy measurements for heavy ions and fission fragments. The detector has been tested with alpha particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am- sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu source, fission fragments from sup 2 sup 5 sup 2 Cf and the heavy-ion beams from the 14UD Mumbai Pelletron accelerator facility. Using this detector, measurements on mass and total kinetic energy distributions in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions have been carried out for a wide range of excitation energies. Results on deep inelastic collisions and mass-energy correlations on different systems using this detector setup are discussed.

  7. Effects of fracture contact areas on seismic attenuation due to wave-induced fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germán Rubino, J.; Müller, Tobias M.; Milani, Marco; Holliger, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Wave-induced fluid flow (WIFF) between fractures and the embedding matrix is considered to be a predominant seismic attenuation mechanism in fractured rocks. That is, due to the strong compressibility contrast between fractures and embedding matrix, seismic waves induce strong fluid pressure gradients, followed by local fluid flow between such regions, which in turn produces significant energy dissipation. Natural fractures can be conceptualized as two surfaces in partial contact, containing very soft and highly permeable material in the inner region. It is known that the characteristics of the fracture contact areas control the mechanical properties of the rock sample, since as the contact area increases, the fracture becomes stiffer. Correspondingly, the detailed characteristics of the contact area of fractures are expected to play a major role in WIFF-related attenuation. To study this topic, we consider a simple model consisting of a horizontal fracture located at the center of a porous rock sample and represented by a number of rectangular cracks of constant height separated by contact areas. The cracks are modelled as highly compliant, porous, and permeable heterogeneities, which are hydraulically connected to the background material. We include a number of rectangular regions of background material separating the cracks, which represent the presence of contact areas of the fracture. In order to estimate the WIFF effects, we apply numerical oscillatory relaxation tests based on the quasi-static poro-elastic equations. The equivalent undrained, complex plane-wave modulus, which allows to estimate seismic attenuation and velocity dispersion for the vertical direction of propagation, is expressed in terms of the imposed displacement and the resulting average vertical stress at the top boundary. In order to explore the effects of the presence of fracture contact areas on WIFF effects, we perform an exhaustive sensitivity analysis considering different

  8. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Swinnen, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing importance of geographical indications (GI), relatively little attention has been devoted to studying the optimal size of a GI region, as well as how lobbying by interest groups may affect the actual size. We develop a political economy model of the size of geographical indications, taking into account possible effects on perceived quality as well as on cost sharing among producers. We show that the political process may result in a GI area that is smaller or larger than t...

  9. How patients perceive the therapeutic communications skills of their general practitioners, and how that perception affects adherence: use of the TCom-skill GP scale in a specific geographical area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Bihan Etienne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study: (1 the structure and test-retest reliability of a measure of how patients perceive the therapeutic communications skills of their general practitioners (TCom-skill GP, and (2 the associations of that scale with socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, and adherence. Methods A total of 393 people who lived in the same geographic area and invited to attend a preventive medical centre for a check up were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire concerning TCom-skill GP (15 items, socio-demographic and health-related characteristics, and to answer two questions on perceived adherence. Results The average age of respondents was 46.8 years (SD 14, and 50.4% were men. The TCom-skill GP score was one-dimensional, had high internal coherence (Cronbach α 0.92, and good test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient 0.74. The overall score was positively related to increasing age. Respondents aged 60+ were more likely to be adherent. The higher the score, the higher the probability of adherence. Multivariate analysis showed that the TCom-skill score was associated with advancing age and the number of consultations with the GP during the previous 3 months, but not with gender, living alone, being employed, job category or educational level. Multivariate analysis also showed that adherence was associated with TCom-skill GP score which concealed the association between adherence and advancing age observed in univariate analysis. Conclusion The TCom-skill GP scale probably has value in assessing the quality of doctor-patient relationships and therapeutic communications. The psychometric properties of the TCom-skill GP scale were appropriate for its use in this context. Adherence related to the TCom-skill GP and the latter related to the age of patients and the number of their previous consultations. The TCom-skill GP scale may be a useful way to assess, in a specific geographical location

  10. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  11. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes deterioration of structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include fresh water runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses; their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. However, whether the coastal environment becomes hypoxic or not, under the combination of external forcings, depends also on the nature of the ecosystem, e.g. physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences can be compression and loss of habitat, as well as change in life cycle and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in a non-linear way and has pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, hence affecting human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behaviour that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  12. Natural and human-induced hypoxia and consequences for coastal areas: synthesis and future development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Gilbert, D.; Gooday, A. J.; Levin, L.; Naqvi, S. W. A.; Middelburg, J. J.; Scranton, M.; Ekau, W.; Peña, A.; Dewitte, B.; Oguz, T.; Monteiro, P. M. S.; Urban, E.; Rabalais, N. N.; Ittekkot, V.; Kemp, W. M.; Ulloa, O.; Elmgren, R.; Escobar-Briones, E.; van der Plas, A. K.

    2010-05-01

    Hypoxia has become a world-wide phenomenon in the global coastal ocean and causes a deterioration of the structure and function of ecosystems. Based on the collective contributions of members of SCOR Working Group #128, the present study provides an overview of the major aspects of coastal hypoxia in different biogeochemical provinces, including estuaries, coastal waters, upwelling areas, fjords and semi-enclosed basins, with various external forcings, ecosystem responses, feedbacks and potential impact on the sustainability of the fishery and economics. The obvious external forcings include freshwater runoff and other factors contributing to stratification, organic matter and nutrient loadings, as well as exchange between coastal and open ocean water masses. Their different interactions set up mechanisms that drive the system towards hypoxia. Coastal systems also vary in their relative susceptibility to hypoxia depending on their physical and geographic settings. It is understood that coastal hypoxia has a profound impact on the sustainability of ecosystems, which can be seen, for example, by the change in the food-web structure and system function; other influences include compression and loss of habitat, as well as changes in organism life cycles and reproduction. In most cases, the ecosystem responds to the low dissolved oxygen in non-linear ways with pronounced feedbacks to other compartments of the Earth System, including those that affect human society. Our knowledge and previous experiences illustrate that there is a need to develop new observational tools and models to support integrated research of biogeochemical dynamics and ecosystem behavior that will improve confidence in remediation management strategies for coastal hypoxia.

  13. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  14. Changes induced by sea level rise on network properties of restoration areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Mirian; Castanedo, Sonia; Zhou, Zeng; Coco, Giovanni; Medina, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    Human actions have been reducing the natural domain of estuarine systems for centuries. In the past, estuaries were perceived as unhealthy areas, source of diseases, which were adapted to human use by drainage and heavy engineering. Our current understanding shows that estuaries are not sources of disease, but rich ecosystems that cover important ecosystem functions. They need to be restored to their natural state. However, restoration actions may induce morphological changes that may change the estuary current behavior. It is thus of the utmost importance to understand the morphodynamic changes induced by restoration actions, more so when the final aim is to predict these changes. Dikes have been the most used mean to enclose and drain areas of estuaries. In this work, we focus our attention on dike removal as a means to restore the areas enclosed by these dikes. Dikes may be removed completely, or only partially (opening one or several breaches), to allow the tidal flow to enter into the area to be restored. Morphodynamic effects of dike removal are simulated numerically using Delft3d. Different dike removal configurations are studied and their effect on the recovery of the estuary quantified. Estuarine tidal networks are characterized by means of a new approach that links network connectivity to the spatial hydrodynamic fields developed in the estuary. The impact of different restorations strategies in the drainage properties of the network has been studied in the short term (5 -10 years) and in the long term (100 years) allowing the connectivity to evolve with time. Results show, for different scenarios, differences not only in the spatial distribution of the tidal network but also in statistical characteristics after different dike removal actions. The new distribution of channels will have implications for the location of the tidal flats, flood patterns and thus biological environments within the tidal networks. These changes in the morphological properties

  15. The Tea Cultivattion Technology’s Geographical Diffusion of China and the Four Major Producing Areas%中国植茶技术的地理扩散与世界四大茶叶产区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国梁; 逯砚秋

    2014-01-01

    Tea originated in China. Containing different kinds of vitamins and mineral elements as potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and etc, and having functions of reducing tiredness, removing diseases, and etc, having high quality but low prices, it is deeply adored by people all of the world. In the past 1500 years, as an important carrier of the dissemination of Chi-nese civilization, tea has been geographically diffused from China to other parts of the world. Now more than 50 countries produce tea in the world. It is produced mainly in tropical and sub-tropical areas between the north and south of thirty latitude, forming the four major producing areas of tea of East Asi-a, South Asia, East Africa and Southeast Asia, among which, East Asia is the largest producing area, and Southeast Asia the smallest. In the forseeable fu ture, this map of tea production will not have big change.%茶叶原产于中国,因其富含人体所需的数十种矿物质以及丰富的维生素,具有散郁气、驱睡气、养生气、除病气等诸多功效,加之物美价廉,因而深得人们喜爱。在过去的1500年间,茶叶作为传播中华文明的重要载体之一不断从中国向世界各地进行地理扩散。目前,世界上茶叶生产国已有50多个,由于受茶叶生境条件的制约,茶叶生产主要集中于南北纬30度之间的热带和亚热带地区,形成了东亚、南亚、东非和东南亚四大茶叶产区。本文从世界茶叶的起源和地理扩散入手,分析了世界茶叶生产的起源、扩散与地理分布格局,并在此基础上,对世界茶叶的生产趋势进行了预测。

  16. Development of mathematical models to elaborate strategies, select alternatives and development of plans for adaptation of communities to climate change in different geographical areas including costs to implement it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    There is evidence that the climate changes and that now, the change is influenced and accelerated by the CO2 augmentation in atmosphere due to combustion by humans. Such "Climate change" is on the policy agenda at the global level, with the aim of understanding and reducing its causes and to mitigate its consequences. In most countries and international organisms UNO (e.g. Rio de Janeiro 1992), OECD, EC, etc … the efforts and debates have been directed to know the possible causes, to predict the future evolution of some variable conditioners, and trying to make studies to fight against the effects or to delay the negative evolution of such. The Protocol of Kyoto 1997 set international efforts about CO2 emissions, but it was partial and not followed e.g. by USA and China …, and in Durban 2011 the ineffectiveness of humanity on such global real challenges was set as evident. Among all that, the elaboration of a global model was not boarded that can help to choose the best alternative between the feasible ones, to elaborate the strategies and to evaluate the costs, and the authors propose to enter in that frame for study. As in all natural, technological and social changes, the best-prepared countries will have the best bear and the more rapid recover. In all the geographic areas the alternative will not be the same one, but the model must help us to make the appropriated decision. It is essential to know those areas that are more sensitive to the negative effects of climate change, the parameters to take into account for its evaluation, and comprehensive plans to deal with it. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a mathematical model support of decisions, which will allow to develop and to evaluate alternatives of adaptation to the climatic change of different communities in Europe and Latin-America, mainly in especially vulnerable areas to the climatic change, considering in them all the intervening factors. The models will consider criteria of physical

  17. Analysis of shallow landslides and soil erosion induced by rainfall over large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Sabatino; Della Sala, Maria

    2014-05-01

    soil initial suction. On the other hand, the source areas for erosion phenomena depend on rainfall characteristics and soil cover, with simulated eroded areas larger in autumn season. In addition, for a past event, the simulated source areas of shallow landslides are smaller than those observed in the field while the simulated eroded areas with thickness greater than 5 cm are comparable with the in-situ evidences if the analysis takes into account high rainfall intensity and a spatially variable soil cover use, thus providing a consistent interpretation of the event. References Acharya, G., Cochrane, T., Davies, T., Bowman, E. (2011). Quantifying and modeling postfailure sediment yields from laboratory-scale soil erosion and shallow landslide experiments with silty loess. Geomorphology 129, 49-58. Cascini L., Cuomo S., Della Sala M. (2011). Spatial and temporal occurrence of rainfall-induced shallow landslides of flow type: A case of Sarno-Quindici, Italy. Geomorphology, 126(1-2), 148-158. Cascini, L., Sorbino, G., Cuomo, S., Ferlisi, S. (2013). Seasonal effects of rainfall on the shallow pyroclastic deposits of the Campania region (southern Italy). Landslides, 1-14, DOI: 10.1007/s10346-013-0395-3. Cuomo S., Della Sala M. (2013). Spatially distributed analysis of shallow landslides and soil erosion induced by rainfall. (submitted to Natural Hazards). Fell, R., Corominas J., Bonnard, C., Cascini, L., Leroi E., Savage, W.Z., on behalf of the JTC-1 Joint Technical Committee on Landslides and Engineered Slopes (2008). Guidelines for landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk zoning for land use planning. Engineering Geolology, 102(3-4):85-98. Merritt, W.S., Latcher, R.A., Jakeman, A.J. (2003). A review of erosion and sediment transport models. Environmental Modelling and Software 18, 761- 799. Sorbino G., Sica C., Cascini L. (2010). Susceptibility analysis of shallow landslides source areas using physically based models. Natural Hazards, 53(2), 313-332.

  18. SOME RESULTS OF THE THIRD COMPLEX MULTIDISCIPLINARY EXPEDITION OF THE RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY FOR MONITORING OF THE RADIATION SITUATION IN THE KURIL-KAMCHATKA AREA OF THE PACIFIC OCEAN, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Third complex multidisciplinary expedition of the Russian Geographic Society for monitoring of the radiation situation in the Kuril-Kamchatka area of the Pacific Oceantook place in September – October 2014. The purposes of the expedition were monitoring of the radiation situation and assessment of the impact of the accident at the nuclear power plant “Fukushima-1”on radioactive contamination of the marine environment near the Russian coasts. This paper presents results on the activity measurements of the cesium and strontium radionuclides in the hydrobionts collected during the expedition in the Seas of Japan and Okhotsk. Nine samples of the sea hydrobionts including one species of invertebrates and four species of fish have been analysed. Determination of activity concentrations of radionuclides of cesium (separately 134Cs and 137Cs were carried out by the gammaspectrometry method using a high-resolution semiconductor detector. Activity concentrations of 90Sr were quantified with a radiochemical method. The activity concentrations of 90Sr and the total activity concentrations of both cesium radioisotopes for all the samples analyzed did not exceed 1 Bq kg–1 (wet weight. This value is much lower than the safe levels of 130 Bq kg–1 (radiocesium and 100 Bq kg–1 (radiostrontium for the fish consumption inRussia. The study demonstrates that theFukushima accident has no considerable impact on radioactive contamination of the selected species of hydrobiota in Russian waters of theJapanSea andOkhotskSea.

  19. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  20. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  1. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  2. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  3. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  4. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  5. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  6. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  7. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  8. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  9. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  10. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY06 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  11. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  12. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY07 by Congressional District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  13. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY09 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  14. Veterans Affairs Geographic Distribution of Expenditures FY08 by State and County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures (GDX) is an annual report that shows estimated VA expenditures for major programmatic areas by geographic area (state,...

  15. Symposium on Geographic Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felleman, John, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six papers on geographic information systems cover the future of geographic information systems, land information systems modernization in Wisconsin, the Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) System of the U.S. Bureau of the Census, satellite remote sensing, geographic information systems and sustainable development,…

  16. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cosmic-Ray Induced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A.

    2012-02-29

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The LAT has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth-limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded {approx} 6.4 x 10{sup 6} photons with energies > 100 MeV and {approx} 250 hours total livetime for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission - often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission - has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index {Lambda} = 2.79 {+-} 0.06.

  17. Hypoxia-induced hypothermia mediated by the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral preoptic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, T

    2012-12-13

    Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature, which response is mediated, at least in part, by noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rostromedial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. In the accompanying paper, it was shown that glutamatergic activation of the lateral POA also evokes hypothermic responses. Here, I tested the hypothesis that the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA is critically involved in the neural mechanism of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O(2)-90% N(2), 5 min) as well as a single microinjection of NA (50 pmol) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (8.4 nmol) into the rostromedial POA evoked an increase in the tail skin temperature and a decrease in the colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. All of these responses were greatly attenuated by pretreatment with multiple microinjections of kynurenic acid (10 nmol, four locations), a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by those with saline solution, in the bilateral rostral and central parts of the lateral POA. These results suggest that the NA- and NO-sensitive structure in the rostromedial POA activated the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA to mediate hypoxia-induced hypothermia.

  18. Effects of coil orientation on the electric field induced by TMS over the hand motor area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the hand motor area depend on the position and orientation of the stimulating coil. In this work, we computationally investigate the induced electric field for multiple coil orientations and locations in order to determine which parts of the brain are affected and how the sensitivity of motor cortical activation depends on the direction of the electric field. The finite element method is used for calculating the electric field induced by TMS in two individual anatomical models of the head and brain. The orientation of the coil affects both the strength and depth of penetration of the electric field, and the field strongly depends on the direction of the sulcus, where the target neurons are located. The coil position that gives the strongest electric field in the target cortical region may deviate from the closest scalp location by a distance on the order of 1 cm. Together with previous experimental data, the results support the hypothesis that the cortex is most sensitive to fields oriented perpendicular to the cortical layers, while it is relatively insensitive to fields parallel to them. This has important implications for targeting of TMS. To determine the most effective coil position and orientation, it is essential to consider both biological (the direction of the targeted axons) and physical factors (the strength and direction of the electric field).

  19. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...

  20. Making Geographical Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John

    2015-01-01

    Although there are surprisingly few academic books about geography with the term "future" or "futures" in their titles, this paper indicates that for much of the twentieth century geographers contributed to important discussions about the shape of worlds to come. The paper offers a review of these debates within Anglo-American…

  1. Geographic profiling survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emeno, Karla; Bennell, Craig; Snook, Brent; Taylor, Paul Jonathon

    Geographic profiling (GP) is an investigative technique that involves predicting a serial offender?s home location (or some other anchor point) based on where he or she committed a crime. Although the use of GP in police investigations appears to be on the rise, little is known about the procedure

  2. The Characteristics of Amiodarone-induced Thyrotoxicosis in a Moderate Iodine Deficit Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancuța-Elena Cota

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amiodarone (AMI, a class III anti-arrhythmic drug, is associated with a number of side effects, including thyroid dysfunction (both hypo- and hyperthyroidism, which is due to amiodarone's high iodine content and its direct toxic effect on the thyroid. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT (type, rate of occurrence and to identify the risk factors involved in its occurrence. Material and method: We examined patients treated with amiodarone, between January 2002 and December 2011, who presented to our Department of Endocrinology Târgu Mures for thyroid dysfunctions. Results: The retrospective study included 87 patients with thyroid dysfunctions; 58 (66.7% patients had AIT and 29 (33.3% had Amiodarone induced hypothyroidism (AIH. In the AIT group: 35 were women (60.3%, 23 were men (39.7%; the average age was 61.60 ± 12.39 years. Risk factors identified for the AIT group were male gender (RR = OR = 3.8; Chi-squer = 5.7, p = 0.004 and pre-existing thyroid abnormalities (RR = 2.5, Chi-square = 4.1, p = 0.005. The thyroid dysfunction occurrence was heterogeneous (0.2-183 months. The patients with previous thyroid abnormalities developed earlier thyroid dysfunction compared to those with an apparently normal thyroid gland (22.25 ± 4.14 months versus 32.09 ± 7.69 months, p = 0.02, T test. Conclusion: In the context of the specific iodine geoclimatic intake and the area of origin, amiodarone - induced thyroid dysfunction spectrum is dominated by thyrotoxicosis. Screening and monitoring of thyroid function for patiens under chronic amiodarone treatment is necessary

  3. Biogeography of the leafhopper subfamily Stegelytrinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), based on a cluster analysis of geographical distribution in areas of endemism combined with phylogeny of the subfamily%世界秀头叶蝉亚科生物地理学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琮; 程若琳; 张雅林

    2012-01-01

    Biogeography of the leafhopper subfamily Stegelytrinae Baker is studied based on an analysis of geographical distribution of this subfamily worldwide using a cluster analysis of the zoological distribution of areas of endemism as well as the phylogeny of representatives of this subfamily.Results show that the Stegelytrinae mainly occur in the Oriental Region and in the Mediterranean area of the Palaearctic Region,and this extends to the east side of both Wallace's and Weber's lines.Eleven areas of endemism of this subfamily are recognized.The proportions of endemic taxa in different areas of endemism are generally very high in comparison with other leafhopper groups,but distinct differences could be found among the different areas of endemism of Stegelytrinae.This subfamily is most intensively diversified in the Indochina Peninsula (INCN).This is the stegelytrine distribution center,having the highest biodiversity at both generic and species levels.The dendrogram of endemic areas of Stegelytrinae constructed using cluster analysis of the zoological distribution of Stegelytrinae at generic level shows the endemic areas of Stegelytrinae can be divided into 4 large groups.Relationships among different endemic areas of Stegelytrinae correspond largely to the geologic history of related areas,which indicates that the evolution and vicariance of this subfamily have been closely related to the history of continental drift and climate changes.It is deduced that the presumed monophyletic Stegelytrinae originated in the Oriental Region after North America had separated from Eurasia; this is the case in the monophyletic genera group which is supported by the lateral frontal sutures extending dorsally well beyond the corresponding ocellus.In addition,two expanding traces of the Stegelytrinae are presumed,which remain plausible explanations for the dispersal of Stegelytrinae:(1) New Guinea (and probably (+ Australia)) -Kalimantan-Sumatra-Malay Peninsula-Indochina Peninsula

