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  1. BDNF genotype modulates resting functional connectivity in children

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    Moriah E Thomason

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory; its relevance to the functional connectivity of brain networks, however, is unclear. Given that altered hippocampal function and structure has been found in adults who carry the methionine (met allele of the BDNF gene and the molecular studies elucidating the role of BDNF in neurogenesis and synapse formation, we examined in the association between BDNF gene variants and neural resting connectivity in children and adolescents. We observed a reduction in hippocampal and parahippocampal to cortical connectivity in met-allele carriers within each of three resting networks: the default-mode, executive, and paralimbic networks. In contrast, we observed increased connectivity to amygdala, insula and striatal regions in met-carriers, within the paralimbic network. Because the BDNF met-allele has been linked to increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, this latter finding of greater connectivity in circuits important for emotion processing may indicate a new neural mechanism through which these gene-related psychiatric differences are manifest. Here we show that the BDNF gene, known to regulate synaptic plasticity and connectivity in the brain, affects functional connectivity at the neural systems level. Additionally, we provide the first demonstration that the spatial topography of multiple high-level resting state networks in healthy children and adolescents is similar to that observed in adults.

  2. Resting-state network disruption and APOE genotype in Alzheimer's disease: a lagged functional connectivity study.

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    Leonides Canuet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE-4 is associated with a genetic vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease (AD and with AD-related abnormalities in cortical rhythms. However, it is unclear whether APOE-4 is linked to a specific pattern of intrinsic functional disintegration of the brain after the development of the disease or during its different stages. This study aimed at identifying spatial patterns and effects of APOE genotype on resting-state oscillations and functional connectivity in patients with AD, using a physiological connectivity index called "lagged phase synchronization". METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting EEG was recorded during awake, eyes-closed state in 125 patients with AD and 60 elderly controls. Source current density and functional connectivity were determined using eLORETA. Patients with AD exhibited reduced parieto-occipital alpha oscillations compared with controls, and those carrying the APOE-4 allele had reduced alpha activity in the left inferior parietal and temporo-occipital cortex relative to noncarriers. There was a decreased alpha2 connectivity pattern in AD, involving the left temporal and bilateral parietal cortex. Several brain regions exhibited increased lagged phase synchronization in low frequencies, specifically in the theta band, across and within hemispheres, where temporal lobe connections were particularly compromised. Areas with abnormal theta connectivity correlated with cognitive scores. In patients with early AD, we found an APOE-4-related decrease in interhemispheric alpha connectivity in frontal and parieto-temporal regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In addition to regional cortical dysfunction, as indicated by abnormal alpha oscillations, there are patterns of functional network disruption affecting theta and alpha bands in AD that associate with the level of cognitive disturbance or with the APOE genotype. These functional patterns of nonlinear connectivity may potentially

  3. Genotype and ancestry modulate brain's DAT availability in healthy humans

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    Shumay, E.; Chen, J.; Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a principal regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission and its gene (the SLC6A3) is a strong biological candidate gene for various behavioral- and neurological disorders. Intense investigation of the link between the SLC6A3 polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes yielded inconsistent and even contradictory results. Reliance on objective brain phenotype measures, for example, those afforded by brain imaging, might critically improve detection of DAT genotype-phenotype association. Here, we tested the relationship between the DAT brain availability and the SLC6A3 genotypes using an aggregate sample of 95 healthy participants of several imaging studies. These studies employed positron emission tomography (PET) with [ 11 C] cocaine wherein the DAT availability was estimated as Bmax/Kd; while the genotype values were obtained on two repeat polymorphisms - 3-UTR- and intron 8- VNTRs. The main findings are the following: (1) both polymorphisms analyzed as single genetic markers and in combination (haplotype) modulate DAT density in midbrain; (2) ethnic background and age influence the strength of these associations; and (3) age-related changes in DAT availability differ in the 3-UTR and intron8 - genotype groups.

  4. Parkinsonian Rest Tremor Is Associated With Modulations of Subthalamic High-Frequency Oscillations.

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    Hirschmann, Jan; Butz, Markus; Hartmann, Christian J; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Özkurt, Tolga E; Vesper, Jan; Wojtecki, Lars; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2016-10-01

    High frequency oscillations (>200 Hz) have been observed in the basal ganglia of PD patients and were shown to be modulated by the administration of levodopa and voluntary movement. The objective of this study was to test whether the power of high-frequency oscillations in the STN is associated with spontaneous manifestation of parkinsonian rest tremor. The electromyogram of both forearms and local field potentials from the STN were recorded in 11 PD patients (10 men, age 58 [9.4] years, disease duration 9.2 [6.3] years). Patients were recorded at rest and while performing repetitive hand movements before and after levodopa intake. High-frequency oscillation power was compared across epochs containing rest tremor, tremor-free rest, or voluntary movement and related to the tremor cycle. We observed prominent slow (200-300 Hz) and fast (300-400 Hz) high-frequency oscillations. The ratio between slow and fast high-frequency oscillation power increased when tremor became manifest. This increase was consistent across nuclei (94%) and occurred in medication ON and OFF. The ratio outperformed other potential markers of tremor, such as power at individual tremor frequency, beta power, or low gamma power. For voluntary movement, we did not observe a significant difference when compared with rest or rest tremor. Finally, rhythmic modulations of high-frequency oscillation power occurred within the tremor cycle. Subthalamic high-frequency oscillation power is closely linked to the occurrence of parkinsonian rest tremor. The balance between slow and fast high-frequency oscillation power combines information on motor and medication state. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

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    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance.

  6. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

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    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  7. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

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    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  8. Motor Imagery Learning Modulates Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Systems in Resting State

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    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning. PMID:24465577

  9. DNA adenine methylation modulates pathogenicity of Klebsiella pneumoniae genotype K1

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    Chi-Tai Fang

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: Our results support the view that DNA adenine methylation plays an important role in modulating the pathogenicity of K. pneumoniae genotype K1. The incomplete attenuation indicates the existence of other regulatory factors.

  10. Characterizing Alzheimer's disease severity via resting-awake EEG amplitude modulation analysis.

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    Francisco J Fraga

    Full Text Available Changes in electroencephalography (EEG amplitude modulations have recently been linked with early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD. Existing tools available to perform such analysis (e.g., detrended fluctuation analysis, however, provide limited gains in discriminability power over traditional spectral based EEG analysis. In this paper, we explore the use of an innovative EEG amplitude modulation analysis technique based on spectro-temporal signal processing. More specifically, full-band EEG signals are first decomposed into the five well-known frequency bands and the envelopes are then extracted via a Hilbert transform. Each of the five envelopes are further decomposed into four so-called modulation bands, which were chosen to coincide with the delta, theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Experiments on a resting-awake EEG dataset collected from 76 participants (27 healthy controls, 27 diagnosed with mild-AD, and 22 with moderate-AD showed significant differences in amplitude modulations between the three groups. Most notably, i delta modulation of the beta frequency band disappeared with an increase in disease severity (from mild to moderate AD, ii delta modulation of the theta band appeared with an increase in severity, and iii delta modulation of the beta frequency band showed to be a reliable discriminant feature between healthy controls and mild-AD patients. Taken together, it is hoped that the developed tool can be used to assist clinicians not only with early detection of Alzheimer's disease, but also to monitor its progression.

  11. Endogenous Pain Modulation: Association with Resting Heart Rate Variability and Negative Affectivity.

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    Van Den Houte, Maaike; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Bogaerts, Katleen; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2017-07-21

    Several chronic pain syndromes are characterized by deficient endogenous pain modulation as well as elevated negative affectivity and reduced resting heart rate variability. In order to elucidate the relationships between these characteristics, we investigated whether negative affectivity and heart rate variability are associated with endogenous pain modulation in a healthy population. An offset analgesia paradigm with noxious thermal stimulation calibrated to the individual's pain threshold was used to measure endogenous pain modulation magnitude in 63 healthy individuals. Pain ratings during constant noxious heat stimulation to the arm (15 seconds) were compared with ratings during noxious stimulation comprising a 1 °C rise and return of temperature to the initial level (offset trials, 15 seconds). Offset analgesia was defined as the reduction in pain following the 1 °C decrease relative to pain at the same time point during continuous heat stimulation. Evidence for an offset analgesia effect could only be found when noxious stimulation intensity (and, hence, the individual's pain threshold) was intermediate (46 °C or 47 °C). Offset analgesia magnitude was also moderated by resting heart rate variability: a small but significant offset effect was found in participants with high but not low heart rate variability. Negative affectivity was not related to offset analgesia magnitude. These results indicate that resting heart rate variability (HRV) is related to endogenous pain modulation (EPM) in a healthy population. Future research should focus on clarifying the causal relationship between HRV and EPM and chronic pain by using longitudinal study designs. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Plastic modulation of PTSD resting-state networks by EEG neurofeedback

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    Kluetsch, Rosemarie C.; Ros, Tomas; Théberge, Jean; Frewen, Paul A.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Schmahl, Christian; Jetly, Rakesh; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback training has been shown to produce plastic modulations in salience network and default mode network functional connectivity in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of neurofeedback training aimed at the voluntary reduction of alpha rhythm (8–12 Hz) amplitude would be related to differences in EEG network oscillations, functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity, and subjective measures of state anxiety and arousal in a group of individuals with PTSD. Method 21 individuals with PTSD related to childhood abuse underwent 30 minutes of EEG neurofeedback training preceded and followed by a resting-state fMRI scan. Results Alpha desynchronizing neurofeedback was associated with decreased alpha amplitude during training, followed by a significant increase (‘rebound’) in resting-state alpha synchronization. This rebound was linked to increased calmness, greater salience network connectivity with the right insula, and enhanced default mode network connectivity with bilateral posterior cingulate, right middle frontal gyrus, and left medial prefrontal cortex. Conclusion Our study represents a first step in elucidating the potential neurobehavioral mechanisms mediating the effects of neurofeedback treatment on regulatory systems in PTSD. Moreover, it documents for the first time a spontaneous EEG ‘rebound’ after neurofeedback, pointing to homeostatic/compensatory mechanisms operating in the brain. PMID:24266644

  13. Plastic modulation of PTSD resting-state networks and subjective wellbeing by EEG neurofeedback.

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    Kluetsch, R C; Ros, T; Théberge, J; Frewen, P A; Calhoun, V D; Schmahl, C; Jetly, R; Lanius, R A

    2014-08-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback training has been shown to produce plastic modulations in salience network and default mode network functional connectivity in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of neurofeedback training aimed at the voluntary reduction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) amplitude would be related to differences in EEG network oscillations, functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity, and subjective measures of state anxiety and arousal in a group of individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-one individuals with PTSD related to childhood abuse underwent 30 min of EEG neurofeedback training preceded and followed by a resting-state fMRI scan. Alpha desynchronizing neurofeedback was associated with decreased alpha amplitude during training, followed by a significant increase ('rebound') in resting-state alpha synchronization. This rebound was linked to increased calmness, greater salience network connectivity with the right insula, and enhanced default mode network connectivity with bilateral posterior cingulate, right middle frontal gyrus, and left medial prefrontal cortex. Our study represents a first step in elucidating the potential neurobehavioural mechanisms mediating the effects of neurofeedback treatment on regulatory systems in PTSD. Moreover, it documents for the first time a spontaneous EEG 'rebound' after neurofeedback, pointing to homeostatic/compensatory mechanisms operating in the brain. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met genotype modulates amygdala habituation.

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    Perez-Rodriguez, M Mercedes; New, Antonia S; Goldstein, Kim E; Rosell, Daniel; Yuan, Qiaoping; Zhou, Zhifeng; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Siever, Larry J; Hazlett, Erin A

    2017-05-30

    A deficit in amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli may be an endophenotype of disorders characterized by emotion dysregulation, such as borderline personality disorder (BPD). Amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli is genetically modulated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) variants. Whether amygdala habituation itself is also modulated by BDNF genotypes remains unknown. We used imaging-genetics to examine the effect of BDNF Val66Met genotypes on amygdala habituation to repeated emotional stimuli. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 57 subjects (19 BPD patients, 18 patients with schizotypal personality disorder [SPD] and 20 healthy controls [HC]) during a task involving viewing of unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant pictures, each presented twice to measure habituation. Amygdala responses across genotypes (Val66Met SNP Met allele-carriers vs. Non-Met carriers) and diagnoses (HC, BPD, SPD) were examined with ANOVA. The BDNF 66Met allele was significantly associated with a deficit in amygdala habituation, particularly for emotional pictures. The association of the 66Met allele with a deficit in habituation to unpleasant emotional pictures remained significant in the subsample of BPD patients. Using imaging-genetics, we found preliminary evidence that deficient amygdala habituation may be modulated by BDNF genotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Pain Perception Can Be Modulated by Mindfulness Training: A Resting-state fMRI Study

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    I-Wen Su

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-dimensional nature of pain renders difficult a holistic understanding of it. The conceptual framework of pain is said to be cognitive-evaluative, in addition to being sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational. To compare participants’ brain-behavior response before and after a six-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR training course on mindfulness in relation to pain modulation, three questionnaires (the Dallas Pain Questionnaire, Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-SFMPQ, and Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI were administered to participants, divided into a pain-afflicted group (N=18 and a control group (N=16. Our results showed that the pain-afflicted group experienced significantly less pain after the mindfulness treatment than before, as measured by the SFMPQ. In conjunction, an increased connection from the anterior insular cortex (AIC to the dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC was observed in the post-training pain-afflicted group and a significant correlation was found between AIC-daMCC connectivity and SFMPQ scores. The results suggest that mindfulness training can modulate the brain network dynamics underlying the subjective experience of pain.

  16. Resting-State Brain and the FTO Obesity Risk Allele: Default Mode, Sensorimotor, and Salience Network Connectivity Underlying Different Somatosensory Integration and Reward Processing between Genotypes.

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    Olivo, Gaia; Wiemerslage, Lyle; Nilsson, Emil K; Solstrand Dahlberg, Linda; Larsen, Anna L; Olaya Búcaro, Marcela; Gustafsson, Veronica P; Titova, Olga E; Bandstein, Marcus; Larsson, Elna-Marie; Benedict, Christian; Brooks, Samantha J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2016-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene are linked to obesity, but how these SNPs influence resting-state neural activation is unknown. Few brain-imaging studies have investigated the influence of obesity-related SNPs on neural activity, and no study has investigated resting-state connectivity patterns. We tested connectivity within three, main resting-state networks: default mode (DMN), sensorimotor (SMN), and salience network (SN) in 30 male participants, grouped based on genotype for the rs9939609 FTO SNP, as well as punishment and reward sensitivity measured by the Behavioral Inhibition (BIS) and Behavioral Activation System (BAS) questionnaires. Because obesity is associated with anomalies in both systems, we calculated a BIS/BAS ratio (BBr) accounting for features of both scores. A prominence of BIS over BAS (higher BBr) resulted in increased connectivity in frontal and paralimbic regions. These alterations were more evident in the obesity-associated AA genotype, where a high BBr was also associated with increased SN connectivity in dopaminergic circuitries, and in a subnetwork involved in somatosensory integration regarding food. Participants with AA genotype and high BBr, compared to corresponding participants in the TT genotype, also showed greater DMN connectivity in regions involved in the processing of food cues, and in the SMN for regions involved in visceral perception and reward-based learning. These findings suggest that neural connectivity patterns influence the sensitivity toward punishment and reward more closely in the AA carriers, predisposing them to developing obesity. Our work explains a complex interaction between genetics, neural patterns, and behavioral measures in determining the risk for obesity and may help develop individually-tailored strategies for obesity prevention.

  17. Extraversion modulates functional connectivity hubs of resting-state brain networks.

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    Pang, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Heng; Zeng, Ling; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2017-09-01

    Personality dimension extraversion describes individual differences in social behaviour and socio-emotional functioning. The intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the brain are reportedly associated with extraversion. However, whether or not extraversion is associated with functional hubs warrants clarification. Functional hubs are involved in the rapid integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction contributes to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we employed the functional connectivity density (FCD) method for the first time to distinguish the energy-efficient hubs associated with extraversion. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 71 healthy subjects were used in the analysis. Short-range FCD was positively correlated with extraversion in the left cuneus, revealing a link between the local functional activity of this region and extraversion in risk-taking. Long-range FCD was negatively correlated with extraversion in the right superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses revealed that a decreased long-range FCD in individuals with high extraversion scores showed a low long-range functional connectivity pattern between the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. This result suggests that decreased RSFC patterns are responsible for self-esteem, self-evaluation, and inhibitory behaviour system that account for the modulation and shaping of extraversion. Overall, our results emphasize specific brain hubs, and reveal long-range functional connections in relation to extraversion, thereby providing a neurobiological basis of extraversion. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Vagal modulation of resting heart rate in rats: the role of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise

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    Luca eCarnevali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In humans, there are large individual differences in the levels of vagal modulation of resting heart rate. High levels are a recognized index of cardiac health, whereas low levels are considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Several factors are thought to contribute significantly to this inter-individual variability. While regular physical exercise seems to induce an increase in resting vagal tone, chronic life stress and psychosocial factors such as negative moods and personality traits appear associated with vagal withdrawal. Preclinical research has been attempting to clarify such relationships and to provide insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying vagal tone impairment/enhancement. This paper focuses on rat studies that have explored the effects of stress, psychosocial factors and physical exercise on vagal modulation of resting heart rate. Results are discussed with regard to: (i individual differences in resting vagal tone, cardiac stress reactivity and arrhythmia vulnerability; (ii elucidation of the neurobiological determinants of resting vagal tone.

  19. Genotype and ancestry modulate brain's DAT availability in healthy humans

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    Shumay, E.; Shumay, E.; Chen, J.; Fowler, J.S.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-08-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a principal regulator of dopaminergic neurotransmission and its gene (the SLC6A3) is a strong biological candidate gene for various behavioral- and neurological disorders. Intense investigation of the link between the SLC6A3 polymorphisms and behavioral phenotypes yielded inconsistent and even contradictory results. Reliance on objective brain phenotype measures, for example, those afforded by brain imaging, might critically improve detection of DAT genotype-phenotype association. Here, we tested the relationship between the DAT brain availability and the SLC6A3 genotypes using an aggregate sample of 95 healthy participants of several imaging studies. These studies employed positron emission tomography (PET) with [{sup 11}C] cocaine wherein the DAT availability was estimated as Bmax/Kd; while the genotype values were obtained on two repeat polymorphisms - 3-UTR- and intron 8- VNTRs. The main findings are the following: (1) both polymorphisms analyzed as single genetic markers and in combination (haplotype) modulate DAT density in midbrain; (2) ethnic background and age influence the strength of these associations; and (3) age-related changes in DAT availability differ in the 3-UTR and intron8 - genotype groups.

  20. Modulation of blood pressure response to exercise by physical activity and relationship with resting blood pressure during pregnancy.

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    Bisson, Michèle; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Tremblay, Angelo; Marc, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether physical activity and blood pressure (BP) response to exercise in early pregnancy are related to resting BP at the end of pregnancy. Understanding physiological BP responses to exercise during pregnancy will help in improving BP profile and guiding exercise recommendations in pregnant women. Maternal physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and BP (systolic and diastolic) at rest and during exercise (submaximal and relative response) were assessed at 16 weeks of gestation in 61 normotensive pregnant women. BP at 36 weeks of gestation and obstetrical outcomes were collected from maternal charts. Related to resting DBP at 16 weeks (r =  -0.28, P = 0.028), total energy expenditure spend at any physical activity in early pregnancy was also associated with resting SBP at 36 weeks (r =  -0.27, P = 0.038). On the contrary, although related to VO2peak (r =  -0.57, P sports and exercise (r =  -0.29, P = 0.024), the relative SBP response to exercise at 16 weeks was not associated with resting BP at 36 weeks. Strongly associated with resting BP at 16 weeks and also with total energy expenditure, submaximal BP response to exercise at 16 weeks was related to resting SBP and DBP at 36 weeks (r = 0.41, P = 0.001 and r = 0.26, P = 0.051, respectively). In normotensive women, physical activity performed in early pregnancy appears to slightly modulate resting BP in early and late pregnancy. However, further investigations are needed to determine which physical activity-related parameter in response to exercise best predicts BP variations during pregnancy.

  1. MTHFR 677TT genotype and disease risk: is there a modulating role for B-vitamins?

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    Reilly, R; McNulty, H; Pentieva, K; Strain, J J; Ward, M

    2014-02-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical folate-metabolising enzyme which requires riboflavin as its co-factor. A common polymorphism (677C→T) in the MTHFR gene results in reduced MTHFR activity in vivo which in turn leads to impaired folate metabolism and elevated homocysteine concentrations. Homozygosity for this polymorphism (TT genotype) is associated with an increased risk of a number of conditions including heart disease and stroke, but there is considerable variability in the extent of excess risk in various reports. The present review will explore the evidence which supports a role for this polymorphism as a risk factor for a number of adverse health outcomes, and the potential modulating roles for B-vitamins in alleviating disease risk. The evidence is convincing in the case which links this polymorphism with hypertension and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, particularly preeclampsia. Furthermore, elevated blood pressure was found to be highly responsive to riboflavin intervention specifically in individuals with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. Future intervention studies targeted at these genetically predisposed individuals are required to further investigate this novel gene-nutrient interaction. This polymorphism has also been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects (NTD) and other adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, the evidence in this area has been inconsistent. Preliminary evidence has suggested that there may be a much greater need for women with the MTHFR 677TT genotype to adhere to the specific recommendation of commencing folic acid prior to conception for the prevention of NTD, but this requires further investigation.

  2. DLEC1 Expression Is Modulated by Epigenetic Modifications in Hepatocelluar Carcinoma Cells: Role of HBx Genotypes

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    Niu, Dandan; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning

    2010-01-01

    Deleted in Lung and Esophageal Cancer 1 (DLEC1) is a functional tumor suppressor gene (TSG). It has been found to be silenced in a variety of human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The silencing of DLEC1 can be modulated by epigenetic modifications, such as DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation. In the case of HCC, hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) has been implicated in methylation of target promoters resulting in the down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes, which in turn contributes to the development of HCC. In the present study, we first established a cell system in which epigenetic modifications can be modulated using inhibitors of either DNA methylation or histone deacetylation. The cell system was used to reveal that the expression of DLEC1 was upregulated by HBx in a genotype-dependent manner. In particular, HBx genotype A was found to decrease DNA methylation of the DLEC1 promoter. Our results have provided new insights on the impact of HBx in HCC development by epigenetic modifications

  3. Contributory role of the tongue and mandible in modulating the in-mouth air cavity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, Pierre; Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Peyron, Marie-Agnes; Woda, Alain

    2013-12-01

    The tongue-to-palate distance influences the volume of the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC), thus conditioning the entry of aromatic compounds to the olfactory mucosa site. This study was set out to record the IMAC volume by measuring tongue-to-palate distance at rest. Twelve young adults in good general health were tested--lips contacting, with at-rest posture of the tongue and jaw during a silent reading task. Observations in this study were limited to pre- and post-swallowing sequences. The tongue-to-palate distance was measured using three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper surface. IMAC volume was evaluated from a geometrical model, taking into account the tongue-to-palate distance, the IMAC transversal distance measured from dental casts and historic data giving the anterior-posterior distance of the oral cavity. (1) In the at-rest posture, the tongue-to-palate distance was significantly greater at the posterior sensor level. (2) A vertical shift in tongue posture at rest frequently appeared following deglutition. The upward shifts were of larger amplitude and more frequent than the downward shifts. (3) Evaluation of the IMAC volume gave an approximate value of 12 ml at rest. (4) The chin sensor at rest was 2.8 ± 0.8 mm below its position when in occlusion. The tongue and mandible contribute to shaping the IMAC volume. These and other results suggest that deglutition changes tongue-to-palate distance and influences aroma release during mastication/deglutition acts through modulation of the IMAC volume.

  4. Morphological brain plasticity induced by musical expertise is accompanied by modulation of functional connectivity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Chételat, Gaël; Fouquet, Marine; Landeau, Brigitte; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Platel, Hervé

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to explore whether musical practice-related gray matter increases in brain regions are accompanied by modifications in their resting-state functional connectivity. 16 young musically experienced adults and 17 matched nonmusicians underwent an anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI). A whole-brain two-sample t test run on the T1-weighted structural images revealed four clusters exhibiting significant increases in gray matter (GM) volume in the musician group, located within the right posterior and middle cingulate gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus and right inferior orbitofrontal gyrus. Each cluster was used as a seed region to generate and compare whole-brain resting-state functional connectivity maps. The two clusters within the cingulate gyrus exhibited greater connectivity for musicians with the right prefrontal cortex and left temporal pole, which play a role in autobiographical and semantic memory, respectively. The cluster in the left superior temporal gyrus displayed enhanced connectivity with several language-related areas (e.g., left premotor cortex, bilateral supramarginal gyri). Finally, the cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus displayed more synchronous activity at rest with claustrum, areas thought to play a role in binding sensory and motor information. We interpreted these findings as the consequence of repeated collaborative use in general networks supporting some of the memory, perceptual-motor and emotional features of musical practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Snack food as a modulator of human resting-state functional connectivity.

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    Mendez-Torrijos, Andrea; Kreitz, Silke; Ivan, Claudiu; Konerth, Laura; Rösch, Julie; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Moll, Gunther; Kratz, Oliver; Dörfler, Arnd; Horndasch, Stefanie; Hess, Andreas

    2018-04-04

    To elucidate the mechanisms of how snack foods may induce non-homeostatic food intake, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), as resting state networks can individually adapt to experience after short time exposures. In addition, we used graph theoretical analysis together with machine learning techniques (support vector machine) to identifying biomarkers that can categorize between high-caloric (potato chips) vs. low-caloric (zucchini) food stimulation. Seventeen healthy human subjects with body mass index (BMI) 19 to 27 underwent 2 different fMRI sessions where an initial resting state scan was acquired, followed by visual presentation of different images of potato chips and zucchini. There was then a 5-minute pause to ingest food (day 1=potato chips, day 3=zucchini), followed by a second resting state scan. fMRI data were further analyzed using graph theory analysis and support vector machine techniques. Potato chips vs. zucchini stimulation led to significant connectivity changes. The support vector machine was able to accurately categorize the 2 types of food stimuli with 100% accuracy. Visual, auditory, and somatosensory structures, as well as thalamus, insula, and basal ganglia were found to be important for food classification. After potato chips consumption, the BMI was associated with the path length and degree in nucleus accumbens, middle temporal gyrus, and thalamus. The results suggest that high vs. low caloric food stimulation in healthy individuals can induce significant changes in resting state networks. These changes can be detected using graph theory measures in conjunction with support vector machine. Additionally, we found that the BMI affects the response of the nucleus accumbens when high caloric food is consumed.

  6. Superiority illusion arises from resting-state brain networks modulated by dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Uddin, Lucina Q; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Keisuke; Kousa, Ririko; Ikoma, Yoko; Eguchi, Yoko; Takano, Harumasa; Ito, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2013-03-12

    The majority of individuals evaluate themselves as superior to average. This is a cognitive bias known as the "superiority illusion." This illusion helps us to have hope for the future and is deep-rooted in the process of human evolution. In this study, we examined the default states of neural and molecular systems that generate this illusion, using resting-state functional MRI and PET. Resting-state functional connectivity between the frontal cortex and striatum regulated by inhibitory dopaminergic neurotransmission determines individual levels of the superiority illusion. Our findings help elucidate how this key aspect of the human mind is biologically determined, and identify potential molecular and neural targets for treatment for depressive realism.

  7. Serotonin transporter genotype modulates subgenual response to fearful faces using an incidental task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Nions, Elizabeth J P; Dolan, Raymond J; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the impact of serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) on regional responses to emotional faces in the amygdala and subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), while subjects performed a gender discrimination task. Although we found no evidence for greater amygdala reactivity or reduced amygdala-sgACC coupling in short variant 5-HTTLPR homozygotes (s/s), we observed an interaction between genotype and emotion in sgACC. Only long variant homozygotes (la/la) exhibited subgenual deactivation to fearful versus neutral faces, whereas the effect in s/s subjects was in the other direction. This absence of subgenual deactivation in s/s subjects parallels a recent finding in depressed subjects [Grimm, S., Boesiger, P., Beck, J., Schuepbach, D., Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., et al. Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 932-943, 2009]. Taken together, the findings suggest that subgenual cingulate activity may play an important role in regulating the impact of aversive stimuli, potentially conferring greater resilience to the effects of aversive stimuli in la/la subjects. Using dynamic causal modeling of functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we explored the effects of genotype on effective connectivity and emotion-specific changes in coupling across a network of regions implicated in social processing. Viewing fearful faces enhanced bidirectional excitatory coupling between the amygdala and the fusiform gyrus, and increased the inhibitory influence of the amygdala over the sgACC, although this modulation of coupling did not differ between the genotype groups. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of sgACC and serotonin in moderating responses to aversive stimuli [Dayan, P., & Huys, Q. J., Serotonin, inhibition, and negative mood. PLoS Comput Biol, 4, e4, 2008; Mayberg, H. S., Liotti, M., Brannan, S. K., McGinnis, S., Mahurin, R. K., Jerabek, P. A., et

  8. Long-term meditation training induced changes in the operational synchrony of default mode network modules during a resting state.

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    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Kallio-Tamminen, Tarja

    2016-02-01

    Using theoretical analysis of self-consciousness concept and experimental evidence on the brain default mode network (DMN) that constitutes the neural signature of self-referential processes, we hypothesized that the anterior and posterior subnets comprising the DMN should show differences in their integrity as a function of meditation training. Functional connectivity within DMN and its subnets (measured by operational synchrony) has been measured in ten novice meditators using an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording in a pre-/post-meditation intervention design. We have found that while the whole DMN was clearly suppressed, different subnets of DMN responded differently after 4 months of meditation training: The strength of EEG operational synchrony in the right and left posterior modules of the DMN decreased in resting post-meditation condition compared to a pre-meditation condition, whereas the frontal DMN module on the contrary exhibited an increase in the strength of EEG operational synchrony. These findings combined with published data on functional-anatomic heterogeneity within the DMN and on trait subjective experiences commonly found following meditation allow us to propose that the first-person perspective and the sense of agency (the witnessing observer) are presented by the frontal DMN module, while the posterior modules of the DMN are generally responsible for the experience of the continuity of 'I' as embodied and localized within bodily space. Significance of these findings is discussed.

  9. Impact of Diabetes Type 1 in Children on Autonomic Modulation at Rest and in Response to the Active Orthostatic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacon, Thais Roque; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1), of which one of the first subclinical manifestations is changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Thus, analysis of HRV associated with the autonomic active orthostatic test is important in this population. To analyze the autonomic modulation responses induced by the implementation of the active orthostatic test, in children with DM1, and study the autonomic modulation by means of HRV indices. Data of 35 children were analyzed, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 15 years, who were divided into two groups: Diabetic (n = 16) and Control (n = 19). The following variables were collected initially: weight, height, body fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure and casual blood glucose. Subsequently, for analysis of autonomic modulation, the beat-to-beat heart rate was captured by a heart rate monitor in the supine position for 30 minutes and after 10 minutes standing during performance of the active orthostatic test. HRV indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used to compare groups and ANOVA for repeated measures to compare the effects of the active orthostatic test. These data were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, with a 5% significance level. The results suggested that diabetic children at rest present a decrease in SDNN (50.4 vs. 75.2), rMSSD (38.7 vs 57.6) and LF [ms2] (693.6 vs 1874.6). During the active orthostatic test the children in both groups demonstrated a reduction in SDNN, RMSSD and LF [ms2] compared to the resting position, and this response was less pronounced in the diabetic group. We conclude that regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, performing the active orthostatic test promoted increased sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic modulation in both groups, and this response was less

  10. Impact of Diabetes Type 1 in Children on Autonomic Modulation at Rest and in Response to the Active Orthostatic Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Roque Giacon

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1, of which one of the first subclinical manifestations is changes in heart rate variability (HRV. Thus, analysis of HRV associated with the autonomic active orthostatic test is important in this population.To analyze the autonomic modulation responses induced by the implementation of the active orthostatic test, in children with DM1, and study the autonomic modulation by means of HRV indices.Data of 35 children were analyzed, of both sexes, aged between 7 and 15 years, who were divided into two groups: Diabetic (n = 16 and Control (n = 19. The following variables were collected initially: weight, height, body fat percentage, heart rate, blood pressure and casual blood glucose. Subsequently, for analysis of autonomic modulation, the beat-to-beat heart rate was captured by a heart rate monitor in the supine position for 30 minutes and after 10 minutes standing during performance of the active orthostatic test. HRV indices were calculated in the time and frequency domains. For data analysis, covariance analysis was used to compare groups and ANOVA for repeated measures to compare the effects of the active orthostatic test. These data were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, with a 5% significance level.The results suggested that diabetic children at rest present a decrease in SDNN (50.4 vs. 75.2, rMSSD (38.7 vs 57.6 and LF [ms2] (693.6 vs 1874.6. During the active orthostatic test the children in both groups demonstrated a reduction in SDNN, RMSSD and LF [ms2] compared to the resting position, and this response was less pronounced in the diabetic group.We conclude that regardless of age, sex, ethnicity, body fat percentage and casual blood glucose, performing the active orthostatic test promoted increased sympathetic modulation and reduced parasympathetic modulation in both groups, and this response

  11. DAT1-Genotype and Menstrual Cycle, but Not Hormonal Contraception, Modulate Reinforcement Learning: Preliminary Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Kristina; Ehrentreich, Hanna; Holtfrerich, Sarah K C; Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2018-01-01

    Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA) and current 17ß-estradiol (E2) level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP) and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) affects reinforcement learning capacity. 30 women with a regular menstrual cycle performed a probabilistic feedback learning task twice during the early and late FP. In addition, 39 women, who took hormonal contraceptives (HC) to suppress natural ovulation, were tested during the "pill break" and the intake phase of HC. The present data show that DAT1-genotype may interact with transient hormonal state, but only in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We found that carriers of the 9-repeat allele (9RP) experienced a significant decrease in the ability to avoid punishment from early to late FP. Neither homozygote subjects of the 10RP allele, nor subjects from the HC group showed a change in behavior between phases. These data are consistent with neurobiological studies that found that rising E2 may reverse DA transporter function and could enhance DA efflux, which would in turn reduce punishment sensitivity particularly in subjects with a higher transporter density to begin with. Taken together, the present results, although based on a small sample, add to the growing understanding of the complex interplay between different physiological modulators of dopaminergic transmission. They may not only point out the necessity to control for hormonal state in behavioral genetic research, but may offer new starting points for studies in clinical settings.

  12. DAT1-Genotype and Menstrual Cycle, but Not Hormonal Contraception, Modulate Reinforcement Learning: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormone by genotype interactions have been widely ignored by cognitive neuroscience. Yet, the dependence of cognitive performance on both baseline dopamine (DA and current 17ß-estradiol (E2 level argues for their combined effect also in the context of reinforcement learning. Here, we assessed how the interaction between the natural rise of E2 in the late follicular phase (FP and the 40 base-pair variable number tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT1 affects reinforcement learning capacity. 30 women with a regular menstrual cycle performed a probabilistic feedback learning task twice during the early and late FP. In addition, 39 women, who took hormonal contraceptives (HC to suppress natural ovulation, were tested during the “pill break” and the intake phase of HC. The present data show that DAT1-genotype may interact with transient hormonal state, but only in women with a natural menstrual cycle. We found that carriers of the 9-repeat allele (9RP experienced a significant decrease in the ability to avoid punishment from early to late FP. Neither homozygote subjects of the 10RP allele, nor subjects from the HC group showed a change in behavior between phases. These data are consistent with neurobiological studies that found that rising E2 may reverse DA transporter function and could enhance DA efflux, which would in turn reduce punishment sensitivity particularly in subjects with a higher transporter density to begin with. Taken together, the present results, although based on a small sample, add to the growing understanding of the complex interplay between different physiological modulators of dopaminergic transmission. They may not only point out the necessity to control for hormonal state in behavioral genetic research, but may offer new starting points for studies in clinical settings.

  13. Hypoxia-Related Hormonal Appetite Modulation in Humans during Rest and Exercise: Mini Review

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    Tadej Debevec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms. The present paper summarizes the up-to-date research on hypoxia/altitude-induced changes in the gut and adipose tissue derived peptides related to appetite regulation. Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexigenic peptides leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin have to-date been investigated as potential modulators of hypoxia-driven appetite alterations. Current evidence suggests that hypoxia can, especially acutely, lead to decreased appetite, most probably via reduction of acylated ghrelin concentration. Hypoxia-related short and long-term changes in other hormonal markers are more unclear although hypoxia seems to importantly modulate leptin levels, especially following prolonged hypoxic exposures. Limited evidence also suggests that different activity levels during exposures to hypoxia do not additively affect hormonal appetite markers. Although very few studies have been performed in obese/overweight individuals, the available data indicate that hypoxia/altitude exposures do not seem to differentially affect appetite regulation via hormonal pathways in this cohort. Given the lack of experimental data, future well-controlled acute and prolonged studies are warranted to expand our understanding of hypoxia-induced hormonal appetite modulation and its kinetics in health and disease.

  14. The Chado Natural Diversity module: a new generic database schema for large-scale phenotyping and genotyping data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Menda, Naama; Redmond, Seth; Buels, Robert M; Friesen, Maren; Bendana, Yuri; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Lapp, Hilmar; Lee, Taein; MacCallum, Bob; Bett, Kirstin E; Cain, Scott; Clements, Dave; Mueller, Lukas A; Main, Dorrie

    2011-01-01

    Linking phenotypic with genotypic diversity has become a major requirement for basic and applied genome-centric biological research. To meet this need, a comprehensive database backend for efficiently storing, querying and analyzing large experimental data sets is necessary. Chado, a generic, modular, community-based database schema is widely used in the biological community to store information associated with genome sequence data. To meet the need to also accommodate large-scale phenotyping and genotyping projects, a new Chado module called Natural Diversity has been developed. The module strictly adheres to the Chado remit of being generic and ontology driven. The flexibility of the new module is demonstrated in its capacity to store any type of experiment that either uses or generates specimens or stock organisms. Experiments may be grouped or structured hierarchically, whereas any kind of biological entity can be stored as the observed unit, from a specimen to be used in genotyping or phenotyping experiments, to a group of species collected in the field that will undergo further lab analysis. We describe details of the Natural Diversity module, including the design approach, the relational schema and use cases implemented in several databases.

  15. Negative Affectivity, Depression, and Resting Heart Rate Variability (HRV as Possible Moderators of Endogenous Pain Modulation in Functional Somatic Syndromes

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    Maaike Van Den Houte

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have shown that patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS have, on average, deficient endogenous pain modulation (EPM, as well as elevated levels of negative affectivity (NA and high comorbidity with depression and reduced resting heart rate variability (HRV compared to healthy controls (HC. The goals of this study were (1 to replicate these findings and (2 to investigate the moderating role of NA, depression, and resting HRV in EPM efficiency within a patient group with fibromyalgia and/or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. Resting HRV was quantified as the root mean square of successive differences between inter-beat intervals (RMSSD in rest, a vagally mediated time domain measure of HRV.Methods: Seventy-eight patients with fibromyalgia and/or CFS and 33 HC completed a counter-irritation paradigm as a measure of EPM efficiency. Participants rated the painfulness of electrocutaneous stimuli (of individually calibrated intensity on the ankle before (baseline phase, during (counter-irritation phase and after (recovery phase the application of a cold pain stimulus on the forearm. A larger reduction in pain in the counter-irritation phase compared to the baseline phase reflects a more efficient EPM.Results: In contrast to our expectations, there was no difference between pain ratings in the baseline compared to counter-irritation phase for both patients and HC. Therefore, reliable conclusions on the moderating effect of NA, depression, and RMSSD could not be made. Surprisingly, patients reported more pain in the recovery compared to the counter-irritation and baseline phase, while HC did not. This latter effect was more pronounced in patients with comorbid depression, patients who rated the painfulness of the counter-irritation stimulus as high and patients who rated the painfulness of the electrocutaneous stimuli as low. We did not manage to successfully replicate the counter-irritation effect in HC or FSS patients

  16. Deep brain stimulation modulates synchrony within spatially and spectrally distinct resting state networks in Parkinson's disease.

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    Oswal, Ashwini; Beudel, Martijn; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Tom; Litvak, Vladimir; Brown, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Chronic dopamine depletion in Parkinson's disease leads to progressive motor and cognitive impairment, which is associated with the emergence of characteristic patterns of synchronous oscillatory activity within cortico-basal-ganglia circuits. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, but its influence on synchronous activity in cortico-basal-ganglia loops remains to be fully characterized. Here, we demonstrate that deep brain stimulation selectively suppresses certain spatially and spectrally segregated resting state subthalamic nucleus-cortical networks. To this end we used a validated and novel approach for performing simultaneous recordings of the subthalamic nucleus and cortex using magnetoencephalography (during concurrent subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation). Our results highlight that clinically effective subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation suppresses synchrony locally within the subthalamic nucleus in the low beta oscillatory range and furthermore that the degree of this suppression correlates with clinical motor improvement. Moreover, deep brain stimulation relatively selectively suppressed synchronization of activity between the subthalamic nucleus and mesial premotor regions, including the supplementary motor areas. These mesial premotor regions were predominantly coupled to the subthalamic nucleus in the high beta frequency range, but the degree of deep brain stimulation-associated suppression in their coupling to the subthalamic nucleus was not found to correlate with motor improvement. Beta band coupling between the subthalamic nucleus and lateral motor areas was not influenced by deep brain stimulation. Motor cortical coupling with subthalamic nucleus predominantly involved driving of the subthalamic nucleus, with those drives in the higher beta frequency band having much shorter net delays to subthalamic nucleus than those in the lower beta band. These observations raise the

  17. Blood pressure and cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, during exercise and recovery time in the young overweight

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    Jaqueline Alves de Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to assess the blood pressure (BP, cardiac autonomic modulation at rest, in physical exercise and in the recovery in untrained eutrophic (E and overweight (O youth. The body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, systolic BP-SBP (E: 109.80 ± 10.05; O: 121.85 ± 6.98 mmHg and diastolic BP - DBP (E: 65.90 ± 7.28; O: 73.14 ± 12.22 mmHg were higher in overweight and the heart rate recovery (%HRR was lower as compared with E volunteers. The BMI was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.65, load on the heart rate variability threshold - HRVT (r= -0.46, %HRR 2' (r= -0.48 and %HRR 5' (r= -0.48, and WC was associated with SBP (r= 0.54, DBP (r= 0.64 and HRR 2' (r= -0.49. The %HRR was associated to SBP, DBP and HRVT. In summary, the anthropometric variables, BP and cardiac autonomic modulation in the recovery are altered in overweight youth.

  18. Changes of Functional and Directed Resting-State Connectivity Are Associated with Neuronal Oscillations, ApoE Genotype and Amyloid Deposition in Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Lars Michels

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of effects associated with cognitive impairment using electroencephalography (EEG power mapping allows the visualization of frequency-band specific local changes in oscillatory activity. In contrast, measures of coherence and dynamic source synchronization allow for the study of functional and effective connectivity, respectively. Yet, these measures have rarely been assessed in parallel in the context of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and furthermore it has not been examined if they are related to risk factors of Alzheimer’s disease (AD such as amyloid deposition and apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE allele occurrence. Here, we investigated functional and directed connectivities with Renormalized Partial Directed Coherence (RPDC in 17 healthy controls (HC and 17 participants with MCI. Participants underwent ApoE-genotyping and Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET to assess amyloid deposition. We observed lower spectral source power in MCI in the alpha and beta bands. Coherence was stronger in HC than MCI across different neuronal sources in the delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. The directed coherence analysis indicated lower information flow between fronto-temporal (including the hippocampus sources and unidirectional connectivity in MCI. In MCI, alpha and beta RPDC showed an inverse correlation to age and gender; global amyloid deposition was inversely correlated to alpha coherence, RPDC and beta and gamma coherence. Furthermore, the ApoE status was negatively correlated to alpha coherence and RPDC, beta RPDC and gamma coherence. A classification analysis of cognitive state revealed the highest accuracy using EEG power, coherence and RPDC as input. For this small but statistically robust (Bayesian power analyses sample, our results suggest that resting EEG related functional and directed connectivities are sensitive to the cognitive state and are linked to ApoE and amyloid burden.

  19. Frequency-Dependent Modulation of Regional Synchrony in the Human Brain by Eyes Open and Eyes Closed Resting-States.

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    Song, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Shuqin; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yijun; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Gao, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    The eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) states have differential effects on BOLD-fMRI signal dynamics, affecting both the BOLD oscillation frequency of a single voxel and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of several neighboring voxels. To explore how the two resting-states modulate the local synchrony through different frequency bands, we decomposed the time series of each voxel into several components that fell into distinct frequency bands. The ReHo in each of the bands was calculated and compared between the EO and EC conditions. The cross-voxel correlations between the mean frequency and the overall ReHo of each voxel's original BOLD series in different brain areas were also calculated and compared between the two states. Compared with the EC state, ReHo decreased with EO in a wide frequency band of 0.01-0.25 Hz in the bilateral thalamus, sensorimotor network, and superior temporal gyrus, while ReHo increased significantly in the band of 0-0.01 Hz in the primary visual cortex, and in a higher frequency band of 0.02-0.1 Hz in the higher order visual areas. The cross-voxel correlations between the frequency and overall ReHo were negative in all the brain areas but varied from region to region. These correlations were stronger with EO in the visual network and the default mode network. Our results suggested that different frequency bands of ReHo showed different sensitivity to the modulation of EO-EC states. The better spatial consistency between the frequency and overall ReHo maps indicated that the brain might adopt a stricter frequency-dependent configuration with EO than with EC.

  20. ADRA2B genotype differentially modulates stress-induced neural activity in the amygdala and hippocampus during emotional memory retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Milde, Christopher; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M

    2015-02-01

    Noradrenaline interacts with stress hormones in the amygdala and hippocampus to enhance emotional memory consolidation, but the noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interaction at retrieval, where stress impairs memory, is less understood. We used a genetic neuroimaging approach to investigate whether a genetic variation of the noradrenergic system impacts stress-induced neural activity in amygdala and hippocampus during recognition of emotional memory. This study is based on genotype-dependent reanalysis of data from our previous publication (Li et al. Brain Imaging Behav 2014). Twenty-two healthy male volunteers were genotyped for the ADRA2B gene encoding the α2B-adrenergic receptor. Ten deletion carriers and 12 noncarriers performed an emotional face recognition task, while their brain activity was measured with fMRI. During encoding, 50 fearful and 50 neutral faces were presented. One hour later, they underwent either an acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control procedure which was followed immediately by the retrieval session, where participants had to discriminate between 100 old and 50 new faces. A genotype-dependent modulation of neural activity at retrieval was found in the bilateral amygdala and right hippocampus. Deletion carriers showed decreased neural activity in the amygdala when recognizing emotional faces in control condition and increased amygdala activity under stress. Noncarriers showed no differences in emotional modulated amygdala activation under stress or control. Instead, stress-induced increases during recognition of emotional faces were present in the right hippocampus. The genotype-dependent effects of acute stress on neural activity in amygdala and hippocampus provide evidence for noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interaction in emotional memory retrieval.

  1. Genotype modulates testosterone-dependent activity and reactivity in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Svare, B

    1983-03-01

    Adult castration significantly reduced the homecage locomotor activity of both inbred C57BL/6J and DBA/2J and outbred Rockland-Swiss (R-S) male mice. Castrated C57BL animals exhibited greater reductions in this behavior than did the other genotypes. Locomotor activity in a novel environment (reactivity) was also reduced by castration but only for inbred males. In both test situations, postcastration reductions in ambulation were prevented by implants of testosterone (T)-containing Silastic capsules. Thus, testicular hormones promote activity and reactivity in the male mouse in a genotype-dependent fashion.

  2. Amygdala response to anticipation of dyspnea is modulated by 5-HTTLPR genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M Cornelia; Esser, Roland W; Gamer, Matthias; Kalisch, Raffael; Büchel, Christian; von Leupoldt, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Dyspnea anticipation and perception varies largely between individuals. To investigate whether genetic factors related to negative affect such as the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impact this variability, we investigated healthy, 5-HTTLPR stratified volunteers using resistive load induced dyspnea together with fMRI. Alternating blocks of severe and mild dyspnea ("perception") were differentially cued ("anticipation") and followed by intensity and unpleasantness ratings. In addition, volunteers indicated their anticipatory fear during the anticipation periods. There were no genotype-based group differences concerning dyspnea intensity and unpleasantness or brain activation during perception of severe vs. mild dyspnea. However, in risk allele carriers, higher anticipatory fear was paralleled by stronger amygdala activation during anticipation of severe vs. mild dyspnea. These results suggest a role of the 5-HTTLPR genotype in fearful dyspnea anticipation. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates cancer treatment-related cognitive deficits in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri Sharp; Walsh, Erin; Jim, Heather S L; Hughes, Tiffany F; Iser, Lindsay; Andrykowski, Michael A; Jacobsen, Paul B

    2011-04-01

    Recent attention has focused on the negative effects of chemotherapy on the cognitive performance of cancer survivors. The current study examined modification of this risk by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype based on evidence in adult populations that the presence of a Val allele is associated with poorer cognitive performance. Breast cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy (n = 58), and/or chemotherapy (n = 72), and 204 healthy controls (HCs) completed tests of cognitive performance and provided saliva for COMT genotyping. COMT genotype was divided into Val carriers (Val+; Val/Val, Val/Met) or COMT-Met homozygote carriers (Met; Met/Met). COMT-Val+ carriers performed more poorly on tests of attention, verbal fluency, and motor speed relative to COMT-Met homozygotes. Moreover, COMT-Val+ carriers treated with chemotherapy performed more poorly on tests of attention relative to HC group members who were also Val+ carriers. The results suggest that persons treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer who also possess the COMT-Val gene are susceptible to negative effects on their cognitive health. This research is important because it strives to understand the factors that predispose some cancer survivors to more negative quality-of-life outcomes. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  4. Practice changes beta power at rest and its modulation during movement in healthy subjects but not in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisello, Clara; Blanco, Daniella; Lin, Jing; Panday, Priya; Kelly, Simon P; Quartarone, Angelo; Di Rocco, Alessandro; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2015-10-01

    PD (Parkinson's disease) is characterized by impairments in cortical plasticity, in beta frequency at rest and in beta power modulation during movement (i.e., event-related ERS [synchronization] and ERD [desynchronization]). Recent results with experimental protocols inducing long-term potentiation in healthy subjects suggest that cortical plasticity phenomena might be reflected by changes of beta power recorded with EEG during rest. Here, we determined whether motor practice produces changes in beta power at rest and during movements in both healthy subjects and patients with PD. We hypothesized that such changes would be reduced in PD. We thus recorded EEG in patients with PD and age-matched controls before, during and after a 40-minute reaching task. We determined posttask changes of beta power at rest and assessed the progressive changes of beta ERD and ERS during the task over frontal and sensorimotor regions. We found that beta ERS and ERD changed significantly with practice in controls but not in PD. In PD compared to controls, beta power at rest was greater over frontal sensors but posttask changes, like those during movements, were far less evident. In both groups, kinematic characteristics improved with practice; however, there was no correlation between such improvements and the changes in beta power. We conclude that prolonged practice in a motor task produces use-dependent modifications that are reflected in changes of beta power at rest and during movement. In PD, such changes are significantly reduced; such a reduction might represent, at least partially, impairment of cortical plasticity.

  5. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  6. The unexpected effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences during adolescence on anxiety and aggression and their modulation by genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neele eMeyer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior while the phase of adolescence has mainly been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with

  7. Affective neural responses modulated by serotonin transporter genotype in clinical anxiety and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond J Oathes

    Full Text Available Serotonin transporter gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing affective symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to affective stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on affective neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531 to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/L(G carriers showed less activity than their L(A/L(A counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/L(G healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin transporter gene to affective circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations.

  8. Genotypes and pathogenicity of cellulitis isolates reveal traits that modulate APEC virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle Lima Barbieri

    Full Text Available We characterized 144 Escherichia coli isolates from severe cellulitis lesions in broiler chickens from South Brazil. Analysis of susceptibility to 15 antimicrobials revealed frequencies of resistance of less than 30% for most antimicrobials except tetracycline (70% and sulphonamides (60%. The genotyping of 34 virulence-associated genes revealed that all the isolates harbored virulence factors related to adhesion, iron acquisition and serum resistance, which are characteristic of the avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC pathotype. ColV plasmid-associated genes (cvi/cva, iroN, iss, iucD, sitD, traT, tsh were especially frequent among the isolates (from 66.6% to 89.6%. According to the Clermont method of ECOR phylogenetic typing, isolates belonged to group D (47.2%, to group A (27.8%, to group B2 (17.4% and to group B1 (7.6%; the group B2 isolates contained the highest number of virulence-associated genes. Clonal relationship analysis using the ARDRA method revealed a similarity level of 57% or higher among isolates, but no endemic clone. The virulence of the isolates was confirmed in vivo in one-day-old chicks. Most isolates (72.9% killed all infected chicks within 7 days, and 65 isolates (38.1% killed most of them within 24 hours. In order to analyze differences in virulence among the APEC isolates, we created a pathogenicity score by combining the times of death with the clinical symptoms noted. By looking for significant associations between the presence of virulence-associated genes and the pathogenicity score, we found that the presence of genes for invasins ibeA and gimB and for group II capsule KpsMTII increased virulence, while the presence of pic decreased virulence. The fact that ibeA, gimB and KpsMTII are characteristic of neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC suggests that genes of NMEC in APEC increase virulence of strains.

