WorldWideScience

Sample records for gentiana manshurica kitagawa

  1. Isolation of Pichia manshurica protoplast from Dahlia sp plant

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    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of protoplasts is an important step in the fusion process. Protoplasts are cells that have eliminated the cell wall, but the cell membranes and organs can still function properly. Pichia manshurica is one of indogenous yeast that derived from Dahlia €™s plants. The success rate protoplast isolation was determined by various factors, include the age of the culture and the used of lytic enzymes. The purpose of this research is to get the perfect age of yeast culture that is ready to be harvested and also to get the appropriate concentration of Glucanex lytic enzymes which used for protoplast isolation. The yeast of Pichia manshurica grown on YPD broth medium and growth observed in turbidimetry. Observation of the growth of yeasts performed every 6 hours for 42 hours. Glucanex lytic enzyme concentration used for the isolation of protoplasts is 0 mg / mL (L0 = control, 2 mg / mL (L2 and 4 mg / mL (L4. The results showed that the age of the culture is right and ready for harvest at the age of 24 hours and Glucanex lytic enzyme concentration of 4 mg / mL (L4 is able to produce the best of protoplasts at 7.2 x 1010.

  2. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

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    Jong-Chan Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  3. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

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    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  4. Phenolic Glucosides from Gentiana piasezkii

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    WU,Quan-Xiang; SHI,Yan-Ping; YANG,Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) contains about 400 species, which distribute almost all over the world. Some species have been investigated on phytochemistry and they could be characterized by the presence of some secoiridoid glucosides (bitter principles), flavone-C-glucosides and xanthone aglycones and glucosides,[1] but nothing is known, up to now, about the chemical constitutents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim. Members of the genus Gentiana have been used as traditional Chinese herbal medicines to treat hepatitis.[2] In order to find active compounds as lead molecule for medicine, we have studied on constituents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim and found two new natural occurring,6'-O-(4-hydroxy-veratroyloxy)-arbutin (1) and luteolin 7-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamoyl)-8-C-glucoside (2) from n-BuOH soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC). So we describe herein the structures of two new phenolic glucosides.

  5. AKTIVITAS INULINASE OLEH Pichia manshurica DAN FUSAN F4 PADA FERMENTASI BATCH DENGAN UMBI DAHLIA (Dahlia sp SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT

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    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ACTIVITY OF INULINASE OF Pichia Manshuria AND FUSAN F4 ON BATCH FERMENTATION UDING DAHLIA TUBER (Dahlia sp AS A SUBSTRATE. A dahlia tuber is one of the common inulin rich crops. Inulin is formed by units of fructans, which are polymers of D-fructose. Inulinases (EC 3.2.1.7 catalyze the hydrolysis of inulin, producing fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulooligosaccharides (IOS, pulullan, acetone, butanol and sorbitol, therefore dahlia tubers are used as growth media. The inulin hydrolyzing activity has been reported from various microbial strains Pichia manshurica and Fusan F4 which is the result of fusion protoplast. The objective of this study was to determine the activity of inulinase Pichia manshurica and Fusan F4 on the substrate dahlia tubers. Fusan F4 to increase inulinase activity compared with Pichia manshurica and to investigate the kinetics of specific growth rate (μ and time double (g from of Pichia manshurica and Fusan F4. The results showed that the exponential phase occurs at 0-12 hour without a lag phase. P. manshurica has a specific growth rate (μ of 0.18/hour with time double (g 3.90 hours and the inulinase enzyme activity of 0.56 IU, while for Fusan F4 consecutive has a value μ of 0.20/hour, g of 3.49 hours and the activity of 0.69 IU. The conclusion of this research is to improve Fusan F4 inulinase activity and the ability has to be better than the Pichia manshurica.Umbi dahlia merupakan salah satu umbi yang mengandung inulin. Inulin merupakan polimer fruktan yang dapat dipecah oleh enzim inulinase (E.C. 3.2.1.7 menjadi fruktosa. Fruktosa merupakan bahan baku dasar untuk pembuatan FOS, IOS, pulullan, aseton dan sorbitol, oleh karena itu umbi dahlia digunakan sebagai media pertumbuhan. Enzim inulinase ini secara indigenous dimiliki oleh Pichia manshurica dan Fusan F4 yang merupakan hasil fusi protoplas.Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah  untuk mengetahui aktivitas inulinase Pichia manshurica dan Fusan F4 pada substrat umbi dahlia

  6. 龙胆类药材的数码显微鉴定%Microscopic identification of commercial Radix Gentianae by digital imaging technique

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    张勉; 付晓丽; 王胜勇; 齐辉

    2005-01-01

    目的对收自全国11个地区的龙胆类商品药材进行鉴定,了解龙胆类药材的主流品种和真伪情况.方法在性状鉴别的基础上,采用显微数码成像技术,对龙胆类商品药材进行了显微鉴别.结果商品药材基源植物为龙胆Gentiana scabra Bunge、条叶龙胆G.manshurica Kitagawa、三花龙胆G.triflora Pall.、坚龙胆G.rigescens Franch.和头花龙胆G.cephalantha Franch..结论目前龙胆类药材的主流品种是坚龙胆(占5/12),三花龙胆居次(2/12),龙胆和条叶龙胆尚可见到.头花龙胆与坚龙胆较难区别,是坚龙胆的混淆品.本文拍摄的数码照片真实、直观地反映了药材的显微构造,可为该类药材的鉴定提供依据.

  7. Organoleptic and Microscopic Analysis of Gentiana Regeliana

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    Raneev Thakur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptic and microscopic examination revealed various diagnostic characters. Stem (dried, 30-40 cm long, light brown having characteristic odour with bitter taste and smooth texture, flower (dried, 3-5 cm long and crumpled, dark brown to blue in color having characteristic odour and bitter taste with smooth texture, leaf (dried, 7-8 cm long and broken, brownish green, characteristic odour, bitter in taste and smooth texture. The transverse section of the stem (hollow in between of Gentiana regeliana Gand. showed presence of epidermal cell and abundant xylem vessels. Stomata arrangement was anisocytic and anomoctic with numerous non glandular trichomes on both surfaces. These findings should be expedient for inclusion in the Pharmacopoeia of Medicinal plants.

  8. Transgenic root cultures of Gentiana punctata L.

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    Branka Vinterhalter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot cultures of Gentiana punctata L. were inoculated with suspension of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4 M70GUS. Hairy roots which appeared 2-3 weeks later were cultured on hormone-free, liquid, WPM (Lloyd and McCown 1980 basal medium for more than 5 years (60 subcultures. Growth rate of transformed roots was higher than the growth rate of nontransformed roots. Spontaneous shoot regeneration occured only in three culture vessels in subcultures No. 40 and 42. Plants had phenotype characteristics typical for A. rhizogenes transformed plants including: wrincled leaves, short internodes, plagiotropic roots and in general their growth rate was reduced. These plants also manifested precocious formation of flower buds without vernalization and flowering under in vitro conditions. Flowers were pale yellow, the same as in the standard phenotype.

  9. Loganin and new iridoid glucosides in Gentiana pedicellata.

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    Garcia, J; Chulia, A J

    1986-08-01

    2'- P-Coumaroyl-loganin, 2'-feruloyl-loganin, 2'-caffeoyl-loganin, and the known iridoid loganin have been isolated from flowers and leaves of Gentiana pedicellata (Gentianaceae). This is the first occurrence of iridoid glucosides being reported in this species.

  10. Annual layers in river-bed sediment of a stagnant river-mouth area of the Kitagawa Brook, Central Japan

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    Kurashige, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kasubuchi, E.; Maruo, M.; Domitsu, H.

    2015-03-01

    The river mouth of Kitagawa Brook is normally stagnant because it is easily closed by sand and gravel transported by littoral currents of Biwa Lake, Japan. A new urban area exists in the basin and sewerage works were constructed in the early 1990s, so contaminated water with a bad odour had flowed into the brook before the sewerage works. To reduce the smell, the river mouth was excavated to narrow the channel in the early 1980s. Thus, river-bed sediment after this excavation only occurs at the river mouth. From the upper 24 cm of a sediment core, we found 19 strata of leaves which were supplied from deciduous trees in autumn. We also found several gravel layers which were supplied from the lake during severe storms. The combination of veins and gravel layers were reconstructed for about 20 years of sediment records with an error of two to three years.

  11. The anti-inflammatory secoiridoid glycosides from gentianae scabrae radix: the root and rhizome of Gentiana scabra.

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    He, Yu-Min; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; Kazuma, Kohei; Zou, Kun; Cai, Shao-Qing; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2015-07-01

    Gentianae Scabrae Radix is a well-known traditional medicine that is used for the treatment of hepatitis, cholecystitis and inflammatory diseases. It consists mainly of secoiridoid glycosides, with representatives of gentiopicroside, sweroside and swertiamarin. In the present study, a chemical investigation of the CHCl3 extract of Gentianae Scabrae Radix derived from Gentiana scabra Bunge yielded seven new (1-7) and ten known (8-17) secoiridoid glycosides. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. All 17 compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against NO, IL-6 and TNF-α productions induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264 cells. Among them, 8-epi-kingiside derivatives 1-3; kingiside derivatives 4, 5 and 10; and a sweroside derivative 6 showed inhibition activity against IL-6 production with IC50 values of 51.70-61.10 μM, whereas sweroside derivatives 12 and 15-17 and a swertiamarin derivative 13 showed inhibition effects on both NO and IL-6 productions with IC50 values of 64.74-94.95 and 48.91-75.45 μM, respectively. All the compounds exhibited weak inhibitory activity (IC50 > 100 μM) in a TNF-α bioassay. Finally, a primary structure-activity relationship of these secoiridoid glycosides is discussed.

  12. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

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    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2 activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  13. Gentiana scabra Bunge. Formula for Herpes Zoster: Biological Actions of Key Herbs and Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety.

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    Wang, Kaiyi; Coyle, Meaghan E; Mansu, Suzi; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2017-01-12

    This study reviewed the biological action of key herbs and evaluated systematically the efficacy and safety of oral Gentiana formula for herpes zoster (HZ). Experimental studies relevant to HZ were identified in PubMed. Randomized controlled trials using Gentiana formula for HZ were identified from nine English and Chinese databases. The primary outcome was evaluation of pain. Potential risk of bias was assessed. Meta-analysis was conducted using mean difference or risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Key herbs Gentiana scabra Bunge, Gentiana triflora Pall, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and Gardenia jasminoides Ellis have shown antiinflammatory actions through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory enzymes. Twenty-six clinical studies, involving 2955 participants, were included. Modified Gentiana formula resolved pain earlier than pharmacotherapy when used alone or combined with topical Chinese herbal medicine. Incidence of postherpetic neuralgia was lower (risk ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 0.74) with modified Gentiana formula plus topical Chinese herbal medicine. Mild adverse events were reported. Antiinflammatory actions of key herbs of Gentiana formula may explain clinical benefit in hastening pain relief and decreasing postherpetic neuralgia. Few adverse events were reported. Findings were limited by study quality and diversity in intervention and comparator dosage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Plant regeneration from protoplasts of Gentiana straminea Maxim

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    Shi Guomin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A protocol is described for plant regeneration from protoplasts of Gentiana straminea Maxim. via somatic embryogenesis. Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli in an enzyme solution composed of 2% Cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% Macerozyme R-10, 0.5% Hemicellulase, and 0.5 M sorbitol with a yield of 3.0 × 106 protoplasts per gram of fresh weight. Liquid, solid-liquid double layer (sLD and agar-pool (aPL culture systems were used for protoplast culture. The aPL culture was the only method that produced embryogenic, regenerative calli. With aPL culture, the highest frequencies of protoplast cell division and colony formation were 39.6% and 16.9%, respectively, on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L N6-benzylaminopurine (BA. Microcalli were transferred to solid MS medium containing a reduced concentration of 2,4-D (0.5 mg/L to promote the formation of embryogenic calli. Somatic embryos developed into plantlets on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L BA at a rate of 43.7%.

  15. Phenolic compounds from the whole plants of Gentiana rhodantha (Gentianaceae).

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    Xu, Min; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2011-10-01

    Gentiana rhodantha Franch. ex Hemsl. (Gentianaceae), an annual herb widely distributed in the southwest of China, has been medicinally used for the treatment of inflammation, cholecystitis, and tuberculosis by the local people of its growing areas. Chemical investigation on the whole plants led to the identification of eight new phenolic compounds, rhodanthenones A-D (1-4, resp.), apigenin 7-O-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-glucopyranoside (5), 1,2-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzene 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 1,2-dihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxybenzene 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), and methyl 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate (8), together with eleven known compounds, 9-19. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and cytotoxicity tests against five human cancer cell lines showed that only rhodanthenone D (4) and mangiferin (12) exhibited 18.4 and 13.4% of AChE inhibitory effects at a concentration of 10(-4) M, respectively, while compounds 1-5 and the known xanthones lancerin (11), mangiferin (12), and neomangiferin (13) displayed no cytotoxicity at a concentration of 40 μM. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Changes of gentiopicroside synthesis during somatic embryogenesis in Gentiana macrophylla.

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    Chen, Li-Yu; Chen, Qian-Liang; Xu, Dan; Hao, Jian-Guo; Schläppi, Michael; Xu, Zi-Qin

    2009-12-01

    IN VITRO plant regeneration of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. and determination of gentiopicroside content during somatic embryogenesis are described in the present work. The highest percentage of embryogenic callus formation was observed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1.0 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). Calli were subcultured on MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, 1.0 mg/L BA and 500 mg/L lactalbumin hydrolysate (LH) at intervals of 25 days. A higher frequency of somatic embryo maturation was achieved on MS medium containing B5 vitamins (MB) supplemented with different concentrations of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and BA than with a combination of NAA and kinetin (KT). Addition of AgNO(3) improved maturation of somatic embryos while thidiazuron (TDZ) promoted vitrification. The gentiopicroside contents of embryogenic calli and globular-, heart-, torpedo-, and cotyledon-shaped embryoids were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Gentiopicroside was not detectable in embryogenic calli, but in all types of somatic embryos. The highest gentiopicroside content was observed in cotyledon-shaped embryoids, reaching more than 12 mg/g dry weight.

  17. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

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    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N;

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title...

  18. Two new secoiridoid glycosides from the rhizomes of Gentiana scabra Bunge.

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    Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Nam Seo; Son, Jong Keun; Jahng, Yurngdong; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Jang, Tae Su; Na, Minkyun; Lee, Seung-Ho

    2009-06-01

    Two new secoiridoid glycosides, 4'''-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyltrifloroside 1 and 4'''-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylscabraside 2, along with three known secoiridoids were isolated from the rhizomes of Gentiana scabra (Gentianaceae) in our recent phytochemical study. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The chemotaxonomic significance of the secoiridoid glycosides is briefly discussed.

  19. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title...

  20. The Use of DNA Barcoding on Recently Diverged Species in the Genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae in China.

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    Juan Liu

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding of plants poses particular challenges, especially in differentiating, recently diverged taxa. The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae is a species-rich plant group which rapidly radiated in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains in China. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL + matK and three promising complementary barcodes (trnH-psbA, ITS and ITS2 in 30 Gentiana species across 6 sections using three methods (the genetic distance-based method, Best Close Match and tree-based method. rbcL had the highest PCR efficiency and sequencing success (100%, while the lowest sequence recoverability was from ITS (68.35%. The presence of indels and inversions in trnH-psbA in Gentiana led to difficulties in sequence alignment. When using a single region for analysis, ITS exhibited the highest discriminatory power (60%-74.42%. Of the combinations, matK + ITS provided the highest discrimination success (71.43%-88.24% and is recommended as the DNA barcode for the genus Gentiana. DNA barcoding proved effective in assigning most species to sections, though it performed poorly in some closely related species in sect. Cruciata because of hybridization events. Our analysis suggests that the status of G. pseudosquarrosa needs to be studied further. The utility of DNA barcoding was also verified in authenticating 'Qin-Jiao' Gentiana medicinal plants (G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, and G. dahurica, which can help ensure safe and correct usage of these well-known Chinese traditional medicinal herbs.

  1. The Use of DNA Barcoding on Recently Diverged Species in the Genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) in China.

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    Liu, Juan; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of plants poses particular challenges, especially in differentiating, recently diverged taxa. The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) is a species-rich plant group which rapidly radiated in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains in China. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL + matK) and three promising complementary barcodes (trnH-psbA, ITS and ITS2) in 30 Gentiana species across 6 sections using three methods (the genetic distance-based method, Best Close Match and tree-based method). rbcL had the highest PCR efficiency and sequencing success (100%), while the lowest sequence recoverability was from ITS (68.35%). The presence of indels and inversions in trnH-psbA in Gentiana led to difficulties in sequence alignment. When using a single region for analysis, ITS exhibited the highest discriminatory power (60%-74.42%). Of the combinations, matK + ITS provided the highest discrimination success (71.43%-88.24%) and is recommended as the DNA barcode for the genus Gentiana. DNA barcoding proved effective in assigning most species to sections, though it performed poorly in some closely related species in sect. Cruciata because of hybridization events. Our analysis suggests that the status of G. pseudosquarrosa needs to be studied further. The utility of DNA barcoding was also verified in authenticating 'Qin-Jiao' Gentiana medicinal plants (G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, and G. dahurica), which can help ensure safe and correct usage of these well-known Chinese traditional medicinal herbs.

  2. Habitat-related variation in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica

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    Ekrtová, Ester; Košnar, Jan

    2012-11-01

    Differences in seedling recruitment of Gentiana pannonica were investigated between the primary (relict) and the secondary (semi-natural) forest-free habitats of the Bohemian Forest (870-1200 m a.s.l.) and of the Alps (1045-1935 m a.s.l.) to understand the factors promoting the seedling recruitment of G. pannonica and their importance for species distribution, population structure, and conservation. In the communities with adult plants of G. pannonica, we recorded environmental variables (the slope, the altitude, and the covers of bare ground, litter, and rocks), estimated parameters of the vegetation (the covers of herbs, bryophytes, and dwarf shrubs), and counted the seedlings of G. pannonica. In a field experiment, we investigated seedling survival under different soil moisture regimes. We also observed seasonal dynamics of seedling recruitment in permanent plots over the course of three years. In the primary habitats of both regions, G. pannonica grew in a relatively wide range of communities, and its seedlings occurred in each area. In the secondary habitats of the Bohemian Forest, a very low frequency of the seedlings was recorded. The number of seedlings increased with the covers of the moss layer and of bare soil and decreased with the cover of the herb layer, especially of graminoids. The seedling mortality was significantly lower in the plots with higher soil moistures, and the emergence of new-born seedlings was concentrated in the spring season, when the soil received a high water supply due to melting of snow. For the successful generative reproduction of G. pannonica, our findings highlight the critical importance of the microsites with low levels of competition and of sufficient soil moisture G. pannonica. It seems that because of the long-term lack of grazing disturbances, the structures of the secondary habitats of G. pannonica in the Bohemian Forest have become unfavourable for seedling establishment and generative reproduction of this threatened

  3. Hypotensive effect of Gentiana floribunda is mediated through Ca++ antagonism pathway

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    Khan Arif-ullah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gentiana floribunda was investigated for the possible hypotensive and vasodilator activities in an attempt to rationalize its traditional use in hypertension. Methods The crude extract of Gentiana floribunda (Gf.Cr was studied in anaesthetized rats and isolated thoracic aorta tissues. Results Gf.Cr which tested positive for presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and terpenes caused dose-dependent (3.0-100 mg/kg fall in arterial blood pressure (BP of rats under anaesthesia. In rat aortic ring preparations denuded of endothelium, Gf.Cr at concentration range of 1.0-10 mg/mL relaxed high K+ (80 mM and phenylephrine (PE, 1 μM-induced contractions and shifted Ca++ dose–response curves to right, similar to that caused by verapamil. It also suppressed PE (1 μM control peak responses at 0.3-1.0 mg/mL, obtained in Ca++-free medium, as exhibited by verapamil. Pre-treatment of tissues with Gf.Cr produced rightward non-parallel shift of PE-curves with decline of maximum contractile response. The vasodilator effect of Gf.Cr was endothelial-independent, as it was not blocked by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, atropine and indomethacin in endothelium-intact aortic tissues. Conclusions These data indicate that BP-lowering action of Gentiana floribunda occurred via Ca++ antagonism (inhibition of Ca++ ingress and release from intracellular stores, which provides pharmacological basis to justify its effectiveness in hypertension.

  4. Anatomical investigations on root, stem, and leaf of Gentiana olivieri Griseb

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    Canan Yagci Tüzün

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Afat (Gentianaceae, which has many bioactive compounds is used as antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, digestive aid, antidepressant, and antianemic in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Root, stem, and leaf sections of G. olivieri were taken free hand or by sliding microtome and examined on light microscope. Results: Anatomical characters of the species were observed to be similar to the usual features of Gentianaceae anatomy. Conclusion: Intraxylary phloem, which was primarily the distinguishing feature between Gentianoideae and Menyanthoideae sub-families was observed in G. olivieri roots.

  5. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri herbs on subacute administration and isolation of active principle.

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    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Aslan, Mustafa; Aktay, Göknur; Ergun, Ender; Yesilada, Erdem; Ergun, Fatma

    2003-04-04

    Hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on subacute administration were studied using in vivo models in rats. For the activity assessment on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage following biochemical parameters were evaluated; plasma and hepatic tissue malondialdehyde formation, and liver tissue glutathione level, as well as plasma transaminase enzyme levels (aspartate transferase and alanine transferase). Results of biochemical tests were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active antihepatotoxic constituent by silica gel column chromatography. Isoorientin exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect at 15 mg/kg b.w. dose.

  6. Effects of gentiana scabra bage on expression of hepatic typeⅠ,Ⅱ collagen proteins inParagonimus skrjabini rats with liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Xia Qu; Fang Li; Chao-Dong Ma; Jun Liu; Shu-De Li; Wen-Lin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of gentiana scabra bage on the expression of hepatic collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabinirats with liver fibrosis.Methods:Immunohistochemical technique was used to observe the changes of content of hepatic type Ⅰ, Ⅱ collagen proteins in Paragonimus skrjabinirats with liver fibrosis before and after the gentiana scabra bage treatmeat. Results:Comparing with the model group, changes of hepatic type Ⅰand type Ⅱ collagen proteins in gentiana scabra bage treated group were significantly weakened.Conclusions:Gentiana scabra bage treatment can reduce the content of hepatic type Ⅱ and typeⅠcollagen protein significantly in Paragonimus skrjabinirats with liver fibrosis, thereby, playing the role against hepatic fibrosis.

  7. Cytomorphological studies on somatic embryogenesis of Gentiana tibetica (King and G. cruciata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mikuła

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis of two gentianas, Gentiana tibetica and G. cruciata was described. For this purpose seedling explants were cultured on agar medium and later maintained in cell suspension. For callus initiation seedling explants like: cotyledons, hypocotyl and root were plated on a callus induction medium (CIM composed of MS (1962, supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l Kin. For the formation of cell suspension culture, embryogenic callus was transferred into liquid maintained medium (MM composed of MS (1962, supplemented with 1.0 mg/l Dic + 0.1 mg/l NAA + 2.0 mg/l BAP + 80.0 mg/l SA. The conversion of somatic embryo into plantlets required a new medium (ECM based on MS (1962 mineral salts, supplemented with 0.5 mg/l GA3 + 1.0 mg/l Kin + 0.5 mg/l NAA. For cytomorphological studies of particular stages of embryogenesis, specimens were stained with dyes and reagents: 1. PAS reaction with leukofucsin, 2. Safranin + fast green, 3. Erlich's hematoxylin.

  8. Chemical fingerprint analysis of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baozhong Duan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma (also called “Longdan” in Chinese is commonly used for eliminating damp-heat and quenching the fire of liver and gall bladder in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, a novel and reliable method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was developed both for quantitative analysis of four bioactive compounds (loganic acid, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside and chemical fingerprint analysis of “Longdan”. In quantitative analysis, four compounds showed good regressions (R2>0.9987 within the test ranges and the recovery of the method was in the range 97.61−102.49%. In fingerprint analysis, ten characteristic peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities of the crude drugs, and the HPLC chromatograms of twenty samples from different regions of China showed similar patterns. The results demonstrated that the combination of the quantitative and chromatographic fingerprint analyses offered an efficient way to evaluate the quality consistency of Gentianae Radix et Rhizoma.

  9. Confirmation of natural hybrids between Gentiana straminea and G. siphonantha (Gentianaceae) based on molecular evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojuan LI; Liuyang WANG; Huiling YANG; Jianquan LIU

    2008-01-01

    A few individuals with intermediate morpho-logy always appeared in the sympatric distributions of Gentiana straminea and G. siphonantha. These intermedi-ate individuals were hypothesized to be the hybrids of two species after a careful evaluation of their morphological characteristics. To test this hypothesis, sequence compar-ison of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal and trnS (GCU)-trnG (UCC) inter-genic spacer region of the chloroplast DNA from Gentiana straminea, G. siphonantha and the putative hybrids was performed. The results suggest that most intermediate individuals were the natural hybrids between G. straminea and G. siphonantha. In addition, we exam-ined the sequence variation among the individuals of both parent species and analyzed the possibility leading to the incongruent identification in some individuals based on morphologic and molecular evidences, respectively. The intraspecific diversification of DNA fragments within both parent species and their high variability in hybrid swarms probably resulted from chloroplast genome recombination and incomplete lineage sorting during the early stages of speciation origin of the parent species.

  10. Embryology of Gentiana striata (Gentianaceae)%条纹龙胆的胚胎学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何廷农; 陈世龙; 刘建全; 洪德元

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes embryological characters of Gentiana striata Maxim.For the first time,The results are used to discuss the systematic position of Gentiana Sect.Stenogyne.Anthers are tetrasporangiate.The development of anther walls conforms to the dicotyledonous type.The tapetum cells origin from the primary parietal cells,and thus the tapetum is of single origin.The development of the tapetum with uninucleate cells is of the Glandular type.The tapetal cells on the connective side show radial elongation or periclinal division and intrude into the anther locule.There are one middle layers.Parts of the epidermis and endothecium persist and the cells become pillar and fibrous.Cytokinesis in the microsporocyte meiosis is simultaneous type and the microspore tetrads are tetrahedral.Pollen grains are 3-celled.The ovary is bicarpellary and unilocular.The placentation is of reduced parietal placentae with 4 rows of ovules.The type of ovule is Hypertropous.The ovule is unitegmic and tenuinucellar.The embryo sac originates from a single-archesporial cell.The one chalazal megaspore in linear tetrad becomes functional.The development of embryo sac is of the Polygonum type.Before fertilization,two polar nuclei fuse into a secondary nucleus.Three antipodal cells persist.Flowers are protandrous.Fertilization is porogamous.The development of the endosperm is of the Nuclear type.The embryogeny corresponds to the Soland type Physalis Ⅱ variation type.The present paper indicates that Gentiana Sect.Stenogyne is more similar to Tripterospermum than to other sections of Gentiana in embryological characters.Sect.Stenogyne might be separated from Gentiana.%首次报道了条纹龙胆(Gentiana striata Maxim.)的胚胎学特征,研究结果用以讨论龙胆属狭蕊组(Gentiana Sect.Stenogyne)的系统演化关系.主要研究结果如下:花药四室;药壁发育为双子叶型;绒毡层细胞仅来源于初生壁细胞,故绒毡层起源属单型起源,细胞具单核,原位退化,

  11. Identification of the glucosyltransferase that mediates direct flavone C-glucosylation in Gentiana triflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Yamada, Eri; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2015-01-02

    The major flavonoids accumulated in leaves of Japanese gentian (Gentiana triflora) were determined as isoorientin (luteolin 6-C-glucoside) and isoorientin 4'-glucoside. A cDNA (GtUF6CGT1) was isolated that encoded the UDP-glucose-dependent glucosyltransferase that is involved in C-glycosylflavone biosynthesis. The recombinant GtUF6CGT1 protein could transfer a glucose group to the C6 position of a flavone skeleton through C-linkage, using UDP-glucose as the glucosyl donor. These C-glycosylflavones also accumulated in petals. A good correlation was observed between GtUF6CGT1 expression and C-glycosylflavone accumulation in leaves and petals. GtUF6CGT1 is the first reported C-glucosyltransferase that mediates direct C-glucosylation of the flavone skeleton.

  12. HPLC Fingerprint and LC-TOF-MS Analysis on Extract from Roots of Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Qi; SHANG Ping-ping; ZHANG Yong-min; JIA Na; HE Jiao; ZHAO Wen-na; SUN Wen-ji

    2012-01-01

    Objective Establishing a fingerprint method to identify the characteristic chemicals in the roots of Gentiana macrophylla and evaluate their quality.Methods RP-HPLC was developed for fingerprint analysis and determination of four ingredients in G macrophylla roots from different sources.LC-ESI-TOF-MS was employed to identify the chromatographic peaks of the fingerprint.Results Five common peaks were identified by comparing their retention time with reference secoiridoid glucosides.Eight major peaks in chromatographic fingerprint were analyzed by on-line LC-ESI-TOF-MS.Four secoiridoid glucosides were identified based on their MS data.Conclusion The method is specific and could be served for the quality identification and comprehensive evaluation of G macrophylla.

  13. PAF antagonistic activity of 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid glucose ester from Gentiana scabra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, H; Kim, H K; Lee, H K

    1998-08-01

    In order to find out anti-platelet activating factor (PAF) from natural resources, Korean medicinal plants used for the treatments of peripheral circulation disorders were tested for their possible protective effects on PAF-induced anaphylactic shock. From the above screening, the methanol extract of Gentiana scabra showed a potent antagonistic activity against PAF. Water suspension of the extract was partitioned with CH2Cl2 and EtOAc, successively. The EtOAc fraction which showed the highest activity was chromatographed on silica gel to yield 6 fractions. From the fraction which showed higher PAF-antagonistic activity than the other fractions, compound 1 was isolated by recrystallization. On the basis of spectral data, compound 1 was identified as 2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid glucose ester. The compound prevented the mice from the PAF-induced death at a dose of 300 micrograms/mouse.

  14. Combinative Method Using Multi-components Quantitation and HPLC Fingerprint for Comprehensive Evaluation of Gentiana crassicaulis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiuhua; Chen, Fengzheng; Liu, Jiang; Zou, Yuanfeng; Luo, Yun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Meng, Jie; Chen, Xingfu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gentiana crassicaulis () is an important traditional Chinese herb. Like other herbs, its chemical compounds vary greatly by the environmental and genetic factors, as a result, the quality is always different even from the same region, and therefore, the quality evaluation is necessary for its safety and effective use. In this study, a comprehensive method including HPLC quantitative analysis and fingerprints was developed to evaluate the quality of Cujingqinjiao and to classify the samples collected from Lijiang City of Yunnan province. A total of 30 common peaks including four identified peaks, were found, and were involved for further characterization and quality control of Cujingqinjiao. Twenty-one batches of samples from Lijiang City of Yunnan Province were evaluated by similarity analysis (SA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) according to the characteristic of common peaks. Results: The obtained data showed good stability and repeatability of the chromatographic fingerprint, similarity values were all more than 0.90. This study demonstrated that a combination of the chromatographic quantitative analysis and fingerprint offered an efficient way to quality consistency evaluation of Cujingqinjiao. Consistent results were obtained to show that samples from a same origin could be successfully classified into two groups. Conclusion: This study revealed that the combinative method was reliable, simple and sensitive for fingerprint analysis, moreover, for quality control and pattern recognition of Cujingqinjiao. SUMMARY HPLC quantitative analysis and fingerprints was developed to evaluate the quality of Gentiana crassicaulisSimilarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis were employed to analysis the chromatographic dataset.The results of multi-components quantitation analysis, similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal

  15. Prevention and Control of Gentiana macrophylla Pall Root Rot Disease%秦艽根腐病的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程远辉; 侯志江; 徐中志

    2014-01-01

    The root rot is a major disease affecting yield of Gentiana macrophyl a pal , reducing yield or even causing total crop failure. This research introduced the occurrence characteristics and various control techniques of root rot of Gentiana macrophyl a pal , in order to provide references for farmers.%根腐病是影响秦艽产量的最主要病害,发病后会造成秦艽严重减产甚至绝收。笔者总结了秦艽根腐病的发生特点及各种防治技术,以期为广大药农提供指导。

  16. Morphological and germination response variability in seeds of wild yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) accessions from northwest Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Garcia, Felix; Varela, Federico; González Benito, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Gentiana lutea L. (yellow gentian, Gentianaceae) is an important medicinal plant under protection as endangered species in most European countries. The aim of this work was to evaluate variation in seed mass, seed water content, and seed germination among 56 wild accessions of G. lutea. The effect of gibberellic acid (GA3), putrescine, moist chilling, and level of ripeness of seeds on subsequent germination was also investigated. Seeds of G. lutea showed physiological dormancy (final germinat...

  17. Environ: E00169 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00169 Japanese gentian (JP16) Crude drug Gentiopicroside [CPD:C09782], Scabraside ...[CPD:C17918], Rindoside [CPD:C17919], Trifluoroside, Swertiamarin [CPD:C09800], Gentianine [CPD:C06525], Gentisin [CPD:C10066], Genti...sic acid [CPD:C00628] Gentiana scabra [TAX:292393], Gentiana manshurica, Gentiana triflora [TAX:55190], Gent...iana [TAX:21496] Same as: D06800 Gentianaceae (gentian family) Genti...anae scabrae radix Major component: Gentiopicroside [CPD:C09782] ...

  18. Antioxidant and immunological activities of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanyong; Wang, Chenyu; Su, Tingting; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-04

    Two polysaccharide fractions, GSP I-a and GSP II-b, were isolated from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots. Both GSP I-a and GSP II-b comprised seven monosaccharides: fructose, mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and fucose. Ultraviolet and infrared analyses show that GSP I-a and GSP II-b are proteoglycans. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activity suggests that GSP I-a and GSP II-b scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. However, the scavenging activity of the latter is stronger than that of the former. GSP I-a and GSP II-b have relatively low reducing powers and scavenging activities toward superoxide anions and hydroxyls. GSP I-a and GSP II-b significantly increase lymphocyte proliferation when lipopolysaccharide is used as a mitogen for lymphocytes, but only GSP I-a can significantly increase lymphocyte proliferation within the test-dosage range when concanavalin A is used as a mitogen.

  19. The Root Extract of Gentiana macrophylla Pall. Alleviates Cardiac Apoptosis in Lupus Prone Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available The roots of the perennial herb Gentiana macrophylla Pall. (GM are known as Qinjiao, which has been used for centuries to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. However, little is known about the effects of GM on cholesterol-aggravated cardiac abnormalities in SLE, and the mechanisms thereof. This study investigates whether GM exhibits anti-apoptotic effects, focusing on the left ventricle (LV of NZB/W F1 mice fed with high-cholesterol diet. The morphology and apoptotic status of ventricular tissues were determined by microscopy and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay. Levels of apoptotic biomarkers were determined by immunoblotting. The results thus obtained revealed that GM significantly reduced the cholesterol-aggravated apoptosis of LV in NZB/W F1 mice by suppressing both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Additionally, GM significantly increased the cardiac insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 survival signaling and anti-apoptotic proteins in LV tissues. Accordingly, GM is considered to be beneficial in alleviating cholesterol-aggravated cardiac damage in SLE, and therefore constitute an alternative treatment for SLE patients with cardiac abnormalities.

  20. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gentiana scabra bge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yuewei; Song, Haiyan; Zhou, Hongli; Zhong, Fangli; Hu, Haobin; Feng, Yu

    2016-12-01

    In this study, optimization of smashing tissue extraction (STE), preliminary chemical characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from Gentiana scabra bge (G. scabra) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: sample particle size of 80mesh, solid/liquid ratio of 1:34, extraction voltage of 157.09V and extraction time of 130.38s. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS had reached 15.03±0.14% (n=3). Chemical composition analysis indicated CPS was mainly composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glcose, galactose, arabinose and fucose in a molar ratio of 1.00:9.89:51.59:35.37:38.06:99.13:21.34, respectively. The average molecular weight of CPS was estimated to be 3.8×10(4)Da. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of CPS extracted by STE were demonstrated by DPPH radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Overall, this study provided an effective extraction technique for G. scabra polysaccharides which would be explored as a promising natural antioxidant agent applied in functional foods or medicines.

  1. Purification, characterization and in vitro anticoagulant activity of polysaccharides from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weirong; Xu, Huiling; Xie, Liangliang; Sun, Jian; Sun, Taotao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Fu, Qinbao

    2016-04-20

    Three water-soluble polysaccharide fractions (GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3) were obtained from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Their chemical characterizations were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), high performance anion exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer. Moreover, their in vitro anticoagulant activities were evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and prothrombin time (PT) assays. GSP-1 and GSP-2 were composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose and galacturonic acid, while GSP-3 consisted of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and galacturonic acid with a weight-average molecular weight of 5.8×10(4)Da. In comparison with the control group (saline), GSP, GSP-1, GSP-2 and GSP-3 could prolong APTT and TT, but not PT. Overall, GSP-3 exhibited potent anticoagulant activity and would be expected to be a potential source of anticoagulant.