  4. Induced seismicity caused by hydraulic fracturing in deep geothermal wells in Germany and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Brückner, Lisa; Ceranna, Lars; Gestermann, Nicolai; Houben, Georg; Tischner, Torsten; Wegler, Ulrich; Wellbrink, Matthias; Bönnemann, Christian; Bertram, Andreas; Kirschbaum, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the BGR has worked out a study on the potential environmental impact caused by hydraulic fracturing or chemical stimulations in deep geothermal reservoirs in Germany and adjacent areas. The investigations and analyses are based on existing studies and information provided by operators. The two environmental impacts being essentially considered in the report are induced seismicity and possible contamination of the groundwater reservoirs which serve for drinking water supply. Altogether, in this study, information on 30 hydraulic frac operations and 26 chemical stimulations including information from neighboring countries were compiled and analyzed. Out of the hydraulic stimulations two thirds were carried out as waterfracs and one third as fracturing with proppants. Parameters used in the study to characterize the induced seismicity are maximum magnitude, number of seismic events, size of the seismically active volume, and the relation of this volume to fault zones and the cap rock, as well as, finally, the impacts at the Earth's surface. The response of the subsurface to hydraulic fracturing is variable: There are some activities, which cause perceptible seismic events, others, where no perceptible but instrumentally detected events occurred, and moreover activities without even any instrumentally detected events. A classification of seismic hazard with respect to tectonic region, geology, or depth of the layer is still difficult, since the number of hydraulic fracturing measures in deep geothermal wells is small making a statistically sound analysis impossible. However, there are some indications, that hydraulic fracturing in granite in tectonically active regions like the Upper Rhine Graben results in comparatively stronger, perceptible seismicity compared to hydraulic fracturing in the sedimentary rocks of the North German basin. The maximum magnitudes of induced earthquakes caused by hydraulic fracturing of deep geothermal wells in Germany are

  5. Geographical distribution and prediction on potential distribution areas of Chinese endemic species ;Salsola junatovii%中国特有种天山猪毛菜的地理分布及潜在分布区预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻志彬; 张杰; 张明理

    2016-01-01

    Based on population distribution information and 20 environmental variables ( including altitude and 19 climatic variables) in field investigation, potential distribution areas of Chinese endemic species Salsola junatovii Botsch. were predicted by the maximum entropy model ( MaxEnt ) and archaeological geographical information system ( ArcGIS) , MaxEnt model precision was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve ( ROC ) , and contribution of each environmental variable in deciding potential distribution areas was evaluated by jackknife test. The results show that S. junatovii is mainly distributed in 12 counties ( including Toksun County, Hoxud County, Hejing County, Yanqi County, Baicheng County, Kuche County, Wensu County, Wushi County, Akqi County, Artux County, Wuqia County and Akto County ) of the south of Xinjiang of China, but S. junatovii ever distributed and recorded in related literatures is not found in Akesu City, Keping County and Kashi City in this investigation. Based on prediction of MaxEnt model, the potential suitable distribution areas of S. junatovii is mainly located in the south of Xinjiang ( including the south slope of Tianshan Mountain and the southwest rim of Tarim Basin) and the west and east of Gansu, and is also sporadically distributed in the west of Xinjiang. Among 15 populations investigated, except population 14 ( locating in the west of Wuqia County) , other 14 populations all are located in potential suitable distribution areas, in which 7 populations are located in very suitable potential distribution areas. It is indicated that the effect of MaxEnt model using to predicting potential suitable distribution areas of S. junatovii is better. Among 20 environmental variables, the environmental variables ranked the top three of contribution to prediction results are mean temperature of the coldest quarter, the minimum temperature of the coldest month and mean temperature of the driest quarter, which means that distribution of

  6. 大区域尺度下地理系统的空间直观模拟与景观演变%Spatially-explicit Modelling and Landscape Evolution of Geographical System in a Large Scale Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯永玖

    2011-01-01

    元胞自动机(CA)支持下的地理系统空间直观模拟(SEM),能够以空间可视化方式显示模拟结果,不仅能够弥补缺失的资料,更能够推演土地利用的未来趋势和可能情景,从而揭示土地利用的时空过程与变化规律。基于Logistic回归的CA模型,模拟了大区域尺度下的上海市陆域土地利用变化,并利用景观指标对结果进行刻画和分析。研究表明:上海市城市建设用地面积持续增加,植被面积不断减少,而水域面积保持稳定;此外,景观指标揭示的土地利用空间形态变化过程及趋势,与所采用的元胞尺度有较大关系,即空间直观模拟结果与景观指标具有显著的尺度敏感性。%Spatially-explicit modelling(SEM) of land use under the support of cellular automata(CA) is capable of displaying the results with spatial visualization,recovering the missing materials,and inferring the future tendency and feasible scenarios of geographical system,thus to reveal the spatiotemporal process and change rules of land use.With the Logistic regression based on CA model,followed by a landscape pattern analysis,the land use in main land of Shanghai Municipality was simulated.The results demonstrate that the area of building land use type in Shanghai is increasing,that of vegetation is decreasing,and that of water is almost maintaining its state since 1992.Moreover,landscape metrics revealing land use change process and tendency are observed relating with the cell size used,that is,spatially-explicit modelling and landscape metrics is remarkablely sensitive to the cell size.

  7. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  8. Conservation-induced displacement: A comparative study of two Indian protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabra Asmita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts at ′preservation via displacement′ are an extreme manifestation of the ′fortress′ or an exclusionary conservation paradigm, support for which has increased lately due to escalating conservation threats. While the policies and processes emanating from this paradigm have produced positive conservation outcomes for some Protected Areas, livelihood outcomes for the displaced people have seldom been as positive. This article examines whether the impoverishment risks arising from conservation-induced displacement tend to vary with the degree of marginalisation of the displaced community. In this light, this article examines in detail the impact on livelihood of conservation-induced displacement in two Protected Areas (PAs of India. The article posits that understanding the dynamic livelihood context of displaced communities, especially the ecological base of their livelihoods, is critical to any assessment of their pre- and post-displacement livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes (such as income, poverty, food security and health. A variety of livelihood parameters, including compensation received, consumption flows, agricultural production, monetary income, food security, headcount ratio of poverty and overall poverty indices have been studied, to understand the extent to which key livelihood risks arising out of displacement are addressed by the rehabilitation package and process in the two PAs. The Sahariya is a forest-dependent Adivasi community living in and around the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the semi-arid tropical region of Madhya Pradesh. The Sahariya Adivasis of the Kuno Sanctuary were a socially, politically and economically marginalised community, whose lives and livelihoods were intricately linked to their ecological base. We found that inadequate attention was paid to this factor while designing and implementing a suitable rehabilitation package for the 1650 Sahariya households displaced from this PA. As a result

  9. Every document has a geographical scope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, G.; Bouma, G.; Nerbonne, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is a useful premise to assume that every document in a collection and every query issued to an information retrieval (IR) system are geography-dependent. If one can determine what area an article is about (i.e., its geographical scope), this information can be used to improve the accuracy with wh

  10. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are u

  11. Geometric algorithms for delineating geographic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinbacher, I.

    2006-01-01

    Everyone of us is used to geographical regions like the south of Utrecht, the dutch Randstad, or the mountainous areas of Austria. Some of these regions have crisp, fixed boundaries like Utrecht or Austria. Others, like the dutch Randstad and the Austrian mountains, have no such boundaries and are

  12. Source processes of industrially-induced earthquakes at the Geysers geothermal area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Microearthquake activity at The Geysers geothermal area, California, mirrors the steam production rate, suggesting that the earthquakes are industrially induced. A 15-station network of digital, three-component seismic stations was operated for one month in 1991, and 3,900 earthquakes were recorded. Highly-accurate moment tensors were derived for 30 of the best recorded earthquakes by tracing rays through tomographically derived 3-D VP and VP / VS structures, and inverting P-and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios. The orientations of the P-and T-axes are very scattered, suggesting that there is no strong, systematic deviatoric stress field in the reservoir, which could explain why the earthquakes are not large. Most of the events had significant non-double-couple (non-DC) components in their source mechanisms with volumetric components up to ???30% of the total moment. Explosive and implosive sources were observed in approximately equal numbers, and must be caused by cavity creation (or expansion) and collapse. It is likely that there is a causal relationship between these processes and fluid reinjection and steam withdrawal. Compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components were up to 100% of the deviatoric component. Combinations of opening cracks and shear faults cannot explain all the observations, and rapid fluid flow may also be involved. The pattern of non-DC failure at The Geysers contrasts with that of the Hengill-Grensdalur area in Iceland, a largely unexploited water-dominated field in an extensional stress regime. These differences are poorly understood but may be linked to the contrasting regional stress regimes and the industrial exploitation at The Geysers.

  13. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal.

  14. Natural Scales in Geographical Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Telmo; Roth, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Human mobility is known to be distributed across several orders of magnitude of physical distances, which makes it generally difficult to endogenously find or define typical and meaningful scales. Relevant analyses, from movements to geographical partitions, seem to be relative to some ad-hoc scale, or no scale at all. Relying on geotagged data collected from photo-sharing social media, we apply community detection to movement networks constrained by increasing percentiles of the distance distribution. Using a simple parameter-free discontinuity detection algorithm, we discover clear phase transitions in the community partition space. The detection of these phases constitutes the first objective method of characterising endogenous, natural scales of human movement. Our study covers nine regions, ranging from cities to countries of various sizes and a transnational area. For all regions, the number of natural scales is remarkably low (2 or 3). Further, our results hint at scale-related behaviours rather than scale-related users. The partitions of the natural scales allow us to draw discrete multi-scale geographical boundaries, potentially capable of providing key insights in fields such as epidemiology or cultural contagion where the introduction of spatial boundaries is pivotal. PMID:28374825

  15. Geographic profiling and animal foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Comber, Steven C; Nicholls, Barry; Rossmo, D Kim; Racey, Paul A

    2006-05-21

    Geographic profiling was originally developed as a statistical tool for use in criminal cases, particularly those involving serial killers and rapists. It is designed to help police forces prioritize lists of suspects by using the location of crime scenes to identify the areas in which the criminal is most likely to live. Two important concepts are the buffer zone (criminals are less likely to commit crimes in the immediate vicinity of their home) and distance decay (criminals commit fewer crimes as the distance from their home increases). In this study, we show how the techniques of geographic profiling may be applied to animal data, using as an example foraging patterns in two sympatric colonies of pipistrelle bats, Pipistrellus pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus, in the northeast of Scotland. We show that if model variables are fitted to known roost locations, these variables may be used as numerical descriptors of foraging patterns. We go on to show that these variables can be used to differentiate patterns of foraging in these two species.

  16. Lagrangian modeling of atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides and geographical information systems as tools to support emergency planning in area of influence of nuclear complex of Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brazil; Modelagem Lagrangeana da dispersao atmoferica de radionuclideos e sistemas de informacao geografica como ferramentas de suporte ao planejamento de emergencia na area de influencia do complexo nuclear de Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Corbiniano

    2013-07-01

    Industrial accidents generally endanger structures and the set of environmental influence area where the enterprises are located, especially when affected by atmospheric dispersion of their pollutants, whose concern with the evacuation of the population is the main goal in emergency situations. Considering the nuclear complex Angra dos Reis - RJ, based on computer modeling analysis of the mechanisms of pollutant dispersion in conjunction with geographic information systems were developed. Thus, information about the dispersion of radionuclides - from simulations performed on the HYSPLIT; meteorological data (direction, intensity and calm on the wind regime and analysis of the wind field in the region using WRF), occurrence of landslides and data on the environmental study area were integrated into a GIS database using ArcGIS platform. Aiming at the identification and definition of escape routes in case of evacuation from accidental events in CNAAA, the results point solutions for long-term planning, based on weather and landslides, and short-term, supported by simulations of the dispersion radionuclides, in order to support actions that assist local emergency planning. (author)

  17. Investigation on the Plasma-Induced Emission Properties of Large Area Carbon Nanotube Array Cathodes with Different Morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Liang; Liao Qingliang; Qin Zi; Zhang Zheng; Qi Junjie; Zhang Yue; Huang Yunhua

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Large area well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with different morphologies were synthesized by using a chemical vapor deposition. The plasma-induced emission properties of CNT array cathodes with different morphologies were investigated. The ratio of CNT height to CNT-to-CNT distance has considerable effects on their plasma-induced emission properties. As the ratio increases, emission currents of CNT array cathodes decrease due to screening effects. Under the pulse electric fie...

  18. Real-time specific surface area measurements via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Howard, James E.

    2017-01-01

    From healthcare to cosmetics to environmental science, the specific surface area (SSA) of micro- and mesoporous materials or products can greatly affect their chemical and physical properties. SSA results are also widely used to examine source rocks in conventional and unconventional petroleum resource plays. Despite its importance, current methods to measure SSA are often cumbersome, time-consuming, or require cryogenic consumables (e.g., liquid nitrogen). These methods are not amenable to high-throughput environments, have stringent sample preparation requirements, and are not practical for use in the field. We present a new application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for rapid measurement of SSA. This study evaluates geological samples, specifically organic-rich oil shales, but the approach is expected to be applicable to many other types of materials. The method uses optical emission spectroscopy to examine laser-generated plasma and quantify the amount of argon adsorbed to a sample during an inert gas purge. The technique can accommodate a wide range of sample sizes and geometries and has the potential for field use. These advantages for SSA measurement combined with the simultaneous acquisition of composition information make this a promising new approach for characterizing geologic samples and other materials.

  19. Geographical orientation. An integral geoperspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Cobo Arízaga

    2013-12-01

    This approach seeks to create a new line of discussion, to launch a proposal that is scientifically challenging to the hegemony of geographical thought and that provides new geographical rationality structures.

  20. Geographical distribution of host animals of plague in residential areas in Yunnan Province%2007-2012年云南省居民区鼠疫宿主动物调查及其地理分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霖; 刘正祥; 杜春红; 洪梅; 吴爱国; 宋志忠; 高子厚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the geographical distribution of plague host animals in residential areas and the association between plague and its distribution pattern in Yunnan Province.Methods A systematic investigation on fauna and community ecology of rodents was carried out in residential areas of 17 counties(cities) of Yunnan Province,southwestern China with different longitude,latitude and elevation from May 2007 to November 2012.The characteristics of the spatial distribution of flea communities along environmental gradients were analyzed using community structure indexes.Results A total of 390 small mammals were trapped in seventeen counties (cities),and the mammals were classified into 11 species and 7 genus in 4 families.Among all small host mammals,Rattus tanezumi,Rattus nitidus and Rattus norvegicus were dominant species of host animals in residential areas,accounting for 33.85% (132/390),20.77% (81/390) and 16.92% (66/390),respectively.The horizontal distribution of rodents showed that Rattus tanezumi was the widest species in residential areas,which was found at the longitude 98°-105°,followed by Rattus norvegicus,Rattus yunnanensis and Mus musculus.The vertical and latitudinal distributions of rodents were similar in residential areas.Rattus tanezumi was also the widest distributed species,which was observed at the latitude 21°-< 28°N and at the altitude 500-< 3 500 m; the constituent of Rattus tanezumi showed similar trends of leaning peak curves,first gradually increasing and then decreasing with the increase of latitude and elevation; Rattus tanezumi gradually changed into Rattus nitidus and Apodemus chevrieri,et al.The richness spatial distribution patterns of host animals showed similar trends of leaning peak curves which gradually increased and then decreased with increasing of longitude and latitude; the highest richness was observed at the longitude 98°-< 101°E and at the latitude 23°-< 28°N.While,the richness spatial d

  1. Evolução de homicídios por área geográfica em Pernambuco entre 1980 e 1998 Homicide progression per geographical area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, 1980-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza C de Lima

    2002-08-01

    and growth of homicides among male population according to the geopolitical areas. METHODS: An ecological study including a time series analysis was carried out among 15 to 49 year-old males living in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. Mortality data was collected from the Ministry of Health's Mortality Information System. Data on population was from the 1980 and 1991 censuses and the 1996 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics' census. For inter-census years, the population size was estimated by interpolation, and for the period 1997-1998 it was estimated by projection, using the geometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using mobile mean and regression analysis techniques. RESULTS: In the 1980s, the greatest increase in homicide rates was in the state capital (390%. In the 1990s, the greatest increase occurred in the metropolitan region (68.5% suggesting violence spread from the capital to other municipalities of greater Recife. Homicide rates tended to grow linearly in the interior, whilst there was an exponential growth in the capital and metropolitan region. A striking feature is the high rates of homicides with firearms in the three areas. CONCLUSIONS: The progression of homicides in the three areas of study shows a characteristic increase. It should be stressed that even though it is the same phenomenon - male homicides -, the generating dynamic of this process has geographical particularities between more urban and interior areas and they should be taken into account while developing local policies for supporting victims and preventing these events.

  2. Geographic Information Systems for Assessing Existing and Potential Bio-energy Resources: Their Use in Determining Land Use and Management Options which Minimize Ecological and Landscape Impacts in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A. E.; Fabos, J. G.; Carlozzi, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    A management construct is described which forms part of an overall landscape ecological planning model which has as a principal objective the extension of the traditional descriptive land use mapping capabilities of geographic information systems into land management realms. It is noted that geographic information systems appear to be moving to more comprehensive methods of data handling and storage, such as relational and hierarchical data management systems, and a clear need has simultaneously arisen therefore for planning assessment techniques and methodologies which can actually use such complex levels of data in a systematic, yet flexible and scenario dependent way. The descriptive of mapping method proposed broaches such issues and utilizes a current New England bioenergy scenario, stimulated by the use of hardwoods for household heating purposes established in the post oil crisis era and the increased awareness of the possible landscape and ecological ramifications of the continued increasing use of the resource.

  3. Geographical Income Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Jonassen, Anders Bruun

    In this paper we estimate the degree, composition and development of geographical income polarization based on data at the individual and municipal level in Denmark from 1984 to 2002. Rising income polarization is reconfirmed when applying new polarization measures, the driving force being greater...... inter municipal income inequality. Counter factual simulations show that rising property prices to a large part explain the rise in polarization. One side-effect of polarization is tendencies towards a parallel polarization of residence location patterns, where low skilled individuals tend to live...

  4. MODELING FUZZY GEOGRAPHIC OBJECTS WITHIN FUZZY FIELDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To improve the current GIS functions in describing geographic objects w ith fuzziness,this paper begins with a discussion on the distance measure of sp atial objects based on the theory of sets and an introduction of dilation and er osion operators.Under the assumption that changes of attributes in a geographic region are gradual,the analytic expressions for the fuzzy objects of points,l ines and areas,and the description of their formal structures are presented.Th e analytic model of geographic objects by means of fuzzy fields is developed.We have shown that the 9-intersection model proposed by Egenhofer and Franzosa (19 91) is a special case of the model presented in the paper.

  5. A geographic information system for local public health policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. van Oers (Johannes Anna Maria)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis book deals with the development and use of a geographic information system for local public health policy. Health differences between populations in different geographical areas, large (countries) or small (city-neighbourhoods) have always been a challenge to epidemiologists and pol

  6. 33 CFR 150.930 - What datum is used for the geographic coordinates in this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... geographic coordinates in this subpart? 150.930 Section 150.930 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.930 What datum is used for the geographic coordinates in this subpart? The geographic coordinates used in this subpart have been revised to enable plotting using...

  7. The Geographical Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schweikart

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Geographical Information System, normally called GIS, is a tool for representing spatial relationships and real processes with the help of a model. A GIS is a system of hardware, software and staff for collecting, managing, analysing and representing geospatial information. For example, we can study the evolution of an infectious disease in a certain territory, perform market analysis, or locate the best ways to choose a new industrial site. In substance, it is data manipulation software for that allows us to have, both the graphic component, that is a territorial representation of the reality that you want to represent, and the data components in the form of a database or more commonly, calculation sheets. Geographical data are divided in spatial data and attribute data: Spatial data are recorded as points, lines and polygons (vectorial structure. In other words, the survey systems have been projected to acquire information in accordance to elementary cells corresponding to a territorial grid (raster structure. It also includes remote sensing data.

  8. Endogenous Opioid-Induced Neuroplasticity of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Ventral Tegmental Area Influences Natural and Opiate Reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitchers, Kyle K.; Coppens, Caroline M.; Beloate, Lauren N.; Fuller, Jonathan; Van, Sandy; Frohmader, Karla S.; Laviolette, Steven R.; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural reward and drugs of abuse converge on the mesolimbic pathway and activate common mechanism of neural plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Chronic exposure to opiates induces plasticity in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which regulates morphine reward tolerance. Her

  9. Assessment of potential areas to biomass cultivation for energy production and a contribution of remote sensing and geographic information systems; Avaliacao de areas potenciais ao cultivo de biomassa para producao de energia e uma contribuicao de sensoriamento remoto e sistemas de informacoes geograficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Adalberto K.; Anjos, Sergio D. dos [EMBRAPA Clima Temperado, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: adalberto.miura@cpact.embrapa.br; Formaggio, Antonio R.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Luiz, Alfredo J.B. [EMBRAPA Meio Ambiente, Jaguariuna, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Since early times, the human kind has been using the biomass for energy purposes. However, the current increasing energy demand can endanger the energy security of the nations and, as well, could put in risk the planet's environmental quality and human health. Thus, by the issues concern about the fossil fuels utilization, the importance of renewable energy sources is being rescued. In this scenario, the biomass energy planning becomes very important to tropical countries, like Brazil, because it would allow stimulating the production of biomass for energy where it is required, but in a sustainable way, considering the social and environmental aspects. Thus, this study aims to present important aspects related with regional energy planning as a contribution for proposing better solutions to energy demands and to think about better public policies related to energy production from biomass. Besides, a contribution of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in order to assess areas for biomass energy production and a conceptual model are presented as framework which demonstrates how these techniques can constitute support tools to strategic decision making process in bioenergy issues. Some difficult and constraints to territorial and agro-energy planning in Brazil was also presented. (author)

  10. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Vermont Designated Natural Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Under Natural Areas Law (10 Vermont Statutes Annotated, Chapter 83 § 2607) the FPR commissioner, with the approval of the governor, may designate and set aside areas...

  12. Use of geographic information system and water quality index to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of geographic information system and water quality index to assess ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... The study area Hewane is situated in the southern zone of Tigray Regional State, ... Article Metrics.