  9. Resting and Task-Modulated High-Frequency Brain Rhythms Measured by Scalp Encephalography in Infants with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Degregorio, Geneva; Jeste, Shafali S.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    The electrophysiological correlates of cognitive deficits in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are not well understood, and modulations of neural dynamics by neuroanatomical abnormalities that characterize the disorder remain elusive. Neural oscillations (rhythms) are a fundamental aspect of brain function, and have dominant frequencies in a wide…

  10. Lasting modulation effects of rTMS on neural activity and connectivity as revealed by resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Shou, Guofa; Yuan, Han; Urbano, Diamond; Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2014-07-01

    The long-lasting neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of great interest for therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, due to which functional connectivity among brain regions is profoundly disturbed. Classic TMS studies selectively alter neural activity in specific brain regions and observe neural activity changes on nonperturbed areas to infer underlying connectivity and its changes. Less has been indicated in direct measures of functional connectivity and/or neural network and on how connectivity/network alterations occur. Here, we developed a novel analysis framework to directly investigate both neural activity and connectivity changes induced by rTMS from resting-state EEG (rsEEG) acquired in a group of subjects with a chronic disorder of imbalance, known as the mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS). Resting-state activity in multiple functional brain areas was identified through a data-driven blind source separation analysis on rsEEG data, and the connectivity among them was characterized using a phase synchronization measure. Our study revealed that there were significant long-lasting changes in resting-state neural activity, in theta, low alpha, and high alpha bands and neural networks in theta, low alpha, high alpha and beta bands, over broad cortical areas 4 to 5 h after the last application of rTMS in a consecutive five-day protocol. Our results of rsEEG connectivity further indicated that the changes, mainly in the alpha band, over the parietal and occipital cortices from pre- to post-TMS sessions were significantly correlated, in both magnitude and direction, to symptom changes in this group of subjects with MdDS. This connectivity measure not only suggested that rTMS can generate positive treatment effects in MdDS patients, but also revealed new potential targets for future therapeutic trials to improve treatment effects. It is promising that the new connectivity measure

  11. RESTful NET

    CERN Document Server

    Flanders, Jon

    2008-01-01

    RESTful .NET is the first book that teaches Windows developers to build RESTful web services using the latest Microsoft tools. Written by Windows Communication Foundation (WFC) expert Jon Flanders, this hands-on tutorial demonstrates how you can use WCF and other components of the .NET 3.5 Framework to build, deploy and use REST-based web services in a variety of application scenarios. RESTful architecture offers a simpler approach to building web services than SOAP, SOA, and the cumbersome WS- stack. And WCF has proven to be a flexible technology for building distributed systems not necessa

  12. Proneness to social anxiety modulates neural complexity in the absence of exposure: A resting state fMRI study using Hurst exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Claudio; Vanello, Nicola; Cristea, Ioana; David, Daniel; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-05-30

    To test the hypothesis that brain activity is modulated by trait social anxiety, we measured the Hurst Exponent (HE), an index of complexity in time series, in healthy individuals at rest in the absence of any social trigger. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series were recorded in 36 subjects at rest. All volunteers were healthy without any psychiatric, medical or neurological disorder. Subjects completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) to assess social anxiety and thoughts in social contexts. We also obtained the fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations (fALFF) of the BOLD signal as an independent control measure for HE data. BFNE scores correlated positively with HE in the posterior cingulate/precuneus, while LSAS scores correlated positively with HE in the precuneus, in the inferior parietal sulci and in the parahippocamus. Results from fALFF were highly consistent with those obtained using LSAS and BFNE to predict HE. Overall our data indicate that spontaneous brain activity is influenced by the degree of social anxiety, on a continuum and in the absence of social stimuli. These findings suggest that social anxiety is a trait characteristic that shapes brain activity and predisposes to different reactions in social contexts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Hyperactive external awareness against hypoactive internal awareness in disorders of consciousness using resting-state functional MRI: highlighting the involvement of visuo-motor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Hong; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Yi; Qiu, Si-You; Zhou, Zhen-Yu; Dang, Yuan-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Wu; Liu, Yi-Jun; Xu, Ru-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) has emerged as a valuable tool to characterize the complex states encompassing disorders of consciousness (DOC). Awareness appears to comprise two coexistent, anticorrelated components named the external and internal awareness networks. The present study hypothesizes that DOC interrupts the balance between the internal and external awareness networks. To gain more understanding of this phenomenon, the present study analyzed resting-state fMRI data from 12 patients with DOC versus 12 healthy age-matched controls. The data were explored using independent component analysis and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) analysis. The results indicated that DOC deactivated midline areas associated with internal awareness. In addition, external awareness was strengthened in DOC because of increased activation in the insula, lingual gyrus, paracentral and supplementary motor area. The activity patterns suggested strengthened external awareness against weakened internal awareness in DOC. In particular, increased activity found in the insula, lingual gyrus, paracentral and supplementary motor area of patients with DOC implied possible involvement of augmented visuo-motor modulation in these patients. DOC is probably related to hyperactive external awareness opposing hypoactive internal awareness. This unique pattern of brain activity may potentially be a prognostic marker for DOC. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Bilateral 5 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation on fronto-temporal areas modulates resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Atri, Aurora; Romano, Claudia; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Scarpelli, Serena; Alfonsi, Valentina; Ferrara, Michele; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Rossini, Paolo Maria; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2017-11-15

    Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order. We assessed the stimulation effects on cortical EEG activity (28 derivations) and self-reported sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale). θ-tACS induced significant increases of the theta activity in temporo-parieto-occipital areas and centro-frontal increases in the alpha activity compared to sham but failed to induce any online effect on sleepiness. Since the total energy delivered in the sham condition was much less than in the active θ-tACS, the current data are unable to isolate the specific effect of entrained theta oscillatory activity per se on sleepiness scores. On this basis, we concluded that θ-tACS modulated theta and alpha EEG activity with a topography consistent with high sleep pressure conditions. However, no causal relation can be traced on the basis of the current results between these rhythms and changes on sleepiness.

  15. DAT genotype modulates striatal processing and long-term memory for items associated with reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Bianca C; Tan, Geoffrey C; Lisman, John E; Dolan, Raymond J; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that appetitive motivation enhances episodic memory formation via a network including the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), striatum and hippocampus. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study now contrasted the impact of aversive and appetitive motivation on episodic long-term memory. Cue pictures predicted monetary reward or punishment in alternating experimental blocks. One day later, episodic memory for the cue pictures was tested. We also investigated how the neural processing of appetitive and aversive motivation and episodic memory were modulated by dopaminergic mechanisms. To that end, participants were selected on the basis of their genotype for a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene. The resulting groups were carefully matched for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene. Recognition memory for cues from both motivational categories was enhanced in participants homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the DAT, the functional effects of which are not known yet, but not in heterozygous subjects. In comparison with heterozygous participants, 10-repeat homozygous participants also showed increased striatal activity for anticipation of motivational outcomes compared to neutral outcomes. In a subsequent memory analysis, encoding activity in striatum and hippocampus was found to be higher for later recognized items in 10-repeat homozygotes compared to 9/10-repeat heterozygotes. These findings suggest that processing of appetitive and aversive motivation in the human striatum involve the dopaminergic system and that dopamine plays a role in memory for both types of motivational information. In accordance with animal studies, these data support the idea that encoding of motivational events depends on dopaminergic processes in the hippocampus. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Visibility graphs for fMRI data: Multiplex temporal graphs and their modulations across resting-state networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza Sannino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Visibility algorithms are a family of methods that map time series into graphs, such that the tools of graph theory and network science can be used for the characterization of time series. This approach has proved a convenient tool, and visibility graphs have found applications across several disciplines. Recently, an approach has been proposed to extend this framework to multivariate time series, allowing a novel way to describe collective dynamics. Here we test their application to fMRI time series, following two main motivations, namely that (a this approach allows vs to simultaneously capture and process relevant aspects of both local and global dynamics in an easy and intuitive way, and (b this provides a suggestive bridge between time series and network theory that nicely fits the consolidating field of network neuroscience. Our application to a large open dataset reveals differences in the similarities of temporal networks (and thus in correlated dynamics across resting-state networks, and gives indications that some differences in brain activity connected to psychiatric disorders could be picked up by this approach. Here we present the first application of multivariate visibility graphs to fMRI data. Visibility graphs are a way to represent a time series as a temporal network, evidencing specific aspects of its dynamics, such as extreme events. Multivariate time series, as those encountered in neuroscience, and in fMRI in particular, can be seen as a multiplex network, in which each layer represents a time series (a region of interest in the brain in our case. Here we report the method, we describe some relevant aspects of its application to BOLD time series, and we discuss the analogies and differences with existing methods. Finally, we present an application to a high-quality, publicly available dataset, containing healthy subjects and psychotic patients, and we discuss our findings. All the code to reproduce the analyses and the

  17. Dopamine D4 receptors modulate brain metabolic activity in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum at rest and in response to methylphenidate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaelides, M.; Wang, G.; Michaelides, M.; Pascau, J.; Gispert, J.-D.; Delis, F.; Grandy, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Desco, M.; Rubinstein, M.; Volkow, N.D.; Thanos, P.K.

    2010-07-16

    Methylphenidate (MP) is widely used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Variable number of tandem repeats polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor (D{sub 4}) gene have been implicated in vulnerability to ADHD and the response to MP. Here we examined the contribution of dopamine D4 receptors (D4Rs) to baseline brain glucose metabolism and to the regional metabolic responses to MP. We compared brain glucose metabolism (measured with micro-positron emission tomography and [{sup 18}F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose) at baseline and after MP (10 mg/kg, i.p.) administration in mice with genetic deletion of the D{sub 4}. Images were analyzed using a novel automated image registration procedure. Baseline D{sub 4}{sup -/-} mice had lower metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and greater metabolism in the cerebellar vermis (CBV) than D{sub 4}{sup +/+} and D{sub 4}{sup +/-} mice; when given MP, D{sub 4}{sup -/-} mice increased metabolism in the PFC and decreased it in the CBV, whereas in D{sub 4}{sup +/+} and D{sub 4}{sup +/-} mice, MP decreased metabolism in the PFC and increased it in the CBV. These findings provide evidence that D4Rs modulate not only the PFC, which may reflect the activation by dopamine of D4Rs located in this region, but also the CBV, which may reflect an indirect modulation as D4Rs are minimally expressed in this region. As individuals with ADHD show structural and/or functional abnormalities in these brain regions, the association of ADHD with D4Rs may reflect its modulation of these brain regions. The differential response to MP as a function of genotype could explain differences in brain functional responses to MP between patients with ADHD and healthy controls and between patients with ADHD with different D{sub 4} polymorphisms.

  18. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on acute changes in cardiac autonomic modulation during rest and physical activity: a cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole-Hunter, Tom; Weichenthal, Scott; Kubesch, Nadine; Foraster, Maria; Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Bouso, Laura; Martínez, David; Westerdahl, Dane; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during physical activity (PA), but it is not clear if PA modifies the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic modulation. We conducted a panel study among 28 healthy adults in Barcelona, Spain to examine how PA may modify the impact of TRAP on cardiac autonomic regulation. Participants completed four 2-h exposure scenarios that included either rest or intermittent exercise in high- and low-traffic environments. Time- and frequency-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) were monitored during each exposure period along with continuous measures of TRAP. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the impact of TRAP on HRV as well as potential effect modification by PA. Exposure to TRAP was associated with consistent decreases in HRV; however, exposure-response relationships were not always linear over the broad range of exposures. For example, each 10 μg/m(3) increase in black carbon was associated with a 23% (95% CI: -31, -13) decrease in high frequency power at the low-traffic site, whereas no association was observed at the high-traffic site. PA modified the impact of TRAP on HRV at the high-traffic site and tended to weaken inverse associations with measures reflecting parasympathetic modulation (P ≤ 0.001). Evidence of effect modification at the low-traffic site was less consistent. The strength and direction of the relationship between TRAP and HRV may vary across exposure gradients. PA may modify the impact of TRAP on HRV, particularly at higher concentrations.

  19. Reduced resting potentials in dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers are secondary to NF-κB-dependent negative modulation of ouabain sensitive Na+-K+ pump activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, M T; Cottey, E; Cottey, A; Stefanski, C; Carlson, C G

    2011-04-15

    To examine potential mechanisms for the reduced resting membrane potentials (RPs) of mature dystrophic (mdx) muscle fibers, the Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibitor ouabain was added to freshly isolated nondystrophic and mdx fibers. Ouabain produced a 71% smaller depolarization in mdx fibers than in nondystrophic fibers, increased the [Na(+)](i) in nondystrophic fibers by 40%, but had no significant effect on the [Na(+)](i) of mdx fibers, which was approximately double that observed in untreated nondystrophic fibers. Western blots indicated no difference in total and phosphorylated Na(+)-K(+) ATPase catalytic α1 subunit between nondystrophic and mdx muscle. Examination of the effects of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) indicated that direct application of the drug slowly hyperpolarized mdx fibers (7 mV in 90 min) but had no effect on nondystrophic fibers. Pretreatment with ouabain abolished this hyperpolarization, and pretreatment with PDTC restored ouabain-induced depolarization and reduced [Na(+)](i). Administration of an NF-κB inhibitor that utilizes a different mechanism for reducing nuclear NF-κB activation, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), also hyperpolarized mdx fibers. These results suggest that in situ Na(+)-K(+) pump activity is depressed in mature dystrophic fibers by NF-κB dependent modulators, and that this reduced pump activity contributes to the weakness characteristic of dystrophic muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Milk fatty acid profile is modulated by DGAT1 and SCD1 genotypes in dairy cattle on pasture and strategic supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, A M; Huircan, P; Dezamour, J M; Subiabre, I; Kerr, B; Morales, R; Ungerfeld, E M

    2016-05-09

    Milk fat composition is important to consumer health. During the last decade, some fatty acids (FA) have received attention because of their functional and beneficial effects on human health. The milk FA profile is affected by both diet and genetics. Differences in milk fat composition are based on biochemical pathways, and candidate genes have been proposed to explain FA profile variation. Here, the association between DGAT1 K232A, SCD1 A293V, and LEPR T945M markers with milk fat composition in southern Chile was evaluated. We selected five herds of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, Frisón Negro, Montbeliarde, and Overo Colorado cows (pasture-grazed) that received strategic supplementation with concentrates and conserved forages. We genotyped the SNPs and calculated allele frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Milk fat composition was determined for individual milk samples over a year, and associations between genotypes and milk composition were studied. The most frequent variants for DGAT1, SCD1, and LEPR polymorphisms were GC/GC, C, and C, respectively. The DGAT1 GC/GC allele was associated with lower milk fat and protein content, lower saturated fatty acid levels, and higher polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), n-3 and n-6 FA, and a linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA ratios, which implied a healthier FA profile. The SCD1 CC genotype was associated with a low cholesterolemic FA content, a high ratio of linolenic acid to cholesterolemic FA, and lower conjugated-linolenic acid and PUFA content. These results suggest the possible modulation of milk fat profiles, using specific genotypes, to improve the nutritional quality of dairy products.

  1. Altered resting state functional connectivity of the cognitive control network in fibromyalgia and the modulation effect of mind-body intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Wolcott, Emily; Wang, Zengjian; Jorgenson, Kristen; Harvey, William F; Tao, Jing; Rones, Ramel; Wang, Chenchen

    2018-05-02

    This study examines altered resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the cognitive control network (CCN) in fibromyalgia patients as compared to healthy controls, as well as how an effective mind-body intervention, Tai Chi, can modulate the altered rsFC of the CCN. Patients with fibromyalgia and matched healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Fibromyalgia patients were scanned 12 weeks before and after intervention. The bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was used as a seed to explore the rsFC of the CCN. Data analysis was conducted with 21 patients and 20 healthy subjects. Compared to healthy subjects, fibromyalgia patients exhibited increased rsFC between the DLPFC and the bilateral rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) at baseline. The rsFC between the CCN and rACC/MPFC further increased after Tai Chi intervention, and this increase was accompanied by clinical improvements. This rsFC change was also significantly associated with corresponding changes in the Overall Impact domain of the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Further analysis showed that the rACC/MPFC rsFC with both the PAG and hippocampus significantly decreased following Tai Chi intervention. Our study suggests that fibromyalgia is associated with altered CCN rsFC and that effective mind-body treatment may elicit clinical improvements by further increasing this altered rsFC. Elucidating this mechanism of enhancing the allostasis process will deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying mind-body interventions in fibromyalgia patients and facilitate the development of new pain management methods.

  2. Resting-state functional connectivity modulation and sustained changes after real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback training in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Han; Young, Kymberly D; Phillips, Raquel; Zotev, Vadim; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy

    2014-11-01

    Amygdala hemodynamic responses to positive stimuli are attenuated in major depressive disorder (MDD) and normalize with remission. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) training with the goal of upregulating amygdala activity during recall of happy autobiographical memories (AMs) has been suggested, and recently explored, as a novel therapeutic approach that resulted in improvement in self-reported mood in depressed subjects. In this study, we assessed the possibility of sustained brain changes as well as the neuromodulatory effects of rtfMRI-nf training of the amygdala during recall of positive AMs in MDD and matched healthy subjects. MDD and healthy subjects went through one visit of rtfMRI-nf training. Subjects were assigned to receive active neurofeedback from the left amygdale (LA) or from a control region putatively not modulated by AM recall or emotion regulation, that is, the left horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus. To assess lasting effects of neurofeedback in MDD, the resting-state functional connectivity before and after rtfMRI-nf in 27 depressed subjects, as well as in 27 matched healthy subjects before rtfMRI-nf was measured. Results show that abnormal hypo-connectivity with LA in MDD is reversed after rtfMRI-nf training by recalling positive AMs. Although such neuromodulatory changes are observed in both MDD groups receiving feedback from respective active and control brain regions, only in the active group are larger decreases of depression severity associated with larger increases of amygdala connectivity and a significant, positive correlation is found between the connectivity changes and the days after neurofeedback. In addition, active neurofeedback training of the amygdala enhances connectivity with temporal cortical regions, including the hippocampus. These results demonstrate lasting brain changes induced by amygdala rtfMRI-nf training and suggest the importance of reinforcement learning in

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in pregnancy differentially modulates arachidonic acid and DHA status across FADS genotypes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, S A; Kerling, E H; Shaddy, D J; Li, S; Thodosoff, J M; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-03-01

    Some FADS alleles are associated with lower DHA and ARA status assessed by the relative amount of arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma and red blood cell (RBC) phospholipids (PL). We determined two FADS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of pregnant women and examined the relationship of FADS1rs174533 and FADS2rs174575 to DHA and ARA status before and after supplementation with 600mg per day of DHA. The 205 pregnant women studied were randomly assigned to placebo (mixed soy and corn oil) (n=96) or 600mg algal DHA (n=109) in 3 capsules per day for the last two trimesters of pregnancy. Women homozygous for the minor allele of FADS1rs174533 (but not FADS2rs174575) had lower DHA and ARA status at baseline. At delivery, minor allele homozygotes of FADS1rs174533 in the placebo group had lower RBC-DHA compared to major-allele carriers (P=0.031), while in the DHA-supplemented group, all genotypes had higher DHA status compared to baseline (P=0.001) and status did not differ by genotype (P=0.941). Surprisingly, DHA but not the placebo decreased ARA status of minor allele homozygotes of both FADS SNPs but not major allele homozygotes at delivery. Any physiological effects of changing the DHA to ARA ratio by increasing DHA intake appears to be greater in minor allele homozygotes of some FADS SNPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Non-Linear Child: Ontogeny, Isoniazid Concentration, and NAT2 Genotype Modulate Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Zoe; Hiruy, Hiwot; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; Mbowane, Chris; Adamson, John; Ngotho, Lihle; Karim, Farina; Jeena, Prakash; Bishai, William; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2016-09-01

    N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) catalyzes the acetylation of isoniazid to N-acetylisoniazid. NAT2 polymorphism explains 88% of isoniazid clearance variability in adults. We examined the effects of clinical and genetic factors on Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetic constants of maximum velocity (V max ) and affinity (K m ) in children 0-10years old. We measured the rates of isoniazid elimination and N-acetylisoniazid production in the blood of 30 children. Since maturation effects could be non-linear, we utilized a pharmacometric approach and the artificial intelligence method, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), to identify factors predicting NAT2 V max and K m by examining clinical, genetic, and laboratory factors in toto. Isoniazid concentration predicted both V max and K m and superseded the contribution of NAT2 genotype. Age non-linearly modified the NAT2 genotype contribution until maturation at ≥5.3years. Thus, enzyme efficiency was constrained by substrate concentration, genes, and age. Since MARS output is in the form of basis functions and equations, it allows multiscale systems modeling from the level of cellular chemical reactions to whole body physiological parameters, by automatic selection of significant predictors by the algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Forschungsgesellschaft für Arbeitsphysiologie und Arbeitschutz e.V. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Non-Linear Child: Ontogeny, Isoniazid Concentration, and NAT2 Genotype Modulate Enzyme Reaction Kinetics and Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Rogers

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2 catalyzes the acetylation of isoniazid to N-acetylisoniazid. NAT2 polymorphism explains 88% of isoniazid clearance variability in adults. We examined the effects of clinical and genetic factors on Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetic constants of maximum velocity (Vmax and affinity (Km in children 0–10 years old. We measured the rates of isoniazid elimination and N-acetylisoniazid production in the blood of 30 children. Since maturation effects could be non-linear, we utilized a pharmacometric approach and the artificial intelligence method, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, to identify factors predicting NAT2 Vmax and Km by examining clinical, genetic, and laboratory factors in toto. Isoniazid concentration predicted both Vmax and Km and superseded the contribution of NAT2 genotype. Age non-linearly modified the NAT2 genotype contribution until maturation at ≥5.3 years. Thus, enzyme efficiency was constrained by substrate concentration, genes, and age. Since MARS output is in the form of basis functions and equations, it allows multiscale systems modeling from the level of cellular chemical reactions to whole body physiological parameters, by automatic selection of significant predictors by the algorithm.

  6. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype modulates working memory-related dorsolateral prefrontal response and performance in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Kjærstad, H. L.; Støttrup, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) (P=.016). Exploratory whole-brain analysis revealed a bilateral decrease in working memory-related dlPFC activity in the ValVal group vs the ValMet group which was not associated with differences in working memory performance during fMRI. Outside the MRI scanner, Val carriers...... performed worse in the CANTAB Spatial Working Memory task than Met homozygotes (P≤.006), with deficits being most pronounced in Val homozygotes. CONCLUSIONS: The association between Val allelic load, dlPFC activity and WM impairment points to a putative role of aberrant PFC dopamine tonus in the cognitive......-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with reduced prefrontal cortex dopamine and exaggerated working memory-related prefrontal activity. This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated for the first time whether the COMT Val158Met genotype modulates prefrontal activity during spatial working...

  7. ADRA2B genotype modulates effects of acute psychosocial stress on emotional memory retrieval in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijia; Weerda, Riklef; Guenzel, Friederike; Wolf, Oliver T; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that acute psychosocial stress impairs retrieval of declarative memory with emotional material being especially sensitive to this effect. A functional deletion variant of the ADRA2B gene encoding the α2B-adrenergic receptor has been shown to increase emotional memory and neural activity in the amygdala. We investigated the effects of acute psychosocial stress and the ADRA2B allele on recognition memory for emotional and neutral faces. Fourty-two healthy, non-smoker male volunteers (30 deletion carriers, 12 noncarriers) were tested with a face recognition paradigm. During encoding they were presented with emotional and neutral faces. One hour later, participants underwent either a stress ("Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)") or a control procedure which was followed immediately by the retrieval session where subjects had to indicate whether the presented face was old or new. Stress increased salivary cortisol concentrations, blood pressure and pulse and impaired recognition memory for faces independent of emotional valence and genotype. Participants showed generally slower reaction times to emotional faces. Carriers of the ADRA2B functional deletion variant showed an impaired recognition and slower retrieval of neutral faces under stress. Further, they were significantly slower in retrieving fearful faces in the control condition. The findings indicate that a genetic variation of the noradrenergic system may preserve emotional faces from stress-induced memory impairments seen for neutral faces and heighten reactivity to emotional stimuli under control conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pretreatment with platelet derived growth factor-BB modulates the ability of costochondral resting zone chondrocytes incorporated into PLA/PGA scaffolds to form new cartilage in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, C H; Schwartz, Z; Niederauer, G G; Carnes, D L; Dean, D D; Boyan, B D

    2000-01-01

    Optimal repair of chondral defects is likely to require both a suitable population of chondrogenic cells and a biodegradable matrix to provide a space-filling structural support during the early stages of cartilage formation. This study examined the ability of chondrocytes to support cartilage formation when incorporated into biodegradable scaffolds constructed from copolymers (PLG) of polylactic acid (PLA) and polyglycolic acid (PGA) and implanted in the calf muscle of nude mice. Scaffolds were fabricated to be more hydrophilic (PLG-H) or were reinforced with 10% PGA fibers (PLG-FR), increasing the stiffness of the implant by 20-fold. Confluent primary cultures of rat costochondral resting zone chondrocytes (RC) were loaded into PLG-H foams and implanted intramuscularly. To determine if growth factor pretreatment could modulate the ability of the cells to form new cartilage, RC cells were pretreated with recombinant human platelet derived growth factor-BB IPDGF-BB) for 4 or 24 h prior to implantation. To assess whether scaffold material properties could affect the ability of chondrogenic cells to form cartilage, RC cells were also loaded into PLG-FR scaffolds. To determine if the scaffolds or treatment with PDGF-BB affected the rate of chondrogenesis, tissue at the implant site was harvested at four and eight weeks post-operatively, fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Sections were obtained along the transverse plane of the lower leg, stained with haematoxylin and eosin, and then assessed by morphometric analysis for area of cartilage, area of residual implant, and area of fibrous connective tissue formation (fibrosis). Whether or not the cartilage contained hypertrophic cells was also assessed. The amount of residual implant did not change with time in any of the implanted tissues. The area occupied by PLG-FR implants was greater than that occupied by PLG-H implants at both time points. All implants were surrounded by fibrous connective tissue, whether

  9. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Individual Differences in Asymmetric Resting-State Frontal Cortical Activity Modulate ERPs and Performance in a Global-Local Attention Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Kostermans, Evelien; Tops, Mattie; De Cremer, David

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that individual differences in approach motivation modulate attentional scope. In turn, approach and inhibition have been related to different neural systems that are associated with asymmetries in relative frontal activity (RFA). Here, we investigated whether such

  11. Pro REST API development with nodejs

    CERN Document Server

    Doglio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Pro REST API Development with Node.js is your guide to managing and understanding the full capabilities of successful REST development. API design is a hot topic in the programming world, but not many resources exist for developers to really understand how you can leverage the advantages. This book will provide a brief background on REST and the tools it provides (well known and not so well known). Understand how there is more to REST than just JSON and URLs. You will then cover and compare the maintained modules currently available in the npm community, including Express, Restify, Vatican,

  12. REST based mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambow, Mark; Preuss, Thomas; Berdux, Jörg; Conrad, Marc

    2008-02-01

    Simplicity is the major advantage of REST based webservices. Whereas SOAP is widespread in complex, security sensitive business-to-business aplications, REST is widely used for mashups and end-user centric applicatons. In that context we give an overview of REST and compare it to SOAP. Furthermore we apply the GeoDrawing application as an example for REST based mobile applications and emphasize on pros and cons for the use of REST in mobile application scenarios.

  13. Alternative REST Splicing Underappreciated

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guo-Lin; Miller, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    As a major orchestrator of the cellular epigenome, the repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) can either repress or activate thousands of genes depending on cellular context, suggesting a highly context-dependent REST function tuned by environmental cues. While REST shows cell-type non-selective active transcription, an N-terminal REST4 isoform caused by alternative splicing - inclusion of an extra exon (N3c) which introduces a pre-mature stop codon - has been implicated in...

  14. Desmanthus GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ HENRIQUE DE ALBUQUERQUE RANGEL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmanthus is a genus of forage legumes with potential to improve pastures and livestock produc-tion on clay soils of dry tropical and subtropical regions such as the existing in Brazil and Australia. Despite this patterns of natural or enforced after-ripening of Desmanthus seeds have not been well established. Four year old seed banks of nine Desmanthus genotypes at James Cook University were accessed for their patterns of seed softe-ning in response to a range of temperatures. Persistent seed banks were found to exist under all of the studied ge-notypes. The largest seeds banks were found in the genotypes CPI 78373 and CPI 78382 and the smallest in the genotypes CPI’s 37143, 67643, and 83563. An increase in the percentage of softened seeds was correlated with higher temperatures, in two patterns of response: in some accessions seeds were not significantly affected by tempe-ratures below 80º C; and in others, seeds become soft when temperature rose to as little as 60 ºC. At 80 °C the heat started to depress germination. High seed production of Desmanthus associated with dependence of seeds on eleva-ted temperatures to softening can be a very important strategy for plants to survive in dry tropical regions.

  15. T3SS-dependent differential modulations of the jasmonic acid pathway in susceptible and resistant genotypes of Malus spp. challenged with Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugé De Bernonville, Thomas; Gaucher, Matthieu; Flors, Victor; Gaillard, Sylvain; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Dat, James F; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-06-01

    Fire blight is a bacterial disease of Maloideae caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea). This necrogenic enterobacterium uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject type III effectors into the plant cells to cause disease on its susceptible hosts, including economically important crops like apple and pear. The expressions of marker genes of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense regulation pathways were monitored by RT-qPCR in leaves of two apple genotypes, one susceptible and one resistant, challenged with a wild type strain, a T3SS-deficient strain or water. The transcriptional data taken together with hormone level measurements indicated that the SA pathway was similarly induced in both apple genotypes during infection by Ea. On the contrary, the data clearly showed a strong T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway in leaves of the susceptible genotype but not in those of the resistant one. Accordingly, methyl-jasmonate treated susceptible plants displayed an increased resistance to Ea. Bacterial mutant analysis indicated that JA manipulation by Ea mainly relies on the type III effector DspA/E. Taken together, our data suggest that the T3SS-dependent down-regulation of the JA pathway is a critical step in the infection process of Malus spp. by Ea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Is Rest Really Rest? Resting State Functional Connectivity during Rest and Motor Task Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Crawley, Adrian P; Mikulis, David J

    2018-04-18

    Numerous studies have identified the default mode network (DMN) within the brain of healthy individuals, which has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during the wakeful resting-state. While engaged during specific resting-state fMRI paradigms, it remains unclear as to whether traditional block-design simple movement fMRI experiments significantly influence the default mode network or other areas. Using blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI we characterized the pattern of functional connectivity in healthy subjects during a resting-state paradigm and compared this to the same resting-state analysis performed on motor task data residual time courses after regressing out the task paradigm. Using seed-voxel analysis to define the DMN, the executive control network (ECN), and sensorimotor, auditory and visual networks, the resting-state analysis of the residual time courses demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in the motor network and reduced connectivity between the insula and the ECN compared to the standard resting-state datasets. Overall, performance of simple self-directed motor tasks does little to change the resting-state functional connectivity across the brain, especially in non-motor areas. This would suggest that previously acquired fMRI studies incorporating simple block-design motor tasks could be mined retrospectively for assessment of the resting-state connectivity.

  17. Gender and genotype modulation of the association between lipid levels and depressive symptomatology in community-dwelling elderly (the ESPRIT study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancelin, Marie-Laure; Carrière, Isabelle; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Malafosse, Alain; Stewart, Robert; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Dupuy, Anne-Marie

    2010-07-15

    Lipids appear to mediate depressive vulnerability in the elderly; however, sex differences and genetic vulnerability have not been taken into account in previous prospective studies. Depression was assessed in a population of 1040 women and 752 men aged 65 years and older at baseline and after 7-year follow-up. Clinical level of depression (DEP) was defined as having either a score of 16 or higher on the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale or a diagnosis of current major depression on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Lipid levels, apolipoprotein E, and serotonin transporter linked promoter region (5-serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region) genotypes were evaluated at baseline. Multivariate analyses adjusted by sociodemographic and behavioral variables, measures of physical health including ischemic pathologies, and genetic vulnerability indicated gender-specific associations between dyslipidemia and DEP, independent of the use of lipid-lowering agents or apolipoprotein E status. Men with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels had twice the risk of prevalent and incident DEP, whereas in women low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found to be significantly associated with increased prevalent DEP (odds ratio = 1.5) only. A significant interaction was observed between low low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and 5-serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region genotype, men with s/s or s/l genotype being at increased risk of DEP (odds ratio = 6.0 and 2.7, respectively). No significant gene-environment interaction was observed for women. DEP is associated with higher atherogenic risk in women (low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), whereas the reverse is observed in men (low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Late-life depression may have a complex gender-specific etiology involving genetic vulnerability in men. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  19. Modulation of glycogen and breast meat processing ability by nutrition in chickens: effect of crude protein level in 2 chicken genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlali, M; Gigaud, V; Métayer-Coustard, S; Sellier, N; Tesseraud, S; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Berri, C

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of 2 isoenergetic growing diets with different CP (17 vs. 23%) on the performance and breast meat quality of 2 lines of chicken divergently selected for abdominal fatness [i.e., fat and lean (LL) lines]. Growth performance, breast and abdominal fat yields, breast meat quality parameters (pH, color, drip loss), and muscle glycogen storage at death were measured. Increased dietary CP resulted in increased BW, increased breast meat yield, and reduced abdominal fatness at slaughter regardless of genotype (P chickens. Giving LL chickens the low-CP diet led to reduced concentration of muscle glycogen (P chicken. The results also highlighted the need to take into account interaction with the genetic background of the animal to select nutritional strategies to improve meat quality traits in poultry.

  20. F7 gene variants modulate protein levels in a large cohort of patients with factor VII deficiency. Results from a genotype-phenotype study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintavalle, Gabriele; Riccardi, Federica; Rivolta, Gianna Franca; Martorana, Davide; Di Perna, Caterina; Percesepe, Antonio; Tagliaferri, Annarita

    2017-08-01

    Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder caused by mutations in F7 gene with autosomal recessive inheritance. A clinical heterogeneity with poor correlation with FVII:C levels has been described. It was the objective of this study to identify genetic defects and to evaluate their relationships with phenotype in a large cohort of patients with FVII:C<50 %. One hundred twenty-three probands were genotyped for F7 mutations and three polymorphic variants and classified according to recently published clinical scores. Forty out of 123 patients (33 %) were symptomatic (43 bleedings). A severe bleeding tendency was observed only in patients with FVII:C<0.10 %. Epistaxis (11 %) and menorrhagia (32 % of females in fertile age) were the most frequent bleedings. Molecular analysis detected 48 mutations, 20 not reported in the F7 international databases. Most mutations (62 %) were missense, large deletions were 6.2 %. Compound heterozygotes/homozygotes for mutations presented lower FVII:C levels compared to the other classes (Chi 2 =43.709, p<0,001). The polymorphisms distribution was significantly different among the three F7 genotypic groups (Chi 2 =72.289, p<0,001). The presence of truncating mutations was associated with lowest FVII:C levels (Chi 2 =21.351, p=0.002). This study confirms the clinical and molecular variability of the disease and the type of symptoms. It shows a good correlation between the type of F7 mutation and/or polymorphisms and FVII:C levels, without a direct link between FVII:C and bleeding tendency. The results suggest that large deletions are underestimated and that they represent a common mechanism of F7 gene inactivation which should always be investigated in the diagnostic testing for FVII deficiency.

  1. A diet rich in high-glucoraphanin broccoli interacts with genotype to reduce discordance in plasma metabolite profiles by modulating mitochondrial function123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, Charlotte N; Traka, Maria H; Dainty, Jack R; Defernez, Marianne; Janssens, Astrid; Leung, Wing; Doleman, Joanne F; Potter, John F

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observational and experimental studies suggest that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables and glucosinolates may reduce the risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that a 12-wk dietary intervention with high-glucoraphanin (HG) broccoli would modify biomarkers of CVD risk and plasma metabolite profiles to a greater extent than interventions with standard broccoli or peas. Design: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 400 g standard broccoli, 400 g HG broccoli, or 400 g peas each week for 12 wk, with no other dietary restrictions. Biomarkers of CVD risk and 347 plasma metabolites were quantified before and after the intervention. Results: No significant differences in the effects of the diets on biomarkers of CVD risk were found. Multivariate analyses of plasma metabolites identified 2 discrete phenotypic responses to diet in individuals within the HG broccoli arm, differentiated by single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with the PAPOLG gene. Univariate analysis showed effects of sex (P broccoli arm, the consequence of the intervention was to reduce variation in lipid and amino acid metabolites, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, and acylcarnitines between the 2 PAPOLG genotypes. Conclusions: The metabolic changes observed with the HG broccoli diet are consistent with a rebalancing of anaplerotic and cataplerotic reactions and enhanced integration of fatty acid β-oxidation with TCA cycle activity. These modifications may contribute to the reduction in cancer risk associated with diets that are rich in cruciferous vegetables. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01114399. PMID:23964055

  2. Corticostriatal Connectivity in Antisocial Personality Disorder by MAO-A Genotype and Its Relationship to Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Dunlop, Katharine; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Downar, Jonathan

    2018-05-09

    The influence of genetic variation on resting-state neural networks represents a burgeoning line of inquiry in psychiatric research. Monoamine oxidase A, an X-linked gene, is one example of a molecular target linked to brain activity in psychiatric illness. Monoamine oxidase A genetic variants, including the high and low variable nucleotide tandem repeat polymorphisms, have been shown to differentially affect brain functional connectivity in healthy humans. However, it is currently unknown whether these same polymorphisms influence resting-state brain activity in clinical conditions. Given its high burden on society and strong connection to violent behavior, antisocial personality disorder is a logical condition to study, since in vivo markers of monoamine oxidase A brain enzyme are reduced in key affect-modulating regions, and striatal levels of monoamine oxidase A show a relation with the functional connectivity of this same region. We utilized monoamine oxidase A genotyping and seed-to-voxel-based functional connectivity to investigate the relationship between genotype and corticostriatal connectivity in 21 male participants with severe antisocial personality disorder and 19 male healthy controls. Dorsal striatal connectivity to the frontal pole and anterior cingulate gyrus differentiated antisocial personality disorder subjects and healthy controls by monoamine oxidase A genotype. Furthermore, the linear relationship of proactive aggression to superior ventral striatal-angular gyrus functional connectivity differed by monoamine oxidase A genotype in the antisocial personality disorder groups. These results suggest that monoamine oxidase A genotype may affect corticostriatal connectivity in antisocial personality disorder and that these functional connections may also underlie use of proactive aggression in a genotype-specific manner.

  3. REST based service composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grönvall, Erik; Ingstrup, Mads; Pløger, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an ongoing work developing and testing a Service Composition framework based upon the REST architecture named SECREST. A minimalistic approach have been favored instead of a creating a complete infrastructure. One focus has been on the system's interaction model. Indeed, an aim...

  4. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Affects the Relationship Between an Anxiety-Related Personality Trait and Resting Regional Cerebral Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shau-Ming; Eisenberg, Daniel P; Nabel, Katherine G; Kohn, Philip D; Kippenhan, J Shane; Dickinson, Dwight; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Berman, Karen F

    2017-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important modulator of constitutive stress responses mediated by limbic frontotemporal circuits, and its gene contains a functional polymorphism (Val66Met) that may influence trait stress sensitivity. Reports of an association of this polymorphism with anxiety-related personality traits have been controversial and without clear neurophysiological support. We, therefore, determined the relationship between resting regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and a well-validated measure of anxiety-related personality, the TPQ Harm Avoidance (HA) scale, as a function of BDNF Val66Met genotype. Sixty-four healthy participants of European ancestry underwent resting H215O positron emission tomography scans. For each genotype group separately, we first determined the relationship between participants' HA scores and their resting rCBF values in each voxel across the entire brain, and then directly compared these HA-rCBF relationships between Val66Met genotype groups. HA-rCBF relationships differed between Val homozygotes and Met carriers in several regions relevant to stress regulation: subgenual cingulate, orbital frontal cortex, and the hippocampal/parahippocampal region. In each of these areas, the relationship was positive in Val homozygotes and negative in Met carriers. These data demonstrate a coupling between trait anxiety and basal resting blood flow in frontolimbic neurocircuitry that may be determined in part by genetically mediated BDNF signaling. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Interactive effects of silicon and arbuscular mycorrhiza in modulating ascorbate-glutathione cycle and antioxidant scavenging capacity in differentially salt-tolerant Cicer arietinum L. genotypes subjected to long-term salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Bhandari, Purnima

    2016-09-01

    Salinity is the major environmental constraint that affects legume productivity by inducing oxidative stress. Individually, both silicon (Si) nutrition and mycorrhization have been reported to alleviate salt stress. However, the mechanisms adopted by both in mediating stress responses are poorly understood. Thus, pot trials were undertaken to evaluate comparative as well as interactive effects of Si and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in alleviating NaCl toxicity in modulating oxidative stress and antioxidant defence mechanisms in two Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes-HC 3 (salt-tolerant) and CSG 9505 (salt-sensitive). Plants subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0-100 mM) recorded a substantial increase in the rate of superoxide radical (O2 (·-)), H2O2, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which induced leakage of ions and disturbed Ca(2+)/Na(+) ratio in roots and leaves. Individually, Si and AM reduced oxidative burst by strengthening antioxidant enzymatic activities (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX)). Si was relatively more efficient in reducing accumulation of stress metabolites, while mycorrhization significantly up-regulated antioxidant machinery and modulated ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle. Combined applications of Si and AM complemented each other in reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) build-up by further enhancing the antioxidant defence responses. Magnitude of ROS-mediated oxidative burden was lower in HC 3 which correlated strongly with more effective AM symbiosis, better capacity to accumulate Si and stronger defence response when compared with CSG 9505. Study indicated that Si and/or AM fungal amendments upgraded salt tolerance through a dynamic shift from oxidative destruction towards favourable antioxidant defence system in stressed chickpea plants.

  6. Dipoles at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    In a world populated by magnetic monopoles (as well as ordinary electric charges), there are two kinds of electric dipoles: those due to separated electric charges, and those due to current loops of magnetic charge. Similarly, there are two kinds of magnetic dipoles: those due to separated magnetic monopoles, and those due to electric current loops. This paper derives the potentials and fields of each of the four dipole species, and calculates the force, torque, energy, momentum, and angular momentum of each type, when placed (at rest) in a static external field (which may itself be produced by electric charges and currents, magnetic charges and currents, or all of these). Some implications and applications of the various results are discussed

  7. DIRAC RESTful API

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2012-01-01

    The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.

  8. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  9. Do resting brain dynamics predict oddball evoked-potential?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Tien-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oddball paradigm is widely applied to the investigation of cognitive function in neuroscience and in neuropsychiatry. Whether cortical oscillation in the resting state can predict the elicited oddball event-related potential (ERP is still not clear. This study explored the relationship between resting electroencephalography (EEG and oddball ERPs. The regional powers of 18 electrodes across delta, theta, alpha and beta frequencies were correlated with the amplitude and latency of N1, P2, N2 and P3 components of oddball ERPs. A multivariate analysis based on partial least squares (PLS was applied to further examine the spatial pattern revealed by multiple correlations. Results Higher synchronization in the resting state, especially at the alpha spectrum, is associated with higher neural responsiveness and faster neural propagation, as indicated by the higher amplitude change of N1/N2 and shorter latency of P2. None of the resting quantitative EEG indices predict P3 latency and amplitude. The PLS analysis confirms that the resting cortical dynamics which explains N1/N2 amplitude and P2 latency does not show regional specificity, indicating a global property of the brain. Conclusions This study differs from previous approaches by relating dynamics in the resting state to neural responsiveness in the activation state. Our analyses suggest that the neural characteristics carried by resting brain dynamics modulate the earlier/automatic stage of target detection.

  10. EMF-REST: Generation of RESTful APIs from Models

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza , Ed-Douibi; Cánovas Izquierdo , Javier Luis; Gómez , Abel; Tisi , Massimo; Cabot , Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, RESTful Web services have become more and more popular as a lightweight solution to connect remote systems in distributed and Cloud-based architectures. However, being an architectural style rather than a specification or standard, the proper design of RESTful Web services is not trivial since developers have to deal with a plethora of recommendations and best practices. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) emphasizes the use of models and model transformations to raise the level...

  11. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  12. Clustering of resting state networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan H Lee

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to demonstrate a hierarchical structure of resting state activity in the healthy brain using a data-driven clustering algorithm.The fuzzy-c-means clustering algorithm was applied to resting state fMRI data in cortical and subcortical gray matter from two groups acquired separately, one of 17 healthy individuals and the second of 21 healthy individuals. Different numbers of clusters and different starting conditions were used. A cluster dispersion measure determined the optimal numbers of clusters. An inner product metric provided a measure of similarity between different clusters. The two cluster result found the task-negative and task-positive systems. The cluster dispersion measure was minimized with seven and eleven clusters. Each of the clusters in the seven and eleven cluster result was associated with either the task-negative or task-positive system. Applying the algorithm to find seven clusters recovered previously described resting state networks, including the default mode network, frontoparietal control network, ventral and dorsal attention networks, somatomotor, visual, and language networks. The language and ventral attention networks had significant subcortical involvement. This parcellation was consistently found in a large majority of algorithm runs under different conditions and was robust to different methods of initialization.The clustering of resting state activity using different optimal numbers of clusters identified resting state networks comparable to previously obtained results. This work reinforces the observation that resting state networks are hierarchically organized.

  13. Exercise-induced pyruvate dehydrogenase activation is not affected by 7 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Kristian; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup

    2011-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that physical inactivity impairs the exercise-induced modulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), 6 healthy normally physically active male subjects completed 7 days of bed rest. Before and immediately after the bed rest, the subjects completed an OGTT and a one-legged knee...

  14. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...

  15. Radiosensitivity of fingermillet genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raveendran, T S; Nagarajan, C; Appadurai, R; Prasad, M N; Sundaresan, N [Tamil Nadu Agricultural Univ., Coimbatore (India)

    1984-07-01

    Varietal differences in radiosensitivity were observed in a study involving 4 genotypes of fingermillet (Eleusine coracana (Linn.) Gaertn.) subjected to gamma-irradiation. Harder seeds were found to tolerate a higher dose of the mutagen.

  16. Genome-wide association studies and resting heart rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revolutionized the search for genetic variants regulating resting heart rate. In the last 10 years, GWASs have led to the identification of at least 21 novel heart rate loci. These discoveries have provided valuable insights into the mechanisms...... and pathways that regulate heart rate and link heart rate to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. GWASs capture majority of genetic variation in a population sample by utilizing high-throughput genotyping chips measuring genotypes for up to several millions of SNPs across the genome in thousands...... of individuals. This allows the identification of the strongest heart rate associated signals at genome-wide level. While GWASs provide robust statistical evidence of the association of a given genetic locus with heart rate, they are only the starting point for detailed follow-up studies to locate the causal...

  17. RESTful Java web services security

    CERN Document Server

    Enríquez, René

    2014-01-01

    A sequential and easy-to-follow guide which allows you to understand the concepts related to securing web apps/services quickly and efficiently, since each topic is explained and described with the help of an example and in a step-by-step manner, helping you to easily implement the examples in your own projects. This book is intended for web application developers who use RESTful web services to power their websites. Prior knowledge of RESTful is not mandatory, but would be advisable.

  18. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  19. RESTful web services with Dropwizard

    CERN Document Server

    Dallas, Alexandros

    2014-01-01

    A hands-on focused step-by-step tutorial to help you create Web Service applications using Dropwizard. If you are a software engineer or a web developer and want to learn more about building your own Web Service application, then this is the book for you. Basic knowledge of Java and RESTful Web Service concepts is assumed and familiarity with SQL/MySQL and command-line scripting would be helpful.

  20. WEB-SERVICE. RESTFUL ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Melnichuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Network technology for interaction between two applications via the HTTP protocol was considered in article.When client works with REST API - it means it works with "resources", and in SOAP work is performed with operations. To build REST web services, you must follow certain principles: explicit use of HTTP methods, access to resources by URI, stateless, HATEAOS, caching, transfer of objects in JSON or XML representation. But sometimes some principles are ignored to ensure a higher speed of work and to reduce development time.The pros and cons of using JSON and XML representations were considered, and it can be said that using the JSON format reduces the amount of data transfer, and with the use of XML, the readability of data increases.Also, two main ways of data transfer in REST web services were considered: converting the file to Base64 and transferring it as an object field or transferring the file using the usual HTTP multipart. The Base64 standard approach gives a higher speed for multiple files in a single request, because only one HTTP connection is created, but these files are stored in RAM during request processing, which increases chance of the application crashing.In the conclusion, the advantages of using web services and their wide use in other architectural approaches were considered, which increases the popularity of web services.

  1. Rest requirements and rest management of personnel in shift work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammell, B.D. [PDG Environmental, Melbourne, FL (United States); Scheuerle, A. [Univ. of Texas, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A difficulty-weighted shift assignment scheme is proposed for use in prolonged and strenuous field operations such as emergency response, site testing, and short term hazardous waste remediation projects. The purpose of the work rotation plan is to increase productivity, safety, and moral of workers. Job weighting is accomplished by assigning adjustments to the mental and physical intensity of the task, the protective equipment worn, and the climatic conditions. The plan is based on medical studies of sleep deprivation, the effects of rest adjustments, and programs to reduce sleep deprivation and normalize shift schedules.

  2. Sustainable Rest Area Design and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    One way in which State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) can modernize their rest areas while reducing operations and maintenance costs is by incorporating sustainable practices into rest area design and operations. Sustainability practices that D...

  3. Restful API Architecture Based on Laravel Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianjun; Ji, Zhoupeng; Fan, Yu; Zhan, Yongsong

    2017-10-01

    Web service has been an industry standard tech for message communication and integration between heterogeneous systems. RESTFUL API has become mainstream web service development paradigm after SOAP, how to effectively construct RESTFUL API remains a research hotspots. This paper presents a development model of RESTFUL API construction based on PHP language and LARAVEL framework. The key technical problems that need to be solved during the construction of RESTFUL API are discussed, and implementation details based on LARAVEL are given.

  4. Evaluation of rice genotypes under salt stress at the seedling and reproductive stages using phenotypic and molecular markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubel, M.H.; Hassan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Salinity screening for 27 rice genotypes was performed at the seedling and reproductive stages respectively, in the hydroponic system and in sustained water bath. Three selected SSR markers were used to determine salinity tolerance in rice genotypes. Phenotyping of the germplasm was done at EC 12dS/m and 6dS/m at seedling and reproductive stages, respectively. Based on modified standard evaluation score for visual salt injury at seedling stage, eight genotypes were salt tolerant, four were moderately tolerant and the rest fifteen were susceptible. At the reproductive stage, six genotypes were tolerant to EC 6dS/m whereas eleven of them were susceptible. SSR based marker identified seven genotypes as tolerant but ten of them were susceptible for all three markers compared to two checks. Six genotypes were tolerant in both phenotypic and SSR screening. The indentified salt tolerant genotypes can be potential germplasm sources for future breeding program. (author)

  5. Intrasellar Symptomatic Salivary Gland Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic salivary gland tissue in sellar turcica is frequently observed in microscopic examination at autopsy. This tissue is considered clinically silent. Only 2 symptomatic cases have been previously reported. Here we report a 28-year-old woman presenting with galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 6×5-mm nodule in the posterior aspect of the pituitary gland. This nodule showed isointensity on T1- and T2-weighted images and less enhancement on post-contrast T1-weighted images. Transsphenoidal exploration revealed a cystic lesion within the pituitary gland, which consisted of a grayish gelatinous content. The pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of salivary gland rest.