  2. Chemical Constituents from Gentiana striata%条纹龙胆的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成松; 曹斐华; 彭雪晶; 罗建军; 曾涌

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents of Gentiana striata. Methods; The constituents were isolated from the whole herb of Gentiana striata by recrystalization, silica gel column chromaiography, polyamide column chromatography and Sephadex LH-20,etc. Their structures were elucidated through MS,1 H-NMR,13C-NMR. Results; -8 compounds were isolated and identified as; Desoxyloganin(l) ,Gmephiloside(2) , 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone(3) , ( + )-8-hydroxypinoresinol (4) 3S,5R,6R,9S-tetra-hydroxymegastigmane(5) , Quercetin-3-0-β-D-glucoside(6) ,Ferulic acid (7)and Ursolic acid(8). Conclusion;All the compounds are isolated for the first time from Gentiana striata.%目的:对条纹龙胆的化学成分进行分离与鉴定.方法:利用重结晶、柱层析(硅胶、聚酰胺、葡聚糖凝胶LH-20)等方法分离及纯化,并运用MS、1H-NMR、13C-NMR等现代波谱技术鉴定其结构.结果:从条纹龙胆中分离得到8个化合物,分别为:desoxyloganin(1)、Gmephiloside(2)、5,7,4′-三羟基-3′-甲氧基黄酮(3)、(+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol (4)、3S,5R,6R,9S-tetrahydroxymegastigmane(5)、槲皮素-3-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷(6)、阿魏酸(7)、熊果酸(8).结论:上述化合物均为首次从该植物中分离得到.

  3. Hypoglycaemic activity of Gentiana olivieri and isolation of the active constituent through bioassay-directed fractionation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezik, Ekrem; Aslan, Mustafa; Yesilada, Erdem; Ito, Shigeru

    2005-01-28

    Hypoglycemic effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on oral administration were studied using in vivo models in normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo bioassay-guided fractionation processes isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethylacetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography as the main active ingredient from the plant. Isoorientin exhibited significant hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects at 15 mg/kg b.w.dose. Isoorientin concentration of the extracts and fractions were determined by HPLC in order to establish a correlation between the hypoglycaemic activity.

  4. Chemical Consitituents of Gentiana apiata N.E.Br.%秦岭龙胆的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐; 王宁; 苗芳; 赵海双; 田鹏

    2004-01-01

    从秦岭龙胆(Gentiana apiata N.E.Br.)全草的乙醇提取物中分离得到4个化合物,通过波谱分析分别鉴定为异荭草甙(isoorientin),龙胆苦甙(gentiopicroside),asystasioside A和蔗糖(D-sucrose).采用二维NMR分析,确定了asystasioside A的立体结构.以上化合物均为首次从该植物中发现.

  5. Cloning of plastid division gene GlFtsZ from Gentiana lutea and its expression during petal development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A full-length cDNA of GlFtsZ was isolated by screening the cDNA library of Gentiana lutea. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence encoded by GlFtsZ indicated that GlFtsZ protein possesses the typical conservative motifs existed in all FtsZ proteins. The existence of putative plastid transit peptide in its N-terminus suggested that GlFtsZ might function inside of plastids. With the deve- lopmental process of petals of Gentiana lutea, the expression of plastid division gene GlFtsZ declined gradually, whereas the expression of carotenoids biosynthesis gene Zds increased obviously; meanwhile, in contrast to the increment of carotenoids, the content of chlorophyll in petals decreased sharply. The chloroplasts turned into chromoplasts, and the color of petals also turned from green to golden. All of these results suggested that the expression of GlFtsZ is accompanied with the development and differentiation of plastids.

  6. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier A. Guitián

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea—which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain—is locally adapted to the pollinator community. Methods We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Results Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum, B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris consistently preferred the foreign morph. Discussion We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition.

  7. Genetic Variation of the Endangered Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca (Gentianaceae in Populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González-López

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana lutea L. (G. lutea L. is an endangered plant, patchily distributed along the mountains of Central and Southern Europe. In this study, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in this species within and among populations of G. lutea L. var. aurantiaca of the Cantabrian Mountains (Northwest Iberian Peninsula. Samples of G. lutea L. collected at different locations of the Pyrenees and samples of G. lutea L. subsp. vardjanii of the Dolomites Alps were also analyzed for comparison. Using nine ISSR primers, 106 bands were generated, and 89.6% of those were polymorphic. The populations from the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were clustered in three different groups, with a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca showed 19.8% private loci and demonstrated a remarkable level of genetic variation, both among populations and within populations; those populations with the highest level of isolation show the lowest genetic variation within populations. The low number of individuals, as well as the observed genetic structure of the analyzed populations makes it necessary to protect them to ensure their survival before they are too small to persist naturally.

  8. Cytomorphology of Gentiana kurroo: an important endangered bitter plant of temperate Himalaya.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. C. Behera; R.Raina

    2011-01-01

    Gentiana kurroo,a potent bitter drug plant of Indian subcontinent,is under threat due to over exploitation and destruction of natural habitat.We studied the morphophenology and chromosomes of G.kurroo on both wild and field grown plants,which is very important for proper identification,conservation and domestication.Results reveal that G.kurroo is a perennial herb,and its shoot is represented by flowering branches only.Stem is modified to rhizome.The older rhizomes split into four parts at collar region appearing to fuse together at the ends and is an important diagnostic feature for crude raw materials.Two types of leaves i.e.radical leaves at the base of the plant and cauline leaves on flowering shoot are present.Flowering occurs during September to October with 1-9 inflorescences per plant.Inflorescence is terminal monocasial cysome type.Flowers are protrandus.Anthesis starts around 7.30 am and continued till 10.0 am.Ovary is bicarpillary syncarpous unilocular.Fruit is Capsule and takes 18-20 days to mature after fertilization.Seeds are very small elliptical and 1000 seeds weigh to 0.1275 g.Chromosomal studies made by usual squash method reveals the species is a genomic allotetraploid with n =13.The anaphase-Ⅰ segregation was normal and in none of the cells at Anaphase-Ⅰ or Telophase-Ⅰ could any abnormality like laggards,bridges,micronuclei etc.be observed.

  9. Corología de tres táxones de interés en el macizo del Castro Valnera: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. [Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Alejandre Sáez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se ofrece una visión actualizada de la situación en el macizo del Castro Valnera de tres especies de alto interés regional: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. Se comentan datos sobre la historia de su descubrimiento en ese macizo. Se recogen y enumeran para cada uno de ellos los datos de recolecciones, citas bibliográficas y de campo. Con el conjunto de todas ellas se elaboran varios mapas. Finalmente, se aportan comentarios que contribuyen al conocimiento de su comportamiento ecológico y se apuntan algunas pautas y criterios a tener en cuenta para su protección. ABSTRACT: Chorology of three interesting plants from Castro Valnera (Cantabrian Mountains, N Spain. An updated view of the situation within the Castro Valnera mountain range of three species of high regional interest is provided: Eriophorum vaginatum L., Gentiana acaulis L. y Gentiana boryi Boiss. The history data of their discovery within that mountain range is discussed. Collections data and field citations are gathered and listed for each of them and several maps are drawn with the whole of them. Finally, comments that contribute to the knowledge of their environmental performance are provided, as well as some guidelines and criteria to be considered for their protection.

  10. High-yielding planting technology Gentiana scabra%粗糙龙胆高产栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁长友; 苏顺林; 秦桂华; 刘利剑

    2003-01-01

    @@ 粗糙龙胆(Gentiana scabra Bunge)是龙胆科龙胆属多年生草本植物,以根和根茎入药,是主治肝炎、风湿和胃炎等疾病的常用药材,俗称"北龙胆、关龙胆",其入药商品有效成份(龙胆苦甙)含量高,生药质量尤佳,占全国调出量第二位.主产于黑龙江省的杜尔伯特、齐齐哈尔、海林、宁安、牡丹江、穆棱、东宁等地.

  11. The corrected structure of depressoside, an antioxidative iridoid glucoside extracted from the flowers of Gentiana urnula Harry Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakari, Ken; Fukuhara, Tadao; Motoyama, Akira; Ochiai, Nobuhiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Sugimoto, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Three known iridoid glucosides (gentiournoside A, gentiournoside E and depressoside) were isolated from the flowers of Gentiana urnula Harry Sm. through activity-guided fractionations with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. All three compounds exhibited excellent DPPH radical scavenging activities (IC50: 10-20 μmol L(-1)) comparable to that of ascorbic acid and Trolox. However, examination of the NMR data revealed that the reported chemical structure of depressoside, previously isolated from the leaves of G. depressa, needed correcting due to incorrect elucidation around C-7 of the iridane skeleton, and was corrected to 6-β-(2,3-dihydroxyphenyl)-D-glucosyl 7-O-(2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl)-loganate. Depressoside exhibited a much higher scavenging activity against superoxide radicals (IC50: 45.5 μmol L(-1)) than the other two extracted compounds (IC50: more than 900 μmol L(-1)) due to the crucial presence of a pyrogallyl unit.

  12. Integration of independent component analysis with near-infrared spectroscopy for analysis of bioactive components in the medicinal plant Gentiana scabra Bunge

    OpenAIRE

    Yung-Kun Chuang; I-Chang Yang; Yangming Martin Lo; Chao-Yin Tsai; Suming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Independent component (IC) analysis was applied to near-infrared spectroscopy for analysis of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin; the two bioactive components of Gentiana scabra Bunge. ICs that are highly correlated with the two bioactive components were selected for the analysis of tissue cultures, shoots and roots, which were found to distribute in three different positions within the domain [two-dimensional (2D) and 3D] constructed by the ICs. This setup could be used for quantitative determ...

  13. ADAPTATION OF THE OBTAINED in vitro Gentiana lutea L. PLANTS TO ex vitro AND in situ CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to develop the technology of introduction of the obtained by microclonal propagation Gentiana lutea L. plants into conditions in situ. Methods of cultivation of plant objects in vitro were used. There were chosen optimal conditions for rooting G. lutea shoots obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro: МS/2 medium with twice decreased concentration of NH4NO3 without vitamins and sucrose supplemented with 3 g/l of mannite and 0.05 mg/l kinetin, and agar (4 mg/l in combination with perlite (16 g/l used as a maintaining substrate; or the nutrient medium (MS/2 without vitamins and smaller concentration of N4NO3 with gradual decrease of carbohydrates from 10 g/l to 2 g/l, and further rooting experimental shoots in tap water. Rooted plants were adapted to conditions ex vitro through planting them into flowerpots with soil and gradual changing hothouse regime for exposed one. The share of adapted to in situ conditions plants (21% after a year of planting proves the suggested method to be efficient and promising. There was suggested this technology is the most efficient ones for revival of disturbed G. lutea populations that includes repatriation of rooted and adapted to ex vitro conditions plants obtained through microclonal propagation in vitro.

  14. Triterpenoids isolated from the rhizomes and roots of Gentiana scabra and their inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Li, Lin Ying; Zhou, Wei; Hwang, Inkyu; Ma, Jin Yeul; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-12-01

    Gentiana scabra Bunge (Gentianaceae) is an important traditional Chinese medicine commonly used as a stomachic or appetite stimulant. In this study, 21 triterpenoids (1-21) were isolated from a methanol extract of the rhizomes and roots of G. scabra. Their structures were elucidated by comparing spectroscopic data with reported values. Among the isolated triterpenoids, scabanol (2) was firstly isolated from natural sources. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which catalyzes the rate limiting reaction for the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. Compounds 10 and 11 showed significant inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 12.5 and 9.5 μM, respectively. Compound 12 showed a moderate inhibitory effect, with an IC(50) value of 18.7 μM. Compounds 2 and 13 showed weaker inhibitory effects, with IC(50) values of 56.8 and 60.6 μM, respectively. Kynurenine is a potent immune modulator to suppress the functions of a variety of immune cells including T cells and natural killer cells. Given that, our results that a few selected triterpenoids inhibit IDO warrant further studies on their effects on the host immune system as natural immune stimulators.

  15. Nonprenylated Xanthones from Gentiana lutea, Frasera caroliniensis, and Centaurium erythraea as Novel Inhibitors of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Waltenberger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC plays a major role in restenosis, the pathological renarrowing of the blood vessel lumen after surgical treatment of stenosis. Since available anti-proliferative pharmaceuticals produce unfavorable side effects, there is high demand for the identification of novel VSMC proliferation inhibitors. A natural product screening approach using a resazurin conversion assay enabled the identification of gentisin (1 from Gentiana lutea as a novel inhibitor of VSMC proliferation with an IC50 value of 7.84 µM. Aiming to identify further anti-proliferative compounds, 13 additional nonprenylated xanthones, isolated from different plant species, were also tested. While some compounds showed no or moderate activity at 30 µM, 1-hydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxyxanthone (4, swerchirin (6, and methylswertianin (7 showed IC50 values between 10.2 and 12.5 µM. The anti-proliferative effect of 1, 4, 6, and 7 was confirmed by the quantification of DNA synthesis (BrdU incorporation in VSMC. Cell death quantification (determined by LDH release in the culture medium revealed that the compounds are not cytotoxic in the investigated concentration range. In conclusion, nonprenylated xanthones are identified as novel, non-toxic VSMC proliferation inhibitors, which might contribute to the development of new therapeutic applications to combat restenosis.

  16. The chemical consitituents of Gentiana apiata N.E.Br.%秦岭龙胆的化学成分研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乐; 王宁; 杨维霞; 赵海双; 田鹏

    2004-01-01

    从秦岭龙胆(Gentiana apiata N.E.Br.)全草的乙醇提取物中首次分离得到4个化合物,通过波谱分析分别鉴定为异荭草甙(isoorientin Ⅰ)、龙胆苦甙(gentiopicroside Ⅱ)、秦岭龙胆甙A(apiatoside A Ⅲ)和蔗糖(D-(+)-sucrose Ⅳ),其中Ⅲ为新化合物.

  17. Study on the anti - tumor active constituents of Gentiana scabra%关龙胆抗肿瘤活性成分的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海凤; 朴惠顺

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究关龙胆Gentiana Scabra Bung中的抗肿瘤活性成分.方法 采用色谱法分离关龙胆根中的化学成分,根据理化性质及波谱(MS、NMR、DEPT、1H-1H COSY、HSQC等)鉴定结构;采用MTT法筛选分离所得化合物对宫颈癌细胞(Hela)、肝癌细胞(HepG-2)的抗肿瘤活性.结果 从关龙胆中分离鉴定了10个单体化合物,分别为chirat-17(22)-en-3one(Ⅰ)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅱ)、α-香树脂醇棕榈酸酯(Ⅲ)、chirat-16-en-3-one(Ⅳ)、chiratenol(V)、3,4-dihydro-1H,6H,8H-naphtho[1,2-c:4,5-c',d']dipyr-ano-1,8-dione(Ⅵ)、胡萝卜苷(Ⅶ)、胆甾醇(Ⅷ)、龙胆苦苷(Ⅸ)、蔗糖(X).结论 化合物Ⅲ、Ⅵ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ为首次从关龙胆中分离得到;化合物Ⅳ、V、Ⅶ、Ⅹ对Hela和HepG-2细胞的增殖有一定的抑制作用.%OBJECTIVE To study the anti - tumor active constituents from Gentiana scabra Bung. METHODS The chemical constituents were isolated from the Gentiana scabra Bung by ion exchange resin. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physico - chemical properties and spectral data( MS, NMR, DEPT, 1 H - 1 H COSY, HSQC et al). The anti - tumor active constituents on cervical (Hela)and livercancer (HepG -2 ) were selected by MTT. RESULTS Ten compounds were isolated and identified form the Gectiana scabra Bung which were chirat - 17 ( 22 ) - en - 3 - one ( Ⅰ), β - sistosterol ( Ⅱ), α - Amyrinpalmitate ( Ⅲ ), chirat - 16 - en - 3 - one ( Ⅳ ) ,chiratenol ( Ⅴ ) ,3,4 - dih - ydro - 1 H ,6H ,8H - naphtho[ 1,2 - c :4,5 - c', d'] dipyrano - 1,8 - dione ( Ⅵ ) , β - daucosterol ( Ⅶ ), cholesterol (Ⅷ),gentiopicroside( Ⅸ ),and d -sucurose( Ⅹ ). CONCLUSION Compounds Ⅲ, Ⅵ, Ⅷ and Ⅹ were isolated from this plant for the first time. Compounds Ⅳ, Ⅴ, Ⅶ and Ⅹ exhibited moderate anti -tuomr effect against Hela and HepG -2 lines.

  18. 滇龙胆种子萌发特性研究%Seed germination characteristics of Gentiana rigescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨美权; 杨维泽; 赵振玲; 张霁; 张智慧; 金航; 张金渝

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influences of temperature, lightness, storage method, storage time, and gibberellin on seed germination of Gentiana rigescens. Method: The germination rates of G. dge. scens in different treatments were observed. Resuit and Conclusion: The most suitable temperature for the seed germination was 25 ℃, at which the germination rate was 76.33%.The effect of lightness on the seeds was signifcanfiy; the germination rate of the seed was very low. Under the natural condition, the best storage method was cly storage (within 6 months), which could promote the after-ripening of the seed. 100-1 000 mg ~ L-1 gibberellic acid could significantly reduce the seed germination time, and 500 ng·L-1 gibberellic acid increased the germination rate of the seed to 95.00%.%目的:研究不同温度、不同光照、不同贮藏方式和贮藏时间以及不同赤霉素浓度处理对滇龙胆种子萌发的影响.方法:观测滇龙胆种子在不同处理条件下的发芽率.结果和结论:25℃为种子最适宜萌发温度,发芽率可达76.33%.光照对种子萌发影响显著,黑暗条件下种子发芽率极低.在自然条件下,干藏为种子最佳贮藏方式,可促进种子后熟作用,保持种子活力,但不能超过6个月.100~1000mg·L-1赤霉素处理可明显缩短滇龙胆种子萌发时间,其中500mg·L-1赤霉素处理可使种子发芽率提高至95.00%.

  19. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri (Gentianaceae and comparative analysis with its congeneric species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Cheng Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The chloroplast (cp genome is useful in plant systematics, genetic diversity analysis, molecular identification and divergence dating. The genus Gentiana contains 362 species, but there are only two valuable complete cp genomes. The purpose of this study is to report the characterization of complete cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP. Methods Using high throughput sequencing technology, we got the complete nucleotide sequence of the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome. The comparison analysis including genome difference and gene divergence was performed with its congeneric species G. straminea. The simple sequence repeats (SSRs and phylogenetics were studied as well. Results The cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri is a circular molecule of 138,750 bp, containing a pair of 24,653 bp inverted repeats which are separated by small and large single-copy regions of 11,365 and 78,082 bp, respectively. The cp genome contains 130 known genes, including 85 protein coding genes (PCGs, eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. Comparative analyses indicated that G. lawrencei var. farreri is 10,241 bp shorter than its congeneric species G. straminea. Four large gaps were detected that are responsible for 85% of the total sequence loss. Further detailed analyses revealed that 10 PCGs were included in the four gaps that encode nine NADH dehydrogenase subunits. The cp gene content, order and orientation are similar to those of its congeneric species, but with some variation among the PCGs. Three genes, ndhB, ndhF and clpP, have high nonsynonymous to synonymous values. There are 34 SSRs in the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome, of which 25 are mononucleotide repeats: no dinucleotide repeats were detected. Comparison with the G. straminea cp genome indicated that five SSRs have length polymorphisms and 23 SSRs are species-specific. The phylogenetic analysis of 48 PCGs from 12 Gentianales

  20. 粗糙龙胆的花芽分化过程观察%A primary observation on the flower bud differentiation of Gentiana scabra Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙阎; 王贵强; 范晶

    2008-01-01

    对多年生粗糙龙胆(Gentiana scabra Bunge)花芽分化过程和分化形态的观察表明,分化阶段可划分为6个时期即未分化期、分化初期、萼片原基分化期、花瓣原基分化期、雄蕊原基分化期和雌蕊原基分化期.花芽分化从5月中旬开始到7月初基本完成,历时约50 d.花芽分化的开始可通过植株的节数判断(一般为8~9节),与植株的高矮关系不大.

  1. Investigation and Evaluation of Gentiana rigescens Resource in Yunnan Province%云南道地药材滇龙胆资源调查与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金渝; 沈涛; 杨维泽; 张霁; 王元忠; 赵振玲; 张智慧; 金航

    2012-01-01

    Gentiana rigescens is a top-geoherbs of traditional Chinese medicine in Yunnan province. An investigation on distribution and current situation of G. rigescens resource in Yunnan was conducted to provide the basis for exploitation and cultivation of G. rigescens. Folk market and field survey methods were applied to explore the resource of G. rigescens in 38 cities and counties. Gentiana rigescens could be found in the most areas of Yunnan,except Zhaotong, Deqin, and Xishuangbanna. The suitable habitats for G. rigescens are the slope or understory in the elevation between 1350 to 2500m. In 19 populations, root diameters, lengths, numbers, and biomasses ranged from 0. 33 to 0. 44cm,7. 03 to 19. 79 ,6. 34 to 19. 40 , and 0. 27 to 1. 40g, respectively, and the range of gentiopicroside was 3. 56% to 5. 99% . The qualities of root were higher in Kunming, Yuxi, Chuxiong, Wenshan, and Nujiang than other populations. The wild G. rigescens resource is needed to be protected due to habitat loss. The results provide basal data for sustainable utilization of G. rigescens.%滇龙胆为云南重要道地药材,通过走访和实地调查对云南省38个县市龙胆资源分布范围及资源现状进行调查.结果表明,滇龙胆在云南省除昭通、德钦和西双版纳外,均有分布,适宜生境为海拔1350~2500m的荒坡或林下.所测种群滇龙胆根粗为0.33~0.44cm,根长7.03~19.79cm,根数为6.34~19.40,根生物量为0.27~1.40g,根中龙胆苦含量为3.56%~5.99%.聚类分析结果显示,除玉溪、昆明、楚雄等产区外,文山、怒江种群滇龙胆质量也较好,具较高开发、利用价值.目前野生滇龙胆生境遭到破坏,资源量锐减,亟待保护,本研究调查为云南滇龙胆资源的保护与利用提供建议和基础数据.

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine herbal extracts of Cibotium barometz, Gentiana scabra, Dioscorea batatas, Cassia tora, and Taxillus chinensis inhibit SARS-CoV replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chih-Chun; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Jan, Jia-Tsrong; Liang, Po-Huang; Kuo, Chih-Jung; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Wu, Jin-Bin; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2011-10-01

    Development of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) agents is pivotal to prevent the reemergence of the life-threatening disease, SARS. In this study, more than 200 extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs were evaluated for anti-SARS-CoV activities using a cell-based assay that measured SARS-CoV-induced cytopathogenic effect (CPE) in vitro on Vero E6 cells. Six herbal extracts, one each from Gentianae Radix ( lóng dǎn; the dried rhizome of Gentiana scabra), Dioscoreae Rhizoma ( shān yào; the tuber of Dioscorea batatas), Cassiae Semen ( jué míng zǐ; the dried seed of Cassia tora) and Loranthi Ramus ( sāng jì shēng; the dried stem, with leaf of Taxillus chinensis) (designated as GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH, respectively), and two from Rhizoma Cibotii ( gǒu jǐ; the dried rhizome of Cibotium barometz) (designated as CBE and CBM), were found to be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV at concentrations between 25 and 200 μg/ml. The concentrations of the six extracts needed to inhibit 50% of Vero E6 cell proliferation (CC50) and 50% of viral replication (EC50) were determined. The resulting selective index values (SI = CC50/EC50) of the most effective extracts CBE, GSH, DBM, CTH and TCH were > 59.4, > 57.5, > 62.1, > 59.4, and > 92.9, respectively. Among these extracts, CBM and DBM also showed significant inhibition of SARS-CoV 3CL protease activity with IC50 values of 39 μg/ml and 44 μg/ml, respectively. Our findings suggest that these six herbal extracts may have potential as candidates for future development of anti-SARS therapeutics.AbbreviationsSARS,severe acute respiratory syndromeCoV,coronavirusCPE,cytopathogenic effectTCM,traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Simultaneous determination of six index constituents and comparative analysis of four ethnomedicines from genus Gentiana using a UPLC-UV-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Many species from genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) have a long history of applications as folk medicines in the world. A simple rapid UPLC-UV-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six index constituents (gentiopicroside, swertiamarin, loganic acid, sweroside, mangiferin and ferulic acid) from the four ethnomedicines (G. rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl., G. rhodantha Franch. ex Hemsl., G. scabra Bunge and G. farreri Balf. f.). The UPLC analysis was performed on Shim-Pack XR-ODS III (150 × 2.0 mm, 2.2 µm). The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water using gradient elution. The wavelength 242 nm was chose for the four iridoids as well as mangiferin and 320 nm was set for ferulic acid. Mass spectrometry was applied for identification and quantification for analytes with low concentration. All the regression equations revealed a good linear relationship (R(2)  > 0.9993). Accuracy and precision were all within the required limits. The chromatogram fingerprints analysis combined with principal component analysis showed the similarity values of the four species were scabra Bunge and G. rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. were >0.993, which provided reasonable foundation for utilization and clinical application of the four ethnomedicines. This developed method appears to be a useful tool for quality control of the four ethnomedicines.

  4. Chemical Study on Aerial Parts of Gentiana scabra%龙胆草地上部分的化学成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬莹; 王世盛; 赵伟杰; 宋其玲; 孟庆伟

    2009-01-01

    为研究龙胆草(Gentiana scabra Bunge)地上部分的化学成分,利用硅胶柱色谱对其乙醇提取物进行分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱方法鉴定了化合物的结构.分离得到β-香树脂醇(1)、β-谷甾醇(2)、β-香树脂醇乙酸酯(3)、乌苏醇(4)、齐墩果酸(5)、6-去甲氧基-7-甲基菌陈色原酮(6).其中化合物6为首次从龙胆科植物中分离得到的具有2-苯氧基色原酮骨架的天然酚类成分,本文对其1D和2D NMR谱的特征及EI质谱主要碎片的可能裂解方式进行了讨论,利用单晶X-射线衍射方法对其晶体结构进行了分析,为该类天然产物的结构表征提供了依据.

  5. 龙胆草斑枯病及其防治%Leaf blight disease of rough gentian, Gentiana scabra Bunge and its control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅俊范; 郭卜; 严雪瑞; 薛敏菊; 蒋有财; 杨维; 于宪林

    2003-01-01

    @@ 龙胆草(Gentiana scabra Bunge)属龙胆科多年生草本植物,以根入药,具有泻肝胆实火、除下焦湿热作用,属辽东山区特产药材.由于龙胆草具有较高的药用和经济价值,1985年辽宁省清原县将龙胆草从山上野生状态引种归圃人工栽培成功,现已成为当地农民发挥山区资源优势、发展"两高一优"的重要致富项目.随着栽培环境的变化和栽培面积的扩大,龙胆草斑枯病逐年加重并造成毁灭性损失,成为龙胆草产业发展的关键限制因素.

  6. Occurrence characteristics of Sptoria gentianae and its integrated control technology%龙胆斑枯病发生规律及综合防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立晨; 姚运生

    2009-01-01

    龙胆(Gentiana scabra Bunge)又称龙胆草,属龙胆科多年生草本植物。是东北的地道中药材。以根人药,具有泻肝火、除湿热作用,我国应用龙胆已有2800年的历史。由于市场需求量逐年增加,野生龙胆逐年减少,已满足不了国内、外需求。自1962年摸索人工栽培龙胆以来,到20世纪70年代后期有了较迅速的发展。随着栽培环境的变化和栽培面积的扩大.龙胆斑枯病逐年加重,并造成毁灭性损失。在北方龙胆种植区调查发现,2~3年生的龙胆发病率84%~100%.病情指数达25.3~95.0,药根减产30%~50%,重者全田枯死,

  7. Rapid preparative separation of six bioactive compounds from Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. using microwave-assisted extraction coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jinru; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Xinxin; He, Jiao; Sun, Wenji

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method combining microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was applied for preparative separation of six bioactive compounds including loganic acid (I), isoorientin-4'-O-glucoside (II), 6'-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl gentiopicroside (III), swertiamarin (IV), gentiopicroside (V), sweroside (VI) from traditional Tibetan medicine Gentiana crassicaulis Duthie ex Burk. MAE parameters were predicted by central composite design response surface methodology. That is, 5.0 g dried roots of G. crassicaulis were extracted with 50 mL 57.5% aqueous ethanol under 630 W for 3.39 min. The extract (gentian total glycosides) was separated by HSCCC with n-butanol/ethyl acetate/methanol/1% acetic acid water (7.5:0.5:0.5:3.5, v/v/v/v) using upper phase mobile in tail-to-head elution mode. 16.3, 8.8, 12., 25.1, 40.7, and 21.8 mg of compounds I-VI were obtained with high purities in one run from 500 mg of original sample. The purities and identities of separated components were confirmed using HPLC with photo diode array detection and quadrupole TOF-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The study reveals that response surface methodology is convenient and highly predictive for optimizing extraction process, MAE coupled with HSCCC could be an expeditious method for extraction and separation of phytochemicals from ethnomedicine.

  8. 龙胆种子发芽特性研究%Studies on the Characteristics of Seed Germination of Gentiana scabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明学成; 李银强; 张璐; 赵立波; 孙阎

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the different gibberellin treatment ,temperature ,lightness and storage method on seed germination of Gentiana scabra were studied .The results show that 100mg/L-200mg/L gibberellin and lightness can significantly improve the germination rate of the seed . The germination rate of the seed stored 5years-6years is the highest at 20℃ ± 1℃ temperature .Vacuum encapsulation of seeds can be saved to 6 years at -18℃ ± 1℃ temperature .%以龙胆种子为试验材料,研究了温度、光照、赤霉素和贮藏方式对龙胆种子萌发的影响。结果表明,贮藏5年~6年的龙胆种子在20℃±1℃的温度下萌发率最高;100mg/L~200mg/L的赤霉素浓度处理能显著提高种子发芽率;龙胆种子需光萌发;真空塑封的种子在-18℃±1℃温度条件下寿命可以保存至6年。

  9. Recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. as a source for synthetic seed production for medium-term preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holobiuc Irina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to establish an efficient and reproducible system for producing synthetic seeds from recurrent somatic embryogenesis in long-term cultures of Gentiana lutea L. This species is a vulnerable medicinal plant, protected both at the national and international levels, and is included in different Red Lists and Books. In vitro culture, as an alternative to classical methods of preservation, allows for the cyclic multiplication of plant material and short-, medium- and long-term preservation of tissue collections. Biotechnological approaches allow for maintenance of the plant material in a confined space and protection against biotic and abiotic factors. Somatic embryogenesis (SE is the most efficient way to regenerate plants, ensuring material for preservation and fundamental research. In our experiment, recurrent somatic embryogenesis was developed in long-term cultures in the presence of sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol and in the absence of growth factors. This process proceeded at a high rate, with adventive somatic embryos being generated in a continuous process, followed by maturation, germination and development into plants. To follow the somatic embryogenesis process, histological samples were made. We used these embryogenic cultures for synthetic seed production and medium-term conservation. The viability of somatic embryos after moderate osmotic stress treatment was tested using TTC. Our methodology relied on the induction of somatic embryogenesis in the presence of auxins in the first cycle of in vitro cultures, long-term high embryogenic culture maintenance in the presence of sugar alcohols and synthetic seed production.

  10. Comparative HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD study of different populations of cultivated, wild and commercial Gentiana lutea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ahmed M; Caprioli, Giovanni; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Maggi, Filippo; Marín, Rosa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2015-05-01

    The root of Gentiana lutea L., famous for its bitter properties, is often used in alcoholic bitter beverages, food products and traditional medicine to stimulate the appetite and improve digestion. This study presents a new, fast, and accurate HPLC method using HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD for simultaneous analysis of iridoids (loganic acid), secoiridoids (gentiopicroside, sweroside, swertiamarin, amarogentin) and xanthones (isogentisin) in different populations of G.lutea L., cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park, obtained wild there, or purchased commercially. Comparison of HPLC/ESI-MS and HPLC/DAD indicated that HPLC/ESI-MS is more sensitive, reliable and selective. Analysis of twenty samples showed that gentiopicroside is the most dominant compound (1.85-3.97%), followed by loganic acid (0.11-1.30%), isogentisin (0.03-0.48%), sweroside (0.05-0.35%), swertiamarin (0.08-0.30%), and amarogentin (0.01-0.07%). The results confirmed the high quality of the G.lutea cultivated in the Monti Sibillini National Park.

  11. 三十烷醇对龙胆草种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响%Effects of Triacontanol on the Seeds Germination of Seedlings Growth of Gentiana scabra Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜述君; 于军华; 黎玉梅

    2009-01-01

    Triacontanol is plant growth promoters of broad spectruml.The effects of triacontanol on the Seeds Germination of Seedlings Growth of Gentiana scabra were studied in the experiment. The results showed that triacontanol promoted the seed germination, and the seed treated with triacontanol have a higher germination rate and germination potential. Triacontanol advanced seedlings growth, and increased chlorophyll contents and roots activities of Gentiana scabra seedlings during seedlings growth. The 0.1mg.L-1concentration is the best one among the treatments.%三十烷醇是一种广谱性的植物生长促进剂.探讨了三十烷醇对龙胆草种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,三十烷醇能促进龙胆草种子萌发、提高发芽率和发芽势.龙胆草经三十烷醇处理后,其幼苗生长速度、叶片叶绿素素含量和根系活力显著增高,并且以0.1 mg.L-.浓度效果最佳.

  12. Integration of independent component analysis with near-infrared spectroscopy for analysis of bioactive components in the medicinal plant Gentiana scabra Bunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Kun Chuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Independent component (IC analysis was applied to near-infrared spectroscopy for analysis of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin; the two bioactive components of Gentiana scabra Bunge. ICs that are highly correlated with the two bioactive components were selected for the analysis of tissue cultures, shoots and roots, which were found to distribute in three different positions within the domain [two-dimensional (2D and 3D] constructed by the ICs. This setup could be used for quantitative determination of respective contents of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin within the plants. For gentiopicroside, the spectral calibration model based on the second derivative spectra produced the best effect in the wavelength ranges of 600–700 nm, 1600–1700 nm, and 2000–2300 nm (correlation coefficient of calibration = 0.847, standard error of calibration = 0.865%, and standard error of validation = 0.909%. For swertiamarin, a spectral calibration model based on the first derivative spectra produced the best effect in the wavelength ranges of 600–800 nm and 2200–2300 nm (correlation coefficient of calibration = 0.948, standard error of calibration = 0.168%, and standard error of validation = 0.216%. Both models showed a satisfactory predictability. This study successfully established qualitative and quantitative correlations for gentiopicroside and swertiamarin with near-infrared spectra, enabling rapid and accurate inspection on the bioactive components of G. scabra Bunge at different growth stages.

  13. 龙胆草斑枯病综合防治技术研究%Studies on the Comprehensive Control Techniques of Spot Blight of Gentiana scabra Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健夫; 赵忠伟; 李维忠

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to discuss the comprehensive control techniques of spot blight of Gentiana scabra Bunge. [Method] Different spraying pesticide periods, shading methods, transplanting density and methods of cleaning fields were experimented respectively to indicate their control effect on the spot blight of G. Scabra Bunge. [Result]The results showed that control effect reached 79.6% by means of sterilizing soil, seedling and spraying the pesticide in seedling stage. The disease could be lightened by shading cultivation and intercropping with com and control effect reached 57.1% and 35. 8% respectively. The disease could be delayed 4-9 days when the fields were cleaned, or the fields were cleaned and plants were sprayed pesticide. When the transplant density was 200 plants/m2, the control effect reached 42. 7%. [ Conclusion] The paper indicated that ideal control effect was hard to get by spraying pesticide alone, but it could be got by comprehensively using control techniques of sterilizing soil and seedling, cleaning the fields, shading cultivation and spraying the pesticide.%[目的]探讨龙胆草斑枯病的综合防治技术.[方法]分别试验不同用药时期、遮阴方式、栽植密度以及清理田园卫生等方法,对龙胆草斑枯病防治效果的影响.[结果]土壤、种苗消毒及苗期用药,防治效果为79.6%;遮阴栽培及与玉米间作可减轻发病,防治效果分别为57.1%和35.8%;清理田园卫生并施药及清理田园卫生可延迟发病4~9 d;栽植密度为200株/m2时,防病效果达42.7%.[结论]单靠药剂较难取得理想防治效果,采用土壤消毒、种苗消毒、清理田园卫生、遮阴栽培及药剂防治等综合措施才能取得较好的防治效果.