  13. Geographic Information Systems in the Classroom: Methods and Philosophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Terry J.; Burley, Jon Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Describes the curriculum, philosophic perspectives, and student products related to teaching Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and landscape planning by examining a college course in the GIS and landscape instructional area taught at the University of Michigan. (JRH)

  14. Reduction of wind power variability through geographic diversity

    CERN Document Server

    Handschy, Mark; Apt, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The variability of wind-generated electricity can be reduced by aggregating the outputs of wind generation plants spread over a large geographic area. In this chapter we utilize Monte Carlo simulations to investigate upper bounds on the degree of achievable smoothing and clarify how the degree of smoothing depends on the number of plants and on the size of the geographic area over which they are spread.

  15. Sensitivity of different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm to corticosteroid-induced skin blanching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E; Smith, E W; Haigh, J M

    1992-10-01

    The intensity of corticosteroid-induced blanching has been found to vary at different areas of the flexor aspect of the human forearm. A retrospective analysis of 38,880 observations of skin blanching in 56 volunteers was conducted to assess the sensitivity of forearm skin to betamethasone 17-valerate. The mid-forearm appears to be more sensitive to the blanching response than do the areas close to the wrist or elbow. These results indicate that each preparation under evaluation should be applied to several sites along the forearm when using the human skin blanching assay in order to obtain an accurate comparative assessment of corticosteroid release from topical delivery vehicles.

  16. Landscape Analysis of Geographical Names in Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hubei Province is the hub of communications in central China, which directly determines its strategic position in the country’s development. Additionally, Hubei Province is well-known for its diverse landforms, including mountains, hills, mounds and plains. This area is called “The Province of Thousand Lakes” due to the abundance of water resources. Geographical names are exclusive names given to physical or anthropogenic geographic entities at specific spatial locations and are important signs by which humans understand natural and human activities. In this study, geographic information systems (GIS technology is adopted to establish a geodatabase of geographical names with particular characteristics in Hubei Province and extract certain geomorphologic and environmental factors. We carry out landscape analysis of mountain-related geographical names and water-related geographical names respectively. In the end, we calculate the information entropy of geographical names of each county to describe the diversity and inhomogeneity of place names in Hubei province. Our study demonstrates that geographical names represent responses to the cultural landscape and physical environment. The geographical names are more interesting in specific landscapes, such as mountains and rivers.

  17. Advanced Data Structure and Geographic Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuquet, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    The current state of the art in specified areas of Geographic Information Systems GIS technology is examined. Study of the question of very large, efficient, heterogeneous spatial databases is required in order to explore the potential application of remotely sensed data for studying the long term habitability of the Earth. Research includes a review of spatial data structures and storage, development of operations required by GIS, and preparation of a testbed system to compare Vaster data structure with NASA's Topological Raster Structure.

  18. MATERNAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN A RURAL AREA IN TELANGANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Reddy Kothapally

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM To analyse the maternal outcome in pregnancy induced hypertension and improve the management strategies. INTRODUCTION Pregnancy induced hypertension is a medical disease peculiar to pregnancy, making pregnancy a high risk condition. Among medical disorders complicating pregnancy, it stands next to anaemia in prevalence. It is responsible for majority of the maternal morbidity and mortality. It also has an adverse perinatal outcome. Hence, early detection and timely intervention of women with pregnancy induced hypertension is important for good maternal and perinatal outcome. MATERIAL & METHODS The present Prospective Observational study was done from April 2015 to February 2016 in the department of obstetrics & gynaecology at Bhaskar medical college and general hospital, Yenkepally, Moinabad, Telangana. A total of 102 pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension were enrolled into the study. Demographic details like age, parity, previous obstetric history of pregnancy induced hypertension and diabetes, past history of polycystic ovarian disease, treatment for infertility, gestational age at which hypertension developed in the present pregnancy were noted. Relevant investigations were performed. Gestational age of delivery, mode of delivery and maternal complications were noted. RESULTS The incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension was 4% in the study population. About 59.8% developed pregnancy induced hypertension in the third trimester. Out of this, 64.7% cases were gestational hypertension and 35.3% cases were preeclampsia. Nearly half (41.7% of preeclampsia cases were severe preeclampsia. Postpartum haemorrhage is the commonest complication (13.7%, next being imminent eclampsia (7.8%, abruption (4.9%, eclampsia (3.9% and HELLP syndrome (0.98%. 80% of cases could be delivered beyond 37 weeks of gestational age. 71.57% of cases had lower segment caesarean section for indicated conditions. More than half of pregnancy induced

  19. Coloring geographical threshold graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Percus, Allon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Muller, Tobias [EINDHOVEN UNIV. OF TECH

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coloring algorithm for sparse random graphs generated by the geographical threshold graph (GTG) model, a generalization of random geometric graphs (RGG). In a GTG, nodes are distributed in a Euclidean space, and edges are assigned according to a threshold function involving the distance between nodes as well as randomly chosen node weights. The motivation for analyzing this model is that many real networks (e.g., wireless networks, the Internet, etc.) need to be studied by using a 'richer' stochastic model (which in this case includes both a distance between nodes and weights on the nodes). Here, we analyze the GTG coloring algorithm together with the graph's clique number, showing formally that in spite of the differences in structure between GTG and RGG, the asymptotic behavior of the chromatic number is identical: {chi}1n 1n n / 1n n (1 + {omicron}(1)). Finally, we consider the leading corrections to this expression, again using the coloring algorithm and clique number to provide bounds on the chromatic number. We show that the gap between the lower and upper bound is within C 1n n / (1n 1n n){sup 2}, and specify the constant C.

  20. Molecular composition, grafting density and film area affect the swelling-induced Au-S bond breakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bei'er; Zhou, Yitian; Cha, Wenli; Wu, Yuanzi; Hu, Jinxing; Li, Liqiang; Chi, Lifeng; Ma, Hongwei

    2014-06-11

    In previous studies, we reported the first observation of the Au-S bond breakage induced mechanically by the swelling of the surface-tethered weak polyelectrolyte brushes in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), a phenomenon with broad applications in the fields of biosensors and functional surfaces. In this study, three factors, namely the molecular composition, grafting density and film area of the weak polyelectrolyte, carboxylated poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-random-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(OEGMA-r-HEMA)), were studied systematically on how they affected the swelling-induced Au-S bond breakage (ABB). The results showed that, first, the swelling-induced ABB is applicable to a range of molecular compositions and grafting densities; but the critical thickness (Tcritical,dry) varied with both of the two factors. An analysis on the swelling ratio further revealed that the difference in the Tcritical,dry arose from the difference in the swelling ability. A film needed to swell to ∼250 nm to induce ABB regardless of its composition or structure, thus a higher swelling ratio would lead to a lower Tcritical,dry value. Then, the impact of the film area was studied in micrometer- and sub-micrometer-scale brush patterns, which showed that only partial, rather than complete ABB was induced in these microscopic films, resulting in buckling instead of film detaching. These results demonstrated that the ABB is suitable to be used in the design of biosensors, stimulus-responsive materials and mechanochemical devices. Although the >160 μm(2) required area for uniform ABB hinders the application of ABB in nanolithography, the irreversible buckling provides a facile method of generating rough surfaces.

  1. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kagawa; Furuno, K; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artifi...

  2. Department of Geograph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-11-18

    Nov 18, 2016 ... processing and analysis in identifying flood-prone areas for the purpose of planning for disaster ... which were obtained from Forestry Management Evaluation and Coordination Unit and .... occupied by North Central Plateau.

  3. Investigation on the Plasma-Induced Emission Properties of Large Area Carbon Nanotube Array Cathodes with Different Morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qingliang; Qin, Zi; Zhang, Zheng; Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Yue; Huang, Yunhua; Liu, Liang

    2011-12-01

    Large area well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays with different morphologies were synthesized by using a chemical vapor deposition. The plasma-induced emission properties of CNT array cathodes with different morphologies were investigated. The ratio of CNT height to CNT-to-CNT distance has considerable effects on their plasma-induced emission properties. As the ratio increases, emission currents of CNT array cathodes decrease due to screening effects. Under the pulse electric field of about 6 V/μm, high-intensity electron beams of 170-180 A/cm(2) were emitted from the surface plasma. The production mechanism of the high-intensity electron beams emitted from the CNT arrays was plasma-induced emission. Moreover, the distribution of the electron beams was in situ characterized by the light emission from the surface plasma.

  4. Investigation on the Plasma-Induced Emission Properties of Large Area Carbon Nanotube Array Cathodes with Different Morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large area well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT arrays with different morphologies were synthesized by using a chemical vapor deposition. The plasma-induced emission properties of CNT array cathodes with different morphologies were investigated. The ratio of CNT height to CNT-to-CNT distance has considerable effects on their plasma-induced emission properties. As the ratio increases, emission currents of CNT array cathodes decrease due to screening effects. Under the pulse electric field of about 6 V/μm, high-intensity electron beams of 170–180 A/cm2 were emitted from the surface plasma. The production mechanism of the high-intensity electron beams emitted from the CNT arrays was plasma-induced emission. Moreover, the distribution of the electron beams was in situ characterized by the light emission from the surface plasma.

  5. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  6. International Refugees: A Geographical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, George J.; Wood, William B.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the problem of international refugees from a geographical perspective. Focuses on sub-saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Central America, and southeast Asia. Concludes that geographers can and should use their skills and intellectual tools to address and help resolve this global problem. (JDH)

  7. Adaptive Cartography and Geographical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecny, Milan; Stanek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on adaptive cartography and its potential for geographical education. After briefly describing the wider context of adaptive cartography, it is suggested that this new cartographic approach establishes new demands and benefits for geographical education, especially in offering the possibility for broader individual…

  8. Prediction of the area affected by earthquake-induced landsliding based on seismological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Odin; Meunier, Patrick; Hovius, Niels

    2017-07-01

    We present an analytical, seismologically consistent expression for the surface area of the region within which most landslides triggered by an earthquake are located (landslide distribution area). This expression is based on scaling laws relating seismic moment, source depth, and focal mechanism with ground shaking and fault rupture length and assumes a globally constant threshold of acceleration for onset of systematic mass wasting. The seismological assumptions are identical to those recently used to propose a seismologically consistent expression for the total volume and area of landslides triggered by an earthquake. To test the accuracy of the model we gathered geophysical information and estimates of the landslide distribution area for 83 earthquakes. To reduce uncertainties and inconsistencies in the estimation of the landslide distribution area, we propose an objective definition based on the shortest distance from the seismic wave emission line containing 95 % of the total landslide area. Without any empirical calibration the model explains 56 % of the variance in our dataset, and predicts 35 to 49 out of 83 cases within a factor of 2, depending on how we account for uncertainties on the seismic source depth. For most cases with comprehensive landslide inventories we show that our prediction compares well with the smallest region around the fault containing 95 % of the total landslide area. Aspects ignored by the model that could explain the residuals include local variations of the threshold of acceleration and processes modulating the surface ground shaking, such as the distribution of seismic energy release on the fault plane, the dynamic stress drop, and rupture directivity. Nevertheless, its simplicity and first-order accuracy suggest that the model can yield plausible and useful estimates of the landslide distribution area in near-real time, with earthquake parameters issued by standard detection routines.

  9. How GIS can help address the uncertain geographic context problem in social science research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    The uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP), first articulated by Kwan (2012; The uncertain geographic context problem. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 102 (5), 958–968), refers to the problem that findings about the effects of area-based contextual variables on individual be

  10. Experimental investigation of thermally induced core laser leakage in large mode area single trench fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingchao; Huang, Liangjin; Gu, Shaoyi; Leng, Jinyong; Guo, Shaofeng; Zhou, Pu; Xu, Xiaojun; Jiang, Zongfu

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrated a new phenomenon, namely, thermally induced core laser leakage in single trench fiber (STF), for the first time. The STF provides very high loss and power delocalization of higher order mode (HOM) and maintain the effective single mode operation. However these properties are chartered only under low power situations. In this paper we established a 976nm directly pumped high power co-pumping fiber amplifier based on the STF. The maximum output power was 1022W with a slope efficiency of 76%. Further increase the pump power will leads to the output power decrease. Meanwhile a micro second Level noise like power fluctuation was observed. No resonance frequency was observed in frequency domain indicating the mode instability is not triggered. We believe that it is the thermally induced waveguide index profile change due to the excessively heat load in the front section of STF that leads to the failure of HOM suppression and the power of FM was coupled into the HOM. However the heat load in the rear section of STF was relatively low and the HOM leaked into the cladding due to the bending loss. We provide a mitigating method by pumping with pump light of smaller absorption. A maximum power of 1330W was achieved without power decrease via pumping the STF with 905nm and 976nm pump light (same amplifier). To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of thermally induced core laser leakage in STF and the pertinent results can provide significant reference for future optimization.

  11. Flexible shrink-induced high surface area electrodes for electrochemiluminescent sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegan, Jonathan D; Ho, Adrienne Y; Bachman, Mark; Khine, Michelle

    2013-11-07

    Photolithographically defined metallic thin film on commodity shrink-wrap is leveraged to create robust electrodes. By thermally shrinking the film, electrodes are reduced by 20× in footprint for improved resolution and conductivity with >600% enhancements in electrochemically active surface area; as electrochemiluminescent sensors, they demonstrate improved limits of detection.

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York-New Jersey Metropolitan Area - Volume 1, Geographic Information Systems data and Volume 2, Maps in Portable Document Format (NODC Accession 0014792)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York - New Jersey Metropolitan Area from 1999 to...

  13. Tourism Areas, back ski 3 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 3 -...

  14. Tourism Areas, Back ski 2 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Back ski 2 -...

  15. Tourism Areas, back ski 4 - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 4 -...

  16. Tourism Areas, D plan for alpine - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'D plan for...

  17. Tourism Areas, back ski 1- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski 1-...

  18. Tourism Areas, C plan for alpine - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'C plan for...

  19. Tourism Areas, B plan for Nordic - As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'B plan for...

  20. Tourism Areas, back ski use- As part of the Wasatch Canyons Master Plan, Published in 1989, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tourism Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1989. It is described as 'back ski use-...

  1. Sidescan sonar polyline shapefile of trackline navigation files collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Madison Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Areas, Gulf of Mexico in 2000 (Geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapped approximately 22 square miles of the Madison Swanson Marine Protected Area (MPA) and Steamboat Lumps MPA, which are located...

  2. Geographical Effects on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhong-Cai; YANG Lei; YANG Kong-Qing

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate how the geographical structure of a complex network affects its network topology, synchronization and the average spatial length of edges. The geographical structure means that the connecting probability of two nodes is related to the spatial distance of the two nodes. Our simulation results show that the geographical structure changes the network topology. The synchronization tendency is enhanced and the average spatial length of edges is enlarged when the node can randomly connect to the further one. Analytic results support our understanding of the phenomena.

  3. Typicity in Potato: Characterization of Geographic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Manzelli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year study was carried out in three regions of Italy and the crop performance and the chemical composition of tubers of three typical potato varieties evaluated. Carbon and nitrogen tuber content was determined by means of an elemental analyzer and the other mineral elements by means of a spectrometer. The same determinations were performed on soil samples taken from experimental areas. The Principal Component Analysis, applied to the results of mineral element tuber analysis, permitted the classification of all potato tuber samples according to their geographic origin. Only a partial discrimination was obtained in function of potato varieties. Some correlations between mineral content in the tubers and in the soil were also detected. Analytical and statistical methods proved to be useful in verifying the authenticity of guaranteed geographical food denominations.

  4. Ecoregions for Louisiana from EPA source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [ecoregions_EPA_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. By recognizing the spatial differences...

  5. Adrenoceptors of the medial septal area modulate water intake and renal excretory function induced by central administration of angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of alpha-adrenergic antagonists and clonidine injected into the medial septal area (MSA on water intake and the decrease in Na+, K+ and urine elicited by ANGII injection into the third ventricle (3rdV. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the 3rdV and MSA were used. ANGII (12 nmol/µl increased water intake (12.5 ± 1.7 ml/120 min. Clonidine (20 nmol/µl injected into the MSA reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (2.9 ± 0.5 ml/120 min. Pretreatment with 80 nmol/µl yohimbine or prazosin into the MSA also reduced the ANGII-induced water intake (3.0 ± 0.4 and 3.1 ± 0.2 ml/120 min, respectively. Yohimbine + prazosin + clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the ANGII-induced water intake (0.2 ± 0.1 and 0.2 ± 0.1 ml/120 min, respectively. ANGII reduced Na+ (23 ± 7 µEq/120 min, K+ (27 ± 3 µEq/120 min and urine volume (4.3 ± 0.9 ml/120 min. Clonidine increased the parameters above. Clonidine injected into the MSA abolished the inhibitory effect of ANGII on urinary sodium. Yohimbine injected into the MSA also abolished the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Yohimbine + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. Prazosin injected into the MSA did not cause changes in ANGII responses. Prazosin + clonidine attenuated the inhibitory effects of ANGII. The results showed that MSA injections of alpha1- and alpha2-antagonists decreased ANGII-induced water intake, and abolished the Na+, K+ and urine decrease induced by ANGII into the 3rdV. These findings suggest the involvement of septal alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors in water intake and electrolyte and urine excretion induced by central ANGII.

  6. 33 CFR 165.8 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 165.8... Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not... 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic...

  7. The impact of supply constraints on bank lending in the euro area - crisis induced crunching?

    OpenAIRE

    Hempell, Hannah Sabine; Kok, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate loan development typically hinges on a combination of factors that impact simultaneously on the demand and the supply side of bank lending. The financial turmoil starting in mid-2007 had detrimental consequences for banks’ balance-sheets, cost of funds and profitability, thus weighing negatively on their ability to supply new loans. This paper examines the impact of supply constraints on bank lending in the euro area with a special focus on this turmoil period. The empirical evidenc...

  8. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun; Park, Kyungmo; Wu, Hongli; Hu, Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Bu, Junjie; Xu, Chunsheng; Qiu, Bensheng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2014-01-01

    Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36). Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM) analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  9. Increased CRF signalling in a ventral tegmental area-interpeduncular nucleus-medial habenula circuit induces anxiety during nicotine withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Shea, Rubing; DeGroot, Steven R; Liu, Liwang; Vallaster, Markus; Pang, Xueyan; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Rando, Oliver J; Martin, Gilles E; George, Olivier; Gardner, Paul D; Tapper, Andrew R

    2015-04-21

    Increased anxiety is a prominent withdrawal symptom in abstinent smokers, yet the neuroanatomical and molecular bases underlying it are unclear. Here we show that withdrawal-induced anxiety increases activity of neurons in the interpeduncular intermediate (IPI), a subregion of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was mediated by increased corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 expression and signalling, which modulated glutamatergic input from the medial habenula (MHb). Pharmacological blockade of IPN CRF1 receptors or optogenetic silencing of MHb input reduced IPI activation and alleviated withdrawal-induced anxiety; whereas IPN CRF infusion in mice increased anxiety. We identified a mesointerpeduncular circuit, consisting of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons projecting to the IPN, as a potential source of CRF. Knockdown of CRF synthesis in the VTA prevented IPI activation and anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. These data indicate that increased CRF receptor signalling within a VTA-IPN-MHb circuit triggers anxiety during nicotine withdrawal.

  10. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  11. Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimar Ventsel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Book review of the publication Ecoscapes: Geographical Patternings of Relations. Edited by Gary Backhaus and John Murungi. Lanham, Boulder, New York, Toronto, Oxford, Lexington Books, 2006, xxxiii+241 pp.

  12. Determination of The Water Catchment Area in Semarang City Using a Combination of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) Classification, InSAR and Geographic Information System (GIS) Methods Based On a High-Resolution SPOT 6 Image and Radar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Yudo; Ardi Gunawan, Setyo; Maksum, Zia Ul

    2016-11-01

    Semarang is the biggest city in central Java-Indonesia which has a rapid and massive infrastructure development nowadays. In order to control water resources and flood, the local goverment has been built east and west flood canal in Kaligarang and West Semarang River. One of main problem in Semarang city is the lack of fresh water in dry season because ground water is not rechargeable well. Rechargeable groundwater ability depends on underground water recharge rate and catchment area condition. The objective of the study is to determine condition and classification of water catchment area in Semarang city. The catchment area conditions will be determine by five parameters as follows soil type, land use, slope, ground water potential and rainfall intensity. In this study, we use three methods approach to solve the problem which is segmentation classification to acquire land use classification from high resolution imagery using nearest neighborhood algorithm, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to derive DTM from SAR Imagery and multi criteria weighting and spatial analysis using GIS method. There are three types optical image (ALOS PRISM, SPOT-6 and ALOS PALSAR) to calculate water catchment area condition in Semarang city. For final result, this research will divide the water catchment into six criteria as follows good, naturally normal, early critical, a little bit critical, critical and very critical condition. The result shows that water catchment area condition is in an early critical condition around 2607,523 Ha (33,17 %), naturally normal condition around 1507,674 Ha (19,18 %), a little bit critical condition around 1452,931 Ha (18,48 %), good with 1157,04 Ha (14,72 %), critical with 1058,639 Ha (13,47 %) and very critical with 75,0387 Ha (0,95 %). The distribution of water catchment area conditions in West and East Flood Canal have an irreguler pattern. In northern area of watershed consists of begin to critical, naturally normal and good condition

  13. Liquefaction-fluidization induced land subsidence: impact of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake on reclaimed land around Tokyo bay area, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.; Furuno, K.; Kusuda, T.; Sakai, Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kazaoka, O.

    2015-11-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake caused major liquefaction-induced, ground deformation of the reclaimed land surrounding Tokyo Bay. In this area, liquefaction was visibly manifest by sand boils, ejection of sandy water, land subsidence and floating underground tanks. The level measurements show a correspondence between the degree of liquefaction-fluidization and the amount of subsidence. The strata most susceptible to liquefaction are hydraulically emplaced dredged fill and artificial strata on thick uncompacted Holocene deposits. On the other hand, the phenomena of seismic isolation coursed by liquefaction had saved the single-family houses from collapse.