  6. Laboratory Information Management Software for genotyping workflows: applications in high throughput crop genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth VP

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the advances in DNA sequencer-based technologies, it has become possible to automate several steps of the genotyping process leading to increased throughput. To efficiently handle the large amounts of genotypic data generated and help with quality control, there is a strong need for a software system that can help with the tracking of samples and capture and management of data at different steps of the process. Such systems, while serving to manage the workflow precisely, also encourage good laboratory practice by standardizing protocols, recording and annotating data from every step of the workflow. Results A laboratory information management system (LIMS has been designed and implemented at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT that meets the requirements of a moderately high throughput molecular genotyping facility. The application is designed as modules and is simple to learn and use. The application leads the user through each step of the process from starting an experiment to the storing of output data from the genotype detection step with auto-binning of alleles; thus ensuring that every DNA sample is handled in an identical manner and all the necessary data are captured. The application keeps track of DNA samples and generated data. Data entry into the system is through the use of forms for file uploads. The LIMS provides functions to trace back to the electrophoresis gel files or sample source for any genotypic data and for repeating experiments. The LIMS is being presently used for the capture of high throughput SSR (simple-sequence repeat genotyping data from the legume (chickpea, groundnut and pigeonpea and cereal (sorghum and millets crops of importance in the semi-arid tropics. Conclusion A laboratory information management system is available that has been found useful in the management of microsatellite genotype data in a moderately high throughput genotyping

  7. Resting state fMRI: A review on methods in resting state connectivity analysis and resting state networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K A; Akhil Raja, K; Arun, K M; Rajesh, P G; Thomas, Bejoy; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2017-08-01

    The inquisitiveness about what happens in the brain has been there since the beginning of humankind. Functional magnetic resonance imaging is a prominent tool which helps in the non-invasive examination, localisation as well as lateralisation of brain functions such as language, memory, etc. In recent years, there is an apparent shift in the focus of neuroscience research to studies dealing with a brain at 'resting state'. Here the spotlight is on the intrinsic activity within the brain, in the absence of any sensory or cognitive stimulus. The analyses of functional brain connectivity in the state of rest have revealed different resting state networks, which depict specific functions and varied spatial topology. However, different statistical methods have been introduced to study resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, yet producing consistent results. In this article, we introduce the concept of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in detail, then discuss three most widely used methods for analysis, describe a few of the resting state networks featuring the brain regions, associated cognitive functions and clinical applications of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. This review aims to highlight the utility and importance of studying resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity, underlining its complementary nature to the task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  8. Common genotypes of hepatitis B virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrees, M.; Khan, S.; Riazuddin, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the frequency of common genotypes of hepatitis-B virus (HBV). Subjects and Methods: HBV genotypes were determined in 112 HBV DNA positive sera by a simple and precise molecular genotyping system base on PCR using type-specific primers for the determination of genotypes of HBV A through H. Results: Four genotypes (A,B,C and D) out of total eight reported genotypes so far were identified. Genotypes A, B and C were predominant. HBV genotype C was the most predominant in this collection, appearing in 46 samples (41.7%). However, the genotypes of a total of 5 (4.46%) samples could not be determined with the present genotyping system. Mixed genotypes were seen in 8(7.14% HBV) isolates. Five of these were infected with genotypes A/D whereas two were with genotypes C/D. One patient was infected with 4 genotypes (A/B/C/D). Genotype A (68%) was predominant in Sindh genotype C was most predominant in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (68.96) whereas genotype C and B were dominant in Punjab (39.65% and 25.86% respectively). Conclusion: All the four common genotypes of HBV found worldwide (A,B,C and D) were isolated. Genotype C is the predominant Genotypes B and C are predominant in Punjab and N.W.F.P. whereas genotype A is predominant in Sindh. (author)

  9. Resting state functional connectivity predicts neurofeedback response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin eScheinost

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailoring treatments to the specific needs and biology of individual patients – personalized medicine – requires delineation of reliable predictors of response. Unfortunately, these have been slow to emerge, especially in neuropsychiatric disorders. We have recently described a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback protocol that can reduce contamination-related anxiety, a prominent symptom of many cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Individual response to this intervention is variable. Here we used patterns of brain functional connectivity, as measured by baseline resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI, to predict improvements in contamination anxiety after neurofeedback training. Activity of a region of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and anterior prefrontal cortex, Brodmann area (BA 10, associated with contamination anxiety in each subject was measured in real time and presented as a neurofeedback signal, permitting subjects to learn to modulate this target brain region. We have previously reported both enhanced OFC/BA 10 control and improved anxiety in a group of subclinically anxious subjects after neurofeedback. Five individuals with contamination-related OCD who underwent the same protocol also showed improved clinical symptomatology. In both groups, these behavioral improvements were strongly correlated with baseline whole-brain connectivity in the OFC/BA 10, computed from rs-fMRI collected several days prior to neurofeedback training. These pilot data suggest that rs-fMRI can be used to identify individuals likely to benefit from rt-fMRI neurofeedback training to control contamination anxiety.

  10. HBV genotypic variability in Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L Loureiro

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%, mainly A2 (149, 60% but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%, with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7. Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions.

  11. HBV Genotypic Variability in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Carmen L.; Aguilar, Julio C.; Aguiar, Jorge; Muzio, Verena; Pentón, Eduardo; Garcia, Daymir; Guillen, Gerardo; Pujol, Flor H.

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity of HBV in human population is often a reflection of its genetic admixture. The aim of this study was to explore the genotypic diversity of HBV in Cuba. The S genomic region of Cuban HBV isolates was sequenced and for selected isolates the complete genome or precore-core sequence was analyzed. The most frequent genotype was A (167/250, 67%), mainly A2 (149, 60%) but also A1 and one A4. A total of 77 isolates were classified as genotype D (31%), with co-circulation of several subgenotypes (56 D4, 2 D1, 5 D2, 7 D3/6 and 7 D7). Three isolates belonged to genotype E, two to H and one to B3. Complete genome sequence analysis of selected isolates confirmed the phylogenetic analysis performed with the S region. Mutations or polymorphisms in precore region were more common among genotype D compared to genotype A isolates. The HBV genotypic distribution in this Caribbean island correlates with the Y lineage genetic background of the population, where a European and African origin prevails. HBV genotypes E, B3 and H isolates might represent more recent introductions. PMID:25742179

  12. Cognitive Rest: An Integrated Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kathleen H.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive rest has been suggested as a treatment for school athletes who have sustained a concussion, but the concept has rarely been defined. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive definition of cognitive rest, based on an integrative literature review. The method of synthesis was guided by Avant and Walker's concept analysis…

  13. Resting state EEG correlates of memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Kate; Tishler, Ward; Manceor, Stephanie; Hamilton, Kelly; Gaulden, Andrew; Parr, Elaine; Wamsley, Erin J

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate that post-training sleep benefits human memory. At the same time, emerging data suggest that other resting states may similarly facilitate consolidation. In order to identify the conditions under which non-sleep resting states benefit memory, we conducted an EEG (electroencephalographic) study of verbal memory retention across 15min of eyes-closed rest. Participants (n=26) listened to a short story and then either rested with their eyes closed, or else completed a distractor task for 15min. A delayed recall test was administered immediately following the rest period. We found, first, that quiet rest enhanced memory for the short story. Improved memory was associated with a particular EEG signature of increased slow oscillatory activity (rest can facilitate memory, and that this may occur via an active process of consolidation supported by slow oscillatory EEG activity and characterized by decreased attention to the external environment. Slow oscillatory EEG rhythms are proposed to facilitate memory consolidation during sleep by promoting hippocampal-cortical communication. Our findings suggest that EEG slow oscillations could play a significant role in memory consolidation during other resting states as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Fox

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available During resting conditions the brain remains functionally and metabolically active. One manifestation of this activity that has become an important research tool is spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal of fMRI. The identification of correlation patterns in these spontaneous fluctuations has been termed resting state functional connectivity (fcMRI and has the potential to greatly increase the translation of fMRI into clinical care. In this article we review the advantages of the resting state signal for clinical applications including detailed discussion of signal to noise considerations. We include guidelines for performing resting state research on clinical populations, outline the different areas for clinical application, and identify important barriers to be addressed to facilitate the translation of resting state fcMRI into the clinical realm.

  15. Anterior Thalamic High Frequency Band Activity Is Coupled with Theta Oscillations at Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-frequency coupling (CFC between slow and fast brain rhythms, in the form of phase–amplitude coupling (PAC, is proposed to enable the coordination of neural oscillatory activity required for cognitive processing. PAC has been identified in the neocortex and mesial temporal regions, varying according to the cognitive task being performed and also at rest. PAC has also been observed in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN during memory processing. The thalamus is active during the resting state and has been proposed to be involved in switching between task-free cognitive states such as rest, in which attention is internally-focused, and externally-focused cognitive states, in which an individual engages with environmental stimuli. It is unknown whether PAC is an ongoing phenomenon during the resting state in the ATN, which is modulated during different cognitive states, or whether it only arises during the performance of specific tasks. We analyzed electrophysiological recordings of ATN activity during rest from seven patients who received thalamic electrodes implanted for treatment of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. PAC was identified between theta (4–6 Hz phase and high frequency band (80–150 Hz amplitude during rest in all seven patients, which diminished during engagement in tasks involving an external focus of attention. The findings are consistent with the proposal that theta–gamma coupling in the ATN is an ongoing phenomenon, which is modulated by task performance.

  16. REST mediates androgen receptor actions on gene repression and predicts early recurrence of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Charlotte; Ceder, Jens; Iglesias Gato, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate tumorgenesis through actions that are not fully understood. We identified the repressor element (RE)-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) as a mediator of AR actions on gene repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that AR binds...... in cell cycle progression, including Aurora Kinase A, that has previously been implicated in the growth of NE-like castration-resistant tumors. The analysis of prostate cancer tissue microarrays revealed that tumors with reduced expression of REST have higher probability of early recurrence, independently...... of their Gleason score. The demonstration that REST modulates AR actions in prostate epithelia and that REST expression is negatively correlated with disease recurrence after prostatectomy, invite a deeper characterization of its role in prostate carcinogenesis....

  17. Astronaut Norman Thagard rests on middeck while other team is on duty

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Norman E. Thagard, mission specialist for the 'silver' team, rests on the middeck while the 'gold' team is on duty in the science module. Don L. Lind, left, 'gold' team member, meanwhile participates in autogenic feedback training (AFT), designed to help flight crewmembers overcome the effects of zero-gravity adaptation.

  18. Indirect bright light improves circadian rest-activity rhythm disturbances in demented patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E. J.; Kessler, A.; Mirmiran, M.; Swaab, D. F.

    1997-01-01

    Light is known to be an important modulator of circadian rhythms. We tested the hypothesis than an enduring increase in the daytime environmental illumination level improves rest-activity rhythm disturbances in demented patients. Actigraphy was performed before, during, and after 4 weeks of

  19. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  20. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  1. RESTful Java patterns and best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Bhakti

    2014-01-01

    This book is aimed at novice developers who want to gain insights into building RESTful services and improve productivity, as well as for advanced developers who want to delve into more complicated topics.

  2. Brief wakeful resting can eliminate directed forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Andreas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2017-02-01

    When cued to intentionally forget previously encoded memories, participants typically show reduced recall of the memories on a later recall test. We examined how such directed forgetting is affected by a brief period of wakeful resting between encoding and test. Encoding was followed by a "passive" wakeful resting period in which subjects heard emotionally neutral music or perceived neutral pictures, or it was followed by an "active" distraction period in which subjects were engaged in counting or calculation tasks. Whereas typical directed forgetting was present after active distraction, the forgetting was absent after wakeful resting. The findings indicate that the degree to which people can intentionally forget memories is influenced by the cognitive activity that people engage in shortly after learning takes place. The results provide first evidence on the interplay between wakeful resting and intentional forgetting.

  3. Partnership strategies for safety roadside rest areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project studied the many factors influencing the potential for public private partnerships for Safety : Roadside Rest Areas. It found that Federal and California State laws and regulations represent important : barriers to certain types and loca...

  4. Elegants ja eklektika - Rest Art / Lylian Meister

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meister, Lylian, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    Tallinnas Mustika keskuses asuvas sisustussalongis Rest Art pakutavast. Asjade müümise kõrval pakutakse kodudele ja hotellidele-restoranidele terviklahendusi. Salongi kujundas Kard Männil. 4 värv. vaadet

  5. USAJOBS Job Opportunity Announcements (JOA) REST API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This REST-based API is designed to support lightweight Federal Job Opportunity Announcement (JOA) content consumption by consumers. It is anticipated that this API...

  6. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  7. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O'Farrell

    Full Text Available Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost.

  8. Dynamic reorganization of human resting-state networks during visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadone, Sara; Della Penna, Stefania; Sestieri, Carlo; Betti, Viviana; Tosoni, Annalisa; Perrucci, Mauro Gianni; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-06-30

    Fundamental problems in neuroscience today are understanding how patterns of ongoing spontaneous activity are modified by task performance and whether/how these intrinsic patterns influence task-evoked activation and behavior. We examined these questions by comparing instantaneous functional connectivity (IFC) and directed functional connectivity (DFC) changes in two networks that are strongly correlated and segregated at rest: the visual (VIS) network and the dorsal attention network (DAN). We measured how IFC and DFC during a visuospatial attention task, which requires dynamic selective rerouting of visual information across hemispheres, changed with respect to rest. During the attention task, the two networks remained relatively segregated, and their general pattern of within-network correlation was maintained. However, attention induced a decrease of correlation in the VIS network and an increase of the DAN→VIS IFC and DFC, especially in a top-down direction. In contrast, within the DAN, IFC was not modified by attention, whereas DFC was enhanced. Importantly, IFC modulations were behaviorally relevant. We conclude that a stable backbone of within-network functional connectivity topography remains in place when transitioning between resting wakefulness and attention selection. However, relative decrease of correlation of ongoing "idling" activity in visual cortex and synchronization between frontoparietal and visual cortex were behaviorally relevant, indicating that modulations of resting activity patterns are important for task performance. Higher order resting connectivity in the DAN was relatively unaffected during attention, potentially indicating a role for simultaneous ongoing activity as a "prior" for attention selection.

  9. Resting-State Connectivity Predicts Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M.; Haagensen, Brian N.; Nielsen, Silas H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common side effect of dopaminergic therapy in PD, but their neural correlates remain poorly understood. Objectives: This study examines whether dyskinesias are associated with abnormal dopaminergic modulation of resting-state cortico-striatal connect......Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common side effect of dopaminergic therapy in PD, but their neural correlates remain poorly understood. Objectives: This study examines whether dyskinesias are associated with abnormal dopaminergic modulation of resting-state cortico......-striatal connectivity. Methods: Twelve PD patients with peak-of-dose dyskinesias and 12 patients without dyskinesias were withdrawn from dopaminergic medication. All patients received a single dose of fast-acting soluble levodopa and then underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging before any...... dyskinesias emerged. Levodopa-induced modulation of cortico-striatal resting-state connectivity was assessed between the putamen and the following 3 cortical regions of interest: supplementary motor area, primary sensorimotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These functional connectivity measures...

  10. User's guide to the Reliability Estimation System Testbed (REST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, David M.; Palumbo, Daniel L.; Rifkin, Adam

    1992-01-01

    The Reliability Estimation System Testbed is an X-window based reliability modeling tool that was created to explore the use of the Reliability Modeling Language (RML). RML was defined to support several reliability analysis techniques including modularization, graphical representation, Failure Mode Effects Simulation (FMES), and parallel processing. These techniques are most useful in modeling large systems. Using modularization, an analyst can create reliability models for individual system components. The modules can be tested separately and then combined to compute the total system reliability. Because a one-to-one relationship can be established between system components and the reliability modules, a graphical user interface may be used to describe the system model. RML was designed to permit message passing between modules. This feature enables reliability modeling based on a run time simulation of the system wide effects of a component's failure modes. The use of failure modes effects simulation enhances the analyst's ability to correctly express system behavior when using the modularization approach to reliability modeling. To alleviate the computation bottleneck often found in large reliability models, REST was designed to take advantage of parallel processing on hypercube processors.

  11. ACE I/D genotype, adiposity, and blood pressure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothschild Max

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE is a possible candidate gene that may influence both body fatness and blood pressure. Although several genetic studies have been conducted in adults, relatively few studies have examined the contribution of potential candidate genes, and specifically ACE I/D, on adiposity and BP phenotypes in childhood. Such studies may prove insightful for the development of the obesity-hypertension phenotype early in life. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in body fatness and resting blood pressure (BP by ACE I/D genotype, and determine if the association between adiposity and BP varies by ACE I/D genotype in children. Methods 152 children (75 girls, 77 boys were assessed for body composition (% body fat using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometry and resting BP according to American Heart Association recommendations. Buccal cell samples were genotyped using newly developed PCR-RFLP tests for two SNPs (rs4341 and rs4343 in complete linkage disequilibrium with the ACE I/D polymorphism. Partial correlations were computed to assess the ociations between % body fat and BP in the total sample and by genotype. ANCOVA was used to examine differences in resting BP by ACE I/D genotype and fatness groups. Results Approximately 39% of youth were overfat based on % body fat (>30% fat in girls, 25% fat in boys. Body mass, body mass index, and fat-free mass were significantly higher in the ACE D-carriers compared to the II group (p Conclusion ACE D-carriers are heavier than ACE II children; however, BP did not differ by ACE I/D genotype but was adversely influenced in the overfat D-carriers. Further studies are warranted to investigate the genetics of fatness and BP phenotypes in children.

  12. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  13. GENOTYPE-PHENOTYPE ASSOCIATIONS: MODULATION BY DIET AND OBESITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovas, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Changes in diet are likely to reduce chronic disorders, but after decades of active research and heated discussion the question still remains: what is the optimal diet to achieve this elusive goal? Is a low fat, as traditionally recommended by multiple medical societies? Or a high monounsaturated fat as predicated by the Mediterranean diet? Perhaps a high polyunsaturated fat based on the cholesterol lowering effects? The right answer may be all of the above but not for everybody. A well-known phenomenon in nutrition research and practice is the dramatic variability in interindividual response to any type of dietary intervention. There are many other factors influencing response, and they include, among many others, age, sex, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking as well as genetic factors that will help to identify vulnerable populations/individuals that will be benefit from a variety of more personalized and mechanistic based dietary recommendations. This potential could and needs to be developed within the context of nutritional genomics that in conjunction with systems biology may provide the tools to achieve the holy grail of dietary prevention and therapy of cardiovascular diseases. This approach will break with the traditional public health approach of “one size fits all.” The current evidence based on nutrigenetics has begun to identify subgroups of individuals who benefit more from a low fat diet, whereas others appear to benefit more from a high monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) diets. The continuous progress in Nutrigenomics will allow some time in the future to provide targeted gene-based dietary advice. PMID:19037211

  14. Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose and effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats Authors: Gary E. Hatch, John McKee, James Brown, Bill McDonnell, Elston Seal, Joleen Soukup, Ralph Slade, Kay Crissman and Robert Devlin, National Health and Environmental...

  15. Exercise countermeasures for bed-rest deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose for this 30-day bed rest study was to investigate the effects of short-term, high intensity isotonic and isokinetic exercise training on maintenance of working capacity (peak oxygen uptake), muscular strength and endurance, and on orthostatic tolerance, posture and gait. Other data were collected on muscle atrophy, bone mineralization and density, endocrine analyses concerning vasoactivity and fluid-electrolyte balance, muscle intermediary metabolism, and on performance and mood of the subjects. It was concluded that: The subjects maintained a relatively stable mood, high morale, and high esprit de corps throughout the study. Performance improved in nearly all tests in almost all the subjects. Isotonic training, as opposed to isokinetic exercise training, was associated more with decreasing levels of psychological tension, concentration, and motivation; and improvement in the quality of sleep. Working capacity (peak oxygen uptake) was maintained during bed rest with isotonic exercise training; it was not maintained with isokinetic or no exercise training. In general, there was no significant decrease in strength or endurance of arm or leg muscles during bed rest, in spite of some reduction in muscle size (atrophy) of some leg muscles. There was no effect of isotonic exercise training on orthostasis, since tilt-table tolerance was reduced similarly in all three groups following bed rest. Bed rest resulted in significant decreases of postural stability and self-selected step length, stride length, and walking velocity, which were not influenced by either exercise training regimen. Most pre-bed rest responses were restored by the fourth day of recovery.

  16. REST in practice Hypermedia and systems architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Jim; Robinson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Why don't typical enterprise projects go as smoothly as projects you develop for the Web? Does the REST architectural style really present a viable alternative for building distributed systems and enterprise-class applications? In this insightful book, three SOA experts provide a down-to-earth explanation of REST and demonstrate how you can develop simple and elegant distributed hypermedia systems by applying the Web's guiding principles to common enterprise computing problems. You'll learn techniques for implementing specific Web technologies and patterns to solve the needs of a typical com

  17. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Alexander eDiaz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ. Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after five minutes eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer’s disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease.

  18. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, B. Alexander; Van Der Sluis, Sophie; Moens, Sarah; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Migliorati, Filippo; Stoffers, Diederick; Den Braber, Anouk; Poil, Simon-Shlomo; Hardstone, Richard; Van't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; De Geus, Eco; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Resting-state neuroimaging is a dominant paradigm for studying brain function in health and disease. It is attractive for clinical research because of its simplicity for patients, straightforward standardization, and sensitivity to brain disorders. Importantly, non-sensory experiences like mind wandering may arise from ongoing brain activity. However, little is known about the link between ongoing brain activity and cognition, as phenotypes of resting-state cognition—and tools to quantify them—have been lacking. To facilitate rapid and structured measurements of resting-state cognition we developed a 50-item self-report survey, the Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire (ARSQ). Based on ARSQ data from 813 participants assessed after 5 min eyes-closed rest in their home, we identified seven dimensions of resting-state cognition using factor analysis: Discontinuity of Mind, Theory of Mind, Self, Planning, Sleepiness, Comfort, and Somatic Awareness. Further, we showed that the structure of cognition was similar during resting-state fMRI and EEG, and that the test-retest correlations were remarkably high for all dimensions. To explore whether inter-individual variation of resting-state cognition is related to health status, we correlated ARSQ-derived factor scores with psychometric scales measuring depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Mental health correlated positively with Comfort and negatively with Discontinuity of Mind. Finally, we show that sleepiness may partially explain a resting-state EEG profile previously associated with Alzheimer's disease. These findings indicate that the ARSQ readily provides information about cognitive phenotypes and that it is a promising tool for research on the neural correlates of resting-state cognition in health and disease. PMID:23964225

  19. Dismissing Attachment Characteristics Dynamically Modulate Brain Networks Subserving Social Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, Anna Linda; Borchardt, Viola; Li, Meng; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana Ramona; Strauss, Bernhard; Kirchmanny, Helmut; Buchheim, Anna; Metzger, Coraline D.; Nolte, Tobias; Walter, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Attachment patterns influence actions, thoughts and feeling through a person's "inner working model". Speech charged with attachment-dependent content was proposed to modulate the activation of cognitive-emotional schemata in listeners. We performed a 7 Tesla rest-task-rest functional magnetic

  20. 1 SHORT COMMUNICATION Resting behaviour of Anopheles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... Resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and its implication on malaria .... nature) were requested to sleep under the double mosquito net trap (one ... designed from the DNA sequences of the intergenic spacer region of ...

  1. A resting bottom sodium cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    2012-01-01

    This follows ICAPP 2011 paper 11059 'Fast Reactor with a Cold Bottom Vessel', on sodium cooled reactor vessels in thermal gradient, resting on soil. Sodium is frozen on vessel bottom plate, temperature increasing to the top. The vault cover rests on the safety vessel, the core diagrid welded to a toric collector forms a slab, supported by skirts resting on the bottom plate. Intermediate exchangers and pumps, fixed on the cover, plunge on the collector. At the vessel top, a skirt hanging from the cover plunges into sodium, leaving a thin circular slit partially filled by sodium covered by argon, providing leak-tightness and allowing vessel dilatation, as well as a radial relative holding due to sodium inertia. No 'air conditioning' at 400 deg. C is needed as for hanging vessels, and this allows a large economy. The sodium volume below the slab contains isolating refractory elements, stopping a hypothetical corium flow. The small gas volume around the vessel limits any LOCA. The liner cooling system of the concrete safety vessel may contribute to reactor cooling. The cold resting bottom vessel, proposed by the author for many years, could avoid the complete visual inspection required for hanging vessels. However, a double vessel, containing support skirts, would allow introduction of inspecting devices. Stress limiting thermal gradient is obtained by filling secondary sodium in the intermediate space. (authors)

  2. [Creep of amalgam fillings under clasp rests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, L; Jung, T; West, M

    1989-10-01

    A clinically realistic experiment was set up to obtain information on the amount of vertical settling of clasp rests in amalgam restorations under functional loading. Mesioocclusal cavities were prepared in 16 lower molar specimens cast in brass. The cavities were filled with amalgam and provided with a mesial rest seat. A constant load of 100 N was applied via a simplified (experimental) saddle to a cobalt-chromium E-clasp cast to the saddle. The duration of the load corresponded to 160 days of clinical function. The chronological course of vertical displacement was analyzed mathematically. According to this result the process can be divided into three components: settling immediately upon load initiation (mean value 96 microns, transition creep (mean value 25 microns) and creep ata constant rate (mean value 15 microns). The mean overall vertical displacement of the rests was 136 microns, the maximum value 287 microns. These findings suggest that vertical settling of a clasp rest into its seat in an amalgam restoration may eventually result in significant changes in occlusion and may almost completely exhaust gingival resilience.

  3. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    : Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...

  4. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  5. Soft drink effects on sensorimotor rhythm brain computer interface performance and resting-state spectral power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundahl, John; Jianjun Meng; He, Jeffrey; Bin He

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems allow users to directly control computers and other machines by modulating their brain waves. In the present study, we investigated the effect of soft drinks on resting state (RS) EEG signals and BCI control. Eight healthy human volunteers each participated in three sessions of BCI cursor tasks and resting state EEG. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar, caffeine, or neither ingredient. A comparison of resting state spectral power shows a substantial decrease in alpha and beta power after caffeine consumption relative to control. Despite attenuation of the frequency range used for the control signal, caffeine average BCI performance was the same as control. Our work provides a useful characterization of caffeine, the world's most popular stimulant, on brain signal frequencies and their effect on BCI performance.

  6. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  7. REST: a toolkit for resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Song

    Full Text Available Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI has been drawing more and more attention in recent years. However, a publicly available, systematically integrated and easy-to-use tool for RS-fMRI data processing is still lacking. We developed a toolkit for the analysis of RS-fMRI data, namely the RESting-state fMRI data analysis Toolkit (REST. REST was developed in MATLAB with graphical user interface (GUI. After data preprocessing with SPM or AFNI, a few analytic methods can be performed in REST, including functional connectivity analysis based on linear correlation, regional homogeneity, amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF, and fractional ALFF. A few additional functions were implemented in REST, including a DICOM sorter, linear trend removal, bandpass filtering, time course extraction, regression of covariates, image calculator, statistical analysis, and slice viewer (for result visualization, multiple comparison correction, etc.. REST is an open-source package and is freely available at http://www.restfmri.net.

  8. Hepatitis C Virus: Virology and Genotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV is characterized by genetic heterogeneity, with at least six genotypes identified. The geographic distribution of genotypes has shown variations in different

  9. Genotype x environment interaction and optimum resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... x E) interaction and to determine the optimum resource allocation for cassava yield trials. The effects of environment, genotype and G x E interaction were highly significant for all yield traits. Variations due to G x E interaction were greater than those due to genotypic differences for all yield traits. Genotype x location x year ...

  10. Broadband Electrophysiological Dynamics Contribute to Global Resting-State fMRI Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Liu, Zhongming

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous activity observed with resting-state fMRI is used widely to uncover the brain's intrinsic functional networks in health and disease. Although many networks appear modular and specific, global and nonspecific fMRI fluctuations also exist and both pose a challenge and present an opportunity for characterizing and understanding brain networks. Here, we used a multimodal approach to investigate the neural correlates to the global fMRI signal in the resting state. Like fMRI, resting-state power fluctuations of broadband and arrhythmic, or scale-free, macaque electrocorticography and human magnetoencephalography activity were correlated globally. The power fluctuations of scale-free human electroencephalography (EEG) were coupled with the global component of simultaneously acquired resting-state fMRI, with the global hemodynamic change lagging the broadband spectral change of EEG by ∼5 s. The levels of global and nonspecific fluctuation and synchronization in scale-free population activity also varied across and depended on arousal states. Together, these results suggest that the neural origin of global resting-state fMRI activity is the broadband power fluctuation in scale-free population activity observable with macroscopic electrical or magnetic recordings. Moreover, the global fluctuation in neurophysiological and hemodynamic activity is likely modulated through diffuse neuromodulation pathways that govern arousal states and vigilance levels. This study provides new insights into the neural origin of resting-state fMRI. Results demonstrate that the broadband power fluctuation of scale-free electrophysiology is globally synchronized and directly coupled with the global component of spontaneous fMRI signals, in contrast to modularly synchronized fluctuations in oscillatory neural activity. These findings lead to a new hypothesis that scale-free and oscillatory neural processes account for global and modular patterns of functional connectivity observed

  11. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Baumgarten

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15-30 Hz is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex.

  12. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Oeltzschner, Georg; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15–30 Hz) is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography) at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex. PMID:27258089

  13. Information Flow Between Resting-State Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Ibai; Erramuzpe, Asier; Escudero, Iñaki; Mateos, Beatriz; Cabrera, Alberto; Marinazzo, Daniele; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Cortes Diaz, Jesus M

    2015-11-01

    The resting brain dynamics self-organize into a finite number of correlated patterns known as resting-state networks (RSNs). It is well known that techniques such as independent component analysis can separate the brain activity at rest to provide such RSNs, but the specific pattern of interaction between RSNs is not yet fully understood. To this aim, we propose here a novel method to compute the information flow (IF) between different RSNs from resting-state magnetic resonance imaging. After hemodynamic response function blind deconvolution of all voxel signals, and under the hypothesis that RSNs define regions of interest, our method first uses principal component analysis to reduce dimensionality in each RSN to next compute IF (estimated here in terms of transfer entropy) between the different RSNs by systematically increasing k (the number of principal components used in the calculation). When k=1, this method is equivalent to computing IF using the average of all voxel activities in each RSN. For k≥1, our method calculates the k multivariate IF between the different RSNs. We find that the average IF among RSNs is dimension dependent, increasing from k=1 (i.e., the average voxel activity) up to a maximum occurring at k=5 and to finally decay to zero for k≥10. This suggests that a small number of components (close to five) is sufficient to describe the IF pattern between RSNs. Our method--addressing differences in IF between RSNs for any generic data--can be used for group comparison in health or disease. To illustrate this, we have calculated the inter-RSN IF in a data set of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to find that the most significant differences between AD and controls occurred for k=2, in addition to AD showing increased IF w.r.t. The spatial localization of the k=2 component, within RSNs, allows the characterization of IF differences between AD and controls.

  14. Genetic Divergence in Sugarcane Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Mohammad; Rahman, Hidayatur; Gul, Rahmani; Ali, Amjad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    To assess genetic divergence of sugarcane germplasm, an experiment comprising 25 sugarcane genotypes was conducted at Sugar Crops Research Institute (SCRI), Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, in quadruple lattice design during 2008-09. Among the 14 parameters evaluated, majority exhibited significant differences while some showed nonsignificant mean squares. The initial correlation matrix revealed medium to high correlations. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that there were two pr...

  15. Annihilation of antiproton on deuteron at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1982-01-01

    The system of Faddeev equations for amplitudes of anti pD iteraction at rest accounting for higher partial anti NN waves is derived. From its solution the total and elastic anti pD cross sections are calculated. Predictions for the missing-mass spectrum in the anti pD annihilation are made. The P-wave anti NN states give small contribution to the anti pD cross section at rest, the theoretical value of the latter being less than the experimental cross section extrapolated to the threshold. Let us emphasize that the total anti pD cross section depending weakly on the radii of anti NN interactions is sensitive to the values of the anti NN scattering lengths. Experimental data for anti pD cross sections at rest can be obtained only by extrapolation procedure. Henceforth it is very important to investigate the anti pD interactions at low but non-zero momenta where the direct comparison to the experiment is possible [ru

  16. Reconfiguration of Brain Network Architectures between Resting-State and Complexity-Dependent Cognitive Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearne, Luke J; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2017-08-30

    Our capacity for higher cognitive reasoning has a measurable limit. This limit is thought to arise from the brain's capacity to flexibly reconfigure interactions between spatially distributed networks. Recent work, however, has suggested that reconfigurations of task-related networks are modest when compared with intrinsic "resting-state" network architecture. Here we combined resting-state and task-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how flexible, task-specific reconfigurations associated with increasing reasoning demands are integrated within a stable intrinsic brain topology. Human participants (21 males and 28 females) underwent an initial resting-state scan, followed by a cognitive reasoning task involving different levels of complexity, followed by a second resting-state scan. The reasoning task required participants to deduce the identity of a missing element in a 4 × 4 matrix, and item difficulty was scaled parametrically as determined by relational complexity theory. Analyses revealed that external task engagement was characterized by a significant change in functional brain modules. Specifically, resting-state and null-task demand conditions were associated with more segregated brain-network topology, whereas increases in reasoning complexity resulted in merging of resting-state modules. Further increments in task complexity did not change the established modular architecture, but affected selective patterns of connectivity between frontoparietal, subcortical, cingulo-opercular, and default-mode networks. Larger increases in network efficiency within the newly established task modules were associated with higher reasoning accuracy. Our results shed light on the network architectures that underlie external task engagement, and highlight selective changes in brain connectivity supporting increases in task complexity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans have clear limits in their ability to solve complex reasoning problems. It is thought that

  17. Psychometric properties of startle and corrugator response in NPU, affective picture viewing, and resting state tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Jesse T; Bradford, Daniel E; Curtin, John J

    2016-08-01

    The current study provides a comprehensive evaluation of critical psychometric properties of commonly used psychophysiology laboratory tasks/measures within the NIMH RDoC. Participants (N = 128) completed the no-shock, predictable shock, unpredictable shock (NPU) task, affective picture viewing task, and resting state task at two study visits separated by 1 week. We examined potentiation/modulation scores in NPU (predictable or unpredictable shock vs. no-shock) and affective picture viewing tasks (pleasant or unpleasant vs. neutral pictures) for startle and corrugator responses with two commonly used quantification methods. We quantified startle potentiation/modulation scores with raw and standardized responses. We quantified corrugator potentiation/modulation in the time and frequency domains. We quantified general startle reactivity in the resting state task as the mean raw startle response during the task. For these three tasks, two measures, and two quantification methods, we evaluated effect size robustness and stability, internal consistency (i.e., split-half reliability), and 1-week temporal stability. The psychometric properties of startle potentiation in the NPU task were good, but concerns were noted for corrugator potentiation in this task. Some concerns also were noted for the psychometric properties of both startle and corrugator modulation in the affective picture viewing task, in particular, for pleasant picture modulation. Psychometric properties of general startle reactivity in the resting state task were good. Some salient differences in the psychometric properties of the NPU and affective picture viewing tasks were observed within and across quantification methods. © 2016 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. High proportion of modern genotypes of M. tuberculosis and their affinity with drug resistance in northern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhatwalia, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Rakesh; Behera, Digambar; Kaur, Harsimran; Kumar, Manoj; Sethi, Sunil

    2017-09-01

    Comparative genomics on the basis of TbD1 deletion has differentiated the members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in two major genogroups. They exhibit differential distribution and virulence potential. The present study was carried out to see the proportion of these genogroups and their association with drug resistance. The drug resistance pattern of 205 culture positive cases of M. tuberculosis and their relation with TbD1 deletion was analysed from the tertiary care centre. Overall proportion of genotypes (TbD1- and Tbd1+) and their association with drug resistance was also observed from the various studies from India. Our study reports that 85.4% of the isolates of M. tuberculosis were modern genotypes (TbD1-) and rest of 14.6% were ancient genotypes (TbD1+). 37 cases were of multiple drug resistant-TB (MDR-TB), 35 of them belongs to modern genogrop and rest of (2) were in ancient genogroup (p=0.12). Overall pooled estimate of proportion of modern genotype is 75.5% (CI 95%, 73.03-77.87) and 24.55% (CI 95%, 22.13-26.97) for ancient genotypes from the studies carried out in India. Modern genotypes were more rarely drug sensitive phenotypes with a relative risk (RR) of 0.89 (CI 95%, 0.74-1.07) while MDR cases were more in this group with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 (CI 95%, 0-1.07). This study demonstrates a higher proportion of modern genotypes in our region/India; which are more likely to be associated with drug resistance. Future, epidemiological/in vitro studies are required to ascertain the relationship between genotypes and their virulence potential. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction Effects of BDNF and COMT Genes on Resting-State Brain Activity and Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Chunhui; Xia, Mingrui; Wu, Karen; Chen, Chuansheng; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Wang, Wenjing; He, Yong; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been found to interactively influence working memory (WM) as well as brain activation during WM tasks. However, whether the two genes have interactive effects on resting-state activities of the brain and whether these spontaneous activations correlate with WM are still unknown. This study included behavioral data from WM tasks and genetic data (COMT rs4680 and BDNF Val66Met) from 417 healthy Chinese adults and resting-state fMRI data from 298 of them. Significant interactive effects of BDNF and COMT were found for WM performance as well as for resting-state regional homogeneity (ReHo) in WM-related brain areas, including the left medial frontal gyrus (lMeFG), left superior frontal gyrus (lSFG), right superior and medial frontal gyrus (rSMFG), right medial orbitofrontal gyrus (rMOFG), right middle frontal gyrus (rMFG), precuneus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left superior occipital gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule. Simple effects analyses showed that compared to other genotypes, subjects with COMT-VV/BDNF-VV had higher WM and lower ReHo in all five frontal brain areas. The results supported the hypothesis that COMT and BDNF polymorphisms influence WM performance and spontaneous brain activity (i.e., ReHo). PMID:27853425

  20. Framework for ReSTful Web Services in OSGi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Mittman, David S.; Fox, Jason M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Rabe, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ensemble ReST is a software system that eases the development, deployment, and maintenance of server-side application programs to perform functions that would otherwise be performed by client software. Ensemble ReST takes advantage of the proven disciplines of ReST (Representational State Transfer. ReST leverages the standardized HTTP protocol to enable developers to offer services to a diverse variety of clients: from shell scripts to sophisticated Java application suites

  1. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S.; Argani, Pedram; Gearhart, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  2. Hypoxic responses in resting hyperthermic humans

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This thesis investigated the interaction between steady state hypoxia and passive hyperthermia on human ventilation and the influence of the PETCO2 on this interaction. On one of two days males twice breathed 12% oxygen for 20 min while either normothermic or hyperthermic with PETCO2 clamped -1 mm Hg above resting (iHVR). On the other day the same tests were performed except P&02 was uncontrolled (pHVR). Hyperthermia increased euoxic ventilation compared to normothermia (plO.OO1). During ...

  3. Proton spin structure in the rest frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavada, P.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that the quark-parton model in the standard infinite momentum approach overestimates the proton spin structure function g 1 (x) in comparison with the approach taking consistently into account the internal motion of quarks described by a spherical phase space in the proton rest frame. Particularly, it is shown the first moment of the spin structure function in the latter approach, assuming only the valence quarks contribution to the proton spin, does not contradict the experimental data. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  4. Changes in resting-state fMRI in vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmchen, Christoph; Ye, Zheng; Sprenger, Andreas; Münte, Thomas F

    2014-11-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) is a sudden peripheral unilateral vestibular failure with often persistent head movement-related dizziness and unsteadiness. Compensation of asymmetrical activity in the primary peripheral vestibular afferents is accomplished by restoration of impaired brainstem vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes, but presumably also by changing cortical vestibular tone imbalance subserving, e.g., spatial perception and orientation. The aim of this study was to elucidate (i) whether there are changes of cerebral resting-state networks with respect to functional interregional connectivity (resting-state activity) in VN patients and (ii) whether these are related to neurophysiological, perceptual and functional parameters of vestibular-induced disability. Using independent component analysis (ICA), we compared resting-state networks between 20 patients with unilateral VN and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Patients were examined in the acute VN stage and after 3 months. A neural network (component 50) comprising the parietal lobe, medial aspect of the superior parietal lobule, posterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, caudate nucleus, thalamus and midbrain was modulated between acute VN patients and healthy controls and in patients over time. Within this network, acute VN patients showed decreased resting-state activity (ICA) in the contralateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), in close vicinity to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which increased after 3 months. Resting-state activity in IPS tended to increase over 3 months in VN patients who improved with respect to functional parameters of vestibular-induced disability (VADL). Resting-state activity in the IPS was not related to perceptual (subjective visual vertical) or neurophysiological parameters of vestibular-induced disability (e.g., gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex, caloric

  5. Decoding noises in HIV computational genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, MingRui; Shaw, Timothy; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ye; Ezeamama, Amara E; Yang, Chunfu; Zhang, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Lack of a consistent and reliable genotyping system can critically impede HIV genomic research on pathogenesis, fitness, virulence, drug resistance, and genomic-based healthcare and treatment. At present, mis-genotyping, i.e., background noises in molecular genotyping, and its impact on epidemic surveillance is unknown. For the first time, we present a comprehensive assessment of HIV genotyping quality. HIV sequence data were retrieved from worldwide published records, and subjected to a systematic genotyping assessment pipeline. Results showed that mis-genotyped cases occurred at 4.6% globally, with some regional and high-risk population heterogeneities. Results also revealed a consistent mis-genotyping pattern in gp120 in all studied populations except the group of men who have sex with men. Our study also suggests novel virus diversities in the mis-genotyped cases. Finally, this study reemphasizes the importance of implementing a standardized genotyping pipeline to avoid genotyping disparity and to advance our understanding of virus evolution in various epidemiological settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  7. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in different genotypes of cotton for future breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To make the plants well adapted and more resistant to diseases and other environmental stresses there is always a need to improve the quality of plant’s genome i.e. to increase its genetic diversity. Methods: In the present study six variety and six lines of cotton were investigated for their genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship. For this purpose 35 different RAPD primers obtained from the Gene Link Technologies, USA were used. Results: Among 35 RAPD primers, 13 primers produced reproducible PCR bands while the rest failed to show any amplification product. Our results indicated that the total count of the reproducible bands was 670 and polymorphic loci were counted to be 442 which constitute 66% of total loci. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two major groups each consists of 7 and 5 genotypes respectively. Genotypes Lp1 and Tp4 were placed at maximum genetic distance and in separate groups and could be utilized for future cotton breeding. Conclusions: RAPD analysis is a cheaper and time saving technique for the determination of genetic diversity of different cotton genotypes. Cotton genotype Lp1 and Tp4 could be the best candidates for future breeding programs as both genotypes are genetically distant from each other.

  8. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (Pdietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  9. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  10. Response of Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B to genotypes of pepper Capsicum annuum (Solanales: Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballina-Gomez, H; Ruiz-Sanchez, E; Chan-Cupul, W; Latournerie-Moreno, L; Hernández-Alvarado, L; Islas-Flores, I; Zuñiga-Aguilar, J J

    2013-04-01

    Bemisia tabaci Genn. biotype B is a widely distributed plant pest that represents one of the major constraints for horticultural crop production. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the oviposition preference, survivorship, and development of B. tabaci biotype B on semi-cultivated genotypes of Capsicum annuum from southeast Mexico. In free-choice experiments to evaluate the oviposition preference, lower number of eggs laid by B. tabaci biotype B was observed in the genotypes Maax and Xcat´ik relative to that in the commercial genotype Parado. Egg hatchability was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, Blanco, Chawa, Payaso, and Xcat´ik than in the rest of the genotypes, including the commercial genotype Jalapeño. Likewise, survivorship of nymphs was significantly lower in Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco than in the remaining genotypes. Nymph developmental time and the period of development from egg to adult were the shortest in Amaxito. Therefore, sources of resistance to B. tabaci biotype B by antibiosis (accumulation of plant defense compounds) might be found in the semi-cultivated genotypes Pico Paloma, Bolita, and Blanco.

  11. Resting ECG findings in elite football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Ditzel, Roman; Ditzel, Heribert; Urhausen, Axel; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate ECG abnormalities in a large sample of elite football players. Data from 566 elite male football players (57 of them of African origin) above 16 years of age were screened retrospectively (age: 20.9 ± 5.3 years; BMI: 22.9 ± 1.7 kg · m(-2), training history: 13.8 ± 4.7 years). The resting ECGs were analysed and classified according to the most current ECG categorisation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2010) and a classification of Pelliccia et al. (2000) in order to assess the impact of the new ESC-approach. According to the classification of Pelliccia, 52.5% showed mildly abnormal ECG patterns and 12% were classified as distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. According to the classification of the ESC, 33.7% showed 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Short-QT interval was the most frequent ECG pattern in this group (41.9%), followed by a shortened PR-interval (19.9%). When assessed with a QTc cut-off-point of 340 ms (instead of 360 ms), only 22.2% would have had 'uncommon ECG patterns'. Resting ECG changes amongst elite football players are common. Adjustment of the ESC criteria by adapting proposed time limits for the ECG (e.g. QTc, PR) should further reduce the rate of false-positive results.

  12. Resting State Network Estimation in Individual Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Carl D.; Laumann, Timothy O.; Szrama, Nicholas P.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Snyder, Abraham Z.

    2014-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study brain networks associated with both normal and pathological cognitive function. The objective of this work is to reliably compute resting state network (RSN) topography in single participants. We trained a supervised classifier (multi-layer perceptron; MLP) to associate blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) correlation maps corresponding to pre-defined seeds with specific RSN identities. Hard classification of maps obtained from a priori seeds was highly reliable across new participants. Interestingly, continuous estimates of RSN membership retained substantial residual error. This result is consistent with the view that RSNs are hierarchically organized, and therefore not fully separable into spatially independent components. After training on a priori seed-based maps, we propagated voxel-wise correlation maps through the MLP to produce estimates of RSN membership throughout the brain. The MLP generated RSN topography estimates in individuals consistent with previous studies, even in brain regions not represented in the training data. This method could be used in future studies to relate RSN topography to other measures of functional brain organization (e.g., task-evoked responses, stimulation mapping, and deficits associated with lesions) in individuals. The multi-layer perceptron was directly compared to two alternative voxel classification procedures, specifically, dual regression and linear discriminant analysis; the perceptron generated more spatially specific RSN maps than either alternative. PMID:23735260

  13. Human activity and rest in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roenneberg, Till; Keller, Lena K; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Vetter, Céline; Winnebeck, Eva C

    2015-01-01

    Our lives are structured by the daily alternation of activity and rest, of wake and sleep. Despite significant advances in circadian and sleep research, we still lack answers to many of the most fundamental questions about this conspicuous behavioral pattern. We strongly believe that investigating this pattern in entrained conditions, real-life and daily contexts-in situ-will help the field to elucidate some of these central questions. Here, we present two common approaches for in situ investigation of human activity and rest: the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) and actimetry. In the first half of this chapter, we provide detailed instructions on how to use and interpret the MCTQ. In addition, we give an overview of the main insights gained with this instrument over the past 10 years, including some new findings on the interaction of light and age on sleep timing. In the second half of this chapter, we introduce the reader to the method of actimetry and share our experience in basic analysis techniques, including visualization, smoothing, and cosine model fitting of in situ recorded data. Additionally, we describe our new approach to automatically detect sleep from activity recordings. Our vision is that the broad use of such easy techniques in real-life settings combined with automated analyses will lead to the creation of large databases. The resulting power of big numbers will promote our understanding of such fundamental biological phenomena as sleep. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Applications of blood group genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza A. Mota

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The determination of blood group polymorphism atthe genomic level facilitates the resolution of clinical problemsthat cannot be addressed by hemagglutination. They are useful to(a determine antigen types for which currently available antibodiesare weakly reactive; (b type patients who have been recentlytransfused; (c identify fetuses at risk for hemolytic disease of thenewborn; and (d to increase the reliability of repositories of antigennegative RBCs for transfusion. Objectives: This review assessedthe current applications of blood group genotyping in transfusionmedicine and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Search strategy:Blood group genotyping studies and reviews were searched ingeneral database (MEDLINE and references were reviewed.Selection criteria: All published data and reviews were eligible forinclusion provided they reported results for molecular basis ofblood group antigens, DNA analysis for blood group polymorphisms,determination of fetal group status and applications of blood groupgenotyping in blood transfusion. Data collection: All data werecollected based on studies and reviews of blood grouppolymorphisms and their clinical applications.

  15. Grain yield stability of early maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Bahadur Kunwar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate grain yield stability of early maize genotypes. Five early maize genotypes namely Pool-17, Arun1EV, Arun-4, Arun-2 and Farmer’s variety were evaluated using Randomized Complete Block Design along with three replications at four different locations namely Rampur, Rajahar, Pakhribas and Kabre districts of Nepal during summer seasons of three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012 under farmer’s fields. Genotype and genotype × environment (GGE biplot was used to identify superior genotype for grain yield and stability pattern. The genotypes Arun-1 EV and Arun-4 were better adapted for Kabre and Pakhribas where as pool-17 for Rajahar environments. The overall findings showed that Arun-1EV was more stable followed by Arun-2 therefore these two varieties can be recommended to farmers for cultivation in both environments.

  16. Entry into Midgut Epithelial Cells is a Key Step in the Selection of Genotypes in a Nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Clavijo; Trevor Williams; Delia Mu(n)oz; Miguel L(o)pez-Ferber; Primitivo Caballero

    2009-01-01

    An isolate of the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus comprises a stable proportion of deletion genotypes (e.g., SfNIC-C), that lack pif1 and pif2 rendering them noninfectious per os, and that survive by complementation with a complete genotype (SfNIC-B) in coinfected cells. To determine whether selection for particular ratios of complete and deletion genotypes occurs mainly during the establishment of the primary infection in insect midgut cells or during subsequent systemic infection, we examined genotype frequencies in insects that fed on OBs comprising different co-occluded mixtures of genotypes. Dramatic changes in genotype frequencies were observed between the OB inoculum and budded virus (BV) samples taken from larvae inoculated with OBs comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C indicating that a marked reduction of SfNIC-C genotype had occurred in the insect midgut due to the immediate elimination of all OBs that originated from cells that had been infected only by SfNIC-C. In contrast, immediate changes were not observed in OBs comprising mixtures of 50% SfNIC-B + 50% SfNIC-C or those comprising 10% SfNIC-B + 90% SfNIC-C as most of the OBs in these mixtures originated from cells that had been infected by both genotypes. Subsequent changes in genotypic frequencies during five days of systemic infection were fairly small in magnitude for all genotypic mixtures. We conclude that the prevalence of defective genotypes in the SfNIC population is likely determined by a balance between host selection against OBs produced in cells infected by SfNIC-C alone and within-host selection for fast-replicating deletion genotypes. The strength of intra-host selection is likely modulated by changes in MOI during the infection period.

  17. Identification of a natural intergenotypic recombinant hepatitis delta virus genotype 1 and 2 in Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, B T; Nguyen, H M; Toan, N L; Song, L H; Tong, H V; Wolboldt, C; Binh, V Q; Kremsner, P G; Velavan, T P; Bock, C-T

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is acquired as a co- /superinfection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can modulate the pathophysiology of chronic hepatitis B and related liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. Among the eight distinct HDV genotypes reported, relatively few studies have attempted to investigate the prevalence of HDV mixed genotypes and RNA recombination of HDV. With a recorded prevalence of 10-20% HBV infection in Vietnam, this study investigated the HDV variability, HDV genotypes and HDV recombination among twenty-one HDV isolates in Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients. HDV subgenomic and full-length genome sequences were obtained using newly established HDV-specific RT-PCR techniques. The nucleotide homology was observed from 74.6% to 99.4% among the investigated full-length genome of the HDV isolates. We observed HDV genotype 1 and HDV genotype 2 in the investigated Vietnamese patients. Although no HDV genotype mixtures were observed, we report here a newly identified recombinant of HDV genotypes (HDV 1 and HDV 2). The identified recombinant HDV isolate C03 revealed sequence homology to both HDV genotype 1 (nt1 to nt907) and HDV genotype 2 (nt908 to nt1675; HDAg coding region) with a breakpoint at nt908. Our findings demonstrate the prevalence of intergenotypic recombination between HDV genotypes 1 and 2 in a Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patient. Extended investigation on the distribution and prevalence of HDV, HDV mixed genotypes and recombinant HDV genotypes in a larger Vietnamese population offers vital insights into understanding of the micro-epidemiology of HDV and subsequent pathophysiology in chronic HBV- /HDV-related liver diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. "Therapeutic" bed rest in pregnancy: unethical and unsupported by data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Christina A; Grimes, David A; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2013-06-01

    "Therapeutic" bed rest continues to be used widely, despite evidence of no benefit and known harms. In this commentary, we summarize the Cochrane reviews of bed rest and propose an ethical argument for discontinuing this practice. Cochrane systematic reviews do not support "therapeutic" bed rest for threatened abortion, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm birth, multiple gestations, or impaired fetal growth. This assessment has been echoed in other comprehensive reviews. Prescribing bed rest is inconsistent with the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice. Hence, if bed rest is to be used, it should be only within a formal clinical trial.

  19. The Ensembl REST API: Ensembl Data for Any Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Andrew; Beal, Kathryn; Keenan, Stephen; McLaren, William; Pignatelli, Miguel; Ritchie, Graham R S; Ruffier, Magali; Taylor, Kieron; Vullo, Alessandro; Flicek, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present a Web service to access Ensembl data using Representational State Transfer (REST). The Ensembl REST server enables the easy retrieval of a wide range of Ensembl data by most programming languages, using standard formats such as JSON and FASTA while minimizing client work. We also introduce bindings to the popular Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor tool permitting large-scale programmatic variant analysis independent of any specific programming language. The Ensembl REST API can be accessed at http://rest.ensembl.org and source code is freely available under an Apache 2.0 license from http://github.com/Ensembl/ensembl-rest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. REST represses a subset of the pancreatic endocrine differentiation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, David; Kim, Yung-Hae; Sever, Dror

    2015-01-01

    in neurons and in endocrine cells, which is necessary for their normal function. During development, REST represses a subset of genes in the neuronal differentiation program and Rest is down-regulated as neurons differentiate. Here, we investigate the role of REST in the differentiation of pancreatic...... endocrine cells, which are molecularly close to neurons. We show that Rest is widely expressed in pancreas progenitors and that it is down-regulated in differentiated endocrine cells. Sustained expression of REST in Pdx1(+) progenitors impairs the differentiation of endocrine-committed Neurog3...