  14. 滇龙胆与青叶胆环烯醚萜类物质计量特征分析∗%Chemometrics Characterization of Iridoids in Gentiana rigescens and Swertia mileensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈涛; 黄衡宇; 张霁; 赵艳丽; 金航; 王元忠

    2015-01-01

    Gentiana rigescens and Swertia mileensis belonged to Gentianaceae are endemic plants in China. Four iri ̄doids ( loganic acid,swertiamarin, gentiopicroside and sweroside) in G�rigescens and S�mileensis were determined by HPLC ̄DAD. Their chemometrics characterizations were analyzed with multiple statistical analyses. The results showed that there were differences of chemometrics characterization of the iridoids between the two species. All the samples of G�rigescens could be classified into four groups based on contents and percentage contents of the four iri ̄doids. Content of loganic acid had significant negative correlation with longitude ( R=-0�348, P0�05) in the study.%龙胆科龙胆属滇龙胆( Gentiana rigescens)与獐牙菜属青叶胆( Swertia mileensis)为我国特有种。采用高效液相色谱法测定其中马钱苷酸、獐牙菜苦苷、龙胆苦苷和当药苷含量,结合多变量分析研究环烯醚萜类成分含量及其构成比例在龙胆科植物种内和种间的差异。研究结果显示,4种环烯醚萜类成分的计量特征呈现种间差异,依据环烯醚萜类成分含量及其构成比例,所有滇龙胆样品可分为4类。马钱苷酸含量与纬度呈极显著负相关( R=-0�348, P0�05)。

  15. 青海省不同产地秦艽花中獐牙菜苷和异荭草苷含量的HPLC分析%Content analysis of sweroside and isoorientin in Gentiana straminea flower from different locations of Qinghai Province by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兴旺; 陈晨; 陶燕铎; 梅丽娟; 邵赟

    2010-01-01

    @@ 秦艽花为龙胆科(Gentianaceae)植物麻花秦艽(Gentiana straminea Maxim.)的干燥花,藏药名为"解吉嘎保",为常用藏药材之一,具有清热解毒的作用,可用于治疗胃肠炎、肝炎及胆囊炎等症[1].

  16. 蓝玉簪颗粒抑制脂多糖诱导大鼠肺泡巨噬细胞TNF-α产生及相关机制研究%Gentiana veitchiorum particles inhibited LPS induced pulmonary alveolar macrophages(AM)TNF-α production and the underlying mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯颖; 曹蔚; 李涛; 刘水冰; 张晓楠; 李旭波; 田琼; 尤福生

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Gentiana veitchiorum particles on the expression of TNF-α in pulmonary alveolar macrophages (AM) which induced by LPS, to explain the mechanism about anti-inflammatory action of Gentiana veitchiorum particles. METHODS: Purification of rat AM, TNF-α level in AM culture supematant was detected by ELISA. Western blot method for detecting the expression of TNF-α and pERK in the AM. While application of ERK antagonist (PD98059) in rat AM and the expression of TNFα was observed by Western blot. RESULTS: Gentiana veitchiorum particles can reduce the LPS induced AM TNF-α increase in dose dependent manner. Gentiana veitchiorum particles (100 mg/L) can significantly reduce the LPS induc ed pERK and TNF-α protein expression in AM. compared with LPS stimulation group, we found that ERK inhibitor ( PD98059 30 mol/L), Gentiana veitchiorum particles intervention and Gentiana veitchiorum particles + PD98059 groups' TNF-α expression were significantly reduced in rat AM. CONCLUSION: Gentiana veitchiorum particles can inhibit the LPS induced pulmonary AM TNF-α expression, one of the possible mechanism is to inhibit the extracailular signal transduction pathway.%目的:探讨蓝玉簪颗粒对脂多糖(LPS)诱导大鼠肺泡巨噬细胞(AM)内TNF-α表达及可能作用机制.方法:分离纯化AM,应用ELISA法检测蓝玉簪颗粒对LPS诱导的大鼠AM培养上清中的TNF-α水平的影响,应用Western blot方法检测大鼠AM内TNF-α及pERK蛋白表达水平,同时应用ERK拮抗剂(PD98059)观察AM内TNF-α蛋白表达.结果:蓝玉簪颗粒可剂量依赖的降低由于LPS刺激导致的AM培养上清内TNF-α含量升高;蓝玉簪(100 mg/L)颗粒可显著降低由于LPS刺激导致的AM细胞内pERK及TNF-α蛋白表达升高;ERK特异性抑制剂(PD98059 30 mol/L)及蓝玉簪颗粒干预,蓝玉簪颗粒+PD98059干预后,我们发现与LPS刺激组相比,大鼠AM中TNF-α表达显著降低.结论:蓝玉

  17. 响应面法优化碱溶性龙胆多糖的提取研究%Optimization Extraction of Alkali-solubility Polysaccharide from Gentiana scabra Bunge by Response Surface Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温钢; 冯凯

    2015-01-01

    For the further development of the alkali‐soluble polysaccharide extraction ,response surface method‐ology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions of alkaline solubility polysaccharides from the Gentiana scabra Bunge .The method of alkali extraction and alcohol sink was used to extract polysaccharides . The effect of extraction times ,extraction temperature ,extraction time ,ratio of water to raw material ,and NaOH concentration on the yield of Gentiana scabra Bunge polysaccharides were investigated .The results showed that combining single factor test and response surface methodology ,the optimum extraction conditions were chosen as follows:extraction temperature was 74℃ ,ratio of water to raw material was 1∶25 ,extraction time was 1 .8 h ,one time extraction and the NaOH concentration was 9% .Under the optimize conditions ,the GSP predicted value of yield was 4 .4% ,and the GSP experimental yield was 4 .32 ± 0 .124% ,the results were reasonable with expectation .%为深入开发提取碱溶性多糖,采用响应面法(RSM )即碱提醇沉法对龙胆多糖进行提取,研究提取次数、提取温度、提取时间、液料比、碱浓度等因素对多糖提取率的影响。结果表明:在单因素试验基础上,结合响应面分析确定了提取碱溶性龙胆多糖的最适工艺条件为,提取温度74℃,料液比1∶25,提取时间1.8h,提取次数为1次,碱浓度为9%。模型预测的碱溶性龙胆多糖的提取率为4.4%,在此最佳提取参数下,碱溶性龙胆多糖的试验提取率为(4.32±0.124)%,与预期值相符。

  18. Дифференциация цветочной почки у Gentiana scabra Bunge

    OpenAIRE

    Сунь, Янь; Нестерова, С.

    2008-01-01

    Авторы приводят результаты исследования дифференциации цветочной Gentiana scabra Bunge. Установлено, что период образования органов цветка в почке длится 50 дней. Выделено 5 этапов дифференциации.

  19. Gentiolactone, a secoiridoid dilactone from Gentiana triflora, inhibits TNF-α, iNOS and Cox-2 mRNA expression and blocks NF-κB promoter activity in murine macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Yamada

    Full Text Available Gentian roots have been used as a herbal medicine because of their anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms of these anti-inflammatory effects remain to be completely explained.Here, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of gentian roots and showed that root extracts from Gentiana triflora inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced expression of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells. The extracts also contained swertiamarin and gentiopicroside, which are the major active compounds of gentian roots; however, neither compound had any effect on LPS-induced TNF-α production in our test system. We isolated gentiolactone as an inhibitor of TNF-α production from the extracts. Gentiolactone also inhibited LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression at the mRNA level. Moreover, gentiolactone suppressed NF-κB transcriptional activity without inhibition of IκB degradation or NF-κB nuclear transport.Our results indicate that inhibition of TNF-α, iNOS and Cox-2 expression by gentiolactone is one of the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory properties of gentian roots.

  20. Effect of Plant Density and Base Fertilizer on The Yield and Agronomic Traits of Gentiana scabra Bge%不同种植密度和基肥对龙胆某些农艺性状的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏云洁; 张舒娜; 张亚玉

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of different density and base fertilizers on agronomic traits of Gentiana sca‐bra Bge .The result showed that plant density have no significantly affected on aerial part traits of Gentiana scabra Bge .The highest value of stem diameter were found in 20 plant per row treatment ,which were significantly higher than 15 plant per row treatment .Plant density have significantly affected on root length ,single root weight and plot yield ,and these values increased with an increase in plant density .The optimum plant density was 20 and 25 plant per row which could promote yield and aerial part growth .Base fertilizer could promote growth except 100g/m2 ,the value of plant heigh ,stem diameter ,leaf length and leaf width all higher than control .For root characters ,the value of root length ,single root weight ,the number of fibrous root and plot yield ,all higher than control except 100g/m2 treatment .Comprehensive analysis of agronomic traits ,the optimum applied amount of chemical fertilizer was 75g/m2 .%通过对龙胆草种植密度及基肥的试验研究,分析二者对龙胆草地上部和地下部农艺性状的影响。结果表明,不同种植密度对龙胆草地上部性状株高、叶长和叶宽影响不大,各处理之间差异不显著,茎粗以20株/行处理最好,与15株/行之间差异达到显著水平。根部各性状随着种植密度的增加而增加,尤其对根长、根重和小区产量的影响达到显著水平,龙胆种植密度以25株/行和20株/行处理比较好,可促进植株生长,并能提高其产量;复合肥基肥试验中,除100g/m2处理外,各处理地上部株高、茎粗、叶长和叶宽值均高于对照,对植株生长起到促进作用;地下部各性状,除100g/m2处理外,各处理根长、根粗、须根数、根重和小区产量值均高于或显著高于对照,综合分析龙胆植株各生长性状和产量性状以75g/m2处理最好。

  1. Optimization of Extraction of Water-solubility Polysaccharide from Gentiana scabra Bunge by Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化水溶性龙胆多糖的提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨瑜; 刘鑫; 张晶; 王战勇

    2014-01-01

    采用响应面设计法(RSM)优化水溶性龙胆多糖的提取条件。在单因素试验基础上,结合响应面法优化确定提取水溶性龙胆多糖的最适工艺条件如下:提取温度100℃,料液比1∶26.56(g/mL),提取时间3 h,提取次数2次。此条件下,水溶性龙胆多糖的提取率预测值为13.51%,水溶性龙胆多糖的试验提取率为(13.36±0.25)%,预测值与验证值吻合较好。%Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions of water-solubility polysaccharides from the Gentiana scabra Bunge (GSP). Combining single factor test and response surface methodology, the optimum extraction conditions were chosen as follows:extraction temperature was 100℃, ratio of water to raw material was 26.56, extraction time was 3 h, and number of extraction was 2. Under the optimize conditions, the predicted value of yield of GSP was 13.51%, and the experimental yield of GSP was(13.36± 0.25)%, which showed the results were reasonable.

  2. 环境因子对濒危药用植物秦艽种子萌发的影响%Effect of Environmental Factors on Endangered Medicinal Plant Gentiana macrophylla Seed Germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯茜; 胡锋; 张帆; 龙凤

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨环境因子对濒危药用植物秦艽种子萌发的影响,为秦艽资源的保护从种子方面提供理论依据。方法:测定秦艽种子千粒重、电导率及光照、积水、不同深度土壤覆盖种子的发芽率。结果:甘肃4个不同地区秦艽种子的千粒重、活力及发芽势、发芽率均有差别。光照不足、积水过多,土壤覆盖较深,都可降低秦艽种子的萌发率。结论:光照、积水、不同深度土壤覆盖等环境因子是影响秦艽种子萌发的重要因素。%Objective:To investigate the effects of environmental factors on Gentiana macrophylla seed germination and provide a theoretical basis for the protection of G.macrophylla seed resources.Methods:The grain seed weight, conductivity rats,light radiation,water contents around environment,and seed germination rate in the coverage by the different depth soil was determined in the experiment.Results:There existed some differences among different seeds collected from four regions in the grain weight,vigor,germination potential and germination rate.Insufficient light,too much water, the deeper soil cover might reduce seed germination rate.Conclusion:Light radiation,water contents around environment, different soil depth coverage and other environmental factors may play an important role on G.macrophylla seed germination respectively.

  3. 深红龙胆的潜在分布区预测及适生性分级%Prediction of Potential Distribution Areas of Gentiana rubicunda and Its Suitability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许春梅; 贺水莲; 杨扬; 邵青; 吴红芝

    2015-01-01

    深红龙胆具有很高的观赏价值和药用价值,但因其生境特殊,引种栽培非常困难,目前对其利用全部为野生资源。本研究利用MaxEnt和ArcGIS软件对深红龙胆的适生区进行生态位模拟。结果表明,深红龙胆的最佳适生区主要集中在贵州、四川、重庆等地,适生区几乎覆盖华中、华南及华东的大部分省市。对环境变量进行刀切法发现,在19个环境变量中,最冷季平均温度对分布模型的贡献率达50.2%,最热季平均温度、最热季降雨量、最湿季降雨量、最湿季平均温度和极端最高温5个环境变量对分布模型的贡献率不超过0.1%。研究结果将为深红龙胆引种、驯化、栽培及其他相关研究提供参考。%Gentiana rubicunda has very important ornamental and medicinal value.Since its introduction and cul-tivation are difficult because of its special habitat , it could only be used from wild resources .MaxEnt niche model-ing and ArcGIS software were applied to predict the potential distribution of G.rubicunda.The results showed that G.rubicunda is mainly distributed in Guizhou, Sichuan province and Chongqing municipality, and could survive in east, center and south of China.The Jackknife analyses of environmental variable showed that the MaxEnt contri-bution rate of mean temperature of coldest quarter reached 50.2 %.However, contribution of precipitation of the wettest season , max temperature of the warmest month , mean temperature of the warmest season , precipitation of the warmest season and mean temperature of the wettest season was no more than 0.1 %.The ecological niche modeling of G.rubicunda could provide a fundamental guidance for introduction and cultivation of this species.

  4. Identification of endophyte from Gentiana nubigena and antagonism on the Valsa marl%龙胆内生菌的分离鉴定及其对苹果腐烂病菌的诂抗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海东; 李晓雁; 杨红澎; 卢显芝; 韩影

    2012-01-01

    从云雾龙胆中分离到内生菌LD-bl,通过形态观察、生理生化实验和16SrDNA系统进化分析,鉴定其为短小芽孢杆菌(Bacilluspumilus)。该菌株的发酵上清液对苹果腐烂病菌的生长有显著的拮抗作用,拮抗活性物质对80℃以下的温度有一定耐受能力;在pH5-10之间均有一定活性,对低pH更敏感;50μg/mL的蛋白酶K在37℃条件下处理1h可以使其抑菌活性完全丧失。抑茵曲线测定结果表明,摇瓶发酵48h时内生茵LD-bl的抑菌活性最高,在苹果粟宴卜卅腐措病府抽且右明显曲抑制作用。%Endophytic strain LD-b] was isolated from Gentiana nubigena. According to the characteristics of morphology,physiology and biochemistry tests and the comparison of 16S rDNA sequence, strain LD-b1 was identified as Bacillus pumilus.The fermentation broth of LD-b1 showed antagonism activities against Valsa mali.The antibiotic active substance was stable to the temperature lower than 80%,and the pH range from 5 to 10, but more susceptible to lower pH.The antifungla activity lost under the treatment with 50μg/mL proteinase K in the conditions of 37℃ longer than 1h.The results of shaking flask fermentation curves showed antibiotic activities reached the maximum at 48h.The lesion diameter was smaller obviously when apple fruits were treated with LD-bi.

  5. HPLC波长切换法同时测定粗茎秦艽中6个成分的含量%HPLC with switching wavelength simultaneous determination of six constituents in Gentiana crassicaulis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋九华; 杨文钰; 孟杰; 李瑶; 曾羽; 成涛; 陈兴福

    2014-01-01

    To establish an HPLC with switching wavelength method for determination of six components( loganic acid,swertiamarin, gentiopicroside,sweroside,isoorientin,isovitexin)in Gentiana crassicaulis. Sepax Gp-C18(150 mm × 4. 6 mm,5 μm)column was used,the mobile phase was methanol-0. 1%phosphoric acid solution with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL·min-1 . The col-umn temperature was set at 25℃,detection wavelength was 235 nm(0~51 min)、270 nm(51~57 min)、243 nm(57~65 min)、270 nm(65~80 min). The six components(loganic acid,swertiamarin,gentiopicroside,sweroside,isoorientin,isovitexin)content in the ranges of 0. 01000 ~10. 0000,0. 00216 ~2. 1600,0. 048 ~48. 0000,0. 0010 ~1. 0000,0. 00034 ~0. 3400 and 0. 00026 ~0. 2600 μg respectively,had a good linearity. The average recoveries were 98. 52% ~99. 31%,the RSD was less than 3. 5%. There were significant correlations between the content of the four iridoid glucosides,the content of the two flavone constituents had corre-lations too. There was no correlations between the flavone constituents and the iridoid glucosides constituents. Conclusion:This meth-od was simple,rapid,accurate,dependable. And may be use to control quality of Gentiana crassicaulis.%本实验建立了HPLC波长切换法同时测定云南丽江粗茎秦艽中马钱苷酸、獐牙菜苦苷、龙胆苦苷、獐牙菜苷、异荭草苷、异牡荆苷6种成分的含量,并对各成分含量间的相关性进行分析,为粗茎秦艽药材质量的全面评价提供了科学依据。采用Sepax Gp-C18(150 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm)色谱柱,甲醇-0.1%磷酸为流动相体系,梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL·min-1,柱温25℃,检测波长235 nm(0~51 min)、270 nm(51~57 min)、243 nm(57~65 min)、270 nm(65~80 min)。马钱苷酸、獐牙菜苦苷、龙胆苦苷、獐牙菜苷、异荭草苷、异牡荆苷的量分别在0.01000~10.0000、0.00216~2.1600、0.0480~48.0000、0.0010~1.0000、0.00034~0.3400、0.00026~0.2600

  6. Optimal Electrical Parameters of Transdermal Delivery of Gentiana Aqueous Solution under the Electroporation Condition%电致孔条件下秦艽水提液体内外透皮给药最优电学参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程昊; 杨文婧; 甄小龙; 唐斌斌; 郝保华

    2009-01-01

    目的 探索电致孔条件下秦艽水提液体外透皮给药与体内透皮给药的最优电学参数并研究其相关性.方法 采用双室扩散池,用电致孔导入仪产生多种电学参数条件,分别以离体和活体小鼠皮肤为透皮屏障进行秦艽药液电致孔条件下经皮渗透实验,以HPLC测定接收池中龙胆苦苷含量,确定最优的电学参数并考察其相关性.结果 电致孔条件下秦艽水提液体外透皮给药的最优电学参数条件为脉冲电压300 V、脉冲时间1.1 ms、波形SW、脉冲频率140个·min~(-1)、脉冲数300个;体内透皮给药的最优电学参数条件为脉冲电压300 V、脉冲时间1.2 ms、波形SW、脉冲频率140个min~(-1)、脉冲数300个,显示二者最优电学参数条件基本一致.结论 电致孔条件下秦艽水提液体外透皮与体内透皮吸收之间相关性良好,故可利用体外实验研究药物的透皮规律,与此同时进行体内研究保证临床用药安全,为开发新型透皮给药系统提供了依据.%OBJECTIVE To explore the optimal electrical parameters of the transdermal delivery of Gentiana aqueous solution in vitro and in vivo under the electroporation condition,and to study its relevance.METHODS The electrical parameters were determined using the two-chambered diffusion cell and the electroporation equipment.The percutaneous penetration experiments on Gentiana aqueous solution were performed with the ex vivo and in vivo rat skin repectively the transdemal barrier.The content of gentiopicroside in the receiving pool was measured by HPLC and the optimal electrical parameters were determined.The relevance,and the content of lactate dehydrogenase in vitro and in vivo rat skin under the electroporation condition were detected.RESULTS Under the electroporation condition,the optimal electrical parameters in vitro transdermal delivery were as follows:pulse voltage 300V,pulse duration 1.1 ms,waveform SW,pulse frequency 140 pulse·min~(-1),pulse

  7. Estimating method for insolation installed to the north side; Kitagawa keishamen nissharyo no suiteiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, H.; Matsuda, N. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    So as to deal with the trend of installing photovoltaic modules on the north side, a study was made for an expanded application of the insolation data published by Japan Weather Association (which do not include data of insolation on the north side). On the basis of the Association data of the daily amount of insolation on the horizontal plane for the same month and spot, insolation quantity was calculated for every hour for a given azimuth (including the north plane) and angle of inclination by use of a program that had already been developed. With the angle of inclination serving as the parameter, insolation quantities were plotted on the ordinate and azimuths on the abscissa. Although there was difference in absolute value between the Association data and calculated data, supposition was made that the two curves were alike, and this enabled estimation based on the Association data to be expanded to apply to the north side inclined surfaces. It was verified that there was excellent agreement between the Association data curve and calculated data curve in the case of observation for angles not larger than 60{degree} at Kochi, Shizuoka, and Kyoto. Larger angles accompany some error in insolation quantities on inclined surfaces, but this was not so serious as to impede the application of the method. North plane coefficients were determined for the above three spots and insolation quantities on north side inclined surfaces (30{degree} and 60{degree}) were measured. Results of calculations to be carried out for all the 225 spots will be released. 1 ref., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Relationship between biomass in ground and underground parts of Gentiana macrophylla and its rhizosphere microbial community structure%秦艽地上和地下生物量与其根际微生物群落结构关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 梁健; 安毅; 秦源; 南春燕

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究秦艽Gentiana macrophylla地上和地下生物量与其根际微生物群落结构关系.方法 采用平板培养法测定秦艽根际微生物群落组成.结果 人工栽培秦艽根际细菌、氨化细菌和固氮菌数量均显著高于野生种类;野生和人工栽培秦艽根际细菌、氨化细菌和固氮菌数量在高海拔样点最高;人工栽培秦艽地上和地下生物量均显著高于野生种类;秦艽生物量与根际细菌、氨化细菌和固氮菌数量呈正相关.结论 秦艽人工栽培应充分满足其生态要求,尽量在秦艽适宜生长的高海拔低温山区栽培;合理供给氮肥,接种合适的菌肥并增加其土壤微生物总数量可提高秦艽的产量.%Objective To study the relationship between the biomass in ground and underground parts of Gentiana macrophylla and its rhizosphere microbial community structure. Methods The composition of rhizosphere microorganism of G. Macrophylla was measured with plate counting method. Results The number of rhizosphere bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria of cultivated G. Macrophylla is significantly higher than that of wild species; The number of rhizosphere bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria of wild and cultivated G. Macrophylla samples was the highest at high altitude; The biomass in ground and underground parts of cultivated G. Macrophylla was significantly higher than that of wild species; The number of rhizosphere bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria with the biomass of G. Macrophylla assumed the remarkable positive correlation. Conclusion The artificial cultivation and management should fully meet the requirements of ecological conditions of G. Macrophylla, as far as possible in the suitable mountainous area of high altitude and low temperature; To improve its production we should pay attention to a reasonable supply of nitrogen, right vaccination of bacterial fertilizer, and

  9. Phenotypic Diversity and Environment Relationsin Gentiana rigescens of Yunnan%云南滇龙胆居群表型多样性及其与环境关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨维泽; 金航; 杨美权; 赵振玲; 张智慧; 王元忠; 张金渝

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal the variation degree and variation pattern of the phenotypic in Gentiana rigescens. Twenty phenotypic traits of 400 individuals from twenty natural population accessions belonging five areas were investigated. Phenotypic variation between and within the populations of G. rigescens was analyzed by the coefficient of variation,Shannon-Weiner diversity index and nested variance analysis methods, and the pattern of variation morphological traits and geographical factors were analyzed by correlation analysis. The twenty populations of G. rigescens were classified by using cluster analysis. The results showed that,the highest phenotypic variation of O. rigescens was in Chuxiong region (CV=39.8%), the lowest variation was in Kunming region (CV= 31.4 %). Twenty phenotypic traits in different natural populations were significantly different. The coefficients of variation were in the range: 14.4%~91.8%, and the average value was 40.4% ,and the average value was between 26.8%~37.0% in 20 natural populations. The phenotypic differentiation was higher in G. rigescens. The highest and the lowest differentiation coefficients were 36.03% and 91.94% ,respectively,and the average was 73.14%. Between-population variation comprised a majority of total phenotypic variation. The average diversity index was 2. 547 by the total twenty phenotype traits,and there were different among the five different areas,the highest was Chuxiong and the lowest was Yuxi,the diversity index were 1. 271 4 and 1. 266 7,respectively. According to correlation analysis,the longitude and rainfall could significantly affect the phenotypic variation of G. rigescens. However, the latitude,altitude, and temperature did not reveal significant effect. Cluster analysis by twenty phenotypic traits,showed that the twenty populations of G. rigescens were divided into three groups, and the phenotypic traits not in same group by the near geographical distances. In conclusions

  10. Content Determination of Isoorientin in Different Parts of Tibetan Medicine Gentiana straminea Maxim. Based on RP-HPLC Method%基于RP-HPLC法的藏药麻花艽不同部位异荭草素含量的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂颖杰; 林鹏程

    2010-01-01

    [目的]建立麻花艽(Gentiana straminea Maxim.)不同部位中异荭草素的RP-HPLC检测方法.[方法]色谱条件为:Hypersil ODS柱(4.6 mm×250.0 mm,5 μm),以40%甲醇-水溶液(含0.02 %磷酸)等度洗脱,流速1 ml/min,柱温35 ℃,检测波长254 nm.[结果]在设定的色谱条件下,异荭草素与其他组分达到基线分离,线性范围为0.089 9~0.539.0 μg,r= 0.999 9.加标回收率为99.7%,RSD为0.49%.[结论]方法快速、准确,结果可靠.

  11. ЧИСЛО ХРОМОСОМ И ГИБРИДИЗАЦИЯ ГОРЕЧАВКИ ШЕРОХОВАТОЙ (GENTIANA SCABRA BUNGE) И ГОРЕЧАВКИ ТРЕХЦВЕТКОВОЙ (GENTIANA TRIFLORA PALL.) НА ЮГЕ ПРИМОРСКОГО КРАЯ РОССИИ

    OpenAIRE

    ЛИЦЗЕ ЮЙ; СИНЬСИНЬ ЛИ; ЯНЬ СУНЬ

    2016-01-01

    Изучены числа хромосом и проведены эксперименты по искусственной гибридизации лекарственных растений Gentiana scabra Bunge и G. triflora Pall., широко используемых в Китае. На обширном материале показано, что оба вида характеризуются одним и тем же числом хромосом (2n=26), что может способ-ствовать успешной гибридизации этих видов. Для G. triflora число хромосом установлено впервые. В условиях культуры были получены гибриды этих видов и проанализирована их фертильность. Установлено, что в вар...

  12. Environ: E00280 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00280 Gentiana macrophylla root (non-JP) Gentianae macrophyllae radix Large gentia...n root Crude drug Alkaloid, Gentianin [CPD:C06525], Gentianidine Gentiana macrophylla [TAX:50765], Gentiana ...straminea [TAX:50768], Gentiana crassicaulis [TAX:308434], Gentiana dahurica [TAX:225203] Same as: D10233 Gentianaceae (genti...an family) Gentiana macrophylla, Gentiana straminea, Gentiana crassicaulis, Genti

  13. 糙龙胆生长关键期主要性状的遗传参数及相关性研究%Study on Correlation Between Genetic Parameters of Main Traites Expressed in the Key Growing Stage of Gentiana scabra Bunge.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏云洁; 王志清; 孔祥义; 赵亚会

    2011-01-01

    The correlation between traits and genetic parameters expressed in three years old gentiana scabra in the key growing stage was analysied in this experiment The results showed that coefficient of variation of stem diameter, tille mumber, branches and bud numbers was bigger in the bud stage. Especially, there was a significent correlation between the bud numbers and branches. These results demonstrate that there was significent difference between the sigle plants. That is to say, these characters could be used as seleccn'on standard in breeding. In stuge of root weight gain, the coefficient of variation of stem diameter, tille rnumber, hair root number and hair root weight was bigger,which was about 50%. There were extremely significant correlation or significant correlation between hair root weight and stem diameter, tille mumber, hair root number,hair root diameter which were four characters correlated with high yeild. Thus, when we selcted the characters in breeding process, we should act in bud stage and root weight gain.%本试验对3年生糙龙胆生长关键期主要性状的遗传参数及性状间相关性进行了分析.结果表明,孕蕾期以茎粗、分蘖数、分枝数和花蕾数性状变异系数较大,在品种选育中选择潜力较大.其中,与种子产量性状和花蕾数呈极显著相关的分枝数可作为种子高产目标的相关性状.根增重期以茎粗、分蘖数、须根数、根重4个性状变异系数较大,变异系数均在50%左右;根重与茎粗、须根数、分蘖数、根粗呈极显著或显著相关,这4个性状可作为糙龙胆高产目标的相关性状.糙龙胆选择育种的最佳时期为孕蕾期和根增重期.

  14. THE PRIMARY REPORT OF CROSS- BREEDING BETWEEN THREE ORIGINAL SPECIES OF GUAN- LONGDAN AND THEIR VARIATIONS%关龙胆三种原植物及其变异的杂交初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙阎; 王臣; 刘樱; 刘鸣远

    2003-01-01

    本文对关龙胆的三种原植物东北龙胆( Gentiana manshurica Kitag )、粗糙龙胆(G. scabra Bunge)、三花龙胆(G.triflora Pall.)及东北龙胆的栽培变异型(宽叶、白花、粉花)的杂交亲和性及杂交种子的质量进行了研究,结果表明它们彼此之间都是杂交可育的,而以东北龙胆为母本的各杂交组合其单果种子的净重及饱满种子所占比例皆有优势.

  15. 龙胆草的价值与栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海洋; 张守平

    2002-01-01

    @@ 龙胆草为龙胆科龙胆属植物.在中草药中称龙胆、胆草、苦胆草.主要为粗糙龙胆(Gentiana scabra Bunge.),别名龙胆.除本种外,尚有东北龙胆(G.manshurica Kitag.),别名条叶龙胆,三花龙胆(G.triflora Pall.)均可药用.龙胆草是目前几种畅销中草药之一,国内市场年需求量在150万公斤以上,市场供不应求,售价30~40元/kg

  16. TINDAK TUTUR MEMOHON DALAM BAHASA JEPANG (IRAI: ANALISIS SKENARIO DRAMA TELEVISI JEPANG LOVE STORY KARYA ERIKO KITAGAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Susanti

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to know the social and cultural factors in the speech acts regarding requests in Japanese. Data were taken from the Japanese drama entitled Love Story. Analysis was done qualitatively by identifying, classifying, and explaining. The result indicated that there were three factors influencing the speech acts of requests in Japanese, those are the situation; the relationship between the speaker and the hearer; and the third is the social status, social interaction, and age. It is concluded that the speech does not mainly concern that the meaning should be easily understood but it also has to consider the socio cultural factor of the spreaker.  

  17. ЦВЕТЕНИЕ И ПЛОДОНОШЕНИЕ РАСТЕНИЙ GENTIANA SCABRA BUNGE И G. TRIFLORA PALL. НА ЮГЕ ПРИМОРСКОГО КРАЯ РОССИИ

    OpenAIRE

    Янь, Чжиюань; Сунь, Янь; Царенко, Н.

    2009-01-01

    Изложены результаты наблюдений за цветением и плодоношением двух видов горечавок (Gentiana scabra Bunge и G. triflora Pall.) на юге Приморского края. Установлено, что основными насекомыми-опылителями являются шмели. Выявлены оптимальные сроки для проведения работ по гибридизации. Отмечено, что при выращивании растений в культуре не нарушаются сроки прохождения основных фенологических фаз....

  18. 秦艽1-羟基-2-甲基-2-(E)-丁烯基-4-焦磷酸还原酶基因(GmHDR)的克隆和表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase gene (GmHDR)from Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑文; 孔维维; 郑鹏; 化文平

    2015-01-01

    Secoiri doids,such as gentiopicroside,are the main active compounds in “Qinj iao”,a traditional Chinese herbal medicine derived from the dried roots of Gentiana macrophylla.These compounds have widely biological and pharmacological effects,such as stomachic,choleretic,anti-hepatotoxic activities,anti-inflammatory,antifungal and antihistamine activities.Secoiridoids belonged to monoterpenoid,were biosynthesized via the secoiridoid pathway (sometimes also called“ridoid pathway”)in high plant.1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl-4-diphosphate reductase (HDR)is one of the key enzymes in the pathway of iridoid biosynthesis.In this paper,we cloned the gene sequence of HDR from G.macrophylla,and analyzed the characteristic of sequence and expression patterns in order to know its roles in secoiridoid biosynthesis.Based on our library generated by high-through sequencing of G.macrophylla transcriptome,we cloned HDR gene from G.macrophylla(named as GmHDR)by RT-PCR.And the GmHDR coding amino acid sequence characterization,such as physicochemical characteristics,signal peptide,transit peptide, subcellular localization,conserved domain and secondary structure,analyzed with bioinformatics methods.Then we also detected the expression patterns of GmHDR in different parts of G.macrophylla by real time PCR.One 1 630-bp length sequence of GmHDR gene was obtained from G.macrophylla.GmHDR contains a completed open read-ing frame (ORF)of 1 392 bp,which encoded a polypeptide with 463 amino acids.GmHDR,the encoding protein by GmHDR,has high homology (identities ≥ 84%)to HDR proteins from Rauvolfia verticillata,Tanacetum parthenium and other plants.One neighbor joining tree was constructed to show evolution ship between GmHDR and HDR proteins from other plants using MEGA5.2 soft.The phylogenetic tree also gave a same conclusion that Gm-HDR had a closed relation with HDR proteins from Catharanthus roseus and Rauvolfia verticillata.Further analysis with bioinformatics methods showed

  19. Effects of Boron, Zinc, and Iron on the Gentiopicroside Content and Yield of Gentian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A field experiment of 2-year-old gentian (Gentiana manshurica Kitag.) with application of boron (B), zinc (Zn),and iron (Fe) in Taikang County, Heilongjiang Province, was conducted to study the effects of the three microelements on gentiopicroside content in the roots of gentian, uptake of these elements, and root dry weight as well as the ratio of root dry weight to fresh weight. Zinc sulfate, ferrous sulfate, and borax were split sprinkled on 2-year-old gentian on June 26, July 18, and August 25, 2002, with sprinkling water taken as a control. Compared with the control, applying Bsignificantly increased (P < 0.05) the gentiopicroside content by 7.9%, and there was a highly significant increase of 22.4%(P < 0.01) in the root dry weight. Meanwhile, B content in the shoots of gentian gradually increased from the vegetative to the harvesting period, while Fe decreased at first and then increased. Fe treatment increased the gentiopicroside content only by 4.0% and the content was slightly decreased by the Zn treatment (3.1%) as compared to the control. The three microelements had different effects on the gentiopicroside content and appropriate microelement application could increase active ingredient content of gentian.

  20. Environ: E00629 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00629 Gentiana lourerii herb Crude drug Gentiana lourerii, Gentiana [TAX:21496] Gentianaceae (genti...an family) Gentiana lourerii herb (dried Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Gentianaceae (gentian family) E00629 Gentiana lourerii herb ...

  1. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside, a water-soluble antioxidant isolated from Gentiana arisanensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, F N; Chu, C C; Lin, C N; Chang, C C; Teng, C M

    1998-01-15

    The antioxidant activities of isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside were studied using various models. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside was more potent than Trolox, probucol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in reducing the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). It also scavenged superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals that were generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase, 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) and Fe3+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 system, respectively. The IC50 value, stoichiometry factor and second-order rate constant were 9.0+/-0.8 microM, 1.8+/-0.1 and 2.6 X 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) for superoxide generation, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals. However, isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not inhibit xanthine oxidase activity or scavenge hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), carbon radical or 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl-valeronitrile) (AMVN)-derived peroxyl radical in hexane. Isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside inhibited Cu2+-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as measured by fluorescence intensity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance formation and electrophoretic mobility. Since isoorientin-6"-O-glucoside did not possess pro-oxidant activity, it may be an effective water-soluble antioxidant that can prevent LDL against oxidation.

  2. Microencapsulated bitter compounds (from Gentiana lutea) reduce daily energy intakes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennella, Ilario; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ferracane, Rosalia; Arlorio, Marco; Pattarino, Franco; Vitaglione, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter

  3. 秦艽与龙胆挥发油的化学成分及抗炎活性研究%Composition and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from Gentiana crassicaulis and Gentiana scabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何希瑞; 李茂星; 尚小飞; 贾正平; 张汝学

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from the roots of G. crassicaulis Duthie ex Burkand G. scabra Bunge in vivo and in vitro. Methods The easential oils were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) , and the chemical components of the essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of the easential oils were investigated with a cellular model of LPS-stimulated RAW264. 7 cell and xylene-induced ear edema in mice. Results The es sential oils were transparent and full aroma, and 29, 40 compounds were identified from G. crassicaulis and C. scabra reapectively, The essential oils of G. crassicaulis and C. seabra ( GCEO and GSEO) showed a good performance of inhibiting NO production and xy lene-induced ear edema in mice with a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion GCEO and GSEO had excellent anti-inflammatory activi ties in vivo and in vitro, and thus had great potential to be further studied on the active anti-inflammatory ingredients.%目的 研究秦艽和龙胆挥发油的化学成分和体内外抗炎活性.方法 超临界CO:萃取秦艽和龙胆地下部分的挥发油;采用气相色谱-质谱联用方法分析萃取物的成分;采用LPS刺激小鼠巨噬细胞RAW264.7细胞炎症和二甲苯致小鼠耳肿胀试验,观察所得挥发油体内外抗炎活性.结果 所得挥发油透明、橙黄、有浓郁的香味.通过GC-MS分析,从秦艽和龙胆挥发油中分别鉴定出29个和40个化合物.药理实验表明,秦艽和龙胆挥发油均能显著抑制由脂多糖诱导的巨噬细胞NO释放和二甲苯引起的小鼠耳廓肿胀,且存在一定的剂量依赖性.结论 秦艽和龙胆挥发油在体内外均显示了出色的抗炎活性,有望从中分离新的抗炎活性成分.