  14. Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Shekhar M, Guna

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which...

  15. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment.

  16. Chlorine-Induced In Situ Regulation to Synthesize Graphene Frameworks with Large Specific Area for Excellent Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanyan; Cui, Huijuan; Meng, Xin; Zheng, Jianfeng; Yang, Pengju; Li, Li; Wang, Zhijian; Jia, Suping; Zhu, Zhenping

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) graphene frameworks are usually limited by a complicated preparation process and a low specific surface area. This paper presents a facile suitable approach to effectively synthesize 3D graphene frameworks (GFs) with large specific surface area (up to 1018 m(2) g(-1)) through quick thermal decomposition from sodium chloroacetate, which are considerably larger than those of sodium acetate reported in our recent study. The chlorine element in sodium chloroacetate may possess a strong capability to induce in situ activation and regulate graphene formation during pyrolysis in one step. These GFs can be applied as excellent electrode materials for supercapacitors and can achieve an enhanced supercapacitor performance with a specific capacitance of 266 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.5 A g(-1).

  17. Tourism-induced disturbance of wildlife in protected areas: A case study of free ranging elephants in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eranga Ranaweerage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism-induced disturbance is a growing concern in wildlife conservation worldwide. This case study in a key protected area in Sri Lanka, examined the behavioral changes of Asian elephants in the context of elephant watching tourism activities. Observations of different age–sex-group classes of elephants were conducted focusing on the feeding activity of elephants in the presence vs. absence of tourists. Frequency and duration of alert, fear, stress and aggressive behaviors of elephants were significantly high in the presence of tourists and these behaviors occurred at a cost of feeding time. Tourist behavior, vehicle noise, close distances and time of the tours were closely associated with the behavioral changes of elephants. It is important to monitor tourism effects on endangered species such as Asian elephants and to take proper measures including controlled tourist behavior and vehicle activity in protected areas in order to reduce disturbance of wildlife behavior.

  18. Prolonged repeated acupuncture stimulation induces habituation effects in pain-related brain areas: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanfu Li

    Full Text Available Most previous studies of brain responses to acupuncture were designed to investigate the acupuncture instant effect while the cumulative effect that should be more important in clinical practice has seldom been discussed. In this study, the neural basis of the acupuncture cumulative effect was analyzed. For this experiment, forty healthy volunteers were recruited, in which more than 40 minutes of repeated acupuncture stimulation was implemented at acupoint Zhusanli (ST36. Three runs of acupuncture fMRI datasets were acquired, with each run consisting of two blocks of acupuncture stimulation. Besides general linear model (GLM analysis, the cumulative effects of acupuncture were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA to find the association between the brain response and the cumulative duration of acupuncture stimulation in each stimulation block. The experimental results showed that the brain response in the initial stage was the strongest although the brain response to acupuncture was time-variant. In particular, the brain areas that were activated in the first block and the brain areas that demonstrated cumulative effects in the course of repeated acupuncture stimulation overlapped in the pain-related areas, including the bilateral middle cingulate cortex, the bilateral paracentral lobule, the SII, and the right thalamus. Furthermore, the cumulative effects demonstrated bimodal characteristics, i.e. the brain response was positive at the beginning, and became negative at the end. It was suggested that the cumulative effect of repeated acupuncture stimulation was consistent with the characteristic of habituation effects. This finding may explain the neurophysiologic mechanism underlying acupuncture analgesia.

  19. Period doubling and chaos in large area Josephson junctions induced by rf signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1985-01-01

    . In the intermediate regime lower and upper threshold values (for the amplitude) for transition to chaos are found. Feigenbaum period doubling (period-doubling bifurcation cascade) appears when chaos is approached for increasing amplitude. The findings are supported experimentally. Applied Physics Letters......The influence of an applied rf signal on the emitted radiation from a large area Josephson junction is examined. A model of the system is presented in the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon equation. The model linearizes for small and large values of the amplitude of the applied signal...... is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  20. Remote sensing applications to hydrologic modeling in the southern Sierra Nevada and portions of the San Joaquin Valley, volume 1. [including geographic description of the Fergana area of the U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, J.; Estes, J. E.; Simonett, D. S. (Principal Investigator); Davis, R.; Frew, J.; Gold, C.; Keith, S.; Marks, D.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Characteristics of LANDSAT MSS imagery present problems in using satellite radiation measurements to estimate the shortwave albedo of an alpine snow cover. Every 15 minute USGS quadrangle contains over 100,000 pixels which poses a computation problem if each pixel is to be evaluated individually. The sampling interval may be sufficiently great to mask some effects of terrain and vegetation on reflectance. Three frames of LANDSAT imagery are needed for complete coverage of the study area, yet less than one third of the area coverage from each frame covers an area of interest. Because of distortions inherent in the imagery, information regarding spacecraft altitude, attitude, and position must be statistically derived with respect to ground control points in the image whose geodetic locations are known. An inspection of shade points indicates that up to one third of the most heavily snow covered areas may saturate in bands 4 through 6. LANDSAT's 9 day repeat cycle is not optimum for snow cover reflectance modeling because the most pronounced changes in albedo occur most nearly following a new snowfall. Such a snowfall, occurring between overpasses, is inadequately represented by extrapolation from the previous overpasses.

  1. A Method for Calculating the Area of Zostera marina Leaves from Digital Images with Noise Induced by Humidity Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Leal-Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological importance of eelgrass, nowadays anthropogenic influences have produced deleterious effects in many meadows worldwide. Transplantation plots are commonly used as a feasible remediation scheme. The characterization of eelgrass biomass and its dynamics is an important input for the assessment of the overall status of both natural and transplanted populations. Particularly, in restoration plots it is desirable to obtain nondestructive assessments of these variables. Allometric models allow the expression of above ground biomass and productivity of eelgrass in terms of leaf area, which provides cost effective and nondestructive assessments. Leaf area in eelgrass can be conveniently obtained by the product of associated length and width. Although these variables can be directly measured on most sampled leaves, digital image methods could be adapted in order to simplify measurements. Nonetheless, since width to length ratios in eelgrass leaves could be even negligible, noise induced by leaf humidity content could produce misidentification of pixels along the peripheral contour of leaves images. In this paper, we present a procedure aimed to produce consistent estimations of eelgrass leaf area in the presence of the aforementioned noise effects. Our results show that digital image procedures can provide reliable, nondestructive estimations of eelgrass leaf area.

  2. Tool-use practice induces changes in intrinsic functional connectivity of parietal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangsun eYoo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic functional connectivity from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI has increasingly received attention as a possible predictor of cognitive function and performance. In this study, we investigated the influence of practicing skillful tool manipulation on intrinsic functional connectivity in the resting brain. Acquisition of tool-use skill has two aspects such as formation of motor representation for skillful manipulation and acquisition of the tool concept. To dissociate these two processes, we chose chopsticks-handling with the non-dominant hand. Because participants were already adept at chopsticks-handling with their dominant hand, practice with the non-dominant hand involved only acquiring the skill for tool manipulation with existing knowledge. Eight young participants practiced chopsticks-handling with their non-dominant hand for 8 weeks. They underwent fMRI sessions before and after the practice. As a result, functional connectivity among tool-use-related regions of the brain decreased after practice. We found decreased functional connectivity centered on parietal areas, mainly the supramarginal gyrus and superior parietal lobule and additionally between the primary sensorimotor area and cerebellum. These results suggest that the parietal lobe and cerebellum purely mediate motor learning for skillful tool-use. This decreased functional connectivity may represent increased efficiency of functional network.

  3. Effects of highly conserved major histocompatibility complex (MHC extended haplotypes on iron and low CD8+ T lymphocyte phenotypes in HFE C282Y homozygous hemochromatosis patients from three geographically distant areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Costa

    Full Text Available Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH is a recessively inherited disorder of iron overload occurring commonly in subjects homozygous for the C282Y mutation in HFE gene localized on chromosome 6p21.3 in linkage disequilibrium with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA-A locus. Although its genetic homogeneity, the phenotypic expression is variable suggesting the presence of modifying factors. One such genetic factor, a SNP microhaplotype named A-A-T, was recently found to be associated with a more severe phenotype and also with low CD8(+T-lymphocyte numbers. The present study aimed to test whether the predictive value of the A-A-T microhaplotype remained in other population settings. In this study of 304 HH patients from 3 geographically distant populations (Porto, Portugal 65; Alabama, USA 57; Nord-Trøndelag, Norway 182, the extended haplotypes involving A-A-T were studied in 608 chromosomes and the CD8(+ T-lymphocyte numbers were determined in all subjects. Patients from Porto had a more severe phenotype than those from other settings. Patients with A-A-T seemed on average to have greater iron stores (p = 0.021, but significant differences were not confirmed in the 3 separate populations. Low CD8(+ T-lymphocytes were associated with HLA-A*03-A-A-T in Porto and Alabama patients but not in the greater series from Nord-Trøndelag. Although A-A-T may signal a more severe iron phenotype, this study was unable to prove such an association in all population settings, precluding its use as a universal predictive marker of iron overload in HH. Interestingly, the association between A-A-T and CD8(+ T-lymphocytes, which was confirmed in Porto and Alabama patients, was not observed in Nord-Trøndelag patients, showing that common HLA haplotypes like A*01-B*08 or A*03-B*07 segregating with HFE/C282Y in the three populations may carry different messages. These findings further strengthen the relevance of HH as a good disease model to search for novel candidate loci

  4. Seasonal variations in rainfall-induced soil erosion from forest roads in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Gil, Juan

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Land use change and the development of rural and eco-tourist activities have contributed to a strong development of forest roads in Spain during recent decades. Most of forest roads cause significant hydrological and geomorphological impacts at different scales, altering the runoff-runon patterns, the direction and properties of runoff water, and subsurface water flow. Some of these effects are caused by the removal of native vegetation from backslopes (Martínez-Zavala et al., 2008), which contributes to increased soil erosion and sediment yield in areas where natural soil erosion risk is usually low (Jordán and Martínez-Zavala, 2008; Jordán-López et al., 2009). Rainfall intensity, soil moisture, slope and vegetation cover are key factors for erosion risk in forest roads (Jordán and Martínez-Zavala, 2008; Cao et al., 2013). 2. METHODS Sixty backslopes with plant cover varying between dense shrubs and bare soil were selected. Rainfall simulations (90 mm/h during 20 minutes) were performed in winter (December 2012 - January 2013) and summer (August - September 2013) to study the effect of rainstorms at the end and beginning of the rainy season. Surface runoff was collected to determine runoff rates and sediment yields. Plant cover, rock fragment cover and the area covered by biological crusts were determined at each plot. Slope was determined with a portable clinometer (all selected plots were in the range 41-76%). 3. RESULTS Although soil loss was increased in winter, when soil moisture is higher, small differences were observed at vegetation cover above 75%. Plant cover above 40% considerably reduced sediment yield and runoff flow. In contrast, differences triggered between different plots with decreasing vegetation cover. In bare areas, rock fragments and biological crusts (mosses, lichens, liverworts and fungi) caused great differences between bare areas both during summer and winter periods. REFERENCES Cao, L., Zhang, K., Dai, H., Liang, Y

  5. Mobility-Enhanced Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Zubair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet of Things and the proliferation of mobile wireless devices has brought the area of mobile cognitive radio sensor networks (MCRSN to the research spot light. Notwithstanding the potentials of CRSNs in terms of opportunistic channel usage for bursty traffic, the effect of the mobility of resource-constrained nodes to route stability, mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectral opportunities and primary user (PU protection still remain open issues that need to be jointly addressed. To this effect, this paper proposes a mobile reliable geographical forwarding routing (MROR protocol. MROR provides a robust mobile framework for geographical forwarding that is based on a mobility-induced channel availability model. It presents a comprehensive routing strategy that considers PU activity (to take care of routes that have to be built through PU coverage, PU signal protection (by the introduction of a mobility-induced guard (mguard distance and the random mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectrum opportunities (for enhancement of throughput. It also addresses the issue of frequent route maintenance that arises when speeds of the mobile nodes are considered as a routing metric. As a result, simulation has shown the ability of MROR to reduce the route failure rate by about 65% as against other schemes. In addition, further results show that MROR can improve both the throughput and goodput at the sink in an energy-efficient manner that is required in CRSNs as against compared works.

  6. Mobility-Enhanced Reliable Geographical Forwarding in Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Suleiman; Syed Yusoff, Sharifah Kamilah; Fisal, Norsheila

    2016-01-29

    The emergence of the Internet of Things and the proliferation of mobile wireless devices has brought the area of mobile cognitive radio sensor networks (MCRSN) to the research spot light. Notwithstanding the potentials of CRSNs in terms of opportunistic channel usage for bursty traffic, the effect of the mobility of resource-constrained nodes to route stability, mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectral opportunities and primary user (PU) protection still remain open issues that need to be jointly addressed. To this effect, this paper proposes a mobile reliable geographical forwarding routing (MROR) protocol. MROR provides a robust mobile framework for geographical forwarding that is based on a mobility-induced channel availability model. It presents a comprehensive routing strategy that considers PU activity (to take care of routes that have to be built through PU coverage), PU signal protection (by the introduction of a mobility-induced guard (mguard) distance) and the random mobility-induced spatio-temporal spectrum opportunities (for enhancement of throughput). It also addresses the issue of frequent route maintenance that arises when speeds of the mobile nodes are considered as a routing metric. As a result, simulation has shown the ability of MROR to reduce the route failure rate by about 65% as against other schemes. In addition, further results show that MROR can improve both the throughput and goodput at the sink in an energy-efficient manner that is required in CRSNs as against compared works.

  7. Global patterns of geographic range size in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C David L Orme

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale patterns of spatial variation in species geographic range size are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. However, the global nature of these patterns has remained contentious, since previous studies have been geographically restricted and/or based on small taxonomic groups. Here, using a database on the breeding distributions of birds, we report the first (to our knowledge global maps of variation in species range sizes for an entire taxonomic class. We show that range area does not follow a simple latitudinal pattern. Instead, the smallest range areas are attained on islands, in mountainous areas, and largely in the southern hemisphere. In contrast, bird species richness peaks around the equator, and towards higher latitudes. Despite these profoundly different latitudinal patterns, spatially explicit models reveal a weak tendency for areas with high species richness to house species with significantly smaller median range area. Taken together, these results show that for birds many spatial patterns in range size described in geographically restricted analyses do not reflect global rules. It remains to be discovered whether global patterns in geographic range size are best interpreted in terms of geographical variation in species assemblage packing, or in the rates of speciation, extinction, and dispersal that ultimately underlie biodiversity.

  8. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and neuropeptides in neural areas mediating motion-induced emesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damelio, F.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods were employed to localize the neurotransmitter amino acid gamma-aminobutyric acid and the neuropeptides substance P and Met-enkephalin in the area postrema (AP), area subpostrema (ASP), nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS), dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMNV), and lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactive (GAD-IR) terminals and fibers were observed in the AP and particularly in the ASP. A gradual decrease in the density of terminals was seen towards the solitary complex. The DMNV revealed irregularly scattered GAD-IR terminals within the neuropil or closely surrounding neuronal cell bodies. The LVN, particularly the dorsal division, showed numerous axon terminals which were mostly localize around large neurons and their proximal dendrites. Substance P immunoreactive (SP-IR) terminals and fibers showed high density in the solitary complex, in particular within the lateral division. The ASP showed medium to low density of SP-IR fibers and terminals. The AP exhibited a small number of fibers and terminals irregularly distributed. The DMNV revealed a high density of SP-IR terminals and fibers that were mainly concentrated in the periphery. Very few terminals were detected in the LVN. Met-enkephalin immunoreactive (Met-Enk-IR) fibers and terminals showed high density and uniform distribution in the DMNV. Scattered terminals and fibers were observed in the AP, ASP, and NTS (particularly the lateral division). The very few fibers were observed in the LVN surrounded the neuronal cell bodies. The present report is part of a study designed to investigate the interaction between neuropeptides and conventional neurotransmitters under conditions producing motion sickness and in the process of sensory-motor adaptation.

  9. High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity in Left Temporal Area Is Associated with Pleasant Emotion Induced by Video Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Kortelainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that specific neural correlates for the key elements of basic emotions do exist and can be identified by neuroimaging techniques. In this paper, electroencephalogram (EEG is used to explore the markers for video-induced emotions. The problem is approached from a classifier perspective: the features that perform best in classifying person’s valence and arousal while watching video clips with audiovisual emotional content are searched from a large feature set constructed from the EEG spectral powers of single channels as well as power differences between specific channel pairs. The feature selection is carried out using a sequential forward floating search method and is done separately for the classification of valence and arousal, both derived from the emotional keyword that the subject had chosen after seeing the clips. The proposed classifier-based approach reveals a clear association between the increased high-frequency (15–32 Hz activity in the left temporal area and the clips described as “pleasant” in the valence and “medium arousal” in the arousal scale. These clips represent the emotional keywords amusement and joy/happiness. The finding suggests the occurrence of a specific neural activation during video-induced pleasant emotion and the possibility to detect this from the left temporal area using EEG.

  10. Different protocols of treadmill exercise induce distinct neuroplastic effects in rat brain motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Caroline C; Garcia, Priscila C; Britto, Luiz R G; Pires, Raquel S

    2015-10-22

    A variety of exercise protocols have been used to promote experimental neuroplasticity. However, the plastic brain responses generated by several aspects of training (types, frequency, regimens, duration) remain undetermined. The aim of this study was to compare the plastic changes in the glutamatergic system and synaptic proteins in motor cortex, striatum and cerebellum promoted by two different treadmill exercise regimens. The present study analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting the expression of the subunits of AMPA receptors (GluA1 and GluA2/3) and synaptic proteins (synapsin I and synaptophysin) in adult male Wistar rat brains. The animals were divided into animals subjected to two different frequencies of aerobic exercise groups and sedentary animals. The exercise groups were: intermittent treadmill exercise (ITE) - animals that exercised 3 times a week (every other day) during four weeks, and continuous treadmill exercise (CTE) - animals that exercised every day during four weeks. Our results reveal that different protocols of treadmill exercise were able to promote distinct synaptic reorganization processes among the exercised groups. In general, the intermittent exercise regimen induced a higher expression of presynaptic proteins, whereas the continuous exercise regimen increased postsynaptic GluA1 and GluA2/3 receptors.

  11. Chronic pramipexole treatment induces compulsive behavior in rats with 6-OHDA lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardou, D; Reyrolle, L; Chassain, C; Durif, F

    2017-08-14

    Dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) reduces motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), but also induces impulsive-compulsive behavior (ICB) in up to 25% of PD patients. These non-motor side effects of DRT generally follow a gradual transition from impulsive to compulsive-like-i.e. repetitive, compelled, and non-pleasurable-behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of chronic pramipexole (PPX) treatment on the onset of compulsive-like behavior, measured via the post-training signal attenuation (PTSA) procedure, in rats with dopaminergic lesions. Accordingly, we aimed to mimic chronic DRT in a PD context, and obtain data on the brain regions that potentially sustain this type of compulsive behavior pattern in rats. We observed that the lesion or treatment alone did not induce compulsive lever pressing in rats. However, rats with lesions of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area as well as with chronic PPX treatment developed strong compulsive lever-pressing behavior, as measured via PTSA. Furthermore, when chronic PPX treatment was discontinued before the PTSA test, the lesioned rats showed the same level of compulsive behavior as sham-operated rats. In fact, lesioned, treated, and compulsive-like rats showed significantly higher Fos expression in the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Thus, chronic PPX treatment in PD rats induced a strong compulsive-like behavior. Furthermore, Fos expression mapping suggests that the behavior was sustained via the activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating the accuracy of geographical imputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscoe Francis P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce the number of non-geocoded cases researchers and organizations sometimes include cases geocoded to postal code centroids along with cases geocoded with the greater precision of a full street address. Some analysts then use the postal code to assign information to the cases from finer-level geographies such as a census tract. Assignment is commonly completed using either a postal centroid or by a geographical imputation method which assigns a location by using both the demographic characteristics of the case and the population characteristics of the postal delivery area. To date no systematic evaluation of geographical imputation methods ("geo-imputation" has been completed. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of census tract assignment using geo-imputation. Methods Using a large dataset of breast, prostate and colorectal cancer cases reported to the New Jersey Cancer Registry, we determined how often cases were assigned to the correct census tract using alternate strategies of demographic based geo-imputation, and using assignments obtained from postal code centroids. Assignment accuracy was measured by comparing the tract assigned with the tract originally identified from the full street address. Results Assigning cases to census tracts using the race/ethnicity population distribution within a postal code resulted in more correctly assigned cases than when using postal code centroids. The addition of age characteristics increased the match rates even further. Match rates were highly dependent on both the geographic distribution of race/ethnicity groups and population density. Conclusion Geo-imputation appears to offer some advantages and no serious drawbacks as compared with the alternative of assigning cases to census tracts based on postal code centroids. For a specific analysis, researchers will still need to consider the potential impact of geocoding quality on their results and evaluate

  13. Low-temperature laser-induced selective area growth of compound semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppili, Sudarsan

    Laser induced epitaxial growth of gallium phosphide was investigated as a low temperature, spatially selective process using both pyrolytic and photolytic reaction. A focussed beam from an argon ion laser operating at 514.5 nm was used to direct-write epitaxial microstructures of homoepitaxial GaP using a pyrolytic process. The precursors were trimethyl gallium (TMG) and tertiary butylphosphine (TBP). Dependence of the epitaxial growth on several deposition parameters was examined. An ArF excimer laser was also used to achieve homoepitaxy and heteroepitaxy of gallium phosphide on gallium arsenide at 500 C using TMG and TBP as the precusor gases. Dependence of homoepitaxial growth of GaP on several parameters is examined. The crystalline properties of the film were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrical properties of p-n diodes fabricated via Zn doping were also examined. Defect structures in excimer laser-assisted epitaxial GaP on (100) GaP and (100) GaAs were examined using TEM. Periodic structures were obtained using nominally unpolarized excimer laser radiation, during heteroepitaxial growth of GaP on GaAs. Both crystalline properties and chemical composition of these structures were examined. Microanalysis showed modulation in composition in the ripple structure resulting from the thermal variation caused by the optical interference during growth. Electrical conductivity measurements of GaP during pulsed lasers irradiation indicated that in the absence of gases, there was appreciable heating of the semiconductor. However, a very small quantity of hydrogen or helium cooled the substrate appreciably. This suggested that the average temperature rise of the substrate was not an important factor in the temperature calculations used in the present investigation.