  1. Heterogeneous recombination among Hepatitis B virus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelhano, Nadine; Araujo, Natalia M; Arenas, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    The rapid evolution of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) through both evolutionary forces, mutation and recombination, allows this virus to generate a large variety of adapted variants at both intra and inter-host levels. It can, for instance, generate drug resistance or the diverse viral genotypes that currently exist in the HBV epidemics. Concerning the latter, it is known that recombination played a major role in the emergence and genetic diversification of novel genotypes. In this regard, the quantification of viral recombination in each genotype can provide relevant information to devise expectations about the evolutionary trends of the epidemic. Here we measured the amount of this evolutionary force by estimating global and local recombination rates in >4700 HBV complete genome sequences corresponding to nine (A to I) HBV genotypes. Counterintuitively, we found that genotype E presents extremely high levels of recombination, followed by genotypes B and C. On the other hand, genotype G presents the lowest level, where recombination is almost negligible. We discuss these findings in the light of known characteristics of these genotypes. Additionally, we present a phylogenetic network to depict the evolutionary history of the studied HBV genotypes. This network clearly classified all genotypes into specific groups and indicated that diverse pairs of genotypes are derived from a common ancestor (i.e., C-I, D-E and, F-H) although still the origin of this virus presented large uncertainty. Altogether we conclude that the amount of observed recombination is heterogeneous among HBV genotypes and that this heterogeneity can influence on the future expansion of the epidemic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Predicting risk-taking behavior from prefrontal resting-state activity and personality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Studer

    Full Text Available Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants' trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers' brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior.

  3. Differentiating closed-loop cortical intention from rest: building an asynchronous electrocorticographic BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jordan J.; Rouse, Adam G.; Thongpang, Sanitta; Williams, Justin C.; Moran, Daniel W.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Recent experiments have shown that electrocorticography (ECoG) can provide robust control signals for a brain-computer interface (BCI). Strategies that attempt to adapt a BCI control algorithm by learning from past trials often assume that the subject is attending to each training trial. Likewise, automatic disabling of movement control would be desirable during resting periods when random brain fluctuations might cause unintended movements of a device. To this end, our goal was to identify ECoG differences that arise between periods of active BCI use and rest. Approach. We examined spectral differences in multi-channel, epidural micro-ECoG signals recorded from non-human primates when rest periods were interleaved between blocks of an active BCI control task. Main Results. Post-hoc analyses demonstrated that these states can be decoded accurately on both a trial-by-trial and real-time basis, and this discriminability remains robust over a period of weeks. In addition, high gamma frequencies showed greater modulation with desired movement direction, while lower frequency components demonstrated greater amplitude differences between task and rest periods, suggesting possible specialized BCI roles for these frequencies. Significance. The results presented here provide valuable insight into the neurophysiology of BCI control as well as important considerations toward the design of an asynchronous BCI system.

  4. Predicting Risk-Taking Behavior from Prefrontal Resting-State Activity and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Bettina; Pedroni, Andreas; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking is subject to considerable individual differences. In the current study, we tested whether resting-state activity in the prefrontal cortex and trait sensitivity to reward and punishment can help predict risk-taking behavior. Prefrontal activity at rest was assessed in seventy healthy volunteers using electroencephalography, and compared to their choice behavior on an economic risk-taking task. The Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System scale was used to measure participants’ trait sensitivity to reward and punishment. Our results confirmed both prefrontal resting-state activity and personality traits as sources of individual differences in risk-taking behavior. Right-left asymmetry in prefrontal activity and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale, reflecting trait sensitivity to punishment, were correlated with the level of risk-taking on the task. We further discovered that scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System scale modulated the relationship between asymmetry in prefrontal resting-state activity and risk-taking. The results of this study demonstrate that heterogeneity in risk-taking behavior can be traced back to differences in the basic physiology of decision-makers’ brains, and suggest that baseline prefrontal activity and personality traits might interplay in guiding risk-taking behavior. PMID:24116176

  5. Effects of Soft Drinks on Resting State EEG and Brain-Computer Interface Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jianjun; Mundahl, John; Streitz, Taylor; Maile, Kaitlin; Gulachek, Nicholas; He, Jeffrey; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery-based (MI based) brain-computer interface (BCI) using electroencephalography (EEG) allows users to directly control a computer or external device by modulating and decoding the brain waves. A variety of factors could potentially affect the performance of BCI such as the health status of subjects or the environment. In this study, we investigated the effects of soft drinks and regular coffee on EEG signals under resting state and on the performance of MI based BCI. Twenty-six healthy human subjects participated in three or four BCI sessions with a resting period in each session. During each session, the subjects drank an unlabeled soft drink with either sugar (Caffeine Free Coca-Cola), caffeine (Diet Coke), neither ingredient (Caffeine Free Diet Coke), or a regular coffee if there was a fourth session. The resting state spectral power in each condition was compared; the analysis showed that power in alpha and beta band after caffeine consumption were decreased substantially compared to control and sugar condition. Although the attenuation of powers in the frequency range used for the online BCI control signal was shown, group averaged BCI online performance after consuming caffeine was similar to those of other conditions. This work, for the first time, shows the effect of caffeine, sugar intake on the online BCI performance and resting state brain signal.

  6. Altered thalamo-cortical resting state functional connectivity in smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoyan; Bai, Jie; Wang, Caihong; von Deneen, Karen M; Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Jingliang

    2017-07-13

    The thalamus has widespread connections with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and modulates communication between the striatum and PFC, which is crucial to the neural mechanisms of smoking. However, relatively few studies focused on the thalamic resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) patterns and their association with smoking behaviors in smokers. 24 young male smokers and 24 non-smokers were enrolled in our study. Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was used to assess the nicotine dependence level. The bilateral thalamic RSFC patterns were compared between smokers and non-smokers. The relationship between neuroimaging findings and smoking behaviors (FTND and pack-years) were also investigated in smokers. Relative to nonsmokers, smokers showed reduced RSFC strength between the left thalamus and several brain regions, i.e. the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral caudate. In addition, the right thalamus showed reduced RSFC with the right dlPFC as well as the bilateral insula in smokers. Therefore, the findings in the current study revealed the reduced RSFC of the thalamus with the dlPFC, the ACC, the insula and the caudate in smokers, which provided new insights into the roles of the thalamus in nicotine addiction from a function integration perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Resting site use of giant pandas in Wanglang Nature Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongwei; Wang, Xiaorong; Li, Junqing

    2017-10-23

    Little is known about the resting sites used by the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), which restricts our understanding of their resting habits and limits conservation efforts. To enhance our understanding of resting site requirements and factors affecting the resting time of giant pandas, we investigated the characteristics of resting sites in the Wanglang Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province, China. The results indicated that the resting sites of giant pandas were characterised by a mean slope of 21°, mean nearest tree size of 53.75 cm, mean nearest shrub size of 2.82 cm, and mean nearest bamboo number of 56. We found that the resting sites were closer to bamboo than to trees and shrubs, suggesting that the resting site use of giant pandas is closely related to the presence of bamboo. Considering that giant pandas typically rest near a large-sized tree, protection of large trees in the forests is of considerable importance for the conservation of this species. Furthermore, slope was found to be an important factor affecting the resting time of giant pandas, as they tended to rest for a relatively longer time in sites with a smaller degree of slope.

  8. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nan Nwe; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Yokosuka, Osamu; Shirasawa, Hiroshi

    2016-07-21

    Myanmar is adjacent to India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Laos and China. In Myanmar, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is 2%, and HCV infection accounts for 25% of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we reviewed the prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar. HCV genotypes 1, 3 and 6 were observed in volunteer blood donors in and around the Myanmar city of Yangon. Although there are several reports of HCV genotype 6 and its variants in Myanmar, the distribution of the HCV genotypes has not been well documented in areas other than Yangon. Previous studies showed that treatment with peginterferon and a weight-based dose of ribavirin for 24 or 48 wk could lead to an 80%-100% sustained virological response (SVR) rates in Myanmar. Current interferon-free treatments could lead to higher SVR rates (90%-95%) in patients infected with almost all HCV genotypes other than HCV genotype 3. In an era of heavy reliance on direct-acting antivirals against HCV, there is an increasing need to measure HCV genotypes, and this need will also increase specifically in Myanmar. Current available information of HCV genotypes were mostly from Yangon and other countries than Myanmar. The prevalence of HCV genotypes in Myanmar should be determined.

  9. Hepatitis C Virus: Virology and Genotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major causative agent of chronic liver disease worldwide. HCV is characterized by genetic heterogeneity, with at least six genotypes identified. The geographic distribution of genotypes has shown variations in different parts of the world over the past decade because of variations in population structure, immigration, and routes of transmission. Genotype differences are of epidemiologic interest and help the study of viral transmission dynamics to trace the source of HCV infection in a given population. HCV genotypes are also of considerable clinical importance because they affect response to antiviral therapy and represent a challenging obstacle for vaccine development.

  10. The role of HFE genotype in macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Anne M; Neely, Elizabeth; Simpson, Ian A; Connor, James R

    2018-02-01

    Iron regulation is essential for cellular energy production. Loss of cellular iron homeostasis has critical implications for both normal function and disease progression. The H63D variant of the HFE gene is the most common gene variant in Caucasians. The resulting mutant protein alters cellular iron homeostasis and is associated with a number of neurological diseases and cancer. In the brain, microglial and infiltrating macrophages are critical to maintaining iron homeostasis and modulating inflammation associated with the pathogenic process in multiple diseases. This study addresses whether HFE genotype affects macrophage function and the implications of these findings for disease processes. Bone marrow macrophages were isolated from wildtype and H67D HFE knock-in mice. The H67D gene variant in mice is the human equivalent of the H63D variant. Upon differentiation, the macrophages were used to analyze iron regulatory proteins, cellular iron release, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine expression. The results of this study demonstrate that the H67D HFE genotype significantly impacts a number of critical macrophage functions. Specifically, fundamental activities such as proliferation in response to iron exposure, L-ferritin expression in response to iron loading, secretion of BMP6 and cytokines, and migration and phagocytic activity were all found to be impacted by genotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exposure to apo-Tf (iron-poor transferrin) can increase the release of iron from macrophages. In normal conditions, 70% of circulating transferrin is unsaturated. Therefore, the ability of apo-Tf to induce iron release could be a major regulatory mechanism for iron release from macrophages. These studies demonstrate that the HFE genotype impacts fundamental components of macrophage phenotype that could alter their role in degenerative and reparative processes in neurodegenerative disorders.

  11. Evaluation of the Abbott Real Time HCV genotype II assay for Hepatitis C virus genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariguzel, Fatma Mutlu; Berk, Elife; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Ercal, Baris Derya; Celik, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    The determination of HCV genotypes and subtypes is very important for the selection of antiviral therapy and epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay in HCV genotyping of HCV infected patients in Kayseri, Turkey. One hundred patients with chronic hepatitis C admitted to our hospital were evaluated between June 2012 and December 2012, HCV RNA levels were determined by the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® 48 HCV test. HCV genotyping was investigated by the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. With the exception of genotype 1, subtypes of HCV genotypes could not be determined by Abbott assay. Sequencing analysis was used as the reference method. Genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 were observed in 70, 4, 2 and 24 of the 100 patients, respectively, by two methods. The concordance between the two systems to determine HCV major genotypes was 100%. Of 70 patients with genotype 1, 66 showed infection with subtype 1b and 4 with subtype 1a by Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay. Using sequence analysis, 61 showed infection with subtype 1b and 9 with subtype 1a. In determining of HCV genotype 1 subtypes, the difference between the two methods was not statistically significant (P>0.05). HCV genotype 4 and 3 samples were found to be subtype 4d and 3a, respectively, by sequence analysis. There were four patients with genotype 2. Sequence analysis revealed that two of these patients had type 2a and the other two had type 2b. The Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay yielded results consistent with sequence analysis. However, further optimization of the Abbott Real Time HCV Genotype II assay for subtype identification of HCV is required.

  12. Geographical distribution of Toxoplasma gondii genotypes in Asia: A link with neighboring continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichan, P; Mercier, A; Galal, L; Mahittikorn, A; Ariey, F; Morand, S; Boumédiène, F; Udonsom, R; Hamidovic, A; Murat, J B; Sukthana, Y; Dardé, M L

    2017-09-01

    Defining the pattern of genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii is important to understand its worldwide distribution. During the last decades, a large number of studies have been published on Toxoplasma genotypes circulating in Europe, in North and South America. Two continents are still largely unexplored, Africa and, to a less extent, Asia. In this last continent, an increasing number of publications reported genotypes circulating in diverse provinces of China, but very few data are available for other Asian countries. After a systematic database search, 47 papers related to T. gondii genotypes in Asia were analyzed. Genetic characterization of DNA was performed by microsatellite markers, or more usually by a multiplex PCR using 11 PCR-RFLP markers, allowing data comparison to draw a first global picture of the population structure of this parasite throughout Asia. Overall, 390 isolates or DNA extracts were completely typed by PCR-RFLP and/or microsatellite marker methods, revealing 36 different PCR-RFLP or equivalent microsatellite genotypes: 15 genotypes identified by a ToxoDB number and 21 atypical or unique genotypes. The most common genotype found in Asia is the genotype ToxoDB#9 (Chinese 1). The clonal types I, II and II variant, and III were also commonly found in Asia. The geographical distribution of these genotypes across Asia may reflect either a continuum with Europe for the western part of Asia (presence of Type II), or the circulation of strains through animal migration or human activities between Africa and the Southwestern part of Asia (Africa 1 genotype in Turkey or ToxoDB#20 both I Sri-Lanka and in Ethiopia or Egypt). Although there are some indications of a genetic population structure in Southeast Asian countries different from the rest of Asia, more studies in this tropical part of Asia will be necessary for a region which represent as well as Africa one of the missing links of the T. gondii genetic diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  13. Dose-dependent response of Trichoderma harzianum in improving drought tolerance in rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tula, Suresh; Yadav, Sandep; Sahoo, Ranjan K; Shukla, Nandini; Bains, Gurdeep; Badal, Shail; Chandra, Subhash; Gaur, A K; Kumar, Atul; Shukla, Alok; Kumar, J; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    This study demonstrates a dose-dependent response of Trichoderma harzianum Th-56 in improving drought tolerance in rice by modulating proline, SOD, lipid peroxidation product and DHN / AQU transcript level, and the growth attributes. In the present study, the effect of colonization of different doses of T. harzianum Th-56 strain in rice genotypes were evaluated under drought stress. The rice genotypes treated with increasing dose of T. harzianum strain Th-56 showed better drought tolerance as compared with untreated control plant. There was significant change in malondialdehyde, proline, higher superoxide dismutase level, plant height, total dry matter, relative chlorophyll content, leaf rolling, leaf tip burn, and the number of scorched/senesced leaves in T. harzianum Th-56 treated rice genotypes under drought stress. This was corroborated with altered expression of aquaporin and dehydrin genes in T. harzianum Th-56 treated rice genotypes. The present findings suggest that a dose of 30 g/L was the most effective in improving drought tolerance in rice, and its potential exploitation will contribute to the advancement of rice genotypes to sustain crop productivity under drought stress. Interaction studies of T. harzianum with three aromatic rice genotypes suggested that PSD-17 was highly benefitted from T. harzianum colonization under drought stress.

  14. A comparison of resting images from two myocardial perfusion tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, C.; Laney, R.; Pennell, D.; Proukakis, H.; Underwood, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have compared stress-redistribution and delayed rest thallium-201 with rest technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) tomograms in order to compare the tracers for the assessment of myocardial viability and to validate a rapid protocol combining the two tracers. We studied 30 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease [group 1: 16 with normal left ventricular function, mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 55%, SD 6%; group 2: 14 with abnormal function, mean LVEF 28%, SD 8%]. 201 Tl was injected during infusion of adenosine followed by acquisition of conventional stress and redistribution tomograms. On a separate day, 201 Tl was injected at rest with imaging 4 h later. 99m Tc-MIBI was then given at rest and imaging was performed. Three images were compared: redistribution 201 Tl, rest 201 Tl, and rest 99m Tc-MIBI. Tracer activity was classified visually and quantitatively in nine segments and segments with>50% activity were defined as containing clinically significant viable myocardium. Mean global tracer uptake as a percentage of maximum was similar in group 1 (rest 201 Tl 69%±12%, redistribution 201 Tl 69%±15%, rest 99m Tc-MIBI 70%±13%), but in group 2 mean tracer uptake was significantly greater in the rest 201 Tl images (59%±16%) than in redistribution 201 Tl images (53%±17%) or rest 99m Tc-MIBI images (53%±19%). Overall agreement for regional uptake score was excellent (κ from 0.79 to 0.84), although there were a significant number of segments with less uptake shown by redistribution 201 Tl and by rest 99m Tc-MIBI than by rest 201 Tl in group 2. The number of segments with significant viable myocardium in group 1 was very similar between the three images but in group 2 rest 201 Tl identified significantly more segments as viable than the other images. (orig./MG) (orig.). With 1 fig., 7 tabs

  15. Association of the TYMS 3G/3G genotype with poor response and GGH 354GG genotype with the bone marrow toxicity of the methotrexate in RA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekic, Biljana; Lukovic, Ljiljana; Bunjevacki, Vera; Milic, Vera; Novakovic, Ivana; Damnjanovic, Tatjana; Milasin, Jelena; Popovic, Branka; Maksimovic, Nela; Damjanov, Nemanja; Radunovic, Goran; Kovacevic, Ljiljana; Krajinovic, Maja

    2013-03-01

    Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and thymidylate synthase (TS) genes encode enzymes that are involved in methotrexate (MTX) action. In a group of 184 RA patients treated with MTX, we have investigated whether selected polymorphisms in these genes modulate MTX efficacy and/or have impact on adverse drug effects (ADEs). The efficacy of the MTX therapy has been estimated using the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28-ESR) based on EULAR criteria and relative DAS28 values (rDAS28). All adverse drug events were recorded. Patients were genotyped for selected polymorphisms of the GGH (-354 G > T and 452 C > T), CCND1 (870 A > G) and TYMS (variable number of tandem repeats, VNTR, and G to C substitution of triple repeat, 3R allele) gene. Association studies have been performed between obtained genotypes and the efficacy and toxicity of MTX. According to the EULAR response criteria, 146 RA patients (79.3 %) were classified as responders (good/moderate response) and 38 (20.7 %) as non-responders (poor response). Higher frequency of the TYMS 3 G/3 G genotype has been found among non-responders as compared to individuals with remaining genotypes (p = 0.02). ADEs were recorded in 53 patients. Among those patients eight experienced bone marrow toxicity, all of them carried GGH -354GG genotype (p = 0.003). No other significant association were observed. The 3 G/3 G genotype of the TYMS gene may indicate predisposition of poor response to MTX and GG genotype of GGH -354 T > G polymorphism may have high predictive value for myelosuppression in RA patients.

  16. Genotyping isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-locus denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was developed to investigate the genotypes of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato. ... These results demonstrated that multi-locus DGGE is a potentially useful molecular marker for genotyping, identifying and tracking the fates of experimentally released ...

  17. Genetic relationship among Musa genotypes revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... A banana germplasm was established containing 44 Musa genotypes collected from various locations in Malaysia. To detect their genetic variation and to rule out duplicates among cultivar, microsatellite markers were used in their analysis. The microsatellite profiles of 44 Musa genotypes of various origins.

  18. Adrenal rest tissue in gonads of patients with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: multicenter study of 45 French male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Peggy; Despert, François; Tranquart, François; Coutant, Régis; Tardy, Véronique; Kerlan, Véronique; Sonnet, Emmanuel; Baron, Sabine; Lorcy, Yannick; Emy, Philippe; Delavierre, Dominique; Monceaux, Françoise; Morel, Yves; Lecomte, Pierre

    2012-12-01

    Several cases of testicular adrenal rest tumours have been reported in men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to the classical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency but the prevalence has not been established. The aims of this report were to evaluate the frequency of testicular adrenal rest tissue in this population in a retrospective multicentre study involving eight endocrinology centres, and to determine whether treatment or genetic background had an impact on the occurrence of adrenal rest tissue. Testicular adrenal rest tissue (TART) was sought clinically and with ultrasound examination in forty-five males with CAH due to the classical form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency. When the diagnosis of testicular adrenal rest tumours was sought, good observance of treatment was judged on biological concentrations of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), delta4-androstenedione, active renin and testosterone. The results of affected and non-affected subjects were compared. TART was detected in none of the 18 subjects aged 1 to 15years but was detected in 14 of the 27 subjects aged more than 15years. Five patients with an abnormal echography result had no clinical signs. Therapeutic control evaluated at diagnosis of TART seemed less effective when diagnosis was made in patients with adrenal rest tissue compared to TART-free subjects. Various genotypes were observed in patients with or without TART. Due to the high prevalence of TART in classical CAH and the delayed clinical diagnosis, testicular ultrasonography must be performed before puberty and thereafter regularly during adulthood even if the clinical examination is normal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward fully automated genotyping: Genotyping microsatellite markers by deconvolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Lancia, G.; See-Kiong, Ng [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Dense genetic linkage maps have been constructed for the human and mouse genomes, with average densities of 2.9 cM and 0.35 cM, respectively. These genetic maps are crucial for mapping both Mendelian and complex traits and are useful in clinical genetic diagnosis. Current maps are largely comprised of abundant, easily assayed, and highly polymorphic PCR-based microsatellite markers, primarily dinucleotide (CA){sub n} repeats. One key limitation of these length polymorphisms is the PCR stutter (or slippage) artifact that introduces additional stutter bands. With two (or more) closely spaced alleles, the stutter bands overlap, and it is difficult to accurately determine the correct alleles; this stutter phenomenon has all but precluded full automation, since a human must visually inspect the allele data. We describe here novel deconvolution methods for accurate genotyping that mathematically remove PCR stutter artifact from microsatellite markers. These methods overcome the manual interpretation bottleneck and thereby enable full automation of genetic map construction and use. New functionalities, including the pooling of DNAs and the pooling of markers, are described that may greatly reduce the associated experimentation requirements. 32 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Resting state functional MRI in Parkinson's disease: the impact of deep brain stimulation on 'effective' connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Joshua; Urner, Maren; Moran, Rosalyn; Flandin, Guillaume; Marreiros, Andre; Mancini, Laura; White, Mark; Thornton, John; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia; Friston, Karl; Foltynie, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Depleted of dopamine, the dynamics of the parkinsonian brain impact on both 'action' and 'resting' motor behaviour. Deep brain stimulation has become an established means of managing these symptoms, although its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Non-invasive characterizations of induced brain responses, and the effective connectivity underlying them, generally appeals to dynamic causal modelling of neuroimaging data. When the brain is at rest, however, this sort of characterization has been limited to correlations (functional connectivity). In this work, we model the 'effective' connectivity underlying low frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in the resting Parkinsonian motor network-disclosing the distributed effects of deep brain stimulation on cortico-subcortical connections. Specifically, we show that subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation modulates all the major components of the motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop, including the cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical, direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways, and the hyperdirect subthalamic nucleus projections. The strength of effective subthalamic nucleus afferents and efferents were reduced by stimulation, whereas cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical and direct pathways were strengthened. Remarkably, regression analysis revealed that the hyperdirect, direct, and basal ganglia afferents to the subthalamic nucleus predicted clinical status and therapeutic response to deep brain stimulation; however, suppression of the sensitivity of the subthalamic nucleus to its hyperdirect afferents by deep brain stimulation may subvert the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation. Our findings highlight the distributed effects of stimulation on the resting motor network and provide a framework for analysing effective connectivity in resting state functional MRI with strong a priori hypotheses.

  1. Superior colliculus resting state networks in post-traumatic stress disorder and its dissociative subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivé, Isadora; Densmore, Maria; Harricharan, Sherain; Théberge, Jean; McKinnon, Margaret C; Lanius, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    The innate alarm system (IAS) models the neurocircuitry involved in threat processing in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we investigate a primary subcortical structure of the IAS model, the superior colliculus (SC), where the SC is thought to contribute to the mechanisms underlying threat-detection in PTSD. Critically, the functional connectivity between the SC and other nodes of the IAS remains unexplored. We conducted a resting-state fMRI study to investigate the functional architecture of the IAS, focusing on connectivity of the SC in PTSD (n = 67), its dissociative subtype (n = 41), and healthy controls (n = 50) using region-of-interest seed-based analysis. We observed group-specific resting state functional connectivity between the SC for both PTSD and its dissociative subtype, indicative of dedicated IAS collicular pathways in each group of patients. When comparing PTSD to its dissociative subtype, we observed increased resting state functional connectivity between the left SC and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in PTSD. The DLPFC is involved in modulation of emotional processes associated with active defensive responses characterising PTSD. Moreover, when comparing PTSD to its dissociative subtype, increased resting state functional connectivity was observed between the right SC and the right temporoparietal junction in the dissociative subtype. The temporoparietal junction is involved in depersonalization responses associated with passive defensive responses typical of the dissociative subtype. Our findings suggest that unique resting state functional connectivity of the SC parallels the unique symptom profile and defensive responses observed in PTSD and its dissociative subtype. Hum Brain Mapp 39:563-574, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Resting eggs in free living marine and estuarine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Kiørboe, Thomas; Brun, Philipp Georg

    2018-01-01

    Marine free living copepods can survive harsh periods and cope with seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions using resting eggs (embryonic dormancy). Laboratory experiments show that temperature is the common driver for resting egg production. Hence, we hypothesize (i) that seasonal...... temperature variation, rather than variation in food abundance is the main driver for the occurrence of the resting eggs strategy in marine and estuarine copepod species; and (ii) that the thermal boundaries of the distribution determine where resting eggs are produced and whether they are produced to cope...... with warm or cold periods. We compile literature information on the occurrence of resting egg production and relate this to spatio-temporal patterns in sea surface temperature and chlorophyll a concentration obtained from satellite observations. We find that the production of resting eggs has been reported...

  3. Rest but busy: Aberrant resting-state functional connectivity of triple network model in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojuan; Qin, Haixia; Wu, Taoyu; Hu, Hua; Liao, Keren; Cheng, Fei; Gao, Dong; Lei, Xu

    2018-02-01

    One classical hypothesis among many models to explain the etiology and maintenance of insomnia disorder (ID) is hyperarousal. Aberrant functional connectivity among resting-state large-scale brain networks may be the underlying neurological mechanisms of this hypothesis. The aim of current study was to investigate the functional network connectivity (FNC) among large-scale brain networks in patients with insomnia disorder (ID) during resting state. In the present study, the resting-state fMRI was used to evaluate whether patients with ID showed aberrant FNC among dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal control network (FPC), anterior default mode network (aDMN), and posterior default mode network (pDMN) compared with healthy good sleepers (HGSs). The Pearson's correlation analysis was employed to explore whether the abnormal FNC observed in patients with ID was associated with sleep parameters, cognitive and emotional scores, and behavioral performance assessed by questionnaires and tasks. Patients with ID had worse subjective thought control ability measured by Thought Control Ability Questionnaire (TCAQ) and more negative affect than HGSs. Intriguingly, relative to HGSs, patients with ID showed a significant increase in FNC between DAN and FPC, but a significant decrease in FNC between aDMN and pDMN. Exploratory analysis in patients with ID revealed a significantly positive correlation between the DAN-FPC FNC and reaction time (RT) of psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). The current study demonstrated that even during the resting state, the task-activated and task-deactivated large-scale brain networks in insomniacs may still maintain a hyperarousal state, looking quite similar to the pattern in a task condition with external stimuli. Those results support the hyperarousal model of insomnia.

  4. From "rest" to language task: Task activation selects and prunes from broader resting-state network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; He, Xiaosong; Sperling, Michael R; Sharan, Ashwini; Tracy, Joseph I

    2017-05-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs) show spatial patterns generally consistent with networks revealed during cognitive tasks. However, the exact degree of overlap between these networks has not been clearly quantified. Such an investigation shows promise for decoding altered functional connectivity (FC) related to abnormal language functioning in clinical populations such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In this context, we investigated the network configurations during a language task and during resting state using FC. Twenty-four healthy controls, 24 right and 24 left TLE patients completed a verb generation (VG) task and a resting-state fMRI scan. We compared the language network revealed by the VG task with three FC-based networks (seeding the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC)/Broca): two from the task (ON, OFF blocks) and one from the resting state. We found that, for both left TLE patients and controls, the RSN recruited regions bilaterally, whereas both VG-on and VG-off conditions produced more left-lateralized FC networks, matching more closely with the activated language network. TLE brings with it variability in both task-dependent and task-independent networks, reflective of atypical language organization. Overall, our findings suggest that our RSN captured bilateral activity, reflecting a set of prepotent language regions. We propose that this relationship can be best understood by the notion of pruning or winnowing down of the larger language-ready RSN to carry out specific task demands. Our data suggest that multiple types of network analyses may be needed to decode the association between language deficits and the underlying functional mechanisms altered by disease. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2540-2552, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest on Functional Mobility and Balance: Relationship to Resting State Motor Cortex Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, B.; Koppelmans, V.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA offers researchers from a variety of backgrounds the opportunity to study bed rest as an experimental analog for space flight. Extended exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble many of the effects of a low-gravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The aim of our study is to a) identify changes in brain function that occur with prolonged bed rest and characterize their recovery time course; b) assess whether and how these changes impact behavioral and neurocognitive performance. Thus far, we completed data collection from six participants that include task based and resting state fMRI. The data have been acquired through the bed rest facility located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Subjects remained in bed with their heads tilted down 6 degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. Behavioral measures and neuroimaging assessments were obtained at seven time points: a) 7 and 12 days before bed rest; b) 7, 30, and 65 days during bed rest; and c) 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (FcMRI) analysis was performed to assess the connectivity of motor cortex in and out of bed rest. We found a decrease in motor cortex connectivity with vestibular cortex and the cerebellum from pre bed rest to in bed rest. We also used a battery of behavioral measures including the functional mobility test and computerized dynamic posturography collected before and after bed rest. We will report the preliminary results of analyses relating brain and behavior changes. Furthermore, we will also report the preliminary results of a spatial working memory task and vestibular stimulation during in and out of bed rest.

  6. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and left ventricular function at rest in patients with rest angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the rest thallium-201 perfusion pattern during angina-free periods in 40 patients with rest angina pectoris secondary to coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% diameter narrowing). Seventeen patients had previous Q wave myocardial infarction. The perfusion defects were considered fixed or reversible, depending on the absence or presence of redistribution in the 4-hour delayed images. There were 40 perfusion defects (26 fixed and 14 reversible) in 27 patients whereas 13 patients had normal scans. Reversible perfusion defects were present in 10 patients (25%). Of the 26 fixed perfusion defects, 17 did not have corresponding Q waves. Occluded vessels (63%) had more perfusion defects than vessels with subtotal occlusion (30%) (p less than 0.01). The perfusion defect size was larger in patients with lower ejection fraction than in patients with higher ejection fraction. We conclude: (1) perfusion defects are common in patients with rest angina and are reversible in 25% of patients indicating reduced regional coronary blood flow; (2) the degree of stenosis affects the presence of perfusion defect; (3) fixed defects may be present without corresponding Q waves; and (4) global left ventricular function is related to the size of perfusion defects

  7. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation of visual creative imagery manipulation to resting-state brain oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuxuan; Zhang, Delong; Liang, Bishan; Wang, Zengjian; Li, Junchao; Gao, Zhenni; Gao, Mengxia; Chang, Song; Jiao, Bingqing; Huang, Ruiwang; Liu, Ming

    2018-02-01

    Visual creative imagery (VCI) manipulation is the key component of visual creativity; however, it remains largely unclear how it occurs in the brain. The present study investigated the brain neural response to VCI manipulation and its relation to intrinsic brain activity. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets related to a VCI task and a control task as well as pre- and post-task resting states in sequential sessions. A general linear model (GLM) was subsequently used to assess the specific activation of the VCI task compared with the control task. The changes in brain oscillation amplitudes across the pre-, on-, and post-task states were measured to investigate the modulation of the VCI task. Furthermore, we applied a Granger causal analysis (GCA) to demonstrate the dynamic neural interactions that underlie the modulation effect. We determined that the VCI task specifically activated the left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis (IFGtriang) and the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), as well as the temporoparietal areas, including the left inferior temporal gyrus, right precuneus, and bilateral superior parietal gyrus. Furthermore, the VCI task modulated the intrinsic brain activity of the right IFGtriang (0.01-0.08 Hz) and the left caudate nucleus (0.2-0.25 Hz). Importantly, an inhibitory effect (negative) may exist from the left SFG to the right IFGtriang in the on-VCI task state, in the frequency of 0.01-0.08 Hz, whereas this effect shifted to an excitatory effect (positive) in the subsequent post-task resting state. Taken together, the present findings provide experimental evidence for the existence of a common mechanism that governs the brain activity of many regions at resting state and whose neural activity may engage during the VCI manipulation task, which may facilitate an understanding of the neural substrate of visual creativity.

  9. Resting states are resting traits--an FMRI study of sex differences and menstrual cycle effects in resting state cognitive control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the current study is particularly interested in fronto-parietal resting state networks. Resting state fMRI was measured in sixteen women during three different cycle phases (menstrual, follicular, and luteal). Fifteen men underwent three sessions in corresponding time intervals. We used independent component analysis to identify four fronto-parietal networks. The results showed sex differences in two of these networks with women exhibiting higher functional connectivity in general, including the prefrontal cortex. Menstrual cycle effects on resting states were non-existent. It is concluded that sex differences in resting state fMRI might reflect sexual dimorphisms in the brain rather than transitory activating effects of sex hormones on the functional connectivity in the resting brain.

  10. Developing RESTful web services with Jersey 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Gulabani, Sunil

    2013-01-01

    The book will follow a standard tutorial approach and will teach readers how to use the Jersey API for creating RESTful web services.This book is intended for Java EE developers who are building applications on the REST architecture. This is a quick, hands-on guide for learning JAX-RS 2.0. Developers should have some knowledge about RESTful web services but it's not essential to know JAX-RS 1.0.

  11. Genomic evaluations with many more genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiggans George R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic evaluations in Holstein dairy cattle have quickly become more reliable over the last two years in many countries as more animals have been genotyped for 50,000 markers. Evaluations can also include animals genotyped with more or fewer markers using new tools such as the 777,000 or 2,900 marker chips recently introduced for cattle. Gains from more markers can be predicted using simulation, whereas strategies to use fewer markers have been compared using subsets of actual genotypes. The overall cost of selection is reduced by genotyping most animals at less than the highest density and imputing their missing genotypes using haplotypes. Algorithms to combine different densities need to be efficient because numbers of genotyped animals and markers may continue to grow quickly. Methods Genotypes for 500,000 markers were simulated for the 33,414 Holsteins that had 50,000 marker genotypes in the North American database. Another 86,465 non-genotyped ancestors were included in the pedigree file, and linkage disequilibrium was generated directly in the base population. Mixed density datasets were created by keeping 50,000 (every tenth of the markers for most animals. Missing genotypes were imputed using a combination of population haplotyping and pedigree haplotyping. Reliabilities of genomic evaluations using linear and nonlinear methods were compared. Results Differing marker sets for a large population were combined with just a few hours of computation. About 95% of paternal alleles were determined correctly, and > 95% of missing genotypes were called correctly. Reliability of breeding values was already high (84.4% with 50,000 simulated markers. The gain in reliability from increasing the number of markers to 500,000 was only 1.6%, but more than half of that gain resulted from genotyping just 1,406 young bulls at higher density. Linear genomic evaluations had reliabilities 1.5% lower than the nonlinear evaluations with 50

  12. Volunteer Work, Religious Commitment, and Resting Pulse Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Ironson, Gail; Hill, Peter C

    2017-04-01

    Research indicates that greater involvement in volunteer activities is associated with better health. We aim to contribute to this literature in two ways. First, rather than rely on self-reports of health, measured resting pulse rates serve as the dependent variable. Second, an effort is made to see if religious commitment moderates the relationship between volunteering and resting pulse rates. Data that come from a recent nationwide survey (N = 2265) suggest that volunteer work is associated with lower resting pulse rates. The results also reveal that the relationship between engaging in volunteer work and resting pulse rates improves among study participants who are more deeply committed to religion.

  13. Introducing the PRIDE Archive RESTful web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Florian; del-Toro, Noemi; Ternent, Tobias; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The PRIDE (PRoteomics IDEntifications) database is one of the world-leading public repositories of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data and it is a founding member of the ProteomeXchange Consortium of proteomics resources. In the original PRIDE database system, users could access data programmatically by accessing the web services provided by the PRIDE BioMart interface. New REST (REpresentational State Transfer) web services have been developed to serve the most popular functionality provided by BioMart (now discontinued due to data scalability issues) and address the data access requirements of the newly developed PRIDE Archive. Using the API (Application Programming Interface) it is now possible to programmatically query for and retrieve peptide and protein identifications, project and assay metadata and the originally submitted files. Searching and filtering is also possible by metadata information, such as sample details (e.g. species and tissues), instrumentation (mass spectrometer), keywords and other provided annotations. The PRIDE Archive web services were first made available in April 2014. The API has already been adopted by a few applications and standalone tools such as PeptideShaker, PRIDE Inspector, the Unipept web application and the Python-based BioServices package. This application is free and open to all users with no login requirement and can be accessed at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/ws/archive/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  15. Rest frame properties of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    The proton is modeled as three quarks of small current quark mass. The three-body Dirac equation is solved with spin-independent central diagonal linear confining potentials with an attractive Coulombic term in a relativistic three-quark model. Hyperspherical coordinates are used, and the bound state is found analytically. After integrating over the hyperangles, the Hamiltonian is an 8 by 8 matrix of coupled first-order differential equations in one variable, the hyperradius. These are analytically solved in hypercentral approximation. For the (1/2 + ) 3 ground-state configuration in the nonrelativistic large-quark-mass limit, there are no nodes in the wave function. However, in the extreme relativistic limit of small current quark masses of a few MeV, the expectation value of the number of nodes is about 1.30 when the potential parameters are chosen to reproduce the proton rms charge radius. The quarks are assumed to possess a Pauli anomalous magnetic moment, like that of the electron and muon of (α/2π)(e/m). Assuming all three quarks have equal mass, one can fit the rest energy, magnetic moment, rms charge radius, and axial charge of the proton with this relativistic three-body Dirac equation model. The solution found shows the necessity of including all components of the composite three-quark wave function, as the upper component contributes only 0.585 to the norm

  16. In search of a consensus model of the resting state of a voltage-sensing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ernesto; Bezanilla, Francisco; Roux, Benoît

    2011-12-08

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) undergo conformational changes in response to the membrane potential and are the critical structural modules responsible for the activation of voltage-gated channels. Structural information about the key conformational states underlying voltage activation is currently incomplete. Through the use of experimentally determined residue-residue interactions as structural constraints, we determine and refine a model of the Kv channel VSD in the resting conformation. The resulting structural model is in broad agreement with results that originate from various labs using different techniques, indicating the emergence of a consensus for the structural basis of voltage sensing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The glutathione-S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) null genotype and increased neutrophil response to low-level ozone (0.06 ppm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure of healthy young adults to 03 modulates immune cell biology in the airways and causes a significant increase in neutrophilic inflammation which can vary considerably in magnitude across individuals. The GSTM1null genotype modulates Oj-induced inflammation, bu...

  18. The effects of a mid-task break on the brain connectome in healthy participants: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Lim, Julian; Dai, Zhongxiang; Wong, KianFoong; Taya, Fumihiko; Chen, Yu; Li, Junhua; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2017-05-15

    Although rest breaks are commonly administered as a countermeasure to reduce mental fatigue and boost cognitive performance, the effects of taking a break on behavior are not consistent. Moreover, our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of rest breaks and how they modulate mental fatigue is still rudimentary. In this study, we investigated the effects of receiving a rest break on the topological properties of brain connectivity networks via a two-session experimental paradigm, in which one session comprised four successive blocks of a mentally demanding visual selective attention task (No-rest session), whereas the other contained a rest break between the second and third task blocks (Rest session). Functional brain networks were constructed using resting-state functional MRI data recorded from 20 healthy adults before and after the performance of the task blocks. Behaviorally, subjects displayed robust time-on-task (TOT) declines, as reflected by increasingly slower reaction time as the test progressed and lower post-task self-reported ratings of engagement. However, we did not find a significant effect on task performance due to administering a mid-task break. Compared to pre-task measurements, post-task functional brain networks demonstrated an overall decrease of optimal small-world properties together with lower global efficiency. Specifically, we found TOT-related reduced nodal efficiency in brain regions that mainly resided in the subcortical areas. More interestingly, a significant block-by-session interaction was revealed in local efficiency, attributing to a significant post-task decline in No-rest session and a preserved local efficiency when a mid-task break opportunity was introduced in the Rest session. Taken together, these findings augment our understanding of how the resting brain reorganizes following the accumulation of prolonged task, suggest dissociable processes between the neural mechanisms of fatigue and recovery, and provide

  19. GPi oscillatory activity differentiates tics from the resting state, voluntary movements, and the unmedicated parkinsonian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Jimenez-Shahed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS. Thalamic (Cm-Pf and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs within the STN in PD patients is pathologic. Methods: We recorded intraoperative local field potentials (LFPs from the postero-ventrolateral GPi in three adult patients with TS at rest, during voluntary movements, and during tic activity and compared them to the intraoperative GPi-LFP activity recorded from four unmedicated PD patients at rest. Results: In all PD patients, we noted excessive beta band activity (13-30Hz at rest which consistently modulated the amplitude of the co-existent HFOs observed between 200-400Hz, indicating the presence of beta-HFO CFC. In all 3 TS patients at rest, we observed theta band activity (4-7Hz and HFOs. Two patients had beta band activity, though at lower power than theta oscillations. Tic activity was associated with increased high frequency (200-400Hz and gamma band (35-200Hz activity. There was no beta-HFO CFC in TS patients at rest. However, CFC between the phase of 5-10Hz band activity and the amplitude of HFOs was found in two TS patients. During tics, this shifted to CFC between the phase of beta band activity and the amplitude of HFOs in all subjects. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that shows that beta-HFO CFC exists in the GPi of TS patients during tics and at rest in PD patients, and suggests that this pattern might be specific to pathologic/involuntary movements. Furthermore, our findings suggest that during tics, resting

  20. Developmental plasticity: re-conceiving the genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sonia E

    2017-10-06

    In recent decades, the phenotype of an organism (i.e. its traits and behaviour) has been studied as the outcome of a developmental 'programme' coded in its genotype. This deterministic view is implicit in the Modern Synthesis approach to adaptive evolution as a sorting process among genetic variants. Studies of developmental pathways have revealed that genotypes are in fact differently expressed depending on environmental conditions. Accordingly, the genotype can be understood as a repertoire of potential developmental outcomes or norm of reaction. Reconceiving the genotype as an environmental response repertoire rather than a fixed developmental programme leads to three critical evolutionary insights. First, plastic responses to specific conditions often comprise functionally appropriate trait adjustments, resulting in an individual-level, developmental mode of adaptive variation. Second, because genotypes are differently expressed depending on the environment, the genetic diversity available to natural selection is itself environmentally contingent. Finally, environmental influences on development can extend across multiple generations via cytoplasmic and epigenetic factors transmitted to progeny individuals, altering their responses to their own, immediate environmental conditions and, in some cases, leading to inherited but non-genetic adaptations. Together, these insights suggest a more nuanced understanding of the genotype and its evolutionary role, as well as a shift in research focus to investigating the complex developmental interactions among genotypes, environments and previous environments.

  1. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  2. Appraisal of genetic diversity of different peach cultivars and genotypes through rapd markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakht, J.; Jamal, N.; Shafi, M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was amid to investigate the genetic diversity of twenty peach cultivars and genotypes by RAPD primers at the Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, KPK Agricultural University Peshawar. The result indicated that fifteen primers (GLCO9, GLC20, GLA20, GLA13, GLB10, GLB20, GLB06, GLB19, GLA19, GLB19, GLD16, GLB15, GLA15, GLB12, GLB11) gave genetic distance among the peach cultivars and genotypes under study by PCR amplification. Average genetic diversity (estimated as genetic distance) ranged between 12 and 58%. The molecular size of most of the bands were from 150 bp to 1000 bp. Based on dendrogram analysis, Khyber 1 and Khyber 2 was grouped in cluster A, and Tex-A6-69 and BY-8-135 in cluster B, Candan and 6A were most closely related cultivars and genotypes among the 20 peach cultivars and genotypes while Lering, Flam crest, Tex x-9, early grand and Floradaking were distinctly grouped when compared with the rest of population. (author)

  3. Cold tolerance evaluation in Chilean rice genotypes at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Donoso Ñanculao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is the most important abiotic stress affecting rice (Oryza sativa L. yield in Chile. Rice in Chile is usually planted when the minimum air temperatures are below 12 °C. This temperature is lower than the optimum needed for normal rice germination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate cold tolerance in 20 experimental lines from the Rice Breeding Program of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile, at the germination stage. Coleoptile length reduction (CRED, coleoptile length after cold treatment (CLEN, coleoptile length recovery (CREC, and coleoptile regrowth (CREG were evaluated at 13 °C for 4 d using 'Diamante-INIA' as the cold-tolerant control. To find genotypes with cold tolerance (low CRED value and high CLEN, CREC, and CREG values, genotypes were ranked, a biplot of principal components, and cluster analysis were performed. No differences were found among genotypes in the ranking based on CREC value so this trait was not considered. Analysis showed that only three experimental lines had cold tolerance similar to that of 'Diamante-INIA'; all other experimental lines exhibited intermediate to low cold tolerance. These results showed low cold tolerance of some Chilean genotypes at the germination stage, thus confirming the need to evaluate the rest of the germplasm from the Rice Breeding Program.

  4. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WHEAT GENOTYPES UNDER OPTIMUM AND WATER DEFICIT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihteram Ullah et al

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of 14 wheat genotypes including two checks were evaluated under irrigated (non-stress and rainfed (stress conditions for yield and yield components during 2009-10 at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar. Analysis across two environments revealed highly significant differences (P ≤ 0.01 between the two production systems for tillers m-2and grain yield, significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 for number of grain spike-1while non significant differences were observed for 1000-grain weight. Similarly, genetic variation among the genotypes was also highly significant for spike length and 1000-grain weight while non significant for the rest of the parameters. Genotype × environment interaction was significant for tillers m-2 and number of grain spike-1 only. Averaged over 14 wheat genotypes, reduction in tillers m-2, spike length, grains spike-1 and grain yield under rainfed environment was 127 m-2, 0.9, 7 and 707 kg ha-1, respectively compared to irrigated environment. For majority of the studied traits heritability was found lower under drought stress conditions compared to non-stressed condition

  5. Genotype X/C recombinant (putative genotype I) of hepatitis B virus is rare in Hanoi, Vietnam--genotypes B4 and C1 predominate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Thi Bich Thuy; Alestig, Erik; Nguyen, Thanh Liem; Hannoun, Charles; Lindh, Magnus

    2010-08-01

    There are eight known genotypes of hepatitis B virus, A-H, and several subgenotypes, with rather well-defined geographic distributions. HBV genotypes were evaluated in 153 serum samples from Hanoi, Vietnam. Of the 87 samples that could be genotyped, genotype B was found in 67 (77%) and genotype C in 19 (22%). All genotype C strains were of subgenotype C1, and the majority of genotype B strains were B4, while a few were B2. The genotype X/C recombinant strain, identified previously in Swedish patients of indigenous Vietnamese origin, was found in one sample. This variant, proposed to be classified as genotype I, has been found recently also by others in Vietnam and Laos. The current study indicates that the genotype X/C recombinant may represent approximately 1% of the HBV strains circulating in Vietnam. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Comparison of stress-rest and rest-stress one day myocardial perfusion scintigraphies in detecting coronary artery diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Song, Ho Cheon; Kim, Ji Yeul

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress myocardial perfusion imaging with technetium agents can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few hours. The purpose of this study was to compare the two protocols (stress-rest and rest-stress) in detecting coronary artery diseases. One hundred and sixty patients (101 males, 59 females, mean age 57±9 years) and 120 patients (79 males, 41 females, mean age 59±10 years) underwent stress-rest myocardial perfusion SPECT and rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT, respectively. All of them underwent both myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 1 month. A coronary stenosis was considered significant when it compromised the luminal diameter by ≥50%. The chi square test was used to compare differences in sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between the two groups. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of stress-rest protocol were 99%, 35% and 68%, respectively. Those of rest-stress protocol were 96%, 47% and 78%, respectively. There was no difference between the two protocols in identifying individual diseased coronary artery branches. Therefore, one day stress-rest and rest-stress myocardial SPECT using 99m Tc agents were comparable and were very sensitive tests in detecting coronary artery diseases

  7. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  8. Aging, resting pulse rate, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Stessman-Lande, Irit; Gilon, Dan; Leibowitz, David

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between resting pulse rate (RPR) and longevity in individuals aged 70 to 90. The Jerusalem Longitudinal Cohort Study (1990-2010) is a prospective longitudinal study of a representative cohort born in 1920-21. Home-based comprehensive assessment in 1990, 1998, and 2005. Individuals aged 70 (n = 453), 78 (n = 856), and 85 (n = 1,044), with follow-up to age 90. Comprehensive assessment included average RPR, beta-blocker usage, and physical activity level. Mortality data were collected from the Ministry of Interior from 1990 to 2010. Cox proportional hazards ratios (HRs) were determined for RPR (continuous variable), adjusting for sex, education, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, hypertension, kidney disease, anemia, physical activity, body mass index, self-rated health, dementia, beta-blocker use, and an interaction term for RPR by beta-blocker use. Mean RPR was 75.1 ± 9.9 at 70, 74.5 ± 10.9 at 78, and 68.5 ± 10.5 at 85 in women and 74.3 ± 10.7 at 70, 73.1 ± 11.2 at 78, and 65.2 ± 10.5 at 85 in men, with a significant decline from 78 to 85 for both sexes. In participants not taking beta-blockers followed up from 70 to 77, 78 to 84, and 85 to 90, mean RPR was lower in survivors than nonsurvivors for women (75.8 ± 9.2 vs 83.5 ± 10.9, P longevity. It may serve as a simple prognostic marker in the oldest old. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Atypical Laterality of Resting Gamma Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Villalobos, Michele E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Kohls, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal brain oscillatory activity has been found in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and proposed as a potential biomarker. While several studies have investigated gamma oscillations in ASD, none have examined resting gamma power across multiple brain regions. This study investigated resting gamma power using EEG in 15 boys with ASD and 18 age…

  10. Rest tremor in idiopathic adult-onset dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, A F; Berardelli, A; Defazio, G

    2016-05-01

    Tremor in dystonia has been described as a postural or kinetic abnormality. In recent series, however, patients with idiopathic adult-onset dystonia also displayed rest tremor. The frequency and distribution of rest tremor were studied in a cohort of 173 consecutive Italian patients affected by various forms of idiopathic adult-onset dystonia attending our movement disorder clinic over 8 months. Examination revealed tremor in 59/173 patients (34%): 12 patients had head tremor, 34 patients had arm tremor, whilst 13 patients presented tremor in both sites. Head tremor was postural in all patients, whereas arm tremor was postural/kinetic in 28 patients, only at rest in one and both postural/kinetic and at rest in 18 patients. Patients with tremor were more likely to have segmental/multifocal dystonia. Patients who had rest tremor (either alone or associated with action tremor) had a higher age at dystonia onset and a greater frequency of dystonic arm involvement than patients with action tremor alone or without tremor. Both action and rest tremor are part of the tremor spectrum of adult-onset dystonia and are more frequently encountered in segmental/multifocal dystonia. The higher age at dystonia onset and the greater frequency of arm dystonia in patients with rest tremor may have pathophysiological implications and may account, at least in part, for the previous lack of identification of rest tremor as one possible type of tremor present in dystonia. © 2016 EAN.

  11. Identification of Resting State Networks Involved in Executive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joanna; McNulty, Jonathan P; Boran, Lorraine; Roche, Richard A P; Delany, David; Bokde, Arun L W

    2016-06-01

    The structural networks in the human brain are consistent across subjects, and this is reflected also in that functional networks across subjects are relatively consistent. These findings are not only present during performance of a goal oriented task but there are also consistent functional networks during resting state. It suggests that goal oriented activation patterns may be a function of component networks identified using resting state. The current study examines the relationship between resting state networks measured and patterns of neural activation elicited during a Stroop task. The association between the Stroop-activated networks and the resting state networks was quantified using spatial linear regression. In addition, we investigated if the degree of spatial association of resting state networks with the Stroop task may predict performance on the Stroop task. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Stroop activated network can be decomposed into a number of resting state networks, which were primarily associated with attention, executive function, visual perception, and the default mode network. The close spatial correspondence between the functional organization of the resting brain and task-evoked patterns supports the relevance of resting state networks in cognitive function.