  4. 龙胆的化学成分研究%Study on the chemical constituent of Gentiana scabra Bge.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明韬; 韩志超; 章漳; 吴立军

    2005-01-01

    目的对龙胆的化学成分进行研究.方法采用硅胶柱色谱、凝胶柱色谱进行分离,通过理化和波谱分析方法鉴定化合物结构.结果从乙酸乙酯层分离得到6个化合物,分别为:山奈酚(kaempferol,Ⅰ)、L-芝麻脂素(L-sesamin,Ⅱ)、水杨酸(salicylic acid,Ⅲ)、阿魏酸(ferulic acid,Ⅳ)、齐墩果酸(oleanolic acid,V)、pranferin(Ⅵ).其中化合物Ⅵ为本属中首次发现.

  5. Genome variability of some Gentiana L. species in nature and in culture in vitro: RAPD-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konvalyuk I. I.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Investigation of intraspecies and somaclonal variability of G. acaulis, G. cruciata and G. punctata. Methods. Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR, gel-electrophoresis. Results. It was established a species specificity for indicators of gentians genetic heterogeneity – the proportion of polymorphic amplicons and genetic distances. A level of intraspecies variation decreased in the direction of G. acaulis > G. punctata >G. cruciata. Changes in gentians tissue culture by the proportion of polymorphic amplicons were shown to vary within the range of 10–15 % and failed to extend beyond the intraspecies variation. Conclusions. Genome variation of G. acaulis, G. cruciata and G. punctata was studied through the use of RAPD-PCR. The gentians were found to be characterized by different variability in both nature and culture in vitro. In the tissue culture there were discovered considerably smaller number changes as compared to intraspecies variation.

  6. NaCl胁迫对秦艽种子萌发的影响%Effects of salt stress towards seed germination of Gentiana macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡子平; 王宏霞; 漆燕玲

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同浓度NaC1溶液对秦艽种子萌发的影响.结果表明:高浓度NaC1对秦艽种子的萌发有明显的抑制作用,种子的发芽率与盐浓度之间呈显著的负相关.低浓度NaC1(≤50mmol/L) 进种子萌发,高浓度的NaC1(≥150mmol/L)抑制种子萌发:种子萌发时盐胁迫的适宜值、临界值、极限值分别是51.14、160.46、204.26mmol/L.

  7. Identifying genetic signatures of selection in a non-model species, alpine gentian (Gentiana nivalis L.), using a landscape genetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothwell, H.; Bisbing, S.; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    environmental factors driving potentially adaptive genetic variation in G. nivalis. Techniques presented in this paper offer an efficient method for identifying potentially adaptive genetic variation and associated environmental forces of selection, providing an important step forward for the conservation......It is generally accepted that most plant populations are locally adapted. Yet, understanding how environmental forces give rise to adaptive genetic variation is a challenge in conservation genetics and crucial to the preservation of species under rapidly changing climatic conditions. Environmental...... variation, phylogeographic history, and population demographic processes all contribute to spatially structured genetic variation, however few current models attempt to separate these confounding effects. To illustrate the benefits of using a spatially-explicit model for identifying potentially adaptive...

  8. Study on Extraction of Water-solubility Polysaccharide from Gentiana scabra Bunge%水溶性龙胆多糖的提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨瑜; 刘鑫; 张晶; 王战勇

    2013-01-01

    以龙胆为试材,采用水提醇沉法,在单因素试验基础上,进行L9(33)正交实验优化设计,研究了水溶性龙胆多糖的最佳提取工艺条件,以期考查提取温度、提取时间、提取次数、液料比等因素对多糖提取率的影响.结果表明:提取温度100℃,料液比1∶25,提取时间3.0h,提取次数2次,此时水溶性龙胆多糖的提取率最高,可达(14.0±0.37)%.

  9. Studies on miniplant cutting propagation of potted Gentiana scabra Bunge%盆栽龙胆的微体扦插繁殖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国良; 李林; 赵永艳; 闫小红

    2004-01-01

    本试验采用5种不同扦插基质及4种不同规格的盆栽龙胆插穗进行微体扦插繁殖试验.结果表明,70%泥炭+30%珍珠岩较适宜龙胆扦插、生根,插穗长度以3节插穗为好.

  10. Research for the Best Extracting-craftwork about Available Component of Gentiana scabra Bunge%正交设计龙胆提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳; 王英平

    2007-01-01

    目的 建立龙胆最佳提取工艺,为龙胆临床及药理研究奠定基础.方法 试验采用超声提取法,以溶剂浓度(A)、超声时间(B)和料液比(C)为三因素,设计正交试验,优化龙胆提取工艺;同时,应用HPLC测定各组合龙胆苦苷含量.结果 影响因素最大的是溶剂浓度,其次是超声时间,影响最小的是料液比.结论 各因素较优的水平组合为A2B3C1,即用乙醇浓度为50%、超声时间为70min、料液比为1:4的条件下,提取龙胆得膏率最高.

  11. Recent progress in hybrid materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Clément; Shea, Kenneth J; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2011-02-01

    This themed issue of Chemical Society Reviews reviews recent progress made in hybrid materials science. Guest editors Clément Sanchez, Susumu Kitagawa and Ken Shea introduce the issue and the academic and industrial importance of the field.

  12. The sequences of the spacer region between the atpF and atpA genes in the plastid genome allows discrimination among three varieties of medicinal Angelica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Keizo; Hishida, Atsuyuki; Nakamura, Ikuo; Shibata, Toshiro

    2006-05-01

    The dried roots of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa var. acutiloba Kitagawa, A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. iwatensis Hikino and A. acutiloba Kitagawa var. sugiyamae Hikino have been used as the herbal medicine known in Japan as Japanese Angelica Root. The respective morphological features of, in particular, A. acutiloba var. sugiyamae and A. acutiloba var. iwatensis are similar, and they are not easy to distinguish morphologically from each other. In an attempt to find a method for discriminating among these three varieties, we compared the nucleotide sequence of the spacer region between the atpF and atpA genes among the respective plastid genomes. Comparison of these sequences allowed us to identify each of the three varieties unequivocally.

  13. Preparative Separation of Gentiopicrin from Gentiana scabra Bunge by High Speed Counter Current Chromatography%HSCCC法分离制备龙胆有效成分龙胆苦苷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳; 王英平; 刘继永; 焉石; 孙成贺; 许世泉

    2007-01-01

    目的:采用高速逆流色谱技术(HSCCC)从龙胆中分离制备高纯度龙胆苦苷.方法:利用制备型高速逆流色谱仪,以氯仿-甲醇-正丁醇-水(5:4:2:4)为溶剂系统对龙胆甲醇粗提物进行分离,上相为固定相,下相为流动相,转速为820 r/min,流速为2.0 ml/min.结果:所得龙胆苦苷经HPLC分析,纯度达到96.68%(峰面积百分比).结论:此研究为其他环烯醚萜苷的分离纯化提供了依据.

  14. Study on the Characters of Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Gentiana scabra Bunge%东北龙胆草种子萌发和幼苗生长特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程云清; 耿立威; 刘剑锋

    2008-01-01

    [目的]为龙胆草育苗技术、播种期和田间管理的确定提供科学依据.[方法]以东北龙胆草的种子为试材,通过种子活力测定和时比发芽试验研究龙胆草种子萌发和幼苗生长的特征.[结果]龙胆草种子的净度为56.50%,优良度为55.80%,千粒重为24.35 mg.在恒温25℃和光照条件下种子平均萌发率为53.8%±1.5%,略低于四唑染色的测定结果(54.7%),但差异不显著.在30、25、20和15℃下,龙胆草的主根生长量和生物量分别为(7.504±0.365)、(13.488±0.674)、(12.236±0.512)、(6.752±0.326)mm和(0.085±0.004)、(0.289±0.014)、(0.264±0.013)、(0.185±0.009)mg.100%、50%、25%光照强度和暗处理下龙胆草的主根生长量和生物量分别为(5.974±0.756)、(9.425±0.405)、(12.547±0.198)、(13.524±0.602)mm和(0.185±0.007)、(0.308±0.024)、(0.318±0.014)、(0.127±0.011)mg.[结论]在东北龙胆草育苗时,应选25℃的温度条件,同时进行适度遮阴.

  15. 粗糙龙胆龙胆苦苷含量的标准化测定与提取方法%The Method of Determination and Extracting of Gentiopicroside Loading in Gentiana Scabra Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中跃; 王洪峰; 王富献; 穆立蔷; 王臣

    2014-01-01

    应用高相液相色谱法测定粗糙龙胆根的龙胆苦苷含量,探讨更准确、简便和经济的标准化测量和提取方法.测定紫外检测波长270nm.龙胆标准曲线[回归方程为:Y=7.20e+006X-1.96e+003,r=0.99967.龙胆苦苷平均回收率为98.19%,RSD=4.2%.稳定实验中含量的保留时间的RSD=0.3%,峰面积的RSD=4.1%,含量的RSD=3.9%,12小时内稳定.精密度实验中的峰面积积分值的RSD=1.3%.标准方法为以甲醇—水(25∶75)为流动相,流速:1.0 mL/min,紫外检测波长270nm.此方法能准确,快捷的测定粗糙龙胆根中龙胆苦苷的含量,可作为粗糙龙胆根龙胆苦苷的测定方法.

  16. A Study on Rapid Breeding of a New System of Gentiana scabra Bunge Via Tissue Culture%龙胆草新品系组培快繁的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌禹; 孔祥义; 王英平; 卢淑波; 艾军; 王志清; 赵宏辉

    2006-01-01

    目的:通过组织培养方法快速繁育龙胆草新品种.方法:以龙胆草幼嫩的茎为外植体,培养在MS培养基上,通过胚状体途径获得龙胆草组培苗芽丛.结果:在MS+BA 0.5mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L的培养基上获得了组培苗,在1/2MS+NAA 1mg/L的培养基上获得了生根的组培苗,移栽到田园土中获得了完整的龙胆草小植株.本研究初步建立了龙胆草快速育种模式.

  17. Effects of Enhanced UV-B Radiation on Antioxydative Enzymes in Gentiana straminea Leaves%增强UV-B辐射对麻花艽叶片的抗氧化酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠梅; 师生波

    2005-01-01

    以青藏高原的特有植物麻花艽为材料,研究麻花艽叶片抗氧化酶系统对增强UV-B辐射的响应.结果表明:在UV-B处理初期,麻花艽叶片SOD、POD的酶活性都能增加,但随着处理时间的延长,SOD、POD的活性呈现下降趋势.麻花艽叶片CAT的酶活性在UV-B处理后下降明显,但作为清除叶绿体中H2O2的关键酶AP的酶活性表现为明显地增加趋势,说明在对麻花艽叶片增强UV-B辐射反应中AP起有着重要作用.MDA的含量随UV-B处理时间延长而增加,表明UV-B降低了细胞内活性氧自由基的清除能力,膜脂过氧化作用加剧,导致了对麻花艽叶片的伤害效应.

  18. 蓝花龙胆浸膏挥发性成分分析及在卷烟中的应用%Analysis of Volatile Components in Gentiana veitchiorume Extract and Its Application in Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍娟; 胡志忠; 黄东业; 吴彦; 范忠; 田兆福

    2013-01-01

    [目的]分析蓝花龙胆浸膏中的主要挥发性成分及其在卷烟中的应用.[方法]采用同时蒸馏萃取法提取蓝花龙胆浸膏中的挥发性成分,并利用气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)技术分析蓝花龙胆浸膏中的主要挥发性成分,同时对其进行了卷烟加香试验.[结果]试验表明,蓝花龙胆浸膏中共鉴定出22种挥发性成分,应用峰面积归一法确定了各成分的相对含量,主要含有正二十八烷(31.22%)、棕榈酸(22.14%)、7-己基-二十烷(11.63%)、[R-[R*,R*-(E)

  19. Boekbesprekingen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennema, J.; Ooststroom, van S.J.

    1971-01-01

    In deze nieuwe druk van de Flora van Nederland werden aanvullingen en verbeteringen van verschillende aard aangebracht. Enige geslachten kregen een nieuwe omgrenzing, zoals Dryopteris, Epilobium, Althaea, Caucalis, Mentha, Euphrasia en Gentiana door afsplitsing van resp. Thelypteris, Chamaenerion,

  20. The multiple chronological techniques applied to the Lake Suigetsu SG06 sediment core, central Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staff, Richard A.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Schlolaut, Gordon; Marshall, Michael H.; Brauer, Achim; Lamb, Henry F.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Bryant, Charlotte L.; Brock, Fiona; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Van der Plicht, Johannes; Payne, Rebecca L.; Smith, Victoria C.; Mark, Darren F.; MacLeod, Alison; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Gotanda, Katsuya; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Suigetsu 2006 Project Members, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Staff, R. A., Nakagawa, T., Schlolaut, G., Marshall, M. H., Brauer, A., Lamb, H. F., Bronk Ramsey, C., Bryant, C. L., Brock, F., Kitagawa, H., van der Plicht, J., Payne, R. L., Smith, V. C., Mark, D. F., MacLeod, A., Blockley, S. P. E., Schwenninger, J.-L., Tarasov, P. E., Haraguchi, T., Gotanda K.,

  1. Teachers and Research: Language Learning in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnell, Gay Su, Ed.; Matlin, Myna L., Ed.

    This book provides information culled from classroom research, including some from teacher researchers, for those engaged in creating educational settings that support children's development of language and literacy. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Observing Carlos: One Day of Language Use in School" (Mary M. Kitagawa); (2) "What…

  2. INTEGRATION OF THE OLD AND NEW LAKE SUIGETSU (JAPAN) TERRESTRIAL RADIOCARBON CALIBRATION DATA SETS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staff, Richard A.; Schlolaut, Gordon; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Brock, Fiona; Bryant, Charlotte L.; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; van der Plicht, Johannes; Marshall, Michael H.; Brauer, Achim; Lamb, Henry F.; Payne, Rebecca L.; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Gotanda, Katsuya; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Reimer, Paula J.

    2013-01-01

    The varved sediment profile of Lake Suigetsu, central Japan, offers an ideal opportunity from which to derive a terrestrial record of atmospheric radiocarbon across the entire range of the C-14 dating method. Previous work by Kitagawa and van der Plicht (1998a,b, 2000) provided such a data set; howe

  3. The multiple chronological techniques applied to the Lake Suigetsu SG06 sediment core, central Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staff, Richard A.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Schlolaut, Gordon; Marshall, Michael H.; Brauer, Achim; Lamb, Henry F.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Bryant, Charlotte L.; Brock, Fiona; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Van der Plicht, Johannes; Payne, Rebecca L.; Smith, Victoria C.; Mark, Darren F.; MacLeod, Alison; Blockley, Simon P. E.; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Tarasov, Pavel E.; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Gotanda, Katsuya; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Suigetsu 2006 Project Members, [No Value

    2013-01-01

    Staff, R. A., Nakagawa, T., Schlolaut, G., Marshall, M. H., Brauer, A., Lamb, H. F., Bronk Ramsey, C., Bryant, C. L., Brock, F., Kitagawa, H., van der Plicht, J., Payne, R. L., Smith, V. C., Mark, D. F., MacLeod, A., Blockley, S. P. E., Schwenninger, J.-L., Tarasov, P. E., Haraguchi, T., Gotanda K.,

  4. Pichia garciniae sp. nov., isolated from a rotten mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, Bhaskar; Begum, Zareena; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2008-11-01

    Ascogenous yeasts were isolated from a decaying mangosteen fruit (Garcinia mangostana L., Clusiaceae). Based on colony morphology and RAPD analysis, the strains were grouped into four groups (G-I, G-II, G-III and G-IV). Phenotypic properties and analysis of the D1/D2 domain sequence of the 26S rRNA gene identified representative members of groups G-II, G-III and G-IV as Pichia manshurica (=Pichia galeiformis), Pichia fermentans and Pichia anomala, respectively. Representatives of group G-I, YS110(T) and YS111, showed similar phenotypic traits, 99.9 % similarity in the sequence of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene-ITS2 sequence and 92 % DNA-DNA relatedness. Hence, YS110(T) and YS111 are regarded as members of the same species. Based on D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences, the nearest phylogenetic neighbours of YS110(T) and YS111 were identified as Pichia membranifaciens and P. manshurica. However, YS110(T) differs from these two nearest phylogenetic neighbours by >3 % in the D1/D2 domain sequence and by >18 % with respect to the ITS region sequence. In addition, YS110(T) and YS111 differ from P. membranifaciens NRRL Y-2026(T) and P. manshurica NRRL Y-27978(T) with respect to a number of phenotypic traits. The strains show 52-57 % DNA-DNA relatedness with P. membranifaciens NRRL Y-2026(T) and P. manshurica NRRL Y-27978(T). Strains YS110(T) and YS111 are proposed as two strains of a novel species, for which the name Pichia garciniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YS110(T) (=NRRL Y-48422(T) =CBS 10758(T)).

  5. Soybean diseases in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Field observations on the occurrence of soybean diseases were undertaken in the southern and central regions of Poland in the period 1976-1980. Most prevalent were foliage diseases caused by Peronospora manshurica, Pseudomonas syrinqae pv. glycinea and soybean mosaic virus (SMV. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Ascochyta sojaecola were reported as pathogens of local importance. The following pathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were also isolated from soybean.

  6. ffects of Fertilization and covering with Sun- shading Net on Yield and Septoria Leaf Spot of Rough Gentiana(Gentian scabra Bunge)%施肥、覆盖遮阳网对龙胆草产量和斑枯病的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴淑芹; 陈立东

    2002-01-01

    龙胆草施用不同肥料和覆盖遮阳网的试验表明 : 施入磷肥 (磷酸二铵 + 过磷酸钙 )>(0.0225+ 0.0225)kg@ m- 2时 , 龙胆草增产幅度为 12.5% ; 施入农家肥 6~ 7.5kg@ m- 2, 龙胆草增产幅度为 11.11% ~ 13.95%.龙胆草覆盖遮阳网 , 斑枯病发病时间较裸地栽培晚 15d, 发病率为 23.4% ; 比裸地栽培增产 39.97%.

  7. Isolation and spectra characterization of 6-demethoxy-7-methylcapillarisin from Gentiana scabra Bunge%龙胆草中6-去甲氧基-7-甲基茵陈色原酮分离和波谱表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世盛; 张敬莹; 赵伟杰; 宋其玲; 孟庆伟; 王天富

    2009-01-01

    为研究龙胆草地上部分的化学成分,利用硅胶柱色谱对其乙醇提取物进行了分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱方法鉴定化合物的结构,分离得到6-去甲氧基-7-甲基茵陈色原酮(Ⅵ)和其他5种已知化合物:β-香树脂醇(I)、β-谷甾醇(Ⅱ)、β-香树脂醇乙酸酯(Ⅲ)、乌苏醇(Ⅳ)、齐墩果酸(V).其中化合物Ⅵ属首次从龙胆科植物中分离得到的具有2-苯氧基色原酮骨架的天然酚类成分,对其1D和2D NMR谱的特征及EI质谱主要碎片的可能裂解方式进行了讨论,并利用单晶X射线衍射方法对其晶体结构进行了分析.结果表明化合物Ⅵ属正交晶系,Pbca空间群,晶胞参数a=1.291 83(19)nm,b=0.721 19(15)nm,c=2.923 7(5)nm,α=90°,β=90°,γ=90°,V=2.723 9(8)nm~3,Z=8,D_c=1.464 g/m~3,μ=0.114 mm~(-1),F(000)=1 248.B环平面与A/C环平面的两面角为99.6°,分子间存在π-π堆积作用.

  8. A Study on Eliminating Nitrite and Breaking Nitrosamine Synthesis by Gentiana Scabra Bunge in Vitro With Semi-bionic Extraction Methodology%半仿生下龙胆草体外清除亚硝酸盐及阻断亚硝胺合成的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊生; 张佩虹; 陈晓銮; 林少宏

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the ability of eliminating nitrite and breaking nitrosamine synthesis by Gen- tiana scabra Bunge in vitro with semi-bionic extraction methodology, according to the percentages of eliminat- ing nitrite and breaking nitrosamine synthesis. The results showed that: the best effects reached when extracting 3 times with the ratio to extraction liquid 1:15, 70 ℃, and 1.5 h for each time with semi-bionic extraction meth- odology. The max capability of eliminating nitrite was 87.14%. The max capability of breaking nitrosamine syn- thesis was 65.23%. These percentages are 4 times and 1.5 times higher than using the usual methods.%以清除亚硝酸盐及阻断亚硝胺合成的百分率为综合评价指标,研究了半仿生法下龙胆草提取液体外清除亚硝酸盐和阻断亚硝胺合成的能力.研究结果表明,半仿生法下在70℃,用1:15的料液比提取3次,每次1.5h,所得结果最佳,对亚硝酸盐最大清除率可达90.79%,亚硝胺合成的阻断率最大达65.23%,分别是常规提取方法的4倍、1.5倍.

  9. Study on anti-malaria effect of Gentiana scabra bunge and its combination with Agrimoniapilosa ledeb in mice infected with plasmodium berghei%龙胆草与仙鹤草配伍对伯氏疟原虫的抗疟实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖秀球

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨植物生药龙胆草和仙鹤草伍用对伯氏疟原虫的抑制作用. 方法 86只昆明种小鼠,每只小鼠腹腔接种2×107个伯氏疟原虫,随机分为6组.24h后,Ⅰ、Ⅵ组以生理盐水1ml/1次/d灌胃作为对照,Ⅱ、Ⅲ、Ⅳ组分别以浓度为1g/ml的龙胆草、仙鹤草、龙胆草+仙鹤草提取液灌胃治疗,1ml/(d×7d),观察小鼠存活率和存活时间,感染后第3d自小鼠断尾采血,计算小鼠红细胞疟原虫感染率和药物对疟原虫的抑制率;Ⅴ组分3小组,用龙胆草+仙鹤草提取液按每小组不同浓度进行灌胃治疗,1ml/(d×3d),疗程结束后24h按上法计算不同浓度药物对鼠红细胞疟原虫的感染抑制率. 结果龙胆草+仙鹤草组疟鼠累积生存率与感染对照组比较,差异有显著性(P<0.05);龙胆草与仙鹤草伍用,在0.5~1.5g/ml生药浓度范围内对疟原虫抑制率随药物浓度的增加而增强. 结论龙胆草与仙鹤草伍用具有抑制伯氏疟原虫的生长,对小鼠的存活状况有改善作用.

  10. 不同方法提取的龙胆草不同部位的挥发性化学成分分析%Chemical constituents of the volatile oils extracted from different parts of Gentiana scabra Bunge with different methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦; 李亮星; 李干鹏

    2016-01-01

    利用GC-MS技术对分别用不同提取方法提取到的龙胆草根、茎、叶、花的挥发性成分进行分析,结合NIST2012谱图库检索出其主要化学成分.结果表明,采用3种方法在龙胆草的4个部位提取到116个化合物,用不同方法提取的龙胆草同一部位的挥发性成分及相对含量差异明显,用同一方法提取的龙胆草不同部位的挥发性成分大致相同,主要表现为成分相对含量上的差异,其中水蒸气蒸馏法提取到的主要为苯类、醇类、酰胺,同时蒸馏萃取法提取到的主要为苯类、酮类、醇类;顶空固相微萃取法提取到的主要为醇类、酮类、酯类.通过提取分析比较可知,如需研究龙胆草中某一挥发性成分,可用3种方法中的某一种及龙胆草的某一部位来进行大量提取.3种方法对龙胆草的不同部位的挥发性成分的提取均有较大的贡献,这为龙胆草的研究提供了进一步的科学依据.

  11. Chemical Characterization of the Pyrotechnically Disseminated 66MM Red Phosphorous Smoke Screening IR, Vehicle Launched Grenade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    of this study was consistent with the objectives and standards in "Good Laboratory Practices for Non-clinical Laboratory Studies" (21 CFR 58, Food and...with each replicate containing one ceriodaphnia. The test media was renewed, and fresh food was added daily, for 7 days. Mortality and reproduction were...Instruction Manual (0.5- 100 ppm); Kitagawa, Matheson Tri-Gas: Montgomeryville, PA, 2005. 23. POTASSIUM OXIDE; Material Saftey Data Sheet. International

  12. ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, isolated from the roots of Aralia continentalis, induces activation of Nrf2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ji-Hyo; Lee, Guem-San; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Kim, Hyung-Woo; Cho, Su-In; Jeong, Seung-Il; Kim, Hong-Jun; Ju, Young-Seung; Kim, Ho-Kyoung; Sadikot, Ruxana T.; Christman, John W.; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Joo, Myungsoo

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Excessive inflammation can lead to tissue damage and dysfunction of vital organs. Hence, regulating inflammatory response is a viable therapeutic approach. In Asian countries, various inflammatory diseases have often effectively been treated with herbal remedies including the root extract of Aralia continentalis Kitagawa (Araliaceae). Here, we investigated the effect of kaurenoic acid (ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid: KA), a diterpenoid that is extracted from Aralia continentalis Kitagawa root, on inflammation. Results Western blot and RT-PCR analyses show that KA induced the nuclear localization of Nrf2 as low as 1 nM in concentration and that KA treatment induced the expression of Nrf2 dependent genes such as GCLC and HO-1. On the other hand, KA did not affect the degradation of cytoplasmic IκB-α, the nuclear localization of RelA (p65), and NF-κB transcriptional activity in RAW 264.7 cells treated with endotoxin. Consistent with these data, KA treatment failed to suppress gene expression of representative pro-inflammatory mediators including COX-2, nitric oxide, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-12, indicating that KA did not have an important impact on NF-κB activation. Conclusion Together, these results show that KA was an effective activator of Nrf2, and suggest that the beneficial effects of A. continentalis Kitagawa root extract are, at least in part, mediated by activating Nrf2. PMID:21884778

  13. Drug: D06716 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ae (gentian family) Gentiana lutea root and rhizome Major component: Gentiopicrin [CPD:C09782] Therapeutic category of drugs... in Japan [BR:br08301] 5 Crude drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs... 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06716 Gentian (JP16); Powdered gentian (JP16) Crude drugs

  14. Site fidelity by bees drives pollination facilitation in sequentially blooming plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Jane E; Thomson, James D

    2016-06-01

    Plant species can influence the pollination and reproductive success of coflowering neighbors that share pollinators. Because some individual pollinators habitually forage in particular areas, it is also possible that plant species could influence the pollination of neighbors that bloom later. When flowers of a preferred forage plant decline in an area, site-fidelity may cause individual flower feeders to stay in an area and switch plant species rather than search for preferred plants in a new location. A newly blooming plant species may quickly inherit a set of visitors from a prior plant species, and therefore experience higher pollination success than it would in an area where the first species never bloomed. To test this, we manipulated the placement and timing of two plant species, Delphinium barbeyi and later-blooming Gentiana parryi. We recorded the responses of individually marked bumble bee pollinators. About 63% of marked individuals returned repeatedly to the same areas to forage on Delphinium. When Delphinium was experimentally taken out of bloom, most of those site-faithful individuals (78%) stayed and switched to Gentiana. Consequently, Gentiana flowers received more visits in areas where Delphinium had previously flowered, compared to areas where Delphinium was still flowering or never occurred. Gentiana stigmas received more pollen in areas where Delphinium disappeared than where it never bloomed, indicating that Delphinium increases the pollination of Gentiana when they are separated in time. Overall, we show that individual bumble bees are often site-faithful, causing one plant species to increase the pollination of another even when separated in time, which is a novel mechanism of pollination facilitation.

  15. UFUS-Imperial: nova cultivar de soja para o Estado de Mato Grosso UFUS-Imperial: new soybean cultivar for the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Toshiyuki Hamawaki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A fim de ampliar as opções ao cultivo da soja, a Universidade Federal de Uberlândia lançou a cultivar UFUS-Imperial, proveniente do cruzamento entre (Msoy 8411xMsoy 8914 x (Emgopa 313xTucano. A cultivar apresentou resistência ao acamamento, à deiscência da vagem e aos patógenos: Fusarium solani, Cercospora sojina, Peronospora manshurica, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines e Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis, e resistência parcial a Septoria glycines, Erysiphe diffusa e Phakopsora pachyrhizi. O rendimento dessa cultivar, em ensaios regionais, foi 45% superior ao da testemunha Msoy 6101, e é indicada para o Estado de Mato Grosso.With the purpose of offering new options for soybean production, the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia released the cultivar UFUS-Imperial, originated from the crosses between (Msoy 8411xMsoy 8914 x (Emgopa 313xTucano. It showed resistance to lodging, to pod shattering, and to the pathogens Fusarium solani, Cercospora sojina, Peronospora manshurica, Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines and Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis, and partial resistance to Septoria glycines, Erysiphe diffusa, and Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Its average yield from uniform trials was 45% higher than that of the control Msoy 6101, and it is indicated for cultivation in the State of Mato Grosso.

  16. Environmental Inventory: Little South Fork Cumberland River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    lucida), is known to occur in the study corridor. It is considered a threatened species in Kentucky . Numerous other rare , threatened or endangered...habitat preference and geographic distri- bution included: A Guide to the Wildflowers and Ferns of Kentucky (Wharton and Barbour, 1 71T; Trees and...Stiff gentian (Gentiana quinguefolia), said to be rare in Kentucky , according to Wharton and Barbour (1971), was collected during this inventory from the

  17. Micorrizas arbusculares y endófitos septados oscuros en Gentianaceae nativas de la Argentina Arbuscular mycorrhizas and dark septates endophytes in native Gentianaceae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A. Salvarredi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la colonización de raíces por simbiontes fúngicos en cinco especies de Gentianaceae nativas distribuidas en distintos ambientes de la Argentina, cuatro pertenecientes a Gentianella y una a Gentiana. Se observaron estructuras micorrícicas arbusculares pertenecientes al tipo Paris (hifas y circunvoluciones intracelulares y endófitos septados oscuros (SO (hifas y microesclerocios. Tres de las especies estudiadas se asociaron a micorrizas arbusculares (MA y SO, una sólo a SO y otra sólo a MA. La colonización radical por SO (hifas y microesclerocios y la colonización hifal MA difirieron con el hospedante. Este es el primer reporte de colonización por MA y SO en Gentianella helianthemoides, G. magellanica, G. parviflora y Gentiana prostrata. Se discute la influencia del hospedante y del ambiente en la colonización por MA y SO.The roots of five native species of Gentianaceae distributed in different environments of Argentina, four belonging to Gentianella and one to Gentiana, were studied for fungal symbionts colonization. Arbuscular mycorrhizal structures belonging to Paris type (intracellular hyphae and coils and dark septates endophytes (DS (hyphae microesclerotia were observed. Three of the species studied were associated to both arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM and DS, only one to DS and the other only to AM. Root colonization by DS (hyphae and microesclerotia and AM hyphal colonization were host dependent. This is the first report of AM and DS colonization for Gentianella helianthemoides, G. magellanica, G. parviflora and Gentiana prostrata. Host and environmental influence on AM and DS colonization is discussed.

  18. Role of TAF12 in the Increased VDR Activity in Paget’s Disease of Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    November 25, 2013. Accepted manuscript online December 11, 2013. Address correspondence to: G David Roodman , MD, PhD, Department of Medicine, Hematology...Yukiko Kitagawa,1 Deborah L Galson,4 David W Dempster,2 Jolene J Windle,3 Noriyoshi Kurihara,1 and G David Roodman1,5 1Department of Medicine, Hematology...turnover in Paget’s disease of bone. Clin Orthop. 1987;217:26–36. 3. Siris ES, Roodman GD. Paget’s Disease of Bone, Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases

  19. Sunshine After the Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    During his five-day state visit to Japan on May 6-10,Chinese President Hu Jintao stressed that China and Japan should explore new areas of cooperation to accelerate bilateral economic relations. As one of the five largest Japanese trading companies,Sumitomo Corp.(Sumitomo)has made its presence felt in China through its subsidiaries since 1955.On May 9,Nobuo Kitagawa,General Manager of Sumitomo China and former Chairman of Japan China Chamber of Commerce and Industry,spoke with Beijing Review reporter Miao Xiaoyang,sharing his opinions on Sino-Japanese trade relations and the prospects of Sumitomo in China.

  20. Spin squeezing an ultracold molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, M

    2015-01-01

    Most research on spin squeezing thus far has focused on realizations involving either atomic or nuclear degrees of freedom. In this article we discuss a concrete proposal for spin squeezing the ultracold ground state polar paramagnetic molecule OH, a system currently under fine control in the laboratory. Starting from an experimentally relevant effective Hamiltonian, we identify a parameter regime where different combinations of static electric and magnetic fields can be used to realize the single-axis twisting Hamiltonian of Kitagawa and Ueda [M. Kitagawa and M. Ueda, Phys. Rev. A 47, 5138 (1993)], the uniform field Hamiltonian proposed by Law et al. [C. K. Law, H. T Ng and P. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A 63, 055601 (2001)], and a model of field propagation in a Kerr medium considered by Agarwal and Puri [G. S. Agarwal and R. R. Puri, Phys. Rev. A 39, 2969 (1989)]. To support our conclusions, we provide analytical expressions as well as numerical calculations, including optimization of field strengths and accounti...

  1. A NOVEL OLEAGINOUS YEAST STRAIN WITH HIGH LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO ALTERNATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areesirisuk, A; Chiu, C H; Yen, T B; Liu, C H; Guo, J H

    2015-01-01

    Five lipid-producing yeast strains, CHC08, CHC11, CHC28, CHC34, and CHC35, were revealed by Sudan Black B staining to contain lipid droplets within cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated that they were 2 strains of Candida parapsilosis, Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia occidentalis. Following batch fermentation, P. parantarctica CHC28 was found to have the highest biomass concentration, total lipids and lipid content levels. The major fatty acids in the lipids of this yeast strain were C16 and C18. Predictions of the properties of yeast biodiesel using linear equations resulted in values similar to biodiesel made from plant oils. Preliminary production of yeast biodiesel from P. parantarctica CHC28 was accomplished through esterification and transesterification reactions. It was found that yeast lipids with high acid value are easily converted to biodiesel at an approximately 90% yield. Therefore, it is possible to use crude lipids as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production.

  2. Potential of bioethanol production from olive mill solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Najami, Naim; Dosoretz, Carlos; Tafesh, Ahmed; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to screen endogenous microorganisms grown on olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) with the potential to ferment pentoses and produce ethanol. Two yeasts were isolated and identified as Issatchenkia orientalis, and Pichia galeiformis/manshurica. The adaptation of the strains displayed a positive impact on the fermentation process. In terms of xylose utilization and ethanol production, all strains were able to utilize xylose and produce xylitol but no ethanol was detected. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation process on hydrolysate undergo detoxification, strain I. orientalis showed the best efficiency in producing of ethanol when supplemented with glucose. Using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process following pretreatment of OMSW, the average ethanol yield was 3 g/100 g dry OMSW. Bioethanol production from OMSW is not economic despite the raw material is cheap.

  3. 关于龙胆草口服剂量的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙皎月

    2001-01-01

    @@龙胆草是较常用的中药,为龙胆科(Gentianaceae)多年生草本植物,龙胆(Gentiana scabra Bunge)或三花龙胆(Gtriflora Pall),以干燥根茎入药(以根为主).药典记载其性味:苦寒,具有清热燥湿、泻肝胆实火、清下焦湿热功能,用量为3~6g[1].

  4. Treatment of Gonorrhea by Acupuncture plus Drugs: A Case of Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sheng; ZHANG Xi-an; ZHU Zhu-chun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted diseases caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The bacteria can be passed from one person to another through sexual intercourse, and one can also catch gonorrhea from the infected clothing, bed-sheet and quilt cover. It often can be treated with antibiotics in modern medicine and drugs of clearing away heat and toxic material in Chinese medicine. The authors adopted acupuncture and moxibustion combined with oral administration of western medicine Ciprofloxacin and Chinese herbs Longdan Xiegan Wan (Pill of Gentiana for purging the liver fire) to cure a case of gonorrhea, now it is reported as follows.

  5. Erythrocentaurin, Biosynthesis Postulation and Biomimetic Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI,Jun; YUAN,Xiang-Hui; LIU,Zhu-Lan; LIU,Jian-Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ Erythrocentaurin is a relatively simple nature product isolated from the root of Gentiana macrophylla Pall.[1] The co-existed of gentiopicroside from the same species led to speculation that erythrocentaurin is a biosynthesis product of gentiopicroside. The transformation of secologanin to carbocyclic aglycone under biomimetic condition has already known (Scheme 1).[2,3] The postulated biosynthesis pathway of erythrocentaurin may be in the same way. In the process the cyclic hemiacetal of the aglycone opened to the dialdehyde which then undergoes a vinylogous aldol reaction, and then dehydroxylation and double bond migration to the title compound (Scheme 2).

  6. Micorrizas arbusculares y endófitos septados oscuros en Gentianaceae nativas de la Argentina Arbuscular mycorrhizas and dark septates endophytes in native Gentianaceae from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo A. Salvarredi; Esteban M Crespo; Eugencia Menoyo; Eva M. Filippa; Barboza, Gloria E.; Mónica A Lugo

    2010-01-01

    Se estudió la colonización de raíces por simbiontes fúngicos en cinco especies de Gentianaceae nativas distribuidas en distintos ambientes de la Argentina, cuatro pertenecientes a Gentianella y una a Gentiana. Se observaron estructuras micorrícicas arbusculares pertenecientes al tipo Paris (hifas y circunvoluciones intracelulares) y endófitos septados oscuros (SO) (hifas y microesclerocios). Tres de las especies estudiadas se asociaron a micorrizas arbusculares (MA) y SO, una sólo a SO y otra...

  7. Squeezing and entanglement in multi-qutrit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Azita; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2013-08-01

    We study squeezing and bipartite entanglement in a multi-qutrit system initially in a coherent state, initiated by the two-axis counter-twisting Hamiltonian in the presence and also absence of a magnetic field. We start with an initial coherent state which is neither squeezed nor entangled; however, it gains both properties as it is evolved by the Hamiltonian. Both squeezing and entanglement show an oscillatory behavior in time and stronger Hamiltonians correspond to smaller oscillation periods. Generation of almost continuous squeezing according to Kitagawa criterion seems feasible; however, off and on squeezing death is observed according to that of Wineland. The entanglement is diminished as the size of the system is increased, implying that the generation of strong entanglement in large multi-qutrit systems, instigated by the counter-twisting Hamiltonian, may not be feasible. Application of a magnetic field may have adverse effect on both squeezing and entanglement.

  8. Strict convexity and C 1, α regularity of potential functions in optimal transportation under condition A3w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shibing; Wang, Xu-Jia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we prove the strict c-convexity and the C 1, α regularity for potential functions in optimal transportation under condition (A3w). These results were obtained by Caffarelli [1,3,4] for the cost c (x, y) =| x - y | 2, by Liu [11], Loeper [15], Trudinger and Wang [20] for costs satisfying the condition (A3). For costs satisfying the condition (A3w), the results have also been proved by Figalli, Kim, and McCann [6], assuming that the initial and target domains are uniformly c-convex, see also [21]; and by Guillen and Kitagawa [8], assuming the cost function satisfies A3w in larger domains. In this paper we prove the strict c-convexity and the C 1, α regularity assuming either the support of source density is compactly contained in a larger domain where the cost function satisfies A3w, or the dimension 2 ≤ n ≤ 4.

  9. Fatigue characterization of a crankshaft steel: Use and interaction of new models

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    Sergio Blasón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The peculiar geometrical shape and working conditions of crankshafts make fatigue becoming responsible for most of the failure cases in such components. Therefore, improvement of crankshaft performance requires enhancing its fatigue life. In this work, the fatigue behavior of a D38MSV5S steel, used for crankshafts in compact vehicles, is investigated according to two traditional ways of analysis, namely the stress based and the fracture mechanics based approaches, though using advanced design models: On the one side, a probabilistic Weibull regression S-N model is assessed for experimental results obtained from fatigue resonance tests. On the other side, the crack growth rate curve is calculated from crack growth tests, carried out on SENB specimens, using a normalizing procedure. Specific Matlab programs are developed to facilitate the evaluation process. The information gained from both models will contribute to provide a probabilistic interpretation to the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram.

  10. Data on analysis of coronary atherosclerosis on computed tomography and 18F-sodium fluoride positron emission tomography

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    Toshiro Kitagawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article contains the data showing illustrative examples of plaque classification on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA and measurement of 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF uptake in coronary atherosclerotic lesions on positron emission tomography (PET. We divided the lesions into one of three plaque types on CCTA (calcified plaque, non-calcified plaque, partially calcified plaque. Focal 18F-NaF uptake of each lesion was quantified using maximum tissue-to-background ratio. This article also provides a representative case with a non-calcified coronary plaque detected on CCTA and identified on 18F-NaF PET/non-contrast computed tomography based on a location of a vessel branch as a landmark. These complement the data reported by Kitagawa et al. (2017 [1].

  11. Competition between microstructure and defect in multiaxial high cycle fatigue

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    F. Morel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at providing a better understanding of the effects of both microstructure and defect on the high cycle fatigue behavior of metallic alloys using finite element simulations of polycrystalline aggregates. It is well known that the microstructure strongly affects the average fatigue strength and when the cyclic stress level is close to the fatigue limit, it is often seen as the main source of the huge scatter generally observed in this fatigue regime. The presence of geometrical defects in a material can also strongly alter the fatigue behavior. Nonetheless, when the defect size is small enough, i.e. under a critical value, the fatigue strength is no more affected by the defect. The so-called Kitagawa effect can be interpreted as a competition between the crack initiation mechanisms governed either by the microstructure or by the defect. Surprisingly, only few studies have been done to date to explain the Kitagawa effect from the point of view of this competition, even though this effect has been extensively investigated in the literature. The primary focus of this paper is hence on the use of both FE simulations and explicit descriptions of the microstructure to get insight into how the competition between defect and microstructure operates in HCF. In order to account for the variability of the microstructure in the predictions of the macroscopic fatigue limits, several configurations of crystalline orientations, crystal aggregates and defects are studied. The results of each individual FE simulation are used to assess the response at the macroscopic scale thanks to a probabilistic fatigue criterion proposed by the authors in previous works. The ability of this criterion to predict the influence of defects on the average and the scatter of macroscopic fatigue limits is evaluated. In this paper, particular emphasis is also placed on the effect of different loading modes (pure tension, pure torsion and combined tension and torsion on

  12. In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent

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    Priyanka Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  13. Iridoids and Flavonoids of Four Siberian Gentians: Chemical Profile and Gastric Stimulatory Effect

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    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Some Gentiana species have been used by the nomadic people of Siberia as bitter teas or appetizers to eliminate digestive disorders (dyspepsia, heartburn, nausea, etc.. We studied the most frequently used gentians: Gentiana algida, G. decumbens, G. macrophylla and G. triflora. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phytochemical features and gastrostimulatnt activity of these four gentian herbs. Five iridoids, seven flavones and mangiferin were detected in gentian herbs after analysis by microcolumn-RP-HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. A componential phytochemical profile of the G. decumbens herb is presented for the first time, as well as information about distinct phytochemicals found in gentian herbs. HPLC quantification of the specific compounds of gentian herbs demonstrated the high content of iridoids (24.73–73.53 mg/g and flavonoids (12.92–78.14 mg/g. The results of biological activity evaluation of four gentian decoctions demonstrated their good ability to stimulate acid-, enzyme- and mucin-forming functions of the stomach attributed to mostly by iridoids and flavonoids. In general, it can be claimed that the gentian decoctions can be used as effective and safe appetizers and are also a good source of biologically active agents.

  14. Intraspecific inversions pose a challenge for the trnH-psbA plant DNA barcode.

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    Barbara A Whitlock

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The chloroplast trnH-psbA spacer region has been proposed as a prime candidate for use in DNA barcoding of plants because of its high substitution rate. However, frequent inversions associated with palindromic sequences within this region have been found in multiple lineages of Angiosperms and may complicate its use as a barcode, especially if they occur within species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we evaluate the implications of intraspecific inversions in the trnH-psbA region for DNA barcoding efforts. We report polymorphic inversions within six species of Gentianaceae, all narrowly circumscribed morphologically: Gentiana algida, Gentiana fremontii, Gentianopsis crinita, Gentianopsis thermalis, Gentianopsis macrantha and Frasera speciosa. We analyze these sequences together with those from 15 other species of Gentianaceae and show that typical simple methods of sequence alignment can lead to misassignment of conspecifics and incorrect assessment of relationships. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Frequent inversions in the trnH-psbA region, if not recognized and aligned appropriately, may lead to large overestimates of the number of substitution events separating closely related lineages and to uniting more distantly related taxa that share the same form of the inversion. Thus, alignment of the trnH-psbA spacer region will need careful attention if it is used as a marker for DNA barcoding.

  15. In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions.

  16. Franchet1891年发表的十六种植物名称的模式指定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁文彬; 王红; 李德铢

    2014-01-01

    在澄清Pedicularis stenantha的分类学地位时,查阅Pedicularis stenantha和其他一同发表的16个种(Cyananthus petiolatus、Gentiana crassuloides、Gentiana rosularis、Primula vialii、Salvia brevilabra、Salvia tatsienensis、Salvia tricuspis、Saussurea caudata、Saussurea scabrida、Saussurea souliei、Saussurea tatsienensis、Saxifraga longistyla、Senecio plantaginifolius、Senecio setchuenensis、Senecio souliei和Tanacetum myrianthum),其模式材料保存在巴黎自然历史博物馆(P)。这些种是Franchet基于J.A.Soulié采集的材料于1891年发表,但是Franchet在原文中只引证了产地信息(“Se-tchuen,circa Ta-tsien-lou”),没有提供具体的材料采集号。Pedicularis stenantha的后选模式在早期的研究中已指定,本研究对其他16个名称的原始材料进行了讨论,并对后选模式进行指定。

  17. Franchet 1891年发表的十六种植物名称的模式指定%Typification of Sixteen Plant Names Described by Franchet in 1891

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁文彬; 王红; 李德铢

    2014-01-01

    在澄清Pedicularis stenantha的分类学地位时,查阅Pedicularis stenantha和其他一同发表的16个种(Cyananthus petiolatus、Gentiana crassuloides、Gentiana rosularis、Primula vialii、Salvia brevilabra、Salvia tatsienensis、Salvia tricuspis、Saussurea caudata、Saussurea scabrida、Saussurea souliei、Saussurea tatsienensis、Saxifraga longistyla、Senecio plantaginifolius、Senecio setchuenensis、Senecio souliei和Tanacetum myrianthum),其模式材料保存在巴黎自然历史博物馆(P).这些种是Franchet基于J.A.Soulié采集的材料于1891年发表,但是Franchet在原文中只引证了产地信息(“Se-tchuen,circa Ta-tsien-lou”),没有提供具体的材料采集号.Pedicularis stenantha的后选模式在早期的研究中已指定,本研究对其他16个名称的原始材料进行了讨论,并对后选模式进行指定.

  18. Ocorrência de fungos em sementes de soja produzidas sob calagem e adubação potássica residuais The residual effect of liming and potassium fertilization on the occurrence of fungi in soybean seeds

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    H.A.A. Mascarenhas

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito residual da adubação potássica e da calagem sobre a ocorrência de fungos em sementes de soja. O experimento foi instalado com a cultivar IAC-17, no ano agrícola de 1991/92, aplicando doses a lanço de O, 3,5 e 7 t/ha de calcário dolomítico e de 0, 150, 300, 450 e 600 kg/ha de K2O. As sementes colhidas no terceiro ano de cultivo, (1993/94 foram submetidas ao teste de sanidade, pelo método do papel de filtro. Observou-se que a calagem reduziu significativamente a incidência de Phomopsis sp., favorecendo, no entanto, a presença de Aspergillus sp. e de Fusarium sp.. Embora não tenham sido detectadas diferenças significativas, nos tratamentos com calagem, verificou-se redução da incidência de Cercospora kikuchii, Colltotrichum dematium var. truncata e Peronospora manshurica. Apenas a incidência de Phomopsis sp. diminuiu significativamente devido à adubação potássica, sendo menor quando se utilizou a dose de 450 kg/ha de K2O.To study the residual effect of liming and potassium fertilizer on the occurrence of fungi in soybean seeds, an experiment was installed during the 1991/92 growing season, using 0, 3.5 and 7.0 t/ha of dolomitic lime and 0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 kg/ha of K2O in the form of potassium cloride. In 1993/94 (the third year, the harvested seeds were submitted to a seed health test (blotter method. The results showed that liming reduced significantly the incidence of Phomopsis sp. and increased the presence of Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp.. Although no significant differences were observed with liming, there was a reduction in the incidence of Cercospora kikuchii, Colletotrichum dematium var. truncala and Peronospora manshurica. Among the fungi found in the seeds, only Phomopsis sp. was significantly reduced by potassium fertilization, the least incidence being observed at the rate of 450 kg/ha.

  19. Chemical Diversity and Biological Activity of the Volatiles of Five Artemisia Species from Far East Russia

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    Gulmira Özek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia argyi , A. feddei, A. gmelinii, A. manshurica, and A. olgensis (Asteraceae were collected in Far East Russia. Oils were hydrodistilled and simultaneously analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Main constituents were found as follows in Artemisia oils: selin-11-en-4 a -ol (18.0%, 1,8-cineole (14.2.0%, artemisia alcohol (12.9%, borneol (9.7% in A. argyi; camphor (31.2%, 1,8-cineole (17.6%, a -thujone (5.7% in A. feddei; longiverbenone (12.0%, isopinocamphone (8.9%, 1,8-cineole (6.7%, camphor (5.8%, trans-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (5.3% in A. gmelinii; germacrene D (11.2%, rosifoliol (10.1%, caryophyllene oxide (6.8%, eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (5.6% in A. manshurica; eudesma-4(15,7-dien-1 b -ol (6.9%, caryophyllene oxide (5.6%, guaia-6,10(14-dien-4 b -ol (5.1% and hexadecanoic acid (5.0% in A. olgensis. Oils were subsequently submitted for antifungal and antimosquito evaluations. Artemisia species oils showed biting deterrent effects in Aedes aegypti and Artemisia gmelinii oil with the most active biting deterrence index values of 0.82 ± 0.1 at 10 m g/mL. Larval bioassay of A. gmelinii and A. olgensis oils showed higher larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti larvae with LD50 values of 83.8 (72.6 – 95.7 ppm and 91.0 (73.8 – 114.5 ppm, respectively. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides using direct overlay bioautography assay and all showed non-selective weak antifungal activity. Antioxidant evaluations of the oils were performed by using b -carotene bleaching, Trolox equivalent and DPPH tests. The tested Artemisia oils demonstrated moderate antioxidant activity.

  20. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponzzes-Gomes, Camila M.P.B.S.; de Mélo, Dângelly L.F.M.; Santana, Caroline A.; Pereira, Giuliano E.; Mendonça, Michelle O.C.; Gomes, Fátima C.O.; Oliveira, Evelyn S.; Barbosa, Antonio M.; Trindade, Rita C.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 × 105 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production. PMID:25242923

  1. Molecular identification and physiological characterization of yeasts, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria isolated from heap and box cocoa bean fermentations in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Simonetta; Alessandria, Valentina; Valente, Antonio; Dolci, Paola; Cocolin, Luca

    2016-01-04

    Yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) populations, isolated from cocoa bean heap and box fermentations in West Africa, have been investigated. The fermentation dynamicswere determined by viable counts, and 106 yeasts, 105 LAB and 82 AAB isolateswere identified by means of rep-PCR grouping and sequencing of the rRNA genes. During the box fermentations, the most abundant species were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida ethanolica, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii, while S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica, C. ethanolica, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Lb. fermentum, Lb. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and Acetobacter lovaniensis were identified in the heap fermentations. Furthermore, the most abundant species were molecularly characterized by analyzing the rep-PCR profiles. Strains grouped according to the type of fermentations and their progression during the transformation process were also highlighted. The yeast, LAB and AAB isolates were physiologically characterized to determine their ability to grow at different temperatures, as well as at different pH, and ethanol concentrations, tolerance to osmotic stress, and lactic acid and acetic acid inhibition. Temperatures of 45 °C, a pH of 2.5 to 3.5, 12% (v/v) ethanol and high concentrations of lactic and acetic acid have a significant influence on the growth of yeasts, LAB and AAB. Finally, the yeastswere screened for enzymatic activity, and the S. cerevisiae, H. guilliermondii, H. uvarumand C. ethanolica species were shown to possess several enzymes that may impact the quality of the final product.

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in grape varieties of the São Francisco Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila M.P.B.S. de Ponzzes-Gomes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this work was to characterise indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in the naturally fermented juice of grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Grenache, Tempranillo, Sauvignon Blanc and Verdejo used in the São Francisco River Valley, northeastern Brazil. In this study, 155 S. cerevisiae and 60 non-Saccharomyces yeasts were isolated and identified using physiological tests and sequencing of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit of the rRNA gene. Among the non-Saccharomyces species, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most common species, followed by Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida parapsilosis, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Kloeckera apis, P. manshurica, C. orthopsilosis and C. zemplinina. The population counts of these yeasts ranged among 1.0 to 19 x 10(5 cfu/mL. A total of 155 isolates of S. cerevisiae were compared by mitochondrial DNA restriction analysis, and five molecular mitochondrial DNA restriction profiles were detected. Indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae isolated from grapes of the São Francisco Valley can be further tested as potential starters for wine production.

  3. EVALUATION OF AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF DOMESTIC AND EXOTIC SOYBEAN GERMPLASM IN CROATIA

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    Aleksandra Sudarić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The collaboration and interchange of breeding materials between breeding programs worldwide is important and necessary to increase the amount of genetic diversity by incorporating unique exotic germplasm into existing domestic germplasm. The objective of this study was to measure and compare the agronomic performance of 15 soybean cultivars released by the Agricultural Institute Osijek (Croatia (OS-cultivars and 15 cultivars released by the University of Guelph (Canada (CA-cultivars in Croatia. Based on the comparison, parental combinations could be designed to introgress exotic germplasms from the CA-cultivars into Croatian. Agronomic performance was determined in field trials that were conducted at the experimental field of the Agricultural Institute Osijek during the period from 2002 to 2005. Quantitative traits were measured and analyzed for maturity, grain yield components, level and stability of grain yield, adaptability, lodging resistance and field tolerance to Peronospora manshurica. The results indicated higher agronomic performance of OS-cultivars compared to CA- cultivars. However, comparison of yield is only tentative because all but one OS cultivar were later maturing than the CA-cultivars. Among 15 tested CA-cultivars, five cultivars (OAC Millennium, OAC Champion, OAC Bayfield, OAC Auburn, OAC Wallace were identified as the most favorable for parental combinations in hybridization with OS-cultivars. The results of this study will enable strategic incorporation of diversity from exotic Canadian germplasm into the domestic Croatian germplasm to develop segregating populations from which new, genetically more diverse improved soybean line, could be released.

  4. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.

  5. TdKT, a new killer toxin produced by Torulaspora delbrueckii effective against wine spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, María Leticia; Susana Sáez, Julieta; Del Monaco, Silvana; Lopes, Christian Ariel; Sangorrín, Marcela Paula

    2016-01-18

    Microbiological spoilage is a major concern throughout the wine industry, and control tools are limited. This paper addresses the identification and partial characterization of a new killer toxin from Torulaspora delbrueckii with potential biocontrol activity of Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia manshurica and Pichia membranifaciens wine spoilage. A panel of 18 different wine strains of T. delbrueckii killer yeasts was analysed, and the strain T. delbrueckii NPCC 1033 (TdKT producer) showed a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of all different spoilage yeasts evaluated. The TdKT toxin was then subjected to a partial biochemical characterization. Its estimated molecular weight was N30 kDa and it showed glucanase and chitinase enzymatic activities. The killer activity was stable between pH 4.2 and 4.8 and inactivated at temperature above 40 °C. Pustulan and chitin — but not other cell wall polysaccharides — prevented sensitive yeast cells from being killed by TdKT, suggesting that those may be the first toxin targets in the cell wall. TdKT provoked an increase in necrosis cell death after 3 h treatment and apoptotic cell death after 24 h showing time dependence in its mechanisms of action. Killer toxin extracts were active at oenological conditions, confirming their potential use as a biocontrol tool in winemaking.

  6. Development and validation of a chromatographic method for determining Clematichinenoside AR and related impurities

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    Zhou Yang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clematichinenoside AR is a promising lead compound for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. A systematic research for the related impurities in AR bulk samples is still lacking. For the safe use of this natural product in future clinical practice, the structure and content of each constituent, including the main ingredient as well as the impurities in AR bulk sample must be characterized in detail. Results A simple and stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for determining the purity of clematichinenoside AR (AR, a natural product from the roots of Clematis manshurica Rupr. (Ranunculaceae with the potential of treating rheumatoid arthritis. Five impurities were characterized, and impurity 2 (Clematomandshurica saponin F is a new triterpenoid saponin isolated from this product. Optimum separation for clematichinenoside AR and five related impurities was carried out on an Agilent octadecylsilane bonded silica gel column (TC-C18, 4.6 mm ×150 mm, 5 μm using a gradient HPLC method. The validation results showed good sensitivity, specificity, linearity(r2>0.9992 precision(RSD Conclusion Five related impurities of clematichinenoside AR were characterized, including a new triterpenoid saponins firstly found in clematichinenoside AR bulk samples. In the simple chromatographic method for determining clematichinenoside AR and its related impurities in bulk samples, the correction factor was better for the quality control in the relative stable concentrations.

  7. South Brazilian wines: culturable yeasts associated to bottled wines produced in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Castrillón, Mauricio; Mendes, Sandra Denise Camargo; Valente, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the presence and role of yeasts in bottled wines helps to know and control the organoleptic quality of the final product. The South Region of Brazil is an important wine producer, and the state of "Rio Grande do Sul" (RS) accounts for 90% of Brazilian wines. The state of "Santa Catarina" (SC) started the production in 1975, and is currently the fifth Brazilian producer. As there is little information about yeasts present in Brazilian wines, our main objective was to assess the composition of culturable yeasts associated to bottled wines produced in RS and SC, South of Brazil. We sampled 20 RS and 29 SC bottled wines produced between 2003 and 2011, and we isolated culturable yeasts in non-selective agar plates. We identified all isolates by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of LSU rDNA or ITS1-5.8 S-ITS2 region, and comparison with type strain sequences deposited in GenBank database. Six yeast species were shared in the final product in both regions. We obtained two spoilage yeast profiles: RS with Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Pichia membranifaciens (Dekkera bruxellensis was found only in specific table wines); and SC with Dekkera bruxellensis and Pichia manshurica. Knowledge concerning the different spoilage profiles is important for winemaking practices in both regions.

  8. DNA-based identification of Peucedanum ostruthium specimens and detection of common adulterants by high-resolution melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Masterwort (Peucedanum ostruthium, syn. Imperatoria ostruthium, Apiaceae) is an old economic plant in Alpine countries cultivated as ornamental plant and used for spirits and in folk medicine. P. ostruthium is a species that has often been confused with related Apiaceae species or morphologically similar roots or tubers resulting in products of minor quality. Masterwort can be distinguished from other Apiaceae species by nrDNA (ITS1 and ITS2). The analysed chloroplast markers (trnK 5' intron, trnT-trnL, and psbA-trnH), however, showed no species-specific mutations. With the application of two primer pairs amplifying parts of ITS and developed for high-resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) the target species was distinguishable from the other Peucedanum and Apiaceae species of our reference set. A multiplex PCR/HRM was developed to detect adulterations with Gentiana spp., Aconitum napellus and Veratrum album.

  9. Biotic Interaction in Space and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Andreas Kelager

    stable hosts, contrary to what strict climate-based model suggests. In appendix I is a draft argument to uplist the red status of M. alcon in Denmark to Endangered (EN) from Vulnerable (VU) based on temporal trends in distribution data for the butterfly and its host plant.......The obligate socially parasitic Alcon Blue butterfly (Maculinea alcon) uses the Marsh Gentian (Gentiana pneumonanthe) as its initial host plant, on which caterpillars develop during the first larval instars. In the last larval stage, M. alcon lives as a brood parasite in colonies of specific....... The cross-methodological approaches offer new insight into the conservation of Maculinea alcon and thus aid the future management of this unique butterfly. In chapter I we found two syntopic populations of M. alcon to be genetically differentiated caused by their host plant flower phenology, not differences...

  10. Behavior of the natural and cultivated flora in the presence of air pollutant report. Etude du comportement de la flore sauvage ou cultivee a l'egard des pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossavy, J.

    1971-01-01

    A complex study of the effects of air pollution by fluorine compounds on the vegetation in the Vallee de l Arc, Vallee de la Romanche, and Vallee de la Durance regions in France is presented. Iris, Veratrum, album, Picea excelsa, Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Polygonatum vulgare, Silene inflata. Gentiana lutea, Hypericum species, and Vaccinium myrtillus were the most sensitive species. Coniferous needles which tend to accumulate fluorine were most susceptible to fluorine which caused necrosis, premature loss of needles, and reduced growth. Vast expanses of dead coniferous forests were detected. The fluorine concentrations in the air, determined by means of exposed, calcium hydroxide-impregnated filter paper, ranged from 2.77 to 2.82 g/sq cm/day.

  11. Reduced nitrogen has a greater effect than oxidised nitrogen on dry heathland vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, L J L; Peters, C J H; Ashmore, M R; Roelofs, J G M

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different ratios of reduced (NH4+) versus oxidised (NO3(-)) nitrogen in deposition on heathland and species-rich grassland vegetation at high nitrogen deposition levels in large mesocosms filled with nutrient-poor soils to which different NH4+/NO3(-) ratios were applied. The response of the forbs, Antennaria dioica, Arnica montana, Gentiana pneumonanthe, Thymus serpyllum, the grasses Danthonia decumbens, Deschampsia flexuosa, Nardus stricta and the shrub Calluna vulgaris was recorded. The forb A. dioica and the grass D.decumbens preferred low NH4+/NO3(-) ratios and were characterised by a negative correlation between NH4+/NO3(-) ratios and biomass and survival, whereas the grasses N. stricta and D. flexuosa showed no correlation with NH4+/NO3(-) ratios. Lime addition eliminated the negative effects of high NH4+ concentrations in deposition for A. dioica and the grass D. decumbens. The implications of these findings for heathland vegetations are discussed.

  12. Amarogentin, a Secoiridoid Glycoside, Abrogates Platelet Activation through PLCγ2-PKC and MAPK Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Lin Yen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amarogentin, an active principle of Gentiana lutea, possess antitumorigenic, antidiabetic, and antioxidative properties. Activation of platelets is associated with intravascular thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. The present study examined the effects of amarogentin on platelet activation. Amarogentin treatment (15~60 μM inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin, arachidonic acid, and U46619. Amarogentin inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLCγ2, protein kinase C (PKC, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs. It also inhibits in vivo thrombus formation in mice. In addition, neither the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ nor the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 affected the amarogentin-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation, which suggests that amarogentin does not regulate the levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In conclusion, amarogentin prevents platelet activation through the inhibition of PLCγ2-PKC cascade and MAPK pathway. Our findings suggest that amarogentin may offer therapeutic potential for preventing or treating thromboembolic disorders.

  13. A Statistical Approach to a Better Understanding of the Conditions that Produce White-Light Enhancements in Solar Flares Observed by Hinode/SOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Masuda, S.

    2015-12-01

    After Hinode was launched in 2006, the observing program designed to catch rare white-light (WL) events has steadily been improved. So we now have a large enough number of WL events to make a statistical study. To understand the conditions that produce enhancements of WL in solar flares, we performed a statistical analysis of Hinode/SOT WL data. From the analysis of data obtained between January 2011 and August 2013, we found that the precipitation of large amounts of accelerated electrons into a compact area within a short time plays a key role in generating a WL event (Kitagawa et al., submitted to ApJ). And we also found that the coronal magnetic field strength in the flare region is one of the important factors that can distinguish between WL and non-WL (NWL) events. In this paper, we present the results derived from a new statistical study from the observing period extended to December 2014. In this study, we use not only the Hinode/SOT WL (G-band, Blue, Green, Red) data, but we also SDO/HMI continuum data. The total number of events is now about two times larger than that of Kitagawa's previous study. We compared the white-light emission data with GOES soft X-rays, RHESSI hard X-rays and/or the strength of the photospheric magnetic fields, and investigated the relationships between many physical parameters. For example, from scatter plots of the start-to-peak time-scale in X-rays and the energy of nonthermal electrons, one can easily find a clear boundary between WL and NWL events. WL events show a relatively shorter time-scale among events with almost the same nonthermal energy. Most of the results in this study show the same characteristics as in the previous study, but they are more clearly seen thanks to the larger number of events. We also report some statistical results on WL and NWL events from Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH) and Nobeyama Radio Polarimeters (NoRP) data, which give information on the magnetic field of the flare loop.

  14. Slow slip events in the Kii Peninsula and Shikoku, Japan detected by strain changes at the integrated observatories of Geological Survey of Japan, AIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.; Ohtani, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Matsumoto, N.; Koizumi, N.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater and Crustal Deformation for Forecasting Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes in Japan, Pure Appl. Geophys, 2009, in press. Itaba, S., N. Koizumi, M. Takahashi, N. Matsumoto, T. Sato, R. Ohtani and Y. Kitagawa, Strain changes before and after deep low frequency tremor activities, Itaba, S., N. Koizumi, M. Takahashi, N. Matsumoto, T. Sato, R. Ohtani and Y. Kitagawa, Strain changes before and after deep low frequency tremor activities, Japan Geoscience Union Meeting 2009, Chiba, Japan, 2009 (in Japanese with English abstract).

  15. A comparison of results from previous and present investigations of benthic macroinvertebrates in the small and shallow Lake Shoji, Fuji Five Lakes, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimio Hirabayashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the current status of the benthic community of Lake Shoji, and to examine the difference with the last quantitative data of the lake by Miyadi (1932 and Kitagawa (1973, the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in this lake was studied. Also, a comparison of the benthic fauna and density was made between the present and previous studies, with a discussion concerning the succession of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to changes in the lake bottom environment. On March 1, 2010, and September 7, 2011, bathymetrical sampling surveys were carried out using a standard Ekman-Birge grab at each of the 7 locations in Lake Shoji. The average densities of the benthic communities for all the stations were 4,107 inds. m-2, comprised principally of oligochaetes 50.2%, chironomids 48.6%, and chaoborid 1.2% in March 2010, whereas in September 2011 the average density was 1,185 inds. m-2, and mostly comprised of oligochaetes 86.6% and chironomids 13.4%. On the other hand, the average biomasses (wet weight of these benthic macroinvertebrates in March 2010 were composed of 33.3% oligochaetes, 62.8% chironomid larvae, and 3.9% chaoborid larvae, as opposed to 48.8% oligochaetes and 51.2% chironomid larvae, respectively, in September 2011. Propsilocerus akamusi (Tokunaga, 1938 and Procladius sp. of chironomid larvae were the dominant species, making up 10.0% and 17.6%, respectively, of the total chironomid fauna in density, and 83.2% and 9.2% in biomass in March 2010. The mean density of P. akamusi was about 2.5 times higher than that reported by Kitagawa in the 1970s. In recent years, the number of P. akamusi larvae has tended to increase; they are widely distributed, and the anoxic-layer and anaerobic-layer are thickening, especially during summer to late fall in Lake Shoji, suggesting that the lake is in the process of eutrophication.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1365.Published online: 17 October 2012

  16. 15种中草药提取液对怀牛膝根结线虫的杀虫杀卵效果%Nematicidal Activities of 15 Kinds of Chinese Herb Extracts against Root-knot Nematode of Achyranthes bidentata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红瑞; 张华; 高致明; 王佩佩

    2012-01-01

    The nematicidal activities of the water-soluble extracts from 15 kinds of Chinese herbs against root-knot nematode of Achyranthes bidentata Bl. Were investigated. The results showed that the activities of extracts from 15 plant species belonging to 13 families against the 2nd instar larvae and eggs of root-knot nematode were significant. Cynanchum paniculatum (Bunge) Kitaga-wa, Dioscorea zingiberensis C. H. Wright, Camptotheca acuminate Decne. And Veratrum nigrum L. Caused the corrected mortalities of 2nd instar larvae within 72 h of 95. 46%,95. 00%,91. 79% and 90. 47% , respectively. The hatching inhibition rates of eggs were 94. 30 % ,94. 13% ,90. 89 % and 91. 13% within 30 days and the corrected mortalities of eggs were 80. 40%, 82. 23%, 75. 54% ,and 78. 87% ,respectively. The nematicidal activities of the extracts from C. Paniculatum (Bunge)Kitagawa,D. Zingiberensis C. H. Wright,C. Acuminate Decne. And V. Nigrum L. Were bet-ter than those of others.%利用15种中草药水溶性提取液对怀牛膝根结线虫二龄幼虫及卵进行室内离体活性测定.结果表明,供试的15种中草药提取液对怀牛膝根结线虫幼虫和卵的毒杀活性差异显著,其中,用徐长卿、黄姜、喜树、藜芦提取液处理后,二龄幼虫72 h的校正死亡率分别为95.46%、95.00%、91.79%、90.47%,杀线虫活性强度均达到“++++”,1~30 d卵的孵化抑制率分别为94.30%、94.13%、90.89%、91.13%,卵的校正死亡率分别为80.40%、82.23%、75.54%、78.87%.徐长卿、黄姜、喜树、藜芦提取液对怀牛膝根结线虫的杀虫、杀卵效果较好.

  17. Interactions Between Industrial Yeasts and Chemical Contaminants in Grape Juice Affect Wine Composition Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etjen Bizaj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between four industrial wine yeast strains and grape juice chemical contaminants during alcoholic fermentation was studied. Industrial strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (AWRI 0838, S. cerevisiae mutant with low H2S production phenotype (AWRI 1640, interspecies hybrid of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii (AWRI 1539 and a hybrid of AWRI 1640 and AWRI 1539 (AWRI 1810 were exposed separately to fungicides pyrimethanil (Pyr, 10 mg/L and fenhexamid (Fhx, 10 mg/L, as well as to the most common toxin produced by moulds on grapes, ochratoxin A (OTA, 5 μg/L, during alcoholic fermentation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc juice. Contaminants were found to strongly impair fermentation performance and metabolic activity of all yeast strains studied. The chemical profile of wine was analyzed by HPLC (volatile acidity, concentrations of ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol and organic acids and the aromatic profile was analyzed using a stable isotope dilution technique using GC/MS (ethyl esters, acetates and aromatic alcohols and Kitagawa tubes (H2S. The chemical composition of wine with added contaminants was in all cases significantly different from the control. Of particular note is that the quantity of aromatic compounds produced by yeast was significantly lower. Yeast’s capacity to remove contaminants from wine at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, and after extended contact (7 days was determined. All the strains were able to remove contaminants from the media, moreover, after extended contact, the concentration of contaminants was in most cases lower.

  18. Very Low Birth Weight and Perinatal Periods of Risk: Disparities in St. Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Xaverius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Very low birth weight (VLBW is a significant issue in St. Louis, Missouri. Our study evaluated risk factors associated with VLBW in this predominantly urban community. Methods. From 2000 to 2009, birth and fetal death certificates were evaluated (n=160, 189, and mortality rates were calculated for perinatal periods of risk. The Kitagawa method was used to explore fetoinfant mortality rates (FIMR in terms of birth weight distribution and birthweight specific mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of association of selected risk factors with VLBW. Results. VLBW contributes to 50% of the excess FIMR in St. Louis City and County. The highest proportion of VLBW can be attributed to black maternal race (40.6% in St. Louis City, inadequate prenatal care (19.8%, and gestational hypertension (12.0% among black women. Medicaid was found to have a protective effect for VLBW among black women (population attributable risk (PAR = −14.5. Discussion. Interventions targeting the health of women before and during conception may be most successful at reducing the disparities in VLBW in this population. Interventions geared towards smoking cessation and improvements in Medicaid and prenatal care access for black mothers and St. Louis City residents can greatly reduce VLBW rates.

  19. Predicting Low Energy Dopant Implant Profiles in Semiconductors using Molecular Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beardmore, K.M.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.

    1999-05-02

    The authors present a highly efficient molecular dynamics scheme for calculating dopant density profiles in group-IV alloy, and III-V zinc blende structure materials. Their scheme incorporates several necessary methods for reducing computational overhead, plus a rare event algorithm to give statistical accuracy over several orders of magnitude change in the dopant concentration. The code uses a molecular dynamics (MD) model to describe ion-target interactions. Atomic interactions are described by a combination of 'many-body' and pair specific screened Coulomb potentials. Accumulative damage is accounted for using a Kinchin-Pease type model, inelastic energy loss is represented by a Firsov expression, and electronic stopping is described by a modified Brandt-Kitagawa model which contains a single adjustable ion-target dependent parameter. Thus, the program is easily extensible beyond a given validation range, and is therefore truly predictive over a wide range of implant energies and angles. The scheme is especially suited for calculating profiles due to low energy and to situations where a predictive capability is required with the minimum of experimental validation. They give examples of using the code to calculate concentration profiles and 2D 'point response' profiles of dopants in crystalline silicon and gallium-arsenide. Here they can predict the experimental profile over five orders of magnitude for <100> and <110> channeling and for non-channeling implants at energies up to hundreds of keV.

  20. Bridging the gap between metallurgy and fatigue reliability of hydraulic turbine runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, D.; Gagnon, M.; Godin, S.

    2014-03-01

    The failure of hydraulic turbine runners is a very rare event. Hence, in order to assess the reliability of these components, one cannot rely on statistical models based on the number of failures in a given population. However, as there is a limited number of degradation mechanisms involved, it is possible to use physically-based reliability models. Such models are more complicated but have the advantage of being able to account for physical parameters in the prediction of the evolution of runner degradation. They can therefore propose solutions to help improve reliability. With the use of such models, the effect of materials properties on runner reliability can easily be illustrated. This paper will present a brief review of the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram that links the damage tolerance approach, based on fracture mechanics, to the stress or strain-life approaches. This diagram is at the centre of the reliability model used in this study. Using simplified response spectra obtained from on-site runner stress measurements, the paper will show how fatigue reliability is impacted by materials fatigue properties, namely fatigue crack propagation behaviour and fatigue limit obtained on S-N curves. It will also present a review of the most important microstructural features of 13%Cr- 4%Ni stainless steels used for runner manufacturing and will review how they influence fatigue properties in an effort to bridge the gap between metallurgy and turbine runners reliability.

  1. Species Diversity, Community Dynamics, and Metabolite Kinetics of the Microbiota Associated with Traditional Ecuadorian Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Fermentations▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans. PMID

  2. Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-11-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.

  3. Bacterial Ecology of Fermented Cucumber Rising pH Spoilage as Determined by Nonculture-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M; Breidt, Fred; Hayes, Janet; Franco, Wendy; Butz, Natasha; Azcarate-Peril, María Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Fermented cucumber spoilage (FCS) characterized by rising pH and the appearance of manure- and cheese-like aromas is a challenge of significant economical impact for the pickling industry. Previous culture-based studies identified the yeasts Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, 4 Gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus parrafaraginis, Clostridium sp., and Propionibacterium and 1 Gram-negative genus, Pectinatus, as relevant in various stages of FCS given their ability to metabolize lactic acid. It was the objective of this study to augment the current knowledge of FCS using culture-independent methods to microbiologically characterize commercial spoilage samples. Ion Torrent data and 16S rRNA cloning library analyses of samples collected from commercial fermentation tanks confirmed the presence of L. rapi and L. buchneri and revealed the presence of additional species involved in the development of FCS such as Lactobacillus namurensis, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus panis, Acetobacter peroxydans, Acetobacter aceti, and Acetobacter pasteurianus at pH below 3.4. The culture-independent analyses also revealed the presence of species of Veillonella and Dialister in spoilage samples with pH above 4.0 and confirmed the presence of Pectinatus spp. during lactic acid degradation at the higher pH. Acetobacter spp. were successfully isolated from commercial samples collected from tanks subjected to air purging by plating on Mannitol Yeast Peptone agar. In contrast, Lactobacillus spp. were primarily identified in samples of FCS collected from tanks not subjected to air purging for more than 4 mo. Thus, it is speculated that oxygen availability may be a determining factor in the initiation of spoilage and the leading microbiota.

  4. Bacterial Ecology of Fermented Cucumber Rising pH Spoilage as Determined by Non-Culture Based Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Eduardo; Pérez-Díaz, Ilenys M.; Breidt, Fred; Hayes, Janet; Franco, Wendy; Butz, Natasha; Azcarate-Peril, María Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Fermented cucumber spoilage (FCS) characterized by rising pH and the appearance of manure and cheese like aromas is a challenge of significant economical impact for the pickling industry. Previous culture based studies identified the yeasts Pichia manshurica and Issatchenkia occidentalis, four gram positive bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus parrafaraginis, Clostridium sp. and Propionibacterium and one gram-negative genus, Pectinatus as relevant in various stages of FCS given their ability to metabolize lactic acid. It was the objective of this study to augment the current knowledge of FCS using culture independent methods to microbiologically characterize commercial spoilage samples. Ion Torrent data and 16S rRNA cloning library analyses of samples collected from commercial fermentation tanks confirmed the presence of L. rapi and L. buchneri and revealed the presence of additional species involved in the development of FCS such as Lactobacillus namurensis, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus panis, Acetobacter peroxydans, Acetobacter aceti, and Acetobacter pasteurianus at pH below 3.4. The culture independent analyses also revealed the presence of species of Veillonella and Dialister in spoilage samples with pH above 4.0 and confirmed the presence of Pectinatus spp. during lactic acid degradation at the higher pH. Acetobacter spp. were successfully isolated from commercial samples collected from tanks subjected to air purging by plating on Mannitol Yeast Peptone agar. In contrast, Lactobacillus spp. were primarily identified in samples of FCS collected from tanks not subjected to air purging for more than 4 months. Thus, it is speculated that oxygen availability may be a determining factor in the initiation of spoilage and the leading microbiota. Practical Application Understanding of the underlying microbiology and biochemistry driving FCS is essential to enhancing the sodium chloride (NaCl)-free cucumber fermentation technology and in

  5. Enhancement of the Knowledge on Fungal Communities in Directly Brined Aloreña de Málaga Green Olive Fermentations by Metabarcoding Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Medina, Eduardo; Ruiz-Bellido, Miguel Ángel; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Montes-Borrego, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, our knowledge of the fungal biodiversity in fermented vegetables is limited although these microorganisms could have a great influence on the quality and safety of this kind of food. This work uses a metagenetic approach to obtain basic knowledge of the fungal community ecology during the course of fermentation of natural Aloreña de Málaga table olives, from reception of raw material to edible fruits. For this purpose, samples of brines and fruits were collected from two industries in Guadalhorce Valley (Málaga, Spain) at different moments of fermentation (0, 7, 30 and 120 days). The physicochemical and microbial counts performed during fermentation showed the typical evolution of this type of processes, mainly dominated by yeasts in apparent absence of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae. High-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region showed a low biodiversity of the fungal community, with the presence at 97% identity of 29 different fungal genera included in 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The most important genera in the raw material at the moment of reception in the industry were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Malassezia, and Candida, whilst after 4 months of fermentation in brines Zygotorulaspora and Pichia were predominant, whereas in fruits were Candida, Penicillium, Debaryomyces and Saccharomyces. The fungal genera Penicillium, Pichia, and Zygotorulaspora were shared among the three types of substrates during all the course of fermentation, representing the core fungal population for this table olive specialty. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences allowed a more accurate assignment of diverse OTUs to Pichia manshurica, Candida parapsilosis/C. tropicalis, Candida diddensiae, and Citeromyces nyonensis clades. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium in olive fermentations including phytopathogenic, saprofitic, spoilage and fermentative genera. Insights into the ecology

  6. Enhancement of the Knowledge on Fungal Communities in Directly Brined Aloreña de Málaga Green Olive Fermentations by Metabarcoding Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé; Medina, Eduardo; Ruiz-Bellido, Miguel Ángel; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Landa, Blanca B

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, our knowledge of the fungal biodiversity in fermented vegetables is limited although these microorganisms could have a great influence on the quality and safety of this kind of food. This work uses a metagenetic approach to obtain basic knowledge of the fungal community ecology during the course of fermentation of natural Aloreña de Málaga table olives, from reception of raw material to edible fruits. For this purpose, samples of brines and fruits were collected from two industries in Guadalhorce Valley (Málaga, Spain) at different moments of fermentation (0, 7, 30 and 120 days). The physicochemical and microbial counts performed during fermentation showed the typical evolution of this type of processes, mainly dominated by yeasts in apparent absence of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae. High-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region showed a low biodiversity of the fungal community, with the presence at 97% identity of 29 different fungal genera included in 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The most important genera in the raw material at the moment of reception in the industry were Penicillium, Cladosporium, Malassezia, and Candida, whilst after 4 months of fermentation in brines Zygotorulaspora and Pichia were predominant, whereas in fruits were Candida, Penicillium, Debaryomyces and Saccharomyces. The fungal genera Penicillium, Pichia, and Zygotorulaspora were shared among the three types of substrates during all the course of fermentation, representing the core fungal population for this table olive specialty. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences allowed a more accurate assignment of diverse OTUs to Pichia manshurica, Candida parapsilosis/C. tropicalis, Candida diddensiae, and Citeromyces nyonensis clades. This study highlights the existence of a complex fungal consortium in olive fermentations including phytopathogenic, saprofitic, spoilage and fermentative genera. Insights into the ecology

  7. 威灵仙的化学成分及生物活性的研究进展%Research progress on chemical components and bioactivity of radix climatidis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎山林; 陈丽佳; 李正翔; 张瀛化; 张骏

    2016-01-01

    Radix climatidis refers to the root and rhizoma of the one of Clematis Chinensis Osbeck,Clematis hexapstala Pall and Clematis manshurica RuPr. The chemical comPonents of radix climatidis inolve triterPenoids saPonins,flavones,lignans,couma-rins,alkaloids,sterides,organic acids,macrocyclic comPounds and Phenols. As a Chinese traditional medicine,radix climatidis is traditionaly used as analgesic,diuretic,anti - tumor and anti - inflamatic medicines,and was found recently to be active in the treatment of myocardiac infarction and atherosclerosis,Preventing the develoPment of diabetic nePhroPathy. In this PaPer,we re-viewed the advances of studies on chemical constituents and bioactivity of radix climatidis in the nearly ten years.%威灵仙为毛茛科植物威灵仙、棉团铁线莲或东北铁线莲的根及根茎,化学成分可分为挥发性成分和非挥发性两大类,主要有三萜皂苷、黄酮、木脂素、香豆素、生物碱、挥发油、甾体、有机酸、大环化合物及酚类等。威灵仙不仅具有镇痛、利尿、抗肿瘤和抗炎作用,近年来的研究还发现其可以抗心肌梗死和动脉粥样硬化,抑制糖尿病肾病的发生和发展。本文综述了近十年来威灵仙化学成分和生物活性与作用机制的研究进展。

  8. The re-discovered Maculinea rebeli (Hirschke, 1904: Host ant usage, parasitoid and initial food plant around the type locality with taxonomical aspects (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae

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    András Tartally

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of the myrmecophilous Maculinea alcon group (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae is highly debated. The host-plant and host-ant usage of these butterflies have conventionally been important in their identification. Maculinea ‘rebeli’ has generally been considered to be the xerophilous form of Ma. alcon (Ma. alcon X hereafter with Gentiana cruciata as initial food plant. However, the type locality and all other known sites of Ma. rebeli are found above the coniferous zone, and are well separated from the lower regions where Ma. alcon X sites are found. Furthermore, no food plant and host ant data for the nominotypic Ma. rebeli have yet been published. Our aim was therefore to identify the host ant(s of Ma. rebeli around the type locality and compare this with the host ant usage of nearby Ma. alcon X. Nests of Myrmica spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae close to the host plants were opened on one Ma. alcon X (host plant: Gentiana cruciata and two Ma. rebeli (host plant: Gentianella rhaetica, first record, confirmed by oviposition and emerging larvae sites just before the flying period, to find prepupal larvae and pupae. Three Myrmica species (My. lobulicornis, My. ruginodis, My. sulcinodis were found on the two Ma. rebeli sites, which parasitized exclusively My. sulcinodis (22 individuals in 7 nests. On the Ma. alcon X site Myrmica sabuleti and My. lonae were found, with My. sabuleti the exclusive host (51 individuals in 10 nests. Ichneumon cf. eumerus parasitized both butterflies. The results highlight the differentiation of Maculinea rebeli from Ma. alcon X, from both conservation biological and ecological points of view. Thus, it should be concluded that Ma. rebeli does not simply represent an individual form of Ma. alcon but it can be considered as at least an ecological form adapted to high mountain conditions both in its initial food plant and host ant species. In addition, it should be emphasized that Ma. alcon X (= Ma. rebeli auct. nec

  9. Climate change for the last 1,000 years inferred from borehole temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, K.; Arimoto, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Takeuchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    of 1620 AD for the last 2,000 years, based on the proxy data in literature (Kitagawa, 1995; Moberg, et al, 2005). Analytical solutions have been obtained by applying a superimpose method. Optimum values of parameters included in the model have been obtained by fitting the solutions to the data of temperature-depth profiles by a least-square method. As a result, the amplitude of natural oscillation in the area is about 0.8 degree in average, which is in agreement with the result of tree ring analysis of Yakushima cedar (Kitagawa, 1995). Greater upward groundwater flow rates (up to 1.0 m/y, Darcy flux) are seen along the vertical disordered structure. However, the increasing rate of ground surface temperature is greater than that in atmospheric temperature during the last 140 years at Osaka Meteorological Observatory, Japan Meteorological Agency. The high increasing rate of the ground surface temperature suggests that the change in atmospheric temperature is influenced by the change in long wave radiation from the ground surface.

  10. Confirmation of the factorial structure of the Japanese short version of the TEMPS-A in psychiatric patients and general adults

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    Nakato Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yasuya Nakato,1 Takeshi Inoue,1,2 Shin Nakagawa,1 Yuji Kitaichi,1 Rie Kameyama,1 Yumi Wakatsuki,1 Kan Kitagawa,1 Yuki Omiya,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Background: The Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A is a 110-item questionnaire that assesses five affective temperaments. However, a valid shortened version is desired for large-scale investigations to enhance the compliance of respondents. Methods: A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted among 320 psychiatric patients and 61 general adults. The participants completed the Japanese 39-item short version of the TEMPS-A, and a portion of the participants completed the 110-item version. An exploratory factor analysis with the principal factor method and varimax rotation was conducted to identify a more suitable model of the short version of the TEMPS-A. Results: The confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the 39-item version exhibited a poor model fit. However, we found that the 18-item version exhibited a firm five-factor structure based on the exploratory factor analysis, and this model exhibited an acceptable model fit. It had good or acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s αs: 0.672–0.819. Limitations: The majority of the subjects in the present study were patients, and the temperament data may have been affected by psychiatric symptoms. Conclusion: A firm five-factor structure was not found in the 39-item short version of the Japanese TEMPS-A. Therefore, an 18-item version was proposed. This new 18-item version of the TEMPS-A might be useful for clinical applications and large-scale investigations. Keywords: TEMPS-A, affective temperament, depression, validation, confirmatory factor analysis

  11. A self-organizing state-space-model approach for parameter estimation in hodgkin-huxley-type models of single neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavoulis, Dimitrios V; Straub, Volko A; Aston, John A D; Feng, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the problem of parameter estimation in biophysical models of neurons and neural networks usually adopt a global search algorithm (for example, an evolutionary algorithm), often in combination with a local search method (such as gradient descent) in order to minimize the value of a cost function, which measures the discrepancy between various features of the available experimental data and model output. In this study, we approach the problem of parameter estimation in conductance-based models of single neurons from a different perspective. By adopting a hidden-dynamical-systems formalism, we expressed parameter estimation as an inference problem in these systems, which can then be tackled using a range of well-established statistical inference methods. The particular method we used was Kitagawa's self-organizing state-space model, which was applied on a number of Hodgkin-Huxley-type models using simulated or actual electrophysiological data. We showed that the algorithm can be used to estimate a large number of parameters, including maximal conductances, reversal potentials, kinetics of ionic currents, measurement and intrinsic noise, based on low-dimensional experimental data and sufficiently informative priors in the form of pre-defined constraints imposed on model parameters. The algorithm remained operational even when very noisy experimental data were used. Importantly, by combining the self-organizing state-space model with an adaptive sampling algorithm akin to the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy, we achieved a significant reduction in the variance of parameter estimates. The algorithm did not require the explicit formulation of a cost function and it was straightforward to apply on compartmental models and multiple data sets. Overall, the proposed methodology is particularly suitable for resolving high-dimensional inference problems based on noisy electrophysiological data and, therefore, a potentially useful tool in

  12. Establishment and optimization of ISSR-PCR and SRAP-PCR reaction systems of Thymus L.%百里香属植物ISSR-PCR和SRAP-PCR 体系的确立及优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权俊萍; 袁菊红; 穆红梅; 张明霞; 李乃伟; 夏冰

    2008-01-01

    通过对 PCR 扩增体系中的模板 DNA 用量,Mg2+、dNTPs和引物浓度的单因子实验,分别建立了适合百里香属(Thymus L.)植物总 DNA 的 ISSR-PCR 及 SRAP-PCR 优化反应体系.ISSR-PCR 优化反应体系为:反应总体积20μL,含模板DNA 30 ng、Mg2+ 3.75 mmol·L-1、dNTPs 0.20 mmol·L-1、引物0.3 mmol·L-1和Taq DNA 聚合酶1 U.SRAP-PCR 优化反应体系为:反应总体积20μL,含模板DNA 30 ng、Mg2+ 2.50 mmol·L-1、dNTPs 0.10mmol·L-1、引物0.4 mmol·L-1和 Taq DNA 聚合酶l U.运用优化的反应体系对百里香属植物地椒(T. quinque-costatus Celak.)、地椒的亚洲变种[T. quinquecostatus var.asiaticus(Kitagawa)C.Y.Wu et Y.C.Huang]和百里香(T. mongolicus Ronn.)15个居群的总DNA进行了ISSR和SRAP初步分析,获得了较好的扩增结果.

  13. Proportion of neonatal readmission attributed to length of stay for childbirth: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Amy; Mathai, Matthews; Liu, Shiliang; Leon, Juan Andres; Joseph, K S

    2016-01-01

    Objective Most literature on length of stay (LOS) for childbirth focuses on ‘early’ discharge as opposed to ‘optimal’ time of discharge and has conflicting results due to heterogeneous definitions of ‘early’ discharge and differing eligibility criteria for these programmes. We aimed to determine the LOS associated with the lowest neonatal readmission rate following childbirth by examining the incidence pattern of neonatal readmission for different LOS using the Kitagawa decomposition. Design Retrospective cohort study using administrative hospitalisation data. Setting Canada (excluding Quebec) from 2003 to 2010. Patients Term, singleton live births without congenital anomalies. Interventions LOS for childbirth. Main outcome measure Neonatal readmissions within 30 days of birth. Results 1 875 322 live births were included. Neonatal LOS peaked at day 1 (47.3%) after vaginal birth and day 3 (49.3%) following caesarean section; 4.2% of infants were readmitted following vaginal birth and 2.2% after caesarean section. In 2008–2010, most readmissions occurred among infants discharged in the first 2 days (83.8%) following a vaginal birth and among infants discharged in the first 3 days (81.7%) following a caesarean birth. Readmissions increased from 4.1% in 2003–2005 to 4.6% in 2008–2010 among vaginal births and from 2.0% to 2.4% among caesarean births and occurred mostly due to changes in the day-specific readmission rates and not due to reductions in LOS. Conclusions Patterns of readmission suggest that readmission rates are lowest following a 1–2-day stay following a vaginal birth and a 2–4-day stay following a caesarean birth given the outpatient support in the community. PMID:27630070

  14. Threshold Levels of Infant and Under-Five Mortality for Crossover between Life Expectancies at Ages Zero, One and Five in India: A Decomposition Analysis.

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    Manisha Dubey

    Full Text Available Under the prevailing conditions of imbalanced life table and historic gender discrimination in India, our study examines crossover between life expectancies at ages zero, one and five years for India and quantifies the relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards this crossover.We estimate threshold levels of infant and under-five mortality required for crossover using age specific death rates during 1981-2009 for 16 Indian states by sex (comprising of India's 90% population in 2011. Kitagawa decomposition equations were used to analyse relative share of infant and under-five mortality towards crossover.India experienced crossover between life expectancies at ages zero and five in 2004 for menand in 2009 for women; eleven and nine Indian states have experienced this crossover for men and women, respectively. Men usually experienced crossover four years earlier than the women. Improvements in mortality below ages five have mostly contributed towards this crossover. Life expectancy at age one exceeds that at age zero for both men and women in India except for Kerala (the only state to experience this crossover in 2000 for men and 1999 for women.For India, using life expectancy at age zero and under-five mortality rate together may be more meaningful to measure overall health of its people until the crossover. Delayed crossover for women, despite higher life expectancy at birth than for men reiterates that Indian women are still disadvantaged and hence use of life expectancies at ages zero, one and five become important for India. Greater programmatic efforts to control leading causes of death during the first month and 1-59 months in high child mortality areas can help India to attain this crossover early.

  15. Differences between bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing

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    Kimura H

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiromi Kimura, Akemi Osaki, Rui Kawashima, Takeshi Inoue, Shin Nakagawa, Katsuji Suzuki, Satoshi Asakura, Teruaki Tanaka, Yuji Kitaichi, Takuya Masui, Nobuki Kitagawa, Yuki Kako, Tomohiro Abekawa, Ichiro Kusumi, Hiroyoshi Yamanaka, Kenzo Denda, Tsukasa KoyamaDepartment of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, JapanBackground: The bipolar-unipolar distinction in patients with a major depressive episode is the most important issue related to the diagnosis and treatment of mood disorders, but remains unresolved. This study was undertaken to compare bipolar and unipolar depression on Rorschach testing using the Comprehensive System with reference to healthy Japanese controls.Methods: Patients with bipolar or unipolar depression who had undergone the Rorschach test for routine clinical purposes were followed up naturalistically for a long period. Based on diagnostic confirmation after long-term follow-up, scores on this test for patients with bipolar and unipolar depression were compared with those published elsewhere for healthy Japanese controls.Results: The bipolar depression group showed significantly higher scores or positive findings in five variables of the Rorschach test, ie, WSum6, DR2 > 0, (CF + C > FC + 2, PureC > 1, and Populars > 7, as assessed using the Comprehensive System, than did the unipolar depression group and healthy controls. These scores did not differ between the unipolar depression and control groups.Conclusion: The results of this study show thought disorder or cognitive slippage and marked laxness in modulating emotion in bipolar depression, indicating the psychopathological characteristics of bipolar disorder.Keywords: bipolar depression, bipolar disorder, Rorschach test, thought disorder, unipolar depression

  16. Specific recognition of the collagen triple helix by chaperone HSP47. II. The HSP47-binding structural motif in collagens and related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Takaki; Nishikawa, Yoshimi; Asada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Chisato M; Takahara, Yoshifumi; Homma, Daisuke L; Otaka, Akira; Ohtani, Katsuki; Wakamiya, Nobutaka; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Kouki

    2006-04-21

    The endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone heat-shock protein 47 (HSP47) plays an essential role in procollagen biosynthesis. The function of HSP47 relies on its specific interaction with correctly folded triple-helical regions comprised of Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats, and Arg residues at Yaa positions have been shown to be important for this interaction. The amino acid at the Yaa position (Yaa(-3)) in the N-terminal-adjoining triplet containing the critical Arg (defined as Arg(0)) was also suggested to be directly recognized by HSP47 (Koide, T., Asada, S., Takahara, Y., Nishikawa, Y., Nagata, K., and Kitagawa, K. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 3432-3438). Based on this finding, we examined the relationship between the structure of Yaa(-3) and HSP47 binding using synthetic collagenous peptides. The results obtained indicated that the structure of Yaa(-3) determined the binding affinity for HSP47. Maximal binding was observed when Yaa(-3) was Thr. Moreover, the required relative spatial arrangement of these key residues in the triple helix was analyzed by taking advantage of heterotrimeric collagen-model peptides, each of which contains one Thr(-3) and one Arg(0). The results revealed that HSP47 recognizes the Yaa(-3) and Arg(0) residues only when they are on the same peptide strand. Taken together, the data obtained led us to define the HSP47-binding structural epitope in the collagen triple helix and also define the HSP47-binding motif in the primary structure. A motif search against human protein database predicted candidate clients for this molecular chaperone. The search result indicated that not all collagen family proteins require the chaperoning by HSP47.

  17. DESCRIPTION OF SOME SPONTANEUS SPECIES AND THE POSSIBILITIES OF USE THEM IN THE ROCKY GARDENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUTA ERZSEBET

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania’s spontaneous flora are reported over 3759 species of plants, of which 3136 species are spontaneous [CIOCÂRLAN, 2000], 23 have been declared nature monuments, 74 are extinct, 39 endangered, 171 are vulnerable and 1253 are rare. Characteristic grassland species is approximately 37% of total existent plants in Romania, and alpine species is 14%. It was identified a total of 57 endemic taxons (species and subspecies and 171 subendemic taxons [www.wikipedia.org].The floristic ranges adapted to the unfavorable conditions dictated by nature, with the possibility to use in rocky gardens, are: Campanula carpatica Jacq., Dianthus callizonus Schott et Kotschy, Gentiana acaulis L., Leontopodium alpinum Cass., Phlox amoena Sims., Saxifraga oppositifolia L., Sedum alpestre Vill., Sempervivum montanum L., Viola odorata L. Species that grow on alpine meadows in the spring until late autumn, recommended in landscape arrangements are: Adonis vernalis L., Carlina acaulis L., Paeonia tenuifolia L., Primula elatior Hill., Primula veris L., species that impress through form and the chromatic variety.This paper contains a brief description of some native species used or recommended for rocky gardens.

  18. Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Gentian Lutea Root and Its Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

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    Nurul Aini Mohd Azman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gentiana Lutea root (G. Lutea is a medicinal herb, traditionally used as a bitter tonic in gastrointestinal ailments for improving the digestive system. The active principles of G. Lutea were found to be secoiridoid bitter compounds as well as many other active compounds causing the pharmacological effects. No study to date has yet determined the potential of G. Lutea antioxidant activity on lipid oxidation. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an extract of G. Lutea on lipid oxidation during storage of an emulsion. G. Lutea extracts showed excellent antioxidant activity measured by DPPH scavenging assay and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays. An amount of 0.5% w/w G. Lutea lyophilise was able to inhibit lipid oxidation throughout storage (p < 0.05. A mixture of G. Lutea with 0.1% (w/w BSA showed a good synergic effect and better antioxidant activity in the emulsion. Quantitative results of HPLC showed that G. Lutea contained secoiridoid-glycosides (gentiopiocroside and sweroside and post column analysis displayed radical scavenging activity of G. Lutea extract towards the ABTS radical. The results from this study highlight the potential of G. Lutea as a food ingredient in the design of healthier food commodities.

  19. Reduced nitrogen has a greater effect than oxidised nitrogen on dry heathland vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L.J.L. van den [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ljvdb500@york.ac.uk; Peters, C.J.H. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ashmore, M.R. [Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Roelofs, J.G.M. [Department of Aquatic Ecology and Environmental Biology, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    We investigated the effects of different ratios of reduced (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) versus oxidised (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) nitrogen in deposition on heathland and species-rich grassland vegetation at high nitrogen deposition levels in large mesocosms filled with nutrient-poor soils to which different NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratios were applied. The response of the forbs, Antennaria dioica, Arnica montana, Gentiana pneumonanthe, Thymus serpyllum, the grasses Danthonia decumbens, Deschampsia flexuosa, Nardus stricta and the shrub Calluna vulgaris was recorded. The forb A. dioica and the grass D.decumbens preferred low NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratios and were characterised by a negative correlation between NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratios and biomass and survival, whereas the grasses N. stricta and D. flexuosa showed no correlation with NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratios. Lime addition eliminated the negative effects of high NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations in deposition for A. dioica and the grass D. decumbens. The implications of these findings for heathland vegetations are discussed. - Reduced nitrogen and high NH{sub 4}{sup +}/NO{sub 3}{sup -} ratios in deposition are responsible for a decline of forbs in Western European heathlands.

  20. Bitters: Time for a New Paradigm

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    Michael K. McMullen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In plant-based medical systems, bitter tasting plants play a key role in managing dyspepsia. Yet when it comes to defining their mechanism of activity, herbalists and pharmacologists are split between two theories: one involves cephalic elicited vagal responses while the other comprises purely local responses. Recent studies indicate that bitters elicit a range of cephalic responses which alter postprandial gastric phase haemodynamics. Caffeine and regular coffee (Coffea arabica semen, L. increase heart rate whereas gentian (Gentiana lutea radix, L. and wormwood (Artemisia absinthium herba L. increase tonus in the vascular resistance vessels. Following meals increased cardiac activity acts to support postprandial hyperaemia and maintain systemic blood pressure. The increased vascular tonus acts in parallel with the increased cardiac activity and in normal adults this additional pressor effect results in a reduced cardiac workload. The vascular response is a sympathetic reflex, evident after 5 minutes and dose dependent. Thus gentian and wormwood elicit cephalic responses which facilitate rather than stimulate digestive activity when postprandial hyperaemia is inadequate. Encapsulated caffeine elicits cardiovascular responses indicating that gastrointestinal bitter receptors are functionally active in humans. However, neither encapsulated gentian nor wormwood elicited cardiovascular responses during the gastric phase. These findings provide the platform for a new evidence-based paradigm.

  1. Effects of pH on antioxidant and prooxidant properties of common medicinal herbs

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    Bayliak Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied in vitro and vivo antioxidant and prooxidant abilities of aqueous extracts from Rosa canina L., Rhodiola rosea L., Hypericum perforatum L., and Gentiana lutea L. Methodology: Total antioxidant capacity was measured by four assays (phosphomolybdate method, Fe3+-reducing activity, ABTS•+ scavenging, H2O2 scavenging. Prooxidant activity was estimated by H2O2 production. Yeast viability in the presence of H2O2 and/or plant extracts was determined by plating or by counting live cells’ number. Results: Plant extracts differed in the total phenolic content (R. canina > R. rosea > H. perforatum > G. lutea which clearly correlated with their ABTS•+ scavenging activity (R2 = 0.963. H2O2 scavenging activity was not clearly associated with plant phenol levels and was significantly higher in acidic, than in alkaline medium. In line with this, plant extracts effectively protected yeast S. cereviasiae against H2O2 and stimulated reproductive ability of yeast cells at acidic but not at alkaline pH. At alkaline pH, plant extracts produced certain amounts of H2O2 which were related to their phenolic content. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of plant extracts is decreased at alkaline pH with an increase in the prooxidant activity. It reduces protective capacity of plant extracts against oxidative and other stresses in vivo.

  2. Shifting phenology and abundance under experimental warming alters trophic relationships and plant reproductive capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yinzhan; Reich, Peter B; Li, Guoyong; Sun, Shucun

    2011-06-01

    Phenological mismatches due to climate change may have important ecological consequences. In a three-year study, phenological shifts due to experimental warming markedly altered trophic relationships between plants and insect herbivores, causing a dramatic decline of reproductive capacity for one of the plant species. In a Tibetan meadow, the gentian (Gentiana formosa) typically flowers after the peak larva density of a noctuid moth (Melanchra pisi) that primarily feeds on a dominant forb (anemone, Anemone trullifolia var. linearis). However, artificial warming of approximately 1.5 degrees C advanced gentian flower phenology and anemone vegetative phenology by a week, but delayed moth larvae emergence by two weeks. The warming increased larval density 10-fold, but decreased anemone density by 30%. The phenological and density shifts under warmed conditions resulted in the insect larvae feeding substantially on the gentian flowers and ovules; there was approximately 100-fold more damage in warmed than in unwarmed chambers. This radically increased trophic connection reduced gentian plant reproduction and likely contributed to its reduced abundance in the warmed chambers.

  3. 辽东山区北龙胆林地栽培与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙圣宏

    2009-01-01

    龙胆草(Gentiana scabra Bunge)属多年生草本植物,以根茎入药,具有泻肝胆实火、除下焦湿热之功效,是东三省道地名贵药材品种之一。野生龙胆因采挖、自身天然更新能力较差等原因,资源已趋枯竭。目前商品市场缺口大,价格逐年上扬,尽管辽宁地区人工驯化栽培成功已近20年,但丹东地区独特的地理位置,并处于全省降水的中心,高密、全光栽培下,进入高温多湿的夏季,龙胆斑枯病病菌借助雨水肆意流行蔓延,造成植株过早枯萎死亡,产出投入比呈现负增长,为此,我们根据生态学原理,利用林间空地栽植北龙胆并获得成功。

  4. 林区龙胆草优质高产综合栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘田国; 刘长明

    2011-01-01

    @@ 龙胆草是龙胆科多年生草本植物,桦南县林区野生分布多为龙胆(粗糙龙胆草)(Gentiana scabra Bunge).以根和根茎入药,有清热燥湿、泻肝胆实火、除下焦湿热及健胃的功能.主治湿热黄疸、急性传染性肝炎、胆囊炎、高血压、头昏耳鸣、小儿高热抽搐、惊痫狂躁、目亦肿痛、咽痛、肋痛口苦、心腹胀满、消化不良、带状疱疹、湿疹瘙痒、阴部湿痒、带下、阴囊肿痛、疮疖、痈肿等症.粗糙龙胆草是我国著名的药材,也是我省产的最地道的药材晶种,药用历史悠久,畅销国内外,主要成分:根及根茎含有龙胆苦味素及生物碱类.

  5. Screening of DNA extraction methods of four Chinese medicinal materials%DNA提取4种中药材方法的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏敏; 何芳; 杨志刚; 蒋丹; 仵缘; 黄耀江

    2016-01-01

    目的 筛选龙胆Gentiana scabra Bunge、锁阳Cynomorium songaricum Rupr、天花粉Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.、菟丝子Cuscuta chinensis Lam.的DNA提取方法.方法 通过试剂盒法、SDS法、高盐低pH法、CTAB法以及改良PVP法,对4种中药材DNA进行提取.紫外分光光度、琼脂糖凝胶电泳和PCR扩增进行检测,SPSS20.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 改良PVP法所得4种中药材DNA的得率均较高.SDS法和改良PVP法提取的DNA条带较清晰,高盐低pH法提取者呈弥散状态,试剂盒法和CTAB法提取者几乎看不到条带.试剂盒法和改良PVP法提取的DNA可完全扩增ITS2和psbA-trnH序列,而其他3种方法未能完全扩增.结论 改良PVP法高效简单,最适合提取这4种中药材DNA.

  6. The Etiology of Rough Gentian Leaf Blight%龙胆草斑枯病病原生物学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚远; 傅俊范; 刘少霞

    2001-01-01

    对龙胆草(Gentina scabra Bunge)斑枯病病原生物学特性的研究结果表明,龙胆草斑枯病病原菌为龙胆壳针孢 (Septoria gentianae Thume).该病原菌是一种耐高湿、高温、喜光性真菌,生长的最适温度是 20~ 25℃,最适 pH值 6~ 7.分生孢子的形成需要光照、营养和适宜的温湿度条件,分生孢子萌发一般需要较长时间,在 25℃蒸馏水条件下, 12h开始萌发, 48h的萌发率为 50%, 72h的萌发率为 90%左右.加入糖分和寄主汁液可加速孢子的萌发.分生孢子的致死温度为 50℃.该病菌主要以分生孢子、分生孢子器和菌丝在田间病残体上越冬,为翌年病害的初发流行提供了大量菌源.

  7. Inhibition of chronic skin inflammation by topical anti-inflammatory flavonoid preparation, Ato Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kang, Sam Sik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2006-06-01

    Flavonoids are known as natural anti-inflammatory agents. In this investigation, an anti-inflammatory potential of new topical preparation (SK Ato Formula) containing flavonoid mixtures from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi roots and Ginkgo biloba L. leaves with an extract of Gentiana scabra Bunge roots was evaluated in an animal model of chronic skin inflammation. Multiple 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatments for 7 consecutive days on ICR mouse ear provoked a chronic type of skin inflammation: dermal edema, epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of inflammatory cells. When topically applied in this model, this new formulation (5-20 microL/ear/treatment) reduced these responses. Furthermore, it inhibited prostaglandin E2 generation (17.1-33.3%) and suppressed the expression of proinflammatory genes, cyclooxygenase-2 and interleulin-1beta in the skin lesion. Although the potency of inhibition was lower than that of prednisolone, all these results suggest that Ato Formula may be beneficial for treating chronic skin inflammatory disorders such as atopic dermatitis.

  8. [Data mining analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi AIDS herpes zoster medical record].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan-Ni; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-Jun

    2013-08-01

    Analysis of professor Li Fa-zhi in the treatment of AIDS drug laws of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia, provide reference for the use of Chinese medicine treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. By using the method of analyzing the complex network of Weishi county, Henan in 2007 October to 2011 July during an interview with professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia patients, patients are input structured clinical information collection system, into the analysis of the data, carries on the research analysis theory of traditional Chinese medicine compatibility system algorithm and complex network analysis the use of complex networks. The use of multi-dimensional query analysis of AIDS drugs, the core of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia treated in this study are Scutellariae Radix, Glucyrrhizae Radix, Carthame Flos, Plantaginis Semen, Trichosamthis Fructus, Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Gentianae Radix; core prescription for Longdan Xiegan decoction and Trichosanthes red liquorice decoction. Professor Li Fa-zhi treatment of AIDS, herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia by clearing heat and removing dampness and activating blood circulation to.

  9. Immune responses induced in rabbits after oral administration of bovine serum albumin in combination with different adjuvants (herb extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bižanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activity of 10 different herbal extracts from Vitex agnus-castus, Vinca major, Aloe arborescens and the polyherbal product containing extracts from Sambucus nigra, Primula versis, Pinus alba, Gentiana lutea, Cetraria islandica, Eucaliptus globulus, Citrus limon and aluminium hydroxide, as well as platinum nanoparticles. Rabbits were immunized three times orally with bovine serum albumin (BSA in combination with the components mentioned above. BSA-specific IgA antibodies in saliva and IgG antibodies in serum were examined by ELISA. It was found that the rabbits immunized with BSA in combination with either platinum nanoparticles or aluminium hydroxide had higher titres of BSA-specific IgA antibodies in their saliva at day 56 of observation. Likewise, rabbits treated with BSA and Vinca major or Aloe arborescens extracts showed higher levels of BSA-specific IgG antibodies in the serum at the end of observation. These results suggest that some plant extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles components could be used as oral adjuvants or as immunomodulators for rabbits.

  10. Bitter Gentian Teas: Nutritional and Phytochemical Profiles, Polysaccharide Characterisation and Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Koryakina, Lena P; Vladimirov, Leonid N

    2015-11-05

    As a result of the wide distribution of herbal teas the data on nutritional characterisation, chemical profile and biological activity of these products are required. The decoctions of Gentiana algida, G. decumbens, G. macrophylla and G. triflora herb teas were nutritionally characterized with respect to their macronutrients, demonstrating the predominance of polysaccharides and low lipid content. Gentian decoctions were also submitted to a microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV analysis of phytochemicals demonstrating a high content of iridoids (177.18-641.04 μg/mL) and flavonoids (89.15-405.71 μg/mL). Additionally, mangiferin was detected in samples of G. triflora tea (19.89 μg/mL). Five free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, gentiobiose, gentianose) were identified in all gentian teas studied, as well as six organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, succinic, quinic). Pectic polysaccharides with a high content of rhamnogalacturonans and arabinogalactans were also identified and characterized in gentian decoctions for the first time. Gentian tea decoctions and their specific compounds (gentiopicroside, loganic acid-6'-O-β-d-glucoside, isoorientin, isoorientin-4'-O-β-d-glucoside, mangiferin, water-soluble polysaccharides) showed a promising antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Evidences obtained indicate the prospective use of gentian herb teas as food products and medicines.

  11. Bitter Gentian Teas: Nutritional and Phytochemical Profiles, Polysaccharide Characterisation and Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the wide distribution of herbal teas the data on nutritional characterisation, chemical profile and biological activity of these products are required. The decoctions of Gentiana algida, G. decumbens, G. macrophylla and G. triflora herb teas were nutritionally characterized with respect to their macronutrients, demonstrating the predominance of polysaccharides and low lipid content. Gentian decoctions were also submitted to a microcolumn RP-HPLC-UV analysis of phytochemicals demonstrating a high content of iridoids (177.18–641.04 μg/mL and flavonoids (89.15–405.71 μg/mL. Additionally, mangiferin was detected in samples of G. triflora tea (19.89 μg/mL. Five free sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose, gentiobiose, gentianose were identified in all gentian teas studied, as well as six organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, oxalic, succinic, quinic. Pectic polysaccharides with a high content of rhamnogalacturonans and arabinogalactans were also identified and characterized in gentian decoctions for the first time. Gentian tea decoctions and their specific compounds (gentiopicroside, loganic acid-6′-O-β-d-glucoside, isoorientin, isoorientin-4′-O-β-d-glucoside, mangiferin, water-soluble polysaccharides showed a promising antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Evidences obtained indicate the prospective use of gentian herb teas as food products and medicines.

  12. Extracts from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Moreno, J; Arellano, R O

    2003-01-01

    The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effects of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from five medicinal plants on Xenopus laevis oocytes. When evaluated at concentrations of 1 to 500 microg/ml, the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Baccharis heterophylla H.B.K (Asteraceae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae) and Solanum rostratum Dun (Solanaceae) produced concentration-dependent oscillatory inward currents in the oocytes, while the extract of Gentiana spathacea did not induce any response. The reversal potential of the currents elicited by the active extracts was -17 +/- 2 mV and was similar to the chloride equilibrium potential in oocytes. These ionic responses were independent of extracellular calcium. However, they were eliminated by overnight incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting that the currents were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ increase. Thus the plant extracts activate the typical oscillatory Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- currents generated in the Xenopus oocyte membrane more probably via a mechanism that involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular reservoirs. These observations suggest that Xenopus oocyte electrophysiological recording constitutes a suitable assay for the study of the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines.

  13. Hyperaccumulation of lead, zinc, and cadmium in plants growing on a lead/zinc outcrop in Yunnan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. L.; Liao, W. B.; Yu, F. Q.; Liao, B.; Shu, W. S.

    2009-08-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential hyperaccumulators of Pb, Zn or Cd in the Beichang Pb/Zn mine outcrop in Yunnan Province, China. The average total concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soils were up to 28,438, 5,109, and 52 mg kg-1, respectively. A total of 68 plant species belonging to 60 genera of 37 families naturally colonizing the outcrop were recorded. According to metal accumulation in the plants and translocation factor (TF), Silene viscidula was identified as potential hyperaccumulator of Pb, Zn, and Cd with mean shoot concentrations of 3,938 mg kg-1 of Pb (TF = 1.2), 11,155 mg kg-1 of Zn (TF = 1.8) and 236 mg kg-1 of Cd (TF = 1.1), respectively; S. gracilicanlis (Pb 3,617 mg kg-1, TF = 1.2) and Onosma paniculatum (Pb 1,837 mg kg-1, TF = 1.9) were potential Pb hyperaccumulators. Potentilla griffithii (Zn 8,748 mg kg-1, TF = 1.5) and Gentiana sp. (Zn 19,710 mg kg-1, TF = 2.7) were potential Zn hyperaccumulators. Lysimachia deltoides (Cd 212 mg kg-1, TF = 3.2) was a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. These new plant resources could be used to explore the mechanisms of Pb, Zn and/or Cd hyperaccumulation, and the findings could be applied for the phytoremediation of Pb, Zn and/or Cd-contaminated soils.

  14. Caterpillar seed predators mediate shifts in selection on flowering phenology in their host plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Alicia; Ehrlén, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in selection among populations and years has important implications for evolutionary trajectories of populations. Yet, the agents of selection causing this variation have rarely been identified. Selection on the time of reproduction within a season in plants might differ both among populations and among years, and selection can be mediated by both mutualists and antagonists. We investigated if differences in the direction of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology among 20 populations of Gentiana pneumonanthe during 2 yr were related to the presence of the butterfly seed predator Phengaris alcon, and if butterfly incidence was associated with the abundance of the butterfly's second host, Myrmica ants. In plant populations without the butterfly, phenotypic selection favored earlier flowering. In populations where the butterfly was present, caterpillars preferentially attacked early-flowering individuals, shifting the direction of selection to favoring later flowering. Butterfly incidence in plant populations increased with ant abundance. Our results demonstrate that antagonistic interactions can shift the direction of selection on flowering phenology, and suggest that such shifts might be associated with differences in the community context.

  15. Natural and planted flora of the log mountain surface - mined demonstration area, Bell County, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.L. [Berea College, KY (United States); Wade, G.L. [USDA Forest Service, Burlington, VT (United States); Straw, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee Plateau Experiment Station, Crossville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A descriptive study of the naturally invading and planted flora was conducted during 1984-1985 on a 14- and 21-year-old contour surface mine the 14.2 ha Log Mountain Demonstration Area (LMDA), in Bell County, Kentucky. Six habitats are designated from areas created from coal mining; the 1963 bench, 1970 bench, bench highwalls, mine outslopes, mine seeps, and coal haul-telephone microwave tower road. Twenty-four of 25 woody and herbaceous species (11 indigenous, 13 non-indigenous) have persisted from plantings by personnel of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service. We recommend 11 native and exotic woody and herbaceous species for planting on coal surface-mined areas. An annotated list of vascular plants comprises 360 taxa (286 indigenous, 74 non-indigenous) in 224 genera from 82 families. Taxa consist of 1 Lycopodiophyta, 1 Equisetophyta, 8 Polypodiophyta, 7 Pinophyta, and 343 Magnoliophyta. The most species-rich families are the Asteraceae (64), Poaceae (39), Fabaceae (20), Cyperaceae (16), Rosaceae (13), and Lamiaceae (11). A total of 155 Bell County distribution records were documented. Three threatened Kentucky species (Gentiana decora, Liparis loeselii, Silene ovata) were present in refugial habitats created by surface mining. The high species richness has resulted from native and naturalized invading species from the environs, native and exotic planted species, and species from the remnant seed bank. Forest vegetation is a complex mosaic of natural and semi-natural plant communities on the unplanted and planted areas of LMDA.

  16. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  17. Vegetation of the ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve and its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krechowski Janusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ‘Mierzwice’ nature reserve (forest district 206b, c and d of the Sarnaki Forest Inspectorate, situated in the area of the Podlaski Przełom Bug Landscape Park, is one of the most valuable natural assets of the central Bug river valley. The 12.98 ha reserve was established in 2010 to aid protection of the stand of xerothermic vegetation and its surrounding deciduous forest. In total, eight plant associations were identified within the reserve: Geranio-Peucedanetum cervariae, Geranio-Anemonetum sylvestris, Geranio-Trifolietum alpestris, Trifolio medii-Agrimonietum, Rubo fruticosi-Prunetum, Rhamno-Cornetum sanguinei, Potentillo albae-Quercetum and Tilio cordatae-Carpinetum betuli. Furthermore, 23 protected and 31 endangered species were found in the reserve including the following examples: Cephalanthera rubra, Thesium ebracteatum, Cypripedium calceolus, Gentiana cruciata, Anemone sylvestris, Cimicifuga europaea, Viola rupestris, Crepis praemorsa, Asperula tinctoria, Stachys recta, Laserpitium latifolium. Over the last few years, a regression of the species diagnostic number for thermophilous oak forests and xerothermic grasslands has been observed as a result of succession and expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos. Active protection of xerothermic vegetation such as uprooting of trees and bushes, regular grazing or mowing has been suggested in order to prevent the expansion of Calamagrostis epigejos.

  18. Rare and Endangered Geophyte Plant Species in Serpentine of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Berisha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study documents information on rarity, geographical distribution, taxonomy and conservation status of 11 geophyte species in serpentine soils of Kosovo, already included in the Red Book of Vascular Flora of Kosovo. Kosovo’s serpentine vegetation represents a diversity that yet has not been sufficiently explored. Large serpentine complexes are found in the northern Kosovo but also southern part of the country is rich in serpentines, therefore in endemics. Serpentine rocks and soils are characterized by low level of principal plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and exceptionally high levels of Mg and Fe. Serpentines play particular importance for flora of the country due to their richness in endemic plant species. The following 11 plant species have been studied: Aristolochia merxmuelleri, Colchicum hungaricum, Crocus flavus, Crocus kosaninii, Epimedium alpinum, Gentiana punctata, Gladiolus illyricus, Lilium albanicum, Paeonia peregrina, Tulipa gesneriana and Tulipa kosovarica. Five out of eleven studied geophytes fall within Critically Endangered IUCN based threat category and five out of eleven are local endemics. Aristolochia merxmuelleri and Tulipa kosovarica are steno-endemic plant species that are found exclusively in serpentine soils. Information in our database should prove to be valuable to efforts in ecology, floristics, biosystematics, conservation and land management.

  19. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  20. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  1. Efeito da aplicação de fungicida sobre caracteres agronômicos e severidade das doenças de final de ciclo na cultura da soja. = Effect of fungicide application on Agronomic characteristics and final cycle diseases severity in soybean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Luis Finoto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas safras, um complexo de doenças, chamadas de doenças de final de ciclo da soja (DFC, vem provocando reduções consideráveis no rendimento da cultura. Atualmente, não há variedades resistentes a todos os patógenos causadores das DFC. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar o efeito da aplicação de fungicida em diferentes estádios reprodutivos, nos caracteres agronômicos e severidade das DFC em três cultivares de soja de diferentes grupos de maturação. O trabalho foi conduzido em área experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram realizados quatro tratamentos com fungicida sendotrês aplicações em estádios reprodutivos diferentes (R5, R5,5 e R6 e a testemunha sem aplicação. As cultivares utilizadas foram: BRSMG Liderança, UFVS 2001 e UFVS 2003. Foi avaliado: altura da planta, altura da inserção da primeira vagem, número de nós por planta, número de vagens por planta, peso total da planta e peso de sementes. A severidade das DFC foi avaliada no estado R6 através de escala de notas. Os dados das avaliações foram submetidos aos testes de normalidade e homogeneidade constatando-se a desnecessidade de transformações. Realizou-se as análises de variância e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a 5% de probabilidade de erro. Na avaliação da severidade das doenças, foi constatada a presença dos seguintes patógenos: Septoria glycines, Cercospora kikuchii e Peronospora manshurica. Para a avaliação das características agronômicas foi observado que a cultivar UFVS 2001 apresentou maiores alturas de planta. A cultivar UFVS 2003 apresentou maior númerode nós e também maior produtividade de grãos, seguida pela cultivar Liderança. A aplicação de fungicida proporcionou o controle satisfatório de Septoria glycines no folíolo, quando realizada no estádio R5. A aplicação do fungicida proporcionou também aumento na produtividade de grãos, sendo os melhores resultados obtidos

  2. Embryology of Tripterospermum cordatum (Gentianaceae)%峨眉双蝴蝶的胚胎学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世龙; 何廷农; 刘建全; 洪德元

    2000-01-01

    The present paper reports embryological characters of Tripteropsermum cordatum (Marq.) H. Smith for the first time and discusses the systematic relationships of Tripterospermum. Anthers are tetrasporangiate. The development of anther walls conforms to the Dicotyledonous type. The tapetal cells origin from the primary parietal cells, and thus the tapetum is of single origin. The development of the tapetum with uninucleate cells is of the Glandular type. The tapetal cells on the connective side show radial elongation or periclinal division and intrude into the anther locule to form placenoids. The anther wall has only one middle layer;the endothecium persists and its cells become pillar and fibrous, and the epidermis degenerates. Cytokinesis at meiosis of microsporocytes is of the simultaneous type and the microspore tetrads are tetrahedral. Pollen grains are 3-celled. The ovary is bicarpellary and unilocular. The placentation is of reduced or typical parietal placentae with 4 or 8 rows of hypertropous ovules. The ovule is unitegmic and tenuinucellar. The embryo sac originates from a single archesporial cell. The one chalazal megaspore in linear tetrad becomes functional. The development of embryo sac is of the Polygonum type. Before fertilization, two polar nuclei fuse into a secondary nucleus. Three antipodal cells persist. Flowers are protandrous. Fertilization is porogamous. The development of the endosperm is of the Nuclear type. The embryogeny corresponds to the Solanad type Physalis Ⅱ variation type. Compared with Gentiana and Crawfurdia, Tripterospermum is different from Gentiana and Crawfurdia in embryological characters. The embryological data indicate that it is better to treat Tripterospermum as an independent genus.%首次报道了峨眉双蝴蝶Tripterospermum cordatum (Marq.) H. Smith的胚胎学特征,研究结果用以讨论双蝴蝶属的系统演化关系.主要研究结果如下:花药四室;药壁发育为双子叶型;绒毡层属单型起源,

  3. OVERVIEW OF NEW ANTI TB DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yadav et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of multi-drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis makes it necessary for the discovery of new drugs, and also implement other modalities of treatment. Eperezolid and linezolid are oxalidinones which are in phase II clinical trials. Other oxalidinones like AZD5847 and PNU100480 are being evaluated in a phase I trials. Regimens based on a higher dose of rifampin in humans are also being evaluated. Rifapentine (10 mg/kg was approved for the treatment of pulmonary TB in 1998. Fluroquinolones like Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Lomifloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin and Moxifloxacin are effective against M. tuberculosis and are in various phase of development. Newer molecules like TMC207, nitroimidazoles like PA-824 and OPC-67683 are in phase II. Diamines like SQ109 has shown to have in vitro action between SQ109 and isoniazid and especially rifampin. SQ609, a dipiperidine, which is an inhibitor of translocase, involved in cell wall synthesis, is in preclinical studies. Sudoterb (LL3858 is found to have bactericidal activity against both drug senstitive and MDR-TB. BTZ-043 (NM4TB Consortium, FAS20013, LL3858, CPZEN-45, are also in various stages of development. New potential drug molecules and drug targets are also being evaluated. New techniques like using FRIGATE, and Nanocarriers, chemical investigations on the whole plants Gentiana, methanolic root bark extract of Leucophyllum, Cinnamic derivatives are being evaluated for their role in anti TB activity. Immunomodulation with 1, 25-dihydoxyvitamin D and resection of cavitary or badly damaged lung tissue could be used as a adjuvant therapy in tuberculosis. Enumerous vaccines are in various stages of preclinical development.

  4. Field evidence and model predictions of butterfly-mediated apparent competition between gentian plants and red ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J. A.; Elmes, G. W.; Clarke, R. T.; Kim, K. G.; Munguira, M. L.; Hochberg, M. E.

    1997-11-01

    In recent spatial models describing interactions among a myrmecophilous butterfly Maculinea rebeli, a gentian Gentiana cruciata and two competing species of Myrmica ant, we predicted that apparent competition should exist between gentians (the food of young M. rebeli caterpillars) and Myrmica schencki, which supports M. rebeli in its final instar. Here we extend and quantify model predictions about the nature of this phenomenon, and relate them to ecological theory. We predict that: (i) Within sites supporting the butterfly, fewer M. schencki colonies occur in sub-areas containing gentians than in identical habitat lacking this plant. (ii) Where G. cruciata and M. schencki do co-exist, the ant colonies will be less than half the size of those living > 1.5 m from gentians; (iii) The turnover of M. schencki colonies will be much greater than that of other Myrmica species in nest sites situated within 1.5 m of a gentian. All three predictions were supported in the field on 3-6 sites in two mountain ranges, although the exact strength of the apparent competition differed from some model predictions. Field data were also consistent with predictions about apparent mutualisms between gentians and other ants. We suggest that apparent competition is likely to arise in any system in which a specialist enemy feeds sequentially on two or more species during its life-cycle, as occurs in many true parasite-host interactions. We also predict that more complex patterns involving other Myrmica species and G. cruciata occur in our system, with apparent competition existing between them in some sub-areas of a site being balanced by apparent mutualism between them in other sub-areas.

  5. Responses of the antioxidative system of pants in alpine meadow to long-term UV-B radiation%高寒草甸植物抗氧化系统对长期增强UV-B辐射的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兵; 袁明璐; 李胜; 韩发; 师生波

    2008-01-01

    通过研究自然条件下模拟平流层臭氧破坏5%时近地表面增加的太阳UV-B辐射对高寒草甸4种典型植物(矮嵩草Kobresia humilis、垂穗披碱草Elymus nutans、麻花艽Gentiana straminea和鹅绒委陵菜Potentilla anserina)的抗氧化系统的影响表明,尽管各植物的抗氧化系统组分变化不同,但4种植物的膜脂过氧化程度没有加剧,长期增强UV-B辐射没有对膜系统造成损伤.在自然长期增强UV-B条件下,4种植物的膜脂过氧化产物--丙二醛(MDA)含量与对照相比无显著差异.垂穗披碱草、鹅绒委陵菜的谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量增加,麻花艽的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性与鹅绒委陵菜的过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性上升,同时麻花艽的类胡萝卜素(Car)含量亦显著增加.可见这些植物已能很好地适应UV-B强辐射,其抗氧化能力除了与抗氧化系统各组分的协同作用有关外,也可能与种的适应性有关.

  6. Functional characterization of duplicated B-class MADS-box genes in Japanese gentian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Takashi; Saito, Misa; Nishihara, Masahiro

    2016-04-01

    The heterodimer formation between B-class MADS-box proteins of GsAP3a and GsPI2 proteins plays a core role for petal formation in Japanese gentian plants. We previously isolated six B-class MADS-box genes (GsAP3a, GsAP3b, GsTM6, GsPI1, GsPI2, and GsPI3) from Japanese gentian (Gentiana scabra). To study the roles of these MADS-box genes in determining floral organ identities, we investigated protein-protein interactions among them and produced transgenic Arabidopsis and gentian plants overexpressing GsPI2 alone or in combination with GsAP3a or GsTM6. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses revealed that among the GsPI proteins, GsPI2 interacted with both GsAP3a and GsTM6, and that these heterodimers were localized to the nuclei. The heterologous expression of GsPI2 partially converted sepals into petaloid organs in transgenic Arabidopsis, and this petaloid conversion phenomenon was accelerated by combined expression with GsAP3a but not with GsTM6. In contrast, there were no differences in morphology between vector-control plants and transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing GsAP3a or GsTM6 alone. Transgenic gentian ectopically expressing GsPI2 produced an elongated tubular structure that consisted of an elongated petaloid organ in the first whorl and stunted inner floral organs. These results imply that the heterodimer formation between GsPI2 and GsAP3a plays a core role in determining petal and stamen identities in Japanese gentian, but other B-function genes might be important for the complete development of petal organs.

  7. Luteoloside suppresses proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-hua Fan

    Full Text Available The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex which when activated regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Inflammasome activation is mediated by NLR proteins that respond to stimuli. Among NLRs, NLRP3 senses the widest array of stimuli. NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the development of many cancer types. However, Whether NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is still unknown. Here, the anticancer effect of luteoloside, a naturally occurring flavonoid isolated from the medicinal plant Gentiana macrophylla, against HCC cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Luteoloside significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Live-cell imaging and transwell assays showed that the migration and invasive capacities of HCC cells, which were treated with luteoloside, were significantly inhibited compared with the control cells. The inhibitory effect of luteoloside on metastasis was also observed in vivo in male BALB/c-nu/nu mouse lung metastasis model. Further studies showed that luteoloside could significantly reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation. The decreased levels of ROS induced by luteoloside was accompanied by decrease in expression of NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in decrease in proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1. Inactivation of caspase-1 by luteoloside resulted in inhibition of IL-1β. Thus, luteoloside exerts its inhibitory effect on proliferation, invasion and metastasis of HCC cells through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results indicate that luteoloside can be a potential therapeutic agent not only as an adjuvant therapy for HCC, but also, in the control and prevention of metastatic HCC.

  8. Organic trace analysis of lignin phenols in speleothems using UHPLC-ESI-HRMS and their use as vegetation proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzemann, Inken; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    To understand the climate of the past, it is necessary to get information not only about temperature and precipitation, but also about the vegetation. In contrast to the vegetation proxies used in speleothems so far, like δ13C, the analysis of lignin can provide information not only about the quantity, but also about the type of the regional vegetation. Lignin is widely used as vegetation proxy in sediment samples and natural waters,[1] but there are no methods to analyse lignin in speleothems yet. Lignin is one of the main constituents of wood and woody plants. It is a biopolymer that consists mainly of three monomers, p-coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. The proportion of these three monomers varies with the type of vegetation, for example gymnosperms, angiosperms or herbaceous plants.[2] To analyse the composition of lignin particles in speleothems, it is necessary to extract the speleothem samples, to digest the lignin polymer in order to split it into its monomers, also called lignin phenols, and then to enrich and quantify these lignin phenols. In the method we are presenting here, stalagmite samples are acid digested and the acidic solution is extracted by solid phase extraction. The resulting organic fraction is submitted to an alkaline cupric oxide oxidation using a microwave digestion system.[3] The oxidation products are enriched by solid phase extraction and analysed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray high resolution mass spectrometry. We present the limits of detection and quantification, reproducibility and recovery rates as well as first proof-of-principle results from stalagmite samples from the Herbstlabyrinth-Adventshöhle in Germany. References: [1] S. M. Tareq, H. Kitagawa, K. Ohta, Holocene Lake Records: Patterns, Impacts, Causes And Societal Response Selected Papers from the 3rd LIMPACS Conference, Chandigarh, India 2011, 229, 47-56. [2] C. N. Jex, G. H. Pate, A. J. Blyth, R. G

  9. Cloning and expression of cDNA for a human Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from the CEM T-cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, V; Bannwarth, S; Laffont, C; Van Miegem, V; Harduin-Lepers, A; Delannoy, P; Lefebvre, J C

    1997-07-15

    Complementary DNA encoding a human Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferase type II (hST3Gal II) was cloned from a CEM T-cell cDNA library using a 23-base oligonucleotide probe. The sequence of this probe was established on the basis of a slightly divergent sialylmotif L that was obtained by polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on the conserved sialylmotif L of mammalian Gal(beta1-3)GalNAc alpha2,3-sialyltransferases. It was thus confirmed that a short oligonucleotide probe may be sensitive and highly specific. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of hST3Gal II show, respectively, 56.3% and 49.3% similarity to hST3Gal I [Kitagawa, H. & Paulson, J. C. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 17872-17878] and 88.1% and 93.7% similarity to murine ST3Gal II [Lee, Y. C., Kojima, N., Wada, E., Kurosawa, N., Nakaoka, T., Hamamoto, T. & Tsuji, S. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10028-10033]. hST3Gal II mRNA was highly expressed in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and various lymphoid tissues but not in brain and kidney. A soluble form of hST3Gal II expressed in COS-7 cells was tested in vitro for substrate specificity and kinetic properties. Asialofetuin and asialo-bovine submaxillary mucin appeared better substrates for hST3Gal II than for its murine counterpart as previously reported [Kojima, N., Lee, Y.-C., Hamamoto, T., Kurosawa, N. & Tsuji, S. (1994) Biochemistry 33, 5772-5776]. In previous studies, we have shown hyposialylation of O-glycans attached to two major lymphocyte CD43 and CD45 cell surface molecules in human-immunodeficiency-virus-1(HIV-1)-infected T-cell lines. Since comparable levels of hST3Gal I and hST3Gal II mRNA and enzymatic activity were observed in parental and HIV-1-infected CEM T-cell lysates, the sialylation defect associated with HIV infection of this cell line is probably due to a mechanism different from a simple altered catalytic activity of these sialyltransferases.

  10. Development of High Precision Tsunami Runup Calculation Method Coupled with Structure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Taro; Seki, Katsumi; Chida, Yu; Takagawa, Tomohiro; Shimosako, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    Calculation Method Based on a Hierarchical Simulation", Journal of Disaster ResearchVol.11 No.4 T. Arikawa, K. Hamaguchi, K. Kitagawa, T. Suzuki (2009): "Development of Numerical Wave Tank Coupled with Structure Analysis Based on FEM", Journal of J.S.C.E., Ser. B2 (Coastal Engineering) Vol. 65, No. 1 T. Arikawa et. al.(2012) "Failure Mechanism of Kamaishi Breakwaters due to the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami", 33rd International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No.1191

  11. Dual-tasking over an extended walking distance is associated with falls among community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirashima K

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kenichi Hirashima,1,2 Yumi Higuchi,1 Masakazu Imaoka,1 Emiko Todo,1 Tomomi Kitagawa,1 Tetsuya Ueda11Graduate School of Comprehensive Rehabilitation, Osaka Prefecture University, Habikino Campus, Habikino City, Osaka, Japan; 2Faculty of Health and Welfare, Department of Physical Therapy, Tokushima Bunri University, Nishihamaboji, Yamashiro Town, Tokushima City, Tokushima, Japan Aim: Dual-task methods, in which walking is the primary task, are not sufficient for accurately screening for the risk of falls among healthy older adults. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate whether using a dual-task method over an extended walking distance can predict falls among community-dwelling older adults.Methods: We enrolled independent community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years. Physical performance, cognitive function, psychological function, and a dual-task test were assessed at baseline. Our dual-task test required the subjects to walk 60 m while stepping over lines. The intervals between the lines ranged from 50–100 cm and were unequal. Falls and fall-related injuries were measured over a 12-month follow-up period using monthly postal surveys. Results: Ninety-two of 118 subjects (mean age, 75.4±5.5 years completed the 12-month follow-up. Sixteen (17.4% of fallers had injurious falls or fell more than or equal to two times. There were no significant differences between the fallers and non-fallers, except in age and in the number of missteps during the dual-task test when walking ≥40 m. The Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that those who had more than one misstep while walking ≥40 m had a significantly higher incidence of injurious or multiple falls than those who had no missteps.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the dual-task method with an extended walking distance may be able to predict falls among community-dwelling older adults. Keywords: cohort study, community-dwelling older adults, dual-task, falls

  12. Medicine reclassification processes and regulations for proper use of over-the-counter self-care medicines in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomura K

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kaori Nomura,1 Yuki Kitagawa,2 Yasukatsu Yuda,2 Hiromi Takano-Ohmuro2 1Division of Molecular Epidemiology, Jikei University School of Medicine, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Musashino University, Shinmachi, Tokyo, Japan Objectives: Japan has actively reclassified substances ranging from prescription drugs to over-the-counter (OTC drugs in recent years. The sale of most OTC drugs was deregulated several times and pharmacists’ supervision was deemed no longer mandatory. Japan established a new OTC evaluation system in 2015 to hear opinions from various stakeholders regarding medicine types to be reclassified. This study aimed to examine the new framework to identify candidate substances for reclassification. Moreover, we examined how to manage the safe, self-care use of OTC drugs in Japan. Methods: The necessary regulatory information on OTC approvals as of January 2015 was collected using an Internet search and relevant databases. To highlight the characteristics of OTC drugs in Japan, the UK was selected as a comparison country because it too was actively promoting the reclassification of medicines from prescription to nonprescription status, and because of economic similarity. Results: Japan and the UK have a risk-based classification for nonprescription medicines. Japan has made OTC drugs available with mandatory pharmacists’ supervision, face-to-face with pharmacists, or online instruction, which is similar to the “pharmacy medicine” practiced in the UK. Japan recently reformed the reclassification process to involve physicians and the public in the process; some interactions were back to “prescription-only medicine” in the UK. Conclusion: It is expected that the opinion of marketers, medical professionals, and the public will improve the discussion that will greatly contribute to the safe use of drugs. Monitoring the new system will be noteworthy to ensure that OTC drug users are managing their self-care properly and visiting a doctor

  13. NMR Studies of Iron-Oxypnictide Superconductor LaFeAs(O1-xFx)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kenji

    2009-03-01

    We present experimental results of ^75As and ^139La nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the layered oxypnictide system LaFeAs(O1-xFx) (x = 0.0, 0.04, 0.07, 0.11 and 0.14) where superconductivity occurs in x greater than 0.04 [1,2]. In the undoped LaFeAsO, 1/T1 of ^139La exhibits a distinct peak at TN˜ 142 K below which the La-NMR spectra become broadened due to the internal magnetic field attributed to an antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering[1]. In the x=0.04 sample, 1/T1T of ^75As exhibits a Curie-Weiss temperature dependence down to 30 K, suggesting the development of AFM spin fluctuations with decreasing temperature. The AFM fluctuations are significantly suppressed with F-doping, and pseudogap behavior is observed in 1/T1T in the x=0.11 sample with a gap value of δPG˜ 175 K[1]. The spin dynamics vary markedly with F-doping, which is ascribed to the change of the Fermi-surface structure by the electron doping. As for the superconducting properties for x=0.04, 0.07 and 0.11, 1/T1 of ^75As in all compounds does not exhibit a coherence peak just below Tc and follows a T^3 dependence at low temperatures. These results seemingly suggest that unconventional superconductivity with zero gap along lines, whereas the lack of the residual density of states at the low temperatures is incompatible with the presence of the line-nodes. We discuss similarity and difference between LaFeAs (O1-xFx) and cuprates, and also discuss the relationship between spin dynamics and superconductivity on the basis of F-doping dependence of Tc and 1/T1[2]. [4pt] [1] Y. Nakai, K. Ishida, Y. Kamihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono; J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 073701 (2008). [0pt] [2] Y. Nakai, S. Kitagawa, K. Ishida, Y. Kamihara, M. Hirano, and H. Hosono; cond/mat 0810.3569.

  14. Biodiversity of understory vegetation in different-aged Manchurian walnut plantations%不同林龄胡桃楸林下植物多样性的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨立学; 孙跃志

    2013-01-01

    Taking 16-, 23-, and 51 years old Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) plantations at Maoershan of Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China as test objects, and with the consideration of allelochemicals, this paper studied the differences in the understory vegetation biodiversity among the plantations. With the increasing age of the plantations, the understory shrub richness index (IMa) , diversity index (Isw) , and Pielou evenness index (J) all presented an increasing trend, while the understory herb IMa and Isw were decreasing, and the herb species number decreased from 14 to 10. The most important plant species in the different-aged plantations were Rubus kanayamensis, Erigeron annuus, Taraxacum officinale, and Potentilla centigrana in 16 years old plantation, Ulmus japonica, Syringare ticulata, and Diarrhena manshurica in 23 years old plantation, and Syringare ticulata, Hippochaete hiemale, and Brachybotrys paridiformis in 51 years old plantation. The plant biodiversity of the plantations was less affected by juglone, but the understory shrub biodiversity was more affected by soil available P and K. The understory shrubs and herbs adapted differently to various soil pH ranges. Other soil factors such as bulk density, moisture content, organic matter, and total N had opposite effects on the biodiversity of understory shrubs and herbs.%以黑龙江省帽儿山地区不同林龄胡桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)人工林为对象,在考虑化感物质影响的基础上,研究了不同林龄林分植物多样性的差异.结果表明:随着胡桃楸林龄的增加,林下灌木丰富度指数(IMa)、多样性指数(Isw)及Pielou均匀度指数(J)均呈现递增趋势;林下草本,除均匀度指数外,其他2个指数随着林龄的增长呈递减趋势;随着胡桃楸年龄的增加,草本种类由14种逐渐减少到10种;16年生的胡桃楸林分重要值较大的物种有蔷薇科的山楂叶悬钩子,菊科的一年蓬、蒲公英和

  15. Clinical Observation on the Addition of Shentong Zhuyu Decoction in Treating Sciatica%身痛逐瘀汤加味治疗坐骨神经痛临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范新霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the clinical curative effects of Shentong Zhuyu Decoction in treating sciatica (syndrome of blood stasis blocking meridian and collateral channels). Methods:78 cases of sciatica patients were orally taken addition of Shentong Zhuyu Decoction (composition:Gentiana macrophylla Pall 9 g,Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort 12 g,Amygdalus persica 15 g,Carthamus tinctorius 12 g, notopterygium root 9 g,Angelica biserrata 9 g, Commiphora myrrha Engl 9 g,Boswellia carterii Birdw 9 g,Angelica sinensis 12 g, Pheretima aspergillum 15 g, Achyranthes bidentata Bl 15 g,Trogopterus xanthipes Milne-Edwards 10 g,Cyperus rotundus 6 g,Spatholo-bus suberectus Dunn 30 g, Radix Glycyrrhizae Preparata 6 g) ,one dosage with taking at morning,noon and evening three times respectively per day,ten dosages were one course of treatment,with continuously taking 2 -5 courses. Results:During 78 cases of patients,58 cases were cured, 17 had better curative effects,3 had no curative effects. The cured rate was 74. 35% ,effective rate was 96. 15% . Conclusion :Addition of Shentong Zhuyu Decoction has satisfied curative effects in treating sciatica (syndrome of blood stasis blocking meridian and collateral channels).%目的:探讨以身痈逐瘀汤治疗坐骨神经痛(瘀血阻滞经络证)的临床疗效.方法:所有78例坐骨神经痛患者均口服身痛逐瘀汤加味(方药组成:秦艽9 g,川芎12 g,桃仁15 g,红花12 g,羌活9 g,独活9 g,炒没药9 g,炒乳香9 g,当归12 g,地龙15g,牛膝15 g,五灵脂10 g,香附6 g,鸡血藤30 g,炙甘草6 g)治疗,每天1剂,分早、中、晚3次服用,10剂为1个疗程.连续服用2~5个疗程.结果:78例患者治愈58例,好转17例,无效3例,治愈率为74.36%,有效率为96.15%.结论:身痛逐瘀汤加味治疗坐骨神经痛(瘀血阻滞经络证)疗效显著.

  16. Effect of gentiopicroside on liver injury of rats%龙胆苦甙抗鼠肝损伤的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳秋; 赵德化; 潘伯荣; 李保国; 孙文基; 田琼; 贾敏

    2001-01-01

    目的研究中药秦艽(Gentiana macrophylla,Pall)提取物龙胆苦甙(gentiopicroside,GPS)对化学性及免疫性肝损伤的保护作用.方法采用CCl4,TAA(thioe thanolamine),D-Gal急性肝损伤、CCl4慢性肝损伤及豚鼠同种免疫性肝损伤模型.各模型设正常对照组、药物模型组、阳性对照组和2或3个给药组.每组按下列要求分别造模:用CCl4小鼠为10 mL@L-1的豆油液,20 mL@kg-1,大鼠为400mL@L-1的豆油液,3 mL@kg-1;用TAA小鼠为50 mg@kg-1;用D-Gal大鼠为160 mL@L-1水溶液,5 mL@kg-1;各组均采用ip.以GPS小鼠150,75,37.5 mg@kg-1,大鼠120,60,30mg@kg-1,豚鼠120,48 mg@kg-1,肌肉给药治疗,测定其血清中ALT,AST变化,以及肝脏形态学改变,评价GPS对各种肝损伤的治疗效果并初步探讨其作用机制.结果 GPS可明显降低多种急性肝损伤和慢性肝损伤动物的血清转氨酶.使肝组织的片状坏死、肿胀及脂肪变性,有不同程度的减轻,且可促进肝脏的蛋白质合成.结论GPS对多种肝损伤有一定的保护作用.

  17. 江浙獐牙菜的小孢子发生和雄配子体形成及其系统学意义%Microsporogenesis and Formation of Male Gametophyte in Swertia hickinii Burk.and Their Systematical Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余芳; 严巧群; 施成赐; 敖成齐

    2012-01-01

    Anther wall formation,microsporogenesis and the formation of male gametophyte in Swertia hic-kinii Burk. Were reported for the first time in the present paper. (1) Anthers are etrasporangiate. Anther wall comprises epidermis,endothecium,one middle layer and tapetum and the development of anther wall is of the dicotyledonous type. The tapetum has dual origin and belongs to the glandular type. The endothecium and epidermis persist, but the cells in endothecium develop to become elongated and fibrously thickened. (2)The cytokinesis in the microsporocyte meiosis is simultaneous. Most of the microspore tetrads are tetrahedral and there are a few other types,such as isobilateral and "T"-shaped. Mature pollen grains are 3-celled and tricolporate. The common embryological characters of Sxvertia were generalized and compared to those of Gentiana, Craw fur dia and Tripterospermum. Whether the epidermis persists can be used to distinguish Sxvertia from Tripterospermum.%采用常规石蜡切片技术,对江浙獐牙菜(Swertia hickinii Burk)花药壁形成、小孢子发生和雄配子体形成过程进行了研究.结果表明:(1)花药四室,花药壁由表皮、药室内壁、中层和绒毡层组成,药壁发育为双子叶型.绒毡层异型起源,腺质型.花粉成熟时药室内壁径向加长并纤维状加厚,表皮宿存.(2)小孢子母细胞在减数分裂过程中胞质分裂为同时型;小孢子四分体排列方式主要为四面体型,也有左右对称型和“T”型等其他类型;成熟花粉为3细胞型,具三萌发沟.另外,对獐牙菜属的雄性胚胎学特征进行了全面总结,并与龙胆属、蔓龙胆属及双蝴蝶属进行比较归纳出其共性.研究认为,花药表皮宿存或退化,是獐牙菜属与双蝴蝶属的重要区别之一.

  18. Physiological changes in gentian axillary buds during two-step preculturing with sucrose that conferred high levels of tolerance to desiccation and cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mitsuteru; Ishikawa, Masaya; Okuda, Hitoshi; Noda, Katsuji; Kishimoto, Tadashi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Ogiwara, Isao; Shimura, Isao; Akihama, Tomoya

    2006-06-01

    Induction of dehydration tolerance is a key to achieving high survival rates in cryopreservation of plant specimens. It has been reported previously that two-step preculturing with sucrose effectively increased desiccation tolerance in axillary buds of gentian (Gentiana scabra), which allow the buds to survive cryopreservation. This study is aimed at characterizing each step of this preculturing and to elucidate physiological changes induced during this preculturing. In standard two-step preculture, excised gentian axillary buds were incubated for 11 d on MS medium with 0.1 m sucrose at 25 degrees C (first step: mild osmotic stress was given) and the subsequent incubation on MS medium with 0.4 m and 0.7 m sucrose for 1 d each (second step). The levels of abscisic acid (ABA), proline and soluble sugars in gentian buds during the preculture were determined. Effects of various combinations of two-step preculturing and of exogenous ABA and proline were studied. During the first preculture step, there was a transient increase in ABA content peaking on day 4, which declined to a background level at the end of the first and second step preculturing. Proline level increased steadily during the first preculture step and increased further in the second preculture step. Incubating buds with medium containing proline, instead of the two-step preculturing, did not allow them to survive desiccation. Incubating buds with ABA instead of 0.1 m sucrose-preculturing effectively increased desiccation tolerance only when it was followed by the second preculture step. Fluridone, an ABA synthesis inhibitor included in the two-step preculture medium, reduced desiccation tolerance of the buds. The normal first-step preculture increased the levels of soluble sugars 2.4-fold, especially sucrose and raffinose. Buds treated with the second preculture step had greatly increased sucrose levels. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the first preculture step involves ABA

  19. The permeability variations on the Wenchuan Fault measured on the water level response to solid Earth tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L.; Brodsky, E. E.; Li, H.; Wang, H.; Pei, J.

    2011-12-01

    T 6.6×10-6 m2.Calculation for the hydraulic diffusivity D with D=T/S, yields the reported value of D is 0.03 m2/s ,which is a high number compared with the thermal diffusivity 10-6 m2/s. If the value is representative of the fault zone, then this means the hydrology processes should have an effect on the earthquake rupture process. One advantage of this tidal response method is that it is passive and so the D is accurately recording the in situ permeability undisturbed by the potential effects of a pump test. In the previous studies, people observed postseismic healing process. Kitagawa et al.,[2002] reported the permeability of Nojima Fault in 2000 decreased 50% of the value in 1997, and Brenguier et al., [2008] observed seismic velocity decreased by 0.08% immediately after the Parkfield earthquake and postseismic velocity remained low for almost 3 years. We did not observe a significant healing signal recorded in the well after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. It seems that permeability of Wenchuan Fault does not follow expected healing behavior. This poses constraints on any geochemically-based model of fault zone healing.

  20. Explaining the recent decrease in US infant mortality rate, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, William M; MacDorman, Marian F; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Barfield, Wanda D

    2017-01-01

    The US infant mortality rate has been steadily decreasing in recent years as has the preterm birth rate; preterm birth is a major factor associated with death during the first year of life. The degree to which changes in gestational age-specific mortality and changes in the distribution of births by gestational age have contributed to the decrease in the infant mortality rate requires clarification. The objective of the study was to better understand the major contributors to the 2007-2013 infant mortality decline for the total population and for infants born to non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic women. We identified births and infant deaths from 2007 and 2013 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Vital Statistics System's period linked birth and infant death files. We included all deaths and births for which there was a reported gestational age at birth on the birth certificate of 22 weeks or greater. The decrease in the infant mortality rate was disaggregated such that all of the change could be attributed to improvements in gestational age-specific infant mortality rates and changes in the distribution of gestational age, by week of gestation, using the Kitagawa method. Sensitivity analyses were performed to account for records in which the obstetric estimate of gestational age was missing and for deaths and births less than 22 weeks' gestation. Maternal race and ethnicity information was obtained from the birth certificate. The infant mortality rates after exclusions were 5.72 and 4.92 per 1000 live births for 2007 and 2013, respectively, with an absolute difference of -0.80 (14% decrease). Infant mortality rates declined by 11% for non-Hispanic whites, by 19% for non-Hispanic blacks, and by 14% for Hispanics during the period. Compared with 2007, the proportion of births in each gestational age category was lower in 2013 with the exception of 39 weeks during which there was an increase in the proportion of births from 30.1% in

  1. 前胡族花粉外壁超微结构及其系统学意义%Ultrastructure of Pollen Exine in Peucedaneae Drude with Reference to Its Systematic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒璞; 佘孟兰

    2004-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of pollen grains of 18 species belonging to 18 respective genera of the tribe Peucedaneae Drude revealed distinct ultrastructural difference in the pollen exine, including the thickness and features of tectum, columnar layer, foot layer and endexine. The systematic position of those 18 species are re-evaluated based on their ultrastructural characteristics of pollen exine observed in this study. Seven genera related to Angelica L. In Angelicinae Drude have been deduced to genus Angelica L. For example, Ostericum grosseserratum (Maxim.) Kitagawa was changed to Angelica L. By some authors, but it differs from Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels in having well developed tectum which is thicker than the columnar layer and foot layer. Its columnar layer is quite well-developed with long and branched columellae. Besides its surface is tuberculated. Evidently, its development exceeds that of Angelica sinensis. However, it is only a moderate evolutional species in its genus, and the Angelica sinensis accounts as the most advanced species in Angelica Diels, thus, placing genus Ostericum Hoffm.in Angelica L. Is not suitable, it may be more appropriate to keep its original position. In addition, Ferula akitschkensis B. Fedtsch. Ex K.-Pol. Differs greatly from those of Talassia transiliensis (Herd.) Korov. And Schumannia turcomnnia Kuntze, because of its very well-developed columnar layer, being about four to five times thicker than the total of tectum and foot layer, tuberculated tectum surface and complicated structure of columnellae. As another species Heracleum forrestii Wolff also differs from Semenovia rubtzovii(Schischk.) Monden. In having an even thickness of exine and well-developed columnar layer, it seems suitable that they should also be treated as two independent genera.%报道了前胡族(Peucedaneae Drude)当归亚族(Angelicinae Drude)、阿魏亚族(Ferulinae Drude)和环翅芹亚族(TordyliinaeDrude)等3亚族18

  2. Ore-forming fluid constraints on illite crystallinity (IC) at Dexing porphyry copper deposit, Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN; Zhangdong

    2001-01-01

    [1]uatier, M. D., Peacor, D. R., O’Neil, J. R., Smectite-illite transition in Barbados accretionary wedge sediments: TEM and AEM evidence for dissolution/crystallization at low temperature, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1992, 40(1): 65.[2]Eberl, D., Hower, J., Kinetics of illite formation, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1976, 9: 1326[3]Elliott, W. C., Matisoff, G., Evaluation of kinetic models for smectite to illite transformation, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1996, 44(1): 77.[4]Ji Junfeng, Browne, P. R. L., Liu Yingjun et al., Kinetic model for the smectite to illite transformation in active geothermal system, Chinese Science Bulletin (in Chinese), 1997, 42 (21): 2313[5]Pollastro, R. M., Considerations and applications of the illite/smectite geothermometer in hydrocarbonbearing rocks of Miocene to Mississippian age, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1993, 41(1): 119[6]Harvey, C. C., Browne, P. R. L., Mixed-layer clay geothermometry in the Wairakei geothermal field, New Zealand, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1991, 39(3): 614[7]Whitney, G., Role of water in the smectite-to-illite reaction, Clays and Clay Minerals, 1990, 38 (2): 343.[8]Inoue, A., Kitagawa, R., Morphological characteristics of illitic clay minerals from a hydrothermal system, American Mineralogist, 1994, 79: 700.[9]Velde, B., Vasseur, G., Estimation of the diagenetic smectite to illite in time-temperature space, American Mineralogist, 1992, 77: 967.[10]hu Xun, Huang Chongke, Rui Zongyao et al., Dexing Porphyry Copper Deposit (in Chinese), Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1983.[11]Kisch, H. J., Illite crystallinity: recommendation on sample preparation, X-ray diffraction settings and interlaboratory samples, Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 1991, 9: 665.[12]Eberl, D. D., Velde, B., Beyond the Kübler Index, Clay Minerals, 1989, 24(3): 571.[13]Srodon, J., Eberl, D. D., Illite. Micas, Reviews in Mineralogy (ed. Bailey, S. W.), 1984, 13: 495.[14]Yao, Y. C

  3. 间歇期及慢性期痛风中医方药的文献研究%Literature Research of Traditional Chinese Medical Prescriptions of Gout in Intermission and Chronic Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海昌; 温成平; 谢志军; 韩春雯; 汪梅姣

    2013-01-01

    目的:探求痛风间歇期及慢性期的方药特点,为中医临床治疗奠定基础.方法:采用计算机检索和人工检索相结合的方法,对1997年1月-2011年6月国内期刊中相关文献进行回顾性总结.结果:检索出符合要求的文献85[1-82]篇,共涉及痛风间歇期、慢性期及慢性关节炎期患者累计4791例,主要中药(前15味)使用频率结果分别是:牛膝(36.11%)、桑寄生(31.48%)、薏苡仁(30.56%)、土茯苓(26.85%)、苍术(25.93%)、白术(25.93%)、白芥子(25.00%)、当归(24.07%)、黄柏(23.15%)、黄芪(22.22%)、防己(22.22%)、草薢(20.37%)、威灵仙(20.37%)、赤芍(18.52%)、秦艽(16.67%).结论:牛膝、桑寄生、苍白术、薏苡仁及黄芪健脾益肾,泄浊祛湿治病之本;当归、牛膝、苍白术、赤芍、黄柏、白芥子及威灵仙活血化瘀通络,燥湿化痰通痹治病之标.%Objective: To provide a basis for clinical treatment of traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM) by seeking the TCM prescriptions of gout in intermission and chronic phase. Methods: Domestic relevant literatures were summarized retrospectively based on the interaction by computer search and artificial retrieval from January 1997 to June 2011. Results-. Totally 85 literatures were retrieved to meet the requirements, including 4791 cases of intermission, chronic phase and chronic gouty arthritis. The distributions of major TCM prescriptions (the top 15)were achyranthes root(36. 11% ) ,mis-tletoe( 31. 48% ) , coix seed ( 30. 56% ), smilax Glabra ( 26. 85% ), atractylodes ( 25.93% ) , rhizoma atractylodis (25.93%) ,white mustard seed(25.00% ) ,angelica sinensis(24. 07% ) ,cortex phellodendri(23. 15%) ,radix astragali (22.22% ) ,tetrandra root(22.22%) ,yam rhizome(20. 37% ),clematis root(20. 37% ) ,red peony root(18.52%) ,gen-tiana macrophylla ( 16. 67% ). Conclusions :It is the fundamental treatment of gout by invigorating spleen and nourishing kidney therapy for reducing

  4. 苦龙胆酯苷的研究进展%Research Progress of Amarogentin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈歆; 郭倩倩; 曹蔚; 王四旺

    2015-01-01

    Amarogentin identifies as a secoiridoid glycoside composition.Its formula is C27H28O14 and its molecular weight is 576.52.Amarogentin is the most intensely bitter secoiridoid glycoside composition as far as we know.It can be extracted from Swertia davidi Franeh,Swertia chirata,Buch.-Ham,Gentiana lutea L and Lomatogonium rotatum.Among these medical plants Lomatogonium rotatum is the newest one,which is identified containing amarogentin.Amarogentin has been traditionally used for centuries mainly as digestive aid as well as protecting from hepatic injury and also been used for treatment of skin tumor by topical application and for therapy of leishmaniasis.In Ayurveda,Unani,Siddha,Tibetan,and Chinese traditional medicines,the medical plants,which is identified containing amarogentin,are the main ingredient in many herbal preparations to treat the diseases in digestive system,such as protecting from hepatic injury or anti-diabetic.The in vivo pharmacokinetic study shows that amarogentin exhibits a rapid clearance (2.6210.41 L/h/kg)and wide distribution(1.08± 0.44 L/kg)after intravenous administration in rabbits; in hamster experimental leishmaniasis model,amarogentin is effective to protect liver and kidney function with no toxicity,in both liposomal and niosomal forms as well as its free form.%苦龙胆酯苷是一种裂环烯醚萜苷类化合物,又称为苦龙苷或龙胆苦酯苷.其分子式为:C27H28O14,分子量为576.52,是已知最苦的裂环烯醚萜苷类化合物.目前已证明可从川东獐牙菜、印度獐牙菜、龙胆草以及辐花肋柱花中提取.辐花肋柱花是最新证明的可提取苦龙胆酯苷的植物.苦龙胆酯苷具有助消化,保肝,抗皮肤肿瘤,抗黑热病等药理活性.在古代印度传统医药以及中药藏药中,苦龙胆酯苷的来源植物是治疗消化系统相关疾病的一味常见的草药,如保肝、抗糖尿病等.在体内药代动力学研究中,兔静脉注射苦龙胆酯苷,

  5. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    The Return of the Blue Butterfly The English writer Charles Dickens once wrote: "I only ask to be free. The butterflies are free". But are they really? The work that I performed with a group of students from 8th grade, had a starting point of climate change and the implications it has on ecosystems. Joining the passion I have for butterflies, I realized that they are also in danger of extinction due to these climatic effects. Thus, it was easy to seduce my students wanting to know more. Luckily I found Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo, a researcher at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, who has worked on butterflies and precisely investigated this issue. Portugal is the southern limit of butterfly-blue (Phengaris alcon), and has been many years in the red book of endangered species. Butterfly-blue is very demanding of their habitat, and disappears very easily if ideal conditions are not satisfied. Increased fragmentation of landscapes and degradation of suitable habitats, are considered the greatest challenges of the conservation of Phengaris butterfly in Portugal. In recent decades, climate change has also changed butterfly-blue spatial distribution with a movement of the species northward to colder locations, and dispersion in latitude. Butterflies of Europe must escape to the North because of the heat. Dr. Paula Seixas Arnaldo and her research team began a project, completed in December 2013, wanted to preserve and restore priority habitats recognized by the European Union to help species in danger of disappearing with increasing temperature. The blue butterfly is extremely important because it is a key indicator of the quality of these habitats. In the field, the butterflies are monitored to collect all possible data in order to identify the key species. Butterflies start flying in early July and cease in late August. Mating takes about an hour and occurs in the first days of life. The gentian-peat (Gentiana pneumonanthe) serves as the host plant for

  6. Bitterness-masking Effects of Neotame on Five Bitter Chinese Herbal Ingredients%纽甜对5种苦味中药的掩味效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 施钧瀚; 康冰亚; 高晓洁; 李学林; 刘瑞新

    2014-01-01

    This study was ai med to observe the taste-masking effects of Neotame on bitter Chinese herbal ingredients. Five kinds of herbal ingredients, which include Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Cortex Phellodendri chinensis, Coptis chinensis Franch, Gentiana scabra Bunge, Andrographis paniculata, were selected to measure the bitterness degree of decoctions with berberine solution as the benchmark. The decreasing of bitterness degree was used as index. Healthy volunteers were recruited to taste and compare the changes of bitterness of decoctions with the taste-masking effects of Neotame. Different concentrations of Neotame were selected in the determination of the influence on changes of bitterness. The results showed that when the concentration of Neotame was at 0.012 5‰-0.4‰, taste-masking effects of Neotame on selected herbal decoctions were in a concentration-dependent fashion. When the concentration of Neotame was 0.4‰, the reduced bitterness of S. baicalensis Georgi and Cortex P. chinensis decoctions were 1.22 and 1.77, by 70.11% and 71.88%, respectively. Three highly-bitter herbal ingredients C. chinensis Franch, G. scabra Bunge and A . paniculata were also reduced in bitter taste by 49.12%, 50.87% and 38.39%, with the bitter reduced value (△I) of 1.78, 2.02 and 1.43, respectively. It was concluded that Neotame exerted taste masking potential on bitter herbal ingredients with different bitter degrees.%目的:考察纽甜对苦味中药的掩味效果。方法:以盐酸小檗碱水溶液和黄芩、黄柏、黄连、龙胆、穿心莲5种代表性苦味中药的水煎液为苦味药物研究载体,以苦度降低值为指标,运用经典人群口尝评价法比较纽甜的掩味效果,并选取不同的浓度,考察加入掩味剂后溶液的苦度变化。结果:纽甜在其浓度为0.0125‰-0.4‰的范围内,其掩味效果随着浓度的增加随之增强。加入0.4‰的纽甜后,属于苦类的黄芩和黄柏药液的苦度

  7. In vitro herb-drug interaction mediated by CYP3A4 and its potential application in the treatment of AIDS%艾滋病中药和化学药通过CYP3A4的代谢性相互作用的体外研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛玉昌; 王军; 孙易; 侴桂新; 胡卓汉

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CYP3A4-mediated interaction of herb medicines with HIV protease inhibitors, and to explore the potential efficacy enhancement by herb-drug metabolic interaction in the treatment of AIDS. The 24 traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) for AIDS treatment and the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir were studied. Methods: Totally 65 extracts from 24 TCM isolated by a standardized method were pre-incubated with pooled human liver microsomes for 15 min, and then incubated with p-NADPH and testosterone as CYP3A4 probe substrate for 30 min. The enzyme activity of CYP3A4 was measured by LC-MS/MS and the IC50 of six extracts were calculated. Results: The extracts from Rhizoma Et Radix Polygoni Cuspidati and Radix Scutellariae showed stronger inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 with IC50 3.25 -8. 19 and 10.0 -29.0 μg·mL-1 , respectively, a-mong the 24 test herbs. The extracts from Radix Et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae, Radix Sophorae flavescentis, Cortex Moutan, Rhizoma Smilacis Clabrae and Radix Linderae showed different inhibitory effects. No significant inhibition on CYP3A4 was observed in the extracts from Herba Patriniae, Radix Isatidis, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Radix Astragali and Radix Et Rhizoma Gentianae. Conclusion: The inhibitive effect of different extracts from TCM on enzyme activity of CYP3A4 was much different.%目的:评价应用于艾滋病治疗的24个中药的提取物对人肝微粒体细胞色素P450氧化代谢酶3A4( CYP3 A4)活性的抑制作用,为阐明中药和化学药在治疗艾滋病时的代谢性相互作用的增效机制提供数据.方法:用标准化方法提取24个中药的65个部位,并在生理条件下与混合人肝微粒体进行预孵15 min后,加入探针底物睾酮和辅酶β-NADPH进行孵育30 min,用LC-MS/MS对CYP3A4的活性进行定量检测,计算抑制率( IC50).结果:在24个中药中虎杖和黄芩对CYP3A4具有较强的抑制,其不同部位的IC50分别为3.25 ~8.19和10.0~29.0 μg·mL-1.其他测试的

  8. 中西医结合治疗带状疱疹临床研究%Clinical Study on the Treatment of Herpes Zoster by Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical effects of the integration of TCM and western medicine on the treatment of Herpes Zoster. Methods: 64 patients were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group. The control group of 32 cases was given 2 mL of intramuscular injection of antiviral poly I : C,with once per two days and oral adminstration of 25 mg indomethacin,three time a day; the treatment group of 32 cases was additionally given Chinese herbs on the basis of treatment given to the control group with the composition of Gentiana scabra Bunge 10 g, Honeysuckle flower 30 g, Radix bupleuri 10 g,Paeonia suffruticosa 10 g, Radix Paeoniae Rubra 10 g,Rehmannia root 15 g,Mongolian Dandelion 10 g,Rhizoma alismatis 10 g,Akebiaquinata 10 g,Angelica sinensis 10 g.Fruc-tus Gardeniae 10 g,Forsythia 10 g, Folium isatidis 30 g, Radix lsatidis 30 g. Anther lignum dalbergiae odoriferae 10 g and Angelica sinensis 30 g were added if there was blood stasis,one dosage a day with a treatment course of 7 days. Results:In the treatment group, 24 cases were cured,6 cases achieved excellent effects,2 were ineffective and the effective rate was 93. 7% ;in the control group,18 cases were cured, 8 achieved excellent effects, 6 were ineffective, and the effective rate was 81.3%. Effective rates of two groups had notable significance through statistics processing(P <0. 05). Conclusion: Herpes Zoster can be treated effectively by the treatment of integration of TCM and western medicine.%目的:探讨中西医结合治疗带状疱疹临床疗效.方法:64例患者随机分为对照组和治疗组.对照组32例肌肉注射抗病毒类聚肌胞针2 mL,2d1次;口服消炎痛25 mg,每日3次,治疗组32例在对照组基础上加用中药治疗.中药选用龙胆草10g,金银花30 g,柴胡10 g,牡丹皮10 g,赤芍10 g,生地黄15 g,蒲公英10 g,泽泻10 g,木通10 g,当归10 g,栀子10 g,连翘10 g,大青叶30 g,板兰根30 g.伴有瘀血者加降香10 g,当归10 g,日1

  9. 散寒通督方熏蒸治疗强直性脊柱炎临床研究%Clinical Study on Fumigation and Steaming Therapy with Formula of Dispersing Cold and Dredging Du Meridian in Treating Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎晓霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective;To observe the clinical curative effects of fumigation and steaming therapy with formula of dispersing cold and dredging Du meridian in treating ankylosing spondylitis(AS). Methods;60 AS patients were divided into the treatment group and the control group. The control group was treated by fumigation and steaming therapy of Wutou decoction ( composition :Ephedra sinica Stapf 40 g.Paeoniaceae 40 g.Milkvetch Root 40 g,Radix Aconiti Preparata 40 g,Radix Glycyrrhizae 30 g). The treatment group was treated by fumigation and steaming therapy with formula of dispersing cold and dredging Du meridian ( composition :Gentiana macrophylla Pall 60 g,Incised Notopterygium 40 g, Angelica biserrata 40 g,Boswellia carterii Birdw 40 g,Aucklandia lappa Decne 40 g.Cinnamomum cassia Presl 40 g.Herba Speranskiae Tuberculatae 40 g,Herba Speranskiae Tuberculatae 30 g,Tripterygium wilfordii Hook 40 g,Herba Geranii 40 g,Radix Aconiti Preparata 40 g,Radix Aconiti Kusnezoffii Preparata 40 g.Manchurian Wildginger 30 g) ,30 minutes a day for 20 days. Results;The effective rate of the treatment group was remarkably superior to that of the control group and the difference had statistical significance(P<0. 05) ;and there was no significant adverse reactions in the treatment group. Conclusion; Fumigation and steaming therapy with formula of dispersing cold and dredging Du meridian can improve the symptoms,signs and inflammatory indexes of AS.%目的:探讨散寒通督方熏蒸疗法治疗强直性脊柱炎(AS)临床疗效.方法:将60例AS患者分为治疗组和对照组,对照组30例给予乌头汤(方药组成:麻黄40 g,芍药40 g,黄芪40 g制川乌40 g甘草30 g)熏蒸治疗;治疗组30例给予散寒通督方(方药组成:秦艽60 g,羌活40 g,独活40 g,乳香40 g,木香40 g,肉桂40 g,透骨草40 g,伸筋草30 g,雷公藤40 g,老鹳草40 g,制川乌40 g,制草乌40 g,细辛30 g)熏蒸治疗,每次30 min,每日1次,连续20d.结果:治疗组有效率明显优于对照

  10. Comportement en fatigue de l'aluminium 357 coule par gravite et rheocoule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Myriam

    strength. The fatigue strength of the SSM materials was essentially the same in the T5 and in the T6 temper. The most fatigue resistant materials were found to be three SSM specimens hardened by precipitation with an average fatigue strength of 113 MPa at 10 7 cycles. One of them is unmodified with a T5 temper, the second one is modified with a T5 temper and the third one is modified with a T6 temper. These results demonstrate that it is not necessary to modify the eutectic structure or to use a solutionizing step to obtain an improvement in the fatigue strength for the SSM materials. The short cracks behavior is comparable in the PM and SSM microstructures when observed from da/dN-DeltaK graphs. The most significant difference between the propagation of the short cracks in the materials is revealed on graphs of the propagation rate versus the crack depth. This difference is the average depth of a crack at its first deceleration. In the PM specimens the cracks grow deeper before the first deceleration than in the SSM specimens. It was also observed that the crack depth at the first deceleration is comparable to the average grain half diameter which are 155 mum and 57mum for the PM and SSM materials respectively. The conclusion proposed from these observations is that the fatigue strength at 107 cycles is controlled by the nature of the microstructural barrier, DeltaKmb, and its position, d. This conclusion can be expressed by a simplified model where the propagation threshold of the short cracks is given by DeltaKmb. The proposed relationship shows that the stress amplitude at 107 cycles is proportional to 1/D , where D is the average grain size. The rheomolded materials studied in this project are therefore more resistant to fatigue than the permanent mold materials because of their smaller grain size. In the discussion, the relationship between the fatigue strength and the grain size is presented in a Kitagawa diagram. This clearly shows that grain refinement can only be

  11. Guest Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Young Chung

    2010-03-01

    , proposes the e-traveler's check to preserve the rights of holders of e-traveler’s check and to prevent the check-issuing banks from being damaged. "Error-resilient triple-watermarking with multiple description coding" by Shu-Chuan Chu, Lakhmi C. Jain, Hsiang-Cheh Huang, Jeng-Shyang Pan, proposes an algorithm on vector quantization (VQ based image watermarking for error-resilient transmission, which incorporates watermarking with MDC to overcome channel impairments while retaining the capability for ownership protection.Two papers are related to resource managements, where scheduling and load-balancing problems are considered in content addressable network and multi-channel broadcast environment, respectively: "Efficient load balancing techniques for self-organizing content addressable networks" by Djelloul Boukhelef and Hiroyuki Kitagawa, addresses the problem of load balancing in large scale and self organizing P2P systems and proposes decentralized mechanisms to evenly distribute the data load among the participating nodes in Content Addressable Networks. "A conflict avoidance data allocation algorithm in a multi-channel broadcast environment" by Kai Liu, Victor C. S. Lee, analyzes the bandwidth utilization problem in multichannel on-demand broadcast environment and proposes an on-line scheduling algorithm to avoid the conflict in data allocation.Finally, this special issue also includes wireless mesh network and OFDM related papers: "A simple yet effective scheme for the maintenance of proxy information in IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networks" by Shih-Tsung Liang, proposes a scheme to maintain the proxy information, which can be applied to mesh networks and IEEE 802 LANs. "Sampling frequency offset estimation methods for DVB-T/H systems" by Kyung Hoon Won, Jung Su Han, and Hyung-Jin Choi, proposes two SFO estimation methods to achieve stable operation in low SNR and large Doppler frequency environment.We wish to thank Sungkyunkwan University, Korea for providing the

  12. CLIMATIC VARIATIONS IN CHINA OVER THE LAST 2000 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Bao

    2001-01-01

    :455-471.[11]JONES P D, OSBORN T J, BRIFFA K R, 1999. Estimating sampling errors in larger-scale temperature averages [J].Journal of Climate, 10:2548-2568.[12]KANG Xing-cheng, GRAUMLICH L J, SHEPPARD P R, 1997.The last 1835 years climate changes inferred from tree ring records in Dulan region, Qinghai, China [J]. Quaternary Sciences, 1: 70-75.[13]KITAGAWA H, 1995. Climatic implications in a Japanese cedar (Crhptomeria Japonica) during the last two millennia [J] .Geophys. Res. Lett., 22(16): 2155-2188.[14]LAMB H H, 1965. The early Medieval Warm Epoch and its sequel [J]. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, I: 13-37.[15]LIN Xue-chun, Yu Shu-qiu, TANG Guo-li, 1995. Series of average air temperature over China for the last 100-year period [J].Scientia Atmospherica Sinica, 19(5): 525-534. (in Chinese)[16]Lou Jian-yu, CHEN Zheng-dong, WANN J K, 1997. Paleoclimatological records of Great Ghost Lake in Taiwan[J] . Science in China (Series D), 40(3): 284 -292.[17]Lou Jian-yu, CHEN Zheng-dong, 1997. Paleoclimatological and paleoenvironmental records since 4000 a B. P. in the sediments of alpine hakes in Taiwan [J]. Science in China (Series D), 40(4): 424-431.[18]MANN M E, BRADLEY R S, HUGHES M K, 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations [J]. Geophys. Res.Lea., 26:759-762.[19]OVERPECK J, HUGHEN K, HARDY D, et al., 1997. Arctic environmental changes of the last four centuries [J]. Nature,278(5341): 1251-1256.[20]SAKAGUCHI Y, 1983. Warm and cold stages in the past 7600years in Japan and their global correlation-Especially on chmatic to the global sea level changes and the ancient Japanese history [J] . Bulletin of Department of Geography,University of Tokyo, 15:1-31.[21]SHI Ya-feng, YAO Tan-dong, YANG Bao, 1999. Decadal climatic variations recorded in Guliya ice core and comparison with the historical documentary data from East China during the last 2000 years

  13. Realizing Controllable Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Hideaki; Nitta, Junsaku

    -T[stmbol] superconducting thin films with special arrangements of antidots / R. Wöerdenweber, P. Dymashevski and V. R. Misko. Quantum tunneling of relativistic fluxons / K. Konno et al. -- 6. Quantum information processing in solid states. Qubit decoherence by low-frequency noise / K. Rabenstein, V. A. Sverdlov and D. V. Averin. A critique of two-level approximation / K. Savran and T. Hakioǧlu. Josephson arrays as quantum channels / A. Romito, C. Bruder and R. Fazio. Fighting decoherence in a Josephson qubit circuit / E. Collin et al. Fast switching current detection at low critical currents / J. Walter, S. Corlevi and D. Haviland. Asymmetric flux bias for coupled qubits to observe entangled states / Y. Shimazu. Interaction of Josephson qubits with strong QED cavity modes: dynamical entanglement transfer and navigation / G. Falci et al. Controlling decoherence of transported quantum spin information in semiconductor spintronics / B. Nikolic and S. Souma. Decoherence due to telegraph and 1/f noise in Josephson qubits / E. Paladino et al. Detection of entanglement in NMR quantum information processing / R. Rahimi, K. Takeda and M. Kitagawa. Multiphoton absorption and SQUID switching current behaviors in superconducting flux-qubit experiments / H. Takayanagi et al. -- 7. Quantum information theory. Quantum query complexities / K. Iwama. A construction for non-stabilizer Clifford codes / M. Hagiwara and H. Imai. Quantum pushdown automata that can deterministically solve a certain problem / Y. Murakami et al. Trading classical for quantum computation using indirection / R. van Meter. Intractability of the initial arrangement of input data on qubits / Y. Kawano et al. Reversibility of modular squaring / N. Kunihiro, Y. Takahashi and Y. Kawano. Study of proximity effect at D-wave superconductors in quasiclassical methods / Y. Tanuma, Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya -- 8. Spintronics in band electrons. Triplet superconductors: exploitable basis for scalable quantum computing / K. S. Wood et al. Spin

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Iron-Based Superconductors FOCUS ON IRON-BASED SUPERCONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Hideo; Ren, Zhi-An

    2009-02-01

    -L Drechsler, N Kozlova, M Bartkowiak, J E Hamann-Borrero, G Behr, K Nenkov, H-H Klauss, H Maeter, A Amato, H Luetkens, A Kwadrin, R Khasanov, J Freudenberger, A Köhler, M Knupfer, E Arushanov, H Rosner, B Büchner and L Schultz Low-energy spin dynamics in the antiferromagnetic phase of CaFe2As2 N J Curro, A P Dioguardi, N ApRoberts-Warren, A C Shockley and P Klavins Muon spin rotation study of magnetism and superconductivity in BaFe2-xCoxAs2 and Pr1-xSrxFeAsO C Bernhard, A J Drew, L Schulz, V K Malik, M Rössle, Ch Niedermayer, Th Wolf, G D Varma, G Mu, H-H Wen, H Liu, G Wu and X H Chen Magnetic impurities in the pnictide superconductor Ba1-xKxFe2As2 Sutirtha Mukhopadhyay, Sangwon Oh, A M Mounce, Moohee Lee, W P Halperin, N Ni, S L Bud'ko, P C Canfield, A P Reyes and P L Kuhns Neutron scattering investigation of the magnetic order in single crystalline BaFe2As2 M Kofu, Y Qiu, Wei Bao, S-H Lee, S Chang, T Wu, G Wu and X H Chen An NMR study on the F-doping evolution of the iron oxypnictide LaFeAs(O1-xFx) Y Nakai, S Kitagawa, K Ishida, Y Kamihara, M Hirano and H Hosono The peculiar physical properties and phase diagram of BaFe2-xCoxAs2 single crystals X F Wang, T Wu, G Wu, R H Liu, H Chen, Y L Xie and X H Chen Synthesis of LnFeAsO1-y superconductors (Ln=La and Nd) using the high-pressure technique Kiichi Miyazawa, Kunihiro Kihou, Motoyuki Ishikado, Parasharam M Shirage, Chul-Ho Lee, Nao Takeshita, Hiroshi Eisaki, Hijiri Kito and Akira Iyo Correlation effects in the iron pnictides Qimiao Si, Elihu Abrahams, Jianhui Dai and Jian-Xin Zhu Competition/coexisitence of magnetism and superconductivity in iron pnictides probed by muon spin rotation Soshi Takeshita and Ryosuke Kadono Impurity-induced in-gap state and Tc in sign-reversing s-wave superconductors: analysis of iron oxypnictide superconductors Yuko Senga and Hiroshi Kontani Intrinsic magnetic properties of the superconductor NdFeAsO0.9F0.1 from local and global measurements R Prozorov, M E Tillman, E D Mun and P C Canfield

  15. Effectiveness of Neurogenesis in treating Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan AMIRSALARI

    2012-06-01

     2002 Sep;44(9:633-40.7. Yeargin-Allsopp M, Van Naarden Braun K, Doernberg NS, Benedict RE, Kirby RS, Durkin MS. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in 8-year-old children in three areas of the United States in 2002: a multisite collaboration. Pediatrics 2008 Mar;121(3:547-54.8. Uvebrant P. Hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Aetiology and outcome. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 1988;345:1-100.9. Marin-Padilla M. Developmental neuropathology and impact of perinatal brain damage. II: white matter lesions of the neocortex. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 1997 Mar;56(3:219-35.10. Tzarouchi LC, Astrakas LG, Zikou A, Xydis V, Kosta P, Andronikou S, et al. Periventricular leukomalacia in preterm children: assessment of grey and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid changes by MRI. Pediatr Radiol 2009 Dec;39(12:1327-32.11. Dehghan L, Dalvand H. Neuroplasticity after stroke [persian]. Modern rehabilitation 2008;1(4.12. Sanai N, Tramontin AD, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Barbaro NM, Gupta N, Kunwar S, et al. Unique astrocyte ribbon in adult human brain contains neural stem cells but lacks chain migration. Nature 2004 Feb;427(6976:740-4.13. Doetsch F, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Alvarez-Buylla A. Cellular composition and three-dimensional organization of the subventricular germinal zone in the adult mammalian brain. J Neurosci 1997 Jul 1;17(13:5046-61.14. Laywell ED, Rakic P, Kukekov VG, Holland EC, Steindler DA. Identification of a multipotent astrocytic stem cell in the immature and adult mouse brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000 Dec 5;97(25:13883-8.15. Seri B, Garcia-Verdugo JM, McEwen BS, AlvarezBuylla A. Astrocytes give rise to new neurons in the adult mammalian hippocampus. J Neurosci 2001 Sep 15;21(18:7153-60.16. Seri B, Garcia-Verdugo JM, Collado-Morente L, McEwen BS, Alvarez-Buylla A. Cell types, lineage, and architecture of the germinal zone in the adult dentate gyrus. J Comp Neurol 2004 Oct 25;478(4:359-78.17. Sugiura S, Kitagawa K, Tanaka S, Todo K, OmuraMatsuoka E, Sasaki T, et al