  14. Rice From Mercury Contaminated Areas in Guizhou Province Induces c-jun Expression in Rat Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN-PING CHENG; WEN-HUA WANG; LI-YA QU; JIN-PING JIA; MIN ZHENG; XIU-LING JI; TAO YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Objective Mercury (Hg), as one of the priority pollutants and also a hot topic of frontier environmental research in many countries, has been paid higher attention in the world since the middle of the last century. Guizhou Province (at N24°30′-29°13′, E103°1′-109°30′, 1 100 m above the sea level, with subtropical humid climate) in southwest China is an important mercury production center. It has been found that the mercury content in most media of aquatics, soil, atmosphere and in biomass of corns, plants and animals, is higher than the national standard.The present study aims to explore the influence of mercury pollution on the health of local citizens. Methods The effect of rice from two mercury polluted experimental plots of Guizhou Province on the expression of c-jun mRNA in rat brain and c-jun protein in cortex, hippocampus and ependyma was observed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. Results The results showed that the mercury polluted rice induced expression of c-jun mRNA and its protein significantly. Selenium can reduce Hg uptake, an antagonism between selenium and mercury on the expression of c-jun mRNA and c-jun protein. Conclusion c-jun participates in the toxicity process of brain injury by mercury polluted rice, the expression of c- jun mRNA in brain, and c-jun protein in rat cortex and hippocampus can predict neurotoxicity of mercury polluted rice. People should be advised to be cautious in eating any kind of Hg-polluted foods. To reveal the relationship between c-jun induction and apoptosis, further examinations are required.

  15. The political economy of geographical indications

    OpenAIRE

    Deconinck, Koen; Huysmans, Martijn; Swinnen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    In this article we study the political process that governs the creation and size of new Geographical Indications (GIs). Producers can choose to apply for a GI and subsequently go through a bargaining process with the government. We derive the optimal GI area from the point of view of consumers, producers, social welfare, and the government; and we show how bargaining leads to a GI size in between the applicant's optimum and the government's optimum. Under the assumption that the non-GI good ...

  16. Prediction of potential geographic distribution areas of Anguina wevelli in China by MAXENT%基于 MAXENT 的维氏粒线虫(Anguina wevelli)在我国的潜在分布研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静远; 陈林; 宋绍; 朱雅君; 王书平; 何善勇

    2016-01-01

    维氏粒线虫(Anguina wevelli )是危害牧草及草坪草的一类重要植物病原线虫。本文利用 MAXENT 生态位模型预测了维氏粒线虫在我国的适生区域,并结合该虫在我国的寄主及我国的地理信息,得出了该线虫在我国的潜在分布区域,结果显示,该线虫在我国云南保山南部及临沧东北部地区高度适生,云南除迪庆、怒江、丽江、昭通、西双版纳、文山、红河外的大部分中度适生。预测结果运用 ROC 曲线(受试者工作特征曲线)验证,测试数据的 AUC (areas under curve,曲线下面积)值为0.971,达到了较好的精度。做好进境草籽的检验检疫对于保护上述地区的畜牧业发展有重要意义。%Anguina wevelli is a dangerous nematode,which is harmful to the forage and turf grass.In this study, the potential occurrence and establishment areas were predicted by using MAXENT based on the climate variables and the distribution of A.wevelli .The prediction was confirmed by receiver operating characteristic curve,and the evaluation areas under curve is 0.971.The results showed that the potential distribution of A.wevelli mainly concentrated in east of southwest and middle east of China.Yunnan Province is the most suitable area.Therefore, more attention should be paid to the quarantine for the graziery in China.

  17. Geographic latitude and prevalence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Theodoros B; Vasiliadis, Elias; Savvidou, Olga; Mouzakis, Vasilios; Koufopoulos, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) prevalence has been reported to be different in various geographic latitudes and demonstrates higher values in northern countries. A study on epidemiological reports from the literature was conducted to record the prevalence of AIS among the general population of boys and girls, aged 10-16 years old, in different geographic latitudes, in order to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of AIS among boys and girls is different in various geographic latitudes and to examine if there is a possible association between them. Seventeen peer-reviewed published papers reporting AIS prevalence in the general population of boys and girls from most geographic areas of the northern hemisphere were retrieved from the literature. The geographic latitude of each centre where a particular study was originated was documented. The statistical analysis included a linear regression forward modeling procedure of the AIS prevalence by latitude, weighted by sample size. According to the modelling of the data, a significant positive association between prevalence of AIS and latitude was found for girls (p<0.001), following a rather curvilinear trend, but not a significant positive association was found for boys (p<0.111). A positive association between prevalence of AIS and geographic latitude is reported only for girls in the present study. Prevalence of AIS in boys is not associated significantly with geographic latitude. This differing significant association implicates the possible role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AIS that may act in a different way between boys and girls.

  18. USE OF THE GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM TO INVESTIGATE MERCURY LEVELS IN CORRELATION WITH POSTMORTEM FINDINGS OF ASPERGILLUS INDUCED LESIONS IN THE COMMON LOON (GAVIA IMMER) IN THE NORTHEASTERN USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study employed the Geographic Information System (GIS) to correlate total mercury levels in liver tissue with post-mortem findings of aspergillosis in common loons (Gavia immer) in the northeast United States of America (USA). Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal infecti...

  19. Subsidence Induced Faulting Hazard Zonation Using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry and Horizontal Gradient Mapping in Mexican Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Cigna, F.; Osmanoglu, B.; Dixon, T.; Wdowinski, S.

    2011-12-01

    Subsidence and faulting have affected Mexico city for more than a century and the process is becoming widespread throughout larger urban areas in central Mexico. This process causes substantial damages to the urban infrastructure and housing structures and will certainly become a major factor to be considered when planning urban development, land use zoning and hazard mitigation strategies in the next decades. Subsidence is usually associated with aggressive groundwater extraction rates and a general decrease of aquifer static level that promotes soil consolidation, deformation and ultimately, surface faulting. However, local stratigraphic and structural conditions also play an important role in the development and extension of faults. In all studied cases stratigraphy of the uppermost sediment strata and the structure of the underlying volcanic rocks impose a much different subsidence pattern which is most suitable for imaging through satellite geodetic techniques. We present examples from several cities in central Mexico: a) Mexico-Chalco. Very high rates of subsidence, up to 370 mm/yr are observed within this lacustrine environment surrounded by Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic structures. b) Aguascalientes where rates up to 90 mm/yr in the past decade are observed, is controlled by a stair stepped N-S trending graben that induces nucleation of faults along the edges of contrasting sediment package thicknesses. c) Morelia presents subsidence rates as high as 80 mm/yr. Differential deformation is observed across major basin-bounding E-W trending faults and with higher subsidence rates on their hanging walls, where the thickest sequences of compressible Quaternary sediments crop out. Our subsidence and faulting study in urban areas of central Mexico is based on a horizontal gradient analysis using displacement maps from Persistent Scatterer InSAR that allows definition of areas with high vulnerability to surface faulting. Correlation of the surface subsidence pattern

  20. Stroke Induces Mesenchymal Stem Cell Migration to Infarcted Brain Areas Via CXCR4 and C-Met Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Oh Young; Moon, Gyeong Joon; Kim, Dong Hee; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sooyoon; Son, Jeong Pyo; Cho, Yeon Hee; Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-05-25

    Mesenchymal stem cells circulate between organs to repair and maintain tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum have therapeutic effects when intravenously administered after stroke. However, only a small number of mesenchymal stem cells reach the brain. We hypothesized that the serum from stroke patients increases mesenchymal stem cells trophism toward the infarcted brain area. Mesenchymal stem cells were grown in fetal bovine serum, normal serum from normal rats, or stroke serum from ischemic stroke rats. Compared to the fetal bovine serum group, the stroke serum group but not the normal serum group showed significantly greater migration toward the infarcted brain area in the in vitro and in vivo models (p stroke serum group than the others. The enhanced mesenchymal stem cells migration of the stroke serum group was abolished by inhibition of signaling. Serum levels of chemokines, cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase, and growth factors were higher in stroke serum than in normal serum. Behavioral tests showed a significant improvement in the recovery after stroke in the stroke serum group than the others. Stroke induces mesenchymal stem cells migration to the infarcted brain area via C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 and c-Met signaling. Culture expansion using the serum from stroke patients could constitute a novel preconditioning method to enhance the therapeutic efficiency of mesenchymal stem cells.

  1. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  2. Changes at the National Geographic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwille, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    For more than 125 years, National Geographic has explored the planet, unlocking its secrets and sharing them with the world. For almost thirty of those years, National Geographic has been committed to K-12 educators and geographic education through its Network of Alliances. As National Geographic begins a new chapter, they remain committed to the…

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the ventral tegmental area mediates diurnal variations in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Xia; Wei, Yi-Ming; Shi, Hai-Shui; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Xue, Yan-Xue; Lu, Lin; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2014-11-01

    Cocaine sensitization and reward are reported to be under the influence of diurnal rhythm. However, no previous studies have reported brain areas that play a role as modulators and underlie the mechanism of diurnal variations in cocaine reward. We examined (1) the diurnal rhythm of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and reward-related brain areas in naive rats; (2) the effect of day and night on the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP); (3) the influence of cocaine-induced CPP on GSK-3β activity in the SCN and reward-related brain areas; and (4) the effect of the GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 microinjected bilaterally into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine-induced CPP. A significant diurnal rhythm of GSK-3β activity was found in the SCN and reward-related brain areas, with diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP. GSK-3β activity in the SCN and reward-related brain areas exhibited marked diurnal variations in rats treated with saline. GSK-3β activity in rats treated with cocaine exhibited distinct diurnal variations only in the prefrontal cortex and VTA. Cocaine decreased the expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β (i.e. increased GSK-3β activity) only in the VTA in rats trained and tested at ZT4 and ZT16. SB216763 microinjected into the VTA bilaterally eliminated the diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP, but did not affect the acquisition of cocaine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that the VTA may be a critical area involved in the diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP, and GSK-3β may be a regulator of diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP.

  4. Development of a geographical data base and its utilization in elaboration of maps of environmental sensitivity to the oil spill in the coastal area between Galinhos and Sao Bento do Norte, RN (Brazil); Desenvolvimento de um banco de dados geograficos e sua utilizacao na elaboracao de mapas de sensibilidade ambiental ao derramamento de oleo na area costeira entre Galinhos e Sao Bento do Norte - RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Angelica Felix de; Amaro, Venerando Eustaquio; Vital, Helenice; Aloise, Dario Jose [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP para o Setor Petroleo e Gas, PRH-22. Formacao em Geologia, Geofisica e Informatica

    2003-07-01

    The coastal areas located in the northern coast of the Rio Grande do Norte State, specifically between the districts of Galinhos e Sao Bento do Norte, characterized by constant processes of coastal and eolic transport, causing erosion, alterations in the sediments and modifications in the coast line. Beyond of those natural factors, there is the proximity to Polo Petrolifero of Guamare, the largest terrestrial producer of petroleum of Brazil. The first part of that work consisted of to elaborate and to develop a Geographical Database (BDG), to store all the existent data of the study area, such as geological and geophysical data, hydrodynamic data, products of remote sensing, thematic maps, among others. The second stage of this work aimed to develop starting from the data previously stored in BDG, Oil-Spill Environmental Sensitivity Maps (Maps SAO). Those maps evaluate the reaction of the certain place if to happen an oil spill in her, supplying necessary information to the decision in cleaning and removal of the spilled oil. In that way, Maps SAO of the study area were elaborated in different teams to evaluate if there would be change of the behavior of the coast in the presence of the oil. (author)

  5. Protection and Strategies for Geographical Indication Products and Cultural Heritage in the Wuling mountain areas of Hubei Province%湖北武陵山区地理标志产品和文化遗产的保护与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志国; 熊晚珍; 王树婷; 黄莉敏; 钟学斌

    2012-01-01

    The protecting status quo for intellectual property right of geographical indication, intangible cultural heritage and tangible cultural heritage of the traditional specialties in the Wuling Mountains minority areas of Hubei Province was briefly introduced at first. Ttien, the deficiencies in protection of cultural heritage in this area were analyzed. In the end, the developmental strategies were proposed as follows: to declare "Bajiao Dongs Enshi Yulu tea culture system" for pilot of globally important agricultural cultural heritage (GIAHS); to strengthen protection system for intellectual property of geographical indication of traditional specialties; to combine the protection of intellectual property of geographical indications with safeguarding cultural heritage of the traditional specialty; to declare the technique of green tea for world intangible cultural heritage list; to strengthen the protection of intangible cultural heritage in traditional techniques and traditional arts from traditional specialty; to develop the culture industry related to traditional specialty; to strengthen the protection of intangible cultural heritage in traditional processing techniques for traditional medicine.%简要介绍了湖北省武陵山民族地区传统特产的地理标志知识产权、非物质文化遗产、物质文化遗产保护现状,分析了该地区文化遗产保护的不足之处,并探讨今后的发展对策,并建议:申报”芭蕉侗族恩施玉露茶叶文化系统”的全球重要农业文化遗产(GIAHS)试点;完善传统特产的地理标志知识产权保护系统;实施传统特产地理标志知识产权与文化遗产的多重保护;领街申报绿茶技艺的世界非物质文化遗产名录;加强传统特产的传统技艺类、传统美术类非物质文化遗产保护;发展与繁荣传统特产相关的文化产业;加强药材传统炮制技艺的非物质文化遗产保护.

  6. Vaccination of dogs with Trypanosoma rangeli induces antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural area of Córdoba, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Beatriz; Marini, Vanina; Gauna, Diego; Frias, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Dogs play a major role in the domestic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, acting as reservoirs. In a previous work we have developed a model of vaccination of dogs in captivity with nonpathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes, resulting in the production of protective antibodies against T. cruzi, with dramatic decrease of parasitaemia upon challenge with 100,000 virulent forms of this parasite. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity of this vaccine in dogs living in a rural area. Domestic dogs, free from T. cruzi infection, received three immunisations with fixed T. rangeli epimastigotes. Dogs were not challenged with T. cruzi, but they were left in their environment. This immunisation induced antibodies against T. cruzi for more than three years in dogs in their natural habitat, while control dogs remained serologically negative.

  7. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, Cristina; Guerrero, Irene; Castells, Xavier; Barón, Sergio; Castillejo, Soledad; Alcover, M Magdalena; Portús, Montserrat; Gállego, Montserrat

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus , the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled). Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category), wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park), general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR): 0.41) and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59). In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40) and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08). Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  8. Major Land Resource Areas (MLRA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of the Land Resource Regions and Major Land Resource Areas of the conterminous United States. Land resource regions are geographic areas...

  9. Special Protection Area Review Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Special Protection Area (SPA) is a geographic area designated by the County Council which has high quality or unusually sensitive water resources and environmental...

  10. VT - Vermont Rational Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data Layer Name: Vermont Rational Service Areas (RSAs)Alternate Name: Vermont RSAsOverview:Rational Service Areas (RSAs), originally developed in 2001 and revised in...

  11. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  12. Using volunteered geographic information to visualize ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI), specifically geotagged photographs available from social media platforms, is a promising technology that can be utilized to identify public values for ecosystem goods and services in a defined geographic area. VGI can help researchers indirectly survey and report on the values and preferences of communities involved in restoration and revitalization projects. We are using geotagged images from three social media platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Images are obtained for the neighborhoods to the St. Louis River in the Duluth, MN and analyzed along several dimensions including the spatial distribution of images from each platform and the types and frequencies of social values and ecosystem service depicted. This study will demonstrate a method for translating the values of ecosystem goods and services as captured in social media into spatially-explicit data. Study outcomes are the incorporation of social media-derived indicators of ecosystems services into City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development Sustainable and Healthy Community research. Not applicable

  13. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  14. Morphological effects on the plasma-induced emission properties of large area ZnO nanorod arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Qingliang; Qi Junjie; Yang Ya; Huang Yunhua; Zhang Yue; Zhang Zheng [Department of Materials Physics, State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Xia Liansheng, E-mail: yuezhang@ustb.edu.c [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2009-11-07

    Large area well-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays with different morphologies were fabricated by hydrothermal methods. The plasma-induced emission properties of ZnO nanorod arrays with different morphologies under a pulsed electric field were investigated. When the aspect ratios of nanorods increased, the emission currents of arrays were enhanced remarkably. As for the synthesized high density ZnO nanorod arrays, the emission currents of the nanorod arrays decreased with the increase in the nanorod densities owing to the screening effect. The plasma-induced emission properties of the ZnO nanorod arrays were improved by controlling the array morphologies. Under the pulsed electric field of 7-8 V {mu}m{sup -1}, the highest emission current density of the ZnO nanorod arrays reached 91.16 A cm{sup -2}. Moreover, the surface plasmas on the ZnO nanorod arrays with different morphologies were always distributed uniformly. The results of this study provide a design strategy for ZnO nanorod arrays, which are used as plasma-flashover cathode emitters.

  15. Increased CRF signaling in a ventral tegmental area-interpeduncular nucleus-medial habenula circuit induces anxiety during nicotine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Shea, Rubing; DeGroot, Steven R.; Liu, Liwang; Vallaster, Markus; Pang, Xueyan; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Rando, Oliver J.; Martin, Gilles E.; George, Olivier; Gardner, Paul D.; Tapper, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased anxiety is a predominant withdrawal symptom in abstinent smokers, yet the neuroanatomical and molecular bases underlying it are unclear. Here, we show that withdrawal-induced anxiety increases activity of neurons in the interpeduncular intermediate (IPI), a subregion of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN). IPI activation during nicotine withdrawal was mediated by increased corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptor-1 expression and signaling, which modulated glutamatergic input from the medial habenula (MHb). Pharmacological blockade of IPN CRF1 receptors or optogenetic silencing of MHb input reduced IPI activation and alleviated withdrawal-induced anxiety; whereas IPN CRF infusion in mice increased anxiety. We identified a meso-interpeduncular circuit, consisting of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopaminergic neurons projecting to the IPN, as a potential source of CRF. Knock-down of CRF synthesis in the VTA prevented IPI activation and anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. These data indicate that increased CRF receptor signaling within a VTA-IPN-MHb circuit triggers anxiety during nicotine withdrawal. PMID:25898242

  16. Loss of D2 dopamine receptor function modulates cocaine-induced glutamatergic synaptic potentiation in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-07-24

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons.

  17. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  18. The Andes: A Geographical Portrait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The Andes: A Geographical Portrait. By Axel Borsdorf and Christoph Stadel. Translated by Brigitte Scott and Christoph Stadel. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2015. xiv + 368 pp. US$ 139.00. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-319-03529-1.

  19. Geographical Concepts in Turkish Lullabys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çifçi, Taner

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a collection of lullabies which have an important place in Turkish culture and which form an important genre in folk literature are examined to find out distribution and presentation of geographical terms in the lullabies in this collection. In the study, 2480 lullabies in Turkish Lullabies which is one of the leading collections in…

  20. Territorial Decentration and Geographic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    Territorial decentration is a question of major significance to geographic educators. This paper reports the findings of a research project designed to determine the territorial decentration of an American sample of children. The primary purpose of the research was to determine if Piaget's territorial decentration stages are appropriate for…

  1. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballart

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled. Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category, wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park, general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR: 0.41 and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59. In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40 and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08. Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  2. 甘肃省及河西走廊地区乙型脑炎疫区变迁分析%Epidemic area and geographic distribution of Japanese encephalitis in Gansu province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭霞; 王平贵; 王芳; 张晓曙; 李慧

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析甘肃省及河西走廊地区乙型脑炎(乙脑)疫区变迁趋势,探讨甘肃省乙脑重点防控区及河西走廊地区乙脑疫情特征.方法 利用甘肃省疾病预防控制中心1958-2010年疫情资料和法定传染病报告系统资料,运用描述流行病学方法和局部地区调查,分析1980年开始使用乙脑疫苗前后甘肃省乙脑发病率和疫区地理分布变化及河西走廊地区乙脑疫情.结果 1958-1980年,甘肃省乙脑年均发病率为0.65/10万;1980年开始推广使用乙脑疫苗,到2010年,发病降至0.13/10万,未出现乙脑较大流行;发病率较高的县(市、区)分布于甘肃省陇南市、天水市和平凉市,发病趋势与全省平均发病趋势基本一致,是甘肃省乙脑防控的重点地区;1958-1980年,河西走廊累计报告乙脑病例88例,年均发病率为0.13/10万,1981年以来,仅张掖市甘州区报告1例非本地发病乙脑病例;2011年8月调查河西走廊地区7个县(区、市)县级以上医院的住院病例,共发现疑似脑炎病例587例.结论 甘肃省在使用乙脑疫苗后,乙脑发病水平明显降低,东南部地区是甘肃省乙脑重点防控区,河西走廊是否存在乙脑病例尚需进一步调查并进行全面监测.%Objective To analyze changing trend of Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic in Gansu province and Hexi Corridor and to examine the characteristics of JE epidemic in Hexi Corridor.Methods The data of field study and surveillance on JE in Gansu from 1958 to 2010 from National Notifiable Disease Reporting System were abstracted to analyze the changes in incidence and regional distribution of JE in Hexi Corridor before and after immunization of JE vaccine using descriptive epidemiology methods.Results From 1958 to 1980,the average annual incidence of JE was 0.65/100 000 in Gansu.There was no epidemic of JE in Gansu after JE vaccination in 1980 and the incidence of JE in 2010 dropped to 0.14/100 000.The areas at higher risk

  3. Louisiana Coastal Zone Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998)[coastal_zone_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset representing the extent of the LDNR regulatory area defined as the Louisiana Coastal Zone. This area comprises a band across the southern...

  4. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Dia, Ibrahima; Konate, Lassana; Ayala, Diego; Fontenille, Didier; Cohuet, Anna

    2012-09-05

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

  5. Effect of reduction of area on microstructure and mechanical properties of twinning-induced plasticity steel during wire drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joong-Ki; Son, Il-Heon; Yoo, Jang-Yong; Zargaran, A.; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of reduction of area (RA), 10%, 20%, and 30%, during wire drawing on the inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of Fe-Mn-Al-C twinning-induced plasticity steel has been investigated. After wire drawing, the deformation texture developed into the major and minor duplex fiber texture. However, the texture became more pronounced in both center and surface areas as the RA per pass increased. It also shows that a larger RA per pass resulted in a higher yield strength and smaller elongation than a smaller RA per pass at all strain levels. Although inhomogeneities in microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction decreased with increasing RA per pass, there existed an optimum RA per pass for maximum drawing limit. Insufficient penetration of strain from surface to center at small RA per pass (e.g., 10%) and high friction and unsound metal flow at large RA per pass (e.g., 30%) all resulted in heterogeneous microstructure and mechanical properties along the radial direction of drawn wire. On the other hand, 20% RA per pass improved the drawing limit by about 30% as compared to the 10% and 30% RAs per pass.

  6. Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Medium Scale for Rainfall-Induced Earthflows: Catakli Catchment Area (Cayeli, Rize, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Nefeslioglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to introduce a probabilistic approach to determine the components of the risk evaluation for rainfall-induced earthflows in medium scale. The Catakli catchment area (Cayeli, Rize, Turkey was selected as the application site of this study. The investigations were performed in four different stages: (i evaluation of the conditioning factors, (ii calculation of the probability of spatial occurrence, (iii calculation of the probability of the temporal occurrence, and (iv evaluation of the consequent risk. For the purpose, some basic concepts such as “Risk Cube”, “Risk Plane”, and “Risk Vector” were defined. Additionally, in order to assign the vulnerability to the terrain units being studied in medium scale, a new more robust and more objective equation was proposed. As a result, considering the concrete type of roads in the catchment area, the economic risks were estimated as 3.6×106€—in case the failures occur on the terrain units including element at risk, and 12.3×106€—in case the risks arise from surrounding terrain units. The risk assessments performed in medium scale considering the technique proposed in the present study will supply substantial economic contributions to the mitigation planning studies in the region.

  7. Effective Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Keinan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article defines a new term, Effective Area, K, of a given territory as a function of four independent parameters: its nominal acreage, A, the intellectual competence of its inhabitants, B, their social competence, C, and their global influence, D, using a simple formalism: K = A x B x C x D. This analysis demonstrates that in our current world any consideration of the physical area of a given territory is meaningless if the quality of its population is ignored. K is a much more useful parameter than A, certainly for political and economical considerations, explaining why claims for territorial expansion are placed low on the national ladder of priorities in the developed countries. In many respects, large geographical areas may become a burden rather than an advantage. Thus, the importance of armed conflicts over geographical territories, which have taken a dominant part of the entire human history, is fading away. Furthermore, although the global acreage is constant, the total effective area of planet Earth keeps growing, providing sufficient room for the growing human population.

  8. 广东省部分地区卫氏并殖吸虫分布与DNA序列分析%Geographic distribution and gene sequencing of Paragonimus westermani in some areas of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆予云; 刘巧; 唐高兴; 沈浩贤; 钟建新; 谢权超; 傅广华; 陈玉莲; 李豪彬

    2013-01-01

    dissected to detect adult worms of P.westermani.The COI and ITS2 gene sequences of those adult worms were compared with those of known Paragonimus specimen deposited in the GenBank.Results All of the first intermediate hosts in five survey sites of Liangkou,Nankun,Mountain,Dadong,Muxi,Guowu,were identified as Semisulcospira libertina,whose cercariae infection rates were 0.33%,0.15%,0.058%,0.10%,and 0.05%,respectively; the second intermediate hosts in above five sites were all identified as Sinopotamon denticulatum,whose metacercariae infection rates were 100%,100%,38.09%,55.36%,and 65.26%,respectively.The numbers of metacercariae in the five sites were 79.4,105.66,9.16,16.18,and 15.6 per positive crab,respectively,and 11.12,7.87,0.58,0.69,and 0.85 per gram of crab,respectively.All the metacercariae were identical to those of P.westermani.Adult worms and eggs of P.westermani were found in both reservoir hosts of domestic cats and dogs infected artificially.By comparing the COI genes of five representative samples from each survey site with that of Paragonimus #AF219379.21,AF540958.1 from GenBank,we found out the homology to be 99%,99%,99%,98%,and 99%,respectively.In addition,a comparison of the ITS2 gene sequences between the above five samples and Paragonimus #DQ836243.1,DQ351845.1,AB354217.1 from GenBank revealed 98%,99%,98%,98%,and 98% gene homology,respectively.Conclusion Two ultra-high and three high endemic areas of P.westermani are discovered in Guangdong Province.No obvious differences were found among the types of P.westermani in the above five endemic areas.

  9. Seismically induced environmental effects in costal areas : the 1783, 1905 and 1908 earthquakes in Calabria and Sicily, (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfido, S.; Esposito, E.; Violante, C.; Sacchi, M.; Guerrieri, L.; Serva, L.; Sciarrotta, S.

    2009-04-01

    Calabria and Sicily's Coast, particularly in the Messina Strait, is one of the most seismically active areas of the Southern Italy. Since 1783, there have been seven earthquakes with magnitude ranging between 6.0 and 7.2 These earthquakes have produced wide damages on the MCS Intensities scale of X or greater. The high rate of seismic activity in the region is related to the complex geologic setting resulting in a number of different sources of potentially damaging earthquakes. All these earthquake induced numerous and spectacular coseismic environmental effects overall along the coast where the impact was particularly catastrophic. These earthquakes caused several changes in elevation, due to tectonic deformations, landslides and settlements (i.e along both sides of the Messina Straits, 1908 event), relevant landslides (the February6, 1783 event triggered in Scilla, along the cliff of the M. Pacì a huge rock avalanche estimate of 5 Mm3 in the areal zone and 3 Mm3 in the submarine zone (Bozzano et al 2006), that fell into the sea generating a disastrous tsunamis), ground fractures (in the Capo Vaticano promontory area, 1905 event; in Messina Reggio C., Villa S. Giovanni, 1908 event); liquefaction phenomena (in the area of Messina, Ganzirri and Reggio Calabria, 1908 event), and catastrophic tsunamis (five induced by the 1783 Calabrian seismic sequence, other two by 1905 and 1908 events, Graziani et al 2006). The run-up observed ranging from few cm to tens of m: the highest tsunami wave was about 16 m in Scilla (Feb. 6, 1783 tsunami), 13 m in Pellaro (1908 event) and 1,30 m along the Calabrian coast (1905 tsunami) . Portion of the coast were lost, most of them eroded by the tsunamis with a coastline retreat and flooded the shore for several hundred meters inland depositing a large amount of silt and fish, and in some case killing people (i.e 1500 in Scilla and 28 in Messina during the February 6, 1783 tsunami, Barbano 2008; Porfido et al.,2008). Finally, it is

  10. Assesing Geographic Isolation of the Galapagos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, D.; Smith, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Galapagos Archipelago is one of the most important ecological spots in the planet due its unique biodiversity, active geology, and relatively well-preserved ecosystems. These characteristics are strongly based on the geographical isolation of the islands. On the one hand this isolation allowed the evolution processes that gave the islands their international fame and on the other hand it kept them from major human impacts that affected the vast majority of the Earth's surface. Galapagos' geographical isolation is therefore of mayor value, but it is rapidly diminishing due to the increase of marine and air transportation among islands and with the rest of the world. This increased accessibility implies enhanced risks for the ecological dynamics on the archipelago (e.g. increased risk of biological invasions, uncontrolled tourism growth, more water and energy consumption). Here, we introduce a general accessibility model to assess geographical isolation of the Galapagos Islands. The model aims to characterize accessibility in terms of human mobility by evaluating travel time to each point of the archipelago using all available transportation modalities. Using a multi criteria cost surface for marine and land areas, we estimated travel time for each surface unit using the fastest route and mode of transportation available while considering several friction factors such as surface type, slope, infrastructure, transfer points, legal restrictions, and physical barriers. We created maps to evaluate the isolation of different islands and places, highlighting the potential risks for several habitats and ecosystems. The model can be used for research and decision-making regarding island conservation, such as estimating spreading paths for invasive species, informing decisions on tourism management, and monitoring isolation changes of sensitive ecosystems.

  11. Annotation Bibliography for Geographical Science Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukendra Martha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This annotated bibliography is gathered specially for the field of geography obtained from various scientific articles (basic concept in geography of different geographical journals. This article aims to present information particulary for geographers who will undertake researches, and indeed need the geographical References with all spatial concepts. Other reason defeated by the rapid development of the branch of technical geography such as geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing. It hopes that this bibliography can contribute of remotivating geographers to learn and review their original geographical thought.

  12. IL FENOMENO VOLUNTEERED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lupia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution addresses the phenomenon of Voluntereed Geographic Informationexplaining these new and burgeoning sources of information offers multidisciplinary scientists an unprecedented opportunity to conduct research on a variety of topics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular the contribution refers to two COST Actions which have been recently activated on the subject which areparticularly relevant for the growing of the European scientific community.

  13. Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Economic disparity is a huge global issue nowadays which threatens the economic justice and thus in some sense decides the fate of human be-ing,especially those from developing countries.This essay analyzes economic disparity by using Geographic Luck and Dependency Theory.None of the two theories could explain the economic disparity individually.China,Britain and Iran are used as three examples to support the thesis.

  14. Geographic Information System Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Chad; Casad, Christopher; Floriano, Luis G.; Hill, Tracie; Johnson, Rashida K.; Locklear, J. Mark; Penn, Stephen; Rhoulac, Tori; Shay, Adam H.; Taylor, Antone; hide

    1995-01-01

    Data was collected in order to further NASA Langley Research Center's Geographic Information System(GIS). Information on LaRC's communication, electrical, and facility configurations was collected. Existing data was corrected through verification, resulting in more accurate databases. In addition, Global Positioning System(GPS) points were used in order to accurately impose buildings on digitized images. Overall, this project will help the Imaging and CADD Technology Team (ICTT) prove GIS to be a valuable resource for LaRC.

  15. A geographic information system and multi criteria analysis method for site selection of spent nuclear fuel disposal; Metodologia baseada em sistemas de informacao geografica e analise multicriterio para a selecao de areas para a construcao de um repositorio para o combustivel nuclear usado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Vivian Borges

    2009-07-01

    This thesis aims to develop a site selection methodology for the construction of final repository for the spent nuclear fuel disposal, by using geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis. Decision making processes of this kind are often complex, given the great number of space parameters to consider and also the typically conflicting opinions of the diverse stake holders. By using GIS, data from different space parameters can be quickly and reliably stored, treated and analyzed. Multi-criteria techniques allow for the incorporation of different stake holders' opinions. These tools, when jointly used, allow for the decision process to be more transparent, quick and reliable. The method developed was applied to the particular case of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Weights obtained from an expert panel and also by using the Hierarchical Analysis Method and cartographic data were combined in the GIS. The application showed that it is possible not only to select and classify areas as to their aptness for the proposed objective, but also to exclude those clearly inadequate areas, thus optimizing the selection process by reducing the search space and consequently minimizing costs and the time spent in the search. (author)

  16. [Estimation of a geographic accessibility index of different health centers in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Elizondo, María Eugenia; Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Villarreal Ríos, Enrique; Vásquez-Treviño, María Guadalupe; Vásquez-Salazar, María Guadalupe

    2008-12-01

    The accessibility to health centers is a limitation to the use of preventive and curative health centers. To assess geographic accessibility using a parameter that integrates information about the use of preventive services and travelling time from home to the health center. We analyzed target geographical areas of 10 community centers located at the Northeast of Mexico. A survey was conducted to collect information about the utilization of preventive services for detection of diabetes and hypertension within last year and in women, detection of cervical and breast cancer. The time required to travel between the health center and the farthest location point at every neighborhood of each geographic area, using public or private transportation, was calculated. Health service use and transportation time were condensed in a single parameter, called geographic accessibility index. Data was normalized using z scores. Three geographical areas denominated 7, 8 and 10 had the lowest detection rates of chronic diseases, with values ranging from 45% to 48%. By car, area number 3 had the longest travelling time, corresponding to 14 minutes. The longest travelling times by public transportation were detected in areas 1 and 3, corresponding to 27 and 29 minutes, respectively The geographic accessibility index showed that the least favorable z scores travelling by car corresponded to areas 6 and 10 and, when travelling on public transportation, to areas 8 and 10. The geographic accessibility index identified areas that required improvements in accessibility.

  17. Harvesting geographic features from heterogeneous raster maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yao-Yi

    2010-11-01

    Raster maps offer a great deal of geospatial information and are easily accessible compared to other geospatial data. However, harvesting geographic features locked in heterogeneous raster maps to obtain the geospatial information is challenging. This is because of the varying image quality of raster maps (e.g., scanned maps with poor image quality and computer-generated maps with good image quality), the overlapping geographic features in maps, and the typical lack of metadata (e.g., map geocoordinates, map source, and original vector data). Previous work on map processing is typically limited to a specific type of map and often relies on intensive manual work. In contrast, this thesis investigates a general approach that does not rely on any prior knowledge and requires minimal user effort to process heterogeneous raster maps. This approach includes automatic and supervised techniques to process raster maps for separating individual layers of geographic features from the maps and recognizing geographic features in the separated layers (i.e., detecting road intersections, generating and vectorizing road geometry, and recognizing text labels). The automatic technique eliminates user intervention by exploiting common map properties of how road lines and text labels are drawn in raster maps. For example, the road lines are elongated linear objects and the characters are small connected-objects. The supervised technique utilizes labels of road and text areas to handle complex raster maps, or maps with poor image quality, and can process a variety of raster maps with minimal user input. The results show that the general approach can handle raster maps with varying map complexity, color usage, and image quality. By matching extracted road intersections to another geospatial dataset, we can identify the geocoordinates of a raster map and further align the raster map, separated feature layers from the map, and recognized features from the layers with the geospatial

  18. 13 CFR 108.130 - Identified Low Income Geographic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Organizing A Nmvc Company § 108.130... intends to make Developmental Venture Capital investments and provide Operational Assistance under...

  19. Natural vs human-induced changes at the Tauranga Harbour area (New Zealand): a time -series acoustic seabed classification comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capperucci, Ruggero Maria; Bartholomä, Alexander; Renken, Sabrina; De Lange, Willem

    2013-04-01

    The Tauranga Harbour Bay (New Zealand) is a mesotidal estuary system, enclosed by the Matakana barrier island. It hosts the leading export port in New Zealand and the second largest import port by value. Coastal changes are well documented over the last decades, mainly at the southern entrance of the area, between Matakana Island and Mt. Maunganui. It is an extremely dynamic environment, where natural processes are strongly influenced by human activities. In particular, the understanding of the recent evolution of the system is crucial for policymakers. In fact, the cumulative impact due to the maintenance of the port (mainly dredging activities, shipping, facilities construction, but also increasing tourism) and its already approved expansion clashes with the claim of the local Maori communities, which recently leaded to a court action. A hydroacoustic multiple-device survey (Side-scan Sonar SSS, Multibeam Echo-sounder MBES and Single Beam Echo-sounder) coupled with sediment sampling was carried out in March 2011 over an area of 0.8 km2, southern Matakana Island, along the Western Channel. The area is not directly impacted by dredging activities, resulting in an optimal testing site for assessing indirect effects of human disturbance on coastal dynamics. The main goals were: 1. To test the response of different acoustic systems in such a highly dynamic environment; 2. To study the influence of dredging activities on sediment dynamics and habitat changes, by means of comparing the current data with existing ones, in order to distinguish between natural and human induced changes Results demonstrate a good agreement between acoustic classifications from different systems. They seem to be mainly driven by the sediment distribution, with a distinctive fingerprint given by shells and shell fragments. Nevertheless, the presence of relevant topographic features (i.e. large bedform fields) influences swath-looking systems (SSS and MBES). SSS and MBES classifications tend

  20. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L; Stone, Jon M; Krantz, Patrick W; Royston, John M; Zeller, Ryan M; Mapes, Meghan R; Roland, Paul J; Dorogi, Mark D; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T; Ellingson, Randy J; Heben, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm(2)) can be produced in a ∼40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm(2)) to full modules (1 m(2)). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  1. rKv1.2 overexpression in the central medial thalamic area decreases caffeine-induced arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzin, C; Piccoli, L; Massagrande, M; Garbati, N; Michielin, F; Knaus, H-G; Ring, C J A; Morrison, A D; Merlo-Pich, E; Rovo, Z; Astori, S; Lüthi, A; Corti, C; Corsi, M

    2011-11-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.2 belongs to the shaker-related family and has recently been implicated in the control of sleep profile on the basis of clinical and experimental evidence in rodents. To further investigate whether increasing Kv1.2 activity would promote sleep occurrence in rats, we developed an adeno-associated viral vector that induces overexpression of rat Kv1.2 protein. The viral vector was first evaluated in vitro for its ability to overexpress rat Kv1.2 protein and to produce functional currents in infected U2OS cells. Next, the adeno-associated Kv1.2 vector was injected stereotaxically into the central medial thalamic area of rats and overexpression of Kv1.2 was showed by in situ hybridization, ex vivo electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry. Finally, the functional effect of Kv1.2 overexpression on sleep facilitation was investigated using telemetry system under normal conditions and following administration of the arousing agent caffeine, during the light phase. While no differences in sleep profile were observed between the control and the treated animals under normal conditions, a decrease in the pro-arousal effect of caffeine was seen only in the animals injected with the adeno-associated virus-Kv1.2 vector. Overall, our data further support a role of the Kv1.2 channel in the control of sleep profile, particularly under conditions of sleep disturbance.

  2. High speed, intermediate resolution, large area laser beam induced current imaging and laser scribing system for photovoltaic devices and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Adam B.; Song, Zhaoning; DeWitt, Jonathan L.; Stone, Jon M.; Krantz, Patrick W.; Royston, John M.; Zeller, Ryan M.; Mapes, Meghan R.; Roland, Paul J.; Dorogi, Mark D.; Zafar, Syed; Faykosh, Gary T.; Ellingson, Randy J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    We have developed a laser beam induced current imaging tool for photovoltaic devices and modules that utilizes diode pumped Q-switched lasers. Power densities on the order of one sun (100 mW/cm2) can be produced in a ˜40 μm spot size by operating the lasers at low diode current and high repetition rate. Using galvanostatically controlled mirrors in an overhead configuration and high speed data acquisition, large areas can be scanned in short times. As the beam is rastered, focus is maintained on a flat plane with an electronically controlled lens that is positioned in a coordinated fashion with the movements of the mirrors. The system can also be used in a scribing mode by increasing the diode current and decreasing the repetition rate. In either mode, the instrument can accommodate samples ranging in size from laboratory scale (few cm2) to full modules (1 m2). Customized LabVIEW programs were developed to control the components and acquire, display, and manipulate the data in imaging mode.

  3. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Crawfish Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_crawfish_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data representing major concentration areas for harvested or potentially harvested crawfish and river shrimp in...

  4. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Shorebird Database, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_shorebird_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for shorebird species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent concentration areas and "hotspots"...

  5. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  6. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  9. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  10. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  13. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  14. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  15. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  16. The geographic accessibility of pharmacies in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Deborah; Fisher, Judith; Douillard, Jay; Muzika, Greg; Sketris, Ingrid S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Geographic proximity is an important component of access to primary care and the pharmaceutical services of community pharmacies. Variations in access to primary care have been found between rural and urban areas in Canadian and international jurisdictions. We studied access to community pharmacies in the province of Nova Scotia. Methods: We used information on the locations of 297 community pharmacies operating in Nova Scotia in June 2011. Population estimates at the census block level and network analysis were used to study the number of Nova Scotia residents living within 800 m (walking) and 2 km and 5 km (driving) distances of a pharmacy. We then simulated the impact of pharmacy closures on geographic access in urban and rural areas. Results: We found that 40.3% of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking distance of a pharmacy; 62.6% and 78.8% lived within 2 km and 5 km, respectively. Differences between urban and rural areas were pronounced: 99.2% of urban residents lived within 5 km of a pharmacy compared with 53.3% of rural residents. Simulated pharmacy closures had a greater impact on geographic access to community pharmacies in rural areas than urban areas. Conclusion: The majority of Nova Scotia residents lived within walking or short driving distance of at least 1 community pharmacy. While overall geographic access appears to be lower than in the province of Ontario, the difference appears to be largely driven by the higher proportion of rural dwellers in Nova Scotia. Further studies should examine how geographic proximity to pharmacies influences patients’ access to traditional and specialized pharmacy services, as well as health outcomes and adherence to therapy. Can Pharm J 2013;146:39-46. PMID:23795168

  17. Geographical access to community pharmacies in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Pauline; Horsburgh, Simon; Sides, Gerald; Ram, Sanya; Fraser, John

    2014-09-01

    Geographic access to community pharmacies is an important aspect of access to appropriate medicines. This study aimed to explore changes in the number and location of pharmacies in New Zealand and determine whether some populations have poor geographical access to pharmacies. Pharmacy numbers in New Zealand have been declining since the mid-1980s, and, adjusted for population growth, there are now only half the number there was in 1965. While the urbanisation of pharmacies has been matched by loss of population in rural areas, the loss of pharmacies from smaller rural towns leaves many people with poor access to pharmacy services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interaction between paraventricular nucleus and septal area in the control of physiological responses induced by angiotensin II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camargo L.A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effects of losartan (40 nmol and PD 123319 (40 nmol (both non-peptides and selective antagonists of the AT1 and AT2 angiotensin receptors, respectively, and [Sar¹, Ala8] angiotensin II (ANG II (40 nmol (a non-selective peptide antagonist of angiotensin receptors injected into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN on the water and salt appetite, diuresis and natriuresis and mean arterial pressure (MAP induced by administration of 10 nmol of ANG II into the medial septal area (MSA of male Holtzman rats weighing 250-300 g. The volume of drug solution injected was 0.5 µl over a period of 10-15 s. The responses were measured over a period of 120 min. ANG II alone injected into the MSA induced an increase in all the above parameters (8.1 ± 1.2, 1.8 ± 0.3, and 17.1 ± 1.0 ml, 217 ± 25 µEq/120 min, and 24 ± 4 mmHg, respectively, N = 10-12 compared with vehicle-treated rats (1.4 ± 0.2, 0.6 ± 0.1, and 9.3 ± 0.5 ml, 47 ± 5 µEq/120 min, and 4.1 ± 0.8 mmHg, respectively, N = 10-14. Pretreatment with losartan and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II completely abolished the water and sodium intake, and the pressor increase (0.5 ± 0.2, 1.1 ± 0.2, 0.5 ± 0.2, and 0.8 ± 0.2 ml, and 1.2 ± 3.9, 31 ± 4.6 mmHg, respectively, N = 9-12, whereas losartan blunted the urinary and sodium excretion induced by ANG II (13.9 ± 1.0 ml and 187 ± 10 µEq/120 min, respectively, N = 9. Pretreatment with PD 123319 and [Sar¹, Ala8] ANG II blocked the urinary and sodium excretion (10.7 ± 0.8, 9.8 ± 0.7 ml, and 67 ± 13 and 57 ± 17 µEq/120 min, respectively, N = 9, whereas pretreatment with PD 123319 partially blocked the water and sodium intake, and the MAP induced by ANG II administration (2.3 ± 0.3, 1.1 ± 0.1 ml, and 12 ± 3 mmHg, respectively, N = 9-10. These results suggest the angiotensinergic effect of the MSA on the AT1 and AT2 receptors of the PVN in terms of water and sodium homeostasis and MAP modulation.

  19. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... and sovereignty and quality within an efficient marketing system with the availability of government support, hence the need to identify key candidates for GI certification. Five Tanzanian origin products were selected from 14 candidate agricultural products through a scoping study. Rice from Kyela, Aloe vera...... area, product quality perceived by the consumer in terms of taste, flavour, texture, aroma, appearance (colour, size) and perceptions of links between geography related factors (soil, land weather characteristics) and product qualities. A qualitative case study analysis was done for each of the (five...

  20. How a Geographer Looks at Globalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natoli, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    Argues a global perspective is inherent to all geographic research and education. Quotes several influential geographers concerning their views on globalism and geography as a discipline. Examines geography's five fundamental themes and their applicability to a global perspective. Considers roles geographers can play in solving world environmental…

  1. Relevance Measures Using Geographic Scopes and Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andogah, Geoffrey; Bouma, Gosse; Peters, C; Jikoun,; Mandl, T; Muller, H; Oard, DW; Penas, A; Petras,; Santos, D

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes two kinds of relevance measures to rank documents by geographic restriction: scope-based and type-based. The non-geographic and geographic relevance scores are combined using a weighted harmonic mean. The proposed relevance measures and weighting schemes are evaluated on GeoCLEF

  2. 33 CFR 166.103 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 166.103...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS General § 166.103 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or longitude, or both, are not intended for plotting on maps...

  3. 33 CFR 167.3 - Geographic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographic coordinates. 167.3...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES General § 167.3 Geographic coordinates. Geographic coordinates are defined using North American 1927 Datum (NAD 27) unless indicated otherwise....

  4. R9 PM-10 Designated Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon feature class of nonattainment areas for particulate matter < 10 microns. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met national ambient air...

  5. Stennis Space Center Environmental Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovely, Janette; Cohan, Tyrus

    2000-01-01

    As NASA's lead center for rocket propulsion testing, the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) monitors and assesses the off-site impacts of such testing through its Environmental Office (SSC-EO) using acoustical models and ancillary data. The SSC-EO has developed a geographical database, called the SSC Environmental Geographic Information System (SSC-EGIS), that covers an eight-county area bordering the NASA facility. Through the SSC-EGIS, the Enivronmental Office inventories, assesses, and manages the nearly 139,000 acres that comprise Stennis Space Center and its surrounding acoustical buffer zone. The SSC-EGIS contains in-house data as well as a wide range of data obtained from outside sources, including private agencies and local, county, state, and U.S. government agencies. The database comprises cadastral/geodetic, hydrology, infrastructure, geo-political, physical geography, and socio-economic vector and raster layers. The imagery contained in the database is varied, including low-resolution imagery, such as Landsat TM and SPOT; high-resolution imagery, such as IKONOS and AVIRIS; and aerial photographs. The SSC-EGIS has been an integral part of several major projects and the model upon which similar EGIS's will be developed for other NASA facilities. The Corps of Engineers utilized the SSC-EGIS in a plan to establish wetland mitigation sites within the SSC buffer zone. Mississippi State University employed the SSC-EGIS in a preliminary study to evaluate public access points within the buffer zone. The SSC-EO has also expressly used the SSC-EGIS to assess noise pollution modeling, land management/wetland mitigation assessment, environmental hazards mapping, and protected areas mapping for archaeological sites and for threatened and endangered species habitats. The SSC-EO has several active and planned projects that will also make use of the SSC-EGIS during this and the coming fiscal year.

  6. Network sensitivity to geographical configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; McClelland, D E; Searle, Antony C; Scott, Susan M; Clelland, David E Mc

    2002-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy will require the coordinated analysis of data from the global network of gravitational wave observatories. Questions of how to optimally configure the global network naturally arise in this context. We propose a formalism to compare different configurations of the network, using both the coincident network analysis method and the coherent network analysis method, and construct a model to compute a figure-of-merit based on the detection rate for a population of standard-candle binary inspirals. We find that this measure of network quality is very sensitive to the geographic location of component detectors under a coincident network analysis, but comparatively insensitive under a coherent network analysis.

  7. Mechanisms involved in systemic nicotine-induced glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Jin, Yu; Yang, Kechun; Zhang, Die; Lukas, Ronald J; Wu, Jie

    2010-10-13

    Systemic exposure to nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that single, systemic exposure in rats to nicotine (0.17 mg/kg free base) increases the ratio of DA neuronal currents mediated by AMPA relative to NMDA receptors (AMPA/NMDA ratio) assessed 24 h later, based on slice-patch recording. The AMPA/NMDA ratio increase is evident within 1 h and lasts for at least 72 h after nicotine exposure (and up to 8 d after repeated nicotine administration). This effect cannot be prevented by systemic injection of either α7-nAChR (nicotinic ACh receptor)-selective [methyllycaconitine (MLA)] or β2*-nAChR-selective [mecamylamine (MEC)] antagonists but is prevented by coinjection of MLA and MEC. In either nAChR α7 or β2 subunit knock-out mice, systemic exposure to nicotine still increases the AMPA/NMDA ratio. Preinjection in rats of a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate), but neither DA receptor antagonists [SCH-23390 (R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine) plus haloperidol] nor a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine), prevents the nicotine-induced increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio. After systemic exposure to nicotine, glutamatergic (but not GABAergic) transmission onto rat VTA DA neuronal inputs is enhanced. Correspondingly, DA neuronal firing measured 24 h after nicotine exposure using extracellular single-unit recording in vivo is significantly faster, and there is conversion of silent to active DA neurons. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that systemic nicotine acting via either α7- or β2*-nAChRs increases presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamatergic function, and consequently initiates glutamatergic synaptic plasticity, which may be an important, early neuronal adaptation in nicotine reward and reinforcement.

  8. Geomorphic changes induced by the April-May 2015 earthquake sequence in the Pharak-Khumbu area (Nepal): preliminary assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique

    2016-04-01

    Landsliding is a common process shaping mountain slopes. There are various potential landslide triggers (rainfall, bank erosion, earthquakes) and their effectiveness depends on their distribution, frequency and magnitude. In a Himalayan context, the effects of monsoon rainfall can be assessed every year whereas the unpredictability and low frequency of large earthquakes make their role in triggering slope instability more obscure. A 7.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Nepal (Gorkha District) on 25 April 2015 and was followed by many aftershocks exceeding magnitude 5, including another strong 7.3 magnitude earthquake on May 12, 2015 (Dolakha District). This seismic crisis provides an exceptional opportunity to assess the disruptions that earthquakes may cause in "regular" geomorphic systems controlled by rainfall. Here we present field observations carried out in the Pharak-Khumbu area (East Nepal, Dudh Kosi catchment) before and after the April-May 2015 earthquakes. The Pharak, a "middle mountains" (2000-4500 m) area, is affected by monsoon rains (3000 m/yr at 2500 m) and characterised by steep hillslopes, shaped by different geomorphic processes according to slope height and aspect, rock type and strength, inherited landforms, stream connectivity and current land use changes. This study focuses on the south of Lukla (Phakding District), and more specifically on the Khari Khola catchment and its surroundings. The area lies at the transition between the Higher Himalayan crystallines and the Lesser Himalayan meta-sediments. On the basis of our diachronic observations (March and November 2015), we surveyed and mapped new earthquake-induced slope instabilities such as rock falls, rockslides, landslides and debris flows and a combination of several of them. Interviews with local people also helped to assess the exact timing of some events. While the first M 7.8 earthquake produced significant impacts in the northern Khumbu area, the M 7.3 aftershock seems to have

  9. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samb Badara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Methods Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Results Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. Conclusions The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

  10. Handy Key to Your "National Geographics"; Subject and Picture Locater. Twelfth Edition, 1915-Dec. 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Charles S., Comp.

    This index lists all articles and pictures which have appeared in National Geographic Magazine from 1915 to the present. Some 66 subject headings and numerous subheadings appear alphabetically, but within these headings, organization may be geographical, chronological, or other. Citations include only the subject area, date of issue, and presence…

  11. New England's travel and recreation markets: trends in the geographic target markets beyond 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to re-examine and update geographic travel and lifestyle activity market trends for those areas targeted by New England destinations beyond the year 2000. The central theme was to examine in detail the primary, secondary and tertiary geographic markets targeted by New England destinations through both travel behavior and lifestyle behavior...

  12. Embedding Local Places in Global Spaces: Geographical Indications as a Territorial Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Geographical indications (GIs) are place-based names that convey the geographical origin, as well as the cultural and historical identity, of agricultural products. GIs are unique, in that they provide a means of ensuring that control over production and sales of a product stays within a local area, but at the same time they make use of extralocal…

  13. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using mul

  14. Research on Geographical Environment Unit Division Based on the Method of Natural Breaks (Jenks)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J; S. T. Yang; Li, H. W.; Zhang, B.(Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies, IN2P3/CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, Université Denis Diderot-Paris7, F-75252, Paris, France); J. R. Lv

    2013-01-01

    Zoning which is to divide the study area into different zones according to their geographical differences at the global, national or regional level, includes natural division, economic division, geographical zoning of departments, comprehensive zoning and so on. Zoning is of important practical significance, for example, knowing regional differences and characteristics, regional research and regional development planning, understanding the favorable and unfavorable conditions of the ...

  15. Embedding Local Places in Global Spaces: Geographical Indications as a Territorial Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Geographical indications (GIs) are place-based names that convey the geographical origin, as well as the cultural and historical identity, of agricultural products. GIs are unique, in that they provide a means of ensuring that control over production and sales of a product stays within a local area, but at the same time they make use of extralocal…

  16. Research on Geographical Urban Conditions Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    by LUO A1inghai Abstract Geographical national conditions monitoring has become an important task of surveying and geographical information industry, and will make a profound influence on the development of surveying and ge- ographical information. This paper introduced the basic concept of ge- ographical national conditions monitoring, and discussed its main tasks including complete surveying, dynamic monitoring, statistical analysis and regular release, and expounded the main content of geographical urban conditions monitoring including urbanization monitoring, social- economic development monitoring, transportation foundation monitor- ing and natural ecological environment monitoring, and put forwards the framework system of geographical urban conditions monitoring. Key words surveying and mapping ,geographical national conditions, monitoring ( Page:l )

  17. Long-lasting novelty-induced neuronal reverberation during slow-wave sleep in multiple forebrain areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidarta Ribeiro

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of experience-dependent brain reactivation during both slow-wave (SW and rapid eye-movement (REM sleep led to the notion that the consolidation of recently acquired memory traces requires neural replay during sleep. To date, however, several observations continue to undermine this hypothesis. To address some of these objections, we investigated the effects of a transient novel experience on the long-term evolution of ongoing neuronal activity in the rat forebrain. We observed that spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal ensemble activity originally produced by the tactile exploration of novel objects recurred for up to 48 h in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, putamen, and thalamus. This novelty-induced recurrence was characterized by low but significant correlations values. Nearly identical results were found for neuronal activity sampled when animals were moving between objects without touching them. In contrast, negligible recurrence was observed for neuronal patterns obtained when animals explored a familiar environment. While the reverberation of past patterns of neuronal activity was strongest during SW sleep, waking was correlated with a decrease of neuronal reverberation. REM sleep showed more variable results across animals. In contrast with data from hippocampal place cells, we found no evidence of time compression or expansion of neuronal reverberation in any of the sampled forebrain areas. Our results indicate that persistent experience-dependent neuronal reverberation is a general property of multiple forebrain structures. It does not consist of an exact replay of previous activity, but instead it defines a mild and consistent bias towards salient neural ensemble firing patterns. These results are compatible with a slow and progressive process of memory consolidation, reflecting novelty-related neuronal ensemble relationships that seem to be context- rather than stimulus-specific. Based on our current and previous results

  18. Junk food diet-induced obesity increases D2 receptor autoinhibition in the ventral tegmental area and reduces ethanol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason B; Hendrickson, Linzy M; Garwood, Grant M; Toungate, Kelsey M; Nania, Christina V; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Similar to drugs of abuse, the hedonic value of food is mediated, at least in part, by the mesostriatal dopamine (DA) system. Prolonged intake of either high calorie diets or drugs of abuse both lead to a blunting of the DA system. Most studies have focused on DAergic alterations in the striatum, but little is known about the effects of high calorie diets on ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. Since high calorie diets produce addictive-like DAergic adaptations, it is possible these diets may increase addiction susceptibility. However, high calorie diets consistently reduce psychostimulant intake and conditioned place preference in rodents. In contrast, high calorie diets can increase or decrease ethanol drinking, but it is not known how a junk food diet (cafeteria diet) affects ethanol drinking. In the current study, we administered a cafeteria diet consisting of bacon, potato chips, cheesecake, cookies, breakfast cereals, marshmallows, and chocolate candies to male Wistar rats for 3-4 weeks, producing an obese phenotype. Prior cafeteria diet feeding reduced homecage ethanol drinking over 2 weeks of testing, and transiently reduced sucrose and chow intake. Importantly, cafeteria diet had no effect on ethanol metabolism rate or blood ethanol concentrations following 2g/kg ethanol administration. In midbrain slices, we showed that cafeteria diet feeding enhances DA D2 receptor (D2R) autoinhibition in VTA DA neurons. These results show that junk food diet-induced obesity reduces ethanol drinking, and suggest that increased D2R autoinhibition in the VTA may contribute to deficits in DAergic signaling and reward hypofunction observed with obesity.

  19. Changes in the vascular area fraction of the hippocampus and amygdala are induced by prenatal dexamethasone and/or adult stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Gretchen N; Owens, Michael J; Taylor, W Robert; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2010-06-01

    In addition to the neuronal and behavioral consequences of excess glucocorticoid exposure, the cerebrovascular system can also be adversely affected by stressors. This study determined that chronic stress in adulthood decreased the vascular area fraction of the hippocampus and increased the vascular area fraction of the amygdala. In addition, the data indicated that prenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids modulated the effects of adult stress on vascular area fraction of the hippocampus and amygdala. These data indicate that in addition to the well-documented stress-induced changes in neurons and glia, cerebral vasculature is also altered by exposure to stressors.

  20. The Adriatic – Contemporary Geographic Issues, Zadar, September 10-12, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Vukosav

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available From September 10 to 12, the Department of Geography of the University of Zadar and the Croatian Geographical Society – Zadar organized a scientific conference as a part of the Department's 15th anniversary celebration. Another important anniversary 20 years of the Croatian Geographic Society Zadar was also celebrated at the conference named The Adriatic – Contemporary Geographic Issues. About 50 Croatian and foreign geographers, as well as other scientists concerned with spatial issues participated in the conference. During the two-day program, a variety of interesting subjects were presented and discussed, mostly related to issues related to the broader Adriatic area.

  1. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  2. OUTDOOR EDUCATION AND GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA GUARAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the reflection on the relationship between values and methodological principles of Outdoor Education and spatial and geographical education perspectives, especially in pre-school and primary school, which relates to the age between 3 and 10 years. Outdoor Education is an educational practice that is already rooted in the philosophical thought of the 16th and the 17th centuries, from John Locke to Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and in the pedagogical thought, in particular Friedrich Fröbel, and it has now a quite stable tradition in Northern Europe countries. In Italy, however, there are still few experiences and they usually do not have a systematic and structural modality, but rather a temporarily and experimentally outdoor organization. In the first part, this paper focuses on the reasons that justify a particular attention to educational paths that favour outdoors activities, providing also a definition of outdoor education and highlighting its values. It is also essential to understand that educational programs in open spaces, such as a forest or simply the schoolyard, surely offers the possibility to learn geographical situations. Therefore, the question that arises is how to finalize the best stimulus that the spatial location guarantees for the acquisition of knowledge, skills and abilities about space and geography.

  3. Human-induced hydrological changes and sinkholes in the gypsum karst of Lesina Marina area (Foggia Province, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelibus, M. D.; Gutierrez, F.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    points distributed over a large area around the canal and the results of numerical simulations, the main hydrological changes include: (1) Incorporation of new boundary conditions. The groundwater flow, previously controlled by the oscillating sea level and by the lagoon level, has been altered introducing a line of minimum potential along the canal. The water level in the canal oscillates according to the variations in the levels of the sea and the lagoon. (2) The gypsum bedrock that behaves as an anisotropic aquifer, is drained by a channel in which the flow, essentially controlled by the tidal regime, discharges two times a day towards the sea and towards the lagoon. (3) The canal that works as a drainage trench, has caused the lowering of the water table. The local distortion of the piezometric surface has modified the flow direction and increased the gradient and flow rate. At the flanks of the canal, the groundwater that used to flow towards the sea, now has been captured by the excavation and circulates towards the canal. The sense of this flow is influenced by the piezometric changes caused by the tidal variations. (4) As a consequence of the lowering of the water table (of the order of a few decimetres) near the banks of the canal, slow subhorizontal phreatic flows have been replaced by more rapid downward vadose flows. These hydrological changes have induced the reactivation-acceleration of internal erosion and collapse processes leading to the generation of a large number of sinkholes in the vicinity of the canal. The lowering in the water table involves an increase in the effective weight of the sediments previously situated in the saturated zone due to the loss of buoyancy. Additionally, downward vadose flows and more rapid water circulation in the saturated zone towards the canal favour the flushing out of the sediments filling voids and the downward migration of cover material towards the underlying paleokarst. Most likely the continuous oscillations of

  4. 全球气候变暖对中国种植制度可能影响Ⅶ.气候变暖对中国柑桔种植界限及冻害风险影响%The Possible Effects of Global Warming on Cropping Systems in China Ⅶ.The Possible Effects of Climate Warming on Geographical Shift in Northern Limit of Citrus Planting Areas and the Risk Analysis of Freezing Injury in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 杨晓光; 张海林; 陈阜

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The period from 1950s to 2007 was divided into two stages, I.e., 1950s-1980 and 1981 -2007, then the geographical shift of northern limit for citrus planting areas and the possible risk of freezing injury after the shift were analyzed and compared. [ Method ] Using the standard of China fanning system regional planning and some agro-meteorological indicators, the geographical shift of safe northern limit for citrus planting areas were compared and analyzed and the change chart was draw by ArcGlS. Using the risk assessment standard of freezing injury, the venture of freezing injury of citrus planting areas after geographical shift were evaluated. [Result] Compared with the results during the period from 1950s to 1980, the averagegeographical shift of northern boundary for optimum planting areas, suitable planting areas, sub-suitable planting areas, possible suitable planting areas is northward 0.75°, the region of maximum geographical shift is sub-suitable planting areas, the next is suitable planting areas, optimum planting areas, possible suitable planting areas, respectively. The extent of northward shift to the east section of northern limit is obviously larger than west section. The average geographical shift of southern boundary for optimum planting areas and suitable planting areas is northward 0.56° and 0.42°, respectively. The largest increment of areas occurs at optimum planting areas, the next is suitable planting areas. Unable planting areas decreased mostly, the next is possible suitable planting areas and sub-suitable planting areas, respectively. The light and middle freezing injury to the sensitive region of optimum planting areas and suitable planting areas show obviously increase than that of their nonsensitive region, and the occurrence frequency of severe and extra severe freezing injury in sensitive region and nonsensitive region is low. The occurrence frequency of light freezing injury in sub-suitable planting areas and

  5. Geographical Scale Effects on the Analysis of Leptospirosis Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gracie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis displays a great diversity of routes of exposure, reservoirs, etiologic agents, and clinical symptoms. It occurs almost worldwide but its pattern of transmission varies depending where it happens. Climate change may increase the number of cases, especially in developing countries, like Brazil. Spatial analysis studies of leptospirosis have highlighted the importance of socioeconomic and environmental context. Hence, the choice of the geographical scale and unit of analysis used in the studies is pivotal, because it restricts the indicators available for the analysis and may bias the results. In this study, we evaluated which environmental and socioeconomic factors, typically used to characterize the risks of leptospirosis transmission, are more relevant at different geographical scales (i.e., regional, municipal, and local. Geographic Information Systems were used for data analysis. Correlations between leptospirosis incidence and several socioeconomic and environmental indicators were calculated at different geographical scales. At the regional scale, the strongest correlations were observed between leptospirosis incidence and the amount of people living in slums, or the percent of the area densely urbanized. At the municipal scale, there were no significant correlations. At the local level, the percent of the area prone to flooding best correlated with leptospirosis incidence.