  12. Restful Implementation of Catalogue Service for Geospatial Data Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L. C.; Yue, P.; Lu, X. C.

    2013-10-01

    Provenance, also known as lineage, is important in understanding the derivation history of data products. Geospatial data provenance helps data consumers to evaluate the quality and reliability of geospatial data. In a service-oriented environment, where data are often consumed or produced by distributed services, provenance could be managed by following the same service-oriented paradigm. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is used for the registration and query of geospatial data provenance by extending ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM). Recent advance of the REpresentational State Transfer (REST) paradigm has shown great promise for the easy integration of distributed resources. RESTful Web Service aims to provide a standard way for Web clients to communicate with servers based on REST principles. The existing approach for provenance catalogue service could be improved by adopting the RESTful design. This paper presents the design and implementation of a catalogue service for geospatial data provenance following RESTful architecture style. A middleware named REST Converter is added on the top of the legacy catalogue service to support a RESTful style interface. The REST Converter is composed of a resource request dispatcher and six resource handlers. A prototype service is developed to demonstrate the applicability of the approach.

  13. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  14. Cognitive and default-mode resting state networks: do male and female brains "rest" differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Moayedi, Massieh; Taylor, Keri S; Pope, Geoff; Davis, Karen D

    2010-11-01

    Variability in human behavior related to sex is supported by neuroimaging studies showing differences in brain activation patterns during cognitive task performance. An emerging field is examining the human connectome, including networks of brain regions that are not only temporally-correlated during different task conditions, but also networks that show highly correlated spontaneous activity during a task-free state. Both task-related and task-free network activity has been associated with individual task performance and behavior under certain conditions. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether sex differences exist during a task-free resting state for two networks associated with cognitive task performance (executive control network (ECN), salience network (SN)) and the default mode network (DMN). Forty-nine healthy subjects (26 females, 23 males) underwent a 5-min task-free fMRI scan in a 3T MRI. An independent components analysis (ICA) was performed to identify the best-fit IC for each network based on specific spatial nodes defined in previous studies. To determine the consistency of these networks across subjects we performed self-organizing group-level ICA analyses. There were no significant differences between sexes in the functional connectivity of the brain areas within the ECN, SN, or the DMN. These important findings highlight the robustness of intrinsic connectivity of these resting state networks and their similarity between sexes. Furthermore, our findings suggest that resting state fMRI studies do not need to be controlled for sex. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Hepatitis B virus genotypes circulating in Brazil: molecular characterization of genotype F isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgolino Helaine A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV isolates have been classified in eight genotypes, A to H, which exhibit distinct geographical distributions. Genotypes A, D and F are predominant in Brazil, a country formed by a miscegenated population, where the proportion of individuals from Caucasian, Amerindian and African origins varies by region. Genotype F, which is the most divergent, is considered indigenous to the Americas. A systematic molecular characterization of HBV isolates from different parts of the world would be invaluable in establishing HBV evolutionary origins and dispersion patterns. A large-scale study is needed to map the region-by-region distribution of the HBV genotypes in Brazil. Results Genotyping by PCR-RFLP of 303 HBV isolates from HBsAg-positive blood donors showed that at least two of the three genotypes, A, D, and F, co-circulate in each of the five geographic regions of Brazil. No other genotypes were identified. Overall, genotype A was most prevalent (48.5%, and most of these isolates were classified as subgenotype A1 (138/153; 90.2%. Genotype D was the most common genotype in the South (84.2% and Central (47.6% regions. The prevalence of genotype F was low (13% countrywide. Nucleotide sequencing of the S gene and a phylogenetic analysis of 32 HBV genotype F isolates showed that a great majority (28/32; 87.5% belonged to subgenotype F2, cluster II. The deduced serotype of 31 of 32 F isolates was adw4. The remaining isolate showed a leucine-to-isoleucine substitution at position 127. Conclusion The presence of genotypes A, D and F, and the absence of other genotypes in a large cohort of HBV infected individuals may reflect the ethnic origins of the Brazilian population. The high prevalence of isolates from subgenotype A1 (of African origin indicates that the African influx during the colonial slavery period had a major impact on the circulation of HBV genotype A currently found in Brazil. Although most genotype F

  16. Clinical relevance of apolipoprotein E genotyping based on a family history of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckhoff, Hilmar K; Brand, Theresa; van Velden, Dawid P; Kidd, Martin; Fisher, Leslie R; van Rensburg, Susan J; Kotze, Maritha J

    2015-01-01

    Having a family history of Alzheimer' s disease (AD) may potentiate cumulative risk associated with phenotypic expression of the ε-4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene. In this study, we compared the genotype distribution and allele frequencies of APOE ε-2 (rs7412) and ε -4 (rs429358) in 537 South African individuals participating in a chronic disease screening program, in order to establish whether AD family history modulates the expression of their dyslipidemic effects. Significant differences in the genotype distribution for APOE ε-2 (p=0.034) as well as APOE ε-4 (p=0.038) were found between study participants with (n=67) and without (n=470) a family history of AD. LDL cholesterol levels were inversely associated with physical activity in the study group with a positive family history of AD (pfamilial hypercholesterolemia, clinical inquiry regarding family history was identified as an important determinant of eligibility for APOE genotyping performed in the context of chronic disease risk management. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the modulating influence of AD family history on expression of a dyslipidemic phenotype associated with the APOE ε-4 allele. Our findings provide the scientific rationale supporting a novel clinical application for APOE genotyping as a means of identifying a genetic subgroup of dyslipidemic patients set to derive the greatest benefit from early lifestyle-based interventions aimed at decreasing cumulative risk for cardiovascular disease and prevention of AD later in life.

  17. Stress/Rest Tc-99m-MIBI SPECT in Comparison with Rest/Stress Rubidium - 82 PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Kamg, K. W.; Lee, K. H.; Jeong, J. M.; Kwark, C. E.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M.C.; Seo, J. D.; Koh, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    We compared stress/rest myocardial Tc-99m-MIBI tomographic image findings with rest/stress rubidium-82 tomographic images. In 23 patients with coronary artery disease (12 of them received bypass grafts before) and 6 normal subjects, rest rubidium PET study was performed, rubidium-82 and Tc-99m-MIBI were injected simultaneously to each patient after dipyridamole stress for rubidium PET and MIBI SPECT; and rest MIBI SPECT was performed 4 hours thereafter. We scored segmental decrease of rubidium, or MIBI uptakes into 5 grades for 29 segments from 3 short-axis, vertical and horizontal slices. Scores were summed for each major arterial territory. When more score than two grade-2's or one grade-3 was considered as the cue for significant stenosis for major arterial territories, 67% of 46 stenosed arteries were found with MIBI studies and 78% of them by rubidium studies. Fourteen among 28 grafted arterial territories of 12 post-CABG patients were found normal with both rubidium and MIBI. Segmental scores were concordant between rubidium and MIBI in 72% of 709-stress segments and in 80% of 825 rest segments. Stress rubidium segmental scores were less than stress MIBI scores in 9%, so were rest rubidium scores. Stress rubidium scores were more than stress MIBI scores in 20% of segments, and rest rubidium segmental scores were more than rest MIBI scores in 11%. Rank correlations (Spearman's rho's more than 0.7(stress) and 0.5(rest), slopes (MIBI/rubidium) around 0.7(stress) and 0.9(rest) suggested deeper and wider defects in stress with rubidium. Slope over 1 (MIBI/rubidium) with LAD segmental scores at rest and 7 territories which had much larger score with MIBI revealed exaggeration of rest defects with rest MIBI in same-day stress/rest study. Difference scores (stress-rest for each territory) suggesting ischemia were larger with rubidium (slope of MIBI/rubidium around 0.45). As has been implied by animal or separate-day- human studies, these segmental analyses with

  18. Forensic SNP genotyping with SNaPshot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fondevila, M; Børsting, C; Phillips, C

    2017-01-01

    to routine STR profiling, use of SNaPshot is an important part of the development of SNP sets for a wide range of forensic applications with these markers, from genotyping highly degraded DNA with very short amplicons to the introduction of SNPs to ascertain the ancestry and physical characteristics......This review explores the key factors that influence the optimization, routine use, and profile interpretation of the SNaPshot single-base extension (SBE) system applied to forensic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Despite being a mainly complimentary DNA genotyping technique...... of an unidentified contact trace donor. However, this technology, as resourceful as it is, displays several features that depart from the usual STR genotyping far enough to demand a certain degree of expertise from the forensic analyst before tackling the complex casework on which SNaPshot application provides...

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Microsatellite Genotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently ~2,400 Hawaiian monk seal specimens have been analyzed genetically, providing genotypes at 18 microsatellite loci. These data are organized by individual,...

  20. Global distribution of novel rhinovirus genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briese, Thomas; Renwick, Neil; Venter, Marietjie

    2008-01-01

    Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years Udgivelsesdato...

  1. Assessment of antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium ... This study was designed to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibilities, genotypic characteristics and ..... Distribution of reference and virulence genes among antibiotic-sensitive S. aureus (SAS), .... environmental factors such as temperature, water activity,.

  2. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs, which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  3. Hepatitis C Virus: Viral Quasispecies and Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-12-22

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mainly replicates in the cytoplasm, where it easily establishes persistent infection, resulting in chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Due to its high rate of mutation, HCV forms viral quasispecies, categorized based on the highly variable regions in the envelope protein and nonstructural 5A protein. HCV possesses seven major genotypes, among which genotype 1 is the most prevalent globally. The distribution of HCV genotypes varies based on geography, and each genotype has a different sensitivity to interferon treatment. Recently-developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), which target viral proteases or polymerases, mediate drastically better antiviral effects than previous therapeutics. Although treatment with DAAs has led to the development of drug-resistant HCV mutants, the most recently approved DAAs show improved pan-genomic activity, with a higher barrier to viral resistance.

  4. Early seedling development of Medicago truncatula genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adel

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... heat shock proteins; ABA, abscisic acid. Page 2. Amar et al. 323. Figure 1. Seed vigor of M. truncatula genotypes under different salt stress conditions. Results are means ..... (HSPs) that accumulate during seed late maturation.

  5. Hearing impairment in genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, R.F.; Pennings, R.J.E.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Bruno, R.; Eller, P.; Barrett, T.G.; Vialettes, B.; Paquis-Fluklinger, V.; Lombardo, F.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the features "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). We sought to study the audiometric data of genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients with sensorineural hearing impairment.

  6. Genotyping of polymorphic effectors of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan apicomplexan and obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of animals and humans. Rhoptry proteins 5 (ROP5, ROP16, ROP18 and dense granules 15 (GRA15 are the important effectors secreted by T. gondii which link to the strain virulence for mice and modulate the host’s response to the parasite. Little has been known about these molecules as well as GRA3 in type Chinese 1 strains that show polymorphism among strains of archetypical genotypes. This study examined the genetic diversity of these effectors and its correlated virulence in mice among T. gondii isolates from China. Results Twenty-one isolates from stray cats were detected, of which 15 belong to Chinese 1, and 6 to ToxoDB #205. Wh6 isolate, a Chinese 1 strain, has an avirulent phenotype. PCR-RFLP results of ROP5 and ROP18 presented few variations among the strains. Genotyping of GRA15 and ROP16 revealed that all the strains belong to type II allele except Xz7 which carries type I allele. ROP16 amino acid alignment at 503 locus demonstrated that 17 isolates are featured as type I or type III (ROP16I/III, and the other 4 as type II (ROP16II. The strains investigated may be divided into four groups based on GRA3 amino acid alignment, and all isolates of type Chinese 1 belong to the μ-1 allele except Wh6 which is identical to type II strain. Conclusions PCR-RFLP and sequence alignment analyses of ROP5, ROP16, ROP18, GRA3, and GRA15 in T. gondii revealed that strains with the same genotype may have variations in some of their key genes. GRA3 variation exhibited by Wh6 strain may be associated with the difference in phenotype and pathogenesis.

  7. APOE-ε4 Allele Altered the Rest-Stimulus Interactions in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xian Yan

    Full Text Available The apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele is a well-known genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, which also impacts the cognitive functions and brain network connectivity in healthy middle-aged adults without dementia. Previous studies mainly focused on the effects of apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele on single index using task or resting-state fMRI. However, how these evoked and spontaneous BOLD indices interact with each other remains largely unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the 'rest-stimulus interaction' between working-memory activation and resting-state connectivity in middle-aged apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers (n=9 and non-carriers (n=8. Four n-back task scans (n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and one resting-state scan were acquired at a 3T clinical MRI scanner. The working-memory beta maps of low-, moderate-, and high-memory loads and resting-state connectivity maps of default mode, executive control, and hippocampal networks were derived and compared between groups. Apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers presented declined working-memory activation in the high-memory load across whole brain regions and reduced hippocampal connectivity compared with non-carriers. In addition, disrupted rest-stimulus interactions were found in the right anterior insula and bilateral parahippocampal regions for middle-aged adults with apolipoprotein E-ε4 allele. The rest-stimulus interaction improved the detectability of network integrity changes in apolipoprotein E-ε4 carriers, demonstrating the disrupted intrinsic connectivity within the executive-functional regions and the modulated memory-encoding capability within hippocampus-related regions.

  8. HIV-1 gp120 induces NFAT nuclear translocation in resting CD4+ T-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicala, Claudia; Arthos, James; Censoplano, Nina; Cruz, Catherine; Chung, Eva; Martinelli, Elena; Lempicki, Richard A.; Natarajan, Ven; VanRyk, Donald; Daucher, Marybeth; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    The replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in CD4+ T-cells is strongly dependent upon the state of activation of infected cells. Infection of sub-optimally activated cells is believed to play a critical role in both the transmission of virus and the persistence of CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. There is accumulating evidence that HIV can modulate signal-transduction pathways in a manner that may facilitate replication in such cells. We previously demonstrated that HIV gp120 induces virus replication in resting CD4+ T cells isolated from HIV-infected individuals. Here, we show that in resting CD4+ T-cells, gp120 activates NFATs and induces their translocation into the nucleus. The HIV LTR encodes NFAT recognition sites, and NFATs may play a critical role in promoting viral replication in sub-optimally activated cells. These observations provide insight into a potential mechanism by which HIV is able to establish infection in resting cells, which may have implications for both transmission of HIV and the persistence of viral reservoirs

  9. Resting-state Functional Connectivity is an Age-dependent Predictor of Motor Learning Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Leproult, Rachel; De Tiège, Xavier; Peigneux, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    This magnetoencephalography study investigates how ageing modulates the relationship between pre-learning resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and subsequent learning. Neuromagnetic resting-state activity was recorded 5 min before motor sequence learning in 14 young (19-30 years) and 14 old (66-70 years) participants. We used a seed-based beta-band power envelope correlation approach to estimate rsFC maps, with the seed located in the right primary sensorimotor cortex. In each age group, the relation between individual rsFC and learning performance was investigated using Pearson's correlation analyses. Our results show that rsFC is predictive of subsequent motor sequence learning but involves different cross-network interactions in the two age groups. In young adults, decreased coupling between the sensorimotor network and the cortico-striato-cerebellar network is associated with better motor learning, whereas a similar relation is found in old adults between the sensorimotor, the dorsal-attentional and the DMNs. Additionally, age-related correlational differences were found in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, known to subtend attentional and controlled processes. These findings suggest that motor skill learning depends-in an age-dependent manner-on subtle interactions between resting-state networks subtending motor activity on the one hand, and controlled and attentional processes on the other hand. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Existence of various human parvovirus B19 genotypes in Chinese plasma pools: genotype 1, genotype 3, putative intergenotypic recombinant variants and new genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Junting; Ma, Yuyuan; Zhao, Xiong; Huangfu, Chaoji; Zhong, Yadi; Fang, Chi; Fan, Rui; Lv, Maomin; Zhang, Jingang

    2016-09-17

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a frequent contaminant of blood and plasma-derived medicinal products. Three distinct genotypes of B19V have been identified. The distribution of the three B19V genotypes has been investigated in various regions or countries. However, in China, data on the existence of different B19V genotypes are limited. One hundred and eighteen B19V-DNA positive source plasma pool samples collected from three Chinese blood products manufacturers were analyzed. The subgenomic NS1/VP1u region junction of B19V was amplified by nested PCR. These amplified products were then cloned and subsequently sequenced. For genotyping, their phylogenetic inferences were constructed based on the NS1/VP1-unique region. Then putative recombination events were analyzed and identified. Phylogenetic analysis of 118 B19V sequences attributed 61.86 % to genotype 1a, 10.17 % to genotype 1b, and 17.80 % to genotype 3b. All the genotype 3b sequences obtained in this study grouped as a specific, closely related cluster with B19V strain D91.1. Four 1a/3b recombinants and 5 new atypical B19V variants with no recombination events were identified. There were at least 3 subtypes (1a, 1b and 3b) of B19V circulating in China. Furthermore, putative B19V 1a/3b recombinants and unclassified strains were identified as well. Such recombinant and unclassified strains may contribute to the genetic diversity of B19V and consequently complicate the B19V infection diagnosis and NAT screening. Further studies will be required to elucidate the biological significance of the recombinant and unclassified strains.

  12. DRD4 genotype predicts longevity in mouse and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Deborah L; Thanos, Panayotis K; Corrada, Maria M; Barnett, Jeffrey C; Ciobanu, Valentina; Shustarovich, Diana; Napoli, Anthony; Moyzis, Alexandra G; Grandy, David; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kawas, Claudia H; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Wang, Eric; Volkow, Nora D; Moyzis, Robert K

    2013-01-02

    Longevity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The brain's dopamine system may be particularly relevant, since it modulates traits (e.g., sensitivity to reward, incentive motivation, sustained effort) that impact behavioral responses to the environment. In particular, the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) has been shown to moderate the impact of environments on behavior and health. We tested the hypothesis that the DRD4 gene influences longevity and that its impact is mediated through environmental effects. Surviving participants of a 30-year-old population-based health survey (N = 310; age range, 90-109 years; the 90+ Study) were genotyped/resequenced at the DRD4 gene and compared with a European ancestry-matched younger population (N = 2902; age range, 7-45 years). We found that the oldest-old population had a 66% increase in individuals carrying the DRD4 7R allele relative to the younger sample (p = 3.5 × 10(-9)), and that this genotype was strongly correlated with increased levels of physical activity. Consistent with these results, DRD4 knock-out mice, when compared with wild-type and heterozygous mice, displayed a 7-9.7% decrease in lifespan, reduced spontaneous locomotor activity, and no lifespan increase when reared in an enriched environment. These results support the hypothesis that DRD4 gene variants contribute to longevity in humans and in mice, and suggest that this effect is mediated by shaping behavioral responses to the environment.

  13. Popcorn genotypes resistance to fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate popcorn genotypes for resistance to the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 30 replicates. The popcorn genotypes Aelton, Arzm 05 083, Beija-Flor, Colombiana, Composto Chico, Composto Gaúcha, Márcia, Mateus, Ufvm Barão Viçosa, Vanin, and Viviane were evaluated,along with the common maize variety Zapalote Chico. Newly hatched fall armyworm larvae were individually assessed with regard to biological development and consumption of food. The data were subjected to multivariate analyses of variance and genetic divergence among genotypes was evaluated through the clustering methods of Tocher based on generalized Mahalanobis distances and canonical variable analyses. Seven popcorn genotypes, namely, Aelton, Arzm 05 083, Composto Chico, Composto Gaúcha, Márcia, Mateus, and Viviane,were shown to form a cluster (cluster I that had antibiosis as the mechanism of resistance to the pest. Cluster I genotypes and the Zapalote Chico genotype could be used for stacking genes for antibiosis and non-preference resistance.

  14. Influence of COMT genotype and affective distractors on the processing of self-generated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J; Dumontheil, Iroise; Wood, Nicholas W; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-06-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme is a major determinant of prefrontal dopamine levels. The Val(158)Met polymorphism affects COMT enzymatic activity and has been associated with variation in executive function and affective processing. This study investigated the effect of COMT genotype on the flexible modulation of the balance between processing self-generated and processing stimulus-oriented information, in the presence or absence of affective distractors. Analyses included 124 healthy adult participants, who were also assessed on standard working memory (WM) tasks. Relative to Val carriers, Met homozygotes made fewer errors when selecting and manipulating self-generated thoughts. This effect was partly accounted for by an association between COMT genotype and visuospatial WM performance. We also observed a complex interaction between the influence of affective distractors, COMT genotype and sex on task accuracy: male, but not female, participants showed a sensitivity to the affective distractors that was dependent on COMT genotype. This was not accounted for by WM performance. This study provides novel evidence of the role of dopaminergic genetic variation on the ability to select and manipulate self-generated thoughts. The results also suggest sexually dimorphic effects of COMT genotype on the influence of affective distractors on executive function. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Dopamine transporter 3'UTR VNTR genotype is a marker of performance on executive function tasks in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polotskaia Anna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder from both clinical and pathogenic viewpoints. Executive function deficits are considered among the most important pathogenic pathways leading to ADHD and may index part of the heterogeneity in this disorder. Methods To investigate the relationship between the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3 3'-UTR VNTR genotypes and executive function in children with ADHD, 196 children diagnosed with ADHD were sequentially recruited, genotyped, and tested using a battery of three neuropsychological tests aimed at assessing the different aspects of executive functioning. Results Taking into account a correction for multiple comparisons, the main finding of this study is a significant genotype effect on performances on the Tower of London (F = 6.902, p = 0.009 and on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III Freedom From Distractibility Index (F = 7.125, p = 0.008, as well as strong trends on Self Ordered Pointing Task error scores (F = 4,996 p = 0.026 and WISC-III Digit Span performance (F = 6.28, p = 0.023. Children with the 9/10 genotype exhibited, on average, a poorer performance on all four measures compared to children with the 10/10 genotype. No effect of genotype on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measures of performance was detected. Conclusion Results are compatible with the view that SLC6A3 genotype may modulate components of executive function performance in children with ADHD.

  16. The influence of 5-HTTLPR transporter genotype on amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velasquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD. A sample of 108 children and adolescents (44 ASD completed an fMRI face-processing task. Youth with ASD and low expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes showed significantly greater connectivity than youth with ASD and higher expressing genotypes as well as typically developing (TD individuals with both low and higher expressing genotypes, in the comparison of happy vs. baseline faces and happy vs. neutral faces. Moreover, individuals with ASD and higher expressing genotypes exhibit a negative relationship between amygdala-sACC connectivity and social dysfunction. Altered amygdala-sACC coupling based on 5-HTTLPR genotype may help explain some of the heterogeneity in neural and social function observed in ASD. This is the first ASD study to combine genetic polymorphism analyses and functional connectivity in the context of a social task.

  17. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  18. Biomarkers of Dose and Effect of inhaled ozone in resting versus exercising human subjects: comparison with resting rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Human controlled exposure studies have generally focused on subjects exposed to ozone (O3) while exercising while exposures in rats have been done at rest. We exposed resting subjects to labeled O3 (18O3, 0.4 ppm, for 2 hr) and compared O3 dose and effects with our...

  19. Building RESTful web services with Go learn how to build powerful RESTful APIs with Golang that scale gracefully

    CERN Document Server

    Yellavula, Naren

    2017-01-01

    REST is an architectural style that tackles the challenges of building scalable web services and in today's connected world, APIs have taken a central role on the web. APIs provide the fabric through which systems interact, and REST has become synonymous with APIs. The depth, breadth, and ease of use of Go, makes it a breeze for developers to ...

  20. Task vs. rest-different network configurations between the coactivation and the resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xin; Gohel, Suril; Kim, Eun H; Biswal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing interest in studies of human brain networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is unclear whether and how brain networks measured during the resting-state exhibit comparable properties to brain networks during task performance. In the present study, we investigated meta-analytic coactivation patterns among brain regions based upon published neuroimaging studies, and compared the coactivation network configurations with those in the resting-state network. The strength of resting-state functional connectivity between two regions were strongly correlated with the coactivation strength. However, the coactivation network showed greater global efficiency, smaller mean clustering coefficient, and lower modularity compared with the resting-state network, which suggest a more efficient global information transmission and between system integrations during task performing. Hub shifts were also observed within the thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex. The thalamus and the left inferior temporal cortex exhibited higher and lower degrees, respectively in the coactivation network compared with the resting-state network. These results shed light regarding the reconfiguration of the brain networks between task and resting-state conditions, and highlight the role of the thalamus in change of network configurations in task vs. rest.

  1. Memory Modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive

  2. Module descriptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincenti, Gordon; Klausen, Bodil; Kjær Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The Module Descriptor including a Teacher’s Guide explains and describes how to work innovatively and co-creatively with wicked problems and young people. The descriptor shows how interested educators and lecturers in Europe can copy the lessons of the Erasmus+ project HIP when teaching their own...

  3. Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbin Kwak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients on and off L-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off L-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by L-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off L-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02 – 0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on L-DOPA. The L-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the L-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the L-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band also correlated with the L-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and L-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and corticostriatal network coherence.

  4. Hubs of Anticorrelation in High-Resolution Resting-State Functional Connectivity Network Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Kaundinya; Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri; Cabanban, Romeo; Crosson, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    A major focus of brain research recently has been to map the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) network architecture of the normal brain and pathology through functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, the phenomenon of anticorrelations in resting-state signals between different brain regions has not been adequately examined. The preponderance of studies on resting-state fMRI (rsFMRI) have either ignored anticorrelations in rsFC networks or adopted methods in data analysis, which have rendered anticorrelations in rsFC networks uninterpretable. The few studies that have examined anticorrelations in rsFC networks using conventional methods have found anticorrelations to be weak in strength and not very reproducible across subjects. Anticorrelations in rsFC network architecture could reflect mechanisms that subserve a number of important brain processes. In this preliminary study, we examined the properties of anticorrelated rsFC networks by systematically focusing on negative cross-correlation coefficients (CCs) among rsFMRI voxel time series across the brain with graph theory-based network analysis. A number of methods were implemented to enhance the neuronal specificity of resting-state functional connections that yield negative CCs, although at the cost of decreased sensitivity. Hubs of anticorrelation were seen in a number of cortical and subcortical brain regions. Examination of the anticorrelation maps of these hubs indicated that negative CCs in rsFC network architecture highlight a number of regulatory interactions between brain networks and regions, including reciprocal modulations, suppression, inhibition, and neurofeedback.

  5. Measuring and manipulating brain connectivity with resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael D; Halko, Mark A; Eldaief, Mark C; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2012-10-01

    Both resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are increasingly popular techniques that can be used to non-invasively measure brain connectivity in human subjects. TMS shows additional promise as a method to manipulate brain connectivity. In this review we discuss how these two complimentary tools can be combined to optimally study brain connectivity and manipulate distributed brain networks. Important clinical applications include using resting state fcMRI to guide target selection for TMS and using TMS to modulate pathological network interactions identified with resting state fcMRI. The combination of TMS and resting state fcMRI has the potential to accelerate the translation of both techniques into the clinical realm and promises a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases that demonstrate network pathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. REST-MapReduce: An Integrated Interface but Differentiated Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast deployment of cloud computing, MapReduce architectures are becoming the major technologies for mobile cloud computing. The concept of MapReduce was first introduced as a novel programming model and implementation for a large set of computing devices. In this research, we propose a novel concept of REST-MapReduce, enabling users to use only the REST interface without using the MapReduce architecture. This approach provides a higher level of abstraction by integration of the two types of access interface, REST API and MapReduce. The motivation of this research stems from the slower response time for accessing simple RDBMS on Hadoop than direct access to RDMBS. This is because there is overhead to job scheduling, initiating, starting, tracking, and management during MapReduce-based parallel execution. Therefore, we provide a good performance for REST Open API service and for MapReduce, respectively. This is very useful for constructing REST Open API services on Hadoop hosting services, for example, Amazon AWS (Macdonald, 2005 or IBM Smart Cloud. For evaluating performance of our REST-MapReduce framework, we conducted experiments with Jersey REST web server and Hadoop. Experimental result shows that our approach outperforms conventional approaches.

  7. Cotton genotypes selection through artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júnior, E G Silva; Cardoso, D B O; Reis, M C; Nascimento, A F O; Bortolin, D I; Martins, M R; Sousa, L B

    2017-09-27

    Breeding programs currently use statistical analysis to assist in the identification of superior genotypes at various stages of a cultivar's development. Differently from these analyses, the computational intelligence approach has been little explored in genetic improvement of cotton. Thus, this study was carried out with the objective of presenting the use of artificial neural networks as auxiliary tools in the improvement of the cotton to improve fiber quality. To demonstrate the applicability of this approach, this research was carried out using the evaluation data of 40 genotypes. In order to classify the genotypes for fiber quality, the artificial neural networks were trained with replicate data of 20 genotypes of cotton evaluated in the harvests of 2013/14 and 2014/15, regarding fiber length, uniformity of length, fiber strength, micronaire index, elongation, short fiber index, maturity index, reflectance degree, and fiber quality index. This quality index was estimated by means of a weighted average on the determined score (1 to 5) of each characteristic of the HVI evaluated, according to its industry standards. The artificial neural networks presented a high capacity of correct classification of the 20 selected genotypes based on the fiber quality index, so that when using fiber length associated with the short fiber index, fiber maturation, and micronaire index, the artificial neural networks presented better results than using only fiber length and previous associations. It was also observed that to submit data of means of new genotypes to the neural networks trained with data of repetition, provides better results of classification of the genotypes. When observing the results obtained in the present study, it was verified that the artificial neural networks present great potential to be used in the different stages of a genetic improvement program of the cotton, aiming at the improvement of the fiber quality of the future cultivars.

  8. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  9. Deep brain stimulation modulates synchrony within spatially and spectrally distinct resting state networks in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oswal, Ashwini; Beudel, Martijn; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Limousin, Patricia; Hariz, Marwan; Foltynie, Tom; Litvak, Vladimir; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Oswal et al. characterise the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on STN-cortical synchronisation in Parkinson-s disease. They propose that cortical driving of the STN in beta frequencies is subdivided anatomically and spectrally, corresponding to the hyperdirect and indirect pathways. DBS

  10. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Bahawalpur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, M.A.; Fayyaz, M.; Chaudhry, G.M.D.; Jamil, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted at Medical Unit-II Bahawal Victoria Hospital / Quaid-e-Azam Medical College Bahawalpur from May 1st , 2005 to December 31st 2005. The objective of this study was to determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. In consecutive 105 anti-HCV (ELISA-3) positive patients, complete history and physical examination was performed. Liver function tests, complete blood counts and platelet count, blood sugar fasting and 2 hours after breakfast, prothrombin time, serum albumin, serum globulin and abdominal ultrasound were carried out in all the patients. Tru cut biopsy was performed on 17 patients. We studied HCV RNA in all these patients by Nested PCR method. HCV RNA was detected in 98 patients and geno typing assay was done by genotype specific PCR. Among total of 105 anti-HCV positive patients, HCV-RNA was detected in 98 patients. Out of these 98 patients there were 57 (58.2%) males and 41 (42.8%) females. Their age range was 18-75 years. The age 18-29 years 26 (26.5%), 30-39 years 35 (35.7%) and 40-75 37 (37.8%), while 10 (10.2%) patients were diabetics and 34 (34.7%) patients were obese. Liver cirrhosis was present in 10 (10.2%) patients. Forty two (43.9%) patients were symptomatic while 56 (57.1%) were asymptomatic. Out of 98 patients 11 (11.2%) were un type-able and 87 (88.8%) were type able. 70/98 (71.4%) were genotype 3; 10/98 (10.2%) were genotype 1; 03/98 (3.1%) were genotype 2; 03/98 (3.1%) were mixed genotype 2 and 3; 01/98 (1%) were mixed genotype 3a and 3b. Genotype 3 is the most common HCV virus in our area which shows that both virological and biochemical response will be better. Because HCV genotype 3 is more frequent among the drug users which points towards unsafe injection practices in our area. (author)

  11. Resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile cardiac imaging in chronic coronary artery disease: comparison with rest-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuocolo, A.; Maurea, S.; Pace, L.; Nicolai, E.; Nappi, A.; Imbriaco, M.; Trimarco, B.; Salvatore, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied 19 patients with angiographically proven coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction 33%±8%) by resting technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) and rest-redistribution thallium-201 cardiac imaging. Thallium and 99m Tc-MIBI studies were visually analysed. Of 285 segments, 203 (71%) had normal thallium uptake, 48 (17%) showed reversible thallium defects and 34 (12%) showed irreversible thallium defects. Of these 34 irreversible thallium defects, 19 (56%) were moderate and 15 (44%) were severe. Of the corresponding 285 segments, 200 (70%) had normal 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, while 37 (13%) showed moderate and 48 (17%) showed severe reduction of MIBI uptake. Myocardial segmental agreement for regional uptake score between initial thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 90% (κ=0.78). Segmental agreement between delayed thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI images was 77% (κ=0.44). In particular, in 26 (9%) segments 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was severely reduced while delayed thallium uptake was normal or only moderately reduced. These data suggest that although rest-redistribution thallium and resting 99m Tc-MIBI cardiac imaging provide concordant results in the majority of myocardial segments, some segments with severely reduced resting 99m Tc-MIBI uptake may contain viable but hypoperfused myocardium. Thus, conclusions on myocardial viability based on 99m Tc-MIBI uptake should be made with caution in chronic coronary artery disease. (orig.)

  12. Phenotypic and genotypic variation in Iranian Pistachios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Tayefeh Aliakbarkhani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As Iran is one of the richest pistachio germplasms a few studies have been conducted on different sexes of pistachio trees, in areas where this crop emerged. To this end, 40 male and female Iranian pistachio genotypes from Feizabad region, Khorasan, Iran; were evaluated using morphological characters and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. For morphological assessments, 54 variables were considered to investigate similarities between and among the studied genotypes. Morphological data indicated relative superiority in some female genotypes (such as Sefid 1, Sefid Sabuni 2, Garmesiah, and Ghermezdorosht Z regarding characters such as halfcrackedness, the percentages of protein and fat content. 115 polymorphic bands were recorded with 92.83% average polymorphism among all primers. The total resolving power (Rp of the primers was 74.54. The range of genetic similarity varied from about 0.31 to about 0.70. Genotypes were segregated into eight groups at the similarity limit of 0.41. Results of present investigation could be helpful for strategic decisions for maintaining Iranian pistachio genotypes.

  13. Precise genotyping and recombination detection of Enterovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) with different genotypes cause diverse infectious diseases in humans and mammals. A correct EV typing result is crucial for effective medical treatment and disease control; however, the emergence of novel viral strains has impaired the performance of available diagnostic tools. Here, we present a web-based tool, named EVIDENCE (EnteroVirus In DEep conception, http://symbiont.iis.sinica.edu.tw/evidence), for EV genotyping and recombination detection. We introduce the idea of using mixed-ranking scores to evaluate the fitness of prototypes based on relatedness and on the genome regions of interest. Using phylogenetic methods, the most possible genotype is determined based on the closest neighbor among the selected references. To detect possible recombination events, EVIDENCE calculates the sequence distance and phylogenetic relationship among sequences of all sliding windows scanning over the whole genome. Detected recombination events are plotted in an interactive figure for viewing of fine details. In addition, all EV sequences available in GenBank were collected and revised using the latest classification and nomenclature of EV in EVIDENCE. These sequences are built into the database and are retrieved in an indexed catalog, or can be searched for by keywords or by sequence similarity. EVIDENCE is the first web-based tool containing pipelines for genotyping and recombination detection, with updated, built-in, and complete reference sequences to improve sensitivity and specificity. The use of EVIDENCE can accelerate genotype identification, aiding clinical diagnosis and enhancing our understanding of EV evolution. PMID:26678286

  14. AgNOR Count in Resting Cells (Resting NOR Is a New Prognostic Marker in Invasive Bladder Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuro Tomobe

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that the AgNOR count in proliferating cells is a predictor of tumor recurrence in superficial bladder tumor (J. Urol. 162 (1999, 63–68. In the present study, we evaluate the type of AgNOR associated with cell cycles as a prognostic factor in invasive bladder tumor using a double staining technique employing both AgNOR and MIB-1 labelling. Materials and methods: Forty-four paraffin sections of invasive bladder tumors were stained simultaneously with AgNOR and MIB-1. The number of AgNORs in proliferating (MIB-1 positive or resting (MIB-1 negative cells were counted from a total of 100 nuclei. Correlations between MIB-1 associated AgNOR count and clinicopathological parameters were statistically analyzed. Results: The AgNOR count in proliferating cells (proliferating NOR was significantly higher than that in resting cells (resting NOR (p < 0.01. The resting NOR in tumors with distant metastases was significantly higher than that in tumors without metastases (p < 0.05. Patients with a low resting NOR tumor had a better prognosis than those with a high resting NOR tumor, whereas the proliferating NOR was not associated with survival. Survival analysis revealed that the resting NOR was the most powerful prognostic marker in patients with invasive bladder tumor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Resting NOR had a predictive value in the prognosis of patients with invasive bladder tumor. Keywords: Transitional cell carcinoma, invasive, resting cell, AgNORs, MIB-1

  15. Resting States Are Resting Traits – An fMRI Study of Sex Differences and Menstrual Cycle Effects in Resting State Cognitive Control Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelmervik, Helene; Hausmann, Markus; Osnes, Berge; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    To what degree resting state fMRI is stable or susceptible to internal mind states of the individual is currently an issue of debate. To address this issue, the present study focuses on sex differences and investigates whether resting state fMRI is stable in men and women or changes within relative short-term periods (i.e., across the menstrual cycle). Due to the fact that we recently reported menstrual cycle effects on cognitive control based on data collected during the same sessions, the c...

  16. Radionuclide ventriculography during rest and exercise: normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, E.B.; Marroni, B.J.; Achutti, A.C.; Anselmi, O.E.; Rabin, M.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty young volunteers of both sexes were examined by radioisotopic techniques to establish the normal range of ventricular function at rest and the response to a stress test (systolic arterious pressure X cardiac frequency > 25000). (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L.; Preston, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face–object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal–neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal–neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes. PMID:25331890

  18. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  19. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    2008-11-26

    Nov 26, 2008 ... ratio were the most important independent parameters in prediction of RPP. The study shows that ... study of various medical, surgical, and physical interventions on .... increase in myocardial activity and thus the MVO2 at rest.

  20. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DATONYE ALASIA

    Subjects with Hypertension: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type of Article: Original ... Resting Heart Rate in Subjects with Hypertension — Lamina S. et al investigate the effect of interval .... changes in VO max) of interest. In the t-test. 2.

  1. Memory reactivation during rest supports upcoming learning of related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Preston, Alison R

    2014-11-04

    Although a number of studies have highlighted the importance of offline processes for memory, how these mechanisms influence future learning remains unknown. Participants with established memories for a set of initial face-object associations were scanned during passive rest and during encoding of new related and unrelated pairs of objects. Spontaneous reactivation of established memories and enhanced hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity during rest was related to better subsequent learning, specifically of related content. Moreover, the degree of functional coupling during rest was predictive of neural engagement during the new learning experience itself. These results suggest that through rest-phase reactivation and hippocampal-neocortical interactions, existing memories may come to facilitate encoding during subsequent related episodes.

  2. RESTful web API design with Node.js

    CERN Document Server

    Bojinov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer wanting to enrich your development skills to create scalable, server-side, RESTful applications based on the Node.js platform, this book is for you. You also need to be aware of HTTP communication concepts and should have a working knowledge of JavaScript. Knowledge of REST would be an added advantage but is definitely not a necessity.

  3. The Classic: On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John

    2009-09-01

    This Classic article is a reprint of the original work by John Hilton, On Rest and Pain: Lecture XIV. An accompanying biographical sketch on John Hilton, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-009-0927-2 . The Classic Article is reprinted with courtesy from Hilton J. On The Influence of Mechanical and Physiological Rest in the Treatment of Accidents and Surgical Diseases, and the Diagnostic Value of Pain. London, England: Bell and Daldy; 1863.

  4. Genetic variablilities of body temperature and resting behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that neither progeny nor generation had effect on body temperature. The Alpha strain exhibited more resting behaviour than did the exotic and the pure native types. Majority of the birds rested in the afternoon at 2.00 pm. This could be attributed to the fact that at 2.00 pm the weather is hot and birds search for a ...

  5. Relativistic theory of gravitation and the graviton rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunsov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a graviton rest mass (m) introduced in the framework of the relativistic theory of gravitation and obtains equations that describe a massive gravitational field. Under the assumption that the entire hidden mass of the matter in the Universe is due to the existence of a massive gravitational field, an upper bound on the rest mass is obtained: m ≤ 0.64 x 10 --65 g

  6. Saponin profile of green asparagus genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Castilla, Sara; Jaramillo-Carmona, Sara; Fuentes-Alventosa, Jose María; Jiménez-Araujo, Ana; Rodríguez-Arcos, Rocío; Cermeño-Sacristán, Pedro; Espejo-Calvo, Juan Antonio; Guillén-Bejarano, Rafael

    2013-11-20

    The main goal of this study was to determine the saponin profiles of different "triguero" asparagus genotypes and to compare them to green asparagus commercial hybrids. The samples consisted of 31 commercial hybrids and 58 genotypes from the Huétor-Tájar (HT) population variety ("triguero"). The saponin analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry allowed for the determination of 12 saponins derived from a furostan-type steroidal genin, 4 of which had never been described in the edible part of asparagus. The saponin profile of "triguero" asparagus was a combination of these new saponins and protodioscin. Although protodioscin was the major saponin found in commercial hybrids, some of these 12 saponins were detected as major components in some of the commercial hybrids. The total contents of saponins described in some of these HT genotypes reach values as high as 10-100 times higher than those found in commercial hybrids.

  7. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  8. Discovering EEG resting state alterations of semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Matthias; Koenig, Thomas; Kinoshita, Toshihiko; Utsunomiya, Keita; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dierks, Thomas; Nishida, Keiichiro

    2016-05-01

    Diagnosis of semantic dementia relies on cost-intensive MRI or PET, although resting EEG markers of other dementias have been reported. Yet the view still holds that resting EEG in patients with semantic dementia is normal. However, studies using increasingly sophisticated EEG analysis methods have demonstrated that slightest alterations of functional brain states can be detected. We analyzed the common four resting EEG microstates (A, B, C, and D) of 8 patients with semantic dementia in comparison with 8 healthy controls and 8 patients with Alzheimer's disease. Topographical differences between the groups were found in microstate classes B and C, while microstate classes A and D were comparable. The data showed that the semantic dementia group had a peculiar microstate E, but the commonly found microstate C was lacking. Furthermore, the presence of microstate E was significantly correlated with lower MMSE and language scores. Alterations in resting EEG can be found in semantic dementia. Topographical shifts in microstate C might be related to semantic memory deficits. This is the first study that discovered resting state EEG abnormality in semantic dementia. The notion that resting EEG in this dementia subtype is normal has to be revised. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterizing Resting-State Brain Function Using Arterial Spin Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jann, Kay; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an increasingly established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that is finding broader applications in studying the healthy and diseased brain. This review addresses the use of ASL to assess brain function in the resting state. Following a brief technical description, we discuss the use of ASL in the following main categories: (1) resting-state functional connectivity (FC) measurement: the use of ASL-based cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements as an alternative to the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) technique to assess resting-state FC; (2) the link between network CBF and FC measurements: the use of network CBF as a surrogate of the metabolic activity within corresponding networks; and (3) the study of resting-state dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and cerebral metabolism: the use of dynamic CBF information obtained using ASL to assess dynamic CBF-BOLD coupling and oxidative metabolism in the resting state. In addition, we summarize some future challenges and interesting research directions for ASL, including slice-accelerated (multiband) imaging as well as the effects of motion and other physiological confounds on perfusion-based FC measurement. In summary, this work reviews the state-of-the-art of ASL and establishes it as an increasingly viable MRI technique with high translational value in studying resting-state brain function. PMID:26106930

  10. Genotype x environment interaction for grain yield of wheat genotypes tested under water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sail, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Mangrio, S.M.; Memon, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of water stress on grain yield in different wheat genotypes was studied under field conditions at various locations. Grain yield is a complex polygenic trait influenced by genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. To understand the stability among genotypes for grain yield, twenty-one wheat genotypes developed Through hybridization and radiation-induced mutations at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) TandoJam were evaluated with four local check varieties (Sarsabz, Thori, Margalla-99 and Chakwal-86) in multi-environmental trails (MET/sub s/). The experiments were conducted over 5 different water stress environments in Sindh. Data on grain yield were recorded from each site and statistically analyzed. Combined analysis of variance for all the environments indicated that the genotype, environment and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction were highly significant (P greater then 0.01) for grain yield. Genotypes differed in their response to various locations. The overall highest site mean yield (4031 kg/ha) recorded at Moro and the lowest (2326 kg/ha) at Thatta. Six genotypes produced significantly (P=0.01) the highest grain yield overall the environments. Stability analysis was applied to estimate stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), standard error of regression coefficient and variance due to deviation from regression (S/sub 2/d) genotypes 10/8, BWS-78 produced the highest mean yield over all the environments with low regression coefficient (b=0.68, 0.67 and 0.63 respectively and higher S/sup 2/ d value, showing specific adaptation to poor (un favorable) environments. Genotype 8/7 produced overall higher grain yield (3647 kg/ha) and ranked as third high yielding genotype had regression value close to unity (b=0.9) and low S/sup d/ value, indicating more stability and wide adaptation over the all environments. The knowledge of the presence and magnitude of genotype x environment (GE) interaction is important to

  11. Oilseed rape genotypes response to boron toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of 16 oilseed rape genotypes to B (boron toxicity was analyzed by comparing the results of two experiments conducted in a glasshouse. In Experiment 1 plants were grown in standard nutrient solutions with 10 µMB (control and 1000 µM B. Relative root and shoot growth varied from 20-120% and 31-117%, respectively. Variation in B concentration in shoots was also wide (206.5-441.7 µg B g-1 DW as well as total B uptake by plant (62.3-281.2 µg B g1. Four selected genotypes were grown in Experiment 2 in pots filled with high B soil (8 kg ha-1 B; B8. Shoot growth was not affected by B8 treatment, while root and shoot B concentration was significantly increased compared to control. Genotypes Panther and Pronto which performed low relative root and shoot growth and high B accumulation in plants in Experiment 1, had good growth in B8 treatment. In Experiment 2 genotype NS-L-7 had significantly lower B concentration in shots under treatment B8, but also very high B accumulation in Experiment 1. In addition, cluster analyses classified genotypes in three groups according to traits contrasting in their significance for analyzing response to B toxicity. The first group included four varieties based on their shared characteristics that have small value for the relative growth of roots and shoots and large values of B concentration in shoot. In the second largest group were connected ten genotypes that are heterogeneous in traits and do not stand out on any characteristic. Genotypes NS-L-7 and Navajo were separated in the third group because they had big relative growth of root and shoot, but also a high concentration of B in the shoot, and high total B uptake. Results showed that none of tested genotypes could not be recommended for breeding process to tolerance for B toxicity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 173028

  12. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Pozharliev, R.; van Strien, J.W.; Belschak, F.; Bagozzi, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate

  13. Exploring connectivity with large-scale Granger causality on resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DSouza, Adora M; Abidin, Anas Z; Leistritz, Lutz; Wismüller, Axel

    2017-08-01

    Large-scale Granger causality (lsGC) is a recently developed, resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity analysis approach that estimates multivariate voxel-resolution connectivity. Unlike most commonly used multivariate approaches, which establish coarse-resolution connectivity by aggregating voxel time-series avoiding an underdetermined problem, lsGC estimates voxel-resolution, fine-grained connectivity by incorporating an embedded dimension reduction. We investigate application of lsGC on realistic fMRI simulations, modeling smoothing of neuronal activity by the hemodynamic response function and repetition time (TR), and empirical resting-state fMRI data. Subsequently, functional subnetworks are extracted from lsGC connectivity measures for both datasets and validated quantitatively. We also provide guidelines to select lsGC free parameters. Results indicate that lsGC reliably recovers underlying network structure with area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.93 at TR=1.5s for a 10-min session of fMRI simulations. Furthermore, subnetworks of closely interacting modules are recovered from the aforementioned lsGC networks. Results on empirical resting-state fMRI data demonstrate recovery of visual and motor cortex in close agreement with spatial maps obtained from (i) visuo-motor fMRI stimulation task-sequence (Accuracy=0.76) and (ii) independent component analysis (ICA) of resting-state fMRI (Accuracy=0.86). Compared with conventional Granger causality approach (AUC=0.75), lsGC produces better network recovery on fMRI simulations. Furthermore, it cannot recover functional subnetworks from empirical fMRI data, since quantifying voxel-resolution connectivity is not possible as consequence of encountering an underdetermined problem. Functional network recovery from fMRI data suggests that lsGC gives useful insight into connectivity patterns from resting-state fMRI at a multivariate voxel-resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. What goes on in the resting-state? A qualitative glimpse into resting-state experience in the scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlburt, Russell T.; Alderson-Day, Ben; Fernyhough, Charles; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The brain’s resting-state has attracted considerable interest in recent years, but currently little is known either about typical experience during the resting-state or about whether there are inter-individual differences in resting-state phenomenology. We used descriptive experience sampling (DES) in an attempt to apprehend high fidelity glimpses of the inner experience of five participants in an extended fMRI study. Results showed that the inner experiences and the neural activation patterns (as quantified by amplitude of low frequency fluctuations analysis) of the five participants were largely consistent across time, suggesting that our extended-duration scanner sessions were broadly similar to typical resting-state sessions. However, there were very large individual differences in inner phenomena, suggesting that the resting-state itself may differ substantially from one participant to the next. We describe these individual differences in experiential characteristics and display some typical moments of resting-state experience. We also show that retrospective characterizations of phenomena can often be very different from moment-by-moment reports. We discuss implications for the assessment of inner experience in neuroimaging studies more generally, concluding that it may be possible to use fMRI to investigate neural correlates of phenomena apprehended in high fidelity. PMID:26500590

  15. A genotype network reveals homoplastic cycles of convergent evolution in influenza A (H3N2) haemagglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2014-07-07

    Networks of evolving genotypes can be constructed from the worldwide time-resolved genotyping of pathogens like influenza viruses. Such genotype networks are graphs where neighbouring vertices (viral strains) differ in a single nucleotide or amino acid. A rich trove of network analysis methods can help understand the evolutionary dynamics reflected in the structure of these networks. Here, I analyse a genotype network comprising hundreds of influenza A (H3N2) haemagglutinin genes. The network is rife with cycles that reflect non-random parallel or convergent (homoplastic) evolution. These cycles also show patterns of sequence change characteristic for strong and local evolutionary constraints, positive selection and mutation-limited evolution. Such cycles would not be visible on a phylogenetic tree, illustrating that genotype network analysis can complement phylogenetic analyses. The network also shows a distinct modular or community structure that reflects temporal more than spatial proximity of viral strains, where lowly connected bridge strains connect different modules. These and other organizational patterns illustrate that genotype networks can help us study evolution in action at an unprecedented level of resolution. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts task-evoked and resting-state activities of the amygdala in Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufang; Zou, Qihong; Li, Jun; Li, Jin; Wang, Deyi; Yan, Chaogan; Dong, Qi; Zang, Yu-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the amygdala of carriers of the short allele (s) of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene (5-HTTLPR) have a larger response to negative emotional stimuli and higher spontaneous activity during the resting state than non-carriers. However, recent studies have suggested that the effects of 5-HTTLPR may be specific to different ethnic groups. Few studies have been conducted to address this issue. Blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted on thirty-eight healthy Han Chinese subjects (l/l group, n = 19; s/s group, n = 19) during the resting state and during an emotional processing task. Compared with the s/s group, the l/l group showed significantly increased regional homogeneity or local synchronization in the right amygdala during the resting state (|t|>2.028, pemotional processing task. 5-HTTLPR can alter the spontaneous activity of the amygdala in Han Chinese. However, the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala both in task state and resting state in Asian population was no similar with Caucasians. They suggest that the effect of 5-HTTLPR on the amygdala may be modulated by ethnic differences.

  17. Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain Show Sex-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Oscillations of the Resting Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Labus, Jennifer; Gupta, Arpana; Jiang, Zhiguo; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Stains, Jean; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Ebrat, Bahar; Smith, Suzanne; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal responses of the brain to delivered and expected aversive gut stimuli have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a visceral pain syndrome occurring more commonly in women. Task-free resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide information about the dynamics of brain activity that may be involved in altered processing and/or modulation of visceral afferent signals. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation is a measure of the power spectrum intensity of spontaneous brain oscillations. This approach was used here to identify differences in the resting-state activity of the human brain in IBS subjects compared with healthy controls (HCs) and to identify the role of sex-related differences. We found that both the female HCs and female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency to a greater extent in the amygdala and hippocampus compared with male subjects. In addition, female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency in the insula and toward low frequency in the sensorimotor cortex to a greater extent than male IBS subjects. Correlations were observed between resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent signal dynamics and some clinical symptom measures (e.g., abdominal discomfort). These findings provide the first insight into sex-related differences in IBS subjects compared with HCs using resting-state fMRI. PMID:23864686

  18. Specificity of the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test for detecting human papillomavirus genotype 52 (HPV-52)

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Boštjan; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: HPV-52 is one of the most frequent human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes causing significant cervical pathology. The most widely used HPV genotyping assay, the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Linear Array), is unable to identify HPV- 52 status in samples containing HPV-33, HPV-35, and/or HPV-58. Methods: Linear Array HPV-52 analytical specificity was established by testing 100 specimens reactive with the Linear Array HPV- 33/35/52/58 cross-reactive probe, but not with the...

  19. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Disrupted topological organization of resting-state functional brain network in subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Li-Ye; Liang, Xia; Liu, Da-Ming; Sun, Bo; Ying, Sun; Yang, Dong-Bo; Li, Qing-Bin; Jiang, Chuan-Lu; Han, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated both structural and functional abnormalities in widespread brain regions in patients with subcortical vascular mild cognitive impairment (svMCI). However, whether and how these changes alter functional brain network organization remains largely unknown. We recruited 21 patients with svMCI and 26 healthy control (HC) subjects who underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. Graph theory-based network analyses were used to investigate alterations in the topological organization of functional brain networks. Compared with the HC individuals, the patients with svMCI showed disrupted global network topology with significantly increased path length and modularity. Modular structure was also impaired in the svMCI patients with a notable rearrangement of the executive control module, where the parietal regions were split out and grouped as a separate module. The svMCI patients also revealed deficits in the intra- and/or intermodule connectivity of several brain regions. Specifically, the within-module degree was decreased in the middle cingulate gyrus while it was increased in the left anterior insula, medial prefrontal cortex and cuneus. Additionally, increased intermodule connectivity was observed in the inferior and superior parietal gyrus, which was associated with worse cognitive performance in the svMCI patients. Together, our results indicate that svMCI patients exhibit dysregulation of the topological organization of functional brain networks, which has important implications for understanding the pathophysiological mechanism of svMCI. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. An Affymetrix Microarray Design for Microbial Genotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    les échantillons qui ne se prêtent pas aux méthodes culturales de la microbiologie classique. La puce à ADN est une technologie qui permet la... area of microbial genotyping there are multiple platforms that can identify one or a few microbial targets in a single assay iteration. For most

  2. Human papillomavirus genotyping by multiplex pyrosequencing in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    malignant cervical samples ... low- and high-risk HPV genotypes without identifying ... Since these samples were not from “healthy .... major capsid protein, any variation in its coding sequence is .... worldwide: a meta-analysis; Br. J. Cancer 88 63–73.

  3. Physicochemical and sensorial quality of banana genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronielli Cardoso Reis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the diversity of banana varieties in Brazil, only a few cultivars have the proper agronomic traits and fruit quality for commercial exploitation. This study aimed at evaluating the physicochemical traits and sensorial acceptance of banana genotypes, in order to identify those with potential for commercial growing. Six improved banana genotypes were assessed (BRS Maravilha, PC 0101, FHIA 18, TM 2803, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira, as well as three commercial cultivars (Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã. Analyses of peel and pulp color, peel thickness, pulp yield, moisture, pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, total carotenoids and sensorial acceptance were performed. The BRS Maravilha, FHIA 18, YB 4203 and BRS Caipira genotypes presented physicochemical traits similar to the Grand Naine, Pacovan and Prata Anã commercial cultivars. The BRS Maravilha and TM 2803 genotypes had sensorial acceptance similar to the Prata Anã and Grand Naine cultivars, and are therefore promising for commercial growing, with the advantage of being resistant to the black Sigatoka and Panama disease.

  4. Genotyping of human pappilomavirus in cervical precancerous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), is the second most common cancer for women. This cancer is distributed worldwide, with ~80% of cases are found in the developing countries. In Indonesia, data of HPV genotypes are still limited and do not represent all regions of the country. Thus ...

  5. Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Immunocompetent Man

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; Ditrich, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2009), s. 982-983 ISSN 1080-6040 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP523/07/P117 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : immunocompetent patients * cryptosporidiosis * Cryptosporidium pig genotype II Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases , Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 6.794, year: 2009

  6. Morphometric characteristics of Lotus corniculatus L. genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the degree of variability in morphological and agronomic characteristics of 20 Lotus corniculatus L. local genotypes, and also to set aside germplasm that will be used as a source of genetic basis for improvement of the studied properties. In poor quality soils, L. corniculatus L. plays an ...

  7. Genotype X Fertility Interactions in Seedling Sweetgum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott X. Chang; Daniel J. Robison

    2002-01-01

    Genotype x fertility interactions may affect the suitability of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) for specific sites or the efficiency of nutrient use. To gain a better understanding of these interactions, 2-year-old sweetgum seedlings from two half-sib families were tested for growth response to N (0 and 100 kg/ha equivalent) and P (0 and 50 kg...

  8. (AMMI) and genotype by environment interaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Background and justification: Lack of stable high yielding cultivars is one ... of advanced finger millet genotypes evaluated in multiple environments, and (ii) identify stable high yielding .... for interaction principal component axis (IPCA) n, γgn ..... Table 2: Analysis of variance for grain yield using AMMI model.

  9. Impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay for hepatitis C genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Siddharth; Yip, Cyril C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2018-05-01

    The Abbott RealTime HCV Genotype II assay (Abbott-RT-HCV assay) is a real-time PCR based genotyping method for hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study measured the impact of inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity on the performance of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay. 517 samples were genotyped using the Abbott-RT-HCV assay over a one-year period, 34 (6.6%) were identified as HCV genotype 1 without further subtype designation raising the possibility of inaccurate genotyping. These samples were subjected to confirmatory sequencing. 27 of these 34 (79%) samples were genotype 1b while five (15%) were genotype 6. One HCV isolate was an inter-genotypic 1a/4o recombinant. This is a novel natural HCV recombinant that has never been reported. Inter-genotypic recombination and probe cross-reactivity can affect the accuracy of the Abbott-RT-HCV assay, both of which have significant implications on antiviral regimen choice. Confirmatory sequencing of ambiguous results is crucial for accurate genotyping. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dopamine and cognitive control: sex-by-genotype interactions influence the capacity to switch attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, C; Rossell, S L

    2015-03-15

    Cognitive performance in healthy persons varies widely between individuals. Sex differences in cognition are well reported, and there is an emerging body of evidence suggesting that the relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission, implicated in many cognitive functions, is modulated by sex. Here, we examine the influence of sex and genetic variations along the dopaminergic pathway on aspects of cognitive control. A total of 415 healthy individuals, selected from an international consortium linked to Brain Research and Integrative Neuroscience Network (BRAINnet), were genotyped for two common and functional genetic variations of dopamine regulating genes: the catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] gene (rs4680) and the dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2] gene (rs6277). Cognitive measures were selected to explore sustained attention (using a continuous performance task), switching of attention (using a Trails B adaptation) and working memory (a visual computerised adaptation of digit span). While there were no main effects for genotype across any tasks, analyses revealed significant sex by genotype interactions for the capacity to switch attention. In relation to COMT, superior performance was noted in females with the Val/Val genotype and for DRD2, superior performance was seen for TT females and CC males. These findings highlight the importance of considering genetic variation in baseline dopamine levels in addition to sex, when considering the impact of dopamine on cognition in healthy populations. These findings also have important implications for the many neuropsychiatric disorders that implicate dopamine, cognitive changes and sex differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. BDNF rs6265 methylation and genotype interact on risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, Gianluca; Cavalleri, Tommaso; Fazio, Leonardo; Angrisano, Tiziana; Iacovelli, Luisa; Porcelli, Annamaria; Maddalena, Giancarlo; Punzi, Giovanna; Mancini, Marina; Gelao, Barbara; Romano, Raffaella; Masellis, Rita; Calabrese, Francesca; Rampino, Antonio; Taurisano, Paolo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Keller, Simona; Tarantini, Letizia; Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Quarto, Tiziana; Popolizio, Teresa; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Riva, Marco A; De Blasi, Antonio; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Bollati, Valentina; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms can mediate gene-environment interactions relevant for complex disorders. The BDNF gene is crucial for development and brain plasticity, is sensitive to environmental stressors, such as hypoxia, and harbors the functional SNP rs6265 (Val(66)Met), which creates or abolishes a CpG dinucleotide for DNA methylation. We found that methylation at the BDNF rs6265 Val allele in peripheral blood of healthy subjects is associated with hypoxia-related early life events (hOCs) and intermediate phenotypes for schizophrenia in a distinctive manner, depending on rs6265 genotype: in ValVal individuals increased methylation is associated with exposure to hOCs and impaired working memory (WM) accuracy, while the opposite is true for ValMet subjects. Also, rs6265 methylation and hOCs interact in modulating WM-related prefrontal activity, another intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, with an analogous opposite direction in the 2 genotypes. Consistently, rs6265 methylation has a different association with schizophrenia risk in ValVals and ValMets. The relationships of methylation with BDNF levels and of genotype with BHLHB2 binding likely contribute to these opposite effects of methylation. We conclude that BDNF rs6265 methylation interacts with genotype to bridge early environmental exposures to adult phenotypes, relevant for schizophrenia. The study of epigenetic changes in regions containing genetic variation relevant for human diseases may have beneficial implications for the understanding of how genes are actually translated into phenotypes.

  12. Different Roles of COMT and HTR2A Genotypes in Working Memory Subprocesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito M Kondo

    Full Text Available Working memory is linked to the functions of the frontal areas, in which neural activity is mediated by dopaminergic and serotonergic tones. However, there is no consensus regarding how the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems influence working memory subprocesses. The present study used an imaging genetics approach to examine the interaction between neurochemical functions and working memory performance. We focused on functional polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val(158Met and serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A -1438G/A genes, and devised a delayed recognition task to isolate the encoding, retention, and retrieval processes for visual information. The COMT genotypes affected recognition accuracy, whereas the HTR2A genotypes were associated with recognition response times. Activations specifically related to working memory were found in the right frontal and parietal areas, such as the middle frontal gyrus (MFG, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and inferior parietal lobule (IPL. MFG and ACC/IPL activations were sensitive to differences between the COMT genotypes and between the HTR2A genotypes, respectively. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that stronger connectivity in the ACC-MFG and ACC-IFG networks is related to better task performance. The behavioral and fMRI results suggest that the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems play different roles in the working memory subprocesses and modulate closer cooperation between lateral and medial frontal activations.

  13. Effects of MAOA-genotype, alcohol consumption, and aging on violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-03-01

    Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype.

  14. Feasibility Study of a Lunar Analog Bed Rest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Platts, Steven H.; Yarbough, Patrice; Buccello-Stout, Regina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of using a 9.5deg head-up tilt bed rest model to simulate the effects of the 1/6 g load to the human body that exists on the lunar surface. The lunar analog bed rest model utilized a modified hospital bed. The modifications included mounting the mattress on a sled that rolled on bearings to provide freedom of movement. The weight of the sled was off-loaded using a counterweight system to insure that 1/6 body weight was applied along the long axis (z-axis) of the body. Force was verified through use of a force plate mounted at the foot of the bed. A seating assembly was added to the bed to permit periods of sitting. Subjects alternated between standing and sitting positions throughout the day. A total of 35% of the day was spent in the standing position and 65% was spent sitting. In an effort to achieve physiologic fluid shifts expected for a 1/6 G environment, subjects wore compression stockings and performed unloaded foot and ankle exercises. Eight subjects (3 females and 5 males) participated in this study. Subjects spent 13 days in the pre-bed rest phase, 6 days in bed rest and 3 days post bed rest. Subjects consumed a standardized diet throughout the study. To determine feasibility, measures of subject comfort, force and plasma volume were collected. Subject comfort was assessed using a Likert scale. Subjects were asked to assess level of comfort (0-100) for 11 body regions and provide an overall rating. Results indicated minimal to no discomfort as most subjects reported scores of zero. Force measures were performed for each standing position and were validated against subject s calculated 1/6 body weight (r(sup 2) = 0.993). The carbon monoxide rebreathing technique was used to assess plasma volume during pre-bed rest and on the last day of bed rest. Plasma volume results indicated a significant decrease (p = 0.001) from pre to post bed rest values. Subjects lost on average 8.3% (sd = 6.1%) during the

  15. In Vitro Conservation of Sweet Potato Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for the in vitro conservation of sweet potato genotypes using the slow growth technique. The first experiment was conducted in a 4×5×2 factorial scheme, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137, five concentrations of abscisic acid (ABA (0.0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 mg·L−1, and two temperatures (18 and 25°C. The second experiment was conducted in a 4×3×3 factorial scheme at 18°C, testing four genotypes (IPB-007, IPB-052, IPB-072, and IPB-137, three variations of MS salts (50, 75, and 100%, and three concentrations of sucrose (10, 20, and 30 g·L−1. Every three months, we evaluated the survival (%, shoot height, and shoot viability. In vitro conservation of the sweet potato genotypes IPB-052 and IPB-007 was obtained over three and six months, respectively, using MS medium plus 2.0 mg·L−1 of ABA at either 18 or 25°C. Genotypes IPB-072 and IPB-137 can be kept for three and six months, respectively, in MS medium without ABA at 18°C. It is possible to store IPB-052 and IPB-072 for six months and IPB-007 and IPB-137 for nine months using 30 g·L−1 of sucrose and 50% MS salts.

  16. Resting state brain networks in the prairie vole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Juan J; Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raul G; Young, Larry J; Alcauter, Sarael

    2018-01-19

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has shown the hierarchical organization of the human brain into large-scale complex networks, referred as resting state networks. This technique has turned into a promising translational research tool after the finding of similar resting state networks in non-human primates, rodents and other animal models of great value for neuroscience. Here, we demonstrate and characterize the presence of resting states networks in Microtus ochrogaster, the prairie vole, an extraordinary animal model to study complex human-like social behavior, with potential implications for the research of normal social development, addiction and neuropsychiatric disorders. Independent component analysis of rsfMRI data from isoflurane-anestethized prairie voles resulted in cortical and subcortical networks, including primary motor and sensory networks, but also included putative salience and default mode networks. We further discuss how future research could help to close the gap between the properties of the large scale functional organization and the underlying neurobiology of several aspects of social cognition. These results contribute to the evidence of preserved resting state brain networks across species and provide the foundations to explore the use of rsfMRI in the prairie vole for basic and translational research.

  17. Skeletal muscle microvascular and interstitial PO2 from rest to contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Daniel M; Craig, Jesse C; Colburn, Trenton D; Eshima, Hiroaki; Kano, Yutaka; Sexton, William L; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen pressure gradients across the microvascular walls are essential for oxygen diffusion from blood to tissue cells. At any given flux, the magnitude of these transmural gradients is proportional to the local resistance. The greatest resistance to oxygen transport into skeletal muscle is considered to reside in the short distance between red blood cells and myocytes. Although crucial to oxygen transport, little is known about transmural pressure gradients within skeletal muscle during contractions. We evaluated oxygen pressures within both the skeletal muscle microvascular and interstitial spaces to determine transmural gradients during the rest-contraction transient in anaesthetized rats. The significant transmural gradient observed at rest was sustained during submaximal muscle contractions. Our findings support that the blood-myocyte interface provides substantial resistance to oxygen diffusion at rest and during contractions and suggest that modulations in microvascular haemodynamics and red blood cell distribution constitute primary mechanisms driving increased transmural oxygen flux with contractions. Oxygen pressure (PO2) gradients across the blood-myocyte interface are required for diffusive O 2 transport, thereby supporting oxidative metabolism. The greatest resistance to O 2 flux into skeletal muscle is considered to reside between the erythrocyte surface and adjacent sarcolemma, although this has not been measured during contractions. We tested the hypothesis that O 2 gradients between skeletal muscle microvascular (PO2 mv ) and interstitial (PO2 is ) spaces would be present at rest and maintained or increased during contractions. PO2 mv and PO2 is   were determined via phosphorescence quenching (Oxyphor probes G2 and G4, respectively) in the exposed rat spinotrapezius during the rest-contraction transient (1 Hz, 6 V; n = 8). PO2 mv was higher than PO2 is in all instances from rest (34.9 ± 6.0 versus 15.7 ± 6.4) to contractions (28.4 ± 5

  18. MEMORY MODULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendaal, Benno; McGaugh, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Our memories are not all created equally strong: Some experiences are well remembered while others are remembered poorly, if at all. Research on memory modulation investigates the neurobiological processes and systems that contribute to such differences in the strength of our memories. Extensive evidence from both animal and human research indicates that emotionally significant experiences activate hormonal and brain systems that regulate the consolidation of newly acquired memories. These effects are integrated through noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala which regulates memory consolidation via interactions with many other brain regions involved in consolidating memories of recent experiences. Modulatory systems not only influence neurobiological processes underlying the consolidation of new information, but also affect other mnemonic processes, including memory extinction, memory recall and working memory. In contrast to their enhancing effects on consolidation, adrenal stress hormones impair memory retrieval and working memory. Such effects, as with memory consolidation, require noradrenergic activation of the basolateral amygdala and interactions with other brain regions. PMID:22122145

  19. The potential of plant viruses to promote genotypic diversity via genotype x environment interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Mölken, Tamara; Stuefer, Josef F.

    2011-01-01

    † Background and Aims Genotype by environment (G × E) interactions are important for the long-term persistence of plant species in heterogeneous environments. It has often been suggested that disease is a key factor for the maintenance of genotypic diversity in plant populations. However, empirical...... and the G × E interactions were examined with respect to genotypespecific plant responses to WClMV infection. Thus, the environment is defined as the presence or absence of the virus. † Key Results WClMV had a negative effect on plant performance as shown by a decrease in biomass and number of ramets...... evidence for this contention is scarce. Here virus infection is proposed as a possible candidate for maintaining genotypic diversity in their host plants. † Methods The effects of White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) on the performance and development of different Trifolium repens genotypes were analysed...

  20. Genotypic Variation of Early Maturing Soybean Genotypes for Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency under Field Grown Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaidoo, R. C. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria); Opoku, A.; Boahen, S. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Dare, M. O. [Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (Nigeria)

    2013-11-15

    Variability in the utilization of phosphorus (P) by 64 early-maturing soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genotypes under low-P soil conditions were evaluated in 2009 and 2010 at Shika, Nigeria. Fifteen phenotypic variables; number of nodules, nodule dry weight, grain yield, plant biomass, total biomass, biomass N and P content, Phosphorus Utilization Index (PUI), shoot P Utilization efficiency (PUIS), grain P Utilization efficiency (PUIG), Harvest Index (HI), Biological N fixed (BNF), total N fixed and N and P uptake were measured. The four clusters revealed by cluster analysis were basically divided along (1) plant biomass and uptake, (2) nutrient acquisition and utilization and (3) nodulation components. Three early maturing genotypes, TGx1842-14E, TGx1912-11F and TGx1913-5F, were identified as having high P utilization index and low P uptake. These genotypes could be a potential source for breeding for P use efficiency in early maturing soybean genotypes. (author)

  1. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Huan [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Gao, Zhangfeng [Department of Neurosurgery, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China); Li, Zhi, E-mail: lizhi489@163.com [Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008 (China); Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, Changsha 410078 (China)

    2015-08-07

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST.

  2. Expression of REST4 in human gliomas in vivo and influence of pioglitazone on REST in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Huan; Gao, Zhangfeng; Wu, Nayiyuan; Zeng, Liu; Tang, Xinyue; Chen, Xiaoping; Liu, Zhaoqian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Liansheng; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    The repressor element-1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) has an irreplaceable role during the differentiation of neurons. REST has multiple splice variants which link to various types of cancer. Previous work had highlighted the role of REST in glioma, where the expression of REST is enhanced. But whether alternative splicing of REST is expressed in glioma has not been described. Here, we show that a specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens, and will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists have a role of antineoplastic in various tumor cells, which including glioma cells. Moreover, study indicated that PPARγ agonist pioglitazone can promote alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. In this study, we selected pioglitazone as a tool drug to explore whether the role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma is mediated by regulating REST expression or promoting alternative splicing of REST in glioma cells. Results show that pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cell in vitro, which may be mediated by down-regulating REST mRNA level but not by inducing alternative splicing of REST pre-mRNA. Our study firstly reports the expression of REST4 in glioma tissue samples. And we recommend that pioglitazone, which can reduce the expression level of REST, represents a promising drug for therapy of glioma. - Highlights: • A specific isoform REST4 is expressed in glioma specimens in vivo. • REST4 will influence the mRNA level of REST in vivo. • Pioglitazone can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of glioma cells. • The role of pioglitazone in anti-glioma may be mediated by down-regulating REST

  3. Visual Learning Induces Changes in Resting-State fMRI Multivariate Pattern of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Roberto; Del Gratta, Cosimo; Baldassarre, Antonello; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2015-07-08

    When measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state (R-fMRI), spontaneous activity is correlated between brain regions that are anatomically and functionally related. Learning and/or task performance can induce modulation of the resting synchronization between brain regions. Moreover, at the neuronal level spontaneous brain activity can replay patterns evoked by a previously presented stimulus. Here we test whether visual learning/task performance can induce a change in the patterns of coded information in R-fMRI signals consistent with a role of spontaneous activity in representing task-relevant information. Human subjects underwent R-fMRI before and after perceptual learning on a novel visual shape orientation discrimination task. Task-evoked fMRI patterns to trained versus novel stimuli were recorded after learning was completed, and before the second R-fMRI session. Using multivariate pattern analysis on task-evoked signals, we found patterns in several cortical regions, as follows: visual cortex, V3/V3A/V7; within the default mode network, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule; and, within the dorsal attention network, intraparietal sulcus, which discriminated between trained and novel visual stimuli. The accuracy of classification was strongly correlated with behavioral performance. Next, we measured multivariate patterns in R-fMRI signals before and after learning. The frequency and similarity of resting states representing the task/visual stimuli states increased post-learning in the same cortical regions recruited by the task. These findings support a representational role of spontaneous brain activity. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/359786-13$15.00/0.

  4. Neural markers of loss aversion in resting-state brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Nicola; Crespi, Chiara; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Dodich, Alessandra; Falini, Andrea; Antonellis, Giulia; Cappa, Stefano F

    2017-02-01

    Neural responses in striatal, limbic and somatosensory brain regions track individual differences in loss aversion, i.e. the higher sensitivity to potential losses compared with equivalent gains in decision-making under risk. The engagement of structures involved in the processing of aversive stimuli and experiences raises a further question, i.e. whether the tendency to avoid losses rather than acquire gains represents a transient fearful overreaction elicited by choice-related information, or rather a stable component of one's own preference function, reflecting a specific pattern of neural activity. We tested the latter hypothesis by assessing in 57 healthy human subjects whether the relationship between behavioral and neural loss aversion holds at rest, i.e. when the BOLD signal is collected during 5minutes of cross-fixation in the absence of an explicit task. Within the resting-state networks highlighted by a spatial group Independent Component Analysis (gICA), we found a significant correlation between strength of activity and behavioral loss aversion in the left ventral striatum and right posterior insula/supramarginal gyrus, i.e. the very same regions displaying a pattern of neural loss aversion during explicit choices. Cross-study analyses confirmed that this correlation holds when voxels identified by gICA are used as regions of interest in task-related activity and vice versa. These results suggest that the individual degree of (neural) loss aversion represents a stable dimension of decision-making, which reflects in specific metrics of intrinsic brain activity at rest possibly modulating cortical excitability at choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fuertinger, Stefan; Fleysher, Lazar; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Background Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. Methods We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional MRI data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor vs. adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial vs. sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. Results We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in SD patients compared to healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortex. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Conclusions Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. PMID:27346568

  6. Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HFE genotypes in heart failure: Relation to etiology and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torp-Pedersen Christian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that hereditary hemochromatosis (HH might play a role in cardiac disease (heart failure (HF and ischemia. Mutations within several genes are HH-associated, the most common being the HFE gene. In a large cohort of HF patients, we sought to determine the etiological role and the prognostic significance of HFE genotypes. Methods We studied 667 HF patients (72.7% men with depressed systolic function, enrolled in a multicentre trial with a follow-up period of up to 5 years. All were genotyped for the known HFE variants C282Y, H63D and S65C. Results The genotype and allele frequencies in the HF group were similar to the frequencies determined in the general Danish population. In multivariable analysis mortality was not predicted by C282Y-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.7; H63D-carrier status (HR 1.0, 95% CI: 0.7-1.3; nor S65C-carrier status (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 0.7-2.0. We identified 27 (4.1% homozygous or compound heterozygous carriers of HFE variants. None of these carriers had a clinical presentation suggesting hemochromatosis, but hemoglobin and ferritin levels were higher than in the rest of the cohort. Furthermore, a trend towards reduced mortality was seen in this group in univariate analyses (HR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p = 0.03, but not in multivariate (HR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.2-1.2. Conclusion HFE genotypes do not seem to be a significant contributor to the etiology of heart failure in Denmark. HFE variants do not affect mortality in HF.

  7. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G; Fuertinger, S; Fleysher, L; Ozelius, L J; Simonyan, K

    2016-10-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor versus adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial versus sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in patients with SD compared with healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortices. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from the left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. © 2016 EAN.

  8. Distribution of genotype network sizes in sequence-to-structure genotype-phenotype maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrubia, Susanna; Cuesta, José A

    2017-04-01

    An essential quantity to ensure evolvability of populations is the navigability of the genotype space. Navigability, understood as the ease with which alternative phenotypes are reached, relies on the existence of sufficiently large and mutually attainable genotype networks. The size of genotype networks (e.g. the number of RNA sequences folding into a particular secondary structure or the number of DNA sequences coding for the same protein structure) is astronomically large in all functional molecules investigated: an exhaustive experimental or computational study of all RNA folds or all protein structures becomes impossible even for moderately long sequences. Here, we analytically derive the distribution of genotype network sizes for a hierarchy of models which successively incorporate features of increasingly realistic sequence-to-structure genotype-phenotype maps. The main feature of these models relies on the characterization of each phenotype through a prototypical sequence whose sites admit a variable fraction of letters of the alphabet. Our models interpolate between two limit distributions: a power-law distribution, when the ordering of sites in the prototypical sequence is strongly constrained, and a lognormal distribution, as suggested for RNA, when different orderings of the same set of sites yield different phenotypes. Our main result is the qualitative and quantitative identification of those features of sequence-to-structure maps that lead to different distributions of genotype network sizes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Sparse dictionary learning of resting state fMRI networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eavani, Harini; Filipovych, Roman; Davatzikos, Christos; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-07-02

    Research in resting state fMRI (rsfMRI) has revealed the presence of stable, anti-correlated functional subnetworks in the brain. Task-positive networks are active during a cognitive process and are anti-correlated with task-negative networks, which are active during rest. In this paper, based on the assumption that the structure of the resting state functional brain connectivity is sparse, we utilize sparse dictionary modeling to identify distinct functional sub-networks. We propose two ways of formulating the sparse functional network learning problem that characterize the underlying functional connectivity from different perspectives. Our results show that the whole-brain functional connectivity can be concisely represented with highly modular, overlapping task-positive/negative pairs of sub-networks.

  10. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Phylogenetic placement of two species known only from resting spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E; Gryganskyi, Andrii; Bittner, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    resting spores, Zoophthora independentia, infecting Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata in New York State, is now described as a new species and Tarichium porteri, described in 1942, which infects Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei in Tennessee, is transferred to the genus Zoophthora. We have shown that use......Molecular methods were used to determine the generic placement of two species of Entomophthorales known only from resting spores. Historically, these species would belong in the form-genus Tarichium, but this classification provides no information about phylogenetic relationships. Using DNA from...... of molecular methods can assist with determination of the phylogenetic relations of specimens within the form-genus Tarichium for an already described species and a new species for which only resting spores are available....

  12. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  13. Mach's principle and the rest mass of the graviton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, J.F.; Crowley, R.J.; Yourgrau, W.

    1975-01-01

    The question of the graviton rest mass is briefly discussed and then it is shown that the Sciama-Dicke formulation of Mach's principle admits, in the linear approximation, the calculation of the graviton rest mass. One finds that the value of the graviton rest mass depends on the cosmological model adopted, the mean matter density in the universe, the speed of light, and the constant of gravitation. The value obtained for an infinite, stationary universe is 7.6 times 10 -67 g. The value for evolutionary cosmological models is found to depend critically on the mass and ''radius'' of the universe, both null and non-null values occurring only for certain values of these parameters. Problems that arise as a consequence of the linear approximation are pointed out

  14. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes. ... This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  15. Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behavior of durum wheat genotypes under normal irrigation and drought stress conditions in the greenhouse. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Genotypes were grouped in cluster analysis (using Ward's method) based on Yp, Ys and ...

  16. Genetic variability in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sive protein in human diets with grains containing about. 23–25% protein ... Keywords: heritability, phenotype, principal component analysis, variance. Introduction .... be due to genotype, environment, and the interaction of genotype and ...

  17. magnitude of genotype x environment interaction for bacterial leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. ... effects of treatments into genotype, environment, and genotype x environment (G x E) interactions. Results .... method is economically effective (Niño-Liu et al., ..... This phenomenon indicated differences in.

  18. Hyperfunction solutions of the zero rest mass equations and representations of LIE groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunne, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, hyperfunctions have arisen in an essential way in separate results in mathematical physics and in representation theory. In the setting of the twistor program, Wells, with others, has extended the Penrose transform to hyperfunction solutions of the zero rest mass equations, showing that the fundamental isomorphisms hold for this larger space. Meanwhile, Schmid has shown the existence of a canonical globalization of a Harish-Chandra module, V, to a representation of the group. This maximal globalization may be realized as the completion of V in a locally convex vector space in the hyperfunction topology. This thesis shows that the former is a particular case of the latter where the globalization can be done by hand. This explicit globalization is then carried out for a more general case of the Radon transform on homogeneous spaces

  19. Hypothalamus-Related Resting Brain Network Underlying Short-Term Acupuncture Treatment in Primary Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to explore modulated hypothalamus-seeded resting brain network underlying the cardiovascular system in primary hypertensive patients after short-term acupuncture treatment. Thirty right-handed patients (14 male were divided randomly into acupuncture and control groups. The acupuncture group received a continuous five-day acupuncture treatment and undertook three resting-state fMRI scans and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM as well as SF-36 questionnaires before, after, and one month after acupuncture treatment. The control group undertook fMRI scans and 24-hour ABPM. For verum acupuncture, average blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR decreased after treatment but showed no statistical differences. There were no significant differences in BP and HR between the acupuncture and control groups. Notably, SF-36 indicated that bodily pain (P = 0.005 decreased and vitality (P = 0.036 increased after acupuncture compared to the baseline. The hypothalamus-related brain network showed increased functional connectivity with the medulla, brainstem, cerebellum, limbic system, thalamus, and frontal lobes. In conclusion, short-term acupuncture did not decrease BP significantly but appeared to improve body pain and vitality. Acupuncture may regulate the cardiovascular system through a complicated brain network from the cortical level, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem.

  20. Functional network centrality in obesity: A resting-state and task fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Isabel; Jurado, María Ángeles; Garolera, Maite; Marqués-Iturria, Idoia; Horstmann, Annette; Segura, Bàrbara; Pueyo, Roser; Sender-Palacios, María José; Vernet-Vernet, Maria; Villringer, Arno; Junqué, Carme; Margulies, Daniel S; Neumann, Jane

    2015-09-30

    Obesity is associated with structural and functional alterations in brain areas that are often functionally distinct and anatomically distant. This suggests that obesity is associated with differences in functional connectivity of regions distributed across the brain. However, studies addressing whole brain functional connectivity in obesity remain scarce. Here, we compared voxel-wise degree centrality and eigenvector centrality between participants with obesity (n=20) and normal-weight controls (n=21). We analyzed resting state and task-related fMRI data acquired from the same individuals. Relative to normal-weight controls, participants with obesity exhibited reduced degree centrality in the right middle frontal gyrus in the resting-state condition. During the task fMRI condition, obese participants exhibited less degree centrality in the left middle frontal gyrus and the lateral occipital cortex along with reduced eigenvector centrality in the lateral occipital cortex and occipital pole. Our results highlight the central role of the middle frontal gyrus in the pathophysiology of obesity, a structure involved in several brain circuits signaling attention, executive functions and motor functions. Additionally, our analysis suggests the existence of task-dependent reduced centrality in occipital areas; regions with a role in perceptual processes and that are profoundly modulated by attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotype 3 is the predominant hepatitis C genotype in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shiaw-Hooi; Ng, Kee-Peng; Kaur, Harvinder; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-06-01

    Genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) are distributed differently across the world. There is a paucity of such data in a multi-ethnic Asian population like Malaysia. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of HCV genotypes between major ethnic groups and to ascertain their association with basic demographic variables like age and gender. This was a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from September 2007 to September 2013. Consecutive patients who were detected to have anti-HCV antibodies in the University of Malaya Medical Centre were included and tested for the presence of HCV RNA using Roche Cobas Amplicor Analyzer and HCV genotype using Roche single Linear Array HCV Genotyping strip. Five hundred and ninety-six subjects were found to have positive anti-HCV antibodies during this period of time. However, only 396 (66.4%) were HCV RNA positive and included in the final analysis. Our results showed that HCV genotype 3 was the predominant genotype with overall frequency of 61.9% followed by genotypes 1 (35.9%), 2 (1.8%) and 6 (0.5%). There was a slightly higher prevalence of HCV genotype 3 among the Malays when compared to the Chinese (P=0.043). No other statistical significant differences were observed in the distribution of HCV genotypes among the major ethnic groups. There was also no association between the predominant genotypes and basic demographic variables. In a multi-ethnic Asian society in Malaysia, genotype 3 is the predominant genotype among all the major ethnic groups with genotype 1 as the second commonest genotype. Both genotypes 2 and 6 are uncommon. Neither genotype 4 nor 5 was detected. There is no identification of HCV genotype according to ethnic origin, age and gender.

  2. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  3. Influence of Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) over the Right Angular Gyrus on Brain Activity during Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site. PMID:24760013

  4. Influence of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right angular gyrus on brain activity during rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Benjamin; Jung, Stefanie; Mingoia, Gianluca; Weyer, David; Domahs, Frank; Willmes, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies examined resting-state networks (RSN) in the human brain, so far little is known about how activity within RSN might be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation applied over parietal cortex. Investigating changes in RSN in response to parietal cortex stimulation might tell us more about how non-invasive techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulate intrinsic brain activity, and further elaborate our understanding of how the resting brain responds to external stimulation. Here we examined how activity within the canonical RSN changed in response to anodal tDCS applied over the right angular gyrus (AG). We hypothesized that changes in resting-state activity can be induced by a single tDCS session and detected with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Significant differences between two fMRI sessions (pre-tDCS and post-tDCS) were found in several RSN, including the cerebellar, medial visual, sensorimotor, right frontoparietal, and executive control RSN as well as the default mode and the task positive network. The present results revealed decreased and increased RSN activity following tDCS. Decreased RSN activity following tDCS was found in bilateral primary and secondary visual areas, and in the right putamen. Increased RSN activity following tDCS was widely distributed across the brain, covering thalamic, frontal, parietal and occipital regions. From these exploratory results we conclude that a single session of anodal tDCS over the right AG is sufficient to induce large-scale changes in resting-state activity. These changes were localized in sensory and cognitive areas, covering regions close to and distant from the stimulation site.

  5. HPV genotypes in invasive cervical cancer in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Junge, Jette; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer.......Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in invasive cervical cancers may differ by geographic region. The primary objective of this study was to estimate HPV-genotype distribution in Danish women with a diagnosis of invasive cervical cancer....

  6. Resting release of acetylcholine at the motor endplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molenaar, P.C.; Polak, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work on resting release of ACh in frog, rat and mouse skeletal muscle. Because of the effect of Ca 2+ on resting release it was of interest to know whether non-quantal release of ACh is increased under conditions of increased Ca 2+ influx, viz. during depolarization of the nerve terminals. It is shown that depolarization of the motor nerve terminals by K + ions led to an increase of both min.e.p.c. frequency and chemically detectable ACh release

  7. Hemifacial Display of Emotion in the Resting State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face at rest displays distinguishable asymmetries with some lateralization of emotion or expression. The asymmetrical nature of the resting face was examined by preparing hemifacial composites, left–left, right–right, along with normal facial orientation. The left side and right side composites were constructed by using the lateral half of one side of the face and its mirror-reversal. The left side facial composites were found to be more emotional than the right side or normal facial orientations of neutral expressions.

  8. Age-Related Differences in Dynamic Interactions Among Default Mode, Frontoparietal Control, and Dorsal Attention Networks during Resting-State and Interference Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar-Pereira, Bárbara; Bäckman, Lars; Wåhlin, Anders; Nyberg, Lars; Salami, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) can identify large-scale brain networks, including the default mode (DMN), frontoparietal control (FPN) and dorsal attention (DAN) networks. Interactions among these networks are critical for supporting complex cognitive functions, yet the way in which they are modulated across states is not well understood. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these interactions are similarly affected in aging regardless of cognitive state. In this study, we investigated age-related differences in functional interactions among the DMN, FPN and DAN during rest and the Multi-Source Interference task (MSIT). Networks were identified using independent component analysis (ICA), and functional connectivity was measured during rest and task. We found that the FPN was more coupled with the DMN during rest and with the DAN during the MSIT. The degree of FPN-DMN connectivity was lower in older compared to younger adults, whereas no age-related differences were observed in FPN-DAN connectivity in either state. This suggests that dynamic interactions of the FPN are stable across cognitive states. The DMN and DAN were anti correlated and age-sensitive during the MSIT only, indicating variation in a task-dependent manner. Increased levels of anticorrelation from rest to task also predicted successful interference resolution. Additional analyses revealed that the degree of DMN-DAN anticorrelation during the MSIT was associated to resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) within the DMN. This suggests that reduced DMN neural activity during rest underlies an impaired ability to achieve higher levels of anticorrelation during a task. Taken together, our results suggest that only parts of age-related differences in connectivity are uncovered at rest and thus, should be studied in the functional connectome across multiple states for a more comprehensive picture. PMID:28588476

  9. Evaluation of promising sweetpotato genotypes for high altitude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trials were set up to identify sweetpotato genotypes with adaptation to highland agroecologies with special reference to resistance to Ahemaria blight ... growth and at harvest, four genotypes and the local check, Magabari, bad high levels of resistance toA/Jemaria blight. Eight genotypes had total storage root yield ...

  10. Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that D genotype is the main genotype of HBV in West Azarbayjan province. Presence of this genotype conformed with the low rate of acute liver diseases caused by hepatitis B chronic infection, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Genotype-based personalised nutrition for obesity prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Typically, genotype-based personalised nutrition involves genotyping for a number of susceptibility SNPs associated with the prevention, or management, of a particular disease. Dietary advice is then personalised to the individual's genotype to ensure optimal prevention or treatment outcomes. To ensure evidence-based ...

  12. Introduction to a special issue on genotype by environment interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expression of a phenotype is a function of the genotype, the environment, and the differential sensitivity of certain genotypes to different environments, also known as genotype by environment (G × E) interaction. This special issue of Crop Science includes a collection of manuscripts that reviews t...

  13. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine genotypic distribution, ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA viral load and express core gene from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1690 HCV RNA positive patients were included in the study. HCV genotyping was tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral ...

  14. Effect of Genotype and Age on Some Morphometric, Body Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A population of 231 roosters of the Nigerian indigenous chickens of normal feathered frizzle feathered and naked neck genotypes was evaluated for the effect of genotype and age on some morphometric body linear measurements and semen characteristics of three Nigerian chicken genotypes. 20 roosters from each ...

  15. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA...

  16. Relationship of status of polymorphic rapd bands with genotypic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship of status of polymorphic rapd bands with genotypic adaptation in early finger millet genotypes. S Das, RC Misra, GR Rout, MC Pattanaik, S Aparajita. Abstract. Molecular characterisation of the 15 early duration finger millet (Eleusine coracana G) genotypes was done through RAPD markers. Twenty-five ...

  17. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  18. [Evaluation of hepatitis B virus genotyping EIA kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhito; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Matsuuraa, Kentaro; Naganuma, Hatsue; Tatematsu, Kanako; Takagi, Kazumi; Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Kani, Satomi; Gotoh, Takaaki; Wakimoto, Yukio; Mizokami, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    Clinical significance of Hepatitis B virus(HBV) genotyping is increasingly recognized. The aim of this study was to evaluate reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based HBV genotyping kit, which designed to discriminate between genotypes to A, B, C, or D by detecting genotype-specific epitopes in PreS2 region. Using the four genotypes panels, the EIA demonstrated complete inter and intra-assay genotyping reproducibility. Serum specimens had stable results after 8 days at 4 degrees C, or 10 cycles of freezing-thawing. In 91 samples that have been genotyped by DNA sequencing, 87(95.6%) were in complete accordance with EIA genotyping. Of examined 344 HBsAg-positive serum specimens, genotypes A, B, C and D were determined in 26 (7.6%), 62 (18.0%), 228 (66.3%), and 9 (2.6%) cases, respectively. Of 19 (5.5%) specimens unclassified by the EIA, 13 were found to have low titer of HBsAg concentration (< 3 IU/ml), and the other 5 had amino acid mutations or deletions within targeted PreS2 epitopes. The EIA allowed genotyping even in HBV DNA negative samples (96.2%). In conclusion, HBV genotype EIA is reliable, sensitive and easy assay for HBV genotyping. The assay would be useful for clinical use.

  19. Genotype by environment interactions and yield stability of stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a maize breeding program, potential genotypes are usually evaluated in different environments before desirable ones are selected. Genotype x environment (G x E) interaction is associated with the differential performance of genotypes tested at different locations and in different years, and influences selection and ...

  20. Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chickpea is the major pulse crop cultivated in Ethiopia. However, its production is constrained due to genotype instability and environmental variability. This research was carried out to examine the magnitude of environmental effect on yield of chickpea genotypes and to investigate the stability and adaptability of genotypes ...

  1. Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reactions of some potato genotypes to late blight in Cameroon. D. K. Njualem, P. Demo, H. A. Mendoza, J. T. Koi, S. F. Nana. Abstract. Field experiments were conducted in Cameroon in 1995 and 1996 to evaluate reactions of different potato genotypes to late blight. There were significant differences among genotypes for ...

  2. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in boys, adolescents and adult men with congenital adrenal hyperplasia may be associated with the CYP21A2 mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Annette; Jørgensen, Niels; Main, Katharina M

    2010-01-01

    % of CAH adults and may already appear during childhood. Whether genotype sub-types can account for the development of TART has not been investigated previously. We therefore investigated this by coupling clinical information of CAH patients with information of their genetic mutation. In 49 male patients......Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder with impaired function of the adrenal cortex caused by mutations in the CYP21A2 gene. Deficiency of steroid 21-hydroxylase accounts for 80-95% of CAH cases. Testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) may be prevalent in up to 95...

  3. Discovery of novel variants in genotyping arrays improves genotype retention and reduces ascertainment bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didion John P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-density genotyping arrays that measure hybridization of genomic DNA fragments to allele-specific oligonucleotide probes are widely used to genotype single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in genetic studies, including human genome-wide association studies. Hybridization intensities are converted to genotype calls by clustering algorithms that assign each sample to a genotype class at each SNP. Data for SNP probes that do not conform to the expected pattern of clustering are often discarded, contributing to ascertainment bias and resulting in lost information - as much as 50% in a recent genome-wide association study in dogs. Results We identified atypical patterns of hybridization intensities that were highly reproducible and demonstrated that these patterns represent genetic variants that were not accounted for in the design of the array platform. We characterized variable intensity oligonucleotide (VINO probes that display such patterns and are found in all hybridization-based genotyping platforms, including those developed for human, dog, cattle, and mouse. When recognized and properly interpreted, VINOs recovered a substantial fraction of discarded probes and counteracted SNP ascertainment bias. We developed software (MouseDivGeno that identifies VINOs and improves the accuracy of genotype calling. MouseDivGeno produced highly concordant genotype calls when compared with other methods but it uniquely identified more than 786000 VINOs in 351 mouse samples. We used whole-genome sequence from 14 mouse strains to confirm the presence of novel variants explaining 28000 VINOs in those strains. We also identified VINOs in human HapMap 3 samples, many of which were specific to an African population. Incorporating VINOs in phylogenetic analyses substantially improved the accuracy of a Mus species tree and local haplotype assignment in laboratory mouse strains. Conclusion The problems of ascertainment bias and missing

  4. COMT genotype, gambling activity, and cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Leppink, Eric W; Redden, Sarah A

    2015-01-01

    adjustment and delay aversion) and the Spatial Working Memory task (total errors). This study adds to the growing literature on the role of COMT in impulsive behaviors by showing that the Val/Val genotype was associated with specific clinical and cognitive elements among young adults who gamble......Neuropsychological studies of adults with problem gambling indicate impairments across multiple cognitive domains. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) plays a unique role in the regulation of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, and has been implicated in the cognitive dysfunction evident in problem...... gambling. This study examined adults with varying levels of gambling behavior to determine whether COMT genotype was associated with differences in gambling symptoms and cognitive functioning. 260 non-treatment-seeking adults aged 18-29 years with varying degrees of gambling behavior provided saliva...

  5. FRUIT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME BLUEBERRY GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ancu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Romania the blueberry breeding program started in 1982 and till now was conducted by dr. Paulina Mladin. For inducing the variability, different genetic resources of American blueberry cultivars (V. corymbosum, V. angustifolium were involved in a high number of crosses. For identify the genotype with the best fruit quality, some biometric quality indicators (average fruit weight, size index and basically chemical compounds of fruits including ascorbic acid, dry matter, ash, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, tanoid substances, pectic substances, protein crude, phosphorus and potassium were determined. Of the eleven chemical studied properties who reflected the fruits quality, for five of them were found no statistically significant differences. The purpose of this paper work was to evaluate fruit quality and to identify the valuable genotypes resulted from Romanian blueberry breeding program.

  6. BCL2 genotypes and prostate cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renner, Wilfried [Medical University of Graz, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Graz (Austria); Langsenlehner, Uwe [GKK Outpatient Department, Division of Internal Medicine, Graz (Austria); Krenn-Pilko, Sabine; Langsenlehner, Tanja [Medical University of Graz, Department of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology, Graz (Austria); Eder, Petra [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    The antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) gene is a key player in cancer development and progression. A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (c.-938C>A, rs2279115) in the inhibitory P2 BCL2 gene promoter has been associated with clinical outcomes in various types of cancer. Aim of the present study was to analyze the role of BCL2-938C>A genotypes in prostate cancer mortality. The association between BCL2-938C>A (rs2279115) genotypes and prostate cancer outcome was studied within the prospective PROCAGENE study comprising 702 prostate cancer patients. During a median follow-up time of 92 months, 120 (17.1%) patients died. A univariate Cox regression model showed a significant association of the CC genotype with reduced cancer-specific survival (CSS; hazard ratio, HR, 2.13, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-4.12; p = 0.024) and overall survival (OS; HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.58-3.47; p < 0.001). In a multivariate Cox regression model including age at diagnosis, risk group, and androgen deprivation therapy, the CC genotype remained a significant predictor of poor CSS (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.05-3.99; p = 0.034) and OS (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.51-3.36; p < 0.001). This study provides evidence that the homozygous BCL2-938 CC genotype is associated with OS and C in prostate cancer patients. (orig.) [German] Das antiapoptotische Gen B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) spielt eine Schluesselrolle in der Entstehung und Progression von Krebserkrankungen. Ein funktioneller Einzelnukleotid-Polymorphismus (c.-938C>A, rs2279115) im inhibitorischen P2-BCL2-Promotor wurde mit dem klinischen Outcome verschiedener Krebserkrankungen verknuepft. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Untersuchung der Rolle von BCL2-938C>A-Genotypen fuer die Mortalitaet bei Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom. Der Zusammenhang zwischen BCL2-938C>A-Genotypen (rs2279115) und dem Outcome bei Prostatakrebs wurde in der prospektiven PROCAGENE-Studie, die 702 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom umfasste, untersucht. Waehrend der medianen

  7. Association between uncoupling protein 2, adiponectin and resting energy expenditure in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghadomi Masoumi, Zahra; Eshraghian, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mahdi; Pishva, Hamideh

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is recognized as the most prevalent metabolic disease worldwide. Decreases in energy expenditure may increase risk of obesity. One of the key regulators of energy balance is uncoupling protein2 (UCP2), a transporter protein presents in mitochondrial inner membrane. Moreover, adiponectin is the most abundant adipocytokine, it may play a role in energy metabolism and gene expression of UCP2. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between the level of uncoupling protein 2 and adiponectin and their relationship with REE (Resting Energy Expenditure) in obese women with normal and low resting energy expenditure. A total of 49 subjects (women, 25-50 years old), were included in current study, 16 subjects with BMI > 30 and low resting energy expenditure, 17 subjects with BMI > 30 and normal resting energy expenditure and 16 non-obese subjects as a control group. Anthropometric, body composition parameters and resting energy expenditure were measured. Plasma adiponectin, UCP2 protein and total protein in PBMC were determined. Measured resting energy expenditure in obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower than other groups. Plasma adiponectin in the obese subjects with low REE was significantly lower compared to normal weight group. There was a significant relationship between 'UCP2 protein/Total protein' ratio and plasma adiponectin in obese group with low REE and in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between REE and plasma adiponectin in three groups when we pooled. There was a significant association between plasma adiponectin and REE. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between UCP2 and REE.

  8. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Novel approach for CES1 genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Ditte; Berg Rasmussen, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    AIM: Development of a specific procedure for genotyping of CES1A1 (CES1) and CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1A1 and the pseudogene CES1P1. MATERIALS & METHODS: The number of CES1A1 and CES1A2 copies and that of CES1P1 were determined using real-time PCR. Long range PCRs followed by secondary PCRs allowed...

  10. Screening cotton genotypes for seedling drought tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penna Julio C. Viglioni

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to adapt a screening method previously used to assess seedling drought tolerance in cereals for use in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. and to identify tolerant accessions among a wide range of genotypes. Ninety genotypes were screened in seven growth chamber experiments. Fifteen-day-old seedlings were subjected to four 4-day drought cycles, and plant survival was evaluated after each cycle. Three cycles are probably the minimum required in cotton work. Significant differences (at the 0.05 level or lower among entries were obtained in four of the seven experiments. A "confirmation test" with entries previously evaluated as "tolerant" (high survival and "susceptible" (low survival was run. A number of entries duplicated their earlier performance, but others did not, which indicates the need to reevaluate selections. Germplasms considered tolerant included: `IAC-13-1', `IAC-RM4-SM5', `Minas Sertaneja', `Acala 1517E-1' and `4521'. In general, the technique is simple, though time-consuming, with practical value for screening a large number of genotypes. Results from the screening tests generally agreed with field information. The screening procedure is suitable to select tolerant accessions from among a large number of entries in germplasm collections as a preliminary step in breeding for drought tolerance. This research also demonstrated the need to characterize the internal lack of uniformity in growth chambers to allow for adequate designs of experiments.

  11. Fast Convolution Module (Fast Convolution Module)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierens, L

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design and realisation of a real-time range azimuth compression module, the so-called 'Fast Convolution Module', based on the fast convolution algorithm developed at TNO-FEL...

  12. Differential expression of jasmonate biosynthesis genes in cacao genotypes contrasting for resistance against Moniliophthora perniciosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litholdo, Celso G; Leal, Gildemberg A; Albuquerque, Paulo S B; Figueira, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The resistance mechanism of cacao against M. perniciosa is likely to be mediated by JA/ET-signaling pathways due to the preferential TcAOS and TcSAM induction in a resistant genotype. The basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa causes a serious disease in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), and the use of resistant varieties is the only sustainable long-term solution. Cacao resistance against M. perniciosa is characterized by pathogen growth inhibition with reduced colonization and an attenuation of disease symptoms, suggesting a regulation by jasmonate (JA)/ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. The hypothesis that genes involved in JA biosynthesis would be active in the interaction of T. cacao and M. perniciosa was tested here. The cacao JA-related genes were evaluated for their relative quantitative expression in susceptible and resistant genotypes upon the exogenous application of ET, methyl-jasmonate (MJ), and salicylic acid (SA), or after M. perniciosa inoculation. MJ treatment triggered changes in the expression of genes involved in JA biosynthesis, indicating that the mechanism of positive regulation by exogenous MJ application occurs in cacao. However, a higher induction of these genes was observed in the susceptible genotype. Further, a contrast in JA-related transcriptional expression was detected between susceptible and resistant plants under M. perniciosa infection, with the induction of the allene oxide synthase gene (TcAOS), which encodes a key enzyme in the JA biosynthesis pathway in the resistant genotype. Altogether, this work provides additional evidences that the JA-dependent signaling pathway is modulating the defense response against M. perniciosa in a cacao-resistant genotype.