  6. Geographical Scale Effects on the Analysis of Leptospirosis Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, Renata; Barcellos, Christovam; Magalhães, Mônica; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis displays a great diversity of routes of exposure, reservoirs, etiologic agents, and clinical symptoms. It occurs almost worldwide but its pattern of transmission varies depending where it happens. Climate change may increase the number of cases, especially in developing countries, like Brazil. Spatial analysis studies of leptospirosis have highlighted the importance of socioeconomic and environmental context. Hence, the choice of the geographical scale and unit of analysis used in the studies is pivotal, because it restricts the indicators available for the analysis and may bias the results. In this study, we evaluated which environmental and socioeconomic factors, typically used to characterize the risks of leptospirosis transmission, are more relevant at different geographical scales (i.e., regional, municipal, and local). Geographic Information Systems were used for data analysis. Correlations between leptospirosis incidence and several socioeconomic and environmental indicators were calculated at different geographical scales. At the regional scale, the strongest correlations were observed between leptospirosis incidence and the amount of people living in slums, or the percent of the area densely urbanized. At the municipal scale, there were no significant correlations. At the local level, the percent of the area prone to flooding best correlated with leptospirosis incidence. PMID:25310536

  7. The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Houston T.

    The events of September 11 ushered us all into a world in which our security and sense of invulnerability were savagely replaced by vulnerability and irrational fear. To the delight of our adversaries who planned these attacks, we often responded in ways that furthered their agenda by weakening the cultural colossus that we call home. Normally terrorism is viewed as intense but localized violence. Seldom is terrorism viewed in its more expansive dimensions. It is burned into our collective memories as a collapsed building, a shattered bus, an incinerated nightclub, or facilities closed by a few anthrax-laced letters. However, terrorism must be studied in dimensions larger than the view from a news camera. This conclusion forms the intellectual basis for The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism.

  8. Network sensitivity to geographical configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Searle, Antony C; Scott, Susan M; McClelland, David E [Department of Physics and Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Science, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2002-04-07

    Gravitational wave astronomy will require the coordinated analysis of data from the global network of gravitational wave observatories. Questions of how to optimally configure the global network arise in this context. We have elsewhere proposed a formalism which is employed here to compare different configurations of the network, using both the coincident network analysis method and the coherent network analysis method. We have constructed a network model to compute a figure-of-merit based on the detection rate for a population of standard-candle binary inspirals. We find that this measure of network quality is very sensitive to the geographic location of component detectors under a coincident network analysis, but comparatively insensitive under a coherent network analysis.

  9. The role of poverty rate and racial distribution in the geographic clustering of breast cancer survival among older women: a geographic and multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Lian, Min; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined disparities in survival among women aged 66 years or older in association with census-tract-level poverty rate, racial distribution, and individual-level factors, including patient-, treatment-, and tumor-related factors, utilization of medical care, and mammography use. They used linked data from the 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) programs, 1991-1999 Medicare claims, and the 1990 US Census. A geographic information system and advanced statistics identified areas of increased or reduced breast cancer survival and possible reasons for geographic variation in survival in 2 of the 5 SEER areas studied. In the Detroit, Michigan, area, one geographic cluster of shorter-than-expected breast cancer survival was identified (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.60). An additional area where survival was longer than expected approached statistical significance (HR = 0.4; P = 0.056). In the Atlanta, Georgia, area, one cluster of shorter- (HR = 1.81) and one cluster of longer-than-expected (HR = 0.72) breast cancer survival were identified. Stage at diagnosis and census-tract poverty (and patient's race in Atlanta) explained the geographic variation in breast cancer survival. No geographic clusters were identified in the 3 other SEER programs. Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer, focusing on areas of high poverty and targeting African Americans, may reduce disparities in breast cancer survival in the Detroit and Atlanta areas.

  10. ORNL and the geographic information systems revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, J.E.; Durfee, R.C.

    1995-12-31

    Explorers from competing teams race to find a mysterious lost city in the heart of Africa. The American team is continuously in touch with its Houston home base through satellite communications. In flight, team leader Karen Ross displays a map of Africa on her computer screen and notes the multicolored lines suggesting different routes from city to city and into the rain forest. Each pathway is accompanied by a precise estimate of travel time to the final destination. Zooming in on the target area, she switches to satellite images and interprets them in shades of blue, purple, and green. At each checkpoint, the team reports its progress and gets a revised estimate of arrival time. Beset by difficulties, the explorers ask for a faster route, but the computer says the alternative is too dangerous. A simulation model with data representing geology, terrain, vegetation, weather, and many other geographic factors predicts local hazards, including the impending eruption of a nearby volcano. The Americans take the faster route anyway and beat the odds. This fictional account of emerging geographic information system (GIS) technologies comes from Michael Crichton`s 1980 novel Congo, which was made into a 1995 movie. The same technologies were highlighted in Clive Cussler`s 1988 techno-thriller Treasure. In reality, GIS technology began more than a quarter of a century ago at key universities and government laboratories in the United States and Canada. Since 1969, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been among the leading institutions in this diverse, now booming field. GIS has been evolving through new forms and applications ever since.

  11. VT - Vermont Hospital Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Hospital service areas (HSAs) are organized by towns and are based on inpatient discharges where the diagnosis indicated the need for immediate care. Plurality...

  12. Implications of surfactant-induced flow for miscible-displacement estimation of air-water interfacial areas in unsaturated porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza-Robinson, Molly S; Zheng, Zheng; Henry, Eric J; Estabrook, Benjamin D; Littlefield, Malcolm H

    2012-10-16

    Surfactant miscible-displacement experiments represent a conventional means of estimating air-water interfacial area (A(I)) in unsaturated porous media. However, changes in surface tension during the experiment can potentially induce unsaturated flow, thereby altering interfacial areas and violating several fundamental method assumptions, including that of steady-state flow. In this work, the magnitude of surfactant-induced flow was quantified by monitoring moisture content and perturbations to effluent flow rate during miscible-displacement experiments conducted using a range of surfactant concentrations. For systems initially at 83% moisture saturation (S(W)), decreases of 18-43% S(W) occurred following surfactant introduction, with the magnitude and rate of drainage inversely related to the surface tension of the surfactant solution. Drainage induced by 0.1 mM sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, commonly used for A(I) estimation, resulted in effluent flow rate increases of up to 27% above steady-state conditions and is estimated to more than double the interfacial area over the course of the experiment. Depending on the surfactant concentration and the moisture content used to describe the system, A(I) estimates varied more than 3-fold. The magnitude of surfactant-induced flow is considerably larger than previously recognized and casts doubt on the reliability of A(I) estimation by surfactant miscible-displacement.

  13. US Army Corps of Engineers Ports, Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [usace_port_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Contains physical information on commercial facilities at the principal U.S. Coastal, Great Lakes and Inland Ports. The data consists of listings of port area's...

  14. Oyster leases in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1997) [oyster_leases_USACE_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set indicates the locations of oyster leases in Louisiana. The lease areas should be polygons, however, the source data has very poor topology including...

  15. Public Land Survey System of Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2003) [plss_la_usgs_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  16. State Aquifer Recharge Atlas Plates, Geographic NAD83, LDEQ (1999) [aquifer_recharge_potential_LDEQ_1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset depicting the boundaries of aquifer systems in the state of Louisiana and adjacent areas of Texas, Arkansas and a portion of Mississippi....

  17. Genetic evidence of geographical groups among Neanderthals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    Full Text Available The Neanderthals are a well-distinguished Middle Pleistocene population which inhabited a vast geographical area extending from Europe to western Asia and the Middle East. Since the 1950s paleoanthropological studies have suggested variability in this group. Different sub-groups have been identified in western Europe, in southern Europe and in the Middle East. On the other hand, since 1997, research has been published in paleogenetics, carried out on 15 mtDNA sequences from 12 Neanderthals. In this paper we used a new methodology derived from different bioinformatic models based on data from genetics, demography and paleoanthropology. The adequacy of each model was measured by comparisons between simulated results (obtained by BayesianSSC software and those estimated from nucleotide sequences (obtained by DNAsp4 software. The conclusions of this study are consistent with existing paleoanthropological research and show that Neanderthals can be divided into at least three groups: one in western Europe, a second in the Southern area and a third in western Asia. Moreover, it seems from our results that the size of the Neanderthal population was not constant and that some migration occurred among the demes.

  18. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-06-12

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Geographic Clusters of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Abu-Mouch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors have been widely suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology leading to destruction of small bile ducts. Interestingly, epidemiologic data indicate a variable prevalence of the disease in different geographical areas. The study of clusters of PBC may provide clues as to possible triggers in the induction of immunopathology. We report herein four such unique PBC clusters that suggest the presence of both genetic and environmental factors in the induction of PBC. The first cluster is represented by a family of ten siblings of Palestinian origin that have an extraordinary frequency of PBC (with 5/8 sisters having the disease. Second, we describe the cases of a husband and wife, both having PBC. A family in which PBC was diagnosed in two genetically unrelated individuals, who lived in the same household, represents the third cluster. Fourth, we report a high prevalence of PBC cases in a very small area in Alaska. Although these data are anedoctal, the study of a large number of such clusters may provide a tool to estimate the roles of genetics and environment in the induction of autoimmunity.

  20. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  1. Geographic versus industry diversification: constraints matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ehling, Paul; Ramos, Sofia Brito

    2005-01-01

    This research addresses whether geographic diversification provides benefits over industry diversification. In the absence of constraints, no empirical evidence is found to support the argument that country diversification is superior. With short-selling constraints, however, the geographic tangency portfolio is not attainable by industry portfolios. Results with upper and lower constraints on portfolio weights as well as an out-of-sample analysis show that geographic diversification almost c...

  2. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  3. Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Geographic Distribution of VA Expenditures Report (GDX) located on the Expenditures page in the Expenditure Tables category. This report details VA expenditures at...

  4. Suckling induces a daily rhythm in the preoptic area and lateral septum but not in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in lactating rabbit does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Enrique; Aguirre, Juan; Waliszewski, Stefan; Caba, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Maternal behavior in the rabbit is restricted to a brief nursing period every day. Previously, we demonstrated that this event induces daily rhythms of Period1 (PER1) protein, the product of the clock gene Per1, in oxytocinergic and dopaminergic populations in the hypothalamus of lactating rabbit does. This is significant for the periodic production and ejection of milk, but the activation of other areas of the brain has not been explored. Here, we hypothesised that daily suckling would induce a rhythm in the preoptic area, lateral septum, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, which are important areas for the expression of maternal behavior in mammals, including the rabbit. To this end, we analysed PER1 expression in those areas through a complete 24-h cycle at lactation day 7. Does were scheduled to nurse during either the day at 10:00 h [zeitgeber time (ZT)03] or the night at 02:00 h (ZT19). Non-pregnant, non-lactating females were used as controls. In contrast to control females, lactating does showed a clear, significant rhythm of PER1 that shifted in parallel with the timing of nursing in the preoptic area and lateral septum. We determined that the maximal expression of PER1 at 8 h after scheduled nursing decreased significantly at 24 and 48 h after the absence of suckling. This effect was more pronounced in the lateral septum than in the preoptic area. We conclude that daily suckling is a powerful stimulus inducing rhythmic activity in brain structures in the rabbit that appear to form part of a maternal entrainable circuit. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Detection of high risk campylobacteriosis clusters at three geographic levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Weisent

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States and many other developed countries. Understanding the spatial distribution of this disease and identifying high-risk areas is vital to focus resources for prevention and control measures. In addition, determining the appropriate scale for geographical analysis of surveillance data is an area of concern to epidemiologists and public health officials. The purpose of this study was to (i compare standardized risk estimates for campylobacteriosis in Tennessee over three distinct geographical scales (census tract, zip code and county subdivision, and (ii identify and investigate high-risk spatial clustering of campylobacteriosis at the three geographical scales to determine if clustering is scale dependent. Significant high risk clusters (P <0.05 were detected at all three spatial scales. There were overlaps in regions of high-risk and clusters at all three geographic levels. At the census tract level, spatial analysis identified smaller clusters of finer resolution and detected more clusters than the other two levels. However, data aggregation at zip code or county subdivision yielded similar findings. The importance of this line of research is to create a framework whereby economically efficient disease control strategies become more attainable through improved geographical precision and risk detection. Accurate identification of disease clusters for campylobacteriosis can enable public health personnel to focus scarce resources towards prevention and control programmes on the most at-risk populations. Consistent results at multiple spatial levels highlight the robustness of the geospatial techniques utilized in this study. Furthermore, analyses at the zip code and county subdivision levels can be useful when address level information (finer resolution data are not available. These procedures may also be used to help identify regionally specific risk factors for

  6. Louisiana Coastal Wetlands Conservation Plan Boundary, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (1998) [conservation_plan_boundary_LDNR_1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a polygon dataset depicting the areas of coastal wetlands in the state of Louisiana. This area encloses the tidally influenced coastal region three feet or...

  7. Geographical distribution of Musa gracilis Holttum in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfazlina, B.; Wickneswari, R.; Choong, C. Y.

    2016-11-01

    Musa gracilis (Musaceae) is placed under section Callimusa and was considered endemic to Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the current occurrence of Musa gracilis in Peninsular Malaysia. The coordinates of each population was recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and mapped to show the geographical distribution of Musa gracilis. This study revealed that Musa gracilis exhibits specific pattern of distribution, which exists only in a lowland areas on the eastern and southern part of Peninsular Malaysia.

  8. Geographic Determinants of Access to Pediatric Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Peter P; Hwang, Hojun; Potluri, Vishnu; Abt, Peter L.; Shults, Justine; Amaral, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Children receive priority in the allocation of deceased donor kidneys for transplantation in the United States, but because allocation begins locally, geographic differences in population and organ supply may enable variation in pediatric access to transplantation. We assembled a cohort of 3764 individual listings for pediatric kidney transplantation in 2005–2010. For each donor service area, we assigned a category of short (270 days) median waiting time and calculated the ratio of pediatric-...

  9. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  10. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the ventral tegmental area mediates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Bin; Zhong, Peng; Sun, Dalong; Liu, Qing-song

    2011-01-01

    Drugs of abuse such as cocaine induce long-term synaptic plasticity in the reward circuitry, which underlies the formation of drug-associated memories and addictive behavior. We reported previously that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo facilitates long-term potentiation in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by reducing the strength of GABAergic inhibition and that endocannabinoid (eCB)-dependent long-term depression at inhibitory synapses (I-LTD) constitutes a mechanism for...

  11. Geographical National Condition and Complex System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jiayao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of studying the complex system of geographical national conditions lies in rationally expressing the complex relationships of the “resources-environment-ecology-economy-society” system. Aiming to the problems faced by the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions, including the disunity of research contents, the inconsistency of range, the uncertainty of goals, etc.the present paper conducted a range of discussions from the perspectives of concept, theory and method, and designed some solutions based on the complex system theory and coordination degree analysis methods.By analyzing the concepts of geographical national conditions, geographical national conditions survey and geographical national conditions statistical analysis, as well as investigating the relationships between theirs, the statistical contents and the analytical range of geographical national conditions are clarified and defined. This investigation also clarifies the goals of the statistical analysis by analyzing the basic characteristics of the geographical national conditions and the complex system, and the consistency between the analysis of the degree of coordination and statistical analyses. It outlines their goals, proposes a concept for the complex system of geographical national conditions, and it describes the concept. The complex system theory provides new theoretical guidance for the statistical analysis of geographical national conditions. The degree of coordination offers new approaches on how to undertake the analysis based on the measurement method and decision-making analysis scheme upon which the complex system of geographical national conditions is based. It analyzes the overall trend via the degree of coordination of the complex system on a macro level, and it determines the direction of remediation on a micro level based on the degree of coordination among various subsystems and of single systems. These results establish

  12. Geographic differences and sexual dimorphism in Greta cubana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Marrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Greta cubana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae presents populations in central and Eastern mountainous regions of Cuba, which are stables habitats that have been isolated for a long period of time. This study evaluates the geographic variation and the sexual dimorphism of this species using geometric morphometric tools,with 91 individuals of four populations: Topes de Collantes (n=5, Pico Turquino (n=26, Loma del Gato (n=27 and Gran Piedra (n=33. For each specimen was calculated its centroid size, wing´s total area and white spots´s relative areas. These variables were compared between sex and populations using Mann-Whitney´s U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, respectively. Discriminant and relative warps analyses were applied to weight matrices to separate between sex and populations. There were not significant differences between males and females wing size, but we found differences in spots size. The analyses applied to weight matrices separated males and females successfully. When analysing geographic variation of forewing area, only significant differences among females from Topes de Collantes and Pico Turquino populations were found. Centroid size and white spots didn’t have significant difference between populations. Both males and females show differences in shape wings between populations. We found clear evidences of sexual dimorphism, nevertheless not geographic differences exist. We are still supporting G. cubana as a monotypic species.

  13. Lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus alter footshock-induced cFos expression in the mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Leon Brown

    Full Text Available Midbrain dopamine neurons are an essential part of the circuitry underlying motivation and reinforcement. They are activated by rewards or reward-predicting cues and inhibited by reward omission. The lateral habenula (lHb, an epithalamic structure that forms reciprocal connections with midbrain dopamine neurons, shows the opposite response being activated by reward omission or aversive stimuli and inhibited by reward-predicting cues. It has been hypothesized that habenular input to midbrain dopamine neurons is conveyed via a feedforward inhibitory pathway involving the GABAergic mesopontine rostromedial tegmental area. Here, we show that exposing rats to low-intensity footshock (four, 0.5 mA shocks over 20 min induces cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area and that this effect is prevented by lesions of the fasciculus retroflexus, the principal output pathway of the habenula. cFos expression is also observed in the medial portion of the lateral habenula, an area that receives dense DA innervation via the fr and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, a stress sensitive area that also receives dopaminergic input. High-intensity footshock (120, 0.8 mA shocks over 40 min also elevates cFos expression in the rostromedial tegmental area, medial and lateral aspects of the lateral habenula and the paraventricular thalamus. In contrast to low-intensity footshock, increases in cFos expression within the rostromedial tegmental area are not altered by fr lesions suggesting a role for non-habenular inputs during exposure to highly aversive stimuli. These data confirm the involvement of the lateral habenula in modulating the activity of rostromedial tegmental area neurons in response to mild aversive stimuli and suggest that dopamine input may contribute to footshock- induced activation of cFos expression in the lateral habenula.

  14. Normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women and geographical factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GEMiao

    2003-01-01

    A research is conducted on the relationship between the normal reference value of 20,475 examples of hemoglobin of young women and five geographical factors in 208 areas in China, the normal reference value is determined by the hemoglobincyanide method. It is found that the correlation of geographical factors and the normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women are quite significant (F=142.81). By using the method of multiple linear regression analysis, one regression equation is inferred. If geographical values are obtained in some areas, the normal reference value of hemoglobin of young women of this area can be reckoned by using the regression equation. Furthermore, depending on the geographical factors, China can be divided into six regions:Oinghai-Tibet (Qingzang) Plateau. Southwest. Northwest. Southeast. North and Northeast China.

  15. Conceptual Model of Dynamic Geographic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Rosales Miguel Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In geographic environments, there are many and different types of geographic entities such as automobiles, trees, persons, buildings, storms, hurricanes, etc. These entities can be classified into two groups: geographic objects and geographic phenomena. By its nature, a geographic environment is dynamic, thus, it’s static modeling is not sufficient. Considering the dynamics of geographic environment, a new type of geographic entity called event is introduced. The primary target is a modeling of geographic environment as an event sequence, because in this case the semantic relations are much richer than in the case of static modeling. In this work, the conceptualization of this model is proposed. It is based on the idea to process each entity apart instead of processing the environment as a whole. After that, the so called history of each entity and its spatial relations to other entities are defined to describe the whole environment. The main goal is to model systems at a conceptual level that make use of spatial and temporal information, so that later it can serve as the semantic engine for such systems.

  16. Foreword to Journal of Geographical Sciences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In order to strengthen academic exchange of geography between China and other countries,and to offer a publication for exchanging academic ideas of geog-raphers in the world,The Journal of AChinese Geog-raphyis changed to Journal of Geographical Sciences in 2001.

  17. 38 CFR 36.4214 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4214 Section 36.4214 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Preparation General Provisions § 36.4214 Geographical limits. The site for any manufactured home...

  18. 38 CFR 36.4411 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4411 Section 36.4411 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, repaired, or...

  19. 38 CFR 36.4523 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4523 Section 36.4523 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Direct Loans § 36.4523 Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed,...

  20. 38 CFR 36.4332 - Geographical limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Geographical limits. 36.4332 Section 36.4332 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED... Geographical limits. Any real property purchased, constructed, altered, improved, or repaired with the...