  13. Bed rest and increased diuretic treatment in chronic congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, U; Aldershvile, J; Ring-Larsen, H

    1985-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of bed rest used as an adjunct to increased diuretic treatment, twelve patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) had a 50% increase in loop diuretic dosage and were allocated to either continuous bed rest or bed rest during nights only. The 24-hour bed rest group...... is a reasonable adjunct to diuretic treatment in patients with CHF....

  14. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance with... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes...

  15. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  16. Effects of flotation-REST on muscle tension pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, A; Sundequist, U; Norlander, T; Archer, T

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST) may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women) suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants) or an experimental group (20 participants). The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  17. A Rwandan spirometry and resting ventilation study | Gahutu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To illustrate spirometric population variation and ventilatory adaptation to moderate altitude, we report the spirometric and resting ventilation values observed in a student population in Butare, Rwanda (altitude: 1 768 m; barometric pressure: 629 mm Hg). Spirometry was carried out with a Mijnhardt Volutest VT-3 ...

  18. Effects of temperature and salinity on resting metabolism in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the resting metabolic rate (RMR; mg O2 g/h) of the resident rock pool fish Caffrogobius caffer and the transient sparid Diplodus sargus capensis at a range of salinities (5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 PSU) and temperatures (14, 20 and 28°C) using closed-vessel respirometry. Both species were temperature ...

  19. JASPAR RESTful API: accessing JASPAR data from any programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aziz; Mathelier, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    JASPAR is a widely used open-access database of curated, non-redundant transcription factor binding profiles. Currently, data from JASPAR can be retrieved as flat files or by using programming language-specific interfaces. Here, we present a programming language-independent application programming interface (API) to access JASPAR data using the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The REST API enables programmatic access to JASPAR by most programming languages and returns data in eight widely used formats. Several endpoints are available to access the data and an endpoint is available to infer the TF binding profile(s) likely bound by a given DNA binding domain protein sequence. Additionally, it provides an interactive browsable interface for bioinformatics tool developers. This REST API is implemented in Python using the Django REST Framework. It is accessible at http://jaspar.genereg.net/api/ and the source code is freely available at https://bitbucket.org/CBGR/jaspar under GPL v3 license. aziz.khan@ncmm.uio.no or anthony.mathelier@ncmm.uio.no. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Isospin effects in anti p3He annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestra, F.; Barbieri, R.; Batusov, Yu.A.; Bendiscioli, G.; Breivik, F.O.; Bossolasco, S.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; Falomkin, I.V.; Ferrero, L.; Guaraldo, C.; Haatuft, A.; Halsteinslid, A.; Jacobsen, T.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Maggiora, A.; Myklebost, K.; Olsen, J.M.; Panzieri, D.; Piragino, G.; Pontecorvo, G.B.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Rotondi, A.; Salvini, P.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Soerensen, S.O.; Tosello, F.; Tretyak, V.I.; Venaglioni, A.; Zenoni, A.

    1989-01-01

    The analysis of anti p 3 He annihilation events at rest (from the PS 179 experiment at LEAR) gives the value 0.467±0.035 for the ratio between the annihilation cross sections on n and on p. This low value indicates a strong isospin dependence of the anti NN amplitude in P wave. (orig.)

  1. Myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of increased adiposity on myocardial oxygen consumption at rest and during submaximal exercise in young adults. The study consisted of 85 young adults (18-22years) grouped into 3 based on ...

  2. Resting cardiointegram: correlation with stress thallium perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, L.A.; Betzu, R.; Judge, D.; Lee, J.; Taddeo, M.; Yang, D.

    1988-01-01

    The cardiointegram is a noninvasive technique for the analysis of the electrical signals of the heart obtained by a transformation of the voltage versus time format by a series of integrations. The stress thallium perfusion study is a widely used test for the detection of coronary artery disease. In order to evaluate the correlation between the resting cardiointegram and the stress thallium 201 perfusion study, 20 patients with normal resting electrocardiograms underwent stress thallium tests and resting cardiointegrams. The cardiointegram was determined on two resting complexes of leads I, II, V4, V5, and V6 and called abnormal if five of ten complexes deviated outside a normalized template. There was concordance of the cardiointegram and the thallium study in 16 of 20 patients (80%). The sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease was 71%, and the specificity was 80%. The overall accuracy was 74%. Thus in patients with normal electrocardiograms, the cardiointegram is a useful noninvasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease

  3. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M.; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Renken, Remco J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dirk. J.; Aleman, Andre; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Milles, Julien

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  4. Hierarchical Functional Modularity in the Resting-State Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrarini, L.; Veer, I.M.; Baerends, E.; van Tol, M.J.; Renken, R.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; Zitman, F.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; van Buchem, M.A.; Reiber, J.H.C.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.; Milles, J.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a

  5. Separation of uranium in bone rest for their dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Tenorio, D.; Cordoba, L.

    2001-01-01

    The uranium (U) and thorium (Th) recovery, as fundamental part of the 'uranium serie' technique is an alternative method for dating of bone rests in Mexico. That so is how it has been possible its application for dating geological material and in this research it has been determined the age of some mammoth samples from the basin of Mexico valley. (Author)

  6. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  7. Metabolic, respiratory, and cardiological measurements during exercise and rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Low concentration effects of CO2 on metabolic respiration and circulation were measured during work and at rest. The relationship between heart rate and metabolic rate is examined, as well as calibration procedures, and rate measurement during submaximal and standard exercise tests. Alterations in acid base and electrolytes were found during exhaustive exercise, including changes in ECG and metabolic alkalosis effects.

  8. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  9. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight...

  10. Hours of work and rest in the rail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C; Grunstein, R R; Rajaratnam, S M W

    2013-06-01

    Currently, the National Transport Commission is considering four options to form the regulatory framework for rail safety within Australia with respect to fatigue. While the National Transport Commission currently recommends no limitations around hours of work or rest, we provide evidence which suggests regulatory frameworks should incorporate a traditional hours of service regulation over more flexible policies. Our review highlights: Shift durations >12 h are associated with a doubling of risk for accident and injury. Fatigue builds cumulatively with each successive shift where rest in between is inadequate (hours of work and rest, including maximum shift duration and successive number of shifts. Appropriately, validated biomathematical models and technologies may be used as a part of a fatigue management system, to augment the protection afforded by limits on hours of work and rest. A comprehensive sleep disorder screening and management programme should form an essential component of any regulatory framework. © 2013 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  11. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begall, S.; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, J.; Burda, H.; Vojtěch, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 36 (2008), s. 13451-13455 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : grazing behavior * magnetic alignment * magnetoreception * resting behavior * spatial orientation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  12. Resting-State Oscillatory Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornew, Lauren; Roberts, Timothy P. L.; Blaskey, Lisa; Edgar, J. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Neural oscillatory anomalies in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) suggest an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance; however, the nature and clinical relevance of these anomalies are unclear. Whole-cortex magnetoencephalography data were collected while 50 children (27 with ASD, 23 controls) underwent an eyes-closed resting-state exam. A Fast Fourier…

  13. Infraslow Electroencephalographic and Dynamic Resting State Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Joshua K; Thompson, Garth J; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob; Schumacher, Eric H; Epstein, Charles M; Keilholz, Shella D

    2017-06-01

    A number of studies have linked the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in traditional frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ), but the relationship between BOLD and its direct frequency correlates in the infraslow band (resting state magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired simultaneously. The DC EEG signals were correlated with the BOLD signal in patterns that resembled resting state networks. Subsequent dynamic analysis showed that the correlation between DC EEG and the BOLD signal varied substantially over time, even within individual subjects. The variation in DC EEG appears to reflect the time-varying contribution of different resting state networks. Furthermore, some of the patterns of DC EEG and BOLD correlation are consistent with previous work demonstrating quasiperiodic spatiotemporal patterns of large-scale network activity in resting state. These findings demonstrate that infraslow electrical activity is linked to BOLD fluctuations in humans and that it may provide a basis for large-scale organization comparable to that observed in animal studies.

  14. Resting state FMRI research in child psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Marianne; Francx, Winke; Beckmann, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mennes, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    Concurring with the shift from linking functions to specific brain areas towards studying network integration, resting state FMRI (R-FMRI) has become an important tool for delineating the functional network architecture of the brain. Fueled by straightforward data collection, R-FMRI analysis methods

  15. Aerobic exercise deconditioning and countermeasures during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Moore, Alan D; Everett, Meghan E; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2010-01-01

    Bed rest is a well-accepted model for spaceflight in which the physiologic adaptations, particularly in the cardiovascular system, are studied and potential countermeasures can be tested. Bed rest without countermeasures results in reduced aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. Aerobic endurance and factors which may impact prolonged exercise, however, have not been well studied. The initial loss of aerobic capacity is rapid, occurring in parallel with the loss of plasma volume. Thereafter, the reduction in maximal aerobic capacity proceeds more slowly and is influenced by central and peripheral adaptation. Exercise capacity can be maintained during bed rest and may be improved during recovery with appropriate countermeasures. Plasma volume restoration, resistive exercise, orthostatic stress, aerobic exercise, and aerobic exercise plus orthostatic stress all have been tested with varying levels of success. However, the optimal combination of elements-exercise modality, intensity, duration, muscle groups exercised and frequency of aerobic exercise, orthostatic stress, and supplementary resistive or anaerobic exercise training-has not been systematically evaluated. Currently, frequent (at least 3 days per week) bouts of intense exercise (interval-style and near maximal) with orthostatic stress appears to be the most efficacious method to protect aerobic capacity during bed rest. Further refinement of protocols and countermeasure hardware may be necessary to insure the success of countermeasures in the unique environment of space.

  16. Production of doubly charmed baryons nearly at rest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groote, Stefan; Koshkarev, Sergey [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Tartu (Estonia)

    2017-08-15

    We investigate the production cross sections, momentum distributions and rapidity distributions for doubly charmed baryons which according to the intrinsic heavy quark mechanism are produced nearly at rest. These events should be measurable at fixed-target experiments like STAR rate at RHIC and AFTER rate at LHC. (orig.)

  17. Effects of strict prolonged bed rest on cardiorespiratory fitness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Aarts, Hugo M; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis [International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) CRD42017055619] was to assess the effects of strict prolonged bed rest (without countermeasures) on maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and to explore sources of variation therein....

  18. Gradient Compression Stockings may Prevent Recovery after Bed Rest Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M.; Westby, Christian M.; Willig, Michael C.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Astronauts continue to wear a compression garment during and immediately after landing to prevent orthostatic intolerance (OI). We recently developed a custom-fitted, 3-piece garment that consists of thigh-high stockings with biker-style shorts that provides continuous, gradient compression: 55 mmHg at the ankle that decreases to approximately 20 mmHg at the top of the leg and 15 mmHg over the abdomen. This garment has been shown to be effective in preventing symptoms of OI during a short stand test after Space Shuttle missions, but symptoms may persist for several days after a long-duration mission in some astronauts. The purpose of this study was to confirm the effectiveness of wearing these elastic, gradient compression garments during orthostatic testing after 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest as a model of spaceflight and to determine whether they would impact recovery after bed rest. Methods: Eight (5 treatment, 3 control) of 16 subjects have completed this study to-date. All subjects wore the 3-piece garment from waking until tilt testing (3 h) as a simulation of the timeline for astronauts on landing day (BR+0). Control subjects removed the garment after the tilt test. Treatment subjects wore the garment for the remainder of the day and wore lower compression thigh-high only garments on the day after bed rest (BR+1). Blood pressure, heart rate, and stroke volume responses to a 15-min 80 degree head-up tilt test were determined before 2 weeks of 6 degree head-down tilt, and on BR+0 and BR+1. Plasma volume (PV) was measured before each of these test sessions. Data are mean SE. Results: Compression garments prevented signs of OI on BR+0; all subjects in both groups completed the full 15-min test. Heart rate responses to tilt were lower on BR+0 than all other test days. Control subjects demonstrated a marginal PV decrease after bed rest, but showed typical recovery the day after bed rest (BR+0: 2.32 plus or minus 0.15 L to BR+1: 2

  19. A spatial individual-based model predicting a great impact of copious sugar sources and resting sites on survival of Anopheles gambiae and malaria parasite transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Qualls, Whitney A.; Marshall, John M; Arheart, Kris L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; McManus, John W.; Traore, Sekou F.; Doumbia, Seydou; Schlein, Yosef; Muller, Gunter C.; Beier, John C.

    2015-01-01

    outdoor resting sites significantly increase the survival and human biting rates of An. gambiae mosquitoes. Survival of An. gambiae is more supported by random distribution of sugar sources than clustering of sugar sources around resting sites or houses. Density and spatial distribution of natural sugar sources and outdoor resting sites modulate vector populations and human biting rates, and thus malaria parasite transmission.

  20. Modular Reorganization of Brain Resting State Networks and Its Independent Validation in Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyu eChen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated disruption in structural and functional connectivity occurring in the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. However, it is not known how these disruptions alter brain network reorganization. With the modular analysis method of graph theory, and datasets acquired by the resting-state functional connectivity MRI (R-fMRI method, we investigated and compared the brain organization patterns between the AD group and the cognitively normal control (CN group. Our main finding is that the largest homotopic module (defined as the insula module in the CN group was broken down to the pieces in the AD group. Specifically, it was discovered that the eight pairs of the bilateral regions (the opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus, area triangularis, insula, putamen, globus pallidus, transverse temporal gyri, superior temporal gyrus, and superior temporal pole of the insula module had lost symmetric functional connection properties, and the corresponding gray matter concentration (GMC was significant lower in AD group. We further quantified the functional connectivity changes with an index (index A and structural changes with the GMC index in the insula module to demonstrate their great potential as AD biomarkers. We further validated these results with six additional independent datasets (271 subjects in six groups. Our results demonstrated specific underlying structural and functional reorganization from young to old, and for diseased subjects. Further, it is suggested that by combining the structural GMC analysis and functional modular analysis in the insula module, a new biomarker can be developed at the single-subject level.

  1. Module theory, extending modules and generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Tercan, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...

  2. Identification of zoonotic genotypes of Giardia duodenalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Sprong

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals in the epidemiology of human infection is still unclear, despite the fact that the zoonotic potential of Giardia was recognised by the WHO some 30 years ago. Here, we performed an extensive genetic characterization of 978 human and 1440 animal isolates, which together comprise 3886 sequences from 4 genetic loci. The data were assembled into a molecular epidemiological database developed by a European network of public and veterinary health Institutions. Genotyping was performed at different levels of resolution (single and multiple loci on the same dataset. The zoonotic potential of both assemblages A and B is evident when studied at the level of assemblages, sub-assemblages, and even at each single locus. However, when genotypes are defined using a multi-locus sequence typing scheme, only 2 multi-locus genotypes (MLG of assemblage A and none of assemblage B appear to have a zoonotic potential. Surprisingly, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other explanations for mixed genotypes, particularly for assemblage B, are substantial allelic sequence heterogeneity and/or genetic recombination. Although the

  3. Identification of polymorphic inversions from genotypes

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    Cáceres Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphic inversions are a source of genetic variability with a direct impact on recombination frequencies. Given the difficulty of their experimental study, computational methods have been developed to infer their existence in a large number of individuals using genome-wide data of nucleotide variation. Methods based on haplotype tagging of known inversions attempt to classify individuals as having a normal or inverted allele. Other methods that measure differences between linkage disequilibrium attempt to identify regions with inversions but unable to classify subjects accurately, an essential requirement for association studies. Results We present a novel method to both identify polymorphic inversions from genome-wide genotype data and classify individuals as containing a normal or inverted allele. Our method, a generalization of a published method for haplotype data 1, utilizes linkage between groups of SNPs to partition a set of individuals into normal and inverted subpopulations. We employ a sliding window scan to identify regions likely to have an inversion, and accumulation of evidence from neighboring SNPs is used to accurately determine the inversion status of each subject. Further, our approach detects inversions directly from genotype data, thus increasing its usability to current genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Conclusions We demonstrate the accuracy of our method to detect inversions and classify individuals on principled-simulated genotypes, produced by the evolution of an inversion event within a coalescent model 2. We applied our method to real genotype data from HapMap Phase III to characterize the inversion status of two known inversions within the regions 17q21 and 8p23 across 1184 individuals. Finally, we scan the full genomes of the European Origin (CEU and Yoruba (YRI HapMap samples. We find population-based evidence for 9 out of 15 well-established autosomic inversions, and for 52 regions

  4. Changes in dynamic resting state network connectivity following aphasia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, E Susan; Small, Steven L

    2017-10-24

    Resting state magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) permits observation of intrinsic neural networks produced by task-independent correlations in low frequency brain activity. Various resting state networks have been described, with each thought to reflect common engagement in some shared function. There has been limited investigation of the plasticity in these network relationships after stroke or induced by therapy. Twelve individuals with language disorders after stroke (aphasia) were imaged at multiple time points before (baseline) and after an imitation-based aphasia therapy. Language assessment using a narrative production task was performed at the same time points. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was performed on the rsfMRI data to identify resting state networks. A sliding window approach was then applied to assess the dynamic nature of the correlations among these networks. Network correlations during each 30-second window were used to cluster the data into ten states for each window at each time point for each subject. Correlation was performed between changes in time spent in each state and therapeutic gains on the narrative task. The amount of time spent in a single one of the (ten overall) dynamic states was positively associated with behavioral improvement on the narrative task at the 6-week post-therapy maintenance interval, when compared with either baseline or assessment immediately following therapy. This particular state was characterized by minimal correlation among the task-independent resting state networks. Increased functional independence and segregation of resting state networks underlies improvement on a narrative production task following imitation-based aphasia treatment. This has important clinical implications for the targeting of noninvasive brain stimulation in post-stroke remediation.

  5. A Nap But Not Rest or Activity Consolidates Language Learning

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    Stefan Heim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that a period of sleep after a motor learning task is a relevant factor for memory consolidation. However, it is yet open whether this also holds true for language-related learning. Therefore, the present study compared the short- and long-term effects of a daytime nap, rest, or an activity task after vocabulary learning on learning outcome. Thirty healthy subjects were divided into three treatment groups. Each group received a pseudo-word learning task in which pictures of monsters were associated with unique pseudo-word names. At the end of the learning block a first test was administered. Then, one group went for a 90-min nap, one for a waking rest period, and one for a resting session with interfering activity at the end during which a new set of monster names was to be learned. After this block, all groups performed a first re-test of the names that they initially learned. On the morning of the following day, a second re-test was administered to all groups. The nap group showed significant improvement from test to re-test and a stable performance onto the second re-test. In contrast, the rest and the interference groups showed decline in performance from test to re-test, with persistently low performance at re-test 2. The 3 (GROUP × 3 (TIME ANOVA revealed a significant interaction, indicating that the type of activity (nap/rest/interfering action after initial learning actually had an influence on the memory outcome. These data are discussed with respect to translation to clinical settings with suggestions for improvement of intervention outcome after speech-language therapy if it is followed by a nap rather than interfering activity.

  6. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  7. Can resting B cells present antigen to T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashwell, J.D.; DeFranco, A.L.; Paul, W.E.; Schwartz, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Antigen stimulation of T lymphocytes can occur only in the presence of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). An ever-increasing number of cell types have been found to act as APCs; these include macrophages, splenic and lymph node dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells of the skin. Although activated B lymphocytes and B cell lymphomas are known to serve as APCs, it has been generally believed that resting B cells cannot perform this function. However, in recent studies the authors have found that resting B cells can indeed present soluble antigen to T cell clones as well as to antigen-primed T cells. The previous difficulty in demonstrating this activity can be explained by the finding that, in contrast to macrophages and dendritic cells, the antigen-presenting ability of resting B cells is very radiosensitive. Macrophages are usually irradiated with 2000-3300 rads to prevent them from incorporating [ 3 H]thymidine in the T cell proliferation assay. Resting B cells, however, begin to lose presenting function at 1500 rads and have completely lost this activity at 3300 rads. It was also possible to distinguish two distinct T cell clonal phenotypes when resting B cells were used as APCs on the basis of two different assays (T cell proliferation, and B cell proliferation resulting from T cell activation). The majority of T cell clones tested were capable of both proliferating themselves and inducing the proliferation of B cells. Some T cells clones, however, could not proliferate in the presence of antigen and B cell APCs, although they were very good at inducing the proliferation of B cells

  8. Genotypic diversity of root and shoot characteristics of

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    ali ganjali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Root and shoot characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes are believed to be important in drought tolerance. There is a little information about the response of genotypes root growth in hydroponics and greenhouse culture, also the relationships between root size and drought tolerance. This study was conducted to observe whether genotypes differ in root size, and to see that root size is associated with drought tolerance during early vegetative growth. We found significant differences (p0.01 in root dry weight, total root length, tap root length, root area, leaf dry weight, leaf area and shoot biomass per plant among 30 genotypes of chickpea grown in hydroponics culture for three weeks. Each of these parameters correlated with all others, positively. Among 30 genotypes, 10 genotypes with different root sizes were selected and were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture experiment under drought stress (FC %30 for three weeks. There were not linear or non-linear significant correlations between root characters in hydroponics and greenhouse environments. It seems that environmental factors are dominant on genetic factors in seedling stage and so, the expression of genotypics potential for root growth characteristics of genotypes are different in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. In this study, the selection of genotypes with vigorous roots system in hydroponic condition did not lead to genotypes with the same root characters in greenhouse environment. The genotype×drought interactions for root characters of chickpea seedlings in 30 days were not significant (p

  9. Performance of chickpea genotypes under Swat valley conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Rahim, M.; Ahmad, F.; Ali, A.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two genetically diverse chickpeas genotypes were studied for their physiological efficiency to select the most desirable genotype/genotypes for breeding program on chickpea. Genotype 'CM7-1' was found physiologically efficient stain with maximum harvest index (37.33%) followed by genotype 'CM1571-1-A' with harvest index of 35.73%. Genotype '90206' produced maximum biological yield (7463 kg ha/sup -1/) followed by genotypes 'CM31-1' and 'E-2034' with biological yield of 7352 and 7167 kg ha/sup -1/, respectively. Harvest index and economic yield showed significant positive correlation value of (r=+0.595), while negative correlation value of (r = -0.435) was observed between harvest index and biological yield. (author)

  10. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  11. The T-allele of TCF7L2 rs7903146 associates with a reduced compensation of insulin secretion for insulin resistance induced by 9 days of bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alibegovic, Amra C; Sonne, Mette P; Højbjerre, Lise

    2010-01-01

    of FPIR in response to insulin resistance induced by bed rest was lower in carriers of the T-allele (P hepatic insulin resistance......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the type 2 diabetes-associated T-allele of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 associates with impaired insulin secretion to compensate for insulin resistance induced by bed rest. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 38....... The genetic analyses were done assuming a dominant model of inheritance. RESULTS: The first-phase insulin response (FPIR) was significantly lower in carriers of the T-allele compared with carriers of the CC genotype before bed rest, with and without correction for insulin resistance. The incremental rise...

  12. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  13. Plasmodium falciparum genotypes associated with chloroquine and amodiaquine resistance in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Rodrigues, Amabelia

    2007-01-01

    Chloroquine is the most commonly used antimalarial in Guinea-Bissau and high doses are routinely prescribed. Blood from 497 patients treated with different doses of chloroquine or amodiaquine were genotyped. Pfcrt and pfmdr1 polymorphisms were identified. Pfmsp2 analysis identified recrudescent...... infections. The pfcrt 72-76 haplotypes were CVIET and CVMNK. The pfcrt 76T prevalence was 23% at day 0 and 96%, 83% and 100% at recrudescence following treatment with 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of chloroquine and 15 mg/kg of amodiaquine respectively. When treating pfcrt 76T carrying P. falciparum the efficacy...... of 50 mg/kg and 25 mg/kg of chloroquine was 78% and 34% respectively (P = 0.007). The genetic basis of chloroquine resistance is probably the same in Guinea-Bissau as in the rest of Africa. The low pfcrt 76T prevalence suggests that resistance to normal dose chloroquine does not confer a major advantage...

  14. A large-scale perspective on stress-induced alterations in resting-state networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron-Katz, Adi; Vaisvaser, Sharon; Lin, Tamar; Hendler, Talma; Shamir, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Stress is known to induce large-scale neural modulations. However, its neural effect once the stressor is removed and how it relates to subjective experience are not fully understood. Here we used a statistically sound data-driven approach to investigate alterations in large-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) induced by acute social stress. We compared rsfMRI profiles of 57 healthy male subjects before and after stress induction. Using a parcellation-based univariate statistical analysis, we identified a large-scale rsFC change, involving 490 parcel-pairs. Aiming to characterize this change, we employed statistical enrichment analysis, identifying anatomic structures that were significantly interconnected by these pairs. This analysis revealed strengthening of thalamo-cortical connectivity and weakening of cross-hemispheral parieto-temporal connectivity. These alterations were further found to be associated with change in subjective stress reports. Integrating report-based information on stress sustainment 20 minutes post induction, revealed a single significant rsFC change between the right amygdala and the precuneus, which inversely correlated with the level of subjective recovery. Our study demonstrates the value of enrichment analysis for exploring large-scale network reorganization patterns, and provides new insight on stress-induced neural modulations and their relation to subjective experience.

  15. Bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Levin, Michael; Kaplan, David L.

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in regulating wound healing and tissue regeneration by changing their polarization state in response to local microenvironmental stimuli. The native roles of polarized macrophages encompass biomaterials and tissue remodeling needs, yet harnessing or directing the polarization response has been largely absent as a potential strategy to exploit in regenerative medicine to date. Recent data have revealed that specific alteration of cells’ resting potential (Vmem) is a powerful tool to direct proliferation and differentiation in a number of complex tissues, such as limb regeneration, craniofacial patterning and tumorigenesis. In this study, we explored the bioelectric modulation of macrophage polarization by targeting ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Glibenclamide (KATP blocker) and pinacidil (KATP opener) treatment not only affect macrophage polarization, but also influence the phenotype of prepolarized macrophages. Furthermore, modulation of cell membrane electrical properties can fine-tune macrophage plasticity. Glibenclamide decreased the secretion and gene expression of selected M1 markers, while pinacidil augmented M1 markers. More interestingly, glibencalmide promoted macrophage alternative activation by enhancing certain M2 markers during M2 polarization. These findings suggest that control of bioelectric properties of macrophages could offer a promising approach to regulate macrophage phenotype as a useful tool in regenerative medicine.

  16. [Right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen:a resting functional magnetic resonance imaging of the marginal division of the human brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Ye; Ma, Lin

    2014-04-01

    To explore the role of marginal division of the human brain in the pain modulation. Resting functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied in a patient with right extremities pain caused by a malacia lesion in the left putamen and in 8 healthy volunteers. Marginal division was defined using manual drawing on structure images, and was applied to the computation of fuctional connectivity maps. The functional connectivities in the left marginal division showed an evident decrease in the patient when compared with healthy controls. These connectivities were mainly located in the bilateral head of caudate nucleus, putamen, and left globus pallidus. The marginal division may be involved in the pain modulation.

  17. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  18. Dipolar modulation of Large-Scale Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Mijin

    For the last two decades, we have seen a drastic development of modern cosmology based on various observations such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB), type Ia supernovae, and baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO). These observational evidences have led us to a great deal of consensus on the cosmological model so-called LambdaCDM and tight constraints on cosmological parameters consisting the model. On the other hand, the advancement in cosmology relies on the cosmological principle: the universe is isotropic and homogeneous on large scales. Testing these fundamental assumptions is crucial and will soon become possible given the planned observations ahead. Dipolar modulation is the largest angular anisotropy of the sky, which is quantified by its direction and amplitude. We measured a huge dipolar modulation in CMB, which mainly originated from our solar system's motion relative to CMB rest frame. However, we have not yet acquired consistent measurements of dipolar modulations in large-scale structure (LSS), as they require large sky coverage and a number of well-identified objects. In this thesis, we explore measurement of dipolar modulation in number counts of LSS objects as a test of statistical isotropy. This thesis is based on two papers that were published in peer-reviewed journals. In Chapter 2 [Yoon et al., 2014], we measured a dipolar modulation in number counts of WISE matched with 2MASS sources. In Chapter 3 [Yoon & Huterer, 2015], we investigated requirements for detection of kinematic dipole in future surveys.

  19. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

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    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  20. Effects of resting state condition on reliability, trait specificity, and network connectivity of brain function measured with arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengjun; Vidorreta, Marta; Katchmar, Natalie; Alsop, David C; Wolf, Daniel H; Detre, John A

    2018-06-01

    Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides imaging biomarkers of task-independent brain function that can be associated with clinical variables or modulated by interventions such as behavioral training or pharmacological manipulations. These biomarkers include time-averaged regional brain function as manifested by regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured using arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI and correlated temporal fluctuations of function across brain networks with either ASL or blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Resting-state studies are typically carried out using just one of several prescribed state conditions such as eyes closed (EC), eyes open (EO), or visual fixation on a cross-hair (FIX), which may affect the reliability and specificity of rs-fMRI. In this study, we collected test-retest ASL MRI data during 4 resting-state task conditions: EC, EO, FIX and PVT (low-frequency psychomotor vigilance task), and examined the effects of these task conditions on reliability and reproducibility as well as trait specificity of regional brain function. We also acquired resting-state BOLD fMRI under FIX and compared the network connectivity reliabilities between the four ASL conditions and the BOLD FIX condition. For resting-state ASL data, EC provided the highest CBF reliability, reproducibility, trait specificity, and network connectivity reliability, followed by EO, while FIX was lowest on all of these measures. PVT demonstrated lower CBF reliability, reproducibility and trait specificity than EO and EC. Overall network connectivity reliability was comparable between ASL and BOLD. Our findings confirm ASL CBF as a reliable, stable, and consistent measure of resting-state regional brain function and support the use of EC or EO over FIX and PVT as the resting-state condition. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bum Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jee Wook [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Woong [College of Medical Science, Konyang University, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  2. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji Woong

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  3. Audioprofiles and antioxidant enzyme genotypes in presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon I; Bared, Anthony; Ouyang, Xiaomei; Du, Li Lin; Yan, Denise; Zhong Liu, Xue

    2012-11-01

    Audiometric patterns have been shown to indirectly provide information regarding the pathophysiology of presbycusis and be useful in the phenotyping of hereditary deafness. Hospital-based cohort study of adults with presbycusis, comparing the association of audiometric patterns and polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes that have been linked to presbycusis: GSTT1, GSTM1 and NAT2. All subjects underwent a clinical evaluation and completed questionnaires regarding ototoxicity and noise exposure. Pure-tone threshold audiometry was obtained and subjects' audiograms were classified into specific patterns. DNA was extracted from blood and the polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and the NAT2 variants (NAT2* 5A; NAT2* 6A,B) were analyzed by PCR. The audiometric patterns that were more prevalent in our cohort were "High-Frequency Steeply Sloping" or HFSS (33%), "High-Frequency Gently Sloping" or HFGS (31%), and "Flat" (27%), with other patterns being rare. We did not find a statistical significant effect of gender, age, hearing level, and ear side on the audiometric pattern. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype. In this cohort, there was a similar prevalence for the three audiometric configurations HFSS, HFGS, and Flat, with other configurations being rare. Subjects with mutant alleles for GSTT1 were more likely to have a HFSS audiogram than subjects with the wild type genotype, suggesting that the basal turn of the cochlea is susceptible to GSTT1 regulated oxidative stress. However, further studies of audioprofiles with larger sample sizes may be needed to establish phenotype-genotype correlations in presbycusis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Plant genotypic diversity reduces the rate of consumer resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Scott H; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2013-07-07

    While plant species diversity can reduce herbivore densities and herbivory, little is known regarding how plant genotypic diversity alters resource utilization by herbivores. Here, we show that an invasive folivore--the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica)--increases 28 per cent in abundance, but consumes 24 per cent less foliage in genotypic polycultures compared with monocultures of the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). We found strong complementarity for reduced herbivore damage among plant genotypes growing in polycultures and a weak dominance effect of particularly resistant genotypes. Sequential feeding by P. japonica on different genotypes from polycultures resulted in reduced consumption compared with feeding on different plants of the same genotype from monocultures. Thus, diet mixing among plant genotypes reduced herbivore consumption efficiency. Despite positive complementarity driving an increase in fruit production in polycultures, we observed a trade-off between complementarity for increased plant productivity and resistance to herbivory, suggesting costs in the complementary use of resources by plant genotypes may manifest across trophic levels. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic diversity simultaneously alters resource utilization by both producers and consumers, and show that population genotypic diversity can increase the resistance of a native plant to an invasive herbivore.

  5. Relationship of some upland rice genotype after gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliartini, N. W. S.; Wijayanto, T.; Madiki, A.; Boer, D.; Muhidin; Juniawan

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the research was to group local upland rice genotypes after being treated with gamma irradiation. The research materials were upland rice genotypes resulted from mutation of the second generation and two parents: Pae Loilo (K3D0) and Pae Pongasi (K2D0) Cultivars. The research was conducted at the Indonesian Sweetener and Fiber Crops Research Institute, Malang Regency, and used the augmented design method. Research data were analyzed with R Program. Eight hundred and seventy one genotypes were selected with the selection criteria were based on yields on the average parents added 1.5 standard deviation. Based on the selection, eighty genotypes were analyzed with cluster analyses. Nine observation variables were used to develop cluster dendrogram using average linked method. Genetic distance was measured by euclidean distance. The results of cluster dendrogram showed that tested genotypes were divided into eight groups. Group 1, 2, 7, and 8 each had one genotype, group 3 and 6 each had two genotypes, group 4 had 25 genotypes, and group 5 had 51 genotypes. Check genotypes formed a separate group. Group 6 had the highest yield per plant of 126.11 gram, followed by groups 5 and 4 of 97.63 and 94.08 gram, respectively.

  6. Pharmacological exploration of the resting membrane potential reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Jespersen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    as well as by exchangers and pumps. This review will focus on the relative and regulated contribution of IK1, IK,ACh and IK,Ca, and on pharmacological modification of the channels underlying these currents in respect to the resting membrane potential, Na(+) channel availability and atrial......The cardiac action potential arises and spreads throughout the myocardium as a consequence of highly organized spatial and temporal expression of ion channels conducting Na(+), Ca(2+) or K(+) currents. The cardiac Na(+) current is responsible for the initiation and progression of the action...... potential. Altered Na(+) current has been found implicated in a number of different arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. In the atrium, the resting membrane potential is more depolarized than in the ventricles, and as cardiac Na(+) channels undergo voltage-dependent inactivation close...

  7. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  8. Hydroelastic Oscillations of a Circular Plate, Resting on Winkler Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratov, D. V.; Mogilevich, L. I.; Popov, V. S.; Popova, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The forced hydroelastic oscillations of a circular plate resting on elastic foundation are investigated. The oscillations are caused by a stamp vibration under interaction with a plate through a thin layer of viscous incompressible liquid. The axis-symmetric problem for the regime of the steady-state harmonic oscillations is considered. On the basis of hydroelasticity problem solution the laws of plate deflection and pressure in the liquid are found. The functions of the amplitudes deflection distribution and liquid pressure along the plate are constructed. The presented mathematical model provides for investigating viscous liquid layer interaction dynamics with a circular plate resting on an elastic foundation. The above-mentioned model makes it possible to define the plate oscillations resonance frequencies and the corresponding amplitudes of deflection and liquid pressure, as well.

  9. Hierarchical functional modularity in the resting-state human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-José; Renken, Remco J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dirk J; Aleman, André; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Milles, Julien

    2009-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a more advanced topological property, has been hypothesized to be evolutionary advantageous, contributing to adaptive aspects of anatomical and functional brain connectivity. However, current definitions of modularity for complex networks focus on nonoverlapping clusters, and are seriously limited by disregarding inclusive relationships. Therefore, BFC's modularity has been mainly qualitatively investigated. Here, we introduce a new definition of modularity, based on a recently improved clustering measurement, which overcomes limitations of previous definitions, and apply it to the study of BFC in resting state fMRI of 53 healthy subjects. Results show hierarchical functional modularity in the brain. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  10. The resting electrocardiogram of t. cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo B. Bestetti

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 rats were infected with the Colômbia strain of T. cruzi (2000 parasites/g shortly after weaning. Of these, 58 survived the acute phase and were used in the present experiment. Twenty eight similar but not infected rats served as controls. All rats were submitted to the resting ECG When they were 6 months old. Classic and 3 precordial leads were employed in order to record the ECG as completely as possible. Electrocardiographic changes similar to those found in human chronic Chagas' heart disease and not previously described in this model were found in 44% of the T. cruzi-infected rats: left axis deviation (22%, right axis deviation (7%, lengthened and bizarre QRS complex (14% and abnormal J point elevation (3%. On the basis of these results, we believe that the resting ECG constitutes a valuable tool for studying experimental chronic Chagas' heart disease in rats.

  11. Lactate kinetics in human tissues at rest and during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hall, Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    lactate metabolism at rest and during exercise and suggestions are put forward to explain the simultaneous lactate uptake and release; and (2) lactate metabolism in the heart, liver, kidneys, brain, adipose tissue and lungs will be discussed and its potential importance in these tissues.......Lactate production in skeletal muscle has now been studied for nearly two centuries and still its production and functional role at rest and during exercise is much debated. In the early days skeletal muscle was mainly seen as the site of lactate production during contraction and lactate production...... associated with a lack of muscle oxygenation and fatigue. Later it was recognized that skeletal muscle not only played an important role in lactate production but also in lactate clearance and this led to a renewed interest, not the least from the Copenhagen School in the 1930s, in the metabolic role...

  12. Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia is associated with tonic positive emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveis, Christopher; Cohen, Adam B; Gruber, June; Shiota, Michelle N; Haidt, Jonathan; Keltner, Dacher

    2009-04-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSAREST) indexes important aspects of individual differences in emotionality. In the present investigation, the authors address whether RSAREST is associated with tonic positive or negative emotionality, and whether RSAREST relates to phasic emotional responding to discrete positive emotion-eliciting stimuli. Across an 8-month, multiassessment study of first-year university students (n = 80), individual differences in RSAREST were associated with positive but not negative tonic emotionality, assessed at the level of personality traits, long-term moods, the disposition toward optimism, and baseline reports of current emotional states. RSAREST was not related to increased positive emotion, or stimulus-specific emotion, in response to compassion-, awe-, or pride-inducing stimuli. These findings suggest that resting RSA indexes aspects of a person's tonic positive emotionality. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of resting tremor by beta-adrenergic blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N L; Newman, R P; LeWitt, P A; Gillespie, M M; Chase, T N

    1984-10-01

    The effect of nadolol, a peripherally acting beta-adrenergic blocker, on resting tremor was examined in eight patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. With the use of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of crossover design, patients received 80 to 320 mg of nadolol for 6 weeks while continuing their previous treatment regimen. Accelerometer readings showed a progressive reduction in tremor amplitude, but no change in tremor frequency, with increasing nadolol dosage. Maximum benefit was achieved at 240 mg, when resting tremor improved 50% (p less than 0.01). Physician ratings confirmed these findings. The results suggest that response to beta-adrenergic blockade may not be limited to postural or intention tremor and that such agents may not reliably differentiate between the tremor of Parkinson's disease and essential tremor.

  14. Resting EEG deficits in accused murderers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Robert A; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Han, Chenbo; Liu, Jianghong; Li, Liejia

    2011-10-31

    Empirical evidence continues to suggest a biologically distinct violent subtype of schizophrenia. The present study examined whether murderers with schizophrenia would demonstrate resting EEG deficits distinguishing them from both non-violent schizophrenia patients and murderers without schizophrenia. Resting EEG data were collected from five diagnostic groups (normal controls, non-murderers with schizophrenia, murderers with schizophrenia, murderers without schizophrenia, and murderers with psychiatric conditions other than schizophrenia) at a brain hospital in Nanjing, China. Murderers with schizophrenia were characterized by increased left-hemispheric fast-wave EEG activity relative to non-violent schizophrenia patients, while non-violent schizophrenia patients instead demonstrated increased diffuse slow-wave activity compared to all other groups. Results are discussed within the framework of a proposed left-hemispheric over-processing hypothesis specific to violent individuals with schizophrenia, involving left hemispheric hyperarousal deficits, which may lead to a homicidally violent schizophrenia outcome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiproton-neutron annihilations at rest: Search for broad states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogeropoulos, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The searches so far for meson states produced in p-bar annihilations at rest into π+X have been sensitive to narrow X states. The combinatorial background and the narrow phase space width in missing mass spectra are the main problems. Most of the theoretical models predict broad states. We have measured in a high statistis experiment p-bar(at rest)d→π/sup +- /+Anything inclusive spectra. Using a novel analysis technique the π + π - difference spectra, it is shown that the p-barn annihilation is dominated by two-body cascades. Two new states of opposite G-parity of (mass, width) = (1480, 100) MeV/c 2 are dominant. The G = +1 state has a large decay branching ratio into rho 0 rho 0 . Other features are presented

  16. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if M is a von Neumann regular module (VNM); i.e., every principal submodule of M is a summand submodule. Also if M is an injective R-module, then M is a VNM. Keywords. Multiplication module; reduced module; minimal prime submodule;. Zariski topology; extremally disconnected. 1. Introduction. In this paper all rings are ...

  17. A Combined Study of SLC6A15 Gene Polymorphism and the Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in First-Episode Drug-Naive Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Zhifen; Cao, Xiaohua; Li, Jianying; Zhang, Aixia; Sun, Ning; Yang, Chunxia; Zhang, Kerang

    2017-09-01

    The SLC6A15 gene has been identified as a novel candidate gene for major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the mechanism underlying the effects of how the SLC6A15 gene affects functional brain activity of patients with MDD remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the SLC6A15 gene polymorphism, rs1545843, on resting-state brain function in MDD with the imaging genomic technology and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Sixty-seven MDD patients and 44 healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans and genotyping. The differences in ReHo between genotypes were initially tested using the student's t test. We then performed a 2 × 2 (genotypes × disease status) analysis of variance to identify the main effects of genotypes, disease status, and their interactions in MDD. MDD patients with A+ genotypes showed decreased ReHo in the medial cingulum compared with MDD patients with the GG genotype. This was in contrast to normal controls with A+ genotypes who showed increased ReHo in the posterior cingulum and the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes and decreased ReHo in the left corpus callosum, compared with controls with the GG genotypes. The main effect of disease was found in the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. The main effect of genotypes was found in the left corpus callosum and the frontal lobe. There was no interaction between rs1545843 genotypes and disease status. We found that the left corpus callosum ReHo was positively correlated with total scores of the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD) (p = 0.021), so as was the left inferior parietal gyrus ReHo with cognitive disorder (p = 0.02). In addition, the right middle temporal gyrus had a negative correlation with retardation (p = 0.049). We observed an association between the SLC6A15 rs1545843 and resting-state brain function of the corpus callosum, cingulum and the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes in MDD patients, which may be

  18. Pion correlations and resonance effects in pbarp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We study ππ correlations in the exclusive reactions pbarp → 2π + 2π - and pbarp → 2π + 2π - π 0 at rest with complete reconstruction of the kinematics for each event. A new analysis technique has been developed which is model independent. With this new technique, which relies on double-differential distributions, no reference sample is needed to extract the correlation signal. The correlations are studied as a function of the four-pion invariant mass

  19. The effect of different rest intervals between multiple bench press ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets on the training volume completed during a workout, 15 male bodybuilders served as subjects (Mean SD, age=25.28±2.01; mass=73.06±8.33 kg; height=176.33±6.30 cm). All the subjects performed a minimum of three strength workouts per week for a ...

  20. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Internet addiction is the inability to control one's use of the Internet and is related to impulsivity. Although a few studies have examined neurophysiological activity as individuals with Internet addiction engage in cognitive processing, no information on spontaneous EEG activity in the eyes-closed resting-state is available. We investigated resting-state EEG activities in beta and gamma bands and examined their relationships with impulsivity among individuals with Internet addiction and healthy controls. Twenty-one drug-naïve patients with Internet addiction (age: 23.33 ± 3.50 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (age: 22.40 ± 2.33 years) were enrolled in this study. Severity of Internet addiction was identified by the total score on Young's Internet Addiction Test. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and a stop-signal task. Resting-state EEG during eyes closed was recorded, and the absolute/relative power of beta and gamma bands was analyzed. The Internet addiction group showed high impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. The generalized estimating equation showed that the Internet-addiction group showed lower absolute power on the beta band than did the control group (estimate = -3.370, p Internet-addiction group showed higher absolute power on the gamma band than did the control group (estimate = 0.434, p Internet addiction as well as with the extent of impulsivity. The present study suggests that resting-state fast-wave brain activity is related to the impulsivity characterizing Internet addiction. These differences may be neurobiological markers for the pathophysiology of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Significant association between ERCC2 and MTHR polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility in Moroccan population: genotype and haplotype analysis in a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardi, Hanaa; Melki, Rahma; Boughaleb, Zouhour; El Harroudi, Tijani; Aissaoui, Souria; Boukhatem, Noureddine

    2018-03-15

    Genetic determinants of breast cancer (BC) remained largely unknown in the majority of Moroccan patients. The purpose of this study was to explore the association of ERCC2 and MTHFR polymorphisms with genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in Moroccan population. We genotyped ERCC2 polymorphisms (rs1799793 (G934A) and rs13181 (A2251C)) and MTHFR polymorphisms (rs1801133 (C677T) and rs1801131 (A1298C)) using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Genotypes were compared in 151 BC cases and 156 population-matched controls. Allelic, genotypic and haplotype associations with the risk and clinicopathological features of BC were assessed using logistic regression analyses. ERCC2-rs1799793-AA genotype was associated with high risk of BC compared to wild type genotype (recessive model: OR: 2.90, 95% CI: 1.34-6.26, p = 0.0069) even after Bonferroni correction (p < 0,0125). MTHFR rs1801133-TT genotype was associated with increased risk of BC (recessive model, OR: 2.49, 95% CI: 1.17-5.29, p = 0.017) but the association turned insignificant after Bonferroni correction. For the rest of SNPs, no statistical associations to BC risk were detected. Significant association with clinical features was detected for MTHFR-rs1801133-TC genotype with early age at diagnosis and familial BC. Following Bonferroni correction, only association with familial BC remained significant. MTHFR-rs1801131-CC genotype was associated with sporadic BC. ERCC2-rs1799793-AA genotype correlated with ER+ and PR+ breast cancer. ERCC2-rs13181-CA genotype was significantly associated large tumors (T ≥ 3) in BC patients. None of these associations passed Bonferroni correction. Haplotype analysis showed that ERCC2 A-C haplotype was significantly associated with increased BC risk (OR: 3.71, 95% CI: 1.7-8.12, p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0008 before and after Bonferroni correction, respectively) and positive expression of ER and PR in BC patients. ERCC2 G-C haplotype was correlated with PR negative and

  2. Seamless Integration of RESTful Services into the Web of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lanthaler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We live in an era of ever-increasing abundance of data. To cope with the information overload we suffer from every single day, more sophisticated methods are required to access, manipulate, and analyze these humongous amounts of data. By embracing the heterogeneity, which is unavoidable at such a scale, and accepting the fact that the data quality and meaning are fuzzy, more adaptable, flexible, and extensible systems can be built. RESTful services combined with Semantic Web technologies could prove to be a viable path to achieve that. Their combination allows data integration on an unprecedented scale and solves some of the problems Web developers are continuously struggling with. This paper introduces a novel approach to create machine-readable descriptions for RESTful services as a first step towards this ambitious goal. It also shows how these descriptions along with an algorithm to translate SPARQL queries to HTTP requests can be used to integrate RESTful services into a global read-write Web of Data.

  3. Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.

  4. Neuroaging through the Lens of the Resting State Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI allows studying spontaneous brain activity in absence of task, recording changes of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD signal. rs-fMRI enables identification of brain networks also called Resting State Networks (RSNs including the most studied Default Mode Network (DMN. The simplicity and speed of execution make rs-fMRI applicable in a variety of normal and pathological conditions. Since it does not require any task, rs-fMRI is particularly useful for protocols on patients, children, and elders, increasing participant’s compliance and reducing intersubjective variability due to the task performance. rs-fMRI has shown high sensitivity in identification of RSNs modifications in several diseases also in absence of structural modifications. In this narrative review, we provide the state of the art of rs-fMRI studies about physiological and pathological aging processes. First, we introduce the background of resting state; then we review clinical findings provided by rs-fMRI in physiological aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI, Alzheimer Dementia (AD, and Late Life Depression (LLD. Finally, we suggest future directions in this field of research and its potential clinical applications.

  5. Detecting Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using Resting State Magnetoencephalographic Connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily A Vakorin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed. We demonstrate that mTBI is associated with reduced network connectivity in the delta and gamma frequency range (>30 Hz, together with increased connectivity in the slower alpha band (8-12 Hz. A similar temporal pattern was associated with correlations between network connectivity and the length of time between the injury and the MEG scan. Using such resting state MEG network synchrony we were able to detect mTBI with 88% accuracy. Classification confidence was also correlated with clinical symptom severity scores. These results provide the first evidence that imaging of MEG network connectivity, in combination with machine learning, has the potential to accurately detect and determine the severity of mTBI.

  6. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  7. Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype: an important determinant of the damage response of melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Leachman, Sancy; Kavanagh, Renny J.; Swope, Viki; Cassidy, Pamela; Supp, Dorothy; Sartor, Maureen; Schwemberger, Sandy; Babcock, George; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; Koshoffer, Amy; Boissy, Raymond E.; Manga, Prashiela; Sturm, Richard A.; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A.

    2010-01-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor gene is a main determinant of human pigmentation, and a melanoma susceptibility gene, because its variants that are strongly associated with red hair color increase melanoma risk. To test experimentally the association between melanocortin 1 receptor genotype and melanoma susceptibility, we compared the responses of primary human melanocyte cultures naturally expressing different melanocortin 1 receptor variants to α-melanocortin and ultraviolet radiation. We found that expression of 2 red hair variants abolished the response to α-melanocortin and its photoprotective effects, evidenced by lack of functional coupling of the receptor, and absence of reduction in ultraviolet radiation-induced hydrogen peroxide generation or enhancement of repair of DNA photoproducts, respectively. These variants had different heterozygous effects on receptor function. Microarray data confirmed the observed differences in responses of melanocytes with functional vs. nonfunctional receptor to α-melanocortin and ultraviolet radiation, and identified DNA repair and antioxidant genes that are modulated by α-melanocortin. Our findings highlight the molecular mechanisms by which the melanocortin 1 receptor genotype controls genomic stability of and the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation on human melanocytes.—Kadekaro, A. L., Leachman, S., Kavanagh, R. J., Swope, V., Cassidy, P., Supp, D., Sartor, M., Schwemberger, S., Babcock, G., Wakamatsu, K., Ito, S., Koshoffer, A., Boissy, R. E., Manga, P., Sturm, R. A., Abdel-Malek, Z. A. Melanocortin 1 receptor genotype: an important determinant of the damage response of melanocytes to ultraviolet radiation. PMID:20519635

  8. Genetic and DNA methylation changes in cotton (Gossypium genotypes and tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Osabe

    Full Text Available In plants, epigenetic regulation is important in normal development and in modulating some agronomic traits. The potential contribution of DNA methylation mediated gene regulation to phenotypic diversity and development in cotton was investigated between cotton genotypes and various tissues. DNA methylation diversity, genetic diversity, and changes in methylation context were investigated using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP assays including a methylation insensitive enzyme (BsiSI, and the total DNA methylation level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. DNA methylation diversity was greater than the genetic diversity in the selected cotton genotypes and significantly different levels of DNA methylation were identified between tissues, including fibre. The higher DNA methylation diversity (CHG methylation being more diverse than CG methylation in cotton genotypes suggest epigenetic regulation may be important for cotton, and the change in DNA methylation between fibre and other tissues hints that some genes may be epigenetically regulated for fibre development. The novel approach using BsiSI allowed direct comparison between genetic and epigenetic diversity, and also measured CC methylation level that cannot be detected by conventional MSAP.

  9. Genetic and DNA methylation changes in cotton (Gossypium) genotypes and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osabe, Kenji; Clement, Jenny D; Bedon, Frank; Pettolino, Filomena A; Ziolkowski, Lisa; Llewellyn, Danny J; Finnegan, E Jean; Wilson, Iain W

    2014-01-01

    In plants, epigenetic regulation is important in normal development and in modulating some agronomic traits. The potential contribution of DNA methylation mediated gene regulation to phenotypic diversity and development in cotton was investigated between cotton genotypes and various tissues. DNA methylation diversity, genetic diversity, and changes in methylation context were investigated using methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assays including a methylation insensitive enzyme (BsiSI), and the total DNA methylation level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). DNA methylation diversity was greater than the genetic diversity in the selected cotton genotypes and significantly different levels of DNA methylation were identified between tissues, including fibre. The higher DNA methylation diversity (CHG methylation being more diverse than CG methylation) in cotton genotypes suggest epigenetic regulation may be important for cotton, and the change in DNA methylation between fibre and other tissues hints that some genes may be epigenetically regulated for fibre development. The novel approach using BsiSI allowed direct comparison between genetic and epigenetic diversity, and also measured CC methylation level that cannot be detected by conventional MSAP.

  10. Impact of Genotype on EPA and DHA Status and Responsiveness to Increased Intakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Minihane

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At a population level, cardioprotective and cognitive actions of the fish oil (FO derived long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA have been extensively demonstrated. In addition to dietary intake, which is limited for many individuals, EPA and DHA status is dependent on the efficiency of their biosynthesis from α-linolenic acid. Gender and common gene variants have been identified as influencing the rate-limiting desaturase and elongase enzymes. Response to a particular intake or status is also highly heterogeneous and likely influenced by genetic variants which impact on EPA and DHA metabolism and tissue partitioning, transcription factor activity, or physiological end-point regulation. Here, available literature relating genotype to tissue LC n-3 PUFA status and response to FO intervention is considered. It is concluded that the available evidence is relatively limited, with much of the variability unexplained, though APOE and FADS genotypes are emerging as being important. Although genotype × LC n-3 PUFA interactions have been described for a number of phenotypes, few have been confirmed in independent studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the genetic, physiological and behavioural modulators of EPA and DHA status and response to intervention is needed to allow refinement of current dietary LC n-3 PUFA recommendations and stratification of advice to “vulnerable” and responsive subgroups.

  11. Alleles versus genotypes: Genetic interactions and the dynamics of selection in sexual populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Physical interactions between amino-acids are essential for protein structure and activity, while protein-protein interactions and regulatory interactions are central to cellular function. As a consequence of these interactions, the combined effect of two mutations can differ from the sum of the individual effects of the mutations. This phenomenon of genetic interaction is known as epistasis. However, the importance of epistasis and its effects on evolutionary dynamics are poorly understood, especially in sexual populations where recombination breaks up existing combinations of alleles to produce new ones. Here, we present a computational model of selection dynamics involving many epistatic loci in a recombining population. We demonstrate that a large number of polymorphic interacting loci can, despite frequent recombination, exhibit cooperative behavior that locks alleles into favorable genotypes leading to a population consisting of a set of competing clones. As the recombination rate exceeds a certain critical value this ``genotype selection'' phase disappears in an abrupt transition giving way to ``allele selection'' - the phase where different loci are only weakly correlated as expected in sexually reproducing populations. Clustering of interacting sets of genes on a chromosome leads to the emergence of an intermediate regime, where localized blocks of cooperating alleles lock into genetic modules. Large populations attain highest fitness at a recombination rate just below critical, suggesting that natural selection might tune recombination rates to balance the beneficial aspect of exploration of genotype space with the breaking up of synergistic allele combinations.

  12. Modulational effects in accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satogata, T.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss effects of field modulations in accelerators, specifically those that can be used for operational beam diagnostics and beam halo control. In transverse beam dynamics, combined effects of nonlinear resonances and tune modulations influence diffusion rates with applied tune modulation has been demonstrated. In the longitudinal domain, applied RF phase and voltage modulations provide mechanisms for parasitic halo transport, useful in slow crystal extraction. Experimental experiences with transverse tune and RF modulations are also discussed

  13. Linking genotypes database with locus-specific database and genotype-phenotype correlation in phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Sarah; Underhaug, Jarl; Perez, Belen; Marsden, Brian D; Yue, Wyatt W; Martinez, Aurora; Blau, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    The wide range of metabolic phenotypes in phenylketonuria is due to a large number of variants causing variable impairment in phenylalanine hydroxylase function. A total of 834 phenylalanine hydroxylase gene variants from the locus-specific database PAHvdb and genotypes of 4181 phenylketonuria patients from the BIOPKU database were characterized using FoldX, SIFT Blink, Polyphen-2 and SNPs3D algorithms. Obtained data was correlated with residual enzyme activity, patients' phenotype and tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness. A descriptive analysis of both databases was compiled and an interactive viewer in PAHvdb database was implemented for structure visualization of missense variants. We found a quantitative relationship between phenylalanine hydroxylase protein stability and enzyme activity (r(s) = 0.479), between protein stability and allelic phenotype (r(s) = -0.458), as well as between enzyme activity and allelic phenotype (r(s) = 0.799). Enzyme stability algorithms (FoldX and SNPs3D), allelic phenotype and enzyme activity were most powerful to predict patients' phenotype and tetrahydrobiopterin response. Phenotype prediction was most accurate in deleterious genotypes (≈ 100%), followed by homozygous (92.9%), hemizygous (94.8%), and compound heterozygous genotypes (77.9%), while tetrahydrobiopterin response was correctly predicted in 71.0% of all cases. To our knowledge this is the largest study using algorithms for the prediction of patients' phenotype and tetrahydrobiopterin responsiveness in phenylketonuria patients, using data from the locus-specific and genotypes database.

  14. A novel zoonotic genotype related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Woldeyes, Daniel; Gerbi, Banchwosen Mechal; Ebi, Dennis; Zeyhle, Eberhard; Mackenstedt, Ute; Petros, Beyene; Tilahun, Getachew; Kern, Peter; Romig, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Complete mitochondrial and two nuclear gene sequences of a novel genotype (GOmo) related to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto are described from a metacestode isolate retrieved from a human patient in southwestern Ethiopia. Phylogenetically, the genotype is positioned within the E. granulosus sensu stricto/Echinococcus felidis cluster, but cannot easily be allocated to either species. Based on different mitochondrial DNA markers, it is closest to the haplotype cluster that currently defines the species E. granulosus sensu stricto (which includes variants showing the widely cited G1, G2 and G3 sequences), but is clearly not part of this cluster. Pairwise distances between GOmo and E. granulosus sensu stricto are in the range of those between the most distant members of the Echinococcus canadensis complex (G6-10) that were recently proposed as separate species. At this stage, we prefer to list GOmo informally as a genotype rather than giving it any taxonomic rank because our knowledge rests on a single isolate from a dead-end host (human), and its lifecycle is unknown. According to data on molecularly characterised Echinococcus isolates from this region, GOmo has never been found in the usual livestock species that carry cystic echinococcosis and the possibility of a wildlife source of this newly recognised zoonotic agent cannot be excluded. The discovery of GOmo adds complexity to the already diverse array of cystic echinococcosis agents in sub-Saharan Africa and challenges hypotheses on the biogeographical origin of the E. granulosus sensu stricto clade. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant capacity of anthocyanins from acerola genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Arroxelas Galvão De Lima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins from 12 acerola genotypes cultivated at the Active Germplasm Bank at Federal Rural University of Pernambuco were isolated for antioxidant potential evaluation. The antioxidant activity and radical scavenging capacity of the anthocyanin isolates were measured according to the β-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, respectively. The antioxidant activity varied from 25.58 to 47.04% at 0.2 mg.mL-1, and it was measured using the β-carotene bleaching method. The free radical scavenging capacity increased according to the increase in concentration and reaction time by the DPPH assay. At 16.7 μg.mL-1 concentration and after 5 minutes and 2 hours reaction time, the percentage of scavenged radicals varied from 36.97 to 63.92% and 73.27 to 94.54%, respectively. Therefore, the antioxidant capacity of acerola anthocyanins varied amongst acerola genotypes and methods used. The anthocyanins present in this fruit may supply substantial dietary source of antioxidant which may promote health and produce disease prevention effects.

  16. [Mexican phenotype and genotype Vibrio cholerae 01].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, S; Gutiérrez Cogno, L; Rodríguez Angeles, G; del Rio Zolezzi, A; Valdespino González, J L; Sepúlveda Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the phenotypical and genotypical characterization of 26922 Vibrio cholerae 01 strains isolated in Mexico from 1991 to 1993. All strains isolated were El Tor biovar. Strains were sensitive to antibiotics excluding furazolidone, streptomycin and sulfisoxasole to which we found resistance in 97% and we are using this characteristic as epidemiological markers. We detected a marked change in frequency of Inaba serotype from 1991, when it was dominant, with 99.5%, until 1992 when Ogawa serotype turned to be dominant with 95% of isolates. All Vibrio cholerae 01 strains, except one Ogawa strain, were to igenic, and V. choleraeno 01 were not toxigenic by ELISA, PCR and cell culture tests. Dominant ribotype was 5, but we found some strains with 6a pattern and two with ribotype 12. We are searching for ribotype 2 among hemolytic strains in order to learn if there is any relation to Gulf Coast strains prevalent in the USA, but until now we have not found any V. cholerae ribotype 2 in our isolates. Even if rapid tests are recommended for immediate diagnosis of cholera, it is necessary to continue bacterial isolation in order to have strains for phenotyping and genotyping studies that may support epidemiological analysis.

  17. HFE genotype affects exosome phenotype in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrowczynski, Oliver D; Madhankumar, A B; Slagle-Webb, Becky; Lee, Sang Y; Zacharia, Brad E; Connor, James R

    2017-08-01

    Neuroblastoma is the third most common childhood cancer, and timely diagnosis and sensitive therapeutic monitoring remain major challenges. Tumor progression and recurrence is common with little understanding of mechanisms. A major recent focus in cancer biology is the impact of exosomes on metastatic behavior and the tumor microenvironment. Exosomes have been demonstrated to contribute to the oncogenic effect on the surrounding tumor environment and also mediate resistance to therapy. The effect of genotype on exosomal phenotype has not yet been explored. We interrogated exosomes from human neuroblastoma cells that express wild-type or mutant forms of the HFE gene. HFE, one of the most common autosomal recessive polymorphisms in the Caucasian population, originally associated with hemochromatosis, has also been associated with increased tumor burden, therapeutic resistance boost, and negative impact on patient survival. Herein, we demonstrate that changes in genotype cause major differences in the molecular and functional properties of exosomes; specifically, HFE mutant derived exosomes have increased expression of proteins relating to invasion, angiogenesis, and cancer therapeutic resistance. HFE mutant derived exosomes were also shown to transfer this cargo to recipient cells and cause an increased oncogenic functionality in those recipient cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Haplotype-Based Genotyping in Polyploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh P. Clevenger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate identification of polymorphisms from sequence data is crucial to unlocking the potential of high throughput sequencing for genomics. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are difficult to accurately identify in polyploid crops due to the duplicative nature of polyploid genomes leading to low confidence in the true alignment of short reads. Implementing a haplotype-based method in contrasting subgenome-specific sequences leads to higher accuracy of SNP identification in polyploids. To test this method, a large-scale 48K SNP array (Axiom Arachis2 was developed for Arachis hypogaea (peanut, an allotetraploid, in which 1,674 haplotype-based SNPs were included. Results of the array show that 74% of the haplotype-based SNP markers could be validated, which is considerably higher than previous methods used for peanut. The haplotype method has been implemented in a standalone program, HAPLOSWEEP, which takes as input bam files and a vcf file and identifies haplotype-based markers. Haplotype discovery can be made within single reads or span paired reads, and can leverage long read technology by targeting any length of haplotype. Haplotype-based genotyping is applicable in all allopolyploid genomes and provides confidence in marker identification and in silico-based genotyping for polyploid genomics.

  19. Hearing impairment in genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Rutger F; Pennings, Ronald J E; Huygen, Patrick L M; Bruno, Rocco; Eller, Philipp; Barrett, Timothy G; Vialettes, Bernard; Paquis-Fluklinger, Veronique; Lombardo, Fortunato; Cremers, Cor W R J

    2008-07-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the features "DIDMOAD" (diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness). We sought to study the audiometric data of genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients with sensorineural hearing impairment. Pure tone threshold data of 23 Wolfram syndrome patients were used for cross-sectional analysis in subgroups (age less than 16 years or between 19 and 25 years, gender, and origin). All subgroups, with 1 exception, showed a fairly similar type of hearing impairment with, on average, thresholds of about 25 dB (range, 0 to 65 dB) at 0.25 to 1 kHz, gently sloping downward to about 60 dB (range, 25 to 95 dB) at 8 kHz. The subgroup of Dutch women, which was excluded from the calculations of the average hearing thresholds, showed a higher degree of hearing impairment. Only the latter subgroup showed progression; however, contrary to the previous longitudinal analysis, progression was not significant in the present cross-sectional analysis, presumably because of the high degree of cross-subject variability. This unique collection of audiometric data from genotyped Wolfram syndrome patients shows no substantial progression in sensorineural hearing impairment with advancing age, no relation to the types of WFS1 mutations identified, and, with exclusion of the subgroup of Dutch female patients, no significant sex-related differences.

  20. Same day injections of Tc-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (hexamibi) for myocardial tomographic imaging: Comparison between rest-stress and stress-rest injection sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taillefer, R.; Gagnon, A.; Laflamme, L.; Leveille, J.; Phaneuf, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    It has been shown that both rest and stress 99m Tc-hexamibi myocardial perfusion imaging can be performed on the same day using two different doses injected within few h (the first one at rest followed by a second at stress). In order to evaluate and compare 2 sequences (rest-stress and stress-rest) of 99m Tc-hexamibi injections performed the same day, 18 patients with either abnormal 201 Tl myocardial scan or abnormal coronary angiography were studied with 2 99m Tc-hexamibi injections protocols. The rest-stress study was performed as follows: 7 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi was injected at rest. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed 60 min later. Immediately after the rest study, patients were injected at peak stress with 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi. Tomographic imaging was repeated 1 h later. Patients were submitted to the stress-rest protocol within 3 days. Tomographic imaging was done 1 h after a 7 mCi injection at stress. This study was followed by an injection of 25 mCi 99m Tc-hexamibi at rest, a tomographic study was performed 60 min later. Myocardial sections were reconstructed in horizontal long, vertical long, and short axes. Data analysis also included polar map representation. A total of 324 segments were interpreted blind by 3 observers, there was an agreement in 283/324 (87.3%) segments between the 2 protocols. However, 24 segments (7.4%) judged ischemic on rest-stress were called scars on stress-rest. In three patients, myocardial segments were judged normal on the rest image of the rest-stress protocol while they were found abnormal (false positive images) on the stress-rest sequence. Stress images from both protocols were judged similar in 17 patients. In conclusion, when using a short time interval (less than 2 h) between two 99m Tc-hexamibi injections, it is preferable to do a rest-stress sequence since the rest image performed initially represents a true rest study, which is not necessarily the case with the stress-rest sequence

  1. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype affects cognitive control during total sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Brieann C; Hinson, John M; Whitney, Paul; Schmidt, Michelle A; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive decision making is profoundly impaired by total sleep deprivation (TSD). This suggests that TSD impacts fronto-striatal pathways involved in cognitive control, where dopamine is a key neuromodulator. In the prefrontal cortex (PFC), dopamine is catabolized by the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). A functional polymorphism (Val158Met) influences COMT's enzymatic activity, resulting in markedly different levels of prefrontal dopamine. We investigated the effect of this polymorphism on adaptive decision making during TSD. Sixty-six healthy young adults participated in one of two in-laboratory studies. After a baseline day, subjects were randomized to either a TSD group (n = 32) with 38 h or 62 h of extended wakefulness or a well-rested control group (n = 34) with 10 h nighttime sleep opportunities. Subjects performed a go/no-go reversal learning (GNGr) task at well-rested baseline and again during TSD or equivalent control. During the task, subjects were required to learn stimulus-response relationships from accuracy feedback. The stimulus-response relationships were reversed halfway through the task, which required subjects to learn the new stimulus-response relationships from accuracy feedback. Performance on the GNGr task was quantified by discriminability (d') between go and no-go stimuli before and after the stimulus-response reversal. GNGr performance did not differ between COMT genotypes when subjects were well-rested. However, TSD exposed a significant vulnerability to adaptive decision making impairment in subjects with the Val allele. Our results indicate that sleep deprivation degrades cognitive control through a fronto-striatal, dopaminergic mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Deep sequencing analysis of HBV genotype shift and correlation with antiviral efficiency during adefovir dipivoxil therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Wang

    Full Text Available Viral genotype shift in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients during antiviral therapy has been reported, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive.38 CHB patients treated with ADV for one year were selected for studying genotype shift by both deep sequencing and Sanger sequencing method.Sanger sequencing method found that 7.9% patients showed mixed genotype before ADV therapy. In contrast, all 38 patients showed mixed genotype before ADV treatment by deep sequencing. 95.5% mixed genotype rate was also obtained from additional 200 treatment-naïve CHB patients. Of the 13 patients with genotype shift, the fraction of the minor genotype in 5 patients (38% increased gradually during the course of ADV treatment. Furthermore, responses to ADV and HBeAg seroconversion were associated with the high rate of genotype shift, suggesting drug and immune pressure may be key factors to induce genotype shift. Interestingly, patients with genotype C had a significantly higher rate of genotype shift than genotype B. In genotype shift group, ADV treatment induced a marked enhancement of genotype B ratio accompanied by a reduction of genotype C ratio, suggesting genotype C may be more sensitive to ADV than genotype B. Moreover, patients with dominant genotype C may have a better therapeutic effect. Finally, genotype shifts was correlated with clinical improvement in terms of ALT.Our findings provided a rational explanation for genotype shift among ADV-treated CHB patients. The genotype and genotype shift might be associated with antiviral efficiency.

  3. The genotype-phenotype map of an evolving digital organism

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuna, Miguel A.; Zaman, Luis; Ofria, Charles; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To understand how evolving systems bring forth novel and useful phenotypes, it is essential to understand the relationship between genotypic and phenotypic change. Artificial evolving systems can help us understand whether the genotype-phenotype maps of natural evolving systems are highly unusual, and it may help create evolvable artificial systems. Here we characterize the genotype-phenotype map of digital organisms in Avida, a platform for digital evolution. We consider digital organisms fr...

  4. Molecular genotyping of HCV infection in seropositive blood donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarin, Siti Noraziah Abu; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    This study is to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in seropositive blood donor. RNA was extracted from 32 positive samples in National Blood Centre and Melaka Hospital. The core and NS5B sequences were obtained from 23 samples. Genotype 3a is most prevalent in this study followed by genotype 1a. Evidence of mixed-genotypes (3a and 1b) infections was found in 5 subjects.

  5. Effects of antiseptic mouthwash on resting metabolic rate: A randomized, double-blind, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Michaela L; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2016-12-30

    The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function. Here we tested if also RMR would be affected by an antiseptic mouthwash. Seventeen healthy normotensive female subjects (23 ± 4 y) participated in this randomized, double-blinded, crossover study. During two 3-day periods separated by 28 days the subjects consumed a diet low in nitrate combined with rinsing their mouth three times daily with a chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (mouthwash) or placebo mouthwash (placebo) with similar taste but no antiseptic properties. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure recordings were obtained after each intervention together with blood, saliva and urine samples. Treatment with chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash effectively reduced oral conversion of nitrate to nitrite but had no effect on plasma levels of these anions or plasma cGMP. RMR and 24 h ambulatory blood pressure were unaffected by the intervention. We conclude that in young healthy females an antiseptic mouthwash was effective in disrupting oral bacterial nitrate conversion to nitrite, but this was not associated with changes in plasma nitrite, RMR or blood pressure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic Variants Revealed by Invariably Missing Genotypes in Nelore Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Manoel da Silva

    Full Text Available High density genotyping panels have been used in a wide range of applications. From population genetics to genome-wide association studies, this technology still offers the lowest cost and the most consistent solution for generating SNP data. However, in spite of the application, part of the generated data is always discarded from final datasets based on quality control criteria used to remove unreliable markers. Some discarded data consists of markers that failed to generate genotypes, labeled as missing genotypes. A subset of missing genotypes that occur in the whole population under study may be caused by technical issues but can also be explained by the presence of genomic variations that are in the vicinity of the assayed SNP and that prevent genotyping probes from annealing. The latter case may contain relevant information because these missing genotypes might be used to identify population-specific genomic variants. In order to assess which case is more prevalent, we used Illumina HD Bovine chip genotypes from 1,709 Nelore (Bos indicus samples. We found 3,200 missing genotypes among the whole population. NGS re-sequencing data from 8 sires were used to verify the presence of genomic variations within their flanking regions in 81.56% of these missing genotypes. Furthermore, we discovered 3,300 novel SNPs/Indels, 31% of which are located in genes that may affect traits of importance for the genetic improvement of cattle production.

  7. Phosphorus use efficiency in pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado, P deficiency restricts cotton production, which requires large amounts of phosphate fertilizer. To improve the yield of cotton crops, genotypes with high P use efficiency must be identified and used. The present study evaluated P uptake and use efficiency of different Gossypium barbadense L. genotypes grown in the Cerrado. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a completely randomized design, 15 x 2 factorial treatment structure (15 genotypes x 2 P levels, and four replicates. The genotypes were MT 69, MT 70, MT 87, MT 91, MT 92, MT 94, MT 101, MT 102, MT 103, MT 105, MT 106, MT 110, MT 112, MT 124, and MT 125; P levels were sufficient (1000 mg pot-1, PS treatment or deficient (PD treatment. Dry matter (DM and P levels were determined in cotton plant parts and used to calculate plant P content and use efficiency. In general, DM and P content were higher in the PS than in the PD treatment, with the exception of root DM and total DM in some genotypes. Genotypes also differed in terms of P uptake and use capacity. In the PS treatment, genotypes MT 92 and MT 102 had the highest response to phosphate fertilization. Genotype MT 69 exhibited the most efficient P uptake in the PD treatment. Genotype MT 124 showed the best shoot physiological efficiency, apparent recovery efficiency, and utilization efficiency, whereas MT 110 exhibited the highest root physiological efficiency.

  8. Spatial–temporal signature of resting-state BOLD signals in classic trigeminal neuralgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yanping Wang,1 Congying Xu,1 Liping Zhai,1 Xudong Lu,1 Xiaoqiang Wu,1 Yahui Yi,2 Ziyun Liu,1 Qiaobing Guan,1 Xiaoling Zhang1 1Department of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, 2Department of Radiology, the Second Hospital of Jiaxing City, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, China Abstract: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI signals are spatiotemporally organized. R-fMRI studies in patients with classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN have suggested alterations in functional connectivity. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the local oscillations and their frequency-specific changes in these patients. The objective of this study was to address this issue in patients with CTN. R-fMRI data from 17 patients with CTN and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs were analyzed using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF. The ALFF was computed across different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz in patients with CTN compared to HCs. In the typical band, patients with CTN showed increases of ALFF in bilateral temporal, occipital, and left middle frontal regions and in the left middle cingulate gyrus, as well as decreases of ALFF in the right inferior temporal region and in regions (medial prefrontal regions of default mode network. These significant group differences were identified in different sub-bands, with greater brainstem findings in higher frequencies (slow-4 and extensive default mode network and right postparietal results in lower frequencies (slow-5. Furthermore, significant relationships were found between subjective pain ratings and both amplitudes of higher frequency (slow-4 blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signals in pain localization brain regions and lower frequencies (slow-5 in pain signaling/modulating brain regions in the patients, and decreased ALFF within the prefrontal regions was significantly

  9. Welcome to the neighbourhood: interspecific genotype by genotype interactions in Solidago influence above- and belowground biomass and associated communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genung, Mark A; Bailey, Joseph K; Schweitzer, Jennifer A

    2012-01-01

    Intra- and interspecific plant-plant interactions are fundamental to patterns of community assembly and to the mixture effects observed in biodiversity studies. Although much research has been conducted at the species level, very little is understood about how genetic variation within and among interacting species may drive these processes. Using clones of both Solidago altissima and Solidago gigantea, we found that genotypic variation in a plant's neighbours affected both above- and belowground plant traits, and that genotype by genotype interactions between neighbouring plants impacted associated pollinator communities. The traits for which focal plant genotypic variation explained the most variation varied by plant species, whereas neighbour genotypic variation explained the most variation in coarse root biomass. Our results provide new insight into genotypic and species diversity effects in plant-neighbour interactions, the extended consequences of diversity effects, and the potential for evolution in response to competitive or to facilitative plant-neighbour interactions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  10. [Neonatal Semax and saline injections induce open-field behavior changes in mice of different genotypes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, O B; Markina, N V; Perepelkina, O V; Gichenok, I V; Korochkin, L I; Poletaeva, I I

    2004-01-01

    DBA/2, CBA mice, and their F1 hybrids (first series) and 101/HY and C3H mice (second series) were injected as neonates (2-7 days of life) with Semax (sc., 7 microg per animal). Semax is a peptide analogue of ACHT4-10 fragment which is resistant to degradation. The common feature of remote effects of both Semax and saline injections was the set of changes in the open-field behavior in adult (2.5- to 3-month-old) animals as compared to intact mice. Unexpectedly, the neonatal saline injections induced many changes in adult behavior, part of these effects being genotype-dependent. The most conspicuous shifts (genotype-dependent increase or decline) in freezing, grooming and rearing scores were displayed by DBA/2 and C3H mice, whereas the hole-poke frequencies were significantly changed in CBA and C3H mice. Squares crossed in the center of arena and rearing number were significantly increased in saline group of DBA/2 mice, whereas in Semax-injected DBA/2 group they were approximately equal to the level of intact mice. This means that the remote effects of noxious stimulation (injections of saline) were in some ways "compensated" as the result of concomitant peptide effect. At the same time, the numbers of freezing and grooming episodes were also increased in these groups. Because exploratory behavior and manifestations of anxiety increased or decreased simultaneously, it proves to be difficult to ascribe these changes to behavioral modulation along the "novelty seeking--anxiety" axis. In mice of other genotypes, changes in the same indices of the open-field behavior were revealed, but these changes were different in their direction. It was suggested that the complex patterns of postnatal behavior was the result of neonatal injections modulating subsequent brain development.

  11. Identification of three genotypes of sugarcane yellow leaf virus causing yellow leaf disease from India and their molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, R; Balamuralikrishnan, M; Karuppaiah, R

    2008-12-01

    Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) that causes yellow leaf disease (YLD) in sugarcane (recently reported in India) belongs to Polerovirus. Detailed studies were conducted to characterize the virus based on partial open reading frames (ORFs) 1 and 2 and complete ORFs 3 and 4 sequences in their genome. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed on 48 sugarcane leaf samples to detect the virus using a specific set of primers. Of the 48 samples, 36 samples (field samples with and without foliar symptoms) including 10 meristem culture derived plants were found to be positive to SCYLV infection. Additionally, an aphid colony collected from symptomatic sugarcane in the field was also found to be SCYLV positive. The amplicons from 22 samples were cloned, sequenced and acronymed as SCYLV-CB isolates. The nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) sequence comparison showed a significant variation between SCYLV-CB and the database sequences at nt (3.7-5.1%) and aa (3.2-5.3%) sequence level in the CP coding region. However, the database sequences comprising isolates of three reported genotypes, viz., BRA, PER and REU, were observed with least nt and aa sequence dissimilarities (0.0-1.6%). The phylogenetic analyses of the overlapping ORFs (ORF 3 and ORF 4) of SCYLV encoding CP and MP determined in this study and additional sequences of 26 other isolates including an Indian isolate (SCYLV-IND) available from GenBank were distributed in four phylogenetic clusters. The SCYLV-CB isolates from this study lineated in two clusters (C1 and C2) and all the other isolates from the worldwide locations into another two clusters (C3 and C4). The sequence variation of the isolates in this study with the database isolates, even in the least variable region of the SCYLV genome, showed that the population existing in India is significantly different from rest of the world. Further, comparison of partial sequences encoding for ORFs 1 and 2 revealed that YLD in sugarcane in

  12. Focal Gray Matter Plasticity as a Function of Long Duration Head Down Tilted Bed Rest: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Erdeniz, B.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    . Longitudinal processing in VBM8 includes linear registration of each scan to the mean of the subject and subsequently transforming all scans in to MNI space by applying the warp from the mean subject to MNI to the individual gray matter segmentations. Modulation was applied so that all images represented the volume of the original structure in native space. Voxel wise analysis was carried out on the gray matter images after smoothing, using a flexible factorial design with family wise error correction. Focal changes in white matter microstructural integrity were assessed using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) as part of FMRIB software library (FSL). TBSS registers all DTI scans to standard space. It subsequently creates a study specific white matter skeleton of the major white matter tracts. For each subject, for each DTI metric (i.e. fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD)), the maximum value in a line perpendicular to the skeleton tract is projected to the skeleton. Non-parametric permutation based t-tests and ANOVA's were used for voxel-wise comparison of the skeletons. For both VBM and TBSS, comparison of pre bed rest measurements did not show significant differences. VBM analysis revealed decreased gray matter density in bilateral areas including the frontal medial cortex, the insular cortex and the caudate (see Figure) from 'pre to in bed rest'. Over the same time period, there was an increase in gray matter density in the cerebellum, occipital-, and parietal cortex, including the precuneus (see Figure). The majority of these changes did not recover from 'during to post bed rest'. TBSS analysis did not reveal significant changes in white matter microstructural integrity after correction for multiple comparisons. Uncorrected analyses (p<.015) revealed an increase in RD in the cerebellum and brainstem from pre bed rest to the first week in bed rest that did not recover post bed rest. Extended bed rest

  13. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  14. AMBIT RESTful web services: an implementation of the OpenTox application programming interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazkova Nina

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The AMBIT web services package is one of the several existing independent implementations of the OpenTox Application Programming Interface and is built according to the principles of the Representational State Transfer (REST architecture. The Open Source Predictive Toxicology Framework, developed by the partners in the EC FP7 OpenTox project, aims at providing a unified access to toxicity data and predictive models, as well as validation procedures. This is achieved by i an information model, based on a common OWL-DL ontology ii links to related ontologies; iii data and algorithms, available through a standardized REST web services interface, where every compound, data set or predictive method has a unique web address, used to retrieve its Resource Description Framework (RDF representation, or initiate the associated calculations. The AMBIT web services package has been developed as an extension of AMBIT modules, adding the ability to create (Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models and providing an OpenTox API compliant interface. The representation of data and processing resources in W3C Resource Description Framework facilitates integrating the resources as Linked Data. By uploading datasets with chemical structures and arbitrary set of properties, they become automatically available online in several formats. The services provide unified interfaces to several descriptor calculation, machine learning and similarity searching algorithms, as well as to applicability domain and toxicity prediction models. All Toxtree modules for predicting the toxicological hazard of chemical compounds are also integrated within this package. The complexity and diversity of the processing is reduced to the simple paradigm "read data from a web address, perform processing, write to a web address". The online service allows to easily run predictions, without installing any software, as well to share online datasets and models. The

  15. AMBIT RESTful web services: an implementation of the OpenTox application programming interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeliazkova, Nina; Jeliazkov, Vedrin

    2011-05-16

    The AMBIT web services package is one of the several existing independent implementations of the OpenTox Application Programming Interface and is built according to the principles of the Representational State Transfer (REST) architecture. The Open Source Predictive Toxicology Framework, developed by the partners in the EC FP7 OpenTox project, aims at providing a unified access to toxicity data and predictive models, as well as validation procedures. This is achieved by i) an information model, based on a common OWL-DL ontology ii) links to related ontologies; iii) data and algorithms, available through a standardized REST web services interface, where every compound, data set or predictive method has a unique web address, used to retrieve its Resource Description Framework (RDF) representation, or initiate the associated calculations.The AMBIT web services package has been developed as an extension of AMBIT modules, adding the ability to create (Quantitative) Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models and providing an OpenTox API compliant interface. The representation of data and processing resources in W3C Resource Description Framework facilitates integrating the resources as Linked Data. By uploading datasets with chemical structures and arbitrary set of properties, they become automatically available online in several formats. The services provide unified interfaces to several descriptor calculation, machine learning and similarity searching algorithms, as well as to applicability domain and toxicity prediction models. All Toxtree modules for predicting the toxicological hazard of chemical compounds are also integrated within this package. The complexity and diversity of the processing is reduced to the simple paradigm "read data from a web address, perform processing, write to a web address". The online service allows to easily run predictions, without installing any software, as well to share online datasets and models. The downloadable web application

  16. Plant genotype, microbial recruitment and nutritional security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jai S; Singh, Akanksha; Singh, Harikesh B; Sarma, Birinchi K

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural food products with high nutritional value should always be preferred over food products with low nutritional value. Efforts are being made to increase nutritional value of food by incorporating dietary supplements to the food products. The same is more desirous if the nutritional value of food is increased under natural environmental conditions especially in agricultural farms. Fragmented researches have demonstrated possibilities in achieving the same. The rhizosphere is vital in this regard for not only health and nutritional status of plants but also for the microorganisms colonizing the rhizosphere. Remarkably robust composition of plant microbiome with respect to other soil environments clearly suggests the role of a plant host in discriminating its colonizers (Zancarini et al., 2012). A large number of biotic and abiotic factors are believed to manipulate the microbial communities in the rhizosphere. However, plant genotype has proven to be the key in giving the final shape of the rhizosphere microbiome (Berendsen et al., 2012; Marques et al., 2014).

  17. Sources of Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll-Hansen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the historical background and early formation of Wilhelm Johannsen's distinction between genotype and phenotype. It is argued that contrary to a widely accepted interpretation (For instance, W. Provine, 1971. The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press; Mayr, 1973; F. B. Churchill, 1974. Journal of the History of Biology 7: 5-30; E. Mayr, 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; J. Sapp, 2003. Genesis. The Evolution of Biology. New York: Oxford University Press) his concepts referred primarily to properties of individual organisms and not to statistical averages. Johannsen's concept of genotype was derived from the idea of species in the tradition of biological systematics from Linnaeus to de Vries: An individual belonged to a group - species, subspecies, elementary species - by representing a certain underlying type (S. Müller-Wille and V. Orel, 2007. Annals of Science 64: 171-215). Johannsen sharpened this idea theoretically in the light of recent biological discoveries, not least those of cytology. He tested and confirmed it experimentally combining the methods of biometry, as developed by Francis Galton, with the individual selection method and pedigree analysis, as developed for instance by Louis Vilmorin. The term "genotype" was introduced in W. Johannsen's 1909 (Elemente der Exakten Erblichkeitslehre. Jena: Gustav Fischer) treatise, but the idea of a stable underlying biological "type" distinct from observable properties was the core idea of his classical bean selection experiment published 6 years earlier (W. Johannsen, 1903. Ueber Erblichkeit in Populationen und reinen Linien. Eine Beitrag zur Beleuchtung schwebender Selektionsfragen, Jena: Gustav Fischer, pp. 58-59). The individual ontological foundation of population analysis was a self-evident presupposition in Johannsen's studies of heredity in populations from their start in the early 1890s till his

  18. Identification of Zoonotic Genotypes of Giardia duodenalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprong, H.; Cacciò, S.M.; van der Giessen, J.W.B

    2009-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide. Transmission is either direct, through the faecal-oral route, or indirect......, through ingestion of contaminated water or food. Genetic characterization of G. duodenalis isolates has revealed the existence of seven groups (assemblages A to G) which differ in their host distribution. Assemblages A and B are found in humans and in many other mammals, but the role of animals......, mixtures of genotypes in individual isolates were repeatedly observed. Possible explanations are the uptake of genetically different Giardia cysts by a host, or subsequent infection of an already infected host, likely without overt symptoms, with a different Giardia species, which may cause disease. Other...

  19. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether the high frequency of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is related to a defect in energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic response to a standard meal were compared in 10 obese PCO women, nine obese but otherwise normal women, and 11 lean women. All groups were matched with respect to age and fat-free mass and the two obese groups were matched for degree of obesity. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 h on two days: (1) in the postabsorptive state; and (2) after a 720 kcal (3014 kJ) liquid mixed meal. The thermic effect of food, calculated as 3 h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was significantly greater for the lean [52.9 +/- 5.5 kcal/3 h (221 +/- 23 kJ/3 h)] than the obese [17.2 +/- 5.1 kcal/3 h (72 +/- 21 kJ/3 h)] and the PCO women [22.8 +/- 5.2 kcal/3 h (95 +/- 22 kJ/3)], P less than 0.001). The thermic effect of food was negatively related to percent body fat (r = -0.694, P less than 0.001). Resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly among the three groups, and was strongly related to fat-free mass (r = 0.687, P less than 0.001). These results confirm previous reports of blunted thermogenesis in obese individuals, but provide no evidence of altered resting metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis in women with PCO compared with normal women of similar degree of obesity.

  20. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A RESTful interface to pseudonymization services in modern web applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lablans, Martin; Borg, Andreas; Ückert, Frank

    2015-02-07

    Medical research networks rely on record linkage and pseudonymization to determine which records from different sources relate to the same patient. To establish informational separation of powers, the required identifying data are redirected to a trusted third party that has, in turn, no access to medical data. This pseudonymization service receives identifying data, compares them with a list of already reported patient records and replies with a (new or existing) pseudonym. We found existing solutions to be technically outdated, complex to implement or not suitable for internet-based research infrastructures. In this article, we propose a new RESTful pseudonymization interface tailored for use in web applications accessed by modern web browsers. The interface is modelled as a resource-oriented architecture, which is based on the representational state transfer (REST) architectural style. We translated typical use-cases into resources to be manipulated with well-known HTTP verbs. Patients can be re-identified in real-time by authorized users' web browsers using temporary identifiers. We encourage the use of PID strings for pseudonyms and the EpiLink algorithm for record linkage. As a proof of concept, we developed a Java Servlet as reference implementation. The following resources have been identified: Sessions allow data associated with a client to be stored beyond a single request while still maintaining statelessness. Tokens authorize for a specified action and thus allow the delegation of authentication. Patients are identified by one or more pseudonyms and carry identifying fields. Relying on HTTP calls alone, the interface is firewall-friendly. The reference implementation has proven to be production stable. The RESTful pseudonymization interface fits the requirements of web-based scenarios and allows building applications that make pseudonymization transparent to the user using ordinary web technology. The open-source reference implementation implements the

  2. Resting-state brain activity in adult males who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xuan

    Full Text Available Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF, region of interest (ROI-based functional connectivity (FC and independent component analysis (ICA-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN and in the connections between them.

  3. Energy landscapes of resting-state brain networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu eWatanabe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During rest, the human brain performs essential functions such as memory maintenance, which are associated with resting-state brain networks (RSNs including the default-mode network (DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN. Previous studies based on spiking-neuron network models and their reduced models, as well as those based on imaging data, suggest that resting-state network activity can be captured as attractor dynamics, i.e., dynamics of the brain state toward an attractive state and transitions between different attractors. Here, we analyze the energy landscapes of the RSNs by applying the maximum entropy model, or equivalently the Ising spin model, to human RSN data. We use the previously estimated parameter values to define the energy landscape, and the disconnectivity graph method to estimate the number of local energy minima (equivalent to attractors in attractor dynamics, the basin size, and hierarchical relationships among the different local minima. In both of the DMN and FPN, low-energy local minima tended to have large basins. A majority of the network states belonged to a basin of one of a few local minima. Therefore, a small number of local minima constituted the backbone of each RSN. In the DMN, the energy landscape consisted of two groups of low-energy local minima that are separated by a relatively high energy barrier. Within each group, the activity patterns of the local minima were similar, and different minima were connected by relatively low energy barriers. In the FPN, all dominant energy were separated by relatively low energy barriers such that they formed a single coarse-grained global minimum. Our results indicate that multistable attractor dynamics may underlie the DMN, but not the FPN, and assist memory maintenance with different memory states.

  4. Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (pgenders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (pgender and BR. Not only do gender and BR baseline differences exist, but gender and BR also influence the slope and saturation of the BRS curves. Attenuated and saturating RR and SBS responses, as well as differences in baseline values, may contribute to the higher rates of orthostatic intolerance in women and after bed rest.

  5. Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chaozhe; Wang, Liang; Yan, Qian; Lin, Chunlan; Yu, Chunshui

    2012-01-01

    Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with developmental stuttering and 46 age-matched fluent male controls were scanned using resting-state fMRI. ALFF, ROI-based FCs and ICA-based FCs were compared between male stuttering subjects and fluent controls in a voxel-wise manner. Compared with fluent controls, stuttering subjects showed increased ALFF in left brain areas related to speech motor and auditory functions and bilateral prefrontal cortices related to cognitive control. However, stuttering subjects showed decreased ALFF in the left posterior language reception area and bilateral non-speech motor areas. ROI-based FC analysis revealed decreased FC between the posterior language area involved in the perception and decoding of sensory information and anterior brain area involved in the initiation of speech motor function, as well as increased FC within anterior or posterior speech- and language-associated areas and between the prefrontal areas and default-mode network (DMN) in stuttering subjects. ICA showed that stuttering subjects had decreased FC in the DMN and increased FC in the sensorimotor network. Our findings support the concept that stuttering subjects have deficits in multiple functional systems (motor, language, auditory and DMN) and in the connections between them. PMID:22276215

  6. Automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeat markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlin, M.W.; Hoffman, E.P. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)]|[Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The dinucleotide repeats (i.e., microsatellites) such as CA-repeats are a highly polymorphic, highly abundant class of PCR-amplifiable markers that have greatly streamlined genetic mapping experimentation. It is expected that over 30,000 such markers (including tri- and tetranucleotide repeats) will be characterized for routine use in the next few years. Since only size determination, and not sequencing, is required to determine alleles, in principle, dinucleotide repeat genotyping is easily performed on electrophoretic gels, and can be automated using DNA sequencers. Unfortunately, PCR stuttering with these markers generates not one band for each allele, but a pattern of bands. Since closely spaced alleles must be disambiguated by human scoring, this poses a key obstacle to full automation. We have developed methods that overcome this obstacle. Our model is that the observed data is generated by arithmetic superposition (i.e., convolution) of multiple allele patterns. By quantitatively measuring the size of each component band, and exploiting the unique stutter pattern associated with each marker, closely spaced alleles can be deconvolved; this unambiguously reconstructs the {open_quotes}true{close_quotes} allele bands, with stutter artifact removed. We used this approach in a system for automated diagnosis of (X-linked) Duchenne muscular dystrophy; four multiplexed CA-repeats within the dystrophin gene were assayed on a DNA sequencer. Our method accurately detected small variations in gel migration that shifted the allele size estimate. In 167 nonmutated alleles, 89% (149/167) showed no size variation, 9% (15/167) showed 1 bp variation, and 2% (3/167) showed 2 bp variation. We are currently developing a library of dinucleotide repeat patterns; together with our deconvolution methods, this library will enable fully automated genotyping of dinucleotide repeats from sizing data.

  7. Lorentzian Type Force on a Charge at Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelsacher R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable achievement of theoretical physics is the explanation of magnetic effects, described by the Lorentz force, to be corollaries of charge i nvariance, Coulombs Law and the Lorentz transformation. The relativistic explanation of magnetism is based essentially on the calculation of Coulomb forces between mo ving charges in the labo- ratory reference system. We will show presently that the ideas used for the relativistic explanation of magnetism also lead to a force on a charge at rest by moving charges, which we dub “Lorentzian type force on a charge at rest”.

  8. Nephrogenic rests mimicking Wilms' tumor on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhas, Naveen; Siegelman, Stanley S. [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St., 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States); Argani, Pedram [Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gearhart, John P. [Department of Pediatric Urology, Brady Urologic Institute, The Johns Hopkins Hospital and School of Medicine, 21287, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Nephrogenic rests (NR) are persistent benign remnants of embryonic renal tissue. A small percentage of these may develop into Wilms' tumor (WT). Radiologic imaging is relied upon to differentiate between these entities, with the hallmark of malignant transformation being growth on serial imaging studies. There is, however, considerable overlap in their imaging characteristics. The authors present a case of two biopsy-proven NR in a 2-year-old girl with sporadic aniridia that were indistinguishable from WT on initial radiologic studies. One of the NR grew on serial imaging studies mimicking a WT, but after resection was confirmed to be a benign hyperplastic NR on pathologic examination. (orig.)

  9. Recommended rest frequencies for observed interstellar molecular transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, F.J.; Snyder, I.E.; Johnson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    The most accurate values presently available for the rest frequencies of all known interstellar molecular transitions are presented and recommended for reference in future astronomical observations in the radio and microwave regions. The recommended values have been carefully selected after critical evaluation of the spectroscopic literature. Probable error limits along with the proper molecular and quantum mechanical labels are presented for each observed transition. Representative line antenna temperatures are also presented for a typical source as a convenience to users. References are cited to both the astronomical and the laboratory literature

  10. Rest frames and relativistic effects on de Sitter spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotaescu, Ion I. [West University of Timisoara, Timisoara (Romania)

    2017-07-15

    It is shown that the Nachtmann boosting method of introducing coordinates on de Sitter manifolds can be completed with suitable gauge transformations able to keep under control the transformation under isometries of the conserved quantities. With this method, the rest local charts (or natural frames) are defined pointing out the role of the conserved quantities in investigating the relative geodesic motion. The advantages of this approach can be seen from the applications presented here. For the first time, the simple kinematic effects, the electromagnetic field of a free falling charge and the binary fission are solved in terms of conserved quantities on the expanding portion of the de Sitter spacetime. (orig.)

  11. A respiratory mask for resting and exercising dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, D M; Reischl, P; O'Loughlin, B J

    1982-02-01

    A respiratory face mask has been developed for use with unsedated beagles trained to run on a treadmill. The latex rubber mask, shaped to fit the animal's muzzle, incorporates two modified, commercially available, pulmonary valves for separating inspiratory and expiratory flows. The mask has a dead space of 30 cm3 and a flow resistance below 1 cmH2O . 1(-1) . s. The flexible mask is used to measure breath-by-breath respiratory variables over extended periods of time during rest and exercise.

  12. Hypervolemia from Drinking Hyperhydration Solutions at Rest and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, Robin; Jackson, Catherine G. R.; Geelen, Ghislaine; Barnes, Paul R.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Whittam, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of muscular fatigue from physical work and exercise (high metabolism) is not clear, but involves disturbances of muscle surface membrane excitation-contraction coupling from changes in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release, cell H+ and Pi responses, and carbohydrate metabolism. Fatigue in people at rest (low metabolism) involves both psychological and physiological factors, probably in different proportions. One common factor appears to be the level and distribution of water and electrolytes within muscle cells and other vascular, interstitial, body fluid compartments. The vascular fluid volume, composed of plasma and red blood cells, is a primary regulatory factor for cardiovascular function; reduction of vascular volume (hypovolemia) and total body water (hypohydration) adversely affect exercise performance. Plasma volume and plasma ionic-osmotic constituent concentrations are also regulatory factors for body thermoregulation, which is often compromised from exercise induced hypovolemia and hypohydration. Rehydration of dehydrated people on earth is relatively easy with appropriate food (osmols), fluid, and a restful environment. But ad libitum drinking under stressful conditions; e.g., heat, exercise, or prior dehydration, results in involuntary dehydration defined as the delay in full fluid replacement (euhydration) during and following loss of body fluid. Astronauts, with their reduced total body water are euhydrated while in weightlessness, but become "dehydrated" during reentry and landing. Thus, people subjected to acute or chronic stress are probably somewhat "dehydrated" as well as fatigued. Many rehydration drinks are more concentrated (hypertonic-hyperosmotic) with respect to the normal plasma osmolality of 285 mOsm/kg H2O and more of the drink osmols are contributed by carbohydrates than by ionized substances. There have been few studies on the efficacy of various drink formulations for increasing body fluid compartment volumes, especially

  13. The Effects of Long Duration Bed Rest as a Spaceflight Analogue on Resting State Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity and Neurocognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassady, K.; Koppelmans, V.; Yuan, P.; Cooke, K.; De Dios, Y.; Stepanyan, V.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight has been associated with detrimental alterations in human sensorimotor systems and neurocognitive performance. Prolonged exposure to a head-down tilt position during long duration bed rest can resemble several effects of the microgravity environment such as reduced sensory inputs, body unloading and increased cephalic fluid distribution. The question of whether microgravity affects other central nervous system functions such as brain functional connectivity and its relationship with neurocognitive performance is largely unknown, but of potential importance to the health and performance of astronauts both during and post-flight. The aims of the present study are 1) to identify changes in sensorimotor resting state functional connectivity that occur with extended bed rest exposure, and to characterize their recovery time course; 2) to evaluate how these neural changes correlate with neurocognitive performance. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data were collected from 17 male participants. The data were acquired through the NASA bed rest facility, located at the University of Texas Medical Branch (Galveston, TX). Participants remained in bed with their heads tilted down six degrees below their feet for 70 consecutive days. RsfMRI data were obtained at seven time points: 7 and 12 days before bed rest; 7, 50, and 65 days during bed rest; and 7 and 12 days after bed rest. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) analysis was performed to measure the connectivity of sensorimotor networks in the brain before, during, and post-bed rest. We found a decrease in left putamen connectivity with the pre- and post-central gyri from pre bed rest to the last day in bed rest. In addition, vestibular cortex connectivity with the posterior cingulate cortex decreased from pre to post bed rest. Furthermore, connectivity between cerebellar right superior posterior fissure and other cerebellar regions decreased from

  14. Large-Scale Network Analysis of Whole-Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Spinal Cord Injury: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Mayank; Oni-Orisan, Akinwunmi; Chen, Gang; Li, Wenjun; Leschke, Jack; Ward, Doug; Kalinosky, Benjamin; Budde, Matthew; Schmit, Brian; Li, Shi-Jiang; Muqeet, Vaishnavi; Kurpad, Shekar

    2017-09-01

    Network analysis based on graph theory depicts the brain as a complex network that allows inspection of overall brain connectivity pattern and calculation of quantifiable network metrics. To date, large-scale network analysis has not been applied to resting-state functional networks in complete spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. To characterize modular reorganization of whole brain into constituent nodes and compare network metrics between SCI and control subjects, fifteen subjects with chronic complete cervical SCI and 15 neurologically intact controls were scanned. The data were preprocessed followed by parcellation of the brain into 116 regions of interest (ROI). Correlation analysis was performed between every ROI pair to construct connectivity matrices and ROIs were categorized into distinct modules. Subsequently, local efficiency (LE) and global efficiency (GE) network metrics were calculated at incremental cost thresholds. The application of a modularity algorithm organized the whole-brain resting-state functional network of the SCI and the control subjects into nine and seven modules, respectively. The individual modules differed across groups in terms of the number and the composition of constituent nodes. LE demonstrated statistically significant decrease at multiple cost levels in SCI subjects. GE did not differ significantly between the two groups. The demonstration of modular architecture in both groups highlights the applicability of large-scale network analysis in studying complex brain networks. Comparing modules across groups revealed differences in number and membership of constituent nodes, indicating modular reorganization due to neural plasticity.

  15. [Software for performing a global phenotypic and genotypic nutritional assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Diego, L; Cuervo, M; Martínez, J A

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional assessment of a patient needs the simultaneous managing a extensive information and a great number of databases, as both aspects of the process of nutrition and the clinical situation of the patient are analyzed. The introduction of computers in the nutritional area constitutes an extraordinary advance in the administration of nutrition information, providing a complete assessment of nutritional aspects in a quick and easy way. To develop a computer program that can be used as a tool for assessing the nutritional status of the patient, the education of clinical staff, for epidemiological studies and for educational purposes. Based on a computer program which assists the health specialist to perform a full nutritional evaluation of the patient, through the registration and assessment of the phenotypic and genotypic features. The application provides nutritional prognosis based on anthropometric and biochemical parameters, images of states of malnutrition, questionnaires to characterize diseases, diagnostic criteria, identification of alleles associated with the development of specific metabolic illnesses and questionnaires of quality of life, for a custom actuation. The program includes, as part of the nutritional assessment of the patient, food intake analysis, design of diets and promotion of physical activity, introducing food frequency questionnaires, dietary recalls, healthy eating indexes, model diets, fitness tests, and recommendations, recalls and questionnaires of physical activity. A computer program performed under Java Swing, using SQLite database and some external libraries such as JfreeChart for plotting graphs. This brand new designed software is composed of five blocks categorized into ten modules named: Patients, Anthropometry, Clinical History, Biochemistry, Dietary History, Diagnostic (with genetic make up), Quality of life, Physical activity, Energy expenditure and Diets. Each module has a specific function which evaluates a

  16. Changes in the structural and functional characteristics of fisher (Pekania pennanti) rest structures over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill Zielinski; Fredrick V. Schlexer

    2015-01-01

    Resting habitat used by fishers (Pekania pennanti) has been relatively well studied but information on the persistence of their resting structures over time is unknown. We selected for reexamination 73 of 195 resting structures used by by fishers in northwestern California and compared their condition on the date they were found with their...

  17. The Rest-Activity Rhythm and Physical Activity in Early-Onset Dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A substantial part of elderly persons with dementia show rest-activity rhythm disturbances. The rest-activity rhythm is important to study in people with early-onset dementia (EOD) for rest-activity rhythm disturbances are predictive of institutionalization, and caregivers of young

  18. Rest and action tremor in Parkinson's disease: effects of Deep Brain Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Tjitske; Wentink, E.C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the cardinal symptoms of Parkinson’s disease is rest tremor. While rest tremor generally disappears during sleep and voluntary movement, action tremor may be triggered by voluntary movement, and may even be more disabling than rest tremor. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic

  19. Cancellous bone structure of iliac crest biopsies following 370 days of head-down bed rest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Morukov, Boris V.; Vico, Laurence

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Static bone histomorphometry was applied to existing iliac bone sections originating from a 370-d 5 degrees head-down bed rest experiment. This bed rest experiment is the longest ever to have been conducted. We hypothesized that bed rest would decrease cancellous bone volume fractio...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1059 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: One or two pilot crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1059 Flight time... Rest 10 Hours 12 Hours. (6) Minimum After Duty Rest Period for Multi-Time Zone Flights 14 Hours 18... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest...