WorldWideScience

Sample records for genome wide expression

  1. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of anguillid herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van S.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Davison, A.A.; Engelsma, M.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas temporal gene expression in mammalian herpesviruses has been studied extensively, little is known about gene expression in fish herpesviruses. Here we report a genome-wide transcription analysis of a fish herpesvirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1, in cell culture, studied during the

  2. Genome-wide patterns of Arabidopsis gene expression in nature.

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    Christina L Richards

    Full Text Available Organisms in the wild are subject to multiple, fluctuating environmental factors, and it is in complex natural environments that genetic regulatory networks actually function and evolve. We assessed genome-wide gene expression patterns in the wild in two natural accessions of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and examined the nature of transcriptional variation throughout its life cycle and gene expression correlations with natural environmental fluctuations. We grew plants in a natural field environment and measured genome-wide time-series gene expression from the plant shoot every three days, spanning the seedling to reproductive stages. We find that 15,352 genes were expressed in the A. thaliana shoot in the field, and accession and flowering status (vegetative versus flowering were strong components of transcriptional variation in this plant. We identified between ∼110 and 190 time-varying gene expression clusters in the field, many of which were significantly overrepresented by genes regulated by abiotic and biotic environmental stresses. The two main principal components of vegetative shoot gene expression (PC(veg correlate to temperature and precipitation occurrence in the field. The largest PC(veg axes included thermoregulatory genes while the second major PC(veg was associated with precipitation and contained drought-responsive genes. By exposing A. thaliana to natural environments in an open field, we provide a framework for further understanding the genetic networks that are deployed in natural environments, and we connect plant molecular genetics in the laboratory to plant organismal ecology in the wild.

  3. Genome-wide expression profiling of complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Eun-Heui Jin

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS is a chronic, progressive, and devastating pain syndrome characterized by spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, allodynia, altered skin temperature, and motor dysfunction. Although previous gene expression profiling studies have been conducted in animal pain models, there genome-wide expression profiling in the whole blood of CRPS patients has not been reported yet. Here, we successfully identified certain pain-related genes through genome-wide expression profiling in the blood from CRPS patients. We found that 80 genes were differentially expressed between 4 CRPS patients (2 CRPS I and 2 CRPS II and 5 controls (cut-off value: 1.5-fold change and p<0.05. Most of those genes were associated with signal transduction, developmental processes, cell structure and motility, and immunity and defense. The expression levels of major histocompatibility complex class I A subtype (HLA-A29.1, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, alanine aminopeptidase N (ANPEP, l-histidine decarboxylase (HDC, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (G-CSF3R, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 genes selected from the microarray were confirmed in 24 CRPS patients and 18 controls by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. We focused on the MMP9 gene that, by qRT-PCR, showed a statistically significant difference in expression in CRPS patients compared to controls with the highest relative fold change (4.0±1.23 times and p = 1.4×10(-4. The up-regulation of MMP9 gene in the blood may be related to the pain progression in CRPS patients. Our findings, which offer a valuable contribution to the understanding of the differential gene expression in CRPS may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of CRPS pain progression.

  4. Genome-Wide Associations of Gene Expression Variation in Humans.

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    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of quantitative variation in human populations has become one of the major priorities for medical genetics. The successful identification of variants that contribute to complex traits is highly dependent on reliable assays and genetic maps. We have performed a genome-wide quantitative trait analysis of 630 genes in 60 unrelated Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe using the publicly available phase I data of the International HapMap project. The genes are located in regions of the human genome with elevated functional annotation and disease interest including the ENCODE regions spanning 1% of the genome, Chromosome 21 and Chromosome 20q12-13.2. We apply three different methods of multiple test correction, including Bonferroni, false discovery rate, and permutations. For the 374 expressed genes, we find many regions with statistically significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with expression variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines after correcting for multiple tests. Based on our analyses, the signal proximal (cis- to the genes of interest is more abundant and more stable than distal and trans across statistical methodologies. Our results suggest that regulatory polymorphism is widespread in the human genome and show that the 5-kb (phase I HapMap has sufficient density to enable linkage disequilibrium mapping in humans. Such studies will significantly enhance our ability to annotate the non-coding part of the genome and interpret functional variation. In addition, we demonstrate that the HapMap cell lines themselves may serve as a useful resource for quantitative measurements at the cellular level.

  5. Genome-wide associations of gene expression variation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E Stranger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of quantitative variation in human populations has become one of the major priorities for medical genetics. The successful identification of variants that contribute to complex traits is highly dependent on reliable assays and genetic maps. We have performed a genome-wide quantitative trait analysis of 630 genes in 60 unrelated Utah residents with ancestry from Northern and Western Europe using the publicly available phase I data of the International HapMap project. The genes are located in regions of the human genome with elevated functional annotation and disease interest including the ENCODE regions spanning 1% of the genome, Chromosome 21 and Chromosome 20q12-13.2. We apply three different methods of multiple test correction, including Bonferroni, false discovery rate, and permutations. For the 374 expressed genes, we find many regions with statistically significant association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with expression variation in lymphoblastoid cell lines after correcting for multiple tests. Based on our analyses, the signal proximal (cis- to the genes of interest is more abundant and more stable than distal and trans across statistical methodologies. Our results suggest that regulatory polymorphism is widespread in the human genome and show that the 5-kb (phase I HapMap has sufficient density to enable linkage disequilibrium mapping in humans. Such studies will significantly enhance our ability to annotate the non-coding part of the genome and interpret functional variation. In addition, we demonstrate that the HapMap cell lines themselves may serve as a useful resource for quantitative measurements at the cellular level.

  6. Brewing yeast genomes and genome-wide expression and proteome profiling during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Katherine A

    2007-11-01

    The genome structure, ancestry and instability of the brewing yeast strains have received considerable attention. The hybrid nature of brewing lager yeast strains provides adaptive potential but yields genome instability which can adversely affect fermentation performance. The requirement to differentiate between production strains and assess master cultures for genomic instability has led to significant adoption of specialized molecular tool kits by the industry. Furthermore, the development of genome-wide transcriptional and protein expression technologies has generated significant interest from brewers. The opportunity presented to explore, and the concurrent requirement to understand both, the constraints and potential of their strains to generate existing and new products during fermentation is discussed.

  7. Genome-wide gene expression regulation as a function of genotype and age in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viñuela Rodriguez, A.; Snoek, L.B.; Riksen, J.A.G.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression becomes more variable with age, and it is widely assumed that this is due to a decrease in expression regulation. But currently there is no understanding how gene expression regulatory patterns progress with age. Here we explored genome-wide gene expression variation and regulatory l

  8. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Godoy, M Angeles; Mauri, Nuria; Juarez, Jose; Marques, M Carmen; Santiago, Julia; Forment, Javier; Gadea, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Background Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-wide cDNA...

  9. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gadea Jose; Forment Javier; Santiago Julia; Marques M Carmen; Juarez Jose; Mauri Nuria; Martinez-Godoy M Angeles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-...

  10. Genome-wide screens for expressed hypothetical proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Durhuus, Jon Ambæk; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2012-01-01

    A hypothetical protein (HP) is defined as a protein that is predicted to be expressed from an open reading frame, but for which there is no experimental evidence of translation. HPs constitute a substantial fraction of proteomes of human as well as of other organisms. With the general belief...

  11. Bidirectional promoters of insects: genome-wide comparison, evolutionary implication and influence on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Susanta K; Severson, David W

    2015-01-30

    Bidirectional promoters are widespread in insect genomes. By analyzing 23 insect genomes we show that the frequency of bidirectional gene pairs varies according to genome compactness and density of genes among the species. The density of bidirectional genes expected based on number of genes per megabase of genome explains the observed density suggesting that bidirectional pairing of genes may be due to random event. We identified specific transcription factor binding motifs that are enriched in bidirectional promoters across insect species. Furthermore, we observed that bidirectional promoters may act as transcriptional hotspots in insect genomes where protein coding genes tend to aggregate in significantly biased (p promoters. Natural selection seems to have an association with the extent of bidirectionality of genes among the species. The rate of non-synonymous-to-synonymous changes (dN/dS) shows a second-order polynomial distribution with bidirectionality between species indicating that bidirectionality is dependent upon evolutionary pressure acting on the genomes. Analysis of genome-wide microarray expression data of multiple insect species suggested that bidirectionality has a similar association with transcriptome variation across species. Furthermore, bidirectional promoters show significant association with correlated expression of the divergent gene pairs depending upon their motif composition. Analysis of gene ontology showed that bidirectional genes tend to have a common association with functions related to "binding" (including ion binding, nucleotide binding and protein binding) across genomes. Such functional constraint of bidirectional genes may explain their widespread persistence in genome of diverse insect species.

  12. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of testicular carcinoma in situ progression into overt tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, K; Hoei-Hansen, C E; Nielsen, J E

    2005-01-01

    into CIS occurs early during foetal life. Progression into an overt tumour, however, typically first happens after puberty, where CIS cells transform into either a seminoma (SEM) or a nonseminoma (N-SEM). Here, we have compared the genome-wide gene expression of CIS cells to that of testicular SEM...

  13. Regulatory Network Construction in Arabidopsis using genome-wide gene expression QTLs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, J.J.B.; Fu, J.J.; Terpstra, I.R.; Garcia, J.M.; van den Ackerveken, G.; Snoek, L.B.; Peeters, A.J.M.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Koornreef, M.; Jansen, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory network construction in Arabidopsis by using genome-wide gene expression quantitative trait loci.Keurentjes JJ, Fu J, Terpstra IR, Garcia JM, van den Ackerveken G, Snoek LB, Peeters AJ, Vreugdenhil D, Koornneef M, Jansen RC. Laboratory of Genetics, Wageningen University, Arboretumlaan 4,

  14. Regulatory network construction in Arabidopsis by using genome-wide gene expression quantitative trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Fu, Jingyuan; Terpstra, Inez R.; Garcia, Juan M.; Ackerveken, Guido van den; Snoek, L. Basten; Peeters, Anton J.M.; Vreugdenhil, Dick; Koornneef, Maarten; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2007-01-01

    Accessions of a plant species can show considerable genetic differences that are analyzed effectively by using recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Here we describe the results of genome-wide expression variation analysis in an RIL population of Arabidopsis thaliana. For many genes, variation

  15. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs in citrus by genome-wide analysis.

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    Sheng-Rui Liu

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in plant genetics and breeding. In this study, we identified citrus SSRs in the genome of Clementine mandarin and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. A total of 80,708 SSRs were detected in the genome with an overall density of 268 SSRs/Mb. While di-nucleotide repeats were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, tetra-nucleotides, which had more repeat units than any other SSR types, had the highest cumulative sequence length. We identified 6,834 transcripts as containing 8,989 SSRs in 33,929 Clementine mandarin transcripts, among which, tri-nucleotide motifs (36.0% were the most common, followed by di-nucleotide (26.9% and hexa-nucleotide motifs (15.1%. The motif AG (16.7% was most abundant among these SSRs, while motifs AAG (6.6%, AAT (5.0%, and TAG (2.2% were most common among tri-nucleotides. Functional categorization of transcripts containing SSRs revealed that 5,879 (86.0% of such transcripts had homology with known proteins, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that transcripts containing SSRs were those implicated in diverse biological processes in plants, including binding, development, transcription, and protein degradation. When 27 genomic and 78 randomly selected SSRs were tested on Clementine mandarin, 95 SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 95 SSRs were further deployed on 18 genotypes of the three generas of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, genomic SSRs generally show low transferability in comparison to SSRs developed from expressed sequences. These transcript-markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in citrus, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, molecular breeding, comparative mapping and other genetic analyses.

  16. Development and characterization of genomic and expressed SSRs in citrus by genome-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sheng-Rui; Li, Wen-Yang; Long, Dang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in plant genetics and breeding. In this study, we identified citrus SSRs in the genome of Clementine mandarin and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. A total of 80,708 SSRs were detected in the genome with an overall density of 268 SSRs/Mb. While di-nucleotide repeats were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, tetra-nucleotides, which had more repeat units than any other SSR types, had the highest cumulative sequence length. We identified 6,834 transcripts as containing 8,989 SSRs in 33,929 Clementine mandarin transcripts, among which, tri-nucleotide motifs (36.0%) were the most common, followed by di-nucleotide (26.9%) and hexa-nucleotide motifs (15.1%). The motif AG (16.7%) was most abundant among these SSRs, while motifs AAG (6.6%), AAT (5.0%), and TAG (2.2%) were most common among tri-nucleotides. Functional categorization of transcripts containing SSRs revealed that 5,879 (86.0%) of such transcripts had homology with known proteins, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that transcripts containing SSRs were those implicated in diverse biological processes in plants, including binding, development, transcription, and protein degradation. When 27 genomic and 78 randomly selected SSRs were tested on Clementine mandarin, 95 SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 95 SSRs were further deployed on 18 genotypes of the three generas of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, genomic SSRs generally show low transferability in comparison to SSRs developed from expressed sequences. These transcript-markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in citrus, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, molecular breeding, comparative mapping and other genetic analyses.

  17. Gene expression levels as endophenotypes in genome-wide association studies of Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, F.; Carrasquillo, M. M.; Pankratz, V. S.; Belbin, O.; Morgan, K.; Allen, M.; Wilcox, S. L.; Ma, L.; Walker, L. P.; Kouri, N.; Burgess, J. D.; Younkin, L. H.; Younkin, Samuel G.; Younkin, C. S.; Bisceglio, G. D.; Crook, J. E.; Dickson, D. W.; Petersen, R. C.; Graff-Radford, N.; Younkin, Steven G.; Ertekin-Taner, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is a common disorder with a substantial genetic component. We postulate that many disease susceptibility variants act by altering gene expression levels. Methods: We measured messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of 12 LOAD candidate genes in the cerebella of 200 subjects with LOAD. Using the genotypes from our LOAD genome-wide association study for the cis-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (n = 619) of these 12 LOAD candidate genes, we tested for associations with expression levels as endophenotypes. The strongest expression cis-SNP was tested for AD association in 7 independent case-control series (2,280 AD and 2,396 controls). Results: We identified 3 SNPs that associated significantly with IDE (insulin degrading enzyme) expression levels. A single copy of the minor allele for each significant SNP was associated with ∼twofold higher IDE expression levels. The most significant SNP, rs7910977, is 4.2 kb beyond the 3′ end of IDE. The association observed with this SNP was significant even at the genome-wide level (p = 2.7 × 10−8). Furthermore, the minor allele of rs7910977 associated significantly (p = 0.0046) with reduced LOAD risk (OR = 0.81 with a 95% CI of 0.70-0.94), as expected biologically from its association with elevated IDE expression. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that IDE is a late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) gene with variants that modify risk of LOAD by influencing IDE expression. They also suggest that the use of expression levels as endophenotypes in genome-wide association studies may provide a powerful approach for the identification of disease susceptibility alleles. GLOSSARY AD = Alzheimer disease; CI = confidence interval; GWAS = genome-wide association study; LOAD = late-onset Alzheimer disease; mRNA = messenger RNA; OR = odds ratio; SNP = single nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:20142614

  18. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis.

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    Martinez-Godoy, M Angeles; Mauri, Nuria; Juarez, Jose; Marques, M Carmen; Santiago, Julia; Forment, Javier; Gadea, Jose

    2008-07-03

    Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-wide cDNA microarray that include 21,081 putative unigenes of citrus. As a functional companion to the microarray, a web-browsable database 1 was created and populated with information about the unigenes represented in the microarray, including cDNA libraries, isolated clones, raw and processed nucleotide and protein sequences, and results of all the structural and functional annotation of the unigenes, like general description, BLAST hits, putative Arabidopsis orthologs, microsatellites, putative SNPs, GO classification and PFAM domains. We have performed a Gene Ontology comparison with the full set of Arabidopsis proteins to estimate the genome coverage of the microarray. We have also performed microarray hybridizations to check its usability. This new cDNA microarray replaces the first 7K microarray generated two years ago and allows gene expression analysis at a more global scale. We have followed a rational design to minimize cross-hybridization while maintaining its utility for different citrus species. Furthermore, we also provide access to a website with full structural and functional annotation of the unigenes represented in the microarray, along with the ability to use this site to directly perform gene expression analysis using standard tools at different publicly available servers. Furthermore, we show how this microarray offers a good representation of the citrus genome and present the usefulness of this genomic tool for global studies in citrus by using it to catalogue genes expressed in

  19. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis

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    Gadea Jose

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genome-wide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results We have designed and constructed a publicly available genome-wide cDNA microarray that include 21,081 putative unigenes of citrus. As a functional companion to the microarray, a web-browsable database 1 was created and populated with information about the unigenes represented in the microarray, including cDNA libraries, isolated clones, raw and processed nucleotide and protein sequences, and results of all the structural and functional annotation of the unigenes, like general description, BLAST hits, putative Arabidopsis orthologs, microsatellites, putative SNPs, GO classification and PFAM domains. We have performed a Gene Ontology comparison with the full set of Arabidopsis proteins to estimate the genome coverage of the microarray. We have also performed microarray hybridizations to check its usability. Conclusion This new cDNA microarray replaces the first 7K microarray generated two years ago and allows gene expression analysis at a more global scale. We have followed a rational design to minimize cross-hybridization while maintaining its utility for different citrus species. Furthermore, we also provide access to a website with full structural and functional annotation of the unigenes represented in the microarray, along with the ability to use this site to directly perform gene expression analysis using standard tools at different publicly available servers. Furthermore, we show how this microarray offers a good representation of the citrus genome and present the usefulness of this genomic tool for global

  20. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny and expression profile of vesicle fusion components in Verticillium dahliae.

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    Xue Yang

    Full Text Available Vesicular trafficking plays a crucial role in protein localization and movement, signal transduction, and multiple developmental processes in eukaryotic cells. Vesicle fusion is the final and key step in vesicle-mediated trafficking and mainly relies on SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, the regulators including SM (Sec1/Munc18 family proteins, Rab GTPases and exocyst subunits. Verticillium dahliae is a widespread soil fungus that causes disruptive vascular diseases on a wide range of plants. To date, no genes involved in vesicular fusion process have been identified and characterized in V. dahliae. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of V. dahliae allowed us to conduct a genome-wide identification, phylogeny and expression profile of genes encoding vesicular fusion components. Using compared genomics and phylogenetic methods, we identified 44 genes encoding vesicle fusion components in the V. dahliae genome. According to the structural features of their encoded proteins, the 44 V. dahliae genes were classified into 22 SNAREs (6 Qa-, 4 Qb-, 6 Qc-, 1 Qbc- and 5 R-types, 4 SM family proteins, 10 Rab GTPases and 8 exocyst proteins. Based on phylogeny and motif constitution analysis, orthologs of vesicle fusion component in filamentous fungi were generally clustered together into the same subclasses with well-supported bootstrap values. Analysis of the expression profiles of these genes indicated that many of them are significantly differentially expressed during vegetative growth and microsclerotia formation in V. dahliae. The analysis show that many components of vesicle fusion are well conserved in filamentous fungi and indicate that vesicle fusion plays a critical role in microsclerotia formation of smoke tree wilt fungus V. dahliae. The genome-wide identification and expression analysis of components involved in vesicle fusion should facilitate research in this gene family and give

  1. Genome-wide analysis of homeobox gene family in legumes: identification, gene duplication and expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Annapurna; Ghangal, Rajesh; Garg, Rohini; Jain, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors that are known to play a major role in different aspects of plant growth and development. In the present study, we identified homeobox genes belonging to 14 different classes in five legume species, including chickpea, soybean, Medicago, Lotus and pigeonpea. The characteristic differences within homeodomain sequences among various classes of homeobox gene family were quite evident. Genome-wide expression analysis using publicly available datasets (RNA-seq and microarray) indicated that homeobox genes are differentially expressed in various tissues/developmental stages and under stress conditions in different legumes. We validated the differential expression of selected chickpea homeobox genes via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Genome duplication analysis in soybean indicated that segmental duplication has significantly contributed in the expansion of homeobox gene family. The Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated homeobox genes in soybean showed that several members of this family have undergone purifying selection. Moreover, expression profiling indicated that duplicated genes might have been retained due to sub-functionalization. The genome-wide identification and comprehensive gene expression profiling of homeobox gene family members in legumes will provide opportunities for functional analysis to unravel their exact role in plant growth and development.

  2. Genome-wide patterns of promoter sharing and co-expression in bovine skeletal muscle

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    Dalrymple Brian P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene regulation by transcription factors (TF is species, tissue and time specific. To better understand how the genetic code controls gene expression in bovine muscle we associated gene expression data from developing Longissimus thoracis et lumborum skeletal muscle with bovine promoter sequence information. Results We created a highly conserved genome-wide promoter landscape comprising 87,408 interactions relating 333 TFs with their 9,242 predicted target genes (TGs. We discovered that the complete set of predicted TGs share an average of 2.75 predicted TF binding sites (TFBSs and that the average co-expression between a TF and its predicted TGs is higher than the average co-expression between the same TF and all genes. Conversely, pairs of TFs sharing predicted TGs showed a co-expression correlation higher that pairs of TFs not sharing TGs. Finally, we exploited the co-occurrence of predicted TFBS in the context of muscle-derived functionally-coherent modules including cell cycle, mitochondria, immune system, fat metabolism, muscle/glycolysis, and ribosome. Our findings enabled us to reverse engineer a regulatory network of core processes, and correctly identified the involvement of E2F1, GATA2 and NFKB1 in the regulation of cell cycle, fat, and muscle/glycolysis, respectively. Conclusion The pivotal implication of our research is two-fold: (1 there exists a robust genome-wide expression signal between TFs and their predicted TGs in cattle muscle consistent with the extent of promoter sharing; and (2 this signal can be exploited to recover the cellular mechanisms underpinning transcription regulation of muscle structure and development in bovine. Our study represents the first genome-wide report linking tissue specific co-expression to co-regulation in a non-model vertebrate.

  3. A genome-wide map of aberrantly expressed chromosomal islands in colorectal cancer

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    Castanos-Velez Esmeralda

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer development is accompanied by genetic phenomena like deletion and amplification of chromosome parts or alterations of chromatin structure. It is expected that these mechanisms have a strong effect on regional gene expression. Results We investigated genome-wide gene expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC and normal epithelial tissues from 25 patients using oligonucleotide arrays. This allowed us to identify 81 distinct chromosomal islands with aberrant gene expression. Of these, 38 islands show a gain in expression and 43 a loss of expression. In total, 7.892 genes (25.3% of all human genes are located in aberrantly expressed islands. Many chromosomal regions that are linked to hereditary colorectal cancer show deregulated expression. Also, many known tumor genes localize to chromosomal islands of misregulated expression in CRC. Conclusion An extensive comparison with published CGH data suggests that chromosomal regions known for frequent deletions in colon cancer tend to show reduced expression. In contrast, regions that are often amplified in colorectal tumors exhibit heterogeneous expression patterns: even show a decrease of mRNA expression. Because for several islands of deregulated expression chromosomal aberrations have never been observed, we speculate that additional mechanisms (like abnormal states of regional chromatin also have a substantial impact on the formation of co-expression islands in colorectal carcinoma.

  4. Effects of in ovo electroporation on endogenous gene expression: genome-wide analysis

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    Chambers David

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ovo electroporation is a widely used technique to study gene function in developmental biology. Despite the widespread acceptance of this technique, no genome-wide analysis of the effects of in ovo electroporation, principally the current applied across the tissue and exogenous vector DNA introduced, on endogenous gene expression has been undertaken. Here, the effects of electric current and expression of a GFP-containing construct, via electroporation into the midbrain of Hamburger-Hamilton stage 10 chicken embryos, are analysed by microarray. Results Both current alone and in combination with exogenous DNA expression have a small but reproducible effect on endogenous gene expression, changing the expression of the genes represented on the array by less than 0.1% (current and less than 0.5% (current + DNA, respectively. The subset of genes regulated by electric current and exogenous DNA span a disparate set of cellular functions. However, no genes involved in the regional identity were affected. In sharp contrast to this, electroporation of a known transcription factor, Dmrt5, caused a much greater change in gene expression. Conclusions These findings represent the first systematic genome-wide analysis of the effects of in ovo electroporation on gene expression during embryonic development. The analysis reveals that this process has minimal impact on the genetic basis of cell fate specification. Thus, the study demonstrates the validity of the in ovo electroporation technique to study gene function and expression during development. Furthermore, the data presented here can be used as a resource to refine the set of transcriptional responders in future in ovo electroporation studies of specific gene function.

  5. Integrated analysis of copy number variation and genome-wide expression profiling in colorectal cancer tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Hassan, Nur Zarina; Mokhtar, Norfilza Mohd; Kok Sin, Teow; Mohamed Rose, Isa; Sagap, Ismail; Harun, Roslan; Jamal, Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Integrative analyses of multiple genomic datasets for selected samples can provide better insight into the overall data and can enhance our knowledge of cancer. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between copy number variation (CNV) and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Sixty-four paired CRC samples from the same patients were subjected to CNV profiling using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad assay, and validation was performed using multiplex ligation probe amplification method. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed on 15 paired samples from the same group of patients using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Significant genes obtained from both array results were then overlapped. To identify molecular pathways, the data were mapped to the KEGG database. Whole genome CNV analysis that compared primary tumor and non-cancerous epithelium revealed gains in 1638 genes and losses in 36 genes. Significant gains were mostly found in chromosome 20 at position 20q12 with a frequency of 45.31% in tumor samples. Examples of genes that were associated at this cytoband were PTPRT, EMILIN3 and CHD6. The highest number of losses was detected at chromosome 8, position 8p23.2 with 17.19% occurrence in all tumor samples. Among the genes found at this cytoband were CSMD1 and DLC1. Genome-wide expression profiling showed 709 genes to be up-regulated and 699 genes to be down-regulated in CRC compared to non-cancerous samples. Integration of these two datasets identified 56 overlapping genes, which were located in chromosomes 8, 20 and 22. MLPA confirmed that the CRC samples had the highest gains in chromosome 20 compared to the reference samples. Interpretation of the CNV data in the context of the transcriptome via integrative analyses may provide more in-depth knowledge of the genomic landscape of CRC.

  6. Integrated analysis of copy number variation and genome-wide expression profiling in colorectal cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zarina Ali Hassan

    Full Text Available Integrative analyses of multiple genomic datasets for selected samples can provide better insight into the overall data and can enhance our knowledge of cancer. The objective of this study was to elucidate the association between copy number variation (CNV and gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC samples and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. Sixty-four paired CRC samples from the same patients were subjected to CNV profiling using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad assay, and validation was performed using multiplex ligation probe amplification method. Genome-wide expression profiling was performed on 15 paired samples from the same group of patients using the Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array. Significant genes obtained from both array results were then overlapped. To identify molecular pathways, the data were mapped to the KEGG database. Whole genome CNV analysis that compared primary tumor and non-cancerous epithelium revealed gains in 1638 genes and losses in 36 genes. Significant gains were mostly found in chromosome 20 at position 20q12 with a frequency of 45.31% in tumor samples. Examples of genes that were associated at this cytoband were PTPRT, EMILIN3 and CHD6. The highest number of losses was detected at chromosome 8, position 8p23.2 with 17.19% occurrence in all tumor samples. Among the genes found at this cytoband were CSMD1 and DLC1. Genome-wide expression profiling showed 709 genes to be up-regulated and 699 genes to be down-regulated in CRC compared to non-cancerous samples. Integration of these two datasets identified 56 overlapping genes, which were located in chromosomes 8, 20 and 22. MLPA confirmed that the CRC samples had the highest gains in chromosome 20 compared to the reference samples. Interpretation of the CNV data in the context of the transcriptome via integrative analyses may provide more in-depth knowledge of the genomic landscape of CRC.

  7. Genome-Wide Expression of MicroRNAs Is Regulated by DNA Methylation in Hepatocarcinogenesis

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    Jing Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous studies, including ours, have examined the regulation of microRNAs (miRNAs by DNA methylation, but whether this regulation occurs at a genome-wide level in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is unclear. Subjects/Methods. Using a two-phase study design, we conducted genome-wide screening for DNA methylation and miRNA expression to explore the potential role of methylation alterations in miRNAs regulation. Results. We found that expressions of 25 miRNAs were statistically significantly different between tumor and nontumor tissues and perfectly differentiated HCC tumor from nontumor. Six miRNAs were overexpressed, and 19 were repressed in tumors. Among 133 miRNAs with inverse correlations between methylation and expression, 8 miRNAs (6% showed statistically significant differences in expression between tumor and nontumor tissues. Six miRNAs were validated in 56 additional paired HCC tissues, and significant inverse correlations were observed for miR-125b and miR-199a, which is consistent with the inactive chromatin pattern found in HepG2 cells. Conclusion. These data suggest that the expressions of miR-125b and miR-199a are dramatically regulated by DNA hypermethylation that plays a key role in hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. Advances in plant cell type-specific genome-wide studies of gene expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying WANG; Yuling JIAO

    2011-01-01

    Cell is the functional unit of life.To study the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules,it is crucial to dissect these molecules at the cell level.In recent years,major progresses have been made by plant biologists to profile gene expression in specific cell types at the genome-wide level.Approaches based on the isolation of cells,polysomes or nuclei have been developed and successfully used for studying the cell types from distinct organs of several plant species.These cell-level data sets revealed previously unrecognized cellular properties,such as cell-specific gene expression modules and hormone response centers,and should serve as essential resources for functional genomic analyses.Newly developed technologies are more affordable to many laboratories and should help to provide new insights at the cellular resolution in the near future.

  9. Genome-wide transcriptome and expression profile analysis of Phalaenopsis during explant browning.

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    Chuanjun Xu

    Full Text Available Explant browning presents a major problem for in vitro culture, and can lead to the death of the explant and failure of regeneration. Considerable work has examined the physiological mechanisms underlying Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning, but the molecular mechanisms of browning remain elusive. In this study, we used whole genome RNA sequencing to examine Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning at genome-wide level.We first used Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence the transcriptome of Phalaenopsis and then performed de novo transcriptome assembly. We assembled 79,434,350 clean reads into 31,708 isogenes and generated 26,565 annotated unigenes. We assigned Gene Ontology (GO terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations, and potential Pfam domains to each transcript. Using the transcriptome data as a reference, we next analyzed the differential gene expression of explants cultured for 0, 3, and 6 d, respectively. We then identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and after Phalaenopsis explant browning. We also performed GO, KEGG functional enrichment and Pfam analysis of all DEGs. Finally, we selected 11 genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR analysis to confirm the expression profile analysis.Here, we report the first comprehensive analysis of transcriptome and expression profiles during Phalaenopsis explant browning. Our results suggest that Phalaenopsis explant browning may be due in part to gene expression changes that affect the secondary metabolism, such as: phenylpropanoid pathway and flavonoid biosynthesis. Genes involved in photosynthesis and ATPase activity have been found to be changed at transcription level; these changes may perturb energy metabolism and thus lead to the decay of plant cells and tissues. This study provides comprehensive gene expression data for Phalaenopsis browning. Our data constitute an important resource for further functional studies to prevent explant browning.

  10. Genome-wide transcriptome and expression profile analysis of Phalaenopsis during explant browning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanjun; Zeng, Biyu; Huang, Junmei; Huang, Wen; Liu, Yumei

    2015-01-01

    Explant browning presents a major problem for in vitro culture, and can lead to the death of the explant and failure of regeneration. Considerable work has examined the physiological mechanisms underlying Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning, but the molecular mechanisms of browning remain elusive. In this study, we used whole genome RNA sequencing to examine Phalaenopsis leaf explant browning at genome-wide level. We first used Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence the transcriptome of Phalaenopsis and then performed de novo transcriptome assembly. We assembled 79,434,350 clean reads into 31,708 isogenes and generated 26,565 annotated unigenes. We assigned Gene Ontology (GO) terms, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations, and potential Pfam domains to each transcript. Using the transcriptome data as a reference, we next analyzed the differential gene expression of explants cultured for 0, 3, and 6 d, respectively. We then identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) before and after Phalaenopsis explant browning. We also performed GO, KEGG functional enrichment and Pfam analysis of all DEGs. Finally, we selected 11 genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis to confirm the expression profile analysis. Here, we report the first comprehensive analysis of transcriptome and expression profiles during Phalaenopsis explant browning. Our results suggest that Phalaenopsis explant browning may be due in part to gene expression changes that affect the secondary metabolism, such as: phenylpropanoid pathway and flavonoid biosynthesis. Genes involved in photosynthesis and ATPase activity have been found to be changed at transcription level; these changes may perturb energy metabolism and thus lead to the decay of plant cells and tissues. This study provides comprehensive gene expression data for Phalaenopsis browning. Our data constitute an important resource for further functional studies to prevent explant browning.

  11. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medema, Marnix H; Alam, Mohammad T; Heijne, Wilbert H M; van den Berg, Marco A; Müller, Ulrike; Trefzer, Axel; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko

    2011-03-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expression of an industrial S. clavuligerus strain, obtained through iterative mutagenesis, with that of the wild-type strain. Intriguingly, we found that the majority of the changes contributed not to a complex rewiring of primary metabolism but consisted of a simple upregulation of various antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters. A few additional transcriptional changes in primary metabolism at key points seem to divert metabolic fluxes to the biosynthetic precursors for clavulanic acid. In general, the observed changes largely coincide with genes that have been targeted by rational engineering in recent years, yet the presence of a number of previously unexplored genes clearly demonstrates that functional genomic analysis can provide new leads for strain improvement in biotechnology.

  12. Genome-wide identification of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs in human heart.

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    Tamara T Koopmann

    Full Text Available In recent years genome-wide association studies (GWAS have uncovered numerous chromosomal loci associated with various electrocardiographic traits and cardiac arrhythmia predisposition. A considerable fraction of these loci lie within inter-genic regions. The underlying trait-associated variants likely reside in regulatory regions and exert their effect by modulating gene expression. Hence, the key to unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying these cardiac traits is to interrogate variants for association with differential transcript abundance by expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL analysis. In this study we conducted an eQTL analysis of human heart. For a total of 129 left ventricular samples that were collected from non-diseased human donor hearts, genome-wide transcript abundance and genotyping was determined using microarrays. Each of the 18,402 transcripts and 897,683 SNP genotypes that remained after pre-processing and stringent quality control were tested for eQTL effects. We identified 771 eQTLs, regulating 429 unique transcripts. Overlaying these eQTLs with cardiac GWAS loci identified novel candidates for studies aimed at elucidating the functional and transcriptional impact of these loci. Thus, this work provides for the first time a comprehensive eQTL map of human heart: a powerful and unique resource that enables systems genetics approaches for the study of cardiac traits.

  13. Genome-wide identification of expression quantitative trait loci for human telomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanseol; Ryu, Jihye; Lee, Chaeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A genome-wide association study was conducted to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for human telomerase. We tested the genetic associations of nucleotide variants with expression of the genes encoding human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and telomerase RNA components (TERC) in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 373 Europeans. Our results revealed 6 eQTLs associated with hTERT (P planar cell polarity protein 2 (PRICKLE2) gene important for the Wnt signaling pathway. This concurs with previous studies in which significant expressional relationships between hTERT and some genes (β-catenin and Wnt-3a) in the Wnt signaling pathway have been observed. This study suggested 6 novel eQTLs for hTERT and the association of hTERT with the Wnt signaling pathway. Further studies are needed to understand their underlying mechanisms to improve our understanding of the role of hTERT in cancer. PMID:27759658

  14. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary, and Expression Analyses of Histone H3 Variants in Plants

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    Jinteng Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone variants alter the nucleosome structure and play important roles in chromosome segregation, transcription, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Histone H3 is encoded by many genes in most eukaryotic species and is the histone that contains the largest variety of posttranslational modifications. Compared with the metazoan H3 variants, little is known about the complex evolutionary history of H3 variants proteins in plants. Here, we study the identification, evolutionary, and expression analyses of histone H3 variants from genomes in major branches in the plant tree of life. Firstly we identified all the histone three related (HTR genes from the examined genomes, then we classified the four groups variants: centromeric H3, H3.1, H3.3 and H3-like, by phylogenetic analysis, intron information, and alignment. We further demonstrated that the H3 variants have evolved under strong purifying selection, indicating the conservation of HTR proteins. Expression analysis revealed that the HTR has a wide expression profile in maize and rice development and plays important roles in development.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling of ADF Family Genes in Solanum lycopersicum L.

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    Khadiza Khatun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF proteins have growth, development, defense-related and growth regulatory functions in plants. The present study used genome-wide analysis to investigate ADF family genes in tomato. Eleven tomato ADF genes were identified and differential expression patterns were found in different organs. SlADF6 was preferentially expressed in roots, suggesting its function in root development. SlADF1, SlADF3 and SlADF10 were predominately expressed in the flowers compared to the other organs and specifically in the stamen compared to other flower parts, indicating their potential roles in pollen development. The comparatively higher expression of SlADF3 and SlADF11 at early fruit developmental stages might implicate them in determining final fruit size. SlADF5 and SlADF8 had relatively higher levels of expression five days after the breaker stage of fruit development, suggesting their possible role in fruit ripening. Notably, six genes were induced by cold and heat, seven by drought, five by NaCl, and four each by abscisic acid (ABA, jasmonic acid (JA and wounding treatments. The differential expression patterns of the SlADF genes under different types of stresses suggested their function in stress tolerance in tomato plants. Our results will be helpful for the functional characterization of ADF genes during organ and fruit development of tomato under different stresses.

  16. Genome-wide expression patterns of calcium-dependent protein kinases in Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Lei; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Nian-Zhang; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-06-04

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are found in plants and some Apicomplexan parasites but not in animals or fungi. CDPKs have been shown to play important roles in various calcium-signaling pathways such as host cell invasion, egress and protein secretion in Toxoplasma gondii. The objectives of the present study were to examine the T. gondii CDPK genes expression patterns during different development stages and stress responses. We carried out a comprehensive expression analysis of CDPK genes based on previously published microarray datasets, and we also used real time quantitative RT-PCR to study ten T. gondii CDPK genes expression patterns under acid, alkali, high temperature and low temperature conditions. Microarrays analysis indicated that some TgCDPK genes exhibited different expression levels in IFN-γ stimuli conditions or at different developmental stages, suggesting that CDPK genes may play different roles in these processes. Expression profiles under low temperature, high temperature, acid and alkaline indicated that most CDPK may be involved in regulating high temperature, acid and alkaline signaling pathways. We present a genome-wide expression analysis of CDPK genes in T. gondii for the first time, and the mRNA levels change with abiotic and biotic stresses, suggesting their functional roles in these processes. These results will provide a solid basis for future functional studies of the CDPK gene family in T. gondii.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling of ADF Family Genes in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Khadiza; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Park, Jong-In; Kim, Chang Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kim, Min-Bae; Lee, Do-Jin; Nou, Ill Sup; Chung, Mi-Young

    2016-09-29

    The actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) proteins have growth, development, defense-related and growth regulatory functions in plants. The present study used genome-wide analysis to investigate ADF family genes in tomato. Eleven tomato ADF genes were identified and differential expression patterns were found in different organs. SlADF6 was preferentially expressed in roots, suggesting its function in root development. SlADF1, SlADF3 and SlADF10 were predominately expressed in the flowers compared to the other organs and specifically in the stamen compared to other flower parts, indicating their potential roles in pollen development. The comparatively higher expression of SlADF3 and SlADF11 at early fruit developmental stages might implicate them in determining final fruit size. SlADF5 and SlADF8 had relatively higher levels of expression five days after the breaker stage of fruit development, suggesting their possible role in fruit ripening. Notably, six genes were induced by cold and heat, seven by drought, five by NaCl, and four each by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA) and wounding treatments. The differential expression patterns of the SlADF genes under different types of stresses suggested their function in stress tolerance in tomato plants. Our results will be helpful for the functional characterization of ADF genes during organ and fruit development of tomato under different stresses.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in primate taste buds reveals links to diverse processes.

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    Peter Hevezi

    Full Text Available Efforts to unravel the mechanisms underlying taste sensation (gustation have largely focused on rodents. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of gene expression in primate taste buds. Our findings reveal unique new insights into the biology of taste buds. We generated a taste bud gene expression database using laser capture microdissection (LCM procured fungiform (FG and circumvallate (CV taste buds from primates. We also used LCM to collect the top and bottom portions of CV taste buds. Affymetrix genome wide arrays were used to analyze gene expression in all samples. Known taste receptors are preferentially expressed in the top portion of taste buds. Genes associated with the cell cycle and stem cells are preferentially expressed in the bottom portion of taste buds, suggesting that precursor cells are located there. Several chemokines including CXCL14 and CXCL8 are among the highest expressed genes in taste buds, indicating that immune system related processes are active in taste buds. Several genes expressed specifically in endocrine glands including growth hormone releasing hormone and its receptor are also strongly expressed in taste buds, suggesting a link between metabolism and taste. Cell type-specific expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules involved in cell fate, including KIT, reveals the taste bud as an active site of cell regeneration, differentiation, and development. IKBKAP, a gene mutated in familial dysautonomia, a disease that results in loss of taste buds, is expressed in taste cells that communicate with afferent nerve fibers via synaptic transmission. This database highlights the power of LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling to dissect the molecular composition of normal tissues, represents the most comprehensive molecular analysis of primate taste buds to date, and provides a foundation for further studies in diverse aspects of taste biology.

  19. Genome-wide selection of superior reference genes for expression studies in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhichao; Xu, Jiang; Ji, Aijia; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Yuanlei; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used for the accurate analysis of gene expression. However, high homology among gene families might result in unsuitability of reference genes, which leads to the inaccuracy of qRT-PCR analysis. The release of the Ganoderma lucidum genome has triggered numerous studies to be done on the homology among gene families with the purpose of selecting reliable reference genes. Based on the G. lucdum genome and transcriptome database, 38 candidate reference genes including 28 novel genes were systematically selected and evaluated for qRT-PCR normalization. The result indicated that commonly used polyubiquitin (PUB), beta-actin (BAT), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were unsuitable reference genes because of the high sequence similarity and low primer specificity. According to the evaluation of RefFinder, cyclophilin 5 (CYP5) was ranked as the most stable reference gene for 27 tested samples under all experimental conditions and eighteen mycelial samples. Based on sequence analysis and expression analysis, our study suggested that gene characteristic, primer specificity of high homologous genes, allele-specificity expression of candidate genes and under-evaluation of reference genes influenced the accuracy and sensitivity of qRT-PCR analysis. This investigation not only revealed potential factors influencing the unsuitability of reference genes but also selected the superior reference genes from more candidate genes and testing samples than those used in the previous study. Furthermore, our study established a model for reference gene analysis by using the genomic sequence.

  20. Genome-wide age-related changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in human PBMCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steegenga, Wilma T; Boekschoten, Mark V; Lute, Carolien; Hooiveld, Guido J; de Groot, Philip J; Morris, Tiffany J; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Butcher, Lee M; Beck, Stephan; Müller, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a progressive process that results in the accumulation of intra- and extracellular alterations that in turn contribute to a reduction in health. Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been reported before and may be responsible for aging-induced changes in gene expression, although a causal relationship has yet to be shown. Using genome-wide assays, we analyzed age-induced changes in DNA methylation and their effect on gene expression with and without transient induction with the synthetic transcription modulating agent WY14,643. To demonstrate feasibility of the approach, we isolated peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) from five young and five old healthy male volunteers and cultured them with or without WY14,643. Infinium 450K BeadChip and Affymetrix Human Gene 1.1 ST expression array analysis revealed significant differential methylation of at least 5 % (ΔYO > 5 %) at 10,625 CpG sites between young and old subjects, but only a subset of the associated genes were also differentially expressed. Age-related differential methylation of previously reported epigenetic biomarkers of aging including ELOVL2, FHL2, PENK, and KLF14 was confirmed in our study, but these genes did not display an age-related change in gene expression in PBMCs. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that differentially methylated genes that lack an age-related expression change predominantly represent genes involved in carcinogenesis and developmental processes, and expression of most of these genes were silenced in PBMCs. No changes in DNA methylation were found in genes displaying transiently induced changes in gene expression. In conclusion, aging-induced differential methylation often targets developmental genes and occurs mostly without change in gene expression.

  1. A genome-wide screen indicates correlation between differentiation and expression of metabolism related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Priti; Kumar, Brijesh; Shende, Akhilesh; Singh, Anupama; Meena, Anil; Ghosal, Ritika; Ranganathan, Madhav; Bandyopadhyay, Amitabha

    2013-01-01

    Differentiated tissues may be considered as materials with distinct properties. The differentiation program of a given tissue ensures that it acquires material properties commensurate with its function. It may be hypothesized that some of these properties are acquired through production of tissue-specific metabolites synthesized by metabolic enzymes. To establish correlation between metabolism and organogenesis we have carried out a genome-wide expression study of metabolism related genes by RNA in-situ hybridization. 23% of the metabolism related genes studied are expressed in a tissue-restricted but not tissue-exclusive manner. We have conducted the screen on whole mount chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos from four distinct developmental stages to correlate dynamic changes in expression patterns of metabolic enzymes with spatio-temporally unique developmental events. Our data strongly suggests that unique combinations of metabolism related genes, and not specific metabolic pathways, are upregulated during differentiation. Further, expression of metabolism related genes in well established signaling centers that regulate different aspects of morphogenesis indicates developmental roles of some of the metabolism related genes. The database of tissue-restricted expression patterns of metabolism related genes, generated in this study, should serve as a resource for systematic identification of these genes with tissue-specific functions during development. Finally, comprehensive understanding of differentiation is not possible unless the downstream genes of a differentiation cascade are identified. We propose, metabolic enzymes constitute a significant portion of these downstream target genes. Thus our study should help elucidate different aspects of tissue differentiation.

  2. A genome-wide screen indicates correlation between differentiation and expression of metabolism related genes.

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    Priti Roy

    Full Text Available Differentiated tissues may be considered as materials with distinct properties. The differentiation program of a given tissue ensures that it acquires material properties commensurate with its function. It may be hypothesized that some of these properties are acquired through production of tissue-specific metabolites synthesized by metabolic enzymes. To establish correlation between metabolism and organogenesis we have carried out a genome-wide expression study of metabolism related genes by RNA in-situ hybridization. 23% of the metabolism related genes studied are expressed in a tissue-restricted but not tissue-exclusive manner. We have conducted the screen on whole mount chicken (Gallus gallus embryos from four distinct developmental stages to correlate dynamic changes in expression patterns of metabolic enzymes with spatio-temporally unique developmental events. Our data strongly suggests that unique combinations of metabolism related genes, and not specific metabolic pathways, are upregulated during differentiation. Further, expression of metabolism related genes in well established signaling centers that regulate different aspects of morphogenesis indicates developmental roles of some of the metabolism related genes. The database of tissue-restricted expression patterns of metabolism related genes, generated in this study, should serve as a resource for systematic identification of these genes with tissue-specific functions during development. Finally, comprehensive understanding of differentiation is not possible unless the downstream genes of a differentiation cascade are identified. We propose, metabolic enzymes constitute a significant portion of these downstream target genes. Thus our study should help elucidate different aspects of tissue differentiation.

  3. Genome-wide expression profiling of five mouse models identifies similarities and differences with human psoriasis.

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    William R Swindell

    Full Text Available Development of a suitable mouse model would facilitate the investigation of pathomechanisms underlying human psoriasis and would also assist in development of therapeutic treatments. However, while many psoriasis mouse models have been proposed, no single model recapitulates all features of the human disease, and standardized validation criteria for psoriasis mouse models have not been widely applied. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling is used to compare gene expression patterns manifested by human psoriatic skin lesions with those that occur in five psoriasis mouse models (K5-Tie2, imiquimod, K14-AREG, K5-Stat3C and K5-TGFbeta1. While the cutaneous gene expression profiles associated with each mouse phenotype exhibited statistically significant similarity to the expression profile of psoriasis in humans, each model displayed distinctive sets of similarities and differences in comparison to human psoriasis. For all five models, correspondence to the human disease was strong with respect to genes involved in epidermal development and keratinization. Immune and inflammation-associated gene expression, in contrast, was more variable between models as compared to the human disease. These findings support the value of all five models as research tools, each with identifiable areas of convergence to and divergence from the human disease. Additionally, the approach used in this paper provides an objective and quantitative method for evaluation of proposed mouse models of psoriasis, which can be strategically applied in future studies to score strengths of mouse phenotypes relative to specific aspects of human psoriasis.

  4. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of the Angelman syndrome mice with Ube3a mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daren; Chen, Ken-Shiung

    2010-11-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a human neurological disorder caused by lack of maternal UBE3A expression in the brain. UBE3A is known to function as both an ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3) and a coactivator for steroid receptors. Many ubiquitin targets, as well as interacting partners, of UBE3A have been identified. However, the pathogenesis of AS, and how deficiency of maternal UBE3A can upset cellular homeostasis, remains vague. In this study, we performed a genome-wide microarray analysis on the maternal Ube3a-deficient (Ube3a(m-/p+)) AS mouse to search for genes affected in the absence of Ube3a. We observed 64 differentially expressed transcripts (7 upregulated and 57 downregulated) showing more than 1.5-fold differences in expression (Pphenotype. We also show that the protein level of melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 2 (Nr4a2) in the AS mice cerebellum is decreased relative to that of the wild-type mice. Consistent with this finding, expression of small-interfering RNA that targets Ube3a in P19 cells caused downregulation of Mc1r and Nr4a2, whereas overexpression of Ube3a results in the upregulation of Mc1r and Nr4a2. These observation help in providing insights into the genesis of neurodevelopmental phenotype of AS and highlight specific area for future research.

  5. A combined analysis of genome-wide expression profiling of bipolar disorder in human prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinglu; Qu, Susu; Wang, Weixiao; Guo, Liyuan; Zhang, Kunlin; Chang, Suhua; Wang, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Numbers of gene expression profiling studies of bipolar disorder have been published. Besides different array chips and tissues, variety of the data processes in different cohorts aggravated the inconsistency of results of these genome-wide gene expression profiling studies. By searching the gene expression databases, we obtained six data sets for prefrontal cortex (PFC) of bipolar disorder with raw data and combinable platforms. We used standardized pre-processing and quality control procedures to analyze each data set separately and then combined them into a large gene expression matrix with 101 bipolar disorder subjects and 106 controls. A standard linear mixed-effects model was used to calculate the differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Multiple levels of sensitivity analyses and cross validation with genetic data were conducted. Functional and network analyses were carried out on basis of the DEGs. In the result, we identified 198 unique differentially expressed genes in the PFC of bipolar disorder and control. Among them, 115 DEGs were robust to at least three leave-one-out tests or different pre-processing methods; 51 DEGs were validated with genetic association signals. Pathway enrichment analysis showed these DEGs were related with regulation of neurological system, cell death and apoptosis, and several basic binding processes. Protein-protein interaction network further identified one key hub gene. We have contributed the most comprehensive integrated analysis of bipolar disorder expression profiling studies in PFC to date. The DEGs, especially those with multiple validations, may denote a common signature of bipolar disorder and contribute to the pathogenesis of disease.

  6. Genome-wide and expression analysis of protein phosphatase 2C in rice and Arabidopsis

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    Jakab Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs from various organisms have been implicated to act as negative modulators of protein kinase pathways involved in diverse environmental stress responses and developmental processes. A genome-wide overview of the PP2C gene family in plants is not yet available. Results A comprehensive computational analysis identified 80 and 78 PP2C genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPP2Cs and Oryza sativa (OsPP2Cs, respectively, which denotes the PP2C gene family as one of the largest families identified in plants. Phylogenic analysis divided PP2Cs in Arabidopsis and rice into 13 and 11 subfamilies, respectively, which are supported by the analyses of gene structures and protein motifs. Comparative analysis between the PP2C genes in Arabidopsis and rice identified common and lineage-specific subfamilies and potential 'gene birth-and-death' events. Gene duplication analysis reveals that whole genome and chromosomal segment duplications mainly contributed to the expansion of both OsPP2Cs and AtPP2Cs, but tandem or local duplication occurred less frequently in Arabidopsis than rice. Some protein motifs are widespread among the PP2C proteins, whereas some other motifs are specific to only one or two subfamilies. Expression pattern analysis suggests that 1 most PP2C genes play functional roles in multiple tissues in both species, 2 the induced expression of most genes in subfamily A by diverse stimuli indicates their primary role in stress tolerance, especially ABA response, and 3 the expression pattern of subfamily D members suggests that they may constitute positive regulators in ABA-mediated signaling pathways. The analyses of putative upstream regulatory elements by two approaches further support the functions of subfamily A in ABA signaling, and provide insights into the shared and different transcriptional regulation machineries in dicots and monocots. Conclusion This comparative genome-wide overview of the PP

  7. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Esquerré; Marie Bouvier; Catherine Turlan; Carpousis, Agamemnon J.; Laurence Girbal; Muriel Cocaign-Bousquet

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype...

  8. Comparative evaluation of genome-wide gene expression profiles in ruptured and unruptured human intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Enrico; Vignati, A; Albanese, A; Nucci, C G; Sabatino, G; Tirpakova, B; Lofrese, G; Zelano, G; Maira, G

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the over or the underexpression of genes directly in samples of aneurysmal wall and extracranial pericranial vascular tissue to investigate the genetic influence in formation and rupture of intracranial aneurysms. We present the results obtained using the DNA microarray technique analysis on sample tissues collected during surgery. We collected and analyzed 12 aneurismal and 9 peripheral arteries (superficial temporal (STA) and middle meningeal artery (MMA) specimens from ruptured aneurysm group patients (13 cases), 10 aneurismal and 12 STA and MMA samples from unruptured aneurysm group patients (14 cases) and 5 STA and MMA artery specimens from control group patients (4 cases). Total RNA was isolated from samples and subjected to cDNA microarray analysis with the use of the human genome U133A GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA), which allows to analyze a total number of 14,500 genes in the same time. For genes of interest, real-time RT-PCR was performed to confirm their expression level. Total RNA was isolated from samples and subjected to DNA microarray analysis with the use of the human genome U133A GeneChip oligonucleotide microarray, which allows to analyze a total number of 14,500 genes at the same time. For genes of interest, real-time RT-PCR was performed to confirm their expression level. Regarding ruptured aneurysms, genes were identified showing differential expressions (overexpressed or downregulated) pertaining to specific pathways, particularly those for the structural proteins of the extracellular matrix, members of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family (which resulted as being overexpressed) and genes involved in apoptotic phenomena. Particularly, real-time RT-PCR analysis confirmed the upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and pro-apoptotic genes, such as Fas, Bax and Bid, and the downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2. In a compared analyses of ruptured vs unruptured

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  11. Genome-wide identification, characterization and expression profiling of LIM family genes in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Khadiza; Robin, Arif Hasan Khan; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Kim, Chang Kil; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kim, Min-Bae; Lee, Do-Jin; Nou, Ill Sup; Chung, Mi-Young

    2016-11-01

    LIM domain proteins, some of which have been shown to be actin binding proteins, are involved in various developmental activities and cellular processes in plants. To date, the molecular defense-related functions of LIM family genes have not been investigated in any solanaceous vegetable crop species. In this study, we identified 15 LIM family genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) through genome-wide analysis and performed expression profiling in different organs of tomato, including fruits at six different developmental stages. We also performed expression profiling of selected tomato LIM genes in plants under ABA, drought, cold, NaCl and heat stress treatment. The encoded proteins of the 15 tomato LIM genes were classified into two main groups, i.e., proteins similar to cysteine-rich proteins and plant-specific DAR proteins, based on differences in functional domains and variability in their C-terminal regions. The DAR proteins contain a so far poorly characterized zinc-finger-like motif that we propose to call DAR-ZF. Six of the 15 LIM genes were expressed only in flowers, indicating that they play flower-specific roles in plants. The other nine genes were expressed in all organs and at various stages of fruit development. SlβLIM1b was expressed relatively highly at the later stage of fruit development, but three other genes, SlWLIM2a, SlDAR2 and SlDAR4, were expressed at the early stage of fruit development. Seven genes were induced by ABA, five by cold, seven by drought, eight by NaCl and seven by heat treatment respectively, indicating their possible roles in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results will be useful for functional analysis of LIM genes during fruit development in tomato plants under different abiotic stresses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Genome-wide expression analysis in Down syndrome: insight into immunodeficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Li

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is caused by triplication of Human chromosome 21 (Hsa21 and associated with an array of deleterious phenotypes, including mental retardation, heart defects and immunodeficiency. Genome-wide expression patterns of uncultured peripheral blood cells are useful to understanding of DS-associated immune dysfunction. We used a Human Exon microarray to characterize gene expression in uncultured peripheral blood cells derived from DS individuals and age-matched controls from two age groups: neonate (N and child (C. A total of 174 transcript clusters (gene-level with eight located on Hsa21 in N group and 383 transcript clusters including 56 on Hsa21 in C group were significantly dysregulated in DS individuals. Microarray data were validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Functional analysis revealed that the dysregulated genes in DS were significantly enriched in two and six KEGG pathways in N and C group, respectively. These pathways included leukocyte trans-endothelial migration, B cell receptor signaling pathway and primary immunodeficiency, etc., which causally implicated dysfunctional immunity in DS. Our results provided a comprehensive picture of gene expression patterns in DS at the two developmental stages and pointed towards candidate genes and molecular pathways potentially associated with the immune dysfunction in DS.

  13. Meta-analysis of genome-wide expression patterns associated with behavioral maturation in honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southey Bruce R

    2008-10-01

    -analyses confirmed previously reported genes and helped identify genes (e.g. Tomosyn, Chitinase 5, Adar, Innexin 2, Transferrin 1, Sick, Oatp26F and Gene Ontology categories (e.g. purine nucleotide binding not previously associated with maturation in honey bees. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a combination of meta-analytical approaches best addresses the highly dimensional nature of genome-wide microarray studies. As expected, the integration of gene expression information from microarray studies using meta-analysis enhanced the characterization of the transcriptome of complex biological processes.

  14. Genome-wide classification and expression analysis of MYB transcription factor families in rice and Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiyar Amit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB gene family comprises one of the richest groups of transcription factors in plants. Plant MYB proteins are characterized by a highly conserved MYB DNA-binding domain. MYB proteins are classified into four major groups namely, 1R-MYB, 2R-MYB, 3R-MYB and 4R-MYB based on the number and position of MYB repeats. MYB transcription factors are involved in plant development, secondary metabolism, hormone signal transduction, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. A comparative analysis of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis will help reveal the evolution and function of MYB genes in plants. Results A genome-wide analysis identified at least 155 and 197 MYB genes in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that MYB family genes possess relatively more number of introns in the middle as compared with C- and N-terminal regions of the predicted genes. Intronless MYB-genes are highly conserved both in rice and Arabidopsis. MYB genes encoding R2R3 repeat MYB proteins retained conserved gene structure with three exons and two introns, whereas genes encoding R1R2R3 repeat containing proteins consist of six exons and five introns. The splicing pattern is similar among R1R2R3 MYB genes in Arabidopsis. In contrast, variation in splicing pattern was observed among R1R2R3 MYB members of rice. Consensus motif analysis of 1kb upstream region (5′ to translation initiation codon of MYB gene ORFs led to the identification of conserved and over-represented cis-motifs in both rice and Arabidopsis. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that several members of MYBs are up-regulated by various abiotic stresses both in rice and Arabidopsis. Conclusion A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of chromosomal distribution, tandem repeats and phylogenetic relationship of MYB family genes in rice and Arabidopsis suggested their evolution via duplication. Genome-wide comparative analysis of MYB genes and

  15. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiles of the Superoxide Dismutase Gene Family in Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD as a group of significant and ubiquitous enzymes plays a critical function in plant growth and development. Previously this gene family has been investigated in Arabidopsis and rice; it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In our study, it was the first time for us to perform a genome-wide analysis of SOD gene family in cotton. Our results showed that 10 genes of SOD gene family were identified in Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium raimondii, including 6 Cu-Zn-SODs, 2 Fe-SODs, and 2 Mn-SODs. The chromosomal distribution analysis revealed that SOD genes are distributed across 7 chromosomes in Gossypium arboreum and 8 chromosomes in Gossypium raimondii. Segmental duplication is predominant duplication event and major contributor for expansion of SOD gene family. Gene structure and protein structure analysis showed that SOD genes have conserved exon/intron arrangement and motif composition. Microarray-based expression analysis revealed that SOD genes have important function in abiotic stress. Moreover, the tissue-specific expression profile reveals the functional divergence of SOD genes in different organs development of cotton. Taken together, this study has imparted new insights into the putative functions of SOD gene family in cotton. Findings of the present investigation could help in understanding the role of SOD gene family in various aspects of the life cycle of cotton.

  16. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of TCP transcription factors in Gossypium raimondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Wang, Qinglian; Sun, Runrun; Xie, Fuliang; Jones, Don C; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-10-16

    Plant-specific TEOSINTE-BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PCF (TCP) transcription factors play versatile functions in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, no systematical study has been performed in cotton. In this study, we performed for the first time the genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the TCP transcription factor family in Gossypium raimondii. A total of 38 non-redundant cotton TCP encoding genes were identified. The TCP transcription factors were divided into eleven subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. Most TCP genes within the same subfamily demonstrated similar exon and intron organization and the motif structures were highly conserved among the subfamilies. Additionally, the chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that TCP genes were unevenly distributed across 11 out of the 13 chromosomes; segmental duplication is a predominant duplication event for TCP genes and the major contributor to the expansion of TCP gene family in G. raimondii. Moreover, the expression profiles of TCP genes shed light on their functional divergence.

  17. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals unsuspected molecular alterations in pemphigus foliaceus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, Danielle; Panepucci, Rodrigo A; Roselino, Ana M; Araújo, Amélia G; Zago, Marco A; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza

    2014-01-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by bullous skin lesions and the presence of antibodies against desmoglein 1. In this study we sought to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular processes in endemic PF, as the identification of factors that participate in the pathogenesis is a prerequisite for understanding its biological basis and may lead to novel therapeutic interventions. CD4+ T lymphocytes are central to the development of the disease. Therefore, we compared genome-wide gene expression profiles of peripheral CD4+ T cells of various PF patient subgroups with each other and with that of healthy individuals. The patient sample was subdivided into three groups: untreated patients with the generalized form of the disease, patients submitted to immunosuppressive treatment, and patients with the localized form of the disease. Comparisons between different subgroups resulted in 135, 54 and 64 genes differentially expressed. These genes are mainly related to lymphocyte adhesion and migration, apoptosis, cellular proliferation, cytotoxicity and antigen presentation. Several of these genes were differentially expressed when comparing lesional and uninvolved skin from the same patient. The chromosomal regions 19q13 and 12p13 concentrate differentially expressed genes and are candidate regions for PF susceptibility genes and disease markers. Our results reveal genes involved in disease severity, potential therapeutic targets and previously unsuspected processes involved in the pathogenesis. Besides, this study adds original information that will contribute to the understanding of PF's pathogenesis and of the still poorly defined in vivo functions of most of these genes. PMID:24813052

  18. Impact of high predation risk on genome-wide hippocampal gene expression in snowshoe hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Sophia G; McGowan, Patrick O; Krebs, Charles J; Boonstra, Rudy

    2014-11-01

    The population dynamics of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) are fundamental to the ecosystem dynamics of Canada's boreal forest. During the 8- to 11-year population cycle, hare densities can fluctuate up to 40-fold. Predators in this system (lynx, coyotes, great-horned owls) affect population numbers not only through direct mortality but also through sublethal effects. The chronic stress hypothesis posits that high predation risk during the decline severely stresses hares, leading to greater stress responses, heightened ability to mobilize cortisol and energy, and a poorer body condition. These effects may result in, or be mediated by, differential gene expression. We used an oligonucleotide microarray designed for a closely-related species, the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), to characterize differences in genome-wide hippocampal RNA transcript abundance in wild hares from the Yukon during peak and decline phases of a single cycle. A total of 106 genes were differentially regulated between phases. Array results were validated with quantitative real-time PCR, and mammalian protein sequence similarity was used to infer gene function. In comparison to hares from the peak, decline phase hares showed increased expression of genes involved in metabolic processes and hormone response, and decreased expression of immune response and blood cell formation genes. We found evidence for predation risk effects on the expression of genes whose putative functions correspond with physiological impacts known to be induced by predation risk in snowshoe hares. This study shows, for the first time, a link between changes in demography and alterations in neural RNA transcript abundance in a natural population.

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis predicts an epigenetic switch for GATA factor expression in endometriosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Dyson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a gynecological disease defined by the extrauterine growth of endometrial-like cells that cause chronic pain and infertility. The disease is limited to primates that exhibit spontaneous decidualization, and diseased cells are characterized by significant defects in the steroid-dependent genetic pathways that typify this process. Altered DNA methylation may underlie these defects, but few regions with differential methylation have been implicated in the disease. We mapped genome-wide differences in DNA methylation between healthy human endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells and correlated this with gene expression using an interaction analysis strategy. We identified 42,248 differentially methylated CpGs in endometriosis compared to healthy cells. These extensive differences were not unidirectional, but were focused intragenically and at sites distal to classic CpG islands where methylation status was typically negatively correlated with gene expression. Significant differences in methylation were mapped to 403 genes, which included a disproportionally large number of transcription factors. Furthermore, many of these genes are implicated in the pathology of endometriosis and decidualization. Our results tremendously improve the scope and resolution of differential methylation affecting the HOX gene clusters, nuclear receptor genes, and intriguingly the GATA family of transcription factors. Functional analysis of the GATA family revealed that GATA2 regulates key genes necessary for the hormone-driven differentiation of healthy stromal cells, but is hypermethylated and repressed in endometriotic cells. GATA6, which is hypomethylated and abundant in endometriotic cells, potently blocked hormone sensitivity, repressed GATA2, and induced markers of endometriosis when expressed in healthy endometrial cells. The unique epigenetic fingerprint in endometriosis suggests DNA methylation is an integral component of the disease, and

  20. Brain expression genome-wide association study (eGWAS identifies human disease-associated variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanggeng Zou

    Full Text Available Genetic variants that modify brain gene expression may also influence risk for human diseases. We measured expression levels of 24,526 transcripts in brain samples from the cerebellum and temporal cortex of autopsied subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD, cerebellar n=197, temporal cortex n=202 and with other brain pathologies (non-AD, cerebellar n=177, temporal cortex n=197. We conducted an expression genome-wide association study (eGWAS using 213,528 cisSNPs within ± 100 kb of the tested transcripts. We identified 2,980 cerebellar cisSNP/transcript level associations (2,596 unique cisSNPs significant in both ADs and non-ADs (q<0.05, p=7.70 × 10(-5-1.67 × 10(-82. Of these, 2,089 were also significant in the temporal cortex (p=1.85 × 10(-5-1.70 × 10(-141. The top cerebellar cisSNPs had 2.4-fold enrichment for human disease-associated variants (p<10(-6. We identified novel cisSNP/transcript associations for human disease-associated variants, including progressive supranuclear palsy SLCO1A2/rs11568563, Parkinson's disease (PD MMRN1/rs6532197, Paget's disease OPTN/rs1561570; and we confirmed others, including PD MAPT/rs242557, systemic lupus erythematosus and ulcerative colitis IRF5/rs4728142, and type 1 diabetes mellitus RPS26/rs1701704. In our eGWAS, there was 2.9-3.3 fold enrichment (p<10(-6 of significant cisSNPs with suggestive AD-risk association (p<10(-3 in the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium GWAS. These results demonstrate the significant contributions of genetic factors to human brain gene expression, which are reliably detected across different brain regions and pathologies. The significant enrichment of brain cisSNPs among disease-associated variants advocates gene expression changes as a mechanism for many central nervous system (CNS and non-CNS diseases. Combined assessment of expression and disease GWAS may provide complementary information in discovery of human disease variants with functional implications. Our findings

  1. A genome-wide 20 K citrus microarray for gene expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Godoy, M. Ángeles; Mauri, Nuria; Juárez, José; Marqués, M. Carmen; Santiago, Julia; Forment, Javier; Gadea Vacas, José

    2008-01-01

    Background: Understanding of genetic elements that contribute to key aspects of citrus biology will impact future improvements in this economically important crop. Global gene expression analysis demands microarray platforms with a high genome coverage. In the last years, genomewide EST collections have been generated in citrus, opening the possibility to create new tools for functional genomics in this crop plant. Results: We have designed and constructed a publicly available ...

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  3. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  4. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Alam, M.T.; Heijne, W.H.M.; Berg, M.A. van den; Müller, U.; Trefzer, A.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Breitling, R.; Takano, E.

    2011-01-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expressi

  5. Genome-wide gene expression changes in an industrial clavulanic acid overproduction strain of Streptomyces clavuligerus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, M.H.; Alam, M.T.; Heijne, W.H.; Berg, M.A.M.C. van den; Muller, U.; Trefzer, A.; Bovenberg, R.A.; Breitling, R.; Takano, E.

    2011-01-01

    To increase production of the important pharmaceutical compound clavulanic acid, a beta-lactamase inhibitor, both random mutagenesis approaches and rational engineering of Streptomyces clavuligerus strains have been extensively applied. Here, for the first time, we compared genome-wide gene expressi

  6. Genome wide transcriptome analysis of dendritic cells identifies genes with altered expression in psoriasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Filkor

    Full Text Available Activation of dendritic cells by different pathogens induces the secretion of proinflammatory mediators resulting in local inflammation. Importantly, innate immunity must be properly controlled, as its continuous activation leads to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS or peptidoglycan (PGN induced tolerance, a phenomenon of transient unresponsiveness of cells to repeated or prolonged stimulation, proved valuable model for the study of chronic inflammation. Thus, the aim of this study was the identification of the transcriptional diversity of primary human immature dendritic cells (iDCs upon PGN induced tolerance. Using SAGE-Seq approach, a tag-based transcriptome sequencing method, we investigated gene expression changes of primary human iDCs upon stimulation or restimulation with Staphylococcus aureus derived PGN, a widely used TLR2 ligand. Based on the expression pattern of the altered genes, we identified non-tolerizeable and tolerizeable genes. Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (Kegg analysis showed marked enrichment of immune-, cell cycle- and apoptosis related genes. In parallel to the marked induction of proinflammatory mediators, negative feedback regulators of innate immunity, such as TNFAIP3, TNFAIP8, Tyro3 and Mer are markedly downregulated in tolerant cells. We also demonstrate, that the expression pattern of TNFAIP3 and TNFAIP8 is altered in both lesional, and non-lesional skin of psoriatic patients. Finally, we show that pretreatment of immature dendritic cells with anti-TNF-α inhibits the expression of IL-6 and CCL1 in tolerant iDCs and partially releases the suppression of TNFAIP8. Our findings suggest that after PGN stimulation/restimulation the host cell utilizes different mechanisms in order to maintain critical balance between inflammation and tolerance. Importantly, the transcriptome sequencing of stimulated/restimulated iDCs identified

  7. Genome-wide expression of non-coding RNA and global chromatin modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rukui Zhang; Lan Zhang; Wenqiang Yu

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally,we know that genomic DNA will produce transcripts named messenger RNA and then translate into protein following the instruction of genetic central dogma,and RNA works here as a pass-by messenger.Now increasing evidence shows that RNA is a key regulator as well as a message transmitter.It is discovered by next-generation sequencing techniques that most genomic DNA are generally transcribed to non-coding RNA,highly beyond the percentage of coding mRNA.These non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs),belonging to several groups,have critical roles in many cellular processes,expanding our understanding of the RNA world.We review here the different categories of ncRNA according to genome location and how ncRNAs guide and recruit chromatin modification complex to specific loci of genome to modulate gene expression by affecting chromatin state.

  8. Genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Beatty Mary; Luck Stanley; Holloway Beth; Rafalski J-Antoni; Li Bailin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Expression QTL analyses have shed light on transcriptional regulation in numerous species of plants, animals, and yeasts. These microarray-based analyses identify regulators of gene expression as either cis-acting factors that regulate proximal genes, or trans-acting factors that function through a variety of mechanisms to affect transcript abundance of unlinked genes. Results A hydroponics-based genetical genomics study in roots of a Zea mays IBM2 Syn10 double haploid pop...

  9. Genome-wide expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in maize

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, Beth; Luck, Stanley; Beatty, Mary; Rafalski, J-Antoni; Li, Bailin

    2011-01-01

    Background Expression QTL analyses have shed light on transcriptional regulation in numerous species of plants, animals, and yeasts. These microarray-based analyses identify regulators of gene expression as either cis-acting factors that regulate proximal genes, or trans-acting factors that function through a variety of mechanisms to affect transcript abundance of unlinked genes. Results A hydroponics-based genetical genomics study in roots of a Zea mays IBM2 Syn10 double haploid population i...

  10. CMIP: a software package capable of reconstructing genome-wide regulatory networks using gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangyong; Xu, Yaochen; Zhang, Xiujun; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Zhuo; Chen, Luonan; Zhu, Xin-Guang

    2016-12-23

    A gene regulatory network (GRN) represents interactions of genes inside a cell or tissue, in which vertexes and edges stand for genes and their regulatory interactions respectively. Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, in particular, genome-scale networks, is essential for comparative exploration of different species and mechanistic investigation of biological processes. Currently, most of network inference methods are computationally intensive, which are usually effective for small-scale tasks (e.g., networks with a few hundred genes), but are difficult to construct GRNs at genome-scale. Here, we present a software package for gene regulatory network reconstruction at a genomic level, in which gene interaction is measured by the conditional mutual information measurement using a parallel computing framework (so the package is named CMIP). The package is a greatly improved implementation of our previous PCA-CMI algorithm. In CMIP, we provide not only an automatic threshold determination method but also an effective parallel computing framework for network inference. Performance tests on benchmark datasets show that the accuracy of CMIP is comparable to most current network inference methods. Moreover, running tests on synthetic datasets demonstrate that CMIP can handle large datasets especially genome-wide datasets within an acceptable time period. In addition, successful application on a real genomic dataset confirms its practical applicability of the package. This new software package provides a powerful tool for genomic network reconstruction to biological community. The software can be accessed at http://www.picb.ac.cn/CMIP/ .

  11. Genome-wide differential gene expression in children exposed to air pollution in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, D M; van Herwijnen, M H M; Pedersen, Marie

    2006-01-01

    The Teplice area in the Czech Republic is a mining district where elevated levels of air pollution including airborne carcinogens, have been demonstrated, especially during winter time. This environmental exposure can impact human health; in particular children may be more vulnerable. To study....... This suggests an effect of air pollution on the primary structural unit of the condensed DNA. In addition, several other pathways were modulated. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that transcriptomic analysis represents a promising biomarker for environmental carcinogenesis....... the impact of air pollution in children at the transcriptional level, peripheral blood cells were subjected to whole genome response analysis, in order to identify significantly modulated biological pathways and processes as a result of exposure. Using genome-wide oligonucleotide microarrays, we investigated...

  12. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during early Arabidopsis flower development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wellmer

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information about stage-specific changes in gene expression is crucial for the understanding of the gene regulatory networks underlying development. Here, we describe the global gene expression dynamics during early flower development, a key process in the life cycle of a plant, during which floral patterning and the specification of floral organs is established. We used a novel floral induction system in Arabidopsis, which allows the isolation of a large number of synchronized floral buds, in conjunction with whole-genome microarray analysis to identify genes with differential expression at distinct stages of flower development. We found that the onset of flower formation is characterized by a massive downregulation of genes in incipient floral primordia, which is followed by a predominance of gene activation during the differentiation of floral organs. Among the genes we identified as differentially expressed in the experiment, we detected a significant enrichment of closely related members of gene families. The expression profiles of these related genes were often highly correlated, indicating similar temporal expression patterns. Moreover, we found that the majority of these genes is specifically up-regulated during certain developmental stages. Because co-expressed members of gene families in Arabidopsis frequently act in a redundant manner, these results suggest a high degree of functional redundancy during early flower development, but also that its extent may vary in a stage-specific manner.

  13. Genome wide identification, phylogeny and expression of zinc transporter genes in common carp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanliang Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc is an essential trace element in organisms, which serves as a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes that are involved in many pivotal biological processes including growth, development, reproduction and immunity. Therefore, the homeostasis of zinc in the cell is fundamental. The zinc transporter gene family is a large gene family that encodes proteins which regulate the movement of zinc across cellular and intracellular membranes. However, studies on teleost zinc transporters are mainly limited to model species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified a set of 37 zinc transporters in common carp genome, including 17 from SLC30 family (ZnT, and 20 from SLC39 family (ZIP. Phylogenetic and syntenic analysis revealed that most of the zinc transporters are highly conserved, though recent gene duplication and gene losses do exist. Through examining the copy number of zinc transporter genes across several vertebrate genomes, thirteen zinc transporters in common carp are found to have undergone the gene duplications, including SLC30A1, SLC30A2, SLC30A5, SLC30A7, SLC30A9, SLC30A10, SLC39A1, SLC39A3, SLC39A4, SLC39A5, SLC39A6, SLC39A7 and SLC39A9. The expression patterns of all zinc transporters were established in various tissues, including blood, brain, gill, heart, intestine, liver, muscle, skin, spleen and kidney, and showed that most of the zinc transporters were ubiquitously expressed, indicating the critical role of zinc transporters in common carp. CONCLUSIONS: To some extent, examination of gene families with detailed phylogenetic or orthology analysis could verify the authenticity and accuracy of assembly and annotation of the recently published common carp whole genome sequences. The gene families are also considered as a unique source for evolutionary studies. Moreover, the whole set of common carp zinc transporters provides an important genomic resource for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies of zinc

  14. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Profile Analyses Identify CTTN as a Potential Prognostic Marker in Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common fatal malignances of the digestive tract. Its prognosis is poor mainly due to the lack of reliable markers for early detection and prognostic prediction. Here we aim to identify the molecules involved in ESCC carcinogenesis and those as potential markers for prognosis and as new molecular therapeutic targets. Methods We performed genome-wide gene expression profile analyses of 10 primary ESCCs and their adjacent normal ti...

  15. Diagnosis of ulcerative colitis before onset of inflammation by multivariate modeling of genome-wide gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen; Gerds, Thomas A; Seidelin, Jakob B

    2009-01-01

    biopsies from 78 patients were included. A diagnostic model was derived with the random forest method based on 71 biopsies from 60 patients. The model-internal out-of-bag performance measure yielded perfect classification. Furthermore, the model was validated in independent 18 noninflamed biopsies from 18...... of random forest modeling of genome-wide gene expression data for distinguishing quiescent and active UC colonic mucosa versus control and CD colonic mucosa.(Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009)....

  16. Genome-wide expression analysis of soybean MADS genes showing potential function in the seed development.

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    Cheng-Ming Fan

    Full Text Available The MADS family is an ancient and best-studied transcription factor and plays fundamental roles in almost every developmental process in plants. In the plant evolutionary history, the whole genome duplication (WGD events are important not only to the plant species evolution, but to expansion of members of the gene families. Soybean as a model legume crop has experience three rounds of WGD events. Members of some MIKC(C subfamilies, such as SOC, AGL6, SQUA, SVP, AGL17 and DEF/GLO, were expanded after soybean three rounds of WGD events. And some MIKC(C subfamilies, MIKC* and type I MADS families had experienced faster birth-and-death evolution and their traces before the Glycine WGD event were not found. Transposed duplication played important roles in tandem arrangements among the members of different subfamilies. According to the expression profiles of type I and MIKC paralog pair genes, the fates of MIKC paralog gene pairs were subfunctionalization, and the fates of type I MADS paralog gene pairs were nonfunctionalization. 137 out of 163 MADS genes were close to 186 loci within 2 Mb genomic regions associated with seed-relative QTLs, among which 115 genes expressed during the seed development. Although MIKC(C genes kept the important and conserved functions of the flower development, most MIKC(C genes showed potentially essential roles in the seed development as well as the type I MADS.

  17. Genome-wide differential expression reveals candidate genes involved in the pathogenesis of lupus and lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFadhli, Suad; Ghanem, Aqeel A M; Nizam, Rasheeba

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan pathology, accelerated apoptosis and hyper-autoantibody production against self-components. The root cause of lupus remains unknown, although multiple susceptibility factors have been reported in different ethnic group. We aimed to explore the genome-wide differential expression spectrum of lupus and its severe form lupus nephritis (LN) in Arab females. A total of 98 subjects: 40 lupus, 18 LN and 40 age/gender/ethnically matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited. Carefully chosen subjects (n = 11) were employed for whole human-genome expression profiling using high-density Human Exon 1.0.ST arrays (Affymetrix) and statistical analysis was carried out using appropriate software. Validation cohorts (n = 98) were investigated to quantify the expression of the nine selected candidate genes relative to GAPDH as endogenous control. Genome-wide differential analysis revealed seven candidate genes in lupus and 36 in LN, when individually compared to HC (anova Welch t-test, P ≤ 0.005, Tukey's honestly post hoc analysis). Analysis of differentially expressed genes with a fold change of 2, revealed 16 Gene Ontology terms satisfying a P ≤ 0.05. We further detected five distinct inflammatory and metabolic pathways such as TWEAK, osteopontin, endochondral ossification, fluropyrimidine activity and urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups that significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus (P Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Genome-wide expression analysis in fibroblast cell lines from probands with Pallister Killian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Maninder; Izumi, Kosuke; Wilkens, Alisha B; Chatfield, Kathryn C; Spinner, Nancy B; Conlin, Laura K; Zhang, Zhe; Krantz, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    Pallister Killian syndrome (OMIM: # 601803) is a rare multisystem disorder typically caused by tissue limited mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p (isochromosome 12p). The clinical manifestations of Pallister Killian syndrome are variable with the most common findings including craniofacial dysmorphia, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, hearing loss, skin pigmentary differences and epilepsy. Isochromosome 12p is identified primarily in skin fibroblast cultures and in chorionic villus and amniotic fluid cell samples and may be identified in blood lymphocytes during the neonatal and early childhood period. We performed genomic expression profiling correlated with interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism array quantification of degree of mosaicism in fibroblasts from 17 Caucasian probands with Pallister Killian syndrome and 9 healthy age, gender and ethnicity matched controls. We identified a characteristic profile of 354 (180 up- and 174 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes in Pallister Killian syndrome probands and supportive evidence for a Pallister Killian syndrome critical region on 12p13.31. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for developmentally important genes such as homeobox genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, we identified several genes whose misexpression may be associated with the clinical phenotype of Pallister Killian syndrome such as downregulation of ZFPM2, GATA6 and SOX9, and overexpression of IGFBP2.

  19. Genome-wide expression analysis in fibroblast cell lines from probands with Pallister Killian syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Kaur

    Full Text Available Pallister Killian syndrome (OMIM: # 601803 is a rare multisystem disorder typically caused by tissue limited mosaic tetrasomy of chromosome 12p (isochromosome 12p. The clinical manifestations of Pallister Killian syndrome are variable with the most common findings including craniofacial dysmorphia, hypotonia, cognitive impairment, hearing loss, skin pigmentary differences and epilepsy. Isochromosome 12p is identified primarily in skin fibroblast cultures and in chorionic villus and amniotic fluid cell samples and may be identified in blood lymphocytes during the neonatal and early childhood period. We performed genomic expression profiling correlated with interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization and single nucleotide polymorphism array quantification of degree of mosaicism in fibroblasts from 17 Caucasian probands with Pallister Killian syndrome and 9 healthy age, gender and ethnicity matched controls. We identified a characteristic profile of 354 (180 up- and 174 down-regulated differentially expressed genes in Pallister Killian syndrome probands and supportive evidence for a Pallister Killian syndrome critical region on 12p13.31. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for developmentally important genes such as homeobox genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, we identified several genes whose misexpression may be associated with the clinical phenotype of Pallister Killian syndrome such as downregulation of ZFPM2, GATA6 and SOX9, and overexpression of IGFBP2.

  20. Genome-wide disruption of gene expression in allopolyploids but not hybrids of rice subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chunming; Bai, Yan; Lin, Xiuyun; Zhao, Na; Hu, Lanjuan; Gong, Zhiyun; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-05-01

    Hybridization and polyploidization are prominent processes in plant evolution. Hybrids and allopolyploids typically exhibit radically altered gene expression patterns relative to their parents, a phenomenon termed "transcriptomic shock." To distinguish the effects of hybridization from polyploidization on coregulation of divergent alleles, we analyzed expression of parental copies (homoeologs) of 11,608 genes using RNA-seq-based transcriptome profiling in reciprocal hybrids and tetraploids constructed from subspecies japonica and indica of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). The diploid hybrids and their derived allopolyploids differ dramatically in morphology, despite having the same suite of genes and genic proportions. Allelic and homoeolog-specific transcripts were unequivocally diagnosed in the hybrids and tetraploids based on parent-specific SNPs. Compared with the in silico hybrid (parental mix), the range of progenitor expression divergence was significantly reduced in both reciprocally generated F1 hybrids, presumably due to the ameliorating effects of a common trans environment on divergent cis-factors. In contrast, parental expression differences were greatly elaborated at the polyploid level, which we propose is a consequence of stoichiometric disruptions associated with the numerous chromosomal packaging and volumetric changes accompanying nascent polyploidy. We speculate that the emergent property of "whole genome doubling" has repercussions that reverberate throughout the transcriptome and downstream, ultimately generating altered phenotypes. This perspective may yield insight into the nature of adaptation and the origin of evolutionary novelty accompanying polyploidy.

  1. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of auxin response factor gene family in Medicago truncatula

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    Chenjia eShen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs bind specifically to auxin response elements (AuxREs in the promoters of down-stream target genes and play roles in plant responses to diverse environmental factors. Using the latest updated Medicago truncatula reference genome sequence, a comprehensive characterization and analysis of 24 MtARF genes were performed. To uncover the basic information and functions of MtARF genes during symbiosis, we analyze the expression patterns of MtARF genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection. The systematic analysis indicated that MtARF gene expressions were involved in the symbiosis processes. Furthermore, the roles of MtARF-mediated auxin signaling in symbiosis were tested in the infection resistant mutant (dmi3. The expression responses of MtARFs to S. meliloti infection were attenuated in the mutant compared to wild-type A17. In summary, our results shed that the MtARF gene expressions was involved in responses to S. meliloti infection, which may play an essential role in the regulation of nodule formation.

  2. Comparison of gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and conventionally bred controls.

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    Fei Gao

    Full Text Available Animal breeding via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT has enormous potential in agriculture and biomedicine. However, concerns about whether SCNT animals are as healthy or epigenetically normal as conventionally bred ones are raised as the efficiency of cloning by SCNT is much lower than natural breeding or In-vitro fertilization (IVF. Thus, we have conducted a genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and control pigs in two tissues (muscle and liver, using Affymetrix Porcine expression array as well as modified methylation-specific digital karyotyping (MMSDK and Solexa sequencing technology. Typical tissue-specific differences with respect to both gene expression and DNA methylation were observed in muscle and liver from cloned as well as control pigs. Gene expression profiles were highly similar between cloned pigs and controls, though a small set of genes showed altered expression. Cloned pigs presented a more different pattern of DNA methylation in unique sequences in both tissues. Especially a small set of genomic sites had different DNA methylation status with a trend towards slightly increased methylation levels in cloned pigs. Molecular network analysis of the genes that contained such differential methylation loci revealed a significant network related to tissue development. In conclusion, our study showed that phenotypically normal cloned pigs were highly similar with normal breeding pigs in their gene expression, but moderate alteration in DNA methylation aspects still exists, especially in certain unique genomic regions.

  3. Genome-wide chromatin and gene expression profiling during memory formation and maintenance in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Tonatiuh Pena; Shomroni, Orr; Hennion, Magali; Halder, Rashi; Vidal, Ramon; Rahman, Raza-Ur; Bonn, Stefan

    2016-10-11

    Recent evidence suggests that the formation and maintenance of memory requires epigenetic changes. In an effort to understand the spatio-temporal extent of learning and memory-related epigenetic changes we have charted genome-wide histone and DNA methylation profiles, in two different brain regions, two cell types, and three time-points, before and after learning. In this data descriptor we provide detailed information on data generation, give insights into the rationale of experiments, highlight necessary steps to assess data quality, offer guidelines for future use of the data and supply ready-to-use code to replicate the analysis results. The data provides a blueprint of the gene regulatory network underlying short- and long-term memory formation and maintenance. This 'healthy' gene regulatory network of learning can now be compared to changes in neurological or psychiatric diseases, providing mechanistic insights into brain disorders and highlighting potential therapeutic avenues.

  4. Impact of delay to cryopreservation on RNA integrity and genome-wide expression profiles in resected tumor samples.

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    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The quality of tissue samples and extracted mRNA is a major source of variability in tumor transcriptome analysis using genome-wide expression microarrays. During and immediately after surgical tumor resection, tissues are exposed to metabolic, biochemical and physical stresses characterized as "warm ischemia". Current practice advocates cryopreservation of biosamples within 30 minutes of resection, but this recommendation has not been systematically validated by measurements of mRNA decay over time. Using Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 Expression BeadChips, providing a genome-wide coverage of over 24,000 genes, we have analyzed gene expression variation in samples of 3 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC and 3 lung carcinomas (LC cryopreserved at times up to 2 hours after resection. RNA Integrity Numbers (RIN revealed no significant deterioration of mRNA up to 2 hours after resection. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis detected non-significant gene expression variations of -3.5%/hr (95% CI: -7.0%/hr to 0.1%/hr; p = 0.054. In LC, no consistent gene expression pattern was detected in relation with warm ischemia. In HCC, a signature of 6 up-regulated genes (CYP2E1, IGLL1, CABYR, CLDN2, NQO1, SCL13A5 and 6 down-regulated genes (MT1G, MT1H, MT1E, MT1F, HABP2, SPINK1 was identified (FDR <0.05. Overall, our observations support current recommendation of time to cryopreservation of up to 30 minutes and emphasize the need for identifying tissue-specific genes deregulated following resection to avoid misinterpreting expression changes induced by warm ischemia as pathologically significant changes.

  5. Impact of delay to cryopreservation on RNA integrity and genome-wide expression profiles in resected tumor samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboux, Elodie; Paciencia, Maria; Durand, Geoffroy; Robinot, Nivonirina; Wozniak, Magdalena B; Galateau-Salle, Françoise; Byrnes, Graham; Hainaut, Pierre; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence

    2013-01-01

    The quality of tissue samples and extracted mRNA is a major source of variability in tumor transcriptome analysis using genome-wide expression microarrays. During and immediately after surgical tumor resection, tissues are exposed to metabolic, biochemical and physical stresses characterized as "warm ischemia". Current practice advocates cryopreservation of biosamples within 30 minutes of resection, but this recommendation has not been systematically validated by measurements of mRNA decay over time. Using Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 Expression BeadChips, providing a genome-wide coverage of over 24,000 genes, we have analyzed gene expression variation in samples of 3 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and 3 lung carcinomas (LC) cryopreserved at times up to 2 hours after resection. RNA Integrity Numbers (RIN) revealed no significant deterioration of mRNA up to 2 hours after resection. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis detected non-significant gene expression variations of -3.5%/hr (95% CI: -7.0%/hr to 0.1%/hr; p = 0.054). In LC, no consistent gene expression pattern was detected in relation with warm ischemia. In HCC, a signature of 6 up-regulated genes (CYP2E1, IGLL1, CABYR, CLDN2, NQO1, SCL13A5) and 6 down-regulated genes (MT1G, MT1H, MT1E, MT1F, HABP2, SPINK1) was identified (FDR <0.05). Overall, our observations support current recommendation of time to cryopreservation of up to 30 minutes and emphasize the need for identifying tissue-specific genes deregulated following resection to avoid misinterpreting expression changes induced by warm ischemia as pathologically significant changes.

  6. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of auxin response factor (ARF gene family in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yirong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Auxin signaling is vital for plant growth and development, and plays important role in apical dominance, tropic response, lateral root formation, vascular differentiation, embryo patterning and shoot elongation. Auxin Response Factors (ARFs are the transcription factors that regulate the expression of auxin responsive genes. The ARF genes are represented by a large multigene family in plants. The first draft of full maize genome assembly has recently been released, however, to our knowledge, the ARF gene family from maize (ZmARF genes has not been characterized in detail. Results In this study, 31 maize (Zea mays L. genes that encode ARF proteins were identified in maize genome. It was shown that maize ARF genes fall into related sister pairs and chromosomal mapping revealed that duplication of ZmARFs was associated with the chromosomal block duplications. As expected, duplication of some ZmARFs showed a conserved intron/exon structure, whereas some others were more divergent, suggesting the possibility of functional diversification for these genes. Out of these 31 ZmARF genes, 14 possess auxin-responsive element in their promoter region, among which 7 appear to show small or negligible response to exogenous auxin. The 18 ZmARF genes were predicted to be the potential targets of small RNAs. Transgenic analysis revealed that increased miR167 level could cause degradation of transcripts of six potential targets (ZmARF3, 9, 16, 18, 22 and 30. The expressions of maize ARF genes are responsive to exogenous auxin treatment. Dynamic expression patterns of ZmARF genes were observed in different stages of embryo development. Conclusions Maize ARF gene family is expanded (31 genes as compared to Arabidopsis (23 genes and rice (25 genes. The expression of these genes in maize is regulated by auxin and small RNAs. Dynamic expression patterns of ZmARF genes in embryo at different stages were detected which suggest that maize ARF genes may

  7. Genome-wide methylation and gene expression changes in newborn rats following maternal protein restriction and reversal by folic acid.

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    Gioia Altobelli

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the maternal diet during pregnancy can programme physiological and metabolic functions in the developing fetus, effectively determining susceptibility to later disease. The mechanistic basis of such programming is unclear but may involve resetting of epigenetic marks and fetal gene expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the livers of newborn rats exposed to maternal protein restriction. On day one postnatally, there were 618 differentially expressed genes and 1183 differentially methylated regions (FDR 5%. The functional analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated a significant effect on DNA repair/cycle/maintenance functions and of lipid, amino acid metabolism and circadian functions. Enrichment for known biological functions was found to be associated with differentially methylated regions. Moreover, these epigenetically altered regions overlapped genetic loci associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Both expression changes and DNA methylation changes were largely reversed by supplementing the protein restricted diet with folic acid. Although the epigenetic and gene expression signatures appeared to underpin largely different biological processes, the gene expression profile of DNA methyl transferases was altered, providing a potential link between the two molecular signatures. The data showed that maternal protein restriction is associated with widespread differential gene expression and DNA methylation across the genome, and that folic acid is able to reset both molecular signatures.

  8. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analysis of the SWEET gene family in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chao-Yang; Han, Jia-Xuan; Han, Xiao-Xue; Jiang, Jing

    2015-12-01

    The SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually Be Exported Transporters) gene family encodes membrane-embedded sugar transporters containing seven transmembrane helices harboring two MtN3 and saliva domain. SWEETs play important roles in diverse biological processes, including plant growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. Here, we conducted an exhaustive search of the tomato genome, leading to the identification of 29 SWEET genes. We analyzed the structures, conserved domains, and phylogenetic relationships of these protein-coding genes in detail. We also analyzed the transcript levels of SWEET genes in various tissues, organs, and developmental stages to obtain information about their functions. Furthermore, we investigated the expression patterns of the SWEET genes in response to exogenous sugar and adverse environmental stress (high and low temperatures). Some family members exhibited tissue-specific expression, whereas others were more ubiquitously expressed. Numerous stress-responsive candidate genes were obtained. The results of this study provide insights into the characteristics of the SWEET genes in tomato and may serve as a basis for further functional studies of such genes.

  9. Genome-wide prediction of transcriptional regulatory elements of human promoters using gene expression and promoter analysis data

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    Kim Seon-Young

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression is the next important issue of genomics. Many bioinformaticians have developed methods and algorithms for predicting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms from sequence, gene expression, and binding data. However, most of these studies involved the use of yeast which has much simpler regulatory networks than human and has many genome wide binding data and gene expression data under diverse conditions. Studies of genome wide transcriptional networks of human genomes currently lag behind those of yeast. Results We report herein a new method that combines gene expression data analysis with promoter analysis to infer transcriptional regulatory elements of human genes. The Z scores from the application of gene set analysis with gene sets of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs were successfully used to represent the activity of TFBSs in a given microarray data set. A significant correlation between the Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs and individual genes across multiple conditions permitted successful identification of many known human transcriptional regulatory elements of genes as well as the prediction of numerous putative TFBSs of many genes which will constitute a good starting point for further experiments. Using Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs produced better predictions than the use of mRNA levels of a transcription factor itself, suggesting that the Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs better represent diverse mechanisms for changing the activity of transcription factors in the cell. In addition, cis-regulatory modules, combinations of co-acting TFBSs, were readily identified by our analysis. Conclusion By a strategic combination of gene set level analysis of gene expression data sets and promoter analysis, we were able to identify and predict many transcriptional regulatory elements of human genes. We conclude that this approach will aid in decoding

  10. Genome-Wide Association between Transcription Factor Expression and Chromatin Accessibility Reveals Regulators of Chromatin Accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueedi, Rico

    2017-01-01

    To better understand genome regulation, it is important to uncover the role of transcription factors in the process of chromatin structure establishment and maintenance. Here we present a data-driven approach to systematically characterise transcription factors that are relevant for this process. Our method uses a linear mixed modelling approach to combine datasets of transcription factor binding motif enrichments in open chromatin and gene expression across the same set of cell lines. Applying this approach to the ENCODE dataset, we confirm already known and imply numerous novel transcription factors that play a role in the establishment or maintenance of open chromatin. In particular, our approach rediscovers many factors that have been annotated as pioneer factors. PMID:28118358

  11. Genome-wide expression profiling in the peripheral blood of patients with fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kim D.; Gelbart, Terri; Whisenant, Thomas C.; Waalen, Jill; Mondala, Tony S.; Iklé, David N.; Salomon, Daniel R.; Bennett, Robert M.; Kurian, Sunil M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia (FM) is a common pain disorder characterised by nociceptive dysregulation. The basic biology of FM is poorly understood. Herein we have used agnostic gene expression as a potential probe for informing its underlying biology and the development of a proof-of-concept diagnostic gene expression signature. Methods We analysed RNA expression in 70 FM patients and 70 healthy controls. The isolated RNA was amplified and hybridised to Affymetrix® Human Gene 1.1 ST Peg arrays. The data was analysed using Partek Genomics Suite v. 6.6. Results Fibromyalgia patients exhibited a differential expression of 421 genes (p<0.001), several relevant to pathways for pain processing, such as glutamine/glutamate signaling and axonal development. There was also an upregulation of several inflammatory pathways and downregulation of pathways related to hypersensitivity and allergy. Using rigorous diagnostic modeling strategies, we show “locked” gene signatures discovered on Training and Test cohorts, that have a mean Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.81 on randomised, independent external data cohorts. Lastly, we identified a subset of 10 probesets that provided a diagnostic sensitivity for FM of 95% and a specificity of 96%. We also show that the signatures for FM were very specific to FM rather than common FM comorbidities. Conclusion These findings provide new insights relevant to the pathogenesis of FM, and provide several testable hypotheses that warrant further exploration and also establish the foundation for a first blood-based molecular signature in FM that needs to be validated in larger cohorts of patients. PMID:27157394

  12. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of aquaporins in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuscher, Stefan; Akiyama, Masahito; Mori, Chiharu; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Shiratake, Katsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The family of aquaporins, also called water channels or major intrinsic proteins, is characterized by six transmembrane domains that together facilitate the transport of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all domains of life, but show their highest diversity in plants. Numerous studies identified aquaporins as important targets for improving plant performance under drought stress. The phylogeny of aquaporins is well established based on model species like Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be used as a template to investigate aquaporins in other species. In this study we comprehensively identified aquaporin encoding genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), which is an important vegetable crop and also serves as a model for fleshy fruit development. We found 47 aquaporin genes in the tomato genome and analyzed their structural features. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences the aquaporin genes were assigned to five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs) and their substrate specificity was assessed on the basis of key amino acid residues. As ESTs were available for 32 genes, expression of these genes was analyzed in 13 different tissues and developmental stages of tomato. We detected tissue-specific and development-specific expression of tomato aquaporin genes, which is a first step towards revealing the contribution of aquaporins to water and solute transport in leaves and during fruit development.

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of aquaporins in tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Reuscher

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins, also called water channels or major intrinsic proteins, is characterized by six transmembrane domains that together facilitate the transport of water and a variety of low molecular weight solutes. They are found in all domains of life, but show their highest diversity in plants. Numerous studies identified aquaporins as important targets for improving plant performance under drought stress. The phylogeny of aquaporins is well established based on model species like Arabidopsis thaliana, which can be used as a template to investigate aquaporins in other species. In this study we comprehensively identified aquaporin encoding genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, which is an important vegetable crop and also serves as a model for fleshy fruit development. We found 47 aquaporin genes in the tomato genome and analyzed their structural features. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences the aquaporin genes were assigned to five subfamilies (PIPs, TIPs, NIPs, SIPs and XIPs and their substrate specificity was assessed on the basis of key amino acid residues. As ESTs were available for 32 genes, expression of these genes was analyzed in 13 different tissues and developmental stages of tomato. We detected tissue-specific and development-specific expression of tomato aquaporin genes, which is a first step towards revealing the contribution of aquaporins to water and solute transport in leaves and during fruit development.

  14. Genome Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Ethylene Receptor Genes during Soybean Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youning; Yuan, Jinhong; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Lin; Su, Chao; Wang, Xiaodi; Wu, Haiyan; Sun, Zhengxi; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    It has long been known that the gaseous plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in nodulation in legumes. The perception of ethylene by a family of five membrane-localized receptors is necessary to trigger the ethylene signaling pathway, which regulates various biological responses in Arabidopsis. However, a systematic analysis of the ethylene receptors in leguminous plants and their roles in nodule development is lacking. In this study, we performed a characterization of ethylene receptor genes based on the latest Glycine max genome sequence and a public microarray database. Eleven ethylene receptor family genes were identified in soybean through homology searches, and they were divided into two subgroups. Exon-intron analysis showed that the gene structures are highly conserved within each group. Further analysis of their expression patterns showed that these ethylene receptor genes are differentially expressed in various soybean tissues and organs, including functional nodules. Notably, the ethylene receptor genes showed different responses to rhizobial infection and Nod factors, suggesting a possible role for ethylene receptors and ethylene signaling in rhizobia-host cell interactions and nodulation in soybean. Together, these data indicate the functional divergence of ethylene receptor genes in soybean, and that some of these receptors mediate nodulation, including rhizobial infection, nodule development, and nodule functionality. These findings provide a foundation for further elucidation of the molecular mechanism by which the ethylene signaling pathway regulates nodulation in soybean, as well as other legumes.

  15. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Chalcone Synthase Family in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yahui; Ding, Ting; Su, Bo; Jiang, Haiyang

    2016-01-27

    Members of the chalcone synthase (CHS) family participate in the synthesis of a series of secondary metabolites in plants, fungi and bacteria. The metabolites play important roles in protecting land plants against various environmental stresses during the evolutionary process. Our research was conducted on comprehensive investigation of CHS genes in maize (Zea mays L.), including their phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, chromosomal locations and expression analysis. Fourteen CHS genes (ZmCHS01-14) were identified in the genome of maize, representing one of the largest numbers of CHS family members identified in one organism to date. The gene family was classified into four major classes (classes I-IV) based on their phylogenetic relationships. Most of them contained two exons and one intron. The 14 genes were unevenly located on six chromosomes. Two segmental duplication events were identified, which might contribute to the expansion of the maize CHS gene family to some extent. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR and microarray data analyses suggested that ZmCHS genes exhibited various expression patterns, indicating functional diversification of the ZmCHS genes. Our results will contribute to future studies of the complexity of the CHS gene family in maize and provide valuable information for the systematic analysis of the functions of the CHS gene family.

  16. Genome-wide gene expression surveys and a transcriptome map in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, H.

    2010-01-01

    The chicken (Gallus gallus) is an important model organism in genetics, developmental biology, immunology, evolutionary research, and agricultural science. The completeness of the draft chicken genome sequence provided new possibilities to study genomic changes during evolution by comparing the chic

  17. Genome-wide upstream motif analysis of Cryptosporidium parvum genes clustered by expression profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstaller, Jenna; Joseph, Sandeep J; Kissinger, Jessica C

    2013-07-29

    There are very few molecular genetic tools available to study the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum. The organism is not amenable to continuous in vitro cultivation or transfection, and purification of intracellular developmental stages in sufficient numbers for most downstream molecular applications is difficult and expensive since animal hosts are required. As such, very little is known about gene regulation in C. parvum. We have clustered whole-genome gene expression profiles generated from a previous study of seven post-infection time points of 3,281 genes to identify genes that show similar expression patterns throughout the first 72 hours of in vitro epithelial cell culture. We used the algorithms MEME, AlignACE and FIRE to identify conserved, overrepresented DNA motifs in the upstream promoter region of genes with similar expression profiles. The most overrepresented motifs were E2F (5'-TGGCGCCA-3'); G-box (5'-G.GGGG-3'); a well-documented ApiAP2 binding motif (5'-TGCAT-3'), and an unknown motif (5'-[A/C] AACTA-3'). We generated a recombinant C. parvum DNA-binding protein domain from a putative ApiAP2 transcription factor [CryptoDB: cgd8_810] and determined its binding specificity using protein-binding microarrays. We demonstrate that cgd8_810 can putatively bind the overrepresented G-box motif, implicating this ApiAP2 in the regulation of many gene clusters. Several DNA motifs were identified in the upstream sequences of gene clusters that might serve as potential cis-regulatory elements. These motifs, in concert with protein DNA binding site data, establish for the first time the beginnings of a global C. parvum gene regulatory map that will contribute to our understanding of the development of this zoonotic parasite.

  18. Genome-wide microarray expression and genomic alterations by array-CGH analysis in neuroblastoma stem-like cells.

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    Raquel Ordóñez

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma has a very diverse clinical behaviour: from spontaneous regression to a very aggressive malignant progression and resistance to chemotherapy. This heterogeneous clinical behaviour might be due to the existence of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC, a subpopulation within the tumor with stem-like cell properties: a significant proliferation capacity, a unique self-renewal capacity, and therefore, a higher ability to form new tumors. We enriched the CSC-like cell population content of two commercial neuroblastoma cell lines by the use of conditioned cell culture media for neurospheres, and compared genomic gains and losses and genome expression by array-CGH and microarray analysis, respectively (in CSC-like versus standard tumor cells culture. Despite the array-CGH did not show significant differences between standard and CSC-like in both analyzed cell lines, the microarray expression analysis highlighted some of the most relevant biological processes and molecular functions that might be responsible for the CSC-like phenotype. Some signalling pathways detected seem to be involved in self-renewal of normal tissues (Wnt, Notch, Hh and TGF-β and contribute to CSC phenotype. We focused on the aberrant activation of TGF-β and Hh signalling pathways, confirming the inhibition of repressors of TGF-β pathway, as SMAD6 and SMAD7 by RT-qPCR. The analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway showed overexpression of PTCH1, GLI1 and SMO. We found overexpression of CD133 and CD15 in SIMA neurospheres, confirming that this cell line was particularly enriched in stem-like cells. This work shows a cross-talk among different pathways in neuroblastoma and its importance in CSC-like cells.

  19. Comparison of gene expression and genome-wide DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and conventionally bred controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fei, Gao; Luo, Yonglun; Li, Shengting

    2011-01-01

    Animal breeding via Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) has enormous potential in agriculture and biomedicine. However, concerns about whether SCNT animals are as healthy or epigenetically normal as conventionally bred ones are raised as the efficiency of cloning by SCNT is much lower than natural...... breeding or In-vitro fertilization (IVF). Thus, we have conducted a genome-wide gene expression and DNA methylation profiling between phenotypically normal cloned pigs and control pigs in two tissues (muscle and liver), using Affymetrix Porcine expression array as well as modified methylation......-specific digital karyotyping (MMSDK) and Solexa sequencing technology. Typical tissue-specific differences with respect to both gene expression and DNA methylation were observed in muscle and liver from cloned as well as control pigs. Gene expression profiles were highly similar between cloned pigs and controls...

  20. Genome-wide gene expression study indicates the anti-inflammatory effect of polarized light in recurrent childhood respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falus, A; Fenyo, M; Éder, K; Madarasi, A

    2011-10-01

    The clinical and molecular effects of whole-body polarized light treatment on children suffering from recurrent respiratory infection were studied. The incidence and duration of respiratory symptoms as well as the length of appropriate antibiotic therapy were measured. Simultaneously, the genome-wide gene expression pattern was examined by whole genome cDNA microarray in peripheral lymphocytes of children. Twenty of 25 children showed a marked clinical improvement, while in five of 25 had poor response or no changes. The gene expression pattern of the patients' peripheral lymphocytes was compared in favorable and poor responders. The lymphocytes of the children with a documented improved clinical response to polarized light therapy showed a decrease in the expression of chemokine genes, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, and IL-8, and in that of the TNFα gene. On the contrary, a rapid elevation was found in the expression of the gene encoding for CYP4F2, a leukotriene B4-metabolizing enzyme. In children with poor clinical response to polarized light therapy, no similar changes were detected in the gene expression pattern of the lymphocytes. The improved clinical symptoms and modified gene expression profile of lymphocytes reveals an anti-inflammatory effect of whole-body polarized light irradiation.

  1. MADS-box gene family in rice: genome-wide identification, organization and expression profiling during reproductive development and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Rita; Agarwal, Pinky; Ray, Swatismita; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pal; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2007-07-18

    MADS-box transcription factors, besides being involved in floral organ specification, have also been implicated in several aspects of plant growth and development. In recent years, there have been reports on genomic localization, protein motif structure, phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression of the entire MADS-box family in the model plant system, Arabidopsis. Though there have been some studies in rice as well, an analysis of the complete MADS-box family along with a comprehensive expression profiling was still awaited after the completion of rice genome sequencing. Furthermore, owing to the role of MADS-box family in flower development, an analysis involving structure, expression and functional aspects of MADS-box genes in rice and Arabidopsis was required to understand the role of this gene family in reproductive development. A genome-wide molecular characterization and microarray-based expression profiling of the genes encoding MADS-box transcription factor family in rice is presented. Using a thorough annotation exercise, 75 MADS-box genes have been identified in rice and categorized into MIKCc, MIKC*, Malpha, Mbeta and Mgamma groups based on phylogeny. Chromosomal localization of these genes reveals that 16 MADS-box genes, mostly MIKCc-type, are located within the duplicated segments of the rice genome, whereas most of the M-type genes, 20 in all, seem to have resulted from tandem duplications. Nine members belonging to the Mbeta group, which was considered absent in monocots, have also been identified. The expression profiles of all the MADS-box genes have been analyzed under 11 temporal stages of panicle and seed development, three abiotic stress conditions, along with three stages of vegetative development. Transcripts for 31 genes accumulate preferentially in the reproductive phase, of which, 12 genes are specifically expressed in seeds, and six genes show expression specific to panicle development. Differential expression of seven

  2. MADS-box gene family in rice: genome-wide identification, organization and expression profiling during reproductive development and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Akhilesh K

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MADS-box transcription factors, besides being involved in floral organ specification, have also been implicated in several aspects of plant growth and development. In recent years, there have been reports on genomic localization, protein motif structure, phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression of the entire MADS-box family in the model plant system, Arabidopsis. Though there have been some studies in rice as well, an analysis of the complete MADS-box family along with a comprehensive expression profiling was still awaited after the completion of rice genome sequencing. Furthermore, owing to the role of MADS-box family in flower development, an analysis involving structure, expression and functional aspects of MADS-box genes in rice and Arabidopsis was required to understand the role of this gene family in reproductive development. Results A genome-wide molecular characterization and microarray-based expression profiling of the genes encoding MADS-box transcription factor family in rice is presented. Using a thorough annotation exercise, 75 MADS-box genes have been identified in rice and categorized into MIKCc, MIKC*, Mα, Mβ and Mγ groups based on phylogeny. Chromosomal localization of these genes reveals that 16 MADS-box genes, mostly MIKCc-type, are located within the duplicated segments of the rice genome, whereas most of the M-type genes, 20 in all, seem to have resulted from tandem duplications. Nine members belonging to the Mβ group, which was considered absent in monocots, have also been identified. The expression profiles of all the MADS-box genes have been analyzed under 11 temporal stages of panicle and seed development, three abiotic stress conditions, along with three stages of vegetative development. Transcripts for 31 genes accumulate preferentially in the reproductive phase, of which, 12 genes are specifically expressed in seeds, and six genes show expression specific to panicle development

  3. Potential Impact on Clinical Decision Making via a Genome-Wide Expression Profiling: A Case Report

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    Hyun Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of men with prostate cancer is fraught with uncertainty as physicians and patients balance efficacy with potential toxicity and diminished quality of life. Utilization of genomics as a prognostic biomarker has improved the informed decision-making process by enabling more rationale treatment choices. Recently investigations have begun to determine whether genomic information from tumor transcriptome data can be used to impact clinical decision-making beyond prognosis. Here we discuss the potential of genomics to alter management of a patient who presented with high-risk prostate adenocarcinoma. We suggest that this information help selecting patients for advanced imaging, chemotherapies, or clinical trial.

  4. Genome wide expression analysis in HPV16 Cervical Cancer: identification of altered metabolic pathways

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    Salcedo Mauricio

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical carcinoma (CC is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is a major etiological factor in CC and HPV 16 is the more frequent viral type present. Our aim was to characterize metabolic pathways altered in HPV 16 tumor samples by means of transcriptome wide analysis and bioinformatics tools for visualizing expression data in the context of KEGG biological pathways. Results We found 2,067 genes significantly up or down-modulated (at least 2-fold in tumor clinical samples compared to normal tissues, representing ~3.7% of analyzed genes. Cervical carcinoma was associated with an important up-regulation of Wnt signaling pathway, which was validated by in situ hybridization in clinical samples. Other up-regulated pathways were those of calcium signaling and MAPK signaling, as well as cell cycle-related genes. There was down-regulation of focal adhesion, TGF-β signaling, among other metabolic pathways. Conclusion This analysis of HPV 16 tumors transcriptome could be useful for the identification of genes and molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma. Understanding the possible role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of CC deserves further studies.

  5. Integrating genome-wide genetic variations and monocyte expression data reveals trans-regulated gene modules in humans.

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    Maxime Rotival

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One major expectation from the transcriptome in humans is to characterize the biological basis of associations identified by genome-wide association studies. So far, few cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs have been reliably related to disease susceptibility. Trans-regulating mechanisms may play a more prominent role in disease susceptibility. We analyzed 12,808 genes detected in at least 5% of circulating monocyte samples from a population-based sample of 1,490 European unrelated subjects. We applied a method of extraction of expression patterns-independent component analysis-to identify sets of co-regulated genes. These patterns were then related to 675,350 SNPs to identify major trans-acting regulators. We detected three genomic regions significantly associated with co-regulated gene modules. Association of these loci with multiple expression traits was replicated in Cardiogenics, an independent study in which expression profiles of monocytes were available in 758 subjects. The locus 12q13 (lead SNP rs11171739, previously identified as a type 1 diabetes locus, was associated with a pattern including two cis eQTLs, RPS26 and SUOX, and 5 trans eQTLs, one of which (MADCAM1 is a potential candidate for mediating T1D susceptibility. The locus 12q24 (lead SNP rs653178, which has demonstrated extensive disease pleiotropy, including type 1 diabetes, hypertension, and celiac disease, was associated to a pattern strongly correlating to blood pressure level. The strongest trans eQTL in this pattern was CRIP1, a known marker of cellular proliferation in cancer. The locus 12q15 (lead SNP rs11177644 was associated with a pattern driven by two cis eQTLs, LYZ and YEATS4, and including 34 trans eQTLs, several of them tumor-related genes. This study shows that a method exploiting the structure of co-expressions among genes can help identify genomic regions involved in trans regulation of sets of genes and can provide clues for understanding the

  6. The Csr system regulates genome-wide mRNA stability and transcription and thus gene expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquerré, Thomas; Bouvier, Marie; Turlan, Catherine; Carpousis, Agamemnon J; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2016-04-26

    Bacterial adaptation requires large-scale regulation of gene expression. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of the Csr system, which regulates many important cellular functions. The Csr system is involved in post-transcriptional regulation, but a role in transcriptional regulation has also been suggested. Two proteins, an RNA-binding protein CsrA and an atypical signaling protein CsrD, participate in the Csr system. Genome-wide transcript stabilities and levels were compared in wildtype E. coli (MG1655) and isogenic mutant strains deficient in CsrA or CsrD activity demonstrating for the first time that CsrA and CsrD are global negative and positive regulators of transcription, respectively. The role of CsrA in transcription regulation may be indirect due to the 4.6-fold increase in csrD mRNA concentration in the CsrA deficient strain. Transcriptional action of CsrA and CsrD on a few genes was validated by transcriptional fusions. In addition to an effect on transcription, CsrA stabilizes thousands of mRNAs. This is the first demonstration that CsrA is a global positive regulator of mRNA stability. For one hundred genes, we predict that direct control of mRNA stability by CsrA might contribute to metabolic adaptation by regulating expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport independently of transcriptional regulation.

  7. A Genome-wide Gene-Expression Analysis and Database in Transgenic Mice during Development of Amyloid or Tau Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Matarin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide microarray data comparing genome-wide differential expression and pathology throughout life in four lines of “amyloid” transgenic mice (mutant human APP, PSEN1, or APP/PSEN1 and “TAU” transgenic mice (mutant human MAPT gene. Microarray data were validated by qPCR and by comparison to human studies, including genome-wide association study (GWAS hits. Immune gene expression correlated tightly with plaques whereas synaptic genes correlated negatively with neurofibrillary tangles. Network analysis of immune gene modules revealed six hub genes in hippocampus of amyloid mice, four in common with cortex. The hippocampal network in TAU mice was similar except that Trem2 had hub status only in amyloid mice. The cortical network of TAU mice was entirely different with more hub genes and few in common with the other networks, suggesting reasons for specificity of cortical dysfunction in FTDP17. This Resource opens up many areas for investigation. All data are available and searchable at http://www.mouseac.org.

  8. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Bei; OuYang, Wei-Zhi; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Xie, Liang-Liang; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologs of ARFs. A total of 19 nonredundant ARF genes (CiARF) were found and validated from the sweet orange. A comprehensive overview of the CiARFs was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, conserved motifs of proteins, and cis-elements in promoters of CiARF. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid (NPA) treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members during citrus growth and development process.

  9. Microarray data integration for genome-wide analysis of human tissue-selective gene expression

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangjiang; Srivastava, Anand K; Schwartz, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Background Microarray gene expression data are accumulating in public databases. The expression profiles contain valuable information for understanding human gene expression patterns. However, the effective use of public microarray data requires integrating the expression profiles from heterogeneous sources. Results In this study, we have compiled a compendium of microarray expression profiles of various human tissue samples. The microarray raw data generated in different research laboratorie...

  10. Genome-wide analysis in human colorectal cancer cells reveals ischemia-mediated expression of motility genes via DNA hypomethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronski, Karolina; Skowronki, Karolina; Andrews, Joseph; Rodenhiser, David I; Coomber, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    DNA hypomethylation is an important epigenetic modification found to occur in many different cancer types, leading to the upregulation of previously silenced genes and loss of genomic stability. We previously demonstrated that hypoxia and hypoglycaemia (ischemia), two common micro-environmental changes in solid tumours, decrease DNA methylation through the downregulation of DNMTs in human colorectal cancer cells. Here, we utilized a genome-wide cross-platform approach to identify genes hypomethylated and upregulated by ischemia. Following exposure to hypoxia or hypoglycaemia, methylated DNA from human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116) was immunoprecipitated and analysed with an Affymetrix promoter array. Additionally, RNA was isolated and analysed in parallel with an Affymetrix expression array. Ingenuity pathway analysis software revealed that a significant proportion of the genes hypomethylated and upregulated were involved in cellular movement, including PLAUR and CYR61. A Matrigel invasion assay revealed that indeed HCT116 cells grown in hypoxic or hypoglycaemic conditions have increased mobility capabilities. Confirmation of upregulated expression of cellular movement genes was performed with qPCR. The correlation between ischemia and metastasis is well established in cancer progression, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this common observation have not been clearly identified. Our novel data suggests that hypoxia and hypoglycaemia may be driving changes in DNA methylation through downregulation of DNMTs. This is the first report to our knowledge that provides an explanation for the increased metastatic potential seen in ischemic cells; i.e. that ischemia could be driving DNA hypomethylation and increasing expression of cellular movement genes.

  11. A Genome-Wide Expression Profile of Salt-Responsive Genes in the Apple Rootstock Malus zumi

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    Jin Kong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In some areas of cultivation, a lack of salt tolerance severely affects plant productivity. Apple, Malus x domestica Borkh., is sensitive to salt, and, as a perennial woody plant the mechanism of salt stress adaption will be different from that of annual herbal model plants, such as Arabidopsis. Malus zumi is a salt tolerant apple rootstock, which survives high salinity (up to 0.6% NaCl. To examine the mechanism underlying this tolerance, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed, using a cDNA library constructed from salt-treated seedlings of Malus zumi. A total of 15,000 cDNA clones were selected for microarray analysis. In total a group of 576 cDNAs, of which expression changed more than four-fold, were sequenced and 18 genes were selected to verify their expression pattern under salt stress by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Our genome-wide expression analysis resulted in the isolation of 50 novel Malus genes and the elucidation of a new apple-specific mechanism of salt tolerance, including the stabilization of photosynthesis under stress, involvement of phenolic compounds, and sorbitol in ROS scavenging and osmoprotection. The promoter regions of 111 genes were analyzed by PlantCARE, suggesting an intensive cross-talking of abiotic stress in Malus zumi. An interaction network of salt responsive genes was constructed and molecular regulatory pathways of apple were deduced. Our research will contribute to gene function analysis and further the understanding of salt-tolerance mechanisms in fruit trees.

  12. Genome-wide Annotation, Identification, and Global Transcriptomic Analysis of Regulatory or Small RNA Gene Expression in Staphylococcus aureus

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    Ronan K. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In Staphylococcus aureus, hundreds of small regulatory or small RNAs (sRNAs have been identified, yet this class of molecule remains poorly understood and severely understudied. sRNA genes are typically absent from genome annotation files, and as a consequence, their existence is often overlooked, particularly in global transcriptomic studies. To facilitate improved detection and analysis of sRNAs in S. aureus, we generated updated GenBank files for three commonly used S. aureus strains (MRSA252, NCTC 8325, and USA300, in which we added annotations for >260 previously identified sRNAs. These files, the first to include genome-wide annotation of sRNAs in S. aureus, were then used as a foundation to identify novel sRNAs in the community-associated methicillin-resistant strain USA300. This analysis led to the discovery of 39 previously unidentified sRNAs. Investigating the genomic loci of the newly identified sRNAs revealed a surprising degree of inconsistency in genome annotation in S. aureus, which may be hindering the analysis and functional exploration of these elements. Finally, using our newly created annotation files as a reference, we perform a global analysis of sRNA gene expression in S. aureus and demonstrate that the newly identified tsr25 is the most highly upregulated sRNA in human serum. This study provides an invaluable resource to the S. aureus research community in the form of our newly generated annotation files, while at the same time presenting the first examination of differential sRNA expression in pathophysiologically relevant conditions.

  13. Genome-wide tissue-specific gene expression, co-expression and regulation of co-expressed genes in adult nematode Ascaris suum.

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    Bruce A Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus. We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis

  14. A gene expression resource generated by genome-wide lacZ profiling in the mouse

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    Elizabeth Tuck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the expression profile of a gene is a critical piece of information required to build an understanding of the normal and essential functions of that gene and any role it may play in the development or progression of disease. High-throughput, large-scale efforts are on-going internationally to characterise reporter-tagged knockout mouse lines. As part of that effort, we report an open access adult mouse expression resource, in which the expression profile of 424 genes has been assessed in up to 47 different organs, tissues and sub-structures using a lacZ reporter gene. Many specific and informative expression patterns were noted. Expression was most commonly observed in the testis and brain and was most restricted in white adipose tissue and mammary gland. Over half of the assessed genes presented with an absent or localised expression pattern (categorised as 0-10 positive structures. A link between complexity of expression profile and viability of homozygous null animals was observed; inactivation of genes expressed in ≥21 structures was more likely to result in reduced viability by postnatal day 14 compared with more restricted expression profiles. For validation purposes, this mouse expression resource was compared with Bgee, a federated composite of RNA-based expression data sets. Strong agreement was observed, indicating a high degree of specificity in our data. Furthermore, there were 1207 observations of expression of a particular gene in an anatomical structure where Bgee had no data, indicating a large amount of novelty in our data set. Examples of expression data corroborating and extending genotype-phenotype associations and supporting disease gene candidacy are presented to demonstrate the potential of this powerful resource.

  15. pcaGoPromoter--an R package for biological and regulatory interpretation of principal components in genome-wide gene expression data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing data obtained from genome-wide gene expression experiments is challenging due to the quantity of variables, the need for multivariate analyses, and the demands of managing large amounts of data. Here we present the R package pcaGoPromoter, which facilitates the interpretation of genome-...

  16. Heat shock transcription factors in banana: genome-wide characterization and expression profile analysis during development and stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yunxie; Hu, Wei; Xia, Feiyu; Zeng, Hongqiu; Li, Xiaolin; Yan, Yu; He, Chaozu; Shi, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Banana (Musa acuminata) is one of the most popular fresh fruits. However, the rapid spread of fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) in tropical areas severely affected banana growth and production. Thus, it is very important to identify candidate genes involved in banana response to abiotic stress and pathogen infection, as well as the molecular mechanism and possible utilization for genetic breeding. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) are widely known for their common involvement in various abiotic stresses and plant-pathogen interaction. However, no MaHsf has been identified in banana, as well as its possible role. In this study, genome-wide identification and further analyses of evolution, gene structure and conserved motifs showed closer relationship of them in every subgroup. The comprehensive expression profiles of MaHsfs revealed the tissue- and developmental stage-specific or dependent, as well as abiotic and biotic stress-responsive expressions of them. The common regulation of several MaHsfs by abiotic and biotic stress indicated the possible roles of them in plant stress responses. Taken together, this study extended our understanding of MaHsf gene family and identified some candidate MaHsfs with specific expression profiles, which may be used as potential candidates for genetic breeding in banana. PMID:27857174

  17. Genome-wide analysis of spatiotemporal gene expression patterns during early embryogenesis in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Yutaka; Sato, Yutaka; Hibara, Ken-Ichiro; Shimizu-Sato, Sae; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Takehisa, Hinako; Sanguinet, Karen A; Namiki, Nobukazu; Nagamura, Yoshiaki

    2016-04-01

    Embryogenesis in rice is different from that of most dicotolydonous plants in that it shows a non-stereotypic cell division pattern, formation of dorsal-ventral polarity, and endogenous initiation of the radicle. To reveal the transcriptional features associated with developmental events during rice early embryogenesis, we used microarray analysis coupled with laser microdissection to obtain both spatial and temporal transcription profiles. Our results allowed us to determine spatial expression foci for each expressed gene in the globular embryo, which revealed the importance of phytohormone-related genes and a suite of transcription factors to early embryogenesis. Our analysis showed the polarized expression of a small number of genes along the apical-basal and dorsal-ventral axes in the globular embryo, which tended to fluctuate in later developmental stages. We also analyzed gene expression patterns in the early globular embryo and how this relates to expression in embryonic organs at later stages. We confirmed the accuracy of the expression patterns found by microarray analysis of embryo subdomains using in situ hybridization. Our study identified homologous genes from Arabidopsis thaliana with known functions in embryogenesis in addition to unique and uncharacterized genes that show polarized expression patterns during embryogenesis. The results of this study are presented in a database to provide a framework for spatiotemporal gene expression during rice embryogenesis, to serve as a resource for future functional analysis of genes, and as a basis for comparative studies of plant embryogenesis.

  18. Genome-wide expression analysis offers new insights into the origin and evolution of Physcomitrella patens stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2015-11-30

    Changes in the environment, such as those caused by climate change, can exert stress on plant growth, diversity and ultimately global food security. Thus, focused efforts to fully understand plant response to stress are urgently needed in order to develop strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Because Physcomitrella patens holds a key evolutionary position bridging the gap between green algae and higher plants, and because it exhibits a well-developed stress tolerance, it is an excellent model for such exploration. Here, we have used Physcomitrella patens to study genome-wide responses to abiotic stress through transcriptomic analysis by a high-throughput sequencing platform. We report a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics, defining profiles of elicited gene regulation responses to abiotic stress-associated hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), cold, drought, and salt treatments. We identified more than 20,000 genes expressed under each aforementioned stress treatments, of which 9,668 display differential expression in response to stress. The comparison of Physcomitrella patens stress regulated genes with unicellular algae, vascular and flowering plants revealed genomic delineation concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general gene family complexity and loss of genes associated with different functional groups.

  19. Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the MLO gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S J; Jing, Z; Shi, J L

    2013-12-11

    Mildew resistance locus o (MLO) is a plant-specific seven-transmembrane (TM) gene family. Several studies have revealed that certain members of the MLO gene family mediate powdery mildew susceptibility in three plant species, namely, Arabidopsis, barley, and tomato. The sequenced cucumber genome provides an opportunity to conduct a comprehensive overview of the MLO gene family. Fourteen genes (designated CsMLO01 through CsMLO14) have been identified within the Cucumis sativus genome by using an in silico cloning method with the MLO amino acid sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice as probes. Sequence alignment revealed that numerous features of the gene family, such as TMs, a calmodulin-binding domain, peptide domains I and II, and 30 important amino acid residues for MLO function, are well conserved. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLO genes from cucumber and other plant species reveals seven different clades (I through VII). Three of these clades comprised MLO genes from A. thaliana, rice, maize, and cucumber, suggesting that these genes may have evolved after the divergence of monocots and dicots. In silico mapping showed that these CsMLOs were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 without any obvious clustering, except CsMLO01. To our knowledge, this paper is the first comprehensive report on MLO genes in C. sativus. These findings will facilitate the functional characterization of the MLOs related to powdery mildew susceptibility and assist in the development of disease resistance in cucumber.

  20. Genome-wide prediction and analysis of human tissue-selective genes using microarray expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Shaolei; Yang, Jack Y; Wang, Liangjiang

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how genes are expressed specifically in particular tissues is a fundamental question in developmental biology. Many tissue-specific genes are involved in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. However, experimental identification of tissue-specific genes is time consuming and difficult. The accurate predictions of tissue-specific gene targets could provide useful information for biomarker development and drug target identification. In this study, we have developed a machine learning approach for predicting the human tissue-specific genes using microarray expression data. The lists of known tissue-specific genes for different tissues were collected from UniProt database, and the expression data retrieved from the previously compiled dataset according to the lists were used for input vector encoding. Random Forests (RFs) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs) were used to construct accurate classifiers. The RF classifiers were found to outperform SVM models for tissue-specific gene prediction. The results suggest that the candidate genes for brain or liver specific expression can provide valuable information for further experimental studies. Our approach was also applied for identifying tissue-selective gene targets for different types of tissues. A machine learning approach has been developed for accurately identifying the candidate genes for tissue specific/selective expression. The approach provides an efficient way to select some interesting genes for developing new biomedical markers and improve our knowledge of tissue-specific expression.

  1. Genome-wide gene expression patterns in dikaryon of the basidiomycete fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianxiang; Li, Huiru; Ding, Yatong; Qi, Yuancheng; Gao, Yuqian; Song, Andong; Shen, Jinwen; Qiu, Liyou

    Dikarya is a subkingdom of fungi that includes Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The gene expression patterns of dikaryon are poorly understood. In this study, we bred a dikaryon DK13×3 by mating monokaryons MK13 and MK3, which were from the basidiospores of Pleurotus ostreatus TD300. Using RNA-Seq, we obtained the transcriptomes of the three strains. We found that the total transcript numbers in the transcriptomes of the three strains were all more than ten thousand, and the expression profile in DK13×3 was more similar to MK13 than MK3. However, the genes involved in macromolecule utilization, cellular material synthesis, stress-resistance and signal transduction were much more up-regulated in the dikaryon than its constituent monokaryons. All possible modes of differential gene expression, when compared to constituent monokaryons, including the presence/absence variation, and additivity/nonadditivity gene expression in the dikaryon may contribute to heterosis. By sequencing the urease gene poure sequences and mRNA sequences, we identified the monoallelic expression of the poure gene in the dikaryon, and its transcript was from the parental monokaryon MK13. Furthermore, we discovered RNA editing in the poure gene mRNA of the three strains. These results suggest that the gene expression patterns in dikaryons should be similar to that of diploids during vegetative growth. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Zearalenone mycotoxin affects immune mediators, MAPK signalling molecules, nuclear receptors and genome-wide gene expression in pig spleen.

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    Gina Cecilia Pistol

    Full Text Available The toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA was evaluated in swine spleen, a key organ for the innate and adaptative immune response. Weaned pigs were fed for 18 days with a control or a ZEA contaminated diet. The effect of ZEA was assessed on wide genome expression, pro- (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4 cytokines, other molecules involved in inflammatory processes (MMPs/TIMPs, as well as signaling molecules, (p38/JNK1/JNK2-MAPKs and nuclear receptors (PPARγ/NFkB/AP-1/STAT3/c-JUN. Microarray analysis showed that 46% of total number of differentially expressed genes was involved in cellular signaling pathway, 13% in cytokine network and 10% in the inflammatory response. ZEA increased expression and synthesis of pro- inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β and had no effect on IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines in spleen. The inflammatory stimulation might be a consequence of JNK pathway activation rather than of p-38MAPK and NF-kB involvement whose gene and protein expression were suppressed by ZEA action. In summary, our findings indicated the role of ZEA as an immune disruptor at spleen level.

  3. Zearalenone Mycotoxin Affects Immune Mediators, MAPK Signalling Molecules, Nuclear Receptors and Genome-Wide Gene Expression in Pig Spleen

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    Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Braicu, Cornelia; Motiu, Monica; Gras, Mihail Alexandru; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Stancu, Mariana; Calin, Loredana; Israel-Roming, Florentina; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated in swine spleen, a key organ for the innate and adaptative immune response. Weaned pigs were fed for 18 days with a control or a ZEA contaminated diet. The effect of ZEA was assessed on wide genome expression, pro- (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokines, other molecules involved in inflammatory processes (MMPs/TIMPs), as well as signaling molecules, (p38/JNK1/JNK2-MAPKs) and nuclear receptors (PPARγ/NFkB/AP-1/STAT3/c-JUN). Microarray analysis showed that 46% of total number of differentially expressed genes was involved in cellular signaling pathway, 13% in cytokine network and 10% in the inflammatory response. ZEA increased expression and synthesis of pro- inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β) and had no effect on IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines in spleen. The inflammatory stimulation might be a consequence of JNK pathway activation rather than of p-38MAPK and NF-kB involvement whose gene and protein expression were suppressed by ZEA action. In summary, our findings indicated the role of ZEA as an immune disruptor at spleen level. PMID:26011631

  4. Analysis of the interaction of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis with its host plant tomato by genome-wide expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flügel, Monika; Becker, Anke; Gartemann, Karl-Heinz; Eichenlaub, Rudolf

    2012-07-31

    Genome-wide expression profiles of the phytopathogenic actinomycete Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) strain NCPPB382 were analyzed using a 70mer oligonucleotide microarray. Cmm causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato, a systemic disease leading to substantial economic losses worldwide. Global gene expression was monitored in vitro after long- and short-term incubation with tomato homogenate to simulate conditions in planta and in vivo ten days after inoculation of tomatoes. Surprisingly, both in the presence of tomato homogenate and in planta known virulence genes (celA, chpC, ppaA/C) were down-regulated indicating that the encoded extracellular enzymes are dispensable in late infection stages where plant tissue has already been heavily destroyed. In contrast, some genes of the tomA-region which are involved in sugar metabolism showed an enhanced RNA-level after permanent growth in supplemented medium. Therefore, these genes may be important for utilization of plant derived nutrients. In the plant Cmm exhibited an expression profile completely different from that in vitro. Especially, the strong expression of genes of the wco-cluster (extracellular polysaccharide II), 10 genes encoding surface or pilus assembly proteins, and CMM_2382, coding for a putative perforin suggest a possible role of these genes in the plant-pathogenic interaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MYB Transcription Factors in Chinese Pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd.: Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Expression Profiling during Fruit Development

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    Yun Peng eCao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The MYB family is one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although some MYBs have been reported to play roles in secondary metabolism, no comprehensive study of the MYB family in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. has been reported. In the present study, we performed genome-wide analysis of MYB genes in Chinese pear, designated as PbMYBs, including analyses of their phylogenic relationships, structures, chromosomal locations, promoter regions, GO annotations and collinearity. A total of 129 PbMYB genes were identified in the pear genome and were divided into 31 subgroups based on phylogenetic analysis. These PbMYBs were unevenly distributed among 16 chromosomes (total of 17 chromosomes. The occurrence of gene duplication events indicated that whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication likely played key roles in expansion of the PbMYB gene family. Ka/Ks analysis suggested that the duplicated PbMYBs mainly experienced purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed maximum orthology between pear and peach, followed by plum and strawberry. Subsequently, the expression patterns of 20 PbMYB genes that may be involved in lignin biosynthesis according to their phylogenetic relationships were examined throughout fruit development. Among the twenty genes examined, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 exhibited expression patterns consistent with the typical variations in the lignin content previously reported. Moreover, sub-cellular localization analysis revealed that two proteins PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were localized to the nucleus. All together, PbMYB25 and PbMYB52 were inferred to be candidate genes involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis during the development of pear fruit. This study provides useful information for further functional analysis of the MYB gene family in pear.

  6. Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens

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    Nätt Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Results In Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differed substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences were largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences were tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci were little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Conclusions Our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication.

  7. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

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    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples. Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1, adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1 and inflammation (ANXA1; by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity.

  8. Genome-wide expression profiling during protection from colitis by regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Olsen, Jørgen; Gad, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Chip Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array), which enabled an analysis of a complete set of RNA transcript levels in each sample. Array results were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Data were analyzed using combined projections to latent structures and functional...... annotation analysis. The colitic samples were clearly distinguishable from samples from normal mice by a vast number of inflammation- and growth factor-related transcripts. In contrast, the Treg-protected animals could not be distinguished from either the normal BALB/c mice or the normal SCID mice. mRNA......BACKGROUND: In the adoptive transfer model of colitis it has been shown that regulatory T cells (Treg) can hinder disease development and cure already existing mild colitis. The mechanisms underlying this regulatory effect of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs are not well understood. METHODS: To identify...

  9. Genes involved in the osteoarthritis process identified through genome wide expression analysis in articular cartilage; the RAAK study.

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    Yolande F M Ramos

    Full Text Available Identify gene expression profiles associated with OA processes in articular cartilage and determine pathways changing during the disease process.Genome wide gene expression was determined in paired samples of OA affected and preserved cartilage of the same joint using microarray analysis for 33 patients of the RAAK study. Results were replicated in independent samples by RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Profiles were analyzed with the online analysis tools DAVID and STRING to identify enrichment for specific pathways and protein-protein interactions.Among the 1717 genes that were significantly differently expressed between OA affected and preserved cartilage we found significant enrichment for genes involved in skeletal development (e.g. TNFRSF11B and FRZB. Also several inflammatory genes such as CD55, PTGES and TNFAIP6, previously identified in within-joint analyses as well as in analyses comparing preserved cartilage from OA affected joints versus healthy cartilage were among the top genes. Of note was the high up-regulation of NGF in OA cartilage. RT-qPCR confirmed differential expression for 18 out of 19 genes with expression changes of 2-fold or higher, and immunohistochemistry of selected genes showed a concordant change in protein expression. Most of these changes associated with OA severity (Mankin score but were independent of joint-site or sex.We provide further insights into the ongoing OA pathophysiological processes in cartilage, in particular into differences in macroscopically intact cartilage compared to OA affected cartilage, which seem relatively consistent and independent of sex or joint. We advocate that development of treatment could benefit by focusing on these similarities in gene expression changes and/or pathways.

  10. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

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    Christine E. Baer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively. Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014 with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648.

  11. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of acute metal exposures in male zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Christine E.; Ippolito, Danielle L.; Hussainzada, Naissan; Lewis, John A.; Jackson, David A.; Stallings, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    To capture global responses to metal poisoning and mechanistic insights into metal toxicity, gene expression changes were evaluated in whole adult male zebrafish following acute 24 h high dose exposure to three metals with known human health risks. Male adult zebrafish were exposed to nickel chloride, cobalt chloride or sodium dichromate at concentrations corresponding to their respective 96 h LC20, LC40 and LC60 (i.e. 96 h concentrations at which 20%, 40% and 60% lethality is expected, respectively). Histopathology was performed on a subset of metal-exposed zebrafish to phenotypically anchor transcriptional changes associated with each metal exposure. Here we describe in detail the contents and quality controls for the gene expression and other data associated with the study published by Hussainzada and colleagues in BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology (Hussainzada et al., 2014) with the data uploaded to Gene Expression Omnibus (accession number GSE50648). PMID:26484131

  12. Analysis of tanshinone IIA induced cellular apoptosis in leukemia cells by genome-wide expression profiling

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    Liu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA is a diterpene quinone extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Chinese traditional herb. Although previous studies have reported the anti-tumor effects of Tan IIA on various human cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The current study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Tan IIA's apoptotic effects on leukemia cells in vitro. Methods The cytotoxicity of Tan IIA on different types of leukemia cell lines was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2,5]-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on cells treated without or with Tan IIA at different concentrations for different time periods. Cellular apoptosis progression with and without Tan IIA treatment was analyzed by Annexin V and Caspase 3 assays. Gene expression profiling was used to identify the genes regulated after Tan IIA treatment and those differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Confirmation of these expression regulations was carried out using real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. The antagonizing effect of a PXR inhibitor L-SFN on Tan IIA treatment was tested using Colony Forming Unit Assay. Results Our results revealed that Tan IIA had different cytotoxic activities on five types of leukemia cells, with the highest toxicity on U-937 cells. Tan IIA inhibited the growth of U-937 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and Caspase-3 assays showed that Tan IIA induced apoptosis in U-937 cells. Using gene expression profiling, 366 genes were found to be significantly regulated after Tan IIA treatment and differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Among these genes, CCL2 was highly expressed in untreated U-937 cells and down-regulated significantly after Tan IIA treatment in a dose-dependent manner. RT-qPCR analyses validated the expression regulation of 80% of genes. Addition of L- sulforaphane (L-SFN, an inhibitor of Pregnane × receptor (PXR significantly

  13. Genome-wide identification and tissue-specific expression analysis of UDP-glycosyltransferases genes confirm their abundance in Cicer arietinum (Chickpea) genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ranu; Rawat, Vimal; Suresh, C G

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (EC 2.4.1.x; UGTs) are enzymes coded by an important gene family of higher plants. They are involved in the modification of secondary metabolites, phytohormones, and xenobiotics by transfer of sugar moieties from an activated nucleotide molecule to a wide range of acceptors. This modification regulates various functions like detoxification of xenobiotics, hormone homeostasis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Here, we describe the identification of 96 UGT genes in Cicer arietinum (CaUGT) and report their tissue-specific differential expression based on publically available RNA-seq and expressed sequence tag data. This analysis has established medium to high expression of 84 CaUGTs and low expression of 12 CaUGTs. We identified several closely related orthologs of CaUGTs in other genomes and compared their exon-intron arrangement. An attempt was made to assign functional specificity to chickpea UGTs by comparing substrate binding sites with experimentally determined specificity. These findings will assist in precise selection of candidate genes for various applications and understanding functional genomics of chickpea.

  14. Genome-wide methylation and expression profiling identifies promoter characteristics affecting demethylation-induced gene up-regulation in melanoma

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    Halaban Ruth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abberant DNA methylation at CpG dinucleotides represents a common mechanism of transcriptional silencing in cancer. Since CpG methylation is a reversible event, tumor supressor genes that have undergone silencing through this mechanism represent promising targets for epigenetically active anti-cancer therapy. The cytosine analog 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine induces genomic hypomethylation by inhibiting DNA methyltransferase, and is an example of an epigenetic agent that is thought to act by up-regulating silenced genes. Methods It is unclear why decitabine causes some silenced loci to re-express, while others remain inactive. By applying data-mining techniques to large-scale datasets, we attempted to elucidate the qualities of promoter regions that define susceptibility to the drug's action. Our experimental data, derived from melanoma cell strains, consist of genome-wide gene expression data before and after treatment with decitabine, as well as genome-wide data on un-treated promoter methylation status, and validation of specific genes by bisulfite sequencing. Results We show that the combination of promoter CpG content and methylation level informs the ability of decitabine treatment to up-regulate gene expression. Promoters with high methylation levels and intermediate CpG content appear most susceptible to up-regulation by decitabine, whereas few of those highly methylated promoters with high CpG content are up-regulated. For promoters with low methylation levels, those with high CpG content are more likely to be up-regulated, whereas those with low CpG content are underrepresented among up-regulated genes. Conclusions Clinically, elucidating the patterns of action of decitabine could aid in predicting the likelihood of up-regulating epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes and others from pathways involved with tumor biology. As a first step toward an eventual translational application, we build a classifier

  15. Genome-wide patterns of gene expression during aging in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae.

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    Mei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available The primary means of reducing malaria transmission is through reduction in longevity in days of the adult female stage of the Anopheles vector. However, assessing chronological age is limited to crude physiologic methods which categorize the females binomially as either very young (nulliparous or not very young (parous. Yet the epidemiologically relevant reduction in life span falls within the latter category. Age-grading methods that delineate chronological age, using accurate molecular surrogates based upon gene expression profiles, will allow quantification of the longevity-reducing effects of vector control tools aimed at the adult, female mosquito. In this study, microarray analyses of gene expression profiles in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae were conducted during natural senescence of females in laboratory conditions. Results showed that detoxification-related and stress-responsive genes were up-regulated as mosquitoes aged. A total of 276 transcripts had age-dependent expression, independently of blood feeding and egg laying events. Expression of 112 (40.6% of these transcripts increased or decreased monotonically with increasing chronologic age. Seven candidate genes for practical age assessment were tested by quantitative gene amplification in the An. gambiae G3 strain in a laboratory experiment and the Mbita strain in field enclosures set up in western Kenya under conditions closely resembling natural ones. Results were similar between experiments, indicating that senescence is marked by changes in gene expression and that chronological age can be gauged accurately and repeatedly with this method. These results indicate that the method may be suitable for accurate gauging of the age in days of field-caught, female An. gambiae.

  16. Genome-wide expression analysis comparing hypertrophic changes in normal and dysferlinopathy mice

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    Yun-Sil Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because myostatin normally limits skeletal muscle growth, there are extensive efforts to develop myostatin inhibitors for clinical use. One potential concern is that in muscle degenerative diseases, inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers. Our study shows that blocking this pathway in dysferlin deficient mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately accelerates muscle degeneration. Hence, benefits of this approach should be weighed against these potential detrimental effects. Here, we present detailed experimental methods and analysis for the gene expression profiling described in our recently published study in Human Molecular Genetics (Lee et al., 2015. Our data sets have been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (GSE62945 and are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE62945. Our data provide a resource for exploring molecular mechanisms that are related to hypertrophy-induced, accelerated muscular degeneration in dysferlinopathy.

  17. Uncovering transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in Aspergilli through genome-wide gene expression data anlysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Margarita Pena; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni;

    2009-01-01

    to the identification of a conserved binding site for a putative regulator to be 5′-TGCGGGGA-3′, a binding site that is similar to the binding site for Adr1 in yeast and humans. We show that this Adr1 consensus binding sequence was over-represented on promoter regions of several genes in A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A...... Saccharomyces and distant Ascomycetes. Transcriptome data were further used to evaluate the high osmolarity glycerol pathway. All the components of this pathway present in yeast have orthologues in the three Aspergilli studied and its gene expression response suggested that this pathway functions as in S...... and Aspergillus niger) with glucose and glycerol as carbon sources. Protein comparisons and cross-analysis with gene expression data of all three species resulted in the identification of 88 genes having a conserved response across the three Aspergilli. A promoter analysis of the up-regulated genes led...

  18. Genome-wide prediction and analysis of human tissue-selective genes using microarray expression data

    OpenAIRE

    Teng Shaolei; Yang Jack Y; Wang Liangjiang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding how genes are expressed specifically in particular tissues is a fundamental question in developmental biology. Many tissue-specific genes are involved in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. However, experimental identification of tissue-specific genes is time consuming and difficult. The accurate predictions of tissue-specific gene targets could provide useful information for biomarker development and drug target identification. Results In this study,...

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression Provides New Insights into Cold Responses in Thellungiella salsuginea

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    Jiangshan Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Low temperature is one of the major environmental stresses that affects plant growth and development, and leads to decrease in crop yield and quality. Thellungiella salsuginea (salt cress exhibits high tolerance to chilling, is an appropriate model to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cold tolerance. Here, we compared transcription changes in the roots and leaves of T. salsuginea under cold stress using RNA-seq. We identified 2,782 and 1,430 differentially expressed genes (DEGs in leaves and roots upon cold treatment, respectively. The expression levels of some genes were validated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR. Among these DEGs, 159 (11.1% genes in roots and 232 (8.3% genes in leaves were annotated as various types of transcription factors. We found that five aquaporin genes (three TIPs, one PIPs, and one NIPs responded to cold treatment. In addition, the expression of COR47, ICE1, and CBF1 genes of DREB1/CBF-dependent cold signaling pathway genes altered in response to low temperature. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these cold regulated genes were enriched in metabolism, photosynthesis, circadian rhythm, and transcriptional regulation. Our findings provided a complete picture of the regulatory network of cold stress response in T. salsuginea. These cold-responsive genes could be targeted for detail functional study and utilization in crop cold tolerance improvement.

  20. Integrated Analysis of Genome-Wide Copy Number Alterations and Gene Expression Profiling of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Xue, Qiuyue; Pan, Guoqing; Meng, Qing H.; Tuo, Xiaoyu; Cai, Xuemei; Chen, Zhenghui; Li, Ya; Huang, Tao; Duan, Xincen; Duan, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Lung cancer in Xuanwei (LCXW), China, is known throughout the world for its distinctive characteristics, but little is known about its pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to screen potential novel “driver genes” in LCXW. Methods Genome-wide DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected by array-based comparative genomic hybridization and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by gene expression microarrays in 8 paired LCXW and non-cancerous lung tissues. Candidate driver genes were screened by integrated analysis of CNAs and DEGs. The candidate genes were further validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results Large numbers of CNAs and DEGs were detected, respectively. Some of the most frequently occurring CNAs included gains at 5p15.33-p15.32, 5p15.1-p14.3, and 5p14.3-p14.2 and losses at 11q24.3, 21q21.1, 21q22.12-q22.13, and 21q22.2. Integrated analysis of CNAs and DEGs identified 24 candidate genes with frequent copy number gains and concordant upregulation, which were considered potential oncogenes, including CREB3L4, TRIP13, and CCNE2. In addition, the analysis identified 19 candidate genes with a negative association between copy number change and expression change, considered potential tumor suppressor genes, including AHRR, NKD2, and KLF10. One of the most studied oncogenes, MYC, may not play a carcinogenic role in LCXW. Conclusions This integrated analysis of CNAs and DEGs identified several potential novel LCXW-related genes, laying an important foundation for further research on the pathogenesis of LCXW and identification of novel biomarkers or therapeutic targets. PMID:28056099

  1. Genome-wide analysis in human colorectal cancer cells reveals ischemia-mediated expression of motility genes via DNA hypomethylation.

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    Karolina Skowronski

    Full Text Available DNA hypomethylation is an important epigenetic modification found to occur in many different cancer types, leading to the upregulation of previously silenced genes and loss of genomic stability. We previously demonstrated that hypoxia and hypoglycaemia (ischemia, two common micro-environmental changes in solid tumours, decrease DNA methylation through the downregulation of DNMTs in human colorectal cancer cells. Here, we utilized a genome-wide cross-platform approach to identify genes hypomethylated and upregulated by ischemia. Following exposure to hypoxia or hypoglycaemia, methylated DNA from human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 was immunoprecipitated and analysed with an Affymetrix promoter array. Additionally, RNA was isolated and analysed in parallel with an Affymetrix expression array. Ingenuity pathway analysis software revealed that a significant proportion of the genes hypomethylated and upregulated were involved in cellular movement, including PLAUR and CYR61. A Matrigel invasion assay revealed that indeed HCT116 cells grown in hypoxic or hypoglycaemic conditions have increased mobility capabilities. Confirmation of upregulated expression of cellular movement genes was performed with qPCR. The correlation between ischemia and metastasis is well established in cancer progression, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this common observation have not been clearly identified. Our novel data suggests that hypoxia and hypoglycaemia may be driving changes in DNA methylation through downregulation of DNMTs. This is the first report to our knowledge that provides an explanation for the increased metastatic potential seen in ischemic cells; i.e. that ischemia could be driving DNA hypomethylation and increasing expression of cellular movement genes.

  2. Genome-Wide Gene Expressions Respond Differently to A-subgenome Origins in Brassica napus Synthetic Hybrids and Natural Allotetraploid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dawei; Pan, Qi; Tan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Ge, Xianhong; Shao, Yujiao; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-01-01

    The young allotetraploid Brassica napus (2n = 38, AACC) is one of models to study genomic responses to allopolyploidization. The extraction of AA component from natural B. napus and then restitution of progenitor B. rapa should provide a unique opportunity to reveal the genome interplay for gene expressions during the evolution. Herein, B. napus hybrids (2n = 19, AC) between the extracted and extant B. rapa (2n = 20, AA) and the same B. oleracea genotype (2n = 18, CC) were studied by RNA-seq and compared with natural B. napus donor, to reveal the gene expression changes from hybridization and domestication and the effects of A genome with different origins. Upon the initial merger of two diploid genomes, additive gene expression was prevalent in these two hybrids, for non-additively expressed genes only represented a small portion of total expressed genes. A high proportion of genes exhibited expression level dominance, with no preference to either of the parental genomes. Comparison of homoeolog expressions also showed no bias toward any genomes and the parental expression patterns were often maintained in the hybrids and natural allotetraploids. Although, the overall patterns of gene expression were highly conserved between two hybrids, the extracted B. rapa responded less and appeared more compatible for hybridization than the extant B. rapa. Our results suggested that expression level dominance and homoeolog expressions bias were balanced at the initial stage of genome merger, and such balance were largely maintained during the domestication of B. napus, despite the increased extent over time. PMID:27790227

  3. Genome-wide identification and expression characterization of ABCC-MRP transporters in hexaploid wheat

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    Kaushal Kumar Bhati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ABCC multidrug resistance associated proteins (ABCC-MRP, a subclass of ABC transporters are involved in multiple physiological processes that include cellular homeostasis, metal detoxification and transport of glutathione-conjugates. Although they are well studied in humans, yeast and Arabidopsis, limited efforts have been made to address their possible role in crop like wheat. In the present work, eighteen wheat ABCC-MRP proteins were identified that showed the uniform distribution with families of rice and Arabidopsis. Organ specific quantitative expression analysis of wheat ABCC genes indicated significantly higher accumulation in roots (TaABCC2, TaABCC3, and TaABCC11 and TaABCC12, stem (TaABCC1, leaves (TaABCC16 and TaABCC17, flag leaf (TaABCC14 and TaABCC15 and seeds (TaABCC6, TaABCC8, TaABCC12, TaABCC13 and TaABCC17 implicating their role in the respective tissues. Differential transcript expression patterns were observed for TaABCC genes during grain maturation speculating their role during seed development. Hormone treatment experiments indicated that some of the ABCC genes could be transcriptionally regulated during seed development. In the presence of Cd or hydrogen peroxide, distinct molecular expression of wheat ABCC genes was observed in the wheat seedlings, suggesting their possible role during heavy metal generated oxidative stress. Functional characterization of the wheat transporter, TaABCC13 a homolog of maize LPA1 confirms its role in glutathione-mediated detoxification pathway and is able to utilize adenine biosynthetic intermediates as a substrate. This is the first comprehensive inventory of wheat ABCC-MRP gene subfamily.

  4. Genome-wide identification and expression characterization of ABCC-MRP transporters in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal K; Sharma, Shivani; Aggarwal, Sipla; Kaur, Mandeep; Shukla, Vishnu; Kaur, Jagdeep; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    The ABCC multidrug resistance associated proteins (ABCC-MRP), a subclass of ABC transporters are involved in multiple physiological processes that include cellular homeostasis, metal detoxification, and transport of glutathione-conjugates. Although they are well-studied in humans, yeast, and Arabidopsis, limited efforts have been made to address their possible role in crop like wheat. In the present work, 18 wheat ABCC-MRP proteins were identified that showed the uniform distribution with sub-families from rice and Arabidopsis. Organ-specific quantitative expression analysis of wheat ABCC genes indicated significantly higher accumulation in roots (TaABCC2, TaABCC3, and TaABCC11 and TaABCC12), stem (TaABCC1), leaves (TaABCC16 and TaABCC17), flag leaf (TaABCC14 and TaABCC15), and seeds (TaABCC6, TaABCC8, TaABCC12, TaABCC13, and TaABCC17) implicating their role in the respective tissues. Differential transcript expression patterns were observed for TaABCC genes during grain maturation speculating their role during seed development. Hormone treatment experiments indicated that some of the ABCC genes could be transcriptionally regulated during seed development. In the presence of Cd or hydrogen peroxide, distinct molecular expression of wheat ABCC genes was observed in the wheat seedlings, suggesting their possible role during heavy metal generated oxidative stress. Functional characterization of the wheat transporter, TaABCC13 a homolog of maize LPA1 confirms its role in glutathione-mediated detoxification pathway and is able to utilize adenine biosynthetic intermediates as a substrate. This is the first comprehensive inventory of wheat ABCC-MRP gene subfamily.

  5. Genome-wide Expression Profiling Reveals S100B as Biomarker for Invasive Aspergillosis

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    Andreas eDix

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis (IA is a devastating opportunistic infection and its treatment constitutes a considerable burden for the health care system. Immunocompromised patients are at an increased risk for IA, which is mainly caused by the species Aspergillus fumigatus. An early and reliable diagnosis is required to initiate the appropriate antifungal therapy. However, diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy still needs to be improved, which can be achieved at least partly by the definition of new biomarkers. Besides the direct detection of the pathogen by the current diagnostic methods, the analysis of the host response is a promising strategy towards this aim. Following this approach, we sought to identify new biomarkers for IA. For this purpose, we analyzed gene expression profiles of haematological patients and compared profiles of patients suffering from IA with non-IA patients. Based on microarray data, we applied a comprehensive feature selection using a random forest classifier. We identified the transcript coding for the S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B as a potential new biomarker for the diagnosis of IA. Considering the expression of this gene, we were able to classify samples from patients with IA with 82.3% sensitivity and 74.6% specificity. Moreover, we validated the expression of S100B in a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay and we also found a down-regulation of S100B in A. fumigatus stimulated DCs. An influence on the IL1B and CXCL1 downstream levels was demonstrated by this S100B knockdown. In conclusion, this study covers an effective feature selection revealing a key regulator of the human immune response during IA. S100B may represent an additional diagnostic marker that in combination with the established techniques may improve the accuracy of IA diagnosis.

  6. Genome-wide analysis, expression dynamics and varietal comparison of NAC gene family at various developmental stages in Morus notabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Vinay Kumar; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-06-01

    NAC genes are important transcription factors and forms a large family in plants. They have shown to play an important role in growth and development and have also been shown to involve in regulation of stress-responsive genes. In the present study, a repertoire of NAC genes in recently published mulberry genome has been identified which consists of a total of 79 members. Structural analysis revealed that most of the NAC genes in mulberry contain two introns. The proteins encoded by them show a wide range of isoelectric points suggestive of their varied roles in varying microcellular environment. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analysis elucidate the presence of 15 sub-groups of these genes along with two novel sub-groups having distinct conserved motifs which are not present in Arabidopsis. Gene ontology term enrichment analysis and cis-element identification from their putative 1 K upstream regulatory region indicates their possible role in important biological processes like organ formation, meristem establishment, senescence, and various biotic and abiotic stresses. Expression analysis across various developmental stages led to identification of their preferential expression in diverse tissues. Taken together, this work provides a solid background information related to structure, function, expression and evolution of NAC gene family in mulberry.

  7. Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of the amino acid transporter superfamily in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haoli; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Li, Silu; Gao, Junpeng; Ma, Yuling; Zhao, Qin; Chen, Qin

    2016-10-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) are integral membrane proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of amino acids and play important roles in various physiological processes of plants. However, there has not yet been a genome-wide overview of the StAAT gene family to date and only StAAP1 has been previously studied in potato. In this paper, a total of 72 StAATs were identified using a series of bioinformatics searches and classified into 12 subfamilies based on their phylogenetic relationship with known Arabidopsis and rice AATs. Chromosomal localization revealed their distribution on all 12 chromosomes. Nearly one-third of StAAT genes (23 of 72) were derived from gene duplication, among which tandem duplication made the greatest contribution to the expansion of the StAAT family. Motif analysis showed that the same subfamily had similar conserved motifs in both numbers and varieties. Moreover, high-throughput sequencing data was used to analyze the expression patterns of StAAT genes and was verified by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The expression of StAAT genes exhibited both abundant and tissue-specific expression patterns, which might be connected to their functional roles in long- and short-distance transport. This study provided a comprehensive survey of the StAAT gene family, and could serve as a theoretical foundation for the further functional identification and utilization of family members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Electro-acupuncture at Neiguan pretreatment alters genome-wide gene expressions and protects rat myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Lu, Sheng-Feng; Hu, Chen-Jun; Fu, Shu-Ping; Shen, Wei-Xing; Liu, Wan-Xin; Li, Qian; Wang, Ning; He, Su-Yun; Liang, Fan-Rong; Zhu, Bing-Mei

    2014-10-09

    This study investigated genome-wide gene expressions and the cardioprotective effects of electro-acupuncture pretreatment at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (SO), I/R, electro-acupuncture at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint pretreatment (EA) and electro-acupuncture at non-acupoint pretreatment (NA). Compared with the I/R group, the survival rate of the EA group was significantly increased, the arrhythmia score, infarction area, serum concentrations of CK, LDH and CK-Mb and plasma level of cTnT were significantly decreased. RNA-seq results showed that 725 genes were up-regulated and 861 genes were down-regulated under I/R conditions compared to the SO group; both EA and NA reversed some of these gene expression levels (592 in EA and 238 in NA group). KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes were involved in multiple pathways, including ECM, MAPK signaling, apoptosis, cytokine and leukocyte pathways. In addition, some pathways were uniquely regulated by EA, but not NA pretreatment, such as oxidative stress, cardiac muscle contraction, gap junction, vascular smooth muscle contraction, hypertrophic, NOD-like receptor, and P53 and B-cell receptor pathways. This study was first to reveal the gene expression signatures of acute myocardial I/R injury and electro-acupuncture pretreatment in rats.

  9. Electro-Acupuncture at Neiguan Pretreatment Alters Genome-Wide Gene Expressions and Protects Rat Myocardium against Ischemia-Reperfusion

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    Yan Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated genome-wide gene expressions and the cardioprotective effects of electro-acupuncture pretreatment at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint on myocardial ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury. Male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operation (SO, I/R, electro-acupuncture at the PC6 Neiguan acupoint pretreatment (EA and electro-acupuncture at non-acupoint pretreatment (NA. Compared with the I/R group, the survival rate of the EA group was significantly increased, the arrhythmia score, infarction area, serum concentrations of CK, LDH and CK-Mb and plasma level of cTnT were significantly decreased. RNA-seq results showed that 725 genes were up-regulated and 861 genes were down-regulated under I/R conditions compared to the SO group; both EA and NA reversed some of these gene expression levels (592 in EA and 238 in NA group. KEGG pathway analysis indicated that these genes were involved in multiple pathways, including ECM, MAPK signaling, apoptosis, cytokine and leukocyte pathways. In addition, some pathways were uniquely regulated by EA, but not NA pretreatment, such as oxidative stress, cardiac muscle contraction, gap junction, vascular smooth muscle contraction, hypertrophic, NOD-like receptor, and P53 and B-cell receptor pathways. This study was first to reveal the gene expression signatures of acute myocardial I/R injury and electro-acupuncture pretreatment in rats.

  10. Genome-wide expression analysis of roxarsone-stimulated growth of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changlu; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Gengyu; Wu, Changxin; Li, Ning

    2011-09-01

    Roxarsone is a commonly used additive in chicken (Gallus gallus) industry. However, little is known on the intrinsic molecular mechanism via which the growth performance of birds improves. This study was therefore performed to investigate the expression profiles of genes induced by roxarsone. Fifty-six broiler chickens were divided into two groups, namely treated and untreated with roxarsone. The treated group was provided a diet of 45.4mg/kg roxarsone medication and the other group acted as control. Data analysis showed that roxarsone consistently and significantly (Pchicken growth performance. In addition to this a significant (PRACE). Gene GU724343 was predicted to encode an unidentified protein and the second gene GU724344 was presumed to encode a new member of immunoglobulin-like receptor (CHIR) family. Our results suggested for the first time that the role of roxarsone could be mainly to modify the expression levels of cell growth, immunity/defense and energy metabolism associated genes, as a result promoting animal growth. Further research on these genes should help to increase the knowledge of improving animal productivity safely and effectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

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    Xiao-Jin Hou

    Full Text Available MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB. Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  12. Genome-wide classification and evolutionary and expression analyses of citrus MYB transcription factor families in sweet orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiao-Jin; Li, Si-Bei; Liu, Sheng-Rui; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    MYB family genes are widely distributed in plants and comprise one of the largest transcription factors involved in various developmental processes and defense responses of plants. To date, few MYB genes and little expression profiling have been reported for citrus. Here, we describe and classify 177 members of the sweet orange MYB gene (CsMYB) family in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis orthologs. According to these analyses, these CsMYBs were categorized into four groups (4R-MYB, 3R-MYB, 2R-MYB and 1R-MYB). Gene structure analysis revealed that 1R-MYB genes possess relatively more introns as compared with 2R-MYB genes. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that these CsMYBs are distributed across nine chromosomes. Sweet orange includes a relatively small number of MYB genes compared with the 198 members in Arabidopsis, presumably due to a paralog reduction related to repetitive sequence insertion into promoter and non-coding transcribed region of the genes. Comparative studies of CsMYBs and Arabidopsis showed that CsMYBs had fewer gene duplication events. Expression analysis revealed that the MYB gene family has a wide expression profile in sweet orange development and plays important roles in development and stress responses. In addition, 337 new putative microsatellites with flanking sequences sufficient for primer design were also identified from the 177 CsMYBs. These results provide a useful reference for the selection of candidate MYB genes for cloning and further functional analysis forcitrus.

  13. Genome-wide identification and expression analyses of cytochrome P450 genes in mulberry (Morus notabilis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ma; Yiwei Luo; Ling Jia; Xiwu Qi; Qiwei Zeng; Zhonghuai Xiang; Ningjia He

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s play critical roles in the biosyn-thesis of physiological y important compounds in plants. These compounds often act as defense toxins to prevent herbivory. In the present study, a total of 174 P450 genes of mulberry (Morus notabilis C.K.Schn) were identified based on bioinfor-matics analyses. These mulberry P450 genes were divided into nine clans and 47 families and were found to be expressed in a tissue-preferential manner. These genes were compared to the P450 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Families CYP80, CYP92, CYP728, CYP733, CYP736, and CYP749 were found to exist in mulberry, and they may play important roles in the biosynthesis of mulberry secondary metabolites. Analyses of the functional and metabolic pathways of these genes indicated that mulberry P450 genes may participate in the metabolism of lipids, other secondary metabolites, xenobiotics, amino acids, cofactors, vitamins, terpenoids, and polyketides. These results provide a foundation for understanding of the structures and biological functions of mulberry P450 genes.

  14. Genome wide expression analysis suggests perturbation of vascular homeostasis during high altitude pulmonary edema.

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    Manish Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic edema which occurs in unacclimatized but otherwise normal individuals within two to four days after rapid ascent to altitude beyond 3000 m. The precise pathoetiology and inciting mechanisms regulating HAPE remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We performed global gene expression profiling in individuals with established HAPE compared to acclimatized individuals. Our data suggests concurrent modulation of multiple pathways which regulate vascular homeostasis and consequently lung fluid dynamics. These pathways included those which regulate vasoconstriction through smooth muscle contraction, cellular actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and endothelial permeability/dysfunction. Some notable genes within these pathways included MYLK; rho family members ARGEF11, ARHGAP24; cell adhesion molecules such as CLDN6, CLDN23, PXN and VCAM1 besides other signaling intermediates. Further, several important regulators of systemic/pulmonary hypertension including ADRA1D, ECE1, and EDNRA were upregulated in HAPE. We also observed significant upregulation of genes involved in paracrine signaling through chemokines and lymphocyte activation pathways during HAPE represented by transcripts of TNF, JAK2, MAP2K2, MAP2K7, MAPK10, PLCB1, ARAF, SOS1, PAK3 and RELA amongst others. Perturbation of such pathways can potentially skew vascular homeostatic equilibrium towards altered vascular permeability. Additionally, differential regulation of hypoxia-sensing, hypoxia-response and OXPHOS pathway genes in individuals with HAPE were also observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveals specific components of the complex molecular circuitry underlying HAPE. We show concurrent perturbation of multiple pathways regulating vascular homeostasis and suggest multi-genic nature of regulation of HAPE.

  15. Genome-wide identification and expression pattern of drought-responsive members of the NAC family in maize

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    Kaliyugam Shiriga

    2014-12-01

    -tuned by specific regulators. This genome-wide identification and expression profiling opens new avenues for systematic functional analysis of new members of the NAC gene family, which may be exploited in developing lines that are better adapted to drought.

  16. Genome wide expression profiling of the mesodiencephalic region identifies novel factors involved in early and late dopaminergic development

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    Koushik Chakrabarty

    2012-05-01

    Meso-diencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA neurons are critical for motor control and cognitive functioning and their loss or dysfunction is associated with disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD, schizophrenia and addiction. However, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying mdDA neuron development and maintenance. Here, we determined the spatiotemporal map of genes involved in the development of mdDA neurons to gain further insight into their molecular programming. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of the developing ventral mesencephalon (VM were compared at different developmental stages leading to the identification of novel regulatory roles of neuronal signaling through nicotinic acthylcholine receptors (Chrna6 and Chrnb3 subunits and the identification of novel transcription factors (Oc2 and 3 involved in the generation of the mdDA neuronal field. We show here that Pitx3, in cooperation with Nurr1, is the critical component in the activation of the Chrna6 and Chrnb3 subunits in mdDA neurons. Furthermore, we provide evidence of two divergent regulatory pathways resulting in the expression of Chrna6 and Chrnb3 respectively.

  17. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the ClTCP transcription factors in Citrullus lanatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pibiao; Guy, Kateta Malangisha; Wu, Weifang; Fang, Bingsheng; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang; Hu, Zhongyuan

    2016-04-12

    The plant-specific TCP transcription factor family, which is involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation, performs diverse functions in multiple aspects of plant growth and development. However, no comprehensive analysis of the TCP family in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) has been undertaken previously. A total of 27 watermelon TCP encoding genes distributed on nine chromosomes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the genes into 11 distinct subgroups. Furthermore, phylogenetic and structural analyses distinguished two homology classes within the ClTCP family, designated Class I and Class II. The Class II genes were differentiated into two subclasses, the CIN subclass and the CYC/TB1 subclass. The expression patterns of all members were determined by semi-quantitative PCR. The functions of two ClTCP genes, ClTCP14a and ClTCP15, in regulating plant height were confirmed by ectopic expression in Arabidopsis wild-type and ortholog mutants. This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of the watermelon TCP gene family, which provides valuable information for understanding the classification and functions of the TCP genes in watermelon.

  18. Functional annotation of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis associated genes by integrative genome-wide gene expression profiling analysis.

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    Zhan-Chun Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA and osteoarthritis (OA are two major types of joint diseases that share multiple common symptoms. However, their pathological mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of our study is to identify RA and OA related-genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of these diseases. METHODS: We collected 11 whole genome-wide expression profiling datasets from RA and OA cohorts and performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively investigate their expression signatures. This method can avoid some pitfalls of single dataset analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found that several biological pathways (i.e., the immunity, inflammation and apoptosis related pathways are commonly involved in the development of both RA and OA. Whereas several other pathways (i.e., vasopressin-related pathway, regulation of autophagy, endocytosis, calcium transport and endoplasmic reticulum stress related pathways present significant difference between RA and OA. This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying this disease, thereby aiding the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  19. Generalised Anxiety Disorder--A Twin Study of Genetic Architecture, Genome-Wide Association and Differential Gene Expression.

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    Matthew N Davies

    Full Text Available Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD is a common anxiety-related diagnosis, affecting approximately 5% of the adult population. One characteristic of GAD is a high degree of anxiety sensitivity (AS, a personality trait which describes the fear of arousal-related sensations. Here we present a genome-wide association study of AS using a cohort of 730 MZ and DZ female twins. The GWAS showed a significant association for a variant within the RBFOX1 gene. A heritability analysis of the same cohort also confirmed a significant genetic component with h2 of 0.42. Additionally, a subset of the cohort (25 MZ twins discordant for AS was studied for evidence of differential expression using RNA-seq data. Significant differential expression of two exons with the ITM2B gene within the discordant MZ subset was observed, a finding that was replicated in an independent cohort. While previous research has shown that anxiety has a high comorbidity with a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, our analysis suggests a novel etiology specific to AS.

  20. Generalised Anxiety Disorder--A Twin Study of Genetic Architecture, Genome-Wide Association and Differential Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Matthew N; Verdi, Serena; Burri, Andrea; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Lee, Minyoung; Hettema, John M; Jansen, Rick; Boomsma, Dorret I; Spector, Tim D

    2015-01-01

    Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety-related diagnosis, affecting approximately 5% of the adult population. One characteristic of GAD is a high degree of anxiety sensitivity (AS), a personality trait which describes the fear of arousal-related sensations. Here we present a genome-wide association study of AS using a cohort of 730 MZ and DZ female twins. The GWAS showed a significant association for a variant within the RBFOX1 gene. A heritability analysis of the same cohort also confirmed a significant genetic component with h2 of 0.42. Additionally, a subset of the cohort (25 MZ twins discordant for AS) was studied for evidence of differential expression using RNA-seq data. Significant differential expression of two exons with the ITM2B gene within the discordant MZ subset was observed, a finding that was replicated in an independent cohort. While previous research has shown that anxiety has a high comorbidity with a variety of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders, our analysis suggests a novel etiology specific to AS.

  1. Biomarker-based classification of bacterial and fungal whole-blood infections in a genome-wide expression study

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    Andreas eDix

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that can be caused by bacteria or fungi. Early knowledge on the nature of the causative agent is a prerequisite for targeted anti-microbial therapy. Besides currently used detection methods like blood culture and PCR-based assays, the analysis of the transcriptional response of the host to infecting organisms holds great promise. In this study, we aim to examine the transcriptional footprint of infections caused by the bacterial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a human whole-blood model. Moreover, we use the expression information to build a random forest classifier to classify if a sample contains a bacterial, fungal, or mock-infection. After normalizing the transcription intensities using stably expressed reference genes, we filtered the gene set for biomarkers of bacterial or fungal blood infections. This selection is based on differential expression and an additional gene relevance measure. In this way, we identified 38 biomarker genes, including IL6, SOCS3, and IRG1 which were already associated to sepsis by other studies. Using these genes, we trained the classifier and assessed its performance. It yielded a 96% accuracy (sensitivities >93%, specificities >97% for a 10-fold stratified cross-validation and a 92% accuracy (sensitivities and specificities >83% for an additional test dataset comprising Cryptococcus neoformans infections. Furthermore, the classifier is robust to Gaussian noise, indicating correct class predictions on datasets of new species. In conclusion, this genome-wide approach demonstrates an effective feature selection process in combination with the construction of a well-performing classification model. Further analyses of genes with pathogen-dependent expression patterns can provide insights into the systemic host responses, which may lead to new anti-microbial therapeutic advances.

  2. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of sulfate transporter (SULTR) genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Recep; Koc, Ibrahim; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Sen, Ugur; Uras, Mehmet Emin; Anjum, Naser A; Pereira, Eduarda; Filiz, Ertugrul

    2016-12-01

    Solanum tuberosum genome analysis revealed 12 StSULTR genes encoding 18 transcripts. Among genes annotated at group level ( StSULTR I-IV), group III members formed the largest SULTRs-cluster and were potentially involved in biotic/abiotic stress responses via various regulatory factors, and stress and signaling proteins. Employing bioinformatics tools, this study performed genome-wide identification and expression analysis of SULTR (StSULTR) genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Very strict homology search and subsequent domain verification with Hidden Markov Model revealed 12 StSULTR genes encoding 18 transcripts. StSULTR genes were mapped on seven S. tuberosum chromosomes. Annotation of StSULTR genes was also done as StSULTR I-IV at group level based mainly on the phylogenetic distribution with Arabidopsis SULTRs. Several tandem and segmental duplications were identified between StSULTR genes. Among these duplications, Ka/Ks ratios indicated neutral nature of mutations that might not be causing any selection. Two segmental and one-tandem duplications were calculated to occur around 147.69, 180.80 and 191.00 million years ago (MYA), approximately corresponding to the time of monocot/dicot divergence. Two other segmental duplications were found to occur around 61.23 and 67.83 MYA, which is very close to the origination of monocotyledons. Most cis-regulatory elements in StSULTRs were found associated with major hormones (such as abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate), and defense and stress responsiveness. The cis-element distribution in duplicated gene pairs indicated the contribution of duplication events in conferring the neofunctionalization/s in StSULTR genes. Notably, RNAseq data analyses unveiled expression profiles of StSULTR genes under different stress conditions. In particular, expression profiles of StSULTR III members suggested their involvement in plant stress responses. Additionally, gene co-expression networks of these group members included various

  3. Method designed to respect molecular heterogeneity can profoundly correct present data interpretations for genome-wide expression analysis.

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    Chih-Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Although genome-wide expression analysis has become a routine tool for gaining insight into molecular mechanisms, extraction of information remains a major challenge. It has been unclear why standard statistical methods, such as the t-test and ANOVA, often lead to low levels of reproducibility, how likely applying fold-change cutoffs to enhance reproducibility is to miss key signals, and how adversely using such methods has affected data interpretations. We broadly examined expression data to investigate the reproducibility problem and discovered that molecular heterogeneity, a biological property of genetically different samples, has been improperly handled by the statistical methods. Here we give a mathematical description of the discovery and report the development of a statistical method, named HTA, for better handling molecular heterogeneity. We broadly demonstrate the improved sensitivity and specificity of HTA over the conventional methods and show that using fold-change cutoffs has lost much information. We illustrate the especial usefulness of HTA for heterogeneous diseases, by applying it to existing data sets of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and Parkinson's disease, and show it can abundantly and reproducibly uncover disease signatures not previously detectable. Based on 156 biological data sets, we estimate that the methodological issue has affected over 96% of expression studies and that HTA can profoundly correct 86% of the affected data interpretations. The methodological advancement can better facilitate systems understandings of biological processes, render biological inferences that are more reliable than they have hitherto been and engender translational medical applications, such as identifying diagnostic biomarkers and drug prediction, which are more robust.

  4. Genome-wide organization and expression profiling of the NAC transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Pal, Awadhesh Kumar; Acharya, Vishal; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2013-08-01

    NAC [no apical meristem (NAM), Arabidopsis thaliana transcription activation factor [ATAF1/2] and cup-shaped cotyledon (CUC2)] proteins belong to one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signalling. Our genome-wide analysis identified 110 StNAC genes in potato encoding for 136 proteins, including 14 membrane-bound TFs. The physical map positions of StNAC genes on 12 potato chromosomes were non-random, and 40 genes were found to be distributed in 16 clusters. The StNAC proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 12 subgroups. Phylogenetic analysis of StNACs along with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts divided these proteins into 18 subgroups. Our comparative analysis has also identified 36 putative TNAC proteins, which appear to be restricted to Solanaceae family. In silico expression analysis, using Illumina RNA-seq transcriptome data, revealed tissue-specific, biotic, abiotic stress and hormone-responsive expression profile of StNAC genes. Several StNAC genes, including StNAC072 and StNAC101that are orthologs of known stress-responsive Arabidopsis RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 26 (RD26) were identified as highly abiotic stress responsive. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis largely corroborated the expression profile of StNAC genes as revealed by the RNA-seq data. Taken together, this analysis indicates towards putative functions of several StNAC TFs, which will provide blue-print for their functional characterization and utilization in potato improvement.

  5. Integrating pathway analysis and genetics of gene expression for genome-wide association study of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Liang, Liming; Morar, Nilesh; Dixon, Anna L; Lathrop, G Mark; Ding, Jun; Moffatt, Miriam F; Cookson, William O C; Kraft, Peter; Qureshi, Abrar A; Han, Jiali

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have primarily focused on marginal effects for individual markers and have incorporated external functional information only after identifying robust statistical associations. We applied a new approach combining the genetics of gene expression and functional classification of genes to the GWAS of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) to identify potential biological pathways associated with BCC. We first identified 322,324 expression-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNPs) from two existing GWASs of global gene expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (n = 955), and evaluated the association of these functionally annotated SNPs with BCC among 2,045 BCC cases and 6,013 controls in Caucasians. We then grouped them into 99 KEGG pathways for pathway analysis and identified two pathways associated with BCC with p value <0.05 and false discovery rate (FDR) <0.5: the autoimmune thyroid disease pathway (mainly HLA class I and II antigens, p < 0.001, FDR = 0.24) and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway (p = 0.02, FDR = 0.49). Seventy-nine (25.7%) out of 307 significant eSNPs in the JAK-STAT pathway were associated with BCC risk (p < 0.05) in an independent replication set of 278 BCC cases and 1,262 controls. In addition, the association of JAK-STAT signaling pathway was marginally validated using 16,691 eSNPs identified from 110 normal skin samples (p = 0.08). Based on the evidence of biological functions of the JAK-STAT pathway on oncogenesis, it is plausible that this pathway is involved in BCC pathogenesis.

  6. The genome-wide expression profile of Curcuma longa-treated cisplatin-stimulated HEK293 cells

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    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Ko, Eunjung; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Lee, Eun-Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Shin, Minkyu; Hong, Moochang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2010-01-01

    AIM The rhizome of turmeric, Curcuma longa (CL), is a herbal medicine used in many traditional prescriptions. It has previously been shown that CL treatment showed greater than 47% recovery from cisplatin-induced cell damage in human kidney HEK 293 cells. This study was conducted to evaluate the recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by examining the genome wide mRNA expression profiles of HEK 293 -cells. METHOD Recovery mechanisms of CL that occur during cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were determined by microarray, real-time PCR, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The results of microarray analysis and real-time PCR revealed that NFκB pathway-related genes and apoptosis-related genes were down-regulated in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. In addition, immunofluorescent confocal microscopy and Western blot analysis revealed that NFκB p65 nuclear translocation was inhibited in CL-treated HEK 293 cells. Therefore, the mechanism responsible for the effects of CL on HEK 293 cells is closely associated with regulation of the NFκB pathway. CONCLUSION CL possesses novel therapeutic agents that can be used for the prevention or treatment of cisplatin-induced renal disorders. PMID:20840446

  7. Pathway analysis of expression-related SNPs on genome-wide association study of basal cell carcinoma

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    Li, Xin; Liang, Liming; De Vivo, Immaculata; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have primarily focused on the association between individual genetic markers and risk of disease. We applied a novel approach that integrates skin expression-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (eSNPs) and pathway analysis for GWAS of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) to identify potential novel biological pathways. We evaluated the associations between 70,932 skin eSNPs and risk of BCC among 2,323 cases and 7,275 controls of European ancestry, and then assigned them to the pathways defined by KEGG, GO, and BioCarta databases. Three KEGG pathways (colorectal cancer, actin cytoskeleton, and BCC), two GO pathways (cellular component disassembly in apoptosis, and nucleus organization), and four BioCarta pathways (Ras signaling, T cell receptor signaling, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and links between Pyk2 and Map Kinases) showed significant association with BCC risk with p-value<0.05 and FDR<0.2. These pathways also ranked at top in sensitivity analyses. Two positive controls in KEGG, the hedgehog pathway and the BCC pathway, showed significant association with BCC risk in both main and sensitivity analyses. Our results indicate that SNPs that are undetectable by conventional GWASs are significantly associated with BCC when tested as pathways. Biological studies of these gene groups suggest their potential roles in the etiology of BCC. PMID:27367190

  8. Heat shock factors in tomatoes: genome-wide identification, phylogenetic analysis and expression profiling under development and heat stress

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    Xuedong Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The HSF (heat shock factor gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant high-temperature stress responses. The present study aimed to characterize the HSF transcription factor genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, which is an important vegetable crop worldwide and the model plant for fruit development studies. Twenty-six SlyHSF genes were identified in tomato, and the phylogenetic analysis showed the possible evolution profile of subgroups among in the plant kingdom. A new group O was identified that involved HSF genes in primitive plant species, like in the green algae, mosses and lycophytes. The gene structure and motifs of each SlyHSF were comprehensively analyzed. We identified orthologous, co-orthologous and paralogous HSF gene pairs in tomato, Arabidopsis and rice, and constructed a complex interaction network among these genes. The SlyHSF genes were expressed differentially in different species and at a higher level in mature fruits. The qPCR analysis was performed and showed SlyHSF genes greatly participate in plant heat tolerant pathways. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provided insights into the HSF gene family of tomatoes.

  9. Screening of tissue-specific genes and promoters in tomato by comparing genome wide expression profiles of Arabidopsis orthologues.

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    Lim, Chan Ju; Lee, Ha Yeon; Kim, Woong Bom; Lee, Bok-Sim; Kim, Jungeun; Ahmad, Raza; Kim, Hyun A; Yi, So Young; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2012-07-01

    Constitutive overexpression of transgenes occasionally interferes with normal growth and developmental processes in plants. Thus, the development of tissue-specific promoters that drive transgene expression has become agriculturally important. To identify tomato tissue-specific promoters, tissue-specific genes were screened using a series of in silico-based and experimental procedures, including genome-wide orthologue searches of tomato and Arabidopsis databases, isolation of tissue-specific candidates using an Arabidopsis microarray database, and validation of tissue specificity by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis and promoter assay. Using these procedures, we found 311 tissue-specific candidate genes and validated 10 tissue-specific genes by RT-PCR. Among these identified genes, histochemical analysis of five isolated promoter::GUS transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis plants revealed that their promoters have different but distinct tissue-specific activities in anther, fruit, and root, respectively. Therefore, it appears these in silico-based screening approaches in addition to the identification of new tissue-specific genes and promoters will be helpful for the further development of tailored crop development.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

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    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  11. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of tomato Hsp20 gene family in response to biotic and abiotic stresses

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    jiahong yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20 gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83% were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower, suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript

  12. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  13. Genome-wide gene expression profile analyses identify CTTN as a potential prognostic marker in esophageal cancer.

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    Pei Lu

    Full Text Available AIM: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is one of the most common fatal malignances of the digestive tract. Its prognosis is poor mainly due to the lack of reliable markers for early detection and prognostic prediction. Here we aim to identify the molecules involved in ESCC carcinogenesis and those as potential markers for prognosis and as new molecular therapeutic targets. METHODS: We performed genome-wide gene expression profile analyses of 10 primary ESCCs and their adjacent normal tissues by cDNA microarrays representing 47,000 transcripts and variants. Candidate genes were then validated by semi quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR, tissue microarrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry (IHC staining. RESULTS: Using an arbitrary cutoff line of signal log ratio of ≥1.5 or ≤-1.5, we observed 549 up-regulated genes and 766 down-regulated genes in ESCCs compared with normal esophageal tissues. The functions of 302 differentially expressed genes were associated with cell metabolism, cell adhesion and immune response. Several candidate deregulated genes including four overexpressed (CTTN, DMRT2, MCM10 and SCYA26 and two underexpressed (HMGCS2 and SORBS2 were subsequently verified, which can be served as biomarkers for ESCC. Moreover, overexpression of cortactin (CTTN was observed in 126/198 (63.6% of ESCC cases and was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.000, pathologic stage (P = 0.000 and poor survival (P<0.001 of ESCC patients. Furthermore, a significant correlation between CTTN overexpression and shorter disease-specific survival rate was found in different subgroups of ESCC patient stratified by the pathologic stage (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Our data provide valuable information for establishing molecules as candidates for prognostic and/or as therapeutic targets.

  14. Distinct gene subsets in pterygia formation and recurrence: dissecting complex biological phenomenon using genome wide expression data

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    Ang Leonard PK

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pterygium is a common ocular surface disease characterized by fibrovascular invasion of the cornea and is sight-threatening due to astigmatism, tear film disturbance, or occlusion of the visual axis. However, the mechanisms for formation and post-surgical recurrence of pterygium are not understood, and a valid animal model does not exist. Here, we investigated the possible mechanisms of pterygium pathogenesis and recurrence. Methods First we performed a genome wide expression analysis (human Affymetrix Genechip, >22000 genes with principal component analysis and clustering techniques, and validated expression of key molecules with PCR. The controls for this study were the un-involved conjunctival tissue of the same eye obtained during the surgical resection of the lesions. Interesting molecules were further investigated with immunohistochemistry, Western blots, and comparison with tear proteins from pterygium patients. Results Principal component analysis in pterygium indicated a signature of matrix-related structural proteins, including fibronectin-1 (both splice-forms, collagen-1A2, keratin-12 and small proline rich protein-1. Immunofluorescence showed strong expression of keratin-6A in all layers, especially the superficial layers, of pterygium epithelium, but absent in the control, with up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of the cell adhesion molecule CD24 in the pterygium epithelium. Western blot shows increased protein expression of beta-microseminoprotein, a protein up-regulated in human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Gene products of 22 up-regulated genes in pterygium have also been found by us in human tears using nano-electrospray-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry after pterygium surgery. Recurrent disease was associated with up-regulation of sialophorin, a negative regulator of cell adhesion, and never in mitosis a-5, known to be involved in cell motility. Conclusion Aberrant wound healing is therefore

  15. p53 shapes genome-wide and cell type-specific changes in microRNA expression during the human DNA damage response.

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    Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Janky, Rekin's; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Aerts, Stein; Madan Babu, M; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro-(mi)RNA species including miR34, miR-18, miR-16 and miR-143 have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4-24 h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell-type dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most-highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients.

  16. Genome-wide expression profiling shows transcriptional reprogramming in Fusarium graminearum by Fusarium graminearum virus 1-DK21 infection

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    Cho Won

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum virus 1 strain-DK21 (FgV1-DK21 is a mycovirus that confers hypovirulence to F. graminearum, which is the primary phytopathogenic fungus that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB disease in many cereals. Understanding the interaction between mycoviruses and plant pathogenic fungi is necessary for preventing damage caused by F. graminearum. Therefore, we investigated important cellular regulatory processes in a host containing FgV1-DK21 as compared to an uninfected parent using a transcriptional approach. Results Using a 3′-tiling microarray covering all known F. graminearum genes, we carried out genome-wide expression analyses of F. graminearum at two different time points. At the early point of growth of an infected strain as compared to an uninfected strain, genes associated with protein synthesis, including ribosome assembly, nucleolus, and ribosomal RNA processing, were significantly up-regulated. In addition, genes required for transcription and signal transduction, including fungal-specific transcription factors and cAMP signaling, respectively, were actively up-regulated. In contrast, genes involved in various metabolic pathways, particularly in producing carboxylic acids, aromatic amino acids, nitrogen compounds, and polyamines, showed dramatic down-regulation at the early time point. Moreover, genes associated with transport systems localizing to transmembranes were down-regulated at both time points. Conclusion This is the first report of global change in the prominent cellular pathways in the Fusarium host containing FgV1-DK21. The significant increase in transcripts for transcription and translation machinery in fungal host cells seems to be related to virus replication. In addition, significant down-regulation of genes required for metabolism and transporting systems in a fungal host containing the virus appears to be related to the host defense mechanism and fungal virulence. Taken together

  17. Genome-wide linkage scan and association study of PARL to the expression of LHON families in Thailand.

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    Phasukkijwatana, Nopasak; Kunhapan, Bussaraporn; Stankovich, Jim; Chuenkongkaew, Wanicha L; Thomson, Russell; Thornton, Timothy; Bahlo, Melanie; Mushiroda, Taisei; Nakamura, Yusuke; Mahasirimongkol, Surakameth; Tun, Aung Win; Srisawat, Chatchawan; Limwongse, Chanin; Peerapittayamongkol, Chayanon; Sura, Thanyachai; Suthammarak, Wichit; Lertrit, Patcharee

    2010-07-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common mitochondrially inherited disease causing blindness, preferentially in young adult males. Most of the patients carry the G11778A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. However, the marked incomplete penetrance and the gender bias indicate some additional genetic and/or environmental factors to disease expression. Herein, we first conducted a genome-wide linkage scan with 400 microsatellite markers in 9 large Thai LHON G11778A pedigrees. Using an affecteds-only nonparametric linkage analysis, 4 regions on chromosomes 3, 12, 13 and 18 showed Zlr scores greater than 2 (P 2 in 10 of 16 allele sharing models tested) was then expanded to include the region 3q26.2-3q28 covering SLC7A14 (3q26.2), MFN1 (3q26.32), MRPL47 (3q26.33), MCCC1 (3q27.1), PARL (3q27.1) and OPA1 (3q28-q29). All of these candidate genes were selected from the Maestro database and had known to be localized in mitochondria. Sixty tag SNPs were genotyped in 86 cases, 211 of their relatives and 32 unrelated Thai controls, by multiplex-PCR-based Invader assay. Analyses using a powerful association testing tool that adjusts for relatedness (the M(QLS) statistic) showed the most evidence of association between two SNPs, rs3749446 and rs1402000 (located in PARL presenilins-associated rhomboid-like) and LHON expression (both P = 8.8 x 10(-5)). The mitochondrial PARL protease has been recently known to play a role with a dynamin-related OPA1 protein in preventing apoptotic events by slowing down the release of cytochrome c out of mitochondrial cristae junctions. Moreover, PARL is required to activate the intramembranous proteolyses resulting in the degradation of an accumulated pro-apoptotic protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane. Under these circumstances, variants of PARL are suggested to influence cell death by apoptosis which has long been believed to intrigue the neurodegeneration of LHON.

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis and Expression Profiling of the Phospholipase C Gene Family in Soybean (Glycine max.

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    Fawei Wang

    Full Text Available Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to produce diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. It plays an important role in plant development and abiotic stress responses. However, systematic analysis and expression profiling of the phospholipase C (PLC gene family in soybean have not been reported. In this study, 12 putative PLC genes were identified in the soybean genome. Soybean PLCs were found on chromosomes 2, 11, 14 and 18 and encoded 58.8-70.06 kD proteins. Expression pattern analysis by RT-PCR demonstrated that expression of the GmPLCs was induced by PEG, NaCl and saline-alkali treatments in roots and leaves. GmPLC transcripts accumulated specifically in roots after ABA treatment. Furthermore, GmPLC transcripts were analyzed in various tissues. The results showed that GmPLC7 was highly expressed in most tissues, whereas GmPLC12 was expressed in early pods specifically. In addition, subcellular localization analysis was carried out and confirmed that GmPLC10 was localized in the plasma membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana. Our genomic analysis of the soybean PLC family provides an insight into the regulation of abiotic stress responses and development. It also provides a solid foundation for the functional characterization of the soybean PLC gene family.

  19. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera

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    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates. We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that

  20. Integrated genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling reveals BCL11B as a putative oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia with 14q32 aberrations.

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    Abbas, Saman; Sanders, Mathijs A; Zeilemaker, Annelieke; Geertsma-Kleinekoort, Wendy M C; Koenders, Jasper E; Kavelaars, Francois G; Abbas, Zabiollah G; Mahamoud, Souad; Chu, Isabel W T; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Peeters, Justine K; van Drunen, Ellen; van Galen, Janneke; Beverloo, H Berna; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J M

    2014-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by recurrent molecular aberrations traditionally demonstrated by cytogenetic analyses. We used high density genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling to reveal acquired cryptic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. By genome-wide genotyping of 137 cases of primary acute myeloid leukemia, we disclosed a recurrent focal amplification on chromosome 14q32, which included the genes BCL11B, CCNK, C14orf177 and SETD3, in two cases. In the affected cases, the BCL11B gene showed consistently high mRNA expression, whereas the expression of the other genes was unperturbed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on 40 cases of acute myeloid leukemia with high BCL11B mRNA expression [2.5-fold above median; 40 out of 530 cases (7.5%)] revealed 14q32 abnormalities in two additional cases. In the four BCL11B-rearranged cases the 14q32 locus was fused to different partner chromosomes. In fact, in two cases, we demonstrated that the focal 14q32 amplifications were integrated into transcriptionally active loci. The translocations involving BCL11B result in increased expression of full-length BCL11B protein. The BCL11B-rearranged acute myeloid leukemias expressed both myeloid and T-cell markers. These biphenotypic acute leukemias all carried FLT3 internal tandem duplications, a characteristic marker of acute myeloid leukemia. BCL11B mRNA expression in acute myeloid leukemia appeared to be strongly associated with expression of other T-cell-specific genes. Myeloid 32D(GCSF-R) cells ectopically expressing Bcl11b showed decreased proliferation rate and less maturation. In conclusion, by an integrated approach involving high-throughput genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling we identified BCL11B as a candidate oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia.

  1. Genome-Wide Nucleosome Occupancy and Positioning and Their Impact on Gene Expression and Evolution in Plants.

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    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Wenli; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-08-01

    The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome that consists of a protein octamer composed of the four core histones (Hs; H3, H4, H2A, and H2B) wrapped by 147 bp of DNA. Nucleosome occupancy and positioning have proven to be dynamic and have a critical impact on expression, regulation, and evolution of eukaryotic genes. We developed nucleosome occupancy and positioning data sets using leaf tissue of rice (Oryza sativa) and both leaf and flower tissues of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We show that model plant and animal species share the fundamental characteristics associated with nucleosome dynamics. Only 12% and 16% of the Arabidopsis and rice genomes, respectively, were occupied by well-positioned nucleosomes. The cores of positioned nucleosomes were enriched with G/C dinucleotides and showed a lower C→T mutation rate than the linker sequences. We discovered that nucleosomes associated with heterochromatic regions were more spaced with longer linkers than those in euchromatic regions in both plant species. Surprisingly, different nucleosome densities were found to be associated with chromatin in leaf and flower tissues in Arabidopsis. We show that deep MNase-seq data sets can be used to map nucleosome occupancy of specific genomic loci and reveal gene expression patterns correlated with chromatin dynamics in plant genomes.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of the sox family in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum: multiple genes with unique expression patterns

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    Fortunato Sofia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox genes are HMG-domain containing transcription factors with important roles in developmental processes in animals; many of them appear to have conserved functions among eumetazoans. Demosponges have fewer Sox genes than eumetazoans, but their roles remain unclear. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the early evolutionary history of the Sox gene family by identification and expression analysis of Sox genes in the calcareous sponge Sycon ciliatum. Methods Calcaronean Sox related sequences were retrieved by searching recently generated genomic and transcriptome sequence resources and analyzed using variety of phylogenetic methods and identification of conserved motifs. Expression was studied by whole mount in situ hybridization. Results We have identified seven Sox genes and four Sox-related genes in the complete genome of Sycon ciliatum. Phylogenetic and conserved motif analyses showed that five of Sycon Sox genes represent groups B, C, E, and F present in cnidarians and bilaterians. Two additional genes are classified as Sox genes but cannot be assigned to specific subfamilies, and four genes are more similar to Sox genes than to other HMG-containing genes. Thus, the repertoire of Sox genes is larger in this representative of calcareous sponges than in the demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. It remains unclear whether this is due to the expansion of the gene family in Sycon or a secondary reduction in the Amphimedon genome. In situ hybridization of Sycon Sox genes revealed a variety of expression patterns during embryogenesis and in specific cell types of adult sponges. Conclusions In this study, we describe a large family of Sox genes in Sycon ciliatum with dynamic expression patterns, indicating that Sox genes are regulators in development and cell type determination in sponges, as observed in higher animals. The revealed differences between demosponge and calcisponge Sox genes repertoire highlight the need to

  3. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Solute Carrier 6 Gene Family in Silkworm (Bombyx mori)

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    Tang, Xin; Liu, Huawei; Chen, Quanmei; Wang, Xin; Xiong, Ying; Zhao, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family, initially known as the neurotransmitter transporters, plays vital roles in the regulation of neurotransmitter signaling, nutrient absorption and motor behavior. In this study, a total of 16 candidate genes were identified as SLC6 family gene homologs in the silkworm (Bombyx mori) genome. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of silkworm SLC6 gene transcripts indicated that these genes were highly and specifically expressed in midgut, brain and gonads; moreover, these genes were expressed primarily at the feeding stage or adult stage. Levels of expression for most midgut-specific and midgut-enriched gene transcripts were down-regulated after starvation but up-regulated after re-feeding. In addition, we observed that expression levels of these genes except for BmSLC6-15 and BmGT1 were markedly up-regulated by a juvenile hormone analog. Moreover, brain-enriched genes showed differential expression patterns during wandering and mating processes, suggesting that these genes may be involved in modulating wandering and mating behaviors. Our results improve our understanding of the expression patterns and potential physiological functions of the SLC6 gene family, and provide valuable information for the comprehensive functional analysis of the SLC6 gene family. PMID:27706106

  4. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the Solute Carrier 6 Gene Family in Silkworm (Bombyx mori

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    Xin Tang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The solute carrier 6 (SLC6 gene family, initially known as the neurotransmitter transporters, plays vital roles in the regulation of neurotransmitter signaling, nutrient absorption and motor behavior. In this study, a total of 16 candidate genes were identified as SLC6 family gene homologs in the silkworm (Bombyx mori genome. Spatio-temporal expression patterns of silkworm SLC6 gene transcripts indicated that these genes were highly and specifically expressed in midgut, brain and gonads; moreover, these genes were expressed primarily at the feeding stage or adult stage. Levels of expression for most midgut-specific and midgut-enriched gene transcripts were down-regulated after starvation but up-regulated after re-feeding. In addition, we observed that expression levels of these genes except for BmSLC6-15 and BmGT1 were markedly up-regulated by a juvenile hormone analog. Moreover, brain-enriched genes showed differential expression patterns during wandering and mating processes, suggesting that these genes may be involved in modulating wandering and mating behaviors. Our results improve our understanding of the expression patterns and potential physiological functions of the SLC6 gene family, and provide valuable information for the comprehensive functional analysis of the SLC6 gene family.

  5. Genome-wide analysis reveals diverged patterns of codon bias, gene expression, and rates of sequence evolution in picea gene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Amanda R; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2015-03-05

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the 14-3-3 Family Genes in Medicago truncatula

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    Cheng eQin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The 14-3-3 gene family, which is conserved in eukaryotes, is involved in protein-protein interactions and mediates signal transduction. However, detailed investigations of the 14-3-3 gene family in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. In this study, the identification and study of M. truncatula 14-3-3-family genes were performed based on the latest M. truncatula genome. In the M. truncatula genome, 10 14-3-3 family genes were identified, and they can be grouped into ε and non-ε groups. An exon-intron analysis showed that the gene structures are conserved in the same group. The protein structure analysis showed that 14-3-3 proteins in M. truncatula are composed of nine typical antiparallel α-helices. The expression patterns of Mt14-3-3 genes indicated that they are expressed in all tissues. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of Mt14-3-3 under hormone treatment and Sinorhizobium meliloti infection showed that the Mt14-3-3 genes were involve in nodule formation. Our findings lay a solid foundation for further functional studies of 14-3-3 in M. truncatula.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation, copy number variation, and gene expression in monozygotic twins discordant for primary biliary cirrhosis

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    Carlo eSelmi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is an uncommon autoimmune disease with a homogeneous clinical phenotype that reflects incomplete disease concordance in monozygotic (MZ twins. We have taken advantage of a unique collection consisting of genomic DNA and mRNA from peripheral blood cells of female MZ twins (n=3 sets and sisters of similar age (n=8 pairs discordant for disease. We performed a genome-wide study to investigate differences in (i DNA methylation (using a custom tiled 4-plex array containing tiled 50-mers 19,084 randomly chosen methylation sites, (ii copy number variation (CNV (with a chip including markers derived from the 1000 Genomes Project, all three HapMap phases, and recently published studies, and/or (iii gene expression (by whole-genome expression arrays. Based on the results obtained from these three approaches we utilized quantitative PCR to compare the expression of candidate genes. Importantly, our data support consistent differences in discordant twins and siblings for the (i methylation profiles of 60 gene regions, (ii CNV of 10 genes, and (iii the expression of 2 interferon-dependent genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that 17 of these genes are differentially expressed in discordant sibling pairs. In conclusion, we report that MZ twins and sisters discordant for PBC manifest particular epigenetic differences and highlight the value of the epigenetic study of twins.

  8. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling Deciphers Host Responses Altered during Dengue Shock Syndrome and Reveals the Role of Innate Immunity in Severe Dengue

    OpenAIRE

    Devignot, Stéphanie; Sapet, Cédric; Duong, Veasna; Bergon, Aurélie; Rihet, Pascal; Ong, Sivuth; Patrich T Lorn; Chroeung, Norith; Ngeav, Sina; Tolou, Hugues J.; Buchy, Philippe; Couissinier-Paris, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Deciphering host responses contributing to dengue shock syndrome (DSS), the life-threatening form of acute viral dengue infections, is required to improve both the differential prognosis and the treatments provided to DSS patients, a challenge for clinicians. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a prospective study, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of whole blood cells from 48 matched Cambodian children: 19 progressed to DSS while 16 and 13 presented respectively ...

  9. Differential gene expression from genome-wide microarray analyses distinguishes Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown layers.

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    Christin Habig

    Full Text Available The Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and Lohmann Brown (LB layer lines have been selected for high egg production since more than 50 years and belong to the worldwide leading commercial layer lines. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the molecular processes that are different among these two layer lines using whole genome RNA expression profiles. The hens were kept in the newly developed small group housing system Eurovent German with two different group sizes. Differential expression was observed for 6,276 microarray probes (FDR adjusted P-value <0.05 among the two layer lines LSL and LB. A 2-fold or greater change in gene expression was identified on 151 probe sets. In LSL, 72 of the 151 probe sets were up- and 79 of them were down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis accounting for biological processes evinced 18 GO-terms for the 72 probe sets with higher expression in LSL, especially those taking part in immune system processes and membrane organization. A total of 32 enriched GO-terms were determined among the 79 down-regulated probe sets of LSL. Particularly, these terms included phosphorus metabolic processes and signaling pathways. In conclusion, the phenotypic differences among the two layer lines LSL and LB are clearly reflected in their gene expression profiles of the cerebrum. These novel findings provide clues for genes involved in economically important line characteristics of commercial laying hens.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of the Grape (Vitis vinifera L. Zinc Finger-Homeodomain Gene Family

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    Hao Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant zinc finger-homeodomain (ZHD genes encode a family of transcription factors that have been demonstrated to play an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development. In this study, we identified a total of 13 ZHD genes (VvZHD in the grape genome that were further classified into at least seven groups. Genome synteny analysis revealed that a number of VvZHD genes were present in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, indicating that they arose before the divergence of these two species. Gene expression analysis showed that the identified VvZHD genes displayed distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns, and were differentially regulated under various stress conditions and hormone treatments, suggesting that the grape VvZHDs might be also involved in plant response to a variety of biotic and abiotic insults. Our work provides insightful information and knowledge about the ZHD genes in grape, which provides a framework for further characterization of their roles in regulation of stress tolerance as well as other aspects of grape productivity.

  11. Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Guo, Baojian; Song, Fangwei; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2011-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) is an essential phytohormone that controls many aspects of plant development. To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in maize, we intensively screened and identified 27 candidate genes encoding the seven GA metabolic enzymes including ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), using all available public maize databases. The results indicate that maize genome contains three CPS, four KS, two KO and one KAO genes, and most of them are arranged separately on the maize genome, which differs from that in rice. In addition, the enzymes catalyzing the later steps (ZmGA20ox, ZmGA3ox and ZmGA2ox) are also encoded by gene families in maize, but GA3ox enzyme is likely to be encoded by single gene. Expression profiling analysis exhibited that transcripts of 15 GA metabolic genes could be detected during maize seed germination, which provides further evidence for the notion that increased synthesis of active GA in the embryo is required for triggering germination events. Moreover, a variety of temporal genes expression patterns of GA metabolic genes were detected, which revealed the complexity of underlying mechanism for GA regulated seed germination.

  12. An association analysis between psychophysical characteristics and genome-wide gene expression changes in human adaptation to the extreme climate at the Antarctic Dome Argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Ju, X; Song, D; Huang, F; Tang, D; Zou, Z; Zhang, C; Joshi, T; Jia, L; Xu, W; Xu, K-F; Wang, Q; Xiong, Y; Guo, Z; Chen, X; Huang, F; Xu, J; Zhong, Y; Zhu, Y; Peng, Y; Wang, L; Zhang, X; Jiang, R; Li, D; Jiang, T; Xu, D; Jiang, C

    2015-04-01

    Genome-wide gene expression measurements have enabled comprehensive studies that integrate the changes of gene expression and phenotypic information to uncover their novel associations. Here we reported the association analysis between psychophysical phenotypes and genome-wide gene expression changes in human adaptation to one of the most extreme climates on Earth, the Antarctic Dome Argus. Dome A is the highest ice feature in Antarctica, and may be the coldest, driest and windiest location on earth. It is considered unapproachable due to its hostile environment. In 2007, a Chinese team of 17 male explorers made the expedition to Dome A for scientific investigation. Overall, 133 psychophysical phenotypes were recorded, and genome-wide gene expression profiles from the blood samples of the explorers were measured before their departure and upon their arrival at Dome A. We found that mood disturbances, including tension (anxiety), depression, anger and fatigue, had a strong, positive, linear relationship with the level of a male sex hormone, testosterone, using the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis. We also demonstrated that significantly lowest-level Gene Ontology groups in changes of gene expression in blood cells with erythrocyte removal were consistent with the adaptation of the psychophysical characteristics. Interestingly, we discovered a list of genes that were strongly related to significant phenotypes using phenotype and gene expression PCC analysis. Importantly, among the 70 genes that were identified, most were significantly related to mood disturbances, where 42 genes have been reported in the literature mining, suggesting that the other 28 genes were likely novel genes involved in the mood disturbance mechanism. Taken together, our association analysis provides a reliable method to uncover novel genes and mechanisms related to phenotypes, although further studies are needed.

  13. Genome-wide polymorphisms show unexpected targets of natural selection

    OpenAIRE

    Pespeni, Melissa H.; Garfield, David A.; Manier, Mollie K; Palumbi, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Natural selection can act on all the expressed genes of an individual, leaving signatures of genetic differentiation or diversity at many loci across the genome. New power to assay these genome-wide effects of selection comes from associating multi-locus patterns of polymorphism with gene expression and function. Here, we performed one of the first genome-wide surveys in a marine species, comparing purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, from two distant locations along the species...

  14. Genome-wide analysis of DHEA- and DHT-induced gene expression in mouse hypothalamus and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianxing; Lu, Shifang; Garippa, Carrie; Brownstein, Michael J; Simon, Neal G

    2009-04-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant steroid in humans and a multi-functional neuroactive steroid that has been implicated in a variety of biological effects in both the periphery and central nervous system. Mechanistic studies of DHEA in the periphery have emphasized its role as a prohormone and those in the brain have focused on effects exerted at cell surface receptors. Recent results demonstrated that DHEA is intrinsically androgenic. It competes with DHT for binding to androgen receptor (AR), induces AR-regulated reporter gene expression in vitro, and exogenous DHEA administration regulates gene expression in peripheral androgen-dependent tissues and LnCAP prostate cancer cells, indicating genomic effects and adding a level of complexity to functional models. The absence of information about the effect of DHEA on gene expression in the CNS is a significant gap in light of continuing clinical interest in the compound as a hormone replacement therapy in older individuals, patients with adrenal insufficiency, and as a treatment that improves sense of well-being, increases libido, relieves depressive symptoms, and serves as a neuroprotective agent. In the present study, ovariectomized CF-1 female mice, an established model for assessing CNS effects of androgens, were treated with DHEA (1mg/day), dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a potent androgen used as a positive control; 0.1mg/day) or vehicle (negative control) for 7 days. The effects of DHEA on gene expression were assessed in two regions of the CNS that are enriched in AR, hypothalamus and hippocampus, using DNA microarray, real-time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. RIA of serum samples assessed treatment effects on circulating levels of major steroids. In hypothalamus, DHEA and DHT significantly up-regulated the gene expression of hypocretin (Hcrt; also called orexin), pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (Pmch), and protein kinase C delta (Prkcd), and down-regulated the expression of deleted in bladder

  15. Genome-Wide Analysis of the Expression of WRKY Family Genes in Different Developmental Stages of Wild Strawberry (Fragaria vesca Fruit.

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    Heying Zhou

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins play important regulatory roles in plant developmental processes such as senescence, trichome initiation and embryo morphogenesis. In strawberry, only FaWRKY1 (Fragaria × ananassa has been characterized, leaving numerous WRKY genes to be identified and their function characterized. The publication of the draft genome sequence of the strawberry genome allowed us to conduct a genome-wide search for WRKY proteins in Fragaria vesca, and to compare the identified proteins with their homologs in model plants. Fifty-nine FvWRKY genes were identified and annotated from the F. vesca genome. Detailed analysis, including gene classification, annotation, phylogenetic evaluation, conserved motif determination and expression profiling, based on RNA-seq data, were performed on all members of the family. Additionally, the expression patterns of the WRKY genes in different fruit developmental stages were further investigated using qRT-PCR, to provide a foundation for further comparative genomics and functional studies of this important class of transcriptional regulators in strawberry.

  16. White adipose tissue genome wide-expression profiling and adipocyte metabolic functions after soy protein consumption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigolet, Maria E; Torres, Nimbe; Uribe-Figueroa, Laura; Rangel, Claudia; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Tovar, Armando R

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with an increase in adipose tissue mass due to an imbalance between high dietary energy intake and low physical activity; however, the type of dietary protein may contribute to its development. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of soy protein versus casein on white adipose tissue genome profiling, and the metabolic functions of adipocytes in rats with diet-induced obesity. The results showed that rats fed a Soy Protein High-Fat (Soy HF) diet gained less weight and had lower serum leptin concentration than rats fed a Casein High-Fat (Cas HF) diet, despite similar energy intake. Histological studies indicated that rats fed the Soy HF diet had significantly smaller adipocytes than those fed the Cas HF diet, and this was associated with a lower triglyceride/DNA content. Fatty acid synthesis in isolated adipocytes was reduced by the amount of fat consumed but not by the type of protein ingested. Expression of genes of fatty acid oxidation increased in adipose tissue of rats fed Soy diets; microarray analysis revealed that Soy protein consumption modified the expression of 90 genes involved in metabolic functions and inflammatory response in adipose tissue. Network analysis showed that the expression of leptin was regulated by the type of dietary protein and it was identified as a central regulator of the expression of lipid metabolism genes in adipose tissue. Thus, soy maintains the size and metabolic functions of adipose tissue through biochemical adaptations, adipokine secretion, and global changes in gene expression.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of Amino Acid Transporter Gene Family in Glycine Max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Yuan, Hong-Yu; Ren, Ren; Zhao, Shi-Qi; Han, Ya-Peng; Zhou, Qi-Ying; Ke, Dan-Xia; Wang, Ying-Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid transporters (AATs) play important roles in transporting amino acid across cellular membranes and are essential for plant growth and development. To date, the AAT gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.) has not been characterized. In this study, we identified 189 AAT genes from the entire soybean genomic sequence, and classified them into 12 distinct subfamilies based upon their sequence composition and phylogenetic positions. To further investigate the functions of these genes, we analyzed the chromosome distributions, gene structures, duplication patterns, phylogenetic tree, tissue expression patterns of the 189 AAT genes in soybean. We found that a large number of AAT genes in soybean were expanded via gene duplication, 46 and 36 GmAAT genes were WGD/segmental and tandemly duplicated, respectively. Further comprehensive analyses of the expression profiles of GmAAT genes in various stages of vegetative and reproductive development showed that soybean AAT genes exhibited preferential or distinct expression patterns among different tissues. Overall, our study provides a framework for further analysis of the biological functions of AAT genes in either soybean or other crops.

  18. Genome wide expression profiling reveals suppression of host defence responses during colonisation by Neisseria meningitides but not N. lactamica.

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    Hazel En En Wong

    Full Text Available Both Neisseria meningitidis and the closely related bacterium Neisseria lactamica colonise human nasopharyngeal mucosal surface, but only N. meningitidis invades the bloodstream to cause potentially life-threatening meningitis and septicaemia. We have hypothesised that the two neisserial species differentially modulate host respiratory epithelial cell gene expression reflecting their disease potential. Confluent monolayers of 16HBE14 human bronchial epithelial cells were exposed to live and/or dead N. meningitidis (including capsule and pili mutants and N. lactamica, and their transcriptomes were compared using whole genome microarrays. Changes in expression of selected genes were subsequently validated using Q-RT-PCR and ELISAs. Live N. meningitidis and N. lactamica induced genes involved in host energy production processes suggesting that both bacterial species utilise host resources. N. meningitidis infection was associated with down-regulation of host defence genes. N. lactamica, relative to N. meningitidis, initiates up-regulation of proinflammatory genes. Bacterial secreted proteins alone induced some of the changes observed. The results suggest N. meningitidis and N. lactamica differentially regulate host respiratory epithelial cell gene expression through colonisation and/or protein secretion, and that this may contribute to subsequent clinical outcomes associated with these bacteria.

  19. Engineering of red cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparative genome-wide gene expression analysis of red cells versus wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2011-04-01

    We report metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis red cells and genome-wide gene expression analysis associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways between red cells and wild-type (WT) cells. Red cells of A. thaliana were engineered for the first time from the leaves of production of anthocyanin pigment 1-Dominant (pap1-D). These red cells produced seven anthocyanin molecules including a new one that was characterized by LC-MS analysis. Wild-type cells established as a control did not produce anthocyanins. A genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that nearly 66 and 65% of genes in the genome were expressed in the red cells and wild-type cells, respectively. In comparison with the WT cells, 3.2% of expressed genes in the red cells were differentially expressed. The expression levels of 14 genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanin were significantly higher in the red cells than in the WT cells. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1 complex regulated the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Furthermore, most of the genes with significant differential expression levels in the red cells versus the WT cells were characterized with diverse biochemical functions, many of which were mapped to different metabolic pathways (e.g., ribosomal protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, glycolysis, glyoxylate metabolism, and plant secondary metabolisms) or organelles (e.g., chloroplast). We suggest that the difference in gene expression profiles between the two cell lines likely results from cell types, the overexpression of PAP1, and the high metabolic flux toward anthocyanins.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes Relevant to Rhizome Formation in Lotus Root (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.

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    Libao Cheng

    Full Text Available Lotus root is a popular wetland vegetable which produces edible rhizome. At the molecular level, the regulation of rhizome formation is very complex, which has not been sufficiently addressed in research. In this study, to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs in lotus root, four libraries (L1 library: stolon stage, L2 library: initial swelling stage, L3 library: middle swelling stage, L4: later swelling stage were constructed from the rhizome development stages. High-throughput tag-sequencing technique was used which is based on Solexa Genome Analyzer Platform. Approximately 5.0 million tags were sequenced, and 4542104, 4474755, 4777919, and 4750348 clean tags including 151282, 137476, 215872, and 166005 distinct tags were obtained after removal of low quality tags from each library respectively. More than 43% distinct tags were unambiguous tags mapping to the reference genes, and 40% were unambiguous tag-mapped genes. From L1, L2, L3, and L4, total 20471, 18785, 23448, and 21778 genes were annotated, after mapping their functions in existing databases. Profiling of gene expression in L1/L2, L2/L3, and L3/L4 libraries were different among most of the selected 20 DEGs. Most of the DEGs in L1/L2 libraries were relevant to fiber development and stress response, while in L2/L3 and L3/L4 libraries, major of the DEGs were involved in metabolism of energy and storage. All up-regulated transcriptional factors in four libraries and 14 important rhizome formation-related genes in four libraries were also identified. In addition, the expression of 9 genes from identified DEGs was performed by qRT-PCR method. In a summary, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of gene expression during the rhizome formation in lotus root.

  1. Genome-wide identification and expression profile of homeodomain-leucine zipper Class I gene family in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Fu, Rao; Li, Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

    2013-12-01

    The HD-Zip proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. HD-Zip genes have been grouped into four different classes: HD-Zip I to IV. In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of Class I HD-Zip genes in cucumber. A complete set of 13 HD-Zip I genes were identified in the cucumber genome using Blast search tools and phylogeny. The cucumber HD-Zip I family contained a smaller number of identified genes compared to other higher plants such as Arabidopsis and maize due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across 5 of 7 chromosomes. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 13 cucumber HD-Zip I genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues, which suggested that cucumber HD-Zip I genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic stress conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of HD-Zip I genes that responded to one or more treatments.

  2. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; Li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-08-20

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP) domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  3. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved motif analysis showed that all banana AQPs contained the typical AQP-like or major intrinsic protein (MIP domain. Gene structure analysis suggested the majority of MaAQPs had two to four introns with a highly specific number and length for each subfamily. Expression analysis of MaAQP genes during fruit development and postharvest ripening showed that some MaAQP genes exhibited high expression levels during these stages, indicating the involvement of MaAQP genes in banana fruit development and ripening. Additionally, some MaAQP genes showed strong induction after stress treatment and therefore, may represent potential candidates for improving banana resistance to abiotic stress. Taken together, this study identified some excellent tissue-specific, fruit development- and ripening-dependent, and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MaAQP genes, which could lay a solid foundation for genetic improvement of banana cultivars.

  4. Genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of calmodulin-like (CML) proteins in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Shoaib; Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Song, Jianwen; Munir, Sadia; Zhang, Yuyang; Ye, Zhibiao; Wang, Taotao

    2016-05-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) has emerged as a significant secondary messenger that regulates the activities of hormonal and environmental signals that are associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Ca(2+) binding proteins typically contain a Ca(2+) binding EF-hand (a helix-loop-helix structure) motif. In this study, tomato genes encoding calmodulin-like (CML) proteins that possess EF-hand motifs and no other identifiable functional domains were analyzed. Using genome analysis and BLAST searches in database, 52 CML genes were identified in tomato. Comprehensive analyses, including evolutionary relationships, gene structures, chromosomal locations, functional annotations, and gene duplications, were performed. Distribution mapping exhibited that 52 SlCML proteins containing different intron/exon patterns were unevenly distributed among ten chromosomes. In addition, 24 SlCML proteins were predicted as segmentally duplicated. Conserved motifs, promoter cis-regulatory elements, organ-based expression patterns and expression analyses indicated the potential responsiveness of SlCML proteins to abiotic stresses and phytohormones. These results illustrate the complexity of the CML gene family and indicate a potential vital role for these molecules in tomato growth and development as Ca(2+) signal transducers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital genome-wide ncRNA expression, including SnoRNAs, across 11 human tissues using polyA-neutral amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, John C; Armour, Christopher D; Löwer, Martin; Haynor, David; Biery, Matthew; Bouzek, Heather; Chen, Ronghua; Jackson, Stuart; Johnson, Jason M; Rohl, Carol A; Raymond, Christopher K

    2010-07-26

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are an essential class of molecular species that have been difficult to monitor on high throughput platforms due to frequent lack of polyadenylation. Using a polyadenylation-neutral amplification protocol and next-generation sequencing, we explore ncRNA expression in eleven human tissues. ncRNAs 7SL, U2, 7SK, and HBII-52 are expressed at levels far exceeding mRNAs. C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs are associated with rRNA methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively: spleen expresses both, hypothalamus expresses mainly C/D box snoRNAs, and testes show enriched expression of both H/ACA box snoRNAs and RNA telomerase TERC. Within the snoRNA 14q cluster, 14q(I-6) is expressed at much higher levels than other cluster members. More reads align to mitochondrial than nuclear tRNAs. Many lincRNAs are actively transcribed, particularly those overlapping known ncRNAs. Within the Prader-Willi syndrome loci, the snoRNA HBII-85 (group I) cluster is highly expressed in hypothalamus, greater than in other tissues and greater than group II or III. Additionally, within the disease locus we find novel transcription across a 400,000 nt span in ovaries. This genome-wide polyA-neutral expression compendium demonstrates the richness of ncRNA expression, their high expression patterns, their function-specific expression patterns, and is publicly available.

  6. Genome-wide Analysis of Gene Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun

    cells are capable of regulating their gene expression, so that each cell can only express a particular set of genes yielding limited numbers of proteins with specialized functions. Therefore a rigid control of differential gene expression is necessary for cellular diversity. On the other hand, aberrant...... gene regulation will disrupt the cell’s fundamental processes, which in turn can cause disease. Hence, understanding gene regulation is essential for deciphering the code of life. Along with the development of high throughput sequencing (HTS) technology and the subsequent large-scale data analysis......, genome-wide assays have increased our understanding of gene regulation significantly. This thesis describes the integration and analysis of HTS data across different important aspects of gene regulation. Gene expression can be regulated at different stages when the genetic information is passed from gene...

  7. Molecular markers associated with nonepithelial ovarian cancer in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens by genome wide expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Vui-Kee

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonepithelial ovarian cancer (NEOC is a rare cancer that is often misdiagnosed as other malignant tumors. Research on this cancer using fresh tissues is nearly impossible because of its limited number of samples within a limited time provided. The study is to identify potential genes and their molecular pathways related to NEOC using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples. Total RNA was extracted from eight archived NEOCs and seven normal ovaries. The RNA samples with RNA integrity number >2.0, purity >1.7 and cycle count value <28 cycles were hybridized to the Illumina Whole-Genome DASL assay (cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation. We analyzed the results using the GeneSpring GX11.0 and FlexArray software to determine the differentially expressed genes. Microarray results were validated using an immunohistochemistry method. Statistical analysis identified 804 differentially expressed genes with 443 and 361 genes as overexpressed and underexpressed in cancer, respectively. Consistent findings were documented for the overexpression of eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha 1, E2F transcription factor 2, and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3, except for the down-regulated gene, early growth response 1 (EGR1. The immunopositivity staining for EGR1 was found in the majority of cancer tissues. This finding suggested that the mRNA level of a transcript did not always match with the protein expression in tissues. The current gene profile can be the platform for further exploration of the molecular mechanism of NEOC.

  8. Isolation and genome-wide expression and methylation characterization of CD31+ cells from normal and malignant human prostate tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Hu, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Deeb, Kristin K.; Ma, Yingyu; Morrison, Carl D.; Liu, Song; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) are an important component involved in the angiogenesis. Little is known about the global gene expression and epigenetic regulation in tumor endothelial cells. The identification of gene expression and epigenetic difference between human prostate tumor-derived endothelial cells (TdECs) and those in normal tissues may uncover unique biological features of TdEC and facilitate the discovery of new anti-angiogenic targets. We established a method for isolation of CD31+ endothelial cells from malignant and normal prostate tissues obtained at prostatectomy. TdECs and normal-derived ECs (NdECs) showed >90% enrichment in primary culture and demonstrated microvascular endothelial cell characteristics such as cobblestone morphology in monolayer culture, diI-acetyl-LDL uptake and capillary-tube like formation in Matrigel®. In vitro primary cultures of ECs maintained expression of endothelial markers such as CD31, von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2. We then conducted a pilot study of transcriptome and methylome analysis of TdECs and matched NdECs from patients with prostate cancer. We observed a wide spectrum of differences in gene expression and methylation patterns in endothelial cells, between malignant and normal prostate tissues. Array-based expression and methylation data were validated by qRT-PCR and bisulfite DNA pyrosequencing. Further analysis of transcriptome and methylome data revealed a number of differentially expressed genes with loci whose methylation change is accompanied by an inverse change in gene expression. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of isolation of ECs from histologically normal prostate and prostate cancer via CD31+ selection. The data, although preliminary, indicates that there exist widespread differences in methylation and transcription between TdECs and NdECs. Interestingly, only a small

  9. Sphingomonas wittichii Strain RW1 Genome-Wide Gene Expression Shifts in Response to Dioxins and Clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benli Chai

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas wittichii strain RW1 (RW1 is one of the few strains that can grow on dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD. We conducted a transcriptomic study of RW1 using RNA-Seq to outline transcriptional responses to DD, dibenzofuran (DF, and the smectite clay mineral saponite with succinate as carbon source. The ability to grow on DD is rare compared to growth on the chemically similar DF even though the same initial dioxygenase may be involved in oxidation of both substrates. Therefore, we hypothesized the reason for this lies beyond catabolic pathways and may concern genes involved in processes for cell-substrate interactions such as substrate recognition, transport, and detoxification. Compared to succinate (SUC as control carbon source, DF caused over 240 protein-coding genes to be differentially expressed, whereas more than 300 were differentially expressed with DD. Stress response genes were up-regulated in response to both DD and DF. This effect was stronger with DD than DF, suggesting a higher toxicity of DD compared to DF. Both DD and DF caused changes in expression of genes involved in active cross-membrane transport such as TonB-dependent receptor proteins, but the patterns of change differed between the two substrates. Multiple transcription factor genes also displayed expression patterns distinct to DD and DF growth. DD and DF induced the catechol ortho- and the salicylate/gentisate pathways, respectively. Both DD and DF induced the shared down-stream aliphatic intermediate compound pathway. Clay caused category-wide down-regulation of genes for cell motility and chemotaxis, particularly those involved in the synthesis, assembly and functioning of flagella. This is an environmentally important finding because clay is a major component of soil microbes' microenvironment influencing local chemistry and may serve as a geosorbent for toxic pollutants. Similar to clay, DD and DF also affected expression of genes involved in motility and chemotaxis.

  10. [Polarized light as an epigenetic factor in inhibition of inflammation; a genome-wide expression analysis in recurrent respiratory diseases of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falus, András; Fenyo, Márta; Eder, Katalin; Madarasi, Anna

    2011-09-11

    Whole-body polarized light therapy has been primarily investigated in various clinical observations and in a few in vitro model systems. In the present study, clinical and molecular effects of whole-body polarized light treatment on children suffering from recurrent respiratory infection were studied. Incidence and duration of respiratory symptoms as well as the length of appropriate antibiotic therapy have been measured. Simultaneously, genome-wide gene expression pattern was examined by whole genome cDNA microarray in peripheral lymphocytes of children. Twenty of twenty five children showed a marked clinical improvement, while in five of twenty five had poor or no changes. Gene expression pattern of the peripheral lymphocytes of the patients was compared in favorable and poor responders. Lymphocytes of the children with a documented improved clinical response to polarized light therapy showed a decrease in the expression of chemokine genes, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, IL-8 and in that of the tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα) gene. On the contrary, a rapid elevation was found in the expression of gene encoding for CYP4F2, a leukotriene-B(4)-metabolizing enzyme. In children with poor clinical response to polarized light therapy, no similar changes were detected in the gene expression pattern of the lymphocytes. Improved clinical symptoms and modified gene expression profile of lymphocytes reveals anti-inflammatory effect upon whole body polarized light irradiation.

  11. Genome-wide identification, isolation and expression analysis of auxin response factor(ARF gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    si-bei eli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Auxin response factors (ARFs are an important family of proteins in auxin-mediated response, with key roles in various physiological and biochemical processes. To date, a genome-wide overview of the ARF gene family in citrus was not available. A systematic analysis of this gene family in citrus was begun by carrying out a genome-wide search for the homologues of auxin response genes. A total of 19 non-redundant ARF genes (CiARF were identified and validated from the sweet orange genome. A comprehensive overview of the CiARF gene family was undertaken, including the gene structures, phylogeny, chromosome locations, conserved motifs, and cis-elements in promoter sequences. Furthermore, expression profiling using real-time PCR revealed many CiARF genes, albeit with different patterns depending on types of tissues and/or developmental stages. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes was also performed under two hormone treatments using real-time PCR. Indole-3-acetic acid and N-1-napthylphthalamic acid treatment experiments revealed differential up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the 19 citrus ARF genes in the callus of sweet orange. Our comprehensive analysis of ARF genes further elucidates the roles of CiARF family members in citrus growth and development.

  12. Genome-wide characterisation and expression profile of the grapevine ATL ubiquitin ligase family reveal biotic and abiotic stress-responsive and development-related members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Pietro; Regaiolo, Alice; Lovato, Arianna; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Porceddu, Andrea; Camiolo, Salvatore; Wong, Darren; Castellarin, Simone; Vandelle, Elodie; Polverari, Annalisa

    2016-12-02

    The Arabidopsis Tóxicos en Levadura (ATL) protein family is a class of E3 ubiquitin ligases with a characteristic RING-H2 Zn-finger structure that mediates diverse physiological processes and stress responses in plants. We carried out a genome-wide survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) ATL genes and retrieved 96 sequences containing the canonical ATL RING-H2 domain. We analysed their genomic organisation, gene structure and evolution, protein domains and phylogenetic relationships. Clustering revealed several clades, as already reported in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), with an expanded subgroup of grapevine-specific genes. Most of the grapevine ATL genes lacked introns and were scattered among the 19 chromosomes, with a high level of duplication retention. Expression profiling revealed that some ATL genes are expressed specifically during early or late development and may participate in the juvenile to mature plant transition, whereas others may play a role in pathogen and/or abiotic stress responses, making them key candidates for further functional analysis. Our data offer the first genome-wide overview and annotation of the grapevine ATL family, and provide a basis for investigating the roles of specific family members in grapevine physiology and stress responses, as well as potential biotechnological applications.

  13. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to short-term exposure to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguinetti Maurizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluconazole (FLC, a triazole antifungal drug, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. In this study, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of the C. neoformans reference strain H99 (serotype A following FLC treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results Simultaneous analysis of over 6823 transcripts revealed that 476 genes were responsive to FLC. As expected up-regulation of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis was observed, including the azole target gene ERG11 and ERG13, ERG1, ERG7, ERG25, ERG2, ERG3 and ERG5. In addition, SRE1 which is a gene encoding a well-known regulator of sterol homeostasis in C. neoformans was up-regulated. Several other genes such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e. lipid and fatty acid metabolism, cell wall maintenance, stress and virulence were found to be up-regulated in response to FLC treatment. Conversely, expression of AFR1, the major transporter of azoles in C. neoformans, was not regulated by FLC. Conclusions Short-term exposure of C. neoformans to FLC resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the observed changes could represent specific adaptive responses to the antifungal agent in this pathogenic yeast.

  14. Genome-wide identification, splicing, and expression analysis of the myosin gene family in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guifeng; Zhong, Mingyu; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Jushan; Tang, Yuanping; Wang, Gang; Song, Rentao

    2014-03-01

    The actin-based myosin system is essential for the organization and dynamics of the endomembrane system and transport network in plant cells. Plants harbour two unique myosin groups, class VIII and class XI, and the latter is structurally and functionally analogous to the animal and fungal class V myosin. Little is known about myosins in grass, even though grass includes several agronomically important cereal crops. Here, we identified 14 myosin genes from the genome of maize (Zea mays). The relatively larger sizes of maize myosin genes are due to their much longer introns, which are abundant in transposable elements. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that maize myosin genes could be classified into class VIII and class XI, with three and 11 members, respectively. Apart from subgroup XI-F, the remaining subgroups were duplicated at least in one analysed lineage, and the duplication events occurred more extensively in Arabidopsis than in maize. Only two pairs of maize myosins were generated from segmental duplication. Expression analysis revealed that most maize myosin genes were expressed universally, whereas a few members (XI-1, -6, and -11) showed an anther-specific pattern, and many underwent extensive alternative splicing. We also found a short transcript at the O1 locus, which conceptually encoded a headless myosin that most likely functions at the transcriptional level rather than via a dominant-negative mechanism at the translational level. Together, these data provide significant insights into the evolutionary and functional characterization of maize myosin genes that could transfer to the identification and application of homologous myosins of other grasses.

  15. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of Sugar Transporter Family in the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zezhong Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sugar transporters (STs play pivotal roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of phloem-sucking insects, such as the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, 137 sugar transporters (STs were identified based on analysis of the genome and transcriptome of B. tabaci MEAM1. B. tabaci MEAM1 encodes a larger number of STs than other selected insects. Phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis showed that the 137 STs formed three expanded clades and that the genes in Sternorrhyncha expanded clades had accelerated rates of evolution. B. tabaci sugar transporters (BTSTs were divided into three groups based on their expression profiles across developmental stages; however, no host-specific BTST was found in B. tabaci fed on different host plants. Feeding of B. tabaci adults with feeding diet containing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci and mortality was significantly improved in B. tabaci fed on dsRNA compared to the control, which indicates the sugar transporters may be used as potential RNAi targets for B. tabaci bio-control. These results provide a foundation for further studies of STs in B. tabaci.

  16. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Profiling of Sugar Transporter Family in the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zezhong; Xia, Jixing; Pan, Huipeng; Gong, Cheng; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Zheng, Huixin; Yang, Xin; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun

    2017-01-01

    Sugar transporters (STs) play pivotal roles in the growth, development, and stress responses of phloem-sucking insects, such as the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. In this study, 137 sugar transporters (STs) were identified based on analysis of the genome and transcriptome of B. tabaci MEAM1. B. tabaci MEAM1 encodes a larger number of STs than other selected insects. Phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis showed that the 137 STs formed three expanded clades and that the genes in Sternorrhyncha expanded clades had accelerated rates of evolution. B. tabaci sugar transporters (BTSTs) were divided into three groups based on their expression profiles across developmental stages; however, no host-specific BTST was found in B. tabaci fed on different host plants. Feeding of B. tabaci adults with feeding diet containing dsRNA significantly reduced the transcript level of the target genes in B. tabaci and mortality was significantly improved in B. tabaci fed on dsRNA compared to the control, which indicates the sugar transporters may be used as potential RNAi targets for B. tabaci bio-control. These results provide a foundation for further studies of STs in B. tabaci.

  17. Genome-wide search for segregation distortion loci associated with the expression of complex traits in Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang De-qiang; Zhang Zhi-yi; Yang Kai

    2007-01-01

    Segregation distortion of molecular markers has been reported in a broad range of organisms. It has been detected in an interspecific BC1 Populus pedigree established by controlled crossing between clone "LM50" (Populus tomentosa) and its hybrid clone "TB01" (P. tomentosa×P. bolleana). The study with a total of 150 AFLP markers (approximately 18.9% of the total loci)exhibited significant deviation from the Mendelian ratio (1:1) (p<0.01). Twenty-five percent of the markers were mapped on the parental specific genetic linkage maps of clones "LM50" and "TB01" with a pseudo-test-cross mapping strategy. Twelve linkage groups had markers with skewed segregation ratios, but the major regions were on linkage groups TLG2, TLG4 and TLG6 in the linkage map of clone "LM50". We also analyzed the association between distorted loci and expression of complex traits with Mapmaker/QTL software. A total of 16 putative QTLs affecting 12 traits were identified in the distorted regions on seven linkage groups.Therefore we could detect the distribution of skewed loci along the entire genome and identify the association between quantitative traits and segregation loci via genetic mapping in an interspecific BC1 P. tomentosa family. Furthermore, the genetic nature and possible causes of these segregation distortions for differentiation between female and male parents were also discussed.

  18. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the ERF transcription factor family in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Mariam; Saïdi, Mohamed Najib; Charfeddine, Safa; Hammami, Asma; Gargouri Bouzid, Radhia

    2015-04-01

    The ERF transcription factors belong to the AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the largest transcription factor families in plants. They play important roles in plant development processes, as well as in the response to biotic, abiotic, and hormone signaling. In the present study, 155 putative ERF transcription factor genes were identified from the potato (Solanum tuberosum) genome database, and compared with those from Arabidopsis thaliana. The StERF proteins are divided into ten phylogenetic groups. Expression analyses of five StERFs were carried out by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and compared with published RNA-seq data. These latter analyses were used to distinguish tissue-specific, biotic, and abiotic stress genes as well as hormone-responsive StERF genes. The results are of interest to better understand the role of the AP2/ERF genes in response to diverse types of stress in potatoes. A comprehensive analysis of the physiological functions and biological roles of the ERF family genes in S. tuberosum is required to understand crop stress tolerance mechanisms.

  19. Characterization of genome-wide enhancer-promoter interactions reveals co-expression of interacting genes and modes of higher order chromatin organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iouri Chepelev; Gang Wei; Dara Wangsa; Qingsong Tang; Keji Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Recent epigenomic studies have predicted thousands of potential enhancers in the human genome.However,there has not been systematic characterization of target promoters for these potential enhancers.Using H3K4me2 as a mark for active enhancers,we identified genome-wide EP interactions in human CD4+ T cells.Among the 6 520 longdistance chromatin interactions,we identify 2 067 enhancers that interact with 1 619 promoters and enhance their expression.These enhancers exist in accessible chromatin regions and are associated with various histone modifications and polymerase Ⅱ binding.The promoters with interacting enhancers are expressed at higher levels than those without interacting enhancers,and their expression levels are positively correlated with the number of interacting enhancers.Interestingly,interacting promoters are co-expressed in a tissue-specific manner.We also find that chromosomes are organized into multiple levels of interacting domains.Our results define a global view of EP interactions and provide a data set to further understand mechanisms of enhancer targeting and long-range chromatin organization.The Gene Expression Omnibus accession number for the raw and analyzed chromatin interaction data is GSE32677.

  20. Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming in response to inorganic arsenic links inhibition of CTCF binding, DNMT expression and cellular transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Matthew; Eckstein, Meredith; Eleazer, Rebekah; Smith, Caroline; Fondufe-Mittendorf, Yvonne N.

    2017-02-01

    Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure leads to changes in gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation. During this transformation, cells adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound gene expression changes. While many mechanisms have been implicated in this transformation, studies that focus on the role of epigenetic alterations in this process are just emerging. DNA methylation controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Several studies show alterations in DNA methylation patterns in iAs-mediated pathogenesis, but these studies focused on single genes. We present a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methyl-sequencing to measure changes between normal and iAs-transformed cells. Additionally, these differential methylation changes correlated positively with changes in gene expression and alternative splicing. Interestingly, most of these differentially methylated genes function in cell adhesion and communication pathways. To gain insight into how genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated during iAs-mediated carcinogenesis, we show that iAs probably targets CTCF binding at the promoter of DNA methyltransferases, regulating their expression. These findings reveal how CTCF binding regulates DNA methyltransferase to reprogram the methylome in response to an environmental toxin.

  1. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H; Trivedi, Prabodh K

    2016-08-19

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana.

  2. Genome-wide Expression Analysis and Metabolite Profiling Elucidate Transcriptional Regulation of Flavonoid Biosynthesis and Modulation under Abiotic Stresses in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Alok, Anshu; Lakhwani, Deepika; Singh, Jagdeep; Asif, Mehar H.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoid biosynthesis is largely regulated at the transcriptional level due to the modulated expression of genes related to the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants. Although accumulation of different flavonoids has been reported in banana, a staple fruit crop, no detailed information is available on regulation of the biosynthesis in this important plant. We carried out genome-wide analysis of banana (Musa acuminata, AAA genome) and identified 28 genes belonging to 9 gene families associated with flavonoid biosynthesis. Expression analysis suggested spatial and temporal regulation of the identified genes in different tissues of banana. Analysis revealed enhanced expression of genes related to flavonol and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in peel and pulp at the early developmental stages of fruit. Genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were highly expressed during banana fruit ripening. In general, higher accumulation of metabolites was observed in the peel as compared to pulp tissue. A correlation between expression of genes and metabolite content was observed at the early stage of fruit development. Furthermore, this study also suggests regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, at transcriptional level, under light and dark exposures as well as methyl jasmonate (MJ) treatment in banana. PMID:27539368

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation reprogramming in response to inorganic arsenic links inhibition of CTCF binding, DNMT expression and cellular transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Matthew; Eckstein, Meredith; Eleazer, Rebekah; Smith, Caroline; Fondufe-Mittendorf , Yvonne N.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic low dose inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure leads to changes in gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation. During this transformation, cells adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype accompanied by profound gene expression changes. While many mechanisms have been implicated in this transformation, studies that focus on the role of epigenetic alterations in this process are just emerging. DNA methylation controls gene expression in physiologic and pathologic states. Several studies show alterations in DNA methylation patterns in iAs-mediated pathogenesis, but these studies focused on single genes. We present a comprehensive genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using methyl-sequencing to measure changes between normal and iAs-transformed cells. Additionally, these differential methylation changes correlated positively with changes in gene expression and alternative splicing. Interestingly, most of these differentially methylated genes function in cell adhesion and communication pathways. To gain insight into how genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated during iAs-mediated carcinogenesis, we show that iAs probably targets CTCF binding at the promoter of DNA methyltransferases, regulating their expression. These findings reveal how CTCF binding regulates DNA methyltransferase to reprogram the methylome in response to an environmental toxin. PMID:28150704

  4. Genome-wide Gene Expression Analysis of Mucosal Colonic Biopsies and Isolated Colonocytes Suggests a Continuous Inflammatory State in the Lamina Propria of Patients with Quiescent Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Hansen, Morten; Olsen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    colonocytes from UC patients and controls in order to identify the cell types responsible for the continuous inflammatory state. Methods: Adjacent mucosal colonic biopsies were obtained endoscopically from the descending colon in patients with active UC (n = 8), quiescent UC (n = 9), and with irritable bowel......Background: Genome-wide gene expression (GWGE) profiles of mucosal colonic biopsies have suggested the existence of a continuous inflammatory state in quiescent ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this study was to use DNA microarray-based GWGE profiling of mucosal colonic biopsies and isolated...

  5. Exploring metabolic pathway reconstruction and genome-wide expression profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to define functional probiotic features.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saulnier, D.M.; Santos, F.; Roos, S.; Mistretta, T.A.; Spinler, J.K.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.; Versalovic, J.

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to diffe

  6. Exploring Metabolic Pathway Reconstruction and Genome-Wide Expression Profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to Define Functional Probiotic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saulnier, D.M.; santos, F.; Roos, S.; Mistretta, T.-A.; Spinler, J.K.; Molenaar, D.; Teusink, B.; Versalovic, J.

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to diffe

  7. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling analysis of the Aux/IAA gene family in Medicago truncatula during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenjia Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auxin/indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAA genes, coding a family of short-lived nuclear proteins, play key roles in wide variety of plant developmental processes, including root system regulation and responses to environmental stimulus. However, how they function in auxin signaling pathway and symbiosis with rhizobial in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. The present study aims at gaining deeper insight on distinctive expression and function features of Aux/IAA family genes in Medicago truncatula during nodule formation. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the latest updated draft of the full Medicago truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and analysis of IAA genes were performed. The data indicated that MtIAA family genes are distributed in all the M. truncatula chromosomes except chromosome 6. Most of MtIAA genes are responsive to exogenous auxin and express in tissues-specific manner. To understand the biological functions of MtIAA genes involved in nodule formation, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR was used to test the expression profiling of MtIAA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti (S. meliloti infection. The expression patterns of most MtIAA genes were down-regulated in roots and up-regulated in shoots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses between roots and shoots caused by S. meliloti infection were alleviated by 1-NOA application. CONCLUSION: The genome-wide identification, evolution and expression pattern analysis of MtIAA genes were performed in this study. The data helps us to understand the roles of MtIAA-mediated auxin signaling in nodule formation during the early phase of S. meliloti infection.

  8. Profiling genome-wide DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wai-Shin; Hsu, Fei-Man; Chen, Pao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that plays an important role in regulating gene expression and therefore a broad range of biological processes and diseases. DNA methylation is tissue-specific, dynamic, sequence-context-dependent and trans-generationally heritable, and these complex patterns of methylation highlight the significance of profiling DNA methylation to answer biological questions. In this review, we surveyed major methylation assays, along with comparisons and biological examples, to provide an overview of DNA methylation profiling techniques. The advances in microarray and sequencing technologies make genome-wide profiling possible at a single-nucleotide or even a single-cell resolution. These profiling approaches vary in many aspects, such as DNA input, resolution, genomic region coverage, and bioinformatics analysis, and selecting a feasible method requires knowledge of these methods. We first introduce the biological background of DNA methylation and its pattern in plants, animals and fungi. We present an overview of major experimental approaches to profiling genome-wide DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation and then extend to the single-cell methylome. To evaluate these methods, we outline their strengths and weaknesses and perform comparisons across the different platforms. Due to the increasing need to compute high-throughput epigenomic data, we interrogate the computational pipeline for bisulfite sequencing data and also discuss the concept of identifying differentially methylated regions (DMRs). This review summarizes the experimental and computational concepts for profiling genome-wide DNA methylation, followed by biological examples. Overall, this review provides researchers useful guidance for the selection of a profiling method suited to specific research questions.

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the Hsp20 gene family in soybean: comprehensive sequence, genomic organization and expression profile analysis under abiotic and biotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Caitar, Valéria S; de Carvalho, Mayra C C G; Darben, Luana M; Kuwahara, Marcia K; Nepomuceno, Alexandre L; Dias, Waldir P; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar C

    2013-08-28

    The Hsp20 genes are associated with stress caused by HS and other abiotic factors, but have recently been found to be associated with the response to biotic stresses. These genes represent the most abundant class among the HSPs in plants, but little is known about this gene family in soybean. Because of their apparent multifunctionality, these proteins are promising targets for developing crop varieties that are better adapted to biotic and abiotic stresses. Thus, in the present study an in silico identification of GmHsp20 gene family members was performed, and the genes were characterized and subjected to in vivo expression analysis under biotic and abiotic stresses. A search of the available soybean genome databases revealed 51 gene models as potential GmHsp20 candidates. The 51 GmHsp20 genes were distributed across a total of 15 subfamilies where a specific predicted secondary structure was identified. Based on in vivo analysis, only 47 soybean Hsp20 genes were responsive to heat shock stress. Among the GmHsp20 genes that were potentials HSR, five were also cold-induced, and another five, in addition to one GmAcd gene, were responsive to Meloidogyne javanica infection. Furthermore, one predicted GmHsp20 was shown to be responsive only to nematode infection; no expression change was detected under other stress conditions. Some of the biotic stress-responsive GmHsp20 genes exhibited a divergent expression pattern between resistant and susceptible soybean genotypes under M. javanica infection. The putative regulatory elements presenting some conservation level in the GmHsp20 promoters included HSE, W-box, CAAT box, and TA-rich elements. Some of these putative elements showed a unique occurrence pattern among genes responsive to nematode infection. The evolution of Hsp20 family in soybean genome has most likely involved a total of 23 gene duplications. The obtained expression profiles revealed that the majority of the 51 GmHsp20 candidates are induced under HT, but

  10. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression in root of wheat hybrid and its parents using Barley1 GeneChip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yinhong; NI Zhongfu; YAO Yingyin; ZHAO Jun; SUN Qixin

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that differential gene expression between hybrids and their parents is responsible for the heterosis. In this paper, we report genome-wide gene expression analysis in roots of a highly heterotic inter-specific hybrid 3338/2463 and its parental inbreds using Barley GeneChip. A total of 1187 genes displayed difference in gene expressions between hybrid 3338/2463 and its parents, and they can be clustered into eight differential expression patterns. Further analysis revealed that among these 1187 genes, 975genes showed high sequence similarity to the GenBank entries, and represented diverse functional categories, such as metabolism, cell growth and maintenance, signal transduction, response to stress, transcription regulation and others. Fourteen genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis and expression patterns of 9 (64.29%) genes were confirmed. Remarkably, 380 differentially expressed genes could be mapped on the Chinese Spring deletion bins, and with the number of genes in seven homoeologous groups being 158, 148, 121, 140,132, 94 and 127 respectively. It is concluded that a combination of systematic identification of differentially expressed genes with comparative mapping would provide further insight into understanding of molecular basis of heterosis.

  11. Digital genome-wide ncRNA expression, including SnoRNAs, across 11 human tissues using polyA-neutral amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Castle

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are an essential class of molecular species that have been difficult to monitor on high throughput platforms due to frequent lack of polyadenylation. Using a polyadenylation-neutral amplification protocol and next-generation sequencing, we explore ncRNA expression in eleven human tissues. ncRNAs 7SL, U2, 7SK, and HBII-52 are expressed at levels far exceeding mRNAs. C/D and H/ACA box snoRNAs are associated with rRNA methylation and pseudouridylation, respectively: spleen expresses both, hypothalamus expresses mainly C/D box snoRNAs, and testes show enriched expression of both H/ACA box snoRNAs and RNA telomerase TERC. Within the snoRNA 14q cluster, 14q(I-6 is expressed at much higher levels than other cluster members. More reads align to mitochondrial than nuclear tRNAs. Many lincRNAs are actively transcribed, particularly those overlapping known ncRNAs. Within the Prader-Willi syndrome loci, the snoRNA HBII-85 (group I cluster is highly expressed in hypothalamus, greater than in other tissues and greater than group II or III. Additionally, within the disease locus we find novel transcription across a 400,000 nt span in ovaries. This genome-wide polyA-neutral expression compendium demonstrates the richness of ncRNA expression, their high expression patterns, their function-specific expression patterns, and is publicly available.

  12. Integrative genome-wide gene expression profiling of clear cell renal cell carcinoma in Czech Republic and in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena B Wozniak

    Full Text Available Gene expression microarray and next generation sequencing efforts on conventional, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC have been mostly performed in North American and Western European populations, while the highest incidence rates are found in Central/Eastern Europe. We conducted whole-genome expression profiling on 101 pairs of ccRCC tumours and adjacent non-tumour renal tissue from Czech patients recruited within the "K2 Study", using the Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChips to explore the molecular variations underlying the biological and clinical heterogeneity of this cancer. Differential expression analysis identified 1650 significant probes (fold change ≥2 and false discovery rate <0.05 mapping to 630 up- and 720 down-regulated unique genes. We performed similar statistical analysis on the RNA sequencing data of 65 ccRCC cases from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA project and identified 60% (402 of the downregulated and 74% (469 of the upregulated genes found in the K2 series. The biological characterization of the significantly deregulated genes demonstrated involvement of downregulated genes in metabolic and catabolic processes, excretion, oxidation reduction, ion transport and response to chemical stimulus, while simultaneously upregulated genes were associated with immune and inflammatory responses, response to hypoxia, stress, wounding, vasculature development and cell activation. Furthermore, genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of 317 TCGA ccRCC/adjacent non-tumour renal tissue pairs indicated that deregulation of approximately 7% of genes could be explained by epigenetic changes. Finally, survival analysis conducted on 89 K2 and 464 TCGA cases identified 8 genes associated with differential prognostic outcomes. In conclusion, a large proportion of ccRCC molecular characteristics were common to the two populations and several may have clinical implications when validated further through large clinical cohorts.

  13. The ARF, AUX/IAA and GH3 gene families in citrus: genome-wide identification and expression analysis during fruitlet drop from abscission zone A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Pang, Shaoping; Ma, Yanyan; Deng, Lie; He, Shaolan; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Zheng, Yongqiang

    2015-12-01

    Completion of the whole genome sequencing of citrus enabled us to perform genome-wide identification and functional analysis of the gene families involved in agronomic traits and morphological diversity of citrus. In this study, 22 CitARF, 11 CitGH3 and 26 CitAUX/IAA genes were identified in citrus, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all the genes of each gene family could be subdivided into three groups and showed strong evolutionary conservation. The GH3 and AUX/IAA gene families shrank and ARF gene family was highly conserved in the citrus genome after speciation from Arabidopsis thaliana. Tissue-specific expression profiles revealed that 54 genes were expressed in at least one tissue while just 5 genes including CitARF07, CitARF20, CitGH3.04, CitAUX/IAA25 and CitAUX/IAA26 with very low expression level in all tissues tested, suggesting that the CitARF, CitGH3 and CitAUX/IAA gene families played important roles in the development of citrus organs. In addition, our data found that the expression of 2 CitARF, 4 CitGH3 and 4 AUX/IAA genes was affected by IAA treatment, and 7 genes including, CitGH3.04, CitGH3.07, CitAUX/IAA03, CitAUX/IAA04, CitAUX/IAA18, CitAUX/IAA19 and CitAUX/IAA23 were related to fruitlet abscission. This study provides a foundation for future studies on elucidating the precise role of citrus ARF, GH3 and AUX/IAA genes in early steps of auxin signal transduction and open up a new opportunity to uncover the molecular mechanism underlying citrus fruitlet abscission.

  14. Genome-Wide Screening of Genes Showing Altered Expression in Liver Metastases of Human Colorectal Cancers by cDNA Microarray

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    Rempei Yanagawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of intensive and increasingly successful attempts to determine the multiple steps involved in colorectal carcinogenesis, the mechanisms responsible for metastasis of colorectal tumors to the liver remain to be clarified. To identify genes that are candidates for involvement in the metastatic process, we analyzed genome-wide expression profiles of 10 primary colorectal cancers and their corresponding metastatic lesions by means of a cDNA microarray consisting of 9121 human genes. This analysis identified 40 genes whose expression was commonly upregulated in metastatic lesions, and 7 that were commonly downregulated. The upregulated genes encoded proteins involved in cell adhesion, or remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Investigation of the functions of more of the altered genes should improve our understanding of metastasis and may identify diagnostic markers and/or novel molecular targets for prevention or therapy of metastatic lesions.

  15. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of glyoxalase gene families in soybean (Glycine max) indicate their development and abiotic stress specific response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ajit; Islam, Tahmina

    2016-04-16

    Glyoxalase pathway consists of two enzymes, glyoxalase I (GLYI) and glyoxalase II (GLYII) which detoxifies a highly cytotoxic metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) to its non-toxic form. MG may form advanced glycation end products with various cellular macro-molecules such as proteins, DNA and RNA; that ultimately lead to their inactivation. Role of glyoxalase enzymes has been extensively investigated in various plant species which showed their crucial role in salinity, drought and heavy metal stress tolerance. Previously genome-wide analysis of glyoxalase genes has been conducted in model plants Arabidopsis and rice, but no such study was performed in any legume species. In the present study, a comprehensive genome database analysis of soybean was performed and identified a total of putative 41 GLYI and 23 GLYII proteins encoded by 24 and 12 genes, respectively. Detailed analysis of these identified members was conducted including their nomenclature and classification, chromosomal distribution and duplication, exon-intron organization, and protein domain(s) and motifs identification. Expression profiling of these genes has been performed in different tissues and developmental stages as well as under salinity and drought stresses using publicly available RNAseq and microarray data. The study revealed that GmGLYI-7 and GmGLYII-8 have been expressed intensively in all the developmental stages and tissues; while GmGLYI-6, GmGLYI-9, GmGLYI-20, GmGLYII-5 and GmGLYII-10 were highly abiotic stress responsive members. The present study identifies the largest family of glyoxalase proteins to date with 41 GmGLYI and 23 GmGLYII members in soybean. Detailed analysis of GmGLYI and GmGLYII genes strongly indicates the genome-wide segmental and tandem duplication of the glyoxalase members. Moreover, this study provides a strong basis about the biological role and function of GmGLYI and GmGLYII members in soybean growth, development and stress physiology.

  16. Use of Genome-Wide Expression Data to Mine the “Gray Zone” of GWA Studies Leads to Novel Candidate Obesity Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naukkarinen, Jussi; Surakka, Ida; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Rissanen, Aila; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Kaprio, Jaakko; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Peltonen, Leena

    2010-01-01

    To get beyond the “low-hanging fruits” so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies, new methods must be developed in order to discover the numerous remaining genes that estimates of heritability indicate should be contributing to complex human phenotypes, such as obesity. Here we describe a novel integrative method for complex disease gene identification utilizing both genome-wide transcript profiling of adipose tissue samples and consequent analysis of genome-wide association data generated in large SNP scans. We infer causality of genes with obesity by employing a unique set of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for BMI (n = 13 pairs, age 24–28 years, 15.4 kg mean weight difference) and contrast the transcript profiles with those from a larger sample of non-related adult individuals (N = 77). Using this approach, we were able to identify 27 genes with possibly causal roles in determining the degree of human adiposity. Testing for association of SNP variants in these 27 genes in the population samples of the large ENGAGE consortium (N = 21,000) revealed a significant deviation of P-values from the expected (P = 4×10−4). A total of 13 genes contained SNPs nominally associated with BMI. The top finding was blood coagulation factor F13A1 identified as a novel obesity gene also replicated in a second GWA set of ∼2,000 individuals. This study presents a new approach to utilizing gene expression studies for informing choice of candidate genes for complex human phenotypes, such as obesity. PMID:20532202

  17. Use of genome-wide expression data to mine the "Gray Zone" of GWA studies leads to novel candidate obesity genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Naukkarinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available To get beyond the "low-hanging fruits" so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA studies, new methods must be developed in order to discover the numerous remaining genes that estimates of heritability indicate should be contributing to complex human phenotypes, such as obesity. Here we describe a novel integrative method for complex disease gene identification utilizing both genome-wide transcript profiling of adipose tissue samples and consequent analysis of genome-wide association data generated in large SNP scans. We infer causality of genes with obesity by employing a unique set of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for BMI (n = 13 pairs, age 24-28 years, 15.4 kg mean weight difference and contrast the transcript profiles with those from a larger sample of non-related adult individuals (N = 77. Using this approach, we were able to identify 27 genes with possibly causal roles in determining the degree of human adiposity. Testing for association of SNP variants in these 27 genes in the population samples of the large ENGAGE consortium (N = 21,000 revealed a significant deviation of P-values from the expected (P = 4x10(-4. A total of 13 genes contained SNPs nominally associated with BMI. The top finding was blood coagulation factor F13A1 identified as a novel obesity gene also replicated in a second GWA set of approximately 2,000 individuals. This study presents a new approach to utilizing gene expression studies for informing choice of candidate genes for complex human phenotypes, such as obesity.

  18. Genome-wide Expansion and Expression Divergence of the Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors in Higher Plants with an Emphasis on Sorghum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jizhou Wang; Junxia Zhou; Baolan Zhang; Jeevanandam Vanitha; Srinivasan Ramachandran; Shu-Ye Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Plant bZIP transcription factors play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. However,little is known about the sorghum bZIP gene family although the sorghum genome has been completely sequenced. In this study,we have carried out a genome-wide identification and characterization of this gene family in sorghum.Our data show that the genome encodes at least 92 bZIP transcription factors. These bZIP genes have been expanded mainly by segmental duplication. Such an expansion mechanism has also been observed in rice,arabidopsis and many other plant organisms,suggesting a common expansion mode of this gene family in plants. Further investigation shows that most of the bZIP members have been present in the most recent common ancestor of sorghum and rice and the major expansion would occur before the sorghum-rice split era. Although these bZIP genes have been duplicated with a long history,they exhibited limited functional divergence as shown by nonsynonymous substitutions (Ka)/synonymous substitutions (Ks) analyses. Their retention was mainly due to the high percentages of expression divergence. Our data also showed that this gene family might play a role in multiple developmental stages and tissues and might be regarded as important regulators of various abiotic stresses and sugar signaling.

  19. An integration of genome-wide association study and gene expression profiling to prioritize the discovery of novel susceptibility Loci for osteoporosis-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Zillikens, M Carola; Wilson, Scott G; Farber, Charles R; Demissie, Serkalem; Soranzo, Nicole; Bianchi, Estelle N; Grundberg, Elin; Liang, Liming; Richards, J Brent; Estrada, Karol; Zhou, Yanhua; van Nas, Atila; Moffatt, Miriam F; Zhai, Guangju; Hofman, Albert; van Meurs, Joyce B; Pols, Huibert A P; Price, Roger I; Nilsson, Olle; Pastinen, Tomi; Cupples, L Adrienne; Lusis, Aldons J; Schadt, Eric E; Ferrari, Serge; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Spector, Timothy D; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P

    2010-06-10

    Osteoporosis is a complex disorder and commonly leads to fractures in elderly persons. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become an unbiased approach to identify variations in the genome that potentially affect health. However, the genetic variants identified so far only explain a small proportion of the heritability for complex traits. Due to the modest genetic effect size and inadequate power, true association signals may not be revealed based on a stringent genome-wide significance threshold. Here, we take advantage of SNP and transcript arrays and integrate GWAS and expression signature profiling relevant to the skeletal system in cellular and animal models to prioritize the discovery of novel candidate genes for osteoporosis-related traits, including bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), as well as geometric indices of the hip (femoral neck-shaft angle, NSA; femoral neck length, NL; and narrow-neck width, NW). A two-stage meta-analysis of GWAS from 7,633 Caucasian women and 3,657 men, revealed three novel loci associated with osteoporosis-related traits, including chromosome 1p13.2 (RAP1A, p = 3.6x10(-8)), 2q11.2 (TBC1D8), and 18q11.2 (OSBPL1A), and confirmed a previously reported region near TNFRSF11B/OPG gene. We also prioritized 16 suggestive genome-wide significant candidate genes based on their potential involvement in skeletal metabolism. Among them, 3 candidate genes were associated with BMD in women. Notably, 2 out of these 3 genes (GPR177, p = 2.6x10(-13); SOX6, p = 6.4x10(-10)) associated with BMD in women have been successfully replicated in a large-scale meta-analysis of BMD, but none of the non-prioritized candidates (associated with BMD) did. Our results support the concept of our prioritization strategy. In the absence of direct biological support for identified genes, we highlighted the efficiency of subsequent functional characterization using publicly available expression profiling relevant to the

  20. An integration of genome-wide association study and gene expression profiling to prioritize the discovery of novel susceptibility Loci for osteoporosis-related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsiang Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a complex disorder and commonly leads to fractures in elderly persons. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have become an unbiased approach to identify variations in the genome that potentially affect health. However, the genetic variants identified so far only explain a small proportion of the heritability for complex traits. Due to the modest genetic effect size and inadequate power, true association signals may not be revealed based on a stringent genome-wide significance threshold. Here, we take advantage of SNP and transcript arrays and integrate GWAS and expression signature profiling relevant to the skeletal system in cellular and animal models to prioritize the discovery of novel candidate genes for osteoporosis-related traits, including bone mineral density (BMD at the lumbar spine (LS and femoral neck (FN, as well as geometric indices of the hip (femoral neck-shaft angle, NSA; femoral neck length, NL; and narrow-neck width, NW. A two-stage meta-analysis of GWAS from 7,633 Caucasian women and 3,657 men, revealed three novel loci associated with osteoporosis-related traits, including chromosome 1p13.2 (RAP1A, p = 3.6x10(-8, 2q11.2 (TBC1D8, and 18q11.2 (OSBPL1A, and confirmed a previously reported region near TNFRSF11B/OPG gene. We also prioritized 16 suggestive genome-wide significant candidate genes based on their potential involvement in skeletal metabolism. Among them, 3 candidate genes were associated with BMD in women. Notably, 2 out of these 3 genes (GPR177, p = 2.6x10(-13; SOX6, p = 6.4x10(-10 associated with BMD in women have been successfully replicated in a large-scale meta-analysis of BMD, but none of the non-prioritized candidates (associated with BMD did. Our results support the concept of our prioritization strategy. In the absence of direct biological support for identified genes, we highlighted the efficiency of subsequent functional characterization using publicly available expression profiling relevant

  1. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analyses of Aquaporin Gene Family during Development and Abiotic Stress in Banana

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Wei; Hou, Xiaowan; Huang, Chao; Yan, Yan; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Wei, Yunxie; Liu, Juhua; Miao, Hongxia; Lu, Zhiwei; li, Meiying; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) function to selectively control the flow of water and other small molecules through biological membranes, playing crucial roles in various biological processes. However, little information is available on the AQP gene family in bananas. In this study, we identified 47 banana AQP genes based on the banana genome sequence. Evolutionary analysis of AQPs from banana, Arabidopsis, poplar, and rice indicated that banana AQPs (MaAQPs) were clustered into four subfamilies. Conserved...

  2. Genome-wide profiling of methylation identifies novel targets with aberrant hypermethylation and reduced expression in low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey, M; O'Hagan, K; Dellett, M; Aibar, S; Colyer, H A A; Alonso, M E; Díez-Campelo, M; Armstrong, R N; Sharpe, D J; Gutiérrez, N C; García, J L; De Las Rivas, J; Mills, K I; Hernández-Rivas, J M

    2013-03-01

    Gene expression profiling signatures may be used to classify the subtypes of Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients. However, there are few reports on the global methylation status in MDS. The integration of genome-wide epigenetic regulatory marks with gene expression levels would provide additional information regarding the biological differences between MDS and healthy controls. Gene expression and methylation status were measured using high-density microarrays. A total of 552 differentially methylated CpG loci were identified as being present in low-risk MDS; hypermethylated genes were more frequent than hypomethylated genes. In addition, mRNA expression profiling identified 1005 genes that significantly differed between low-risk MDS and the control group. Integrative analysis of the epigenetic and expression profiles revealed that 66.7% of the hypermethylated genes were underexpressed in low-risk MDS cases. Gene network analysis revealed molecular mechanisms associated with the low-risk MDS group, including altered apoptosis pathways. The two key apoptotic genes BCL2 and ETS1 were identified as silenced genes. In addition, the immune response and micro RNA biogenesis were affected by the hypermethylation and underexpression of IL27RA and DICER1. Our integrative analysis revealed that aberrant epigenetic regulation is a hallmark of low-risk MDS patients and could have a central role in these diseases.

  3. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidi eXu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes, including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes, 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes, 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes, and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum, which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus postharvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  4. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  5. The organic osmolyte betaine induces keratin 2 expression in rat epidermal keratinocytes - A genome-wide study in UVB irradiated organotypic 3D cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauhala, Leena; Hämäläinen, Lasse; Dunlop, Thomas W; Pehkonen, Petri; Bart, Geneviève; Kokkonen, Maarit; Tammi, Markku; Tammi, Raija; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna

    2015-12-25

    The moisturizing and potentially protective properties of the organic osmolyte betaine (trimethylglycine) have made it an attractive component for skin care products. Its wide use despite the lack of comprehensive studies addressing its specific effects in skin led us to characterize the molecular targets of betaine in keratinocytes and to explore, whether it modifies the effects of acute UVB exposure. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed on organotypic cultures of rat epidermal keratinocytes, treated either with betaine (10mM), UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) or their combination. Results were verified with qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed. Among the 89 genes influenced by betaine, the differentiation marker keratin 2 showed the highest upregulation, which was also confirmed at protein level. Expression of Egr1, a transcription factor, and Purkinje cell protein 4, a regulator of Ca(2+)/calmodulin metabolism, also increased, while downregulated genes included several ion-channel components, such as Fxyd2. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that genes modulated by betaine are involved in DNA replication, might counteract UV-induced processes, and include many targets of transcription factors associated with cell proliferation and differentiation. Our results indicate that betaine controls unique gene expression pathways in keratinocytes, including some involved in differentiation.

  6. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  7. Genome-wide chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation and gene expression analysis of histone deacetylase inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Matias A; Salomon, Matthew P; Nelson, Nellie; Hsu, Sandy C; DiNome, Maggie L; Hoon, Dave S B; Marzese, Diego M

    2017-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), especially the subset with a basal phenotype, represents the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer. Unlike other solid tumors, TNBCs harbor a low number of driver mutations. Conversely, we and others have demonstrated a significant impact of epigenetic alterations, including DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, affecting TNBCs. Due to the promising results in pre-clinical studies, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are currently being tested in several clinical trials for breast cancer and other solid tumors. However, the genome-wide epigenetic and transcriptomic implications of HDAC inhibition are still poorly understood. Here, we provide detailed information about the design of a multi-platform dataset that describes the epigenomic and transcriptomic effects of HDACi. This dataset includes genome-wide chromatin accessibility (assessed by ATAC-Sequencing), DNA methylation (assessed by Illumina HM450K BeadChip) and gene expression (assessed by RNA-Sequencing) analyses before and after HDACi treatment of HCC1806 and MDA-MB-231, two human TNBC cell lines with basal-like phenotype.

  8. A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Gillberg, Linn

    2016-01-01

    mediate their effects on metabolic traits (e.g. BMI, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)) via altered DNA methylation in human adipose tissue. This study identifies genome-wide interactions between genetic......Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men......, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs) in cis and 5...

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the grapevine stilbene synthase multigenic family: genomic organization and expression profiles upon biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vannozzi Alessandro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant stilbenes are a small group of phenylpropanoids, which have been detected in at least 72 unrelated plant species and accumulate in response to biotic and abiotic stresses such as infection, wounding, UV-C exposure and treatment with chemicals. Stilbenes are formed via the phenylalanine/polymalonate-route, the last step of which is catalyzed by the enzyme stilbene synthase (STS, a type III polyketide synthase (PKS. Stilbene synthases are closely related to chalcone synthases (CHS, the key enzymes of the flavonoid pathway, as illustrated by the fact that both enzymes share the same substrates. To date, STSs have been cloned from peanut, pine, sorghum and grapevine, the only stilbene-producing fruiting-plant for which the entire genome has been sequenced. Apart from sorghum, STS genes appear to exist as a family of closely related genes in these other plant species. Results In this study a complete characterization of the STS multigenic family in grapevine has been performed, commencing with the identification, annotation and phylogenetic analysis of all members and integration of this information with a comprehensive set of gene expression analyses including healthy tissues at differential developmental stages and in leaves exposed to both biotic (downy mildew infection and abiotic (wounding and UV-C exposure stresses. At least thirty-three full length sequences encoding VvSTS genes were identified, which, based on predicted amino acid sequences, cluster in 3 principal groups designated A, B and C. The majority of VvSTS genes cluster in groups B and C and are located on chr16 whereas the few gene family members in group A are found on chr10. Microarray and mRNA-seq expression analyses revealed different patterns of transcript accumulation between the different groups of VvSTS family members and between VvSTSs and VvCHSs. Indeed, under certain conditions the transcriptional response of VvSTS and VvCHS genes appears to be

  10. Embryonic stem cell-like features of testicular carcinoma in situ revealed by genome-wide gene expression profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almstrup, Kristian; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Wirkner, Ute

    2004-01-01

    in their stoichiometry on progression into embryonic carcinoma. We compared the CIS expression profile with patterns reported in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which revealed a substantial overlap that may be as high as 50%. We also demonstrated an over-representation of expressed genes in regions of 17q and 12, reported...

  11. Analysis of the human tissue-specific expression by genome-wide integration of transcriptomics and antibody-based proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Oksvold, Per; Kampf, Caroline; Djureinovic, Dijana; Odeberg, Jacob; Habuka, Masato; Tahmasebpoor, Simin; Danielsson, Angelika; Edlund, Karolina; Asplund, Anna; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Lundberg, Emma; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Skogs, Marie; Takanen, Jenny Ottosson; Berling, Holger; Tegel, Hanna; Mulder, Jan; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M; Lindskog, Cecilia; Danielsson, Frida; Mardinoglu, Adil; Sivertsson, Asa; von Feilitzen, Kalle; Forsberg, Mattias; Zwahlen, Martin; Olsson, IngMarie; Navani, Sanjay; Huss, Mikael; Nielsen, Jens; Ponten, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias

    2014-02-01

    Global classification of the human proteins with regards to spatial expression patterns across organs and tissues is important for studies of human biology and disease. Here, we used a quantitative transcriptomics analysis (RNA-Seq) to classify the tissue-specific expression of genes across a representative set of all major human organs and tissues and combined this analysis with antibody-based profiling of the same tissues. To present the data, we launch a new version of the Human Protein Atlas that integrates RNA and protein expression data corresponding to ∼80% of the human protein-coding genes with access to the primary data for both the RNA and the protein analysis on an individual gene level. We present a classification of all human protein-coding genes with regards to tissue-specificity and spatial expression pattern. The integrative human expression map can be used as a starting point to explore the molecular constituents of the human body.

  12. Exploring metabolic pathway reconstruction and genome-wide expression profiling in Lactobacillus reuteri to define functional probiotic features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine M Saulnier

    Full Text Available The genomes of four Lactobacillus reuteri strains isolated from human breast milk and the gastrointestinal tract have been recently sequenced as part of the Human Microbiome Project. Preliminary genome comparisons suggested that these strains belong to two different clades, previously shown to differ with respect to antimicrobial production, biofilm formation, and immunomodulation. To explain possible mechanisms of survival in the host and probiosis, we completed a detailed genomic comparison of two breast milk-derived isolates representative of each group: an established probiotic strain (L. reuteri ATCC 55730 and a strain with promising probiotic features (L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475. Transcriptomes of L. reuteri strains in different growth phases were monitored using strain-specific microarrays, and compared using a pan-metabolic model representing all known metabolic reactions present in these strains. Both strains contained candidate genes involved in the survival and persistence in the gut such as mucus-binding proteins and enzymes scavenging reactive oxygen species. A large operon predicted to encode the synthesis of an exopolysaccharide was identified in strain 55730. Both strains were predicted to produce health-promoting factors, including antimicrobial agents and vitamins (folate, vitamin B(12. Additionally, a complete pathway for thiamine biosynthesis was predicted in strain 55730 for the first time in this species. Candidate genes responsible for immunomodulatory properties of each strain were identified by transcriptomic comparisons. The production of bioactive metabolites by human-derived probiotics may be predicted using metabolic modeling and transcriptomics. Such strategies may facilitate selection and optimization of probiotics for health promotion, disease prevention and amelioration.

  13. Genome-wide identification and analysis of rice genes preferentially expressed in pollen at an early developmental stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien Dung; Moon, Sunok; Nguyen, Van Ngoc Tuyet; Gho, Yunsil; Chandran, Anil Kumar Nalini; Soh, Moon-Soo; Song, Jong Tae; An, Gynheung; Oh, Sung Aeong; Park, Soon Ki; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Microspore production using endogenous developmental programs has not been well studied. The main limitation is the difficulty in identifying genes preferentially expressed in pollen grains at early stages. To overcome this limitation, we collected transcriptome data from anthers and microspore/pollen and performed meta-expression analysis. Subsequently, we identified 410 genes showing preferential expression patterns in early developing pollen samples of both japonica and indica cultivars. The expression patterns of these genes are distinguishable from genes showing pollen mother cell or tapetum-preferred expression patterns. Gene Ontology enrichment and MapMan analyses indicated that microspores in rice are closely linked with protein degradation, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA biosynthesis and regulation, while the pollen mother cell or tapetum are strongly associated with cell wall metabolism, lipid metabolism, secondary metabolism, and RNA biosynthesis and regulation. We also generated transgenic lines under the control of the promoters of eight microspore-preferred genes and confirmed the preferred expression patterns in plants using the GUS reporting system. Furthermore, cis-regulatory element analysis revealed that pollen specific elements such as POLLEN1LELAT52, and 5659BOXLELAT5659 were commonly identified in the promoter regions of eight rice genes with more frequency than estimation. Our study will provide new sights on early pollen development in rice, a model crop plant.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein gene family reveals differential expression patterns, localization and salt stress response in Populus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina eZang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs are a subclass of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs involved in plant growth, development and response to abiotic stress. Although many studies have been performed to identify molecular functions of individual family members, little information is available on genome-wide identification and characterization of FLAs in the genus Populus. Based on genome-wide analysis, we have identified 35 Populus FLAs which were distributed on 16 chromosomes and phylogenetically clustered into four major groups. Gene structure and motif composition were relatively conserved in each group. All the members contained N-terminal signal peptide, 23 of which included predicted glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI modification sites and were anchored to plasma membranes. Subcellular localization analysis showed that PtrFLA2/20/26 were localized in cell membrane and cytoplasm of protoplasts from Populus stem-differentiating xylem. The Ka/Ks ratios showed that purifying selection has played a leading role in the long-term evolutionary period which greatly maintained the function of this family. The expression profiles showed that 32 PtrFLAs were differentially expressed in four tissues at four seasons based on publicly available microarray data. 18 FLAs were further verified with qRT-PCR in different tissues, which indicated that PtrFLA1/2/3/7/11/12/20/21/22/24/26/30 were significantly expressed in male and female flowers, suggesting close correlations with the reproductive development. In addition, PtrFLA1/9/10/11/17/21/23/24/26/28 were highly expressed in the stems and differentiating xylem, which may be involved in stem development. To determine salt response of FLAs, qRT-PCR was performed to analyze the expression of 18 genes under salinity stress across two time points. Results demonstrated that all the 18 FLAs were expressed in root tissues; especially, PtrFLA2/12/20/21/24/30 were significantly induced at different time

  15. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of NBS-encoding genes in Malus x domestica and expansion of NBS genes family in Rosaceae.

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    Preeti Arya

    Full Text Available Nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR disease resistance proteins play an important role in plant defense against pathogen attack. A number of recent studies have been carried out to identify and characterize NBS-LRR gene families in many important plant species. In this study, we identified NBS-LRR gene family comprising of 1015 NBS-LRRs using highly stringent computational methods. These NBS-LRRs were characterized on the basis of conserved protein motifs, gene duplication events, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, equal distribution of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR and coiled coil (CC (1 ∶ 1 was detected in apple while the unequal distribution was reported in majority of all other known plant genome studies. Prediction of gene duplication events intriguingly revealed that not only tandem duplication but also segmental duplication may equally be responsible for the expansion of the apple NBS-LRR gene family. Gene expression profiling using expressed sequence tags database of apple and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR revealed the expression of these genes in wide range of tissues and disease conditions, respectively. Taken together, this study will provide a blueprint for future efforts towards improvement of disease resistance in apple.

  16. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Audrey J; van der Lee, Saskia; Mohangoo, Archena; van Gent, Marjolein; van der Ark, Arno; van de Waterbeemd, Bas

    2013-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx) promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  17. Genome-wide Functional Analysis of CREB/Long-Term Memory-Dependent Transcription Reveals Distinct Basal and Memory Gene Expression Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N.; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components. PMID:25611510

  18. Genome-wide functional analysis of CREB/long-term memory-dependent transcription reveals distinct basal and memory gene expression programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhina, Vanisha; Arey, Rachel N; Kaletsky, Rachel; Kauffman, Amanda; Stein, Geneva; Keyes, William; Xu, Daniel; Murphy, Coleen T

    2015-01-21

    Induced CREB activity is a hallmark of long-term memory, but the full repertoire of CREB transcriptional targets required specifically for memory is not known in any system. To obtain a more complete picture of the mechanisms involved in memory, we combined memory training with genome-wide transcriptional analysis of C. elegans CREB mutants. This approach identified 757 significant CREB/memory-induced targets and confirmed the involvement of known memory genes from other organisms, but also suggested new mechanisms and novel components that may be conserved through mammals. CREB mediates distinct basal and memory transcriptional programs at least partially through spatial restriction of CREB activity: basal targets are regulated primarily in nonneuronal tissues, while memory targets are enriched for neuronal expression, emanating from CREB activity in AIM neurons. This suite of novel memory-associated genes will provide a platform for the discovery of orthologous mammalian long-term memory components.

  19. Genome-wide expression profiling of the transcriptomes of four Paulownia tomentosa accessions in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yanpeng; Fan, Guoqiang; Deng, Minjie; Xu, Enkai; Zhao, Zhenli

    2014-10-01

    Paulownia tomentosa is an important foundation forest tree species in semiarid areas. The lack of genetic information hinders research into the mechanisms involved in its response to abiotic stresses. Here, short-read sequencing technology (Illumina) was used to de novo assemble the transcriptome on P. tomentosa. A total of 99,218 unigenes with a mean length of 949 nucleotides were assembled. 68,295 unigenes were selected and the functions of their products were predicted using Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Gene Ontology, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Afterwards, hundreds of genes involved in drought response were identified. Twelve putative drought response genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. This study provides a dataset of genes and inherent biochemical pathways, which will help in understanding the mechanisms of the water-deficit response in P. tomentosa. To our knowledge, this is the first study to highlight the genetic makeup of P. tomentosa.

  20. Linkage of cDNA expression profiles of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons to a genome-wide in situ hybridization database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Horst H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Midbrain dopaminergic neurons are involved in control of emotion, motivation and motor behavior. The loss of one of the subpopulations, substantia nigra pars compacta, is the pathological hallmark of one of the most prominent neurological disorders, Parkinson's disease. Several groups have looked at the molecular identity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons and have suggested the gene expression profile of these neurons. Here, after determining the efficiency of each screen, we provide a linked database of the genes, expressed in this neuronal population, by combining and comparing the results of six previous studies and verification of expression of each gene in dopaminergic neurons, using the collection of in situ hybridization in the Allen Brain Atlas.

  1. Genome-wide mapping of DNase I hypersensitive sites and association analysis with gene expression in MSB1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghua eHe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs mark diverse classes of cis-regulatory regions, such as promoters and enhancers. MSB-1 derived from chicken Marek's disease (MD lymphomas is an MDV-transformed CD4+ T-cell line for MD study. Previously, DNase I HS sites were studied mainly in human cell types for mammalian. To capture the regulatory elements specific to MSB1 cells and explore the molecular mechanisms of T-cell transformation caused by MDV in MD, we generated high-quality of DHSs map and gene expression profile for functional analysis in MSB1 cell line. The total of 21,724 significant peaks of DHSs was identified from around 40 million short reads. DHSs distribution varied between chromosomes and they preferred to enrich in the gene-rich chromosomes. More interesting, DHSs enrichments appeared to be scarce on regions abundant in CpG islands. Besides, we integrated DHSs into the gene expression data and found that DHSs tended to enrich on high expressed genes throughout whole gene regions while DHSs did not show significant changes for low and silent expressed genes. Furthermore, the correlation of DHSs with lincRNAs expression was also calculated and it implied that enhancer-associated lincRNAs probably originated from enhancer-like regions of DHSs. Together, our results indicated that DNase I HS sites highly correlate with active genes expression in MSB1 cells, suggesting DHSs can be considered as markers to identify the cis-regulatory elements associated with chicken Marek’s disease.

  2. Elucidation of IL-1/TGF-beta interactions in mouse chondrocyte cell line by genome-wide gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, N; Rieneck, K; van der Kraan, P M;

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases.......To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases....

  3. An integration of genome-wide association study and gene expression profiling to prioritize the discovery of novel susceptibility loci for osteoporosis-related traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.Y. Hsu (Chao); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); S.G. Wilson (Scott); C.R. Farber (Charles); S. Demissie (Serkalem); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.N. Bianchi (Estelle); E. Grundberg (Elin); L. Liang (Liming); J.B. Richards (Brent); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); Y. Zhou (Yanhua); A. van Nas (Atila); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G. Zhai (Guangju); A. Hofman (Albert); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); R.I. Price (Roger Ian); O. Nilsson (Ola); T. Pastinen (Tomi); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.J. Lusis (Aldons Jake); E.E. Schadt (Eric); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); D.P. Kiel (Douglas); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D. Karasik (David); S.L. Ferrari (Serge)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractOsteoporosis is a complex disorder and commonly leads to fractures in elderly persons. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have become an unbiased approach to identify variations in the genome that potentially affect health. However, the genetic variants identified so far only explain

  4. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene Family in Cassava

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Lianzhe; Ding, Zehong; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Xupo; Zeng, Changying; Wei, Yunxie; Zhao, Hongliang; Peng, Ming; Hu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play central roles in plant developmental processes, hormone signaling transduction, and responses to abiotic stress. However, no data are currently available about the MAPK family in cassava, an important tropical crop. Herein, 21 MeMAPK genes were identified from cassava. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MeMAPKs could be classified into four subfamilies. Gene structure analysis demonstrated that the number of introns in MeMAPK genes ranged from 1 to 10, suggesting large variation among cassava MAPK genes. Conserved motif analysis indicated that all MeMAPKs had typical protein kinase domains. Transcriptomic analysis suggested that MeMAPK genes showed differential expression patterns in distinct tissues and in response to drought stress between wild subspecies and cultivated varieties. Interaction networks and co-expression analyses revealed that crucial pathways controlled by MeMAPK networks may be involved in the differential response to drought stress in different accessions of cassava. Expression of nine selected MAPK genes showed that these genes could comprehensively respond to osmotic, salt, cold, oxidative stressors, and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. These findings yield new insights into the transcriptional control of MAPK gene expression, provide an improved understanding of abiotic stress responses and signaling transduction in cassava, and lead to potential applications in the genetic improvement of cassava cultivars. PMID:27625666

  5. Elucidation of IL-1/TGF-beta interactions in mouse chondrocyte cell line by genome-wide gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, N; Rieneck, K; van der Kraan, P M;

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases....

  6. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cristina de Paula Santos; Pedrosa, Andresa Muniz; Du, Dongliang; Gonçalves, Luana Pereira; Yu, Qibin; Gmitter, Frederick G; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso

    2015-01-01

    The family of aquaporins (AQPs), or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs), tonoplast (TIPs), NOD26-like (NIPs), small basic (SIPs) and unclassified X (XIPs) intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb.), the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs) based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  7. Genome-Wide Characterization and Expression Analysis of Major Intrinsic Proteins during Abiotic and Biotic Stresses in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Paula Santos Martins

    Full Text Available The family of aquaporins (AQPs, or major intrinsic proteins (MIPs, includes integral membrane proteins that function as transmembrane channels for water and other small molecules of physiological significance. MIPs are classified into five subfamilies in higher plants, including plasma membrane (PIPs, tonoplast (TIPs, NOD26-like (NIPs, small basic (SIPs and unclassified X (XIPs intrinsic proteins. This study reports a genome-wide survey of MIP encoding genes in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb., the most widely cultivated Citrus spp. A total of 34 different genes encoding C. sinensis MIPs (CsMIPs were identified and assigned into five subfamilies (CsPIPs, CsTIPs, CsNIPs, CsSIPs and CsXIPs based on sequence analysis and also on their phylogenetic relationships with clearly classified MIPs of Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of key amino acid residues allowed the assessment of the substrate specificity of each CsMIP. Gene structure analysis revealed that the CsMIPs possess an exon-intron organization that is highly conserved within each subfamily. CsMIP loci were precisely mapped on every sweet orange chromosome, indicating a wide distribution of the gene family in the sweet orange genome. Investigation of their expression patterns in different tissues and upon drought and salt stress treatments, as well as with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection, revealed a tissue-specific and coordinated regulation of the different CsMIP isoforms, consistent with the organization of the stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements observed in their promoter regions. A special role in regulating the flow of water and nutrients is proposed for CsTIPs and CsXIPs during drought stress, and for most CsMIPs during salt stress and the development of HLB disease. These results provide a valuable reference for further exploration of the CsMIPs functions and applications to the genetic improvement of both abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in citrus.

  8. A Genome-Wide mRNA Expression Profile in Caenorhabditis elegans under Prolonged Exposure to 1750MHz Radiofrequency Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gao

    Full Text Available C. elegans has been used as a biomonitor for microwave-induced stress. However, the RF (radiofrequency fields that have been used in previous studies were weak (≤1.8W/kg, and the bio-effects on C. elegans were mostly negative or ambiguous. Therefore, this study used more intense RF fields (SAR = 3W/kg and longer time course of exposure (60h at 25°C, L1 stage through adult stage to investigate the biological consequences of 1750 MHz RF fields in wild-type worms.The growth rates and lifespans of RF-exposure group and the control group were carefully recorded. RNA samples were collected at L4 (35h and gravid adult (50h stages for further high-throughput sequencing, focusing on differences between the RF-exposure and the sham control groups.The RF-exposed and sham control groups developed at almost the same rate and had similar longevity curves. In L4 stage worms, 94 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated genes were identified, while 186 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes were identified in adult stage worms. GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes at 35h were associated with growth, body morphogenesis and collagen and cuticle-based development. Genes that were linked to growth rate and reproductive development were differentially expressed at 50h. Some embryonic and larval development genes in the offspring were also differentially expressed at 50h. Ten genes were differentially expressed at both 35h and 50h, most of which were involved in both embryonic and larval developmental processes. Although prolonged RF fields did not induce significant temperature increase in RF exposure groups, the temperature inside worms during exposure was unknown.No harmful effects were observed in prolonged exposure to 1750 MHz RF fields at SAR of 3W/kg on development and longevity of C. elegans. Although some differentially expressed genes were found after prolonged RF exposure, these differences were ascribed to oscillating gene expression

  9. Phosphoinositide 5-Phosphate and Phosphoinositide 4-Phosphate Trigger Distinct Specific Responses of Arabidopsis Genes: Genome-Wide Expression Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Phosphoinositide phosphates, PtdInsP, are important components of the cell lipid pool that can function as messengers in diverse cellular processes. Lack of information on downstream targets, however, has impeded our understanding of the potential of lipid-signaling to influence gene activity. Our goals here were to identify genes that altered expression in the presence of two isomeric monophosphate lipid messengers (Phosphoinositide 5-Phosphate, PtdIns(5)P, and Phosphoinositide 4-Phosphate, ...

  10. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the polyamine oxidase gene family in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-25

    Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) are FAD-dependent enzymes associated with polyamine catabolism. In plants, increasing evidences support that PAO genes play essential roles in abiotic and biotic stresses response. In this study, six putative PAO genes (CsPAO1-CsPAO6) were unraveled in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) using the released citrus genome sequences. A total of 203 putative cis-regulatory elements involved in hormone and stress response were predicted in 1.5-kb promoter regions at the upstream of CsPAOs. The CsPAOs can be divided into four major groups, with similar organizations with their counterparts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Transcripts of CsPAOs were detected in leaf, stem, cotyledon, and root, with the highest levels detected in the roots. The CsPAOs displayed various responses to exogenous treatments with polyamines and ABA and were differentially altered by abiotic stresses, including cold, salt, and mannitol. Overexpression of CsPAO3 in tobacco demonstrated that spermidine and spermine were decreased in the transgenic line, while putrescine was significantly enhanced, implying a potential role of this gene in polyamine back conversion. These data provide valuable knowledge for understanding the roles of the PAO genes in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with flower color in peach using genome-wide transcriptional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Wu, X X; Zhang, Z; Gao, Z H

    2015-05-11

    Flower color is an important trait of the ornamental peach (Prunus persica L.). However, the mechanism responsible for the different colors that appear in the same genotype remains unclear. In this study, red samples showed higher anthocyanins content (0.122 ± 0.009 mg/g), which was significantly different from that in white samples (0.066 ± 0.010 mg/g). Similarly to carotenoids content, red extract (0.058 ± 0.004 mg/L) was significantly higher in white extract (0.015 ± 0.004 mg/L). We estimated gene expression using Illumina sequencing technology in libraries from white and red flower buds. A total of 3,599,960 and 3,464,141 tags were sequenced from the 2 libraries, respectively. Moreover, we identified 106 significantly differentially expressed genes between the 2 libraries. Among these, 78 and 28 represented transcripts with a higher or lower abundance of more than 2-fold than in the white flower library, respectively. GO annotation indicated that highly ranked genes were involved in the pigment biosynthetic process. Expression patterns of 11 genes were verified using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. The results suggest that hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, isoflavone reductase, riboflavin kinase, zeta-carotene desaturase, and ATP binding cassette transporter may be associated with the flower color formation. Our results may be useful for scientists focusing on Prunus persica floral development and biotechnology.

  12. Genome-wide analysis and heavy metal-induced expression profiling of the HMA gene family in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eLi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metal ATPase (HMA family plays an important role in transition metal transport in plants. However, this gene family has not been extensively studied in Populus trichocarpa. We identified 17 HMA genes in P. trichocarpa (PtHMAs, of which PtHMA1–PtHMA4 belonged to the zinc (Zn/cobalt (Co/cadmium (Cd/lead (Pb subgroup, and PtHMA5–PtHMA8 were members of the copper (Cu/silver (Ag subgroup. Most of the genes were localized to chromosomes I and III. Gene structure, gene chromosomal location, and synteny analyses of PtHMAs indicated that tandem and segmental duplications likely contributed to the expansion and evolution of the PtHMAs. Most of the HMA genes contained abiotic stress-related cis-elements. Tissue-specific expression of PtHMA genes showed that PtHMA1 and PtHMA4 had relatively high expression levels in the leaves, whereas Cu/Ag subgroup (PtHMA5.1- PtHMA8 genes were upregulated in the roots. High concentrations of Cu, Ag, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb and Mn differentially regulated the expression of PtHMAs in various tissues. The preliminary results of the present study generated basic information on the HMA family of Populus that may serve as foundation for future functional studies.

  13. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to terbinafine in Candida albicans using a cDNA microarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yue-bin; QIAN Yuan-shu; MA Lian; GU Hong-ni

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is the most frequently seen opportunistic human fungal pathogen. Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal agent that has been proven to have high clinical efficacy in the therapy of fungal infections, the mechanism of action of terbinafine involves the specific inhibition of fungal squalene epoxidase, resulting in ergosterol deficiency and accumulation of intracellular squalene. We used cDNA microarray analysis technology to monitor global expression profile changes of Candida albicans genes in response to terbinafine treatment, and we anticipated a panoramic view of the responses of Candida albicans cells to the representatives of allylamine antifungal agents at the molecular level in an effort to identify drug class-specific and mechanism-independent changes in gene expression.Methods Candida albicans strain ATCC 90028 was exposed to either medium alone or terbinafine at a concentration equivalent to the 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs, 4 mg/L) for 90 minutes. RNA was isolated and gene expression profiles were compared to identify the changes in the gene expression profile using a cDNA microarray analysis. Differential expression of 10 select genes detected by cDNA microarray analysis was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results A total of 222 genes were found to be responsive to terbinafine, including 121 up-regulated genes and 101 down-regulated genes. These included genes encoding membrane transport proteins belonging to the members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or major facilitator superfamily (MFS; CDR1, AGP2, GAP6, PHO84, HOL3, FCY23, VCX1),genes involved in stress response and detoxification (CDR1, AGP2, HOL3), and gene involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG12). The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR were consistent with that of the cDNA microarray analysis.Conclusions The up-regulation of the gene encoding the multidrug resistance efflux pump

  14. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rangjin; Li, Yongjie; He, Shaolan; Zheng, Yongqiang; Yi, Shilai; Lv, Qiang; Deng, Lie

    2014-01-01

    The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina) genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature) identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of citrus R2R3MYB genes and their spatiotemporal expression under stresses and hormone treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangjin Xie

    Full Text Available The R2R3MYB proteins represent one of the largest families of transcription factors, which play important roles in plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been conducted in many species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in citrus, In this study, 101 R2R3MYB genes has been identified in the citrus (Citrus sinesis and Citrus clementina genomes, which are almost equal to the number of rice. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that they could be subdivided into 21 subgroups. The evolutionary relationships and the intro-exon organizations were also analyzed, revealing strong gene conservation but also the expansions of particular functional genes during the plant evolution. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 95 citrus R2R3MYB genes were expressed in at least one tissue and the other 6 genes showed very low expression in all tissues tested, suggesting that citrus R2R3MYB genes play important roles in the development of all citrus organs. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic conditions (NaCl, abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, drought and low temperature identified a group of R2R3MYB genes that responded to one or multiple treatments, which showed a promising for improving citrus adaptation to stresses. Our results provided an essential foundation for the future selection of the citrus R2R3MYB genes for cloning and functional dissection with an aim of uncovering their roles in citrus growth and development.

  16. RGS2 expression predicts amyloid-β sensitivity, MCI and Alzheimer's disease: genome-wide transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadar, A; Milanesi, E; Squassina, A; Niola, P; Chillotti, C; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Yaron, O; Martásek, P; Rehavi, M; Weissglas-Volkov, D; Shomron, N; Gozes, I; Gurwitz, D

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia. Misfolded protein pathological hallmarks of AD are brain deposits of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and phosphorylated tau neurofibrillary tangles. However, doubts about the role of Aβ in AD pathology have been raised as Aβ is a common component of extracellular brain deposits found, also by in vivo imaging, in non-demented aged individuals. It has been suggested that some individuals are more prone to Aβ neurotoxicity and hence more likely to develop AD when aging brains start accumulating Aβ plaques. Here, we applied genome-wide transcriptomic profiling of lymphoblastoid cells lines (LCLs) from healthy individuals and AD patients for identifying genes that predict sensitivity to Aβ. Real-time PCR validation identified 3.78-fold lower expression of RGS2 (regulator of G-protein signaling 2; P=0.0085) in LCLs from healthy individuals exhibiting high vs low Aβ sensitivity. Furthermore, RGS2 showed 3.3-fold lower expression (P=0.0008) in AD LCLs compared with controls. Notably, RGS2 expression in AD LCLs correlated with the patients' cognitive function. Lower RGS2 expression levels were also discovered in published expression data sets from postmortem AD brain tissues as well as in mild cognitive impairment and AD blood samples compared with controls. In conclusion, Aβ sensitivity phenotyping followed by transcriptomic profiling and published patient data mining identified reduced peripheral and brain expression levels of RGS2, a key regulator of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling and neuronal plasticity. RGS2 is suggested as a novel AD biomarker (alongside other genes) toward early AD detection and future disease modifying therapeutics. PMID:27701409

  17. Transglutaminase 2, a novel regulator of eicosanoid production in asthma revealed by genome-wide expression profiling of distinct asthma phenotypes.

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    Teal S Hallstrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A frequent manifestation of asthma, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB, occurs in 30-50% of asthmatics and is characterized by increased release of inflammatory eicosanoids. The objective of this study was to identify genes differentially expressed in EIB and to understand the function of these genes in the biology of asthma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Genome-wide expression profiling of airway leukocytes and epithelial cells obtained by induced sputum was conducted in two groups of subjects with asthma with and without EIB (n = 7 per group, at baseline and following exercise challenge. Based on the results of the gene expression study, additional comparisons were made with a normal control group (n = 10. Localization studies were conducted on epithelial brushings and biopsies from an additional group of asthmatics with EIB (n = 3. Genes related to epithelial repair and mast cell infiltration including beta-tryptase and carboxypeptidase A3 were upregulated by exercise challenge in the asthma group with EIB. A gene novel to asthma pathogenesis, transglutaminase 2 (TGM2, was the most differentially expressed at baseline between the groups. In vivo studies confirmed the increased expression of TGM2 in airway cells and airway lining fluid, and demonstrate that TGM2 is avidly expressed in the asthmatic airway epithelium. In vitro studies using recombinant human enzymes reveal that TGM2 augments the enzymatic activity of secreted phospholipase A(2 (PLA(2 group X (sPLA(2-X, an enzyme recently implicated in asthma pathogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study found that TGM2, a mediator that is novel to asthma pathogenesis, is overexpressed in asthmatic airways and functions to increase sPLA(2-X enzymatic activity. Since PLA(2 serves as the first rate-limiting step leading to eicosanoid formation, these results suggest that TGM2 may be a key initiator of the airway inflammatory cascade in asthma.

  18. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of auxin-responsive GH3 family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; Yue, Runqing; Tao, Sun; Yang, Yanjun; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Mingfeng; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is involved in different aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of auxin-responsive family genes. As one of the three major auxin-responsive families, GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) genes participate in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin conjugation and bounding free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in responses to abiotic stresses and various hormones in maize is largely unknown. Here, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L.) reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmGH3 family genes from maize. The results showed that 13 ZmGH3 genes were mapped on five maize chromosomes (total 10 chromosomes). Highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes in response to environmental stresses and hormone stimuli. The expression patterns of ZmGH3 genes are responsive to several abiotic stresses (salt, drought and cadmium) and major stress-related hormones (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Various environmental factors suppress auxin free IAA contents in maize roots suggesting that these abiotic stresses and hormones might alter GH3-mediated auxin levels. The responsiveness of ZmGH3 genes to a wide range of abiotic stresses and stress-related hormones suggested that ZmGH3s are involved in maize tolerance to environmental stresses.

  19. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of auxin-responsive GH3 family genes in maize (Zea mays L.) under abiotic stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangguo Feng; Runqing Yue; Sun Tao Yanjun Yang; Lei Zhang; Mingfeng Xu; Huizhong Wang; Chenjia Shen

    2015-01-01

    Auxin is involved in different aspects of plant growth and development by regulating the expression of auxin-responsive family genes. As one of the three major auxin-responsive families, GH3 (Gretchen Hagen3) genes participate in auxin homeostasis by catalyzing auxin conjugation and bounding free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in responses to abiotic stresses and various hormones in maize is largely unknown. Here, the latest updated maize (Zea mays L.) reference genome sequence was used to characterize and analyze the ZmGH3 family genes from maize. The results showed that 13 ZmGH3 genes were mapped on five maize chromosomes (total 10 chromosomes). Highly diversified gene structures and tissue-specific expression patterns suggested the possibility of function diversification for these genes in response to environmental stresses and hormone stimuli. The expression patterns of ZmGH3 genes are responsive to several abiotic stresses (salt, drought and cadmium) and major stress-related hormones (abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid). Various environmental factors suppress auxin free IAA contents in maize roots suggesting that these abiotic stresses and hormones might alter GH3-mediated auxin levels. The respon-siveness of ZmGH3 genes to a wide range of abiotic stresses and stress-related hormones suggested that ZmGH3s are involved in maize tolerance to environmental stresses.

  20. Genome-wide annotation, expression profiling, and protein interaction studies of the core cell-cycle genes in Phalaenopsis aphrodite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Chen, Jhun-Chen; Wei, Miao-Ju; Lien, Yi-Chen; Li, Huang-Hsien; Ko, Swee-Suak; Liu, Zin-Huang; Fang, Su-Chiung

    2014-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the most abundant and diverse families in the plant kingdom and its unique developmental patterns have drawn the attention of many evolutionary biologists. Particular areas of interest have included the co-evolution of pollinators and distinct floral structures, and symbiotic relationships with mycorrhizal flora. However, comprehensive studies to decipher the molecular basis of growth and development in orchids remain scarce. Cell proliferation governed by cell-cycle regulation is fundamental to growth and development of the plant body. We took advantage of recently released transcriptome information to systematically isolate and annotate the core cell-cycle regulators in the moth orchid Phalaenopsis aphrodite. Our data verified that Phalaenopsis cyclin-dependent kinase A (CDKA) is an evolutionarily conserved CDK. Expression profiling studies suggested that core cell-cycle genes functioning during the G1/S, S, and G2/M stages were preferentially enriched in the meristematic tissues that have high proliferation activity. In addition, subcellular localization and pairwise interaction analyses of various combinations of CDKs and cyclins, and of E2 promoter-binding factors and dimerization partners confirmed interactions of the functional units. Furthermore, our data showed that expression of the core cell-cycle genes was coordinately regulated during pollination-induced reproductive development. The data obtained establish a fundamental framework for study of the cell-cycle machinery in Phalaenopsis orchids.

  1. Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Patterns, and Functional Analysis of UDP Glycosyltransferase Family in Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Boping; Gao, Liuxiao; Gao, Jie; Xu, Yaying; Liu, Hongru; Cao, Xiangmei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kunsong

    2017-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a commercial grown fruit trees, important because of its essential nutrients and flavor promoting secondary metabolites. The glycosylation processes mediated by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) play an important role in regulating secondary metabolites availability. Identification and characterization of peach UGTs is therefore a research priority. A total of 168 peach UGT genes that distributed unevenly across chromosomes were identified based on their conserved PSPG motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes with plant UGTs clustered them into 16 groups (A–P). Comparison of the patterns of intron–extron and their positions within genes revealed one highly conserved intron insertion event in peach UGTs. Tissue specificity, temporal expression patterns in peach fruit during development and ripening, and in response to abiotic stress UV-B irradiation was investigated using RNA-seq strategy. The relationship between UGTs transcript levels and concentrations of glycosylated volatiles was examined to select candidates for functional analysis. Heterologous expressing these candidate genes in Escherichia coli identified UGTs that were involved in the in vitro volatile glycosylation. Our results provide an important source for the identification of functional UGT genes to potential manipulate secondary biosynthesis in peach. PMID:28382047

  2. The genome-wide expression profile of Scrophularia ningpoensis-treated thapsigargin-stimulated U-87MG cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Hwa; Ko, Eunjung; Jeon, Sung-Bae; Lee, Beom-Joon; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Dong-Ung; Kwak, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Yangseok; Shin, Minkyu; Hong, Moochang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2009-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal site for protein synthesis, protein folding, calcium storage, and calcium signaling. Thapsigargin (TG), an inducer of ER stress, inhibits ER-associated Ca(2+)-ATPase and disrupts Ca(2+) homeostasis. ER stress plays an important pathogenetic role in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease, and prion protein diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective mechanisms of Scrophularia ningpoensis (SN) extracts and chemicals on TG-stimulated U-87MG cells. In this study, the recovery activities of E-harpagoside (EHA), harpagide (HA), 8-O-E-p-methoxycinnamoylharpagide (MH), aucubin (AB), cinnamic acid (CA), p-coumaric acid (pCA), p-methoxycinnamic acid methyl ester (MME), caffeic acid (CFA), ferulic acid (FA), and (E)-p-methoxycinnamic acid (MA) on TG-stimulated U-87MG cells were evaluated. The results revealed that SN, MME, CFA, and MH showed considerable recovery effects. Therefore, SN, MME, CFA, and MH were selected to evaluate the gene expression profile of U-87MG cells by using microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR. The results of this analysis revealed that cell cycle, proliferation, protein folding, and anti-apoptosis-related genes were up-regulated in SN, MME, CFA, and MH-treated U-87MG cells. In addition, significant decreases in apoptosis, the MAPK signaling pathway, and mitochondria-related gene expressions were observed in SN-, MME-, CFA-, and MH-treated U-87MG cells. Thus, SN, MME, CFA, and MH might affect neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Genome-wide gene expression profiling of stress response in a spinal cord clip compression injury model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aneurysm clip impact-compression model of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a standard injury model in animals that closely mimics the primary mechanism of most human injuries: acute impact and persisting compression. Its histo-pathological and behavioural outcomes are extensively similar to human SCI. To understand the distinct molecular events underlying this injury model we analyzed global mRNA abundance changes during the acute, subacute and chronic stages of a moderate to severe injury to the rat spinal cord. Results Time-series expression analyses resulted in clustering of the majority of deregulated transcripts into eight statistically significant expression profiles. Systematic application of Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment pathway analysis allowed inference of biological processes participating in SCI pathology. Temporal analysis identified events specific to and common between acute, subacute and chronic time-points. Processes common to all phases of injury include blood coagulation, cellular extravasation, leukocyte cell-cell adhesion, the integrin-mediated signaling pathway, cytokine production and secretion, neutrophil chemotaxis, phagocytosis, response to hypoxia and reactive oxygen species, angiogenesis, apoptosis, inflammatory processes and ossification. Importantly, various elements of adaptive and induced innate immune responses span, not only the acute and subacute phases, but also persist throughout the chronic phase of SCI. Induced innate responses, such as Toll-like receptor signaling, are more active during the acute phase but persist throughout the chronic phase. However, adaptive immune response processes such as B and T cell activation, proliferation, and migration, T cell differentiation, B and T cell receptor-mediated signaling, and B cell- and immunoglobulin-mediated immune response become more significant during the chronic phase. Conclusions This analysis showed that, surprisingly, the diverse series of molecular events that

  4. Genome-Wide Temporal Expression Profiling in Caenorhabditis elegans Identifies a Core Gene Set Related to Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytag, Virginie; Probst, Sabine; Hadziselimovic, Nils; Boglari, Csaba; Hauser, Yannick; Peter, Fabian; Gabor Fenyves, Bank; Milnik, Annette; Demougin, Philippe; Vukojevic, Vanja; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2017-07-12

    The identification of genes related to encoding, storage, and retrieval of memories is a major interest in neuroscience. In the current study, we analyzed the temporal gene expression changes in a neuronal mRNA pool during an olfactory long-term associative memory (LTAM) in Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodites. Here, we identified a core set of 712 (538 upregulated and 174 downregulated) genes that follows three distinct temporal peaks demonstrating multiple gene regulation waves in LTAM. Compared with the previously published positive LTAM gene set (Lakhina et al., 2015), 50% of the identified upregulated genes here overlap with the previous dataset, possibly representing stimulus-independent memory-related genes. On the other hand, the remaining genes were not previously identified in positive associative memory and may specifically regulate aversive LTAM. Our results suggest a multistep gene activation process during the formation and retrieval of long-term memory and define general memory-implicated genes as well as conditioning-type-dependent gene sets.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The identification of genes regulating different steps of memory is of major interest in neuroscience. Identification of common memory genes across different learning paradigms and the temporal activation of the genes are poorly studied. Here, we investigated the temporal aspects of Caenorhabditis elegans gene expression changes using aversive olfactory associative long-term memory (LTAM) and identified three major gene activation waves. Like in previous studies, aversive LTAM is also CREB dependent, and CREB activity is necessary immediately after training. Finally, we define a list of memory paradigm-independent core gene sets as well as conditioning-dependent genes. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/376661-12$15.00/0.

  5. Genome-wide Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA-DNA interactions are enriched in intergenic regions and gene promoters and correlate with infection-induced differential gene expression.

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    J Stephen Dumler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anaplasma phagocytophilum, an obligate intracellular prokaryote, infects neutrophils and alters cardinal functions via reprogrammed transcription. Large contiguous regions of neutrophil chromosomes are differentially expressed during infection. Secreted A. phagocytophilum effector AnkA transits into the neutrophil or granulocyte nucleus to complex with DNA in heterochromatin across all chromosomes. AnkA binds to gene promoters to dampen cis-transcription and also has features of matrix attachment region (MAR-binding proteins that regulate three-dimensional chromatin architecture and coordinate transcriptional programs encoded in topologically-associated chromatin domains. We hypothesize that identification of additional AnkA binding sites will better delineate how A. phagocytophilum infection results in reprogramming of the neutrophil genome. Using AnkA-binding ChIP-seq, we showed that AnkA binds broadly throughout all chromosomes in a reproducible pattern, especially at: i intergenic regions predicted to be matrix attachment regions (MARs; ii within predicted lamina-associated domains; and iii at promoters ≤3,000 bp upstream of transcriptional start sites. These findings provide genome-wide support for AnkA as a regulator of cis-gene transcription. Moreover, the dominant mark of AnkA in distal intergenic regions known to be AT-enriched, coupled with frequent enrichment in the nuclear lamina, provides strong support for its role as a MAR-binding protein and genome re-organizer. AnkA must be considered a prime candidate to promote neutrophil reprogramming and subsequent functional changes that belie improved microbial fitness and pathogenicity.

  6. Genome-wide gene expression of a natural hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii under enological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combina, Mariana; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Tronchoni, Jordi; Belloch, Carmela; Querol, Amparo

    2012-07-16

    The species Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a predominant role in the wine making process. However, other species have been associated with must fermentation, such as Saccharomyces uvarum (Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum) or Saccharomyces paradoxus. Recently, yeast hybrids of different Saccharomyces species have also been reported as responsible for wine production. Yeast hybrids between the species S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii isolated in wine fermentations show enhanced performance in low temperature enological conditions and increased production of interesting aroma compounds. In this work, we have studied the transcriptomic response in enological conditions of a S. cerevisiae×S. kudriavzevii hybrid strain and compared it with the reference species of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The results show that the hybrid strain presents an up-regulation of genes belonging to functional group translation and amino-acid metabolism. Moreover, key genes related to cold stress and production of glycerol and aroma compounds were also up-regulated. While some genes inherited regulation patterns from one of the parents, most of the up-regulated genes presented a new gene expression pattern, probably generated during the hybridization and adaptation process.

  7. Genome wide transcriptional analysis of resting and IL2 activated human natural killer cells: gene expression signatures indicative of novel molecular signaling pathways

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    Schmitz Alexander

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human natural killer (NK cells are the key contributors of innate immune response and the effector functions of these cells are enhanced by cytokines such as interleukine 2 (IL2. We utilized genome-wide transcriptional profiling to identify gene expression signatures and pathways in resting and IL2 activated NK cell isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors. Results Gene expression profiling of resting NK cells showed high expression of a number of cytotoxic factors, cytokines, chemokines and inhibitory and activating surface NK receptors. Resting NK cells expressed many genes associated with cellular quiescence and also appeared to have an active TGFβ (TGFB1 signaling pathway. IL2 stimulation induced rapid downregulation of quiescence associated genes and upregulation of genes associated with cell cycle progression and proliferation. Numerous genes that may enhance immune function and responsiveness including activating receptors (DNAM1, KLRC1 and KLRC3, death receptor ligand (TNFSF6 (FASL and TRAIL, chemokine receptors (CX3CR1, CCR5 and CCR7, interleukin receptors (IL2RG, IL18RAB and IL27RA and members of secretory pathways (DEGS1, FKBP11, SSR3, SEC61G and SLC3A2 were upregulated. The expression profile suggested PI3K/AKT activation and NF-κB activation through multiple pathways (TLR/IL1R, TNF receptor induced and TCR-like possibly involving BCL10. Activation of NFAT signaling was supported by increased expression of many pathway members and downstream target genes. The transcription factor GATA3 was expressed in resting cells while T-BET was upregulated on activation concurrent with the change in cytokine expression profile. The importance of NK cells in innate immune response was also reflected by late increased expression of inflammatory chemotactic factors and receptors and molecules involved in adhesion and lymphocyte trafficking or migration. Conclusion This analysis allowed us to identify genes implicated in

  8. Genome wide expression analysis of CBS domain containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh and Oryza sativa L. reveals their developmental and stress regulation

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    Sopory Sudhir K

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh and Oryza sativa L., a large number of genes encode proteins of unknown functions, whose characterization still remains one of the major challenges. With an aim to characterize these unknown proteins having defined features (PDFs in plants, we have chosen to work on proteins having a cystathionine β-synthase (CBS domain. CBS domain as such has no defined function(s but plays a regulatory role for many enzymes and thus helps in maintaining the intracellular redox balance. Its function as sensor of cellular energy has also been widely suggested. Results Our analysis has identified 34 CBS domain containing proteins (CDCPs in Arabidopsis and 59 in Oryza. In most of these proteins, CBS domain coexists with other functional domain(s, which may indicate towards their probable functions. In order to investigate the role(s of these CDCPs, we have carried out their detailed analysis in whole genomes of Arabidopsis and Oryza, including their classification, nomenclature, sequence analysis, domain analysis, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and their expression patterns using public databases (MPSS database and microarray data. We have found that the transcript levels of some members of this family are altered in response to various stresses such as salinity, drought, cold, high temperature, UV, wounding and genotoxic stress, in both root and shoot tissues. This data would be helpful in exploring the so far obscure functions of CBS domain and CBS domain-containing proteins in plant stress responses. Conclusion We have identified, classified and suggested the nomenclature of CDCPs in Arabidopsis and Oryza. A comprehensive analysis of expression patterns for CDCPs using the already existing transcriptome profiles and MPSS database reveals that a few CDCPs may have an important role in stress response/tolerance and development in plants, which needs to be validated further through

  9. Genome wide expression analysis of CBS domain containing proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh and Oryza sativa L. reveals their developmental and stress regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Hemant R; Singh, Anil K; Sopory, Sudhir K; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L; Pareek, Ashwani

    2009-04-28

    In Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh and Oryza sativa L., a large number of genes encode proteins of unknown functions, whose characterization still remains one of the major challenges. With an aim to characterize these unknown proteins having defined features (PDFs) in plants, we have chosen to work on proteins having a cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domain. CBS domain as such has no defined function(s) but plays a regulatory role for many enzymes and thus helps in maintaining the intracellular redox balance. Its function as sensor of cellular energy has also been widely suggested. Our analysis has identified 34 CBS domain containing proteins (CDCPs) in Arabidopsis and 59 in Oryza. In most of these proteins, CBS domain coexists with other functional domain(s), which may indicate towards their probable functions. In order to investigate the role(s) of these CDCPs, we have carried out their detailed analysis in whole genomes of Arabidopsis and Oryza, including their classification, nomenclature, sequence analysis, domain analysis, chromosomal locations, phylogenetic relationships and their expression patterns using public databases (MPSS database and microarray data). We have found that the transcript levels of some members of this family are altered in response to various stresses such as salinity, drought, cold, high temperature, UV, wounding and genotoxic stress, in both root and shoot tissues. This data would be helpful in exploring the so far obscure functions of CBS domain and CBS domain-containing proteins in plant stress responses. We have identified, classified and suggested the nomenclature of CDCPs in Arabidopsis and Oryza. A comprehensive analysis of expression patterns for CDCPs using the already existing transcriptome profiles and MPSS database reveals that a few CDCPs may have an important role in stress response/tolerance and development in plants, which needs to be validated further through functional genomics.

  10. Integration of Genome-Wide Computation DRE Search, AhR ChIP-chip and Gene Expression Analyses of TCDD-Elicited Responses in the Mouse Liver

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    Matthews Jason

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor (TF that mediates responses to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Integration of TCDD-induced genome-wide AhR enrichment, differential gene expression and computational dioxin response element (DRE analyses further elucidate the hepatic AhR regulatory network. Results Global ChIP-chip and gene expression analyses were performed on hepatic tissue from immature ovariectomized mice orally gavaged with 30 μg/kg TCDD. ChIP-chip analysis identified 14,446 and 974 AhR enriched regions (1% false discovery rate at 2 and 24 hrs, respectively. Enrichment density was greatest in the proximal promoter, and more specifically, within ± 1.5 kb of a transcriptional start site (TSS. AhR enrichment also occurred distal to a TSS (e.g. intergenic DNA and 3' UTR, extending the potential gene expression regulatory roles of the AhR. Although TF binding site analyses identified over-represented DRE sequences within enriched regions, approximately 50% of all AhR enriched regions lacked a DRE core (5'-GCGTG-3'. Microarray analysis identified 1,896 number of TCDD-responsive genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t > 0.999. Integrating this gene expression data with our ChIP-chip and DRE analyses only identified 625 differentially expressed genes that involved an AhR interaction at a DRE. Functional annotation analysis of differentially regulated genes associated with AhR enrichment identified overrepresented processes related to fatty acid and lipid metabolism and transport, and xenobiotic metabolism, which are consistent with TCDD-elicited steatosis in the mouse liver. Conclusions Details of the AhR regulatory network have been expanded to include AhR-DNA interactions within intragenic and intergenic genomic regions. Moreover, the AhR can interact with DNA independent of a DRE core suggesting there are alternative mechanisms of AhR-mediated gene regulation.

  11. A Genome-Wide mQTL Analysis in Human Adipose Tissue Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with DNA Methylation, Gene Expression and Metabolic Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Volkov

    Full Text Available Little is known about the extent to which interactions between genetics and epigenetics may affect the risk of complex metabolic diseases and/or their intermediary phenotypes. We performed a genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL analysis in human adipose tissue of 119 men, where 592,794 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were related to DNA methylation of 477,891 CpG sites, covering 99% of RefSeq genes. SNPs in significant mQTLs were further related to gene expression in adipose tissue and obesity related traits. We found 101,911 SNP-CpG pairs (mQTLs in cis and 5,342 SNP-CpG pairs in trans showing significant associations between genotype and DNA methylation in adipose tissue after correction for multiple testing, where cis is defined as distance less than 500 kb between a SNP and CpG site. These mQTLs include reported obesity, lipid and type 2 diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY3/POMC, APOA5, CETP, FADS2, GCKR, SORT1 and LEPR. Significant mQTLs were overrepresented in intergenic regions meanwhile underrepresented in promoter regions and CpG islands. We further identified 635 SNPs in significant cis-mQTLs associated with expression of 86 genes in adipose tissue including CHRNA5, G6PC2, GPX7, RPL27A, THNSL2 and ZFP57. SNPs in significant mQTLs were also associated with body mass index (BMI, lipid traits and glucose and insulin levels in our study cohort and public available consortia data. Importantly, the Causal Inference Test (CIT demonstrates how genetic variants mediate their effects on metabolic traits (e.g. BMI, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR via altered DNA methylation in human adipose tissue. This study identifies genome-wide interactions between genetic and epigenetic variation in both cis and trans positions influencing gene expression in adipose tissue and in vivo (dysmetabolic traits associated with the development of

  12. Genome-wide association study and gene expression analysis identifies CD84 as a predictor of response to etanercept therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF biologic therapy is a widely used treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. It is unknown why some RA patients fail to respond adequately to anti-TNF therapy, which limits the development of clinical biomarkers to predict response or new drugs to target refractory cases. To understand the biological basis of response to anti-TNF therapy, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS meta-analysis of more than 2 million common variants in 2,706 RA patients from 13 different collections. Patients were treated with one of three anti-TNF medications: etanercept (n = 733, infliximab (n = 894, or adalimumab (n = 1,071. We identified a SNP (rs6427528 at the 1q23 locus that was associated with change in disease activity score (ΔDAS in the etanercept subset of patients (P = 8 × 10(-8, but not in the infliximab or adalimumab subsets (P>0.05. The SNP is predicted to disrupt transcription factor binding site motifs in the 3' UTR of an immune-related gene, CD84, and the allele associated with better response to etanercept was associated with higher CD84 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (P = 1 × 10(-11 in 228 non-RA patients and P = 0.004 in 132 RA patients. Consistent with the genetic findings, higher CD84 gene expression correlated with lower cross-sectional DAS (P = 0.02, n = 210 and showed a non-significant trend for better ΔDAS in a subset of RA patients with gene expression data (n = 31, etanercept-treated. A small, multi-ethnic replication showed a non-significant trend towards an association among etanercept-treated RA patients of Portuguese ancestry (n = 139, P = 0.4, but no association among patients of Japanese ancestry (n = 151, P = 0.8. Our study demonstrates that an allele associated with response to etanercept therapy is also associated with CD84 gene expression, and further that CD84 expression correlates with disease activity. These findings support a model in which CD84

  13. Genome-wide Expression Profiling in Seedlings of the Arabidopsis Mutant uro that is Defective in the Secondary Cell Wall Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yuan; Xuan Yao; Dabing Zhang; Yue Sun; Hai Huang

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary growth is of tremendous importance, not only for plant growth and development but also for economic usefulness.Secondary tissues such as xylem and phloem are the conducting tissues in plant vascular systems, essentially for water and nutrient transport, respectively.On the other hand, products of plant secondary growth are important raw materials and renewable sources of energy.Although advances have been recently made towards describing molecular mechanisms that regulate secondary growth, the genetic control for this process is not yet fully understood.Secondary cell wall formation in plants shares some common mechanisms with other plant secondary growth processes.Thus, studies on the secondary cell wall formation using Arabidopsis may help to understand the regulatory mechanisms for plant secondary growth.We previously reported phenotypic characterizations of an Arabidopsis semi-dominant mutant,upright rosette (uro), which is defective in secondary cell wall growth and has an unusually soft stem.Here, we show that lignification in the secondary cell wall in uro is aberrant by analyzing hypocotyl and stem.We also show genome-wide expression profiles of uro seedlings, using the Affymetrix GeneChip that contains approximately 24 000 Arabidopsis genes.Genes identified with altered expression levels include those that function in plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling,cell division and plant secondary tissue growth.These results provide useful information for further characterizations of the regulatory network in plant secondary cell wall formation.

  14. Genome-wide gene expression analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates associated with a resurgence in pertussis: elucidation of factors involved in the increased fitness of epidemic strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey J King

    Full Text Available Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis is the causative agent of whooping cough, which is a highly contagious disease in the human respiratory tract. Despite vaccination since the 1950s, pertussis remains the most prevalent vaccine-preventable disease in developed countries. A recent resurgence pertussis is associated with the expansion of B. pertussis strains with a novel allele for the pertussis toxin (ptx promoter ptxP3 in place of resident ptxP1 strains. The recent expansion of ptxP3 strains suggests that these strains carry mutations that have increased their fitness. Compared to the ptxP1 strains, ptxP3 strains produce more Ptx, which results in increased virulence and immune suppression. In this study, we investigated the contribution of gene expression changes of various genes on the increased fitness of the ptxP3 strains. Using genome-wide gene expression profiling, we show that several virulence genes had higher expression levels in the ptxP3 strains compared to the ptxP1 strains. We provide the first evidence that wildtype ptxP3 strains are better colonizers in an intranasal mouse infection model. This study shows that the ptxP3 mutation and the genetic background of ptxP3 strains affect fitness by contributing to the ability to colonize in a mouse infection model. These results show that the genetic background of ptxP3 strains with a higher expression of virulence genes contribute to increased fitness.

  15. Integration of Genome-Wide SNP Data and Gene-Expression Profiles Reveals Six Novel Loci and Regulatory Mechanisms for Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Whole Blood.

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    Ralph Burkhardt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Profiling amino acids and acylcarnitines in whole blood spots is a powerful tool in the laboratory diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism. Emerging data suggests that altered blood levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines are also associated with common metabolic diseases in adults. Thus, the identification of common genetic determinants for blood metabolites might shed light on pathways contributing to human physiology and common diseases. We applied a targeted mass-spectrometry-based method to analyze whole blood concentrations of 96 amino acids, acylcarnitines and pathway associated metabolite ratios in a Central European cohort of 2,107 adults and performed genome-wide association (GWA to identify genetic modifiers of metabolite concentrations. We discovered and replicated six novel loci associated with blood levels of total acylcarnitine, arginine (both on chromosome 6; rs12210538, rs17657775, propionylcarnitine (chromosome 10; rs12779637, 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (chromosome 21; rs1571700, stearoylcarnitine (chromosome 1; rs3811444, and aspartic acid traits (chromosome 8; rs750472. Based on an integrative analysis of expression quantitative trait loci in blood mononuclear cells and correlations between gene expressions and metabolite levels, we provide evidence for putative causative genes: SLC22A16 for total acylcarnitines, ARG1 for arginine, HLCS for 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine, JAM3 for stearoylcarnitine via a trans-effect at chromosome 1, and PPP1R16A for aspartic acid traits. Further, we report replication and provide additional functional evidence for ten loci that have previously been published for metabolites measured in plasma, serum or urine. In conclusion, our integrative analysis of SNP, gene-expression and metabolite data points to novel genetic factors that may be involved in the regulation of human metabolism. At several loci, we provide evidence for metabolite regulation via gene-expression and observed

  16. The effect of Nipped-B-like (Nipbl) haploinsufficiency on genome-wide cohesin binding and target gene expression: modeling Cornelia de Lange syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Daniel A; Chen, Yen-Yun; Chien, Richard; Zeng, Weihua; Biesinger, Jacob; Flowers, Ebony; Kawauchi, Shimako; Santos, Rosaysela; Calof, Anne L; Lander, Arthur D; Xie, Xiaohui; Yokomori, Kyoko

    2017-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem developmental disorder frequently associated with heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of Nipped-B-like (NIPBL), the human homolog of Drosophila Nipped-B. NIPBL loads cohesin onto chromatin. Cohesin mediates sister chromatid cohesion important for mitosis but is also increasingly recognized as a regulator of gene expression. In CdLS patient cells and animal models, expression changes of multiple genes with little or no sister chromatid cohesion defect suggests that disruption of gene regulation underlies this disorder. However, the effect of NIPBL haploinsufficiency on cohesin binding, and how this relates to the clinical presentation of CdLS, has not been fully investigated. Nipbl haploinsufficiency causes CdLS-like phenotype in mice. We examined genome-wide cohesin binding and its relationship to gene expression using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Nipbl+/- mice that recapitulate the CdLS phenotype. We found a global decrease in cohesin binding, including at CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) binding sites and repeat regions. Cohesin-bound genes were found to be enriched for histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) at their promoters; were disproportionately downregulated in Nipbl mutant MEFs; and displayed evidence of reduced promoter-enhancer interaction. The results suggest that gene activation is the primary cohesin function sensitive to Nipbl reduction. Over 50% of significantly dysregulated transcripts in mutant MEFs come from cohesin target genes, including genes involved in adipogenesis that have been implicated in contributing to the CdLS phenotype. Decreased cohesin binding at the gene regions is directly linked to disease-specific expression changes. Taken together, our Nipbl haploinsufficiency model allows us to analyze the dosage effect of cohesin loading on CdLS development.

  17. Genome-wide profiling of 24 hr diel rhythmicity in the water flea, Daphnia pulex: network analysis reveals rhythmic gene expression and enhances functional gene annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rund, Samuel S C; Yoo, Boyoung; Alam, Camille; Green, Taryn; Stephens, Melissa T; Zeng, Erliang; George, Gary F; Sheppard, Aaron D; Duffield, Giles E; Milenković, Tijana; Pfrender, Michael E

    2016-08-18

    Marine and freshwater zooplankton exhibit daily rhythmic patterns of behavior and physiology which may be regulated directly by the light:dark (LD) cycle and/or a molecular circadian clock. One of the best-studied zooplankton taxa, the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, has a 24 h diel vertical migration (DVM) behavior whereby the organism travels up and down through the water column daily. DVM plays a critical role in resource tracking and the behavioral avoidance of predators and damaging ultraviolet radiation. However, there is little information at the transcriptional level linking the expression patterns of genes to the rhythmic physiology/behavior of Daphnia. Here we analyzed genome-wide temporal transcriptional patterns from Daphnia pulex collected over a 44 h time period under a 12:12 LD cycle (diel) conditions using a cosine-fitting algorithm. We used a comprehensive network modeling and analysis approach to identify novel co-regulated rhythmic genes that have similar network topological properties and functional annotations as rhythmic genes identified by the cosine-fitting analyses. Furthermore, we used the network approach to predict with high accuracy novel gene-function associations, thus enhancing current functional annotations available for genes in this ecologically relevant model species. Our results reveal that genes in many functional groupings exhibit 24 h rhythms in their expression patterns under diel conditions. We highlight the rhythmic expression of immunity, oxidative detoxification, and sensory process genes. We discuss differences in the chronobiology of D. pulex from other well-characterized terrestrial arthropods. This research adds to a growing body of literature suggesting the genetic mechanisms governing rhythmicity in crustaceans may be divergent from other arthropod lineages including insects. Lastly, these results highlight the power of using a network analysis approach to identify differential gene expression and provide novel

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the Hsp20 gene family in soybean: comprehensive sequence, genomic organization and expression profile analysis under abiotic and biotic stresses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lopes-Caitar, Valéria S; de Carvalho, Mayra C C G; Darben, Luana M; Kuwahara, Marcia K; Nepomuceno, Alexandre L; Dias, Waldir P; Abdelnoor, Ricardo V; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar C

    2013-01-01

    .... Thus, in the present study an in silico identification of GmHsp20 gene family members was performed, and the genes were characterized and subjected to in vivo expression analysis under biotic and abiotic stresses...

  19. Genome-wide association and genomic selection in animal breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Goddard, Mike

    2010-11-01

    Results from genome-wide association studies in livestock, and humans, has lead to the conclusion that the effect of individual quantitative trait loci (QTL) on complex traits, such as yield, are likely to be small; therefore, a large number of QTL are necessary to explain genetic variation in these traits. Given this genetic architecture, gains from marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs using only a small number of DNA markers to trace a limited number of QTL is likely to be small. This has lead to the development of alternative technology for using the available dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information, called genomic selection. Genomic selection uses a genome-wide panel of dense markers so that all QTL are likely to be in linkage disequilibrium with at least one SNP. The genomic breeding values are predicted to be the sum of the effect of these SNPs across the entire genome. In dairy cattle breeding, the accuracy of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) that can be achieved and the fact that these are available early in life have lead to rapid adoption of the technology. Here, we discuss the design of experiments necessary to achieve accurate prediction of GEBV in future generations in terms of the number of markers necessary and the size of the reference population where marker effects are estimated. We also present a simple method for implementing genomic selection using a genomic relationship matrix. Future challenges discussed include using whole genome sequence data to improve the accuracy of genomic selection and management of inbreeding through genomic relationships.

  20. Genome-wide integration on transcription factors, histone acetylation and gene expression reveals genes co-regulated by histone modification patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Natsume-Kitatani

    Full Text Available N-terminal tails of H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 histone families are subjected to posttranslational modifications that take part in transcriptional regulation mechanisms, such as transcription factor binding and gene expression. Regulation mechanisms under control of histone modification are important but remain largely unclear, despite of emerging datasets for comprehensive analysis of histone modification. In this paper, we focus on what we call genetic harmonious units (GHUs, which are co-occurring patterns among transcription factor binding, gene expression and histone modification. We present the first genome-wide approach that captures GHUs by combining ChIP-chip with microarray datasets from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our approach employs noise-robust soft clustering to select patterns which share the same preferences in transcription factor-binding, histone modification and gene expression, which are all currently implied to be closely correlated. The detected patterns are a well-studied acetylation of lysine 16 of H4 in glucose depletion as well as co-acetylation of five lysine residues of H3 with H4 Lys12 and H2A Lys7 responsible for ribosome biogenesis. Furthermore, our method further suggested the recognition of acetylated H4 Lys16 being crucial to histone acetyltransferase ESA1, whose essential role is still under controversy, from a microarray dataset on ESA1 and its bypass suppressor mutants. These results demonstrate that our approach allows us to provide clearer principles behind gene regulation mechanisms under histone modifications and detect GHUs further by applying to other microarray and ChIP-chip datasets. The source code of our method, which was implemented in MATLAB (http://www.mathworks.com/, is available from the supporting page for this paper: http://www.bic.kyoto-u.ac.jp/pathway/natsume/hm_detector.htm.

  1. The classification of mRNA expression levels by the phosphorylation state of RNAPII CTD based on a combined genome-wide approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tachibana Taro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular function is regulated by the balance of stringently regulated amounts of mRNA. Previous reports revealed that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII, which transcribes mRNA, can be classified into the pausing state and the active transcription state according to the phosphorylation state of RPB1, the catalytic subunit of RNAPII. However, genome-wide association between mRNA expression level and the phosphorylation state of RNAPII is unclear. While the functional importance of pausing genes is clear, such as in mouse Embryonic Stem cells for differentiation, understanding this association is critical for distinguishing pausing genes from active transcribing genes in expression profiling data, such as microarrays and RNAseq. Therefore, we examined the correlation between the phosphorylation of RNAPII and mRNA expression levels using a combined analysis by ChIPseq and RNAseq. Results We first performed a precise quantitative measurement of mRNA by performing an optimized calculation in RNAseq. We then visualized the recruitment of various phosphorylated RNAPIIs, such as Ser2P and Ser5P. A combined analysis using optimized RNAseq and ChIPseq for phosphorylated RNAPII revealed that mRNA levels correlate with the various phosphorylation states of RNAPII. Conclusions We demonstrated that the amount of mRNA is precisely reflected by the phased phosphorylation of Ser2 and Ser5. In particular, even the most "pausing" genes, for which only Ser5 is phosphorylated, were detectable at a certain level of mRNA. Our analysis indicated that the complexity of quantitative regulation of mRNA levels could be classified into three categories according to the phosphorylation state of RNAPII.

  2. The classification of mRNA expression levels by the phosphorylation state of RNAPII CTD based on a combined genome-wide approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellular function is regulated by the balance of stringently regulated amounts of mRNA. Previous reports revealed that RNA polymerase II (RNAPII), which transcribes mRNA, can be classified into the pausing state and the active transcription state according to the phosphorylation state of RPB1, the catalytic subunit of RNAPII. However, genome-wide association between mRNA expression level and the phosphorylation state of RNAPII is unclear. While the functional importance of pausing genes is clear, such as in mouse Embryonic Stem cells for differentiation, understanding this association is critical for distinguishing pausing genes from active transcribing genes in expression profiling data, such as microarrays and RNAseq. Therefore, we examined the correlation between the phosphorylation of RNAPII and mRNA expression levels using a combined analysis by ChIPseq and RNAseq. Results We first performed a precise quantitative measurement of mRNA by performing an optimized calculation in RNAseq. We then visualized the recruitment of various phosphorylated RNAPIIs, such as Ser2P and Ser5P. A combined analysis using optimized RNAseq and ChIPseq for phosphorylated RNAPII revealed that mRNA levels correlate with the various phosphorylation states of RNAPII. Conclusions We demonstrated that the amount of mRNA is precisely reflected by the phased phosphorylation of Ser2 and Ser5. In particular, even the most "pausing" genes, for which only Ser5 is phosphorylated, were detectable at a certain level of mRNA. Our analysis indicated that the complexity of quantitative regulation of mRNA levels could be classified into three categories according to the phosphorylation state of RNAPII. PMID:22011111

  3. Integrating genome-wide association study and expression quantitative trait loci data identifies multiple genes and gene set associated with neuroticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qianrui; Wang, Wenyu; Hao, Jingcan; He, Awen; Wen, Yan; Guo, Xiong; Wu, Cuiyan; Ning, Yujie; Wang, Xi; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Neuroticism is a fundamental personality trait with significant genetic determinant. To identify novel susceptibility genes for neuroticism, we conducted an integrative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data of genome wide association study (GWAS) and expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) study. GWAS summary data was driven from published studies of neuroticism, totally involving 170,906 subjects. eQTL dataset containing 927,753 eQTLs were obtained from an eQTL meta-analysis of 5311 samples. Integrative analysis of GWAS and eQTL data was conducted by summary data-based Mendelian randomization (SMR) analysis software. To identify neuroticism associated gene sets, the SMR analysis results were further subjected to gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The gene set annotation dataset (containing 13,311 annotated gene sets) of GSEA Molecular Signatures Database was used. SMR single gene analysis identified 6 significant genes for neuroticism, including MSRA (p value=2.27×10(-10)), MGC57346 (p value=6.92×10(-7)), BLK (p value=1.01×10(-6)), XKR6 (p value=1.11×10(-6)), C17ORF69 (p value=1.12×10(-6)) and KIAA1267 (p value=4.00×10(-6)). Gene set enrichment analysis observed significant association for Chr8p23 gene set (false discovery rate=0.033). Our results provide novel clues for the genetic mechanism studies of neuroticism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Impact of gene dosage on gene expression, biological processes and survival in cervical cancer: a genome-wide follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Martinez, Ingrid; Barrón, Valeria; Roman-Bassaure, Edgar; Juárez-Torres, Eligia; Guardado-Estrada, Mariano; Espinosa, Ana María; Bermudez, Miriam; Fernández, Fernando; Venegas-Vega, Carlos; Orozco, Lorena; Zenteno, Edgar; Kofman, Susana; Berumen, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role of tumor copy number (CN)-altered genome (CN-AG) in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer (CC), especially its effect on gene expression, biological processes, and patient survival. Fifty-nine human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-positive CCs were investigated with microarrays-31 for mapping CN-AG and 55 for global gene expression, with 27 CCs in common. Five-year survival was investigated in 55 patients. Deletions and amplifications >2.5 Mb were defined as CN alterations. The %CN-AG varied from 0 to 32.2% (mean = 8.1±8.9). Tumors were classified as low (mean = 0.5±0.6, n = 11), medium (mean = 5.4±2.4, n = 10), or high (mean = 19.2±6.6, n = 10) CN. The highest %CN-AG was found in 3q, which contributed an average of 55% of all CN alterations. Genome-wide, only 5.3% of CN-altered genes were deregulated directly by gene dosage. In contrast, the rate in fully duplicated 3q was twice as high. Amplification of 3q explained 23.2% of deregulated genes in whole tumors (r2 = 0.232, p = 0.006; analysis of variance), including genes located in 3q and other chromosomes. A total of 862 genes were deregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors, but only 22.9% were CN altered. This suggests that the remaining genes are not deregulated directly by gene dosage, but by mechanisms induced in trans by CN-altered genes. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-dependent proteasome proteolysis, glycolysis, and apoptosis were upregulated, whereas cell adhesion and angiogenesis were downregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors. The high %CN-AG and upregulated gene expression profile of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis were associated with poor patient survival (p0.38, p<0.01, Spearman test). Therefore, inhibition of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis and glycolysis could be useful for CC treatment. However, whether they are indispensable for tumor growth remains to be demonstrated.

  5. Impact of gene dosage on gene expression, biological processes and survival in cervical cancer: a genome-wide follow-up study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Medina-Martinez

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of tumor copy number (CN-altered genome (CN-AG in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer (CC, especially its effect on gene expression, biological processes, and patient survival. Fifty-nine human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16-positive CCs were investigated with microarrays-31 for mapping CN-AG and 55 for global gene expression, with 27 CCs in common. Five-year survival was investigated in 55 patients. Deletions and amplifications >2.5 Mb were defined as CN alterations. The %CN-AG varied from 0 to 32.2% (mean = 8.1±8.9. Tumors were classified as low (mean = 0.5±0.6, n = 11, medium (mean = 5.4±2.4, n = 10, or high (mean = 19.2±6.6, n = 10 CN. The highest %CN-AG was found in 3q, which contributed an average of 55% of all CN alterations. Genome-wide, only 5.3% of CN-altered genes were deregulated directly by gene dosage. In contrast, the rate in fully duplicated 3q was twice as high. Amplification of 3q explained 23.2% of deregulated genes in whole tumors (r2 = 0.232, p = 0.006; analysis of variance, including genes located in 3q and other chromosomes. A total of 862 genes were deregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors, but only 22.9% were CN altered. This suggests that the remaining genes are not deregulated directly by gene dosage, but by mechanisms induced in trans by CN-altered genes. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis, glycolysis, and apoptosis were upregulated, whereas cell adhesion and angiogenesis were downregulated exclusively in high-CN tumors. The high %CN-AG and upregulated gene expression profile of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis were associated with poor patient survival (p0.38, p<0.01, Spearman test. Therefore, inhibition of APC/C-dependent proteasome proteolysis and glycolysis could be useful for CC treatment. However, whether they are indispensable for tumor growth remains to be demonstrated.

  6. Differential gene expression in soybean leaf tissues at late developmental stages under drought stress revealed by genome-wide transcriptome analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Tien Le

    Full Text Available The availability of complete genome sequence of soybean has allowed research community to design the 66 K Affymetrix Soybean Array GeneChip for genome-wide expression profiling of soybean. In this study, we carried out microarray analysis of leaf tissues of soybean plants, which were subjected to drought stress from late vegetative V6 and from full bloom reproductive R2 stages. Our data analyses showed that out of 46,093 soybean genes, which were predicted with high confidence among approximately 66,000 putative genes, 41,059 genes could be assigned with a known function. Using the criteria of a ratio change > = 2 and a q-value<0.05, we identified 1458 and 1818 upregulated and 1582 and 1688 downregulated genes in drought-stressed V6 and R2 leaves, respectively. These datasets were classified into 19 most abundant biological categories with similar proportions. There were only 612 and 463 genes that were overlapped among the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively, in both stages, suggesting that both conserved and unconserved pathways might be involved in regulation of drought response in different stages of plant development. A comparative expression analysis using our datasets and that of drought stressed Arabidopsis leaves revealed the existence of both conserved and species-specific mechanisms that regulate drought responses. Many upregulated genes encode either regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors, including those with high homology to Arabidopsis DREB, NAC, AREB and ZAT/STZ transcription factors, kinases and two-component system members, or functional proteins, e.g. late embryogenesis-abundant proteins, glycosyltransferases, glycoside hydrolases, defensins and glyoxalase I family proteins. A detailed analysis of the GmNAC family and the hormone-related gene category showed that expression of many GmNAC and hormone-related genes was altered by drought in V6 and/or R2 leaves. Additionally, the downregulation of

  7. Genome-Wide Prediction of C. elegans Genetic Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Weiwei; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    To obtain a global view of functional interactions among genes in a metazoan genome, we computationally integrated interactome data, gene expression data, phenotype data, and functional annotation data from three model organisms—Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster—and predicted genome-wide genetic interactions in C. elegans. The resulting genetic interaction network (consisting of 18,183 interactions) provides a framework for system-level understandin...

  8. Inbreeding in genome-wide selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daetwyler, H.D.; Villanueva, B.; Bijma, P.; Woolliams, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional selection methods, such as sib and best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) selection, which increased genetic gain by increasing accuracy of evaluation have also led to an increased rate of inbreeding per generation (¿FG). This is not necessarily the case with genome-wide selection, which

  9. Genome-wide expression profiling in the Drosophila eye reveals unexpected repression of Notch signaling by the JAK/STAT pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Maria Sol; Zavadil, Jiri; Ekas, Laura A.; Bach, Erika A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the JAK/STAT pathway regulates numerous processes in vertebrates and invertebrates through modulating transcription, its functionally-relevant transcriptional targets remain largely unknown. With one jak and one stat (stat92E), Drosophila provides a powerful system for finding new JAK/STAT target genes. Genome-wide expression profiling on eye discs in which Stat92E is hyperactivated, revealed 584 differentially-regulated genes, including known targets domeless, socs36E and wingless. Other differentially-regulated genes (chinmo, lama, Mo25, Imp-L2, Serrate, Delta) were validated and may represent new Stat92E targets. Genetic experiments revealed that Stat92E cell-autonomously represses Serrate, which encodes a Notch ligand. Loss of Stat92E led to de-repression of Serrate in the dorsal eye, resulting in ectopic Notch signaling and aberrant eye growth there. Thus, our micro-array documents a new Stat92E target gene and a previously-unidentified inhibitory action of Stat92E on Notch signaling. These data suggest that this study will be a useful resource for the identification of additional Stat92E targets. PMID:19504457

  10. Genome-wide association of 10 horticultural traits with expressed sequence tag-derived SNP markers in a collection of lettuce lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity, population structure, and genome-wide marker-trait association analyses were conducted on a special collection of 298 homozygous lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) lines. Each of these lines was derived from a single plant that had been genotyped with 384 SNP makers using LSGermOPA. They...

  11. Use of genome-wide expression data to mine the "gray zone" of GWA studies leads to novel candidate obesity genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Naukkarinen (Jussi); I. Surakka (Ida); K.H. Pietilainen (Kirsi Hannele); A. Rissanen (Aila); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Ripatti (Samuli); H. Yki-Jarvinen (Hannele); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); M. Taskinen (Marja Riitta); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTo get beyond the "low-hanging fruits" so far identified by genome-wide association (GWA) studies, new methods must be developed in order to discover the numerous remaining genes that estimates of heritability indicate should be contributing to complex human phenotypes, such as obesity.

  12. CCCH-type zinc finger family in maize: genome-wide identification, classification and expression profiling under abscisic acid and drought treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large protein family. Increasing evidence suggests that members of this family are RNA-binding proteins with regulatory functions in mRNA processing. Compared with those in animals, functions of CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant growth and development are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we performed a genome-wide survey of CCCH-type zinc finger genes in maize (Zea mays L. by describing the gene structure, phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal location of each family member. Promoter sequences and expression profiles of putative stress-responsive members were also investigated. A total of 68 CCCH genes (ZmC3H1-68 were identified in maize and divided into seven groups by phylogenetic analysis. These 68 genes were found to be unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes with 15 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication played a major role in expansion of the maize CCCH family. The Ka/Ks ratios suggested that the duplicated genes of the CCCH family mainly experienced purifying selection with limited functional divergence after duplication events. Twelve maize CCCH genes grouped with other known stress-responsive genes from Arabidopsis were found to contain putative stress-responsive cis-elements in their promoter regions. Seven of these genes chosen for further quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed differential expression patterns among five representative maize tissues and over time in response to abscisic acid and drought treatments. CONCLUSIONS: The results presented in this study provide basic information on maize CCCH proteins and form the foundation for future functional studies of these proteins, especially for those members of which may play important roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  13. CCCH-type zinc finger family in maize: genome-wide identification, classification and expression profiling under abscisic acid and drought treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaojian; Zhao, Yang; Cao, Jiangang; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Haiyang; Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Qing; Zhu, Suwen; Cheng, Beijiu

    2012-01-01

    CCCH-type zinc finger proteins comprise a large protein family. Increasing evidence suggests that members of this family are RNA-binding proteins with regulatory functions in mRNA processing. Compared with those in animals, functions of CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant growth and development are poorly understood. Here, we performed a genome-wide survey of CCCH-type zinc finger genes in maize (Zea mays L.) by describing the gene structure, phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal location of each family member. Promoter sequences and expression profiles of putative stress-responsive members were also investigated. A total of 68 CCCH genes (ZmC3H1-68) were identified in maize and divided into seven groups by phylogenetic analysis. These 68 genes were found to be unevenly distributed on 10 chromosomes with 15 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication played a major role in expansion of the maize CCCH family. The Ka/Ks ratios suggested that the duplicated genes of the CCCH family mainly experienced purifying selection with limited functional divergence after duplication events. Twelve maize CCCH genes grouped with other known stress-responsive genes from Arabidopsis were found to contain putative stress-responsive cis-elements in their promoter regions. Seven of these genes chosen for further quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed differential expression patterns among five representative maize tissues and over time in response to abscisic acid and drought treatments. The results presented in this study provide basic information on maize CCCH proteins and form the foundation for future functional studies of these proteins, especially for those members of which may play important roles in response to abiotic stresses.

  14. Identification of four serum microRNAs from a genome-wide serum microRNA expression profile as potential non-invasive biomarkers for endometrioid endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenhui; Wu, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Qin; Gao, Ge; Zhang, Chenyu; Xiang, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Serum microRNAs (miRNAs), with their remarkable stability and unique concentration profiles in patients with various diseases, are promising non-invasive biomarkers for tumor detection. The present study investigated the altered profiles of serum microRNAs in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC) in order to predict the malignancy of the disease at a relatively early stage. TaqMan(®) low-density arrays (TDLAs) were used to perform an analysis in the initial screening phase using serum samples pooled from seven EEC patients and 20 controls. The differential expression was validated using a hydrolysis probe-based stem-loop quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in samples taken from 26 EEC patients and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. The data obtained from the TLDAs demonstrated that 22 serum miRNAs were markedly upregulated in the EEC patients compared with the controls. The qRT-PCR analysis further identified a profile of four serum miRNAs (miR-222, miR-223, miR-186 and miR-204) as a fingerprint for EEC detection. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of this four-serum miRNA signature was 0.927, which was markedly higher than that of carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA-125; 0.673). The four-miRNA signature identified by genome-wide serum miRNA expression profiling analysis provides a novel, non-invasive approach for EEC diagnosis.

  15. Combined genome-wide expression profiling and targeted RNA interference in primary mouse macrophages reveals perturbation of transcriptional networks associated with interferon signalling

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    Craigon Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferons (IFNs are potent antiviral cytokines capable of reprogramming the macrophage phenotype through the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. Here we have used targeted RNA interference to suppress the expression of a number of key genes associated with IFN signalling in murine macrophages prior to stimulation with interferon-gamma. Genome-wide changes in transcript abundance caused by siRNA activity were measured using exon-level microarrays in the presence or absence of IFNγ. Results Transfection of murine bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs with a non-targeting (control siRNA and 11 sequence-specific siRNAs was performed using a cationic lipid transfection reagent (Lipofectamine2000 prior to stimulation with IFNγ. Total RNA was harvested from cells and gene expression measured on Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Network-based analysis of these data revealed six siRNAs to cause a marked shift in the macrophage transcriptome in the presence or absence IFNγ. These six siRNAs targeted the Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2 transcripts. The perturbation of the transcriptome by the six siRNAs was highly similar in each case and affected the expression of over 600 downstream transcripts. Regulated transcripts were clustered based on co-expression into five major groups corresponding to transcriptional networks associated with the type I and II IFN response, cell cycle regulation, and NF-KB signalling. In addition we have observed a significant non-specific immune stimulation of cells transfected with siRNA using Lipofectamine2000, suggesting use of this reagent in BMDMs, even at low concentrations, is enough to induce a type I IFN response. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that the type I IFN response in murine BMDMs is dependent on Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2, and that siRNAs targeted to these genes results in perturbation of key transcriptional networks associated

  16. Genome-wide identification of direct HBx genomic targets

    KAUST Repository

    Guerrieri, Francesca

    2017-02-17

    Background The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx regulatory protein is required for HBV replication and involved in HBV-related carcinogenesis. HBx interacts with chromatin modifying enzymes and transcription factors to modulate histone post-translational modifications and to regulate viral cccDNA transcription and cellular gene expression. Aiming to identify genes and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) directly targeted by HBx, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to analyse HBV recruitment on host cell chromatin in cells replicating HBV. Results ChIP-Seq high throughput sequencing of HBx-bound fragments was used to obtain a high-resolution, unbiased, mapping of HBx binding sites across the genome in HBV replicating cells. Protein-coding genes and ncRNAs involved in cell metabolism, chromatin dynamics and cancer were enriched among HBx targets together with genes/ncRNAs known to modulate HBV replication. The direct transcriptional activation of genes/miRNAs that potentiate endocytosis (Ras-related in brain (RAB) GTPase family) and autophagy (autophagy related (ATG) genes, beclin-1, miR-33a) and the transcriptional repression of microRNAs (miR-138, miR-224, miR-576, miR-596) that directly target the HBV pgRNA and would inhibit HBV replication, contribute to HBx-mediated increase of HBV replication. Conclusions Our ChIP-Seq analysis of HBx genome wide chromatin recruitment defined the repertoire of genes and ncRNAs directly targeted by HBx and led to the identification of new mechanisms by which HBx positively regulates cccDNA transcription and HBV replication.

  17. Novel Crohn disease locus identified by genome-wide association maps to a gene desert on 5p13.1 and modulates expression of PTGER4.

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    Cécile Libioulle

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To identify novel susceptibility loci for Crohn disease (CD, we undertook a genome-wide association study with more than 300,000 SNPs characterized in 547 patients and 928 controls. We found three chromosome regions that provided evidence of disease association with p-values between 10(-6 and 10(-9. Two of these (IL23R on Chromosome 1 and CARD15 on Chromosome 16 correspond to genes previously reported to be associated with CD. In addition, a 250-kb region of Chromosome 5p13.1 was found to contain multiple markers with strongly suggestive evidence of disease association (including four markers with p < 10(-7. We replicated the results for 5p13.1 by studying 1,266 additional CD patients, 559 additional controls, and 428 trios. Significant evidence of association (p < 4 x 10(-4 was found in case/control comparisons with the replication data, while associated alleles were over-transmitted to affected offspring (p < 0.05, thus confirming that the 5p13.1 locus contributes to CD susceptibility. The CD-associated 250-kb region was saturated with 111 SNP markers. Haplotype analysis supports a complex locus architecture with multiple variants contributing to disease susceptibility. The novel 5p13.1 CD locus is contained within a 1.25-Mb gene desert. We present evidence that disease-associated alleles correlate with quantitative expression levels of the prostaglandin receptor EP4, PTGER4, the gene that resides closest to the associated region. Our results identify a major new susceptibility locus for CD, and suggest that genetic variants associated with disease risk at this locus could modulate cis-acting regulatory elements of PTGER4.

  18. Genome-wide expression profiling deciphers host responses altered during dengue shock syndrome and reveals the role of innate immunity in severe dengue.

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    Stéphanie Devignot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deciphering host responses contributing to dengue shock syndrome (DSS, the life-threatening form of acute viral dengue infections, is required to improve both the differential prognosis and the treatments provided to DSS patients, a challenge for clinicians. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on a prospective study, we analyzed the genome-wide expression profiles of whole blood cells from 48 matched Cambodian children: 19 progressed to DSS while 16 and 13 presented respectively classical dengue fever (DF or dengue hemorrhagic fever grades I/II (DHF. Using multi-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and adjustment of p-values to control the False Discovery Rate (FDR<10%, we identified a signature of 2959 genes differentiating DSS patients from both DF and DHF, and showed a strong association of this DSS-gene signature with the dengue disease phenotype. Using a combined approach to analyse the molecular patterns associated with the DSS-gene signature, we provide an integrative overview of the transcriptional responses altered in DSS children. In particular, we show that the transcriptome of DSS children blood cells is characterized by a decreased abundance of transcripts related to T and NK lymphocyte responses and by an increased abundance of anti-inflammatory and repair/remodeling transcripts. We also show that unexpected pro-inflammatory gene patterns at the interface between innate immunity, inflammation and host lipid metabolism, known to play pathogenic roles in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with systemic vascular dysfunction, are transcriptionnally active in the blood cells of DSS children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide a global while non exhaustive overview of the molecular mechanisms altered in of DSS children and suggest how they may interact to lead to final vascular homeostasis breakdown. We suggest that some mechanisms identified should be considered putative therapeutic targets or biomarkers of

  19. Genome-wide expression analysis of rice aquaporin genes and development of a functional gene network mediated by aquaporin expression in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Xuan; Moon, Sunok; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2013-10-01

    The world population continually faces challenges of water scarcity for agriculture. A common strategy called water-balance control has evolved to adapt plant growth to these challenges. Aquaporins are a family of integral membrane proteins that play a central role in water-balance control. In this study, we identified 34 members of the rice aquaporin gene family, adding a novel member to the previous list. A combination of phylogenetic tree and anatomical meta-expression profiling data consisting of 983 Affymetrix arrays and 209 Agilent 44 K arrays was used to identify tissue-preferred aquaporin genes and evaluate functional redundancy among aquaporin family members. Eight aquaporins showed root-preferred expression in the vegetative growth stage, while 4 showed leaf/shoot-preferred expression. Integrating stress-induced expression patterns into phylogenetic tree and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that 3 rice aquaporin genes were markedly downregulated and 4 were upregulated by water deficiency in the root, suggesting that these candidate genes are key regulators of water uptake from the soil. Finally, we constructed a functional network of genes mediated by water stress and refined the network by confirming the differential expression using RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Our data will be useful to elucidate the molecular mechanism of water-balance control in rice root.

  20. A replication study for genome-wide gene expression levels in two layer lines elucidates differentially expressed genes of pathways involved in bone remodeling and immune responsiveness.

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    Christin Habig

    Full Text Available The current replication study confirmed significant differences in gene expression profiles of the cerebrum among the two commercial layer lines Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and Lohmann Brown (LB. Microarray analyses were performed for 30 LSL and another 30 LB laying hens kept in the small group housing system Eurovent German. A total of 14,103 microarray probe sets using customized Affymetrix ChiGene-1_0-st Arrays with 20,399 probe sets were differentially expressed among the two layer lines LSL and LB (FDR adjusted P-value <0.05. An at least 2-fold change in expression levels could be observed for 388 of these probe sets. In LSL, 214 of the 388 probe sets were down- and 174 were up-regulated and vice versa for the LB layer line. Among the 174 up-regulated probe sets in LSL, we identified 51 significantly enriched Gene ontology (GO terms of the biological process category. A total of 63 enriched GO-terms could be identified for the 214 down-regulated probe sets of the layer line LSL. We identified nine genes significantly differentially expressed between the two layer lines in both microarray experiments. These genes play a crucial role in protection of neuronal cells from oxidative stress, bone mineral density and immune response among the two layer lines LSL and LB. Thus, the different regulation of these genes may significantly contribute to phenotypic trait differences among these layer lines. In conclusion, these novel findings provide a basis for further research to improve animal welfare in laying hens and these layer lines may be of general interest as an animal model.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression during adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells reveals novel patterns of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvin Anyasi Ambele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have undertaken an in-depth transcriptome analysis of adipogenesis in human adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs induced to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Gene expression was assessed on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 post-induction and genes differentially expressed numbered 128, 218, 253 and 240 respectively. Up-regulated genes were associated with blood vessel development, leukocyte migration, as well as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. They also shared common pathways with certain obesity-related pathophysiological conditions. Down-regulated genes were enriched for immune response processes. KLF15, LMO3, FOXO1 and ZBTB16 transcription factors were up-regulated throughout the differentiation process. CEBPA, PPARG, ZNF117, MLXIPL, MMP3 and RORB were up-regulated only on days 14 and 21, which coincide with the maturation of adipocytes and could possibly serve as candidates for controlling fat accumulation and the size of mature adipocytes. In summary, we have identified genes that were up-regulated only on days 1 and 7 or days 14 and 21 that could serve as potential early and late-stage differentiation markers.

  2. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling under heat and drought treatments of HSP70 gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Hong-Kun; Dong, Qian-Li; Zhang, Yuan-Yu; Wang, Yu-Min; Li, Hai-Yun; Xing, Guo-Jie; Li, Qi-Yun; Dong, Ying-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) perform a fundamental role in protecting plants against abiotic stresses. Previous studies have made great efforts in the functional analysis of individual family members, but there has not yet been an overall analysis or expression profiling of the HSP70 gene family in soybeans (Glycine max L.). In this study, an investigation of the soybean genome revealed 61 putative HSP70 genes, which were evaluated. These genes were classified into eight sub-families, denoted I-VIII, based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each sub-family, the constituent parts of the gene structure and motif were relatively conserved. These GmHSP70 genes were distributed unequally on 17 of the 20 chromosomes. The analysis of the expression profiles showed that 53 of the 61 GmHSP70 genes were differentially expressed across the 14 tissues. However, most of the GmHSP70s were differentially expressed in a tissue-specific expression pattern. Furthermore, the expression of some of the duplicate genes was partially redundant, while others showed functional diversity. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of the 61 soybean HSP70 genes confirmed their stress-inducible expression patterns under both drought and heat stress. These findings provide a thorough overview of the evolution and modification of the GmHSP70 gene family, which will help to determine the functional characteristics of the HSP70 genes in soybean growth and development.

  3. Pathway, in silico and tissue-specific expression quantitative analyses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma genome-wide association studies data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Paula L; Zhang, Han; Yang, Qi; Yang, Howard H; Hu, Nan; Lin, Shih-Wen; Su, Hua; Wang, Lemin; Wang, Chaoyu; Ding, Ti; Fan, Jin-Hu; Qiao, You-Lin; Sung, Hyuna; Wheeler, William; Giffen, Carol; Burdett, Laurie; Wang, Zhaoming; Lee, Maxwell P; Chanock, Stephen J; Dawsey, Sanford M; Freedman, Neal D; Abnet, Christian C; Goldstein, Alisa M; Yu, Kai; Taylor, Philip R

    2016-02-01

    Oesophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China where essentially all cases are histologically oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Agnostic pathway-based analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data combined with tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and publicly available functional data can identify biological pathways and/or genes enriched with functionally-relevant disease-associated variants. We used the adaptive multilocus joint test to analyse 1827 pathways containing 6060 genes using GWAS data from 1942 ESCC cases and 2111 controls with Chinese ancestry. We examined the function of risk alleles using in silico and eQTL analyses in oesophageal tissues. Associations with ESCC risk were observed for 36 pathways predominantly involved in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair and containing known GWAS-associated genes. After excluding genes with previous GWAS signals, candidate pathways (and genes) for ESCC risk included taste transduction (KEGG_hsa04742; TAS2R13, TAS2R42, TAS2R14, TAS2R46,TAS2R50), long-patch base excision repair (Reactome_pid; POLD2) and the metabolics pathway (KEGG_hsa01100; MTAP, GAPDH, DCTD, POLD2, AMDHD1). We identified and validated CASP8 rs13016963 and IDH2 rs11630814 as eQTLs, and CASP8 rs3769823 and IDH2 rs4561444 as the potential functional variants in high-linkage disequilibrium with these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Further, IDH2 mRNA levels were down-regulated in ESCC (tumour:normal-fold change = 0.69, P =  .75E-14). Agnostic pathway-based analyses and integration of multiple types of functional data provide new evidence for the contribution of genes in taste transduction and metabolism to ESCC susceptibility, and for the functionality of both established and new ESCC risk-related SNPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by US Government

  4. Genome-wide prediction of C. elegans genetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weiwei; Sternberg, Paul W

    2006-03-10

    To obtain a global view of functional interactions among genes in a metazoan genome, we computationally integrated interactome data, gene expression data, phenotype data, and functional annotation data from three model organisms-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila melanogaster-and predicted genome-wide genetic interactions in C. elegans. The resulting genetic interaction network (consisting of 18,183 interactions) provides a framework for system-level understanding of gene functions. We experimentally tested the predicted interactions for two human disease-related genes and identified 14 new modifiers.

  5. Genome-wide prediction and functional validation of promoter motifs regulating gene expression in spore and infection stages of Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sourav; Kagda, Meenakshi; Judelson, Howard S

    2013-03-01

    Most eukaryotic pathogens have complex life cycles in which gene expression networks orchestrate the formation of cells specialized for dissemination or host colonization. In the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen, major shifts in mRNA profiles during developmental transitions were identified using microarrays. We used those data with search algorithms to discover about 100 motifs that are over-represented in promoters of genes up-regulated in hyphae, sporangia, sporangia undergoing zoosporogenesis, swimming zoospores, or germinated cysts forming appressoria (infection structures). Most of the putative stage-specific transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) thus identified had features typical of TFBSs such as position or orientation bias, palindromy, and conservation in related species. Each of six motifs tested in P. infestans transformants using the GUS reporter gene conferred the expected stage-specific expression pattern, and several were shown to bind nuclear proteins in gel-shift assays. Motifs linked to the appressoria-forming stage, including a functionally validated TFBS, were over-represented in promoters of genes encoding effectors and other pathogenesis-related proteins. To understand how promoter and genome architecture influence expression, we also mapped transcription patterns to the P. infestans genome assembly. Adjacent genes were not typically induced in the same stage, including genes transcribed in opposite directions from small intergenic regions, but co-regulated gene pairs occurred more than expected by random chance. These data help illuminate the processes regulating development and pathogenesis, and will enable future attempts to purify the cognate transcription factors.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Transcriptome-Based Expression Profiling of the Sox Gene Family in the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ling; Yang, Chao; Tao, Wenjing; Wang, Deshou

    2016-02-23

    The Sox transcription factor family is characterized with the presence of a Sry-related high-mobility group (HMG) box and plays important roles in various biological processes in animals, including sex determination and differentiation, and the development of multiple organs. In this study, 27 Sox genes were identified in the genome of the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and were classified into seven groups. The members of each group of the tilapia Sox genes exhibited a relatively conserved exon-intron structure. Comparative analysis showed that the Sox gene family has undergone an expansion in tilapia and other teleost fishes following their whole genome duplication, and group K only exists in teleosts. Transcriptome-based analysis demonstrated that most of the tilapia Sox genes presented stage-specific and/or sex-dimorphic expressions during gonadal development, and six of the group B Sox genes were specifically expressed in the adult brain. Our results provide a better understanding of gene structure and spatio-temporal expression of the Sox gene family in tilapia, and will be useful for further deciphering the roles of the Sox genes during sex determination and gonadal development in teleosts.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Subunits of Heteromeric Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase in Gossypium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yupeng; Zhao, Yanpeng; Wang, Yumei; Liu, Zhengjie; Ijaz, Babar; Huang, Yi; Hua, Jinping

    2017-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is an important enzyme, which catalyzes acetyl-CoA’s carboxylation to produce malonyl-CoA and to serve as a committed step for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. In this study, 24 putative cotton BCCP genes were identified based on the lately published genome data in Gossypium. Among them, 4, 4, 8, and 8 BCCP homologs were identified in Gossypium raimondii, G. arboreum, G. hirsutum, and G. barbadense, respectively. These genes were divided into two classes based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each class, these homologs were relatively conserved in gene structure and motifs. The chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that all the BCCP genes were distributed equally on corresponding chromosomes or scaffold in the four cotton species. Segmental duplication was a predominant duplication event in both of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The analysis of the expression profile showed that 8 GhBCCP genes expressed in all the tested tissues with changed expression levels, and GhBCCP genes belonging to class II were predominantly expressed in developing ovules. Meanwhile, the expression analysis for the 16 cotton BCCP genes from G. raimondii, G. arboreum and G. hirsutum showed that they were induced or suppressed by cold or salt stress, and their expression patterns varied among different tissues. These findings will help to determine the functional and evolutionary characteristics of the BCCP genes in Gossypium species. PMID:28507552

  8. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Subunits of Heteromeric Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase in Gossypium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinping Hua

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Acetyl-CoA carboxylase is an important enzyme, which catalyzes acetyl-CoA’s carboxylation to produce malonyl-CoA and to serve as a committed step for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. In this study, 24 putative cotton BCCP genes were identified based on the lately published genome data in Gossypium. Among them, 4, 4, 8, and 8 BCCP homologs were identified in Gossypium raimondii, G. arboreum, G. hirsutum, and G. barbadense, respectively. These genes were divided into two classes based on a phylogenetic analysis. In each class, these homologs were relatively conserved in gene structure and motifs. The chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that all the BCCP genes were distributed equally on corresponding chromosomes or scaffold in the four cotton species. Segmental duplication was a predominant duplication event in both of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The analysis of the expression profile showed that 8 GhBCCP genes expressed in all the tested tissues with changed expression levels, and GhBCCP genes belonging to class II were predominantly expressed in developing ovules. Meanwhile, the expression analysis for the 16 cotton BCCP genes from G. raimondii, G. arboreum and G. hirsutum showed that they were induced or suppressed by cold or salt stress, and their expression patterns varied among different tissues. These findings will help to determine the functional and evolutionary characteristics of the BCCP genes in Gossypium species.

  9. Genome-wide identification of enhancer elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulin, Sarah; Barsi, Julius C; Bocconcelli, Carlo; Smith, Joel

    2016-01-01

    We present a prospective genome-wide regulatory element database for the sea urchin embryo and the modified chromosome capture-related methodology used to create it. The method we developed is termed GRIP-seq for genome-wide regulatory element immunoprecipitation and combines features of chromosome conformation capture, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and paired-end next-generation sequencing with molecular steps that enrich for active cis-regulatory elements associated with basal transcriptional machinery. The first GRIP-seq database, available to the community, comes from S. purpuratus 24 hpf embryos and takes advantage of the extremely well-characterized cis-regulatory elements in this system for validation. In addition, using the GRIP-seq database, we identify and experimentally validate a novel, intronic cis-regulatory element at the onecut locus. We find GRIP-seq signal sensitively identifies active cis-regulatory elements with a high signal-to-noise ratio for both distal and intronic elements. This promising GRIP-seq protocol has the potential to address a rate-limiting step in resolving comprehensive, predictive network models in all systems.

  10. A genome wide dosage suppressor network reveals genomic robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Biranchi; Kon, Yoshiko; Yadav, Gitanjali; Sevold, Anthony W.; Frumkin, Jesse P.; Vallabhajosyula, Ravishankar R.; Hintze, Arend; Østman, Bjørn; Schossau, Jory; Bhan, Ashish; Marzolf, Bruz; Tamashiro, Jenna K.; Kaur, Amardeep; Baliga, Nitin S.; Grayhack, Elizabeth J.; Adami, Christoph; Galas, David J.; Raval, Alpan; Phizicky, Eric M.; Ray, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Genomic robustness is the extent to which an organism has evolved to withstand the effects of deleterious mutations. We explored the extent of genomic robustness in budding yeast by genome wide dosage suppressor analysis of 53 conditional lethal mutations in cell division cycle and RNA synthesis related genes, revealing 660 suppressor interactions of which 642 are novel. This collection has several distinctive features, including high co-occurrence of mutant-suppressor pairs within protein modules, highly correlated functions between the pairs and higher diversity of functions among the co-suppressors than previously observed. Dosage suppression of essential genes encoding RNA polymerase subunits and chromosome cohesion complex suggests a surprising degree of functional plasticity of macromolecular complexes, and the existence of numerous degenerate pathways for circumventing the effects of potentially lethal mutations. These results imply that organisms and cancer are likely able to exploit the genomic robustness properties, due the persistence of cryptic gene and pathway functions, to generate variation and adapt to selective pressures. PMID:27899637

  11. Genome-wide characterization of pectin methyl esterase genes reveals members differentially expressed in tolerant and susceptible wheats in response to Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zega, Alessandra; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2016-11-01

    Pectin methyl esterase (PME) genes code for enzymes that are involved in structural modifications of the plant cell wall during plant growth and development. They are also involved in plant-pathogen interaction. PME genes belong to a multigene family and in this study we report the first comprehensive analysis of the PME gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Like in other species, the members of the TaPME family are dispersed throughout the genome and their encoded products retain the typical structural features of PMEs. qRT-PCR analysis showed variation in the expression pattern of TaPME genes in different tissues and revealed that these genes are mainly expressed in flowering spikes. In our attempt to identify putative TaPME genes involved in wheat defense, we revealed a strong variation in the expression of the TaPME following Fusarium graminearum infection, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB). Particularly interesting was the finding that the expression profile of some PME genes was markedly different between the FHB-resistant wheat cultivar Sumai3 and the FHB-susceptible cultivar Bobwhite, suggesting a possible involvement of these PME genes in FHB resistance. Moreover, the expression analysis of the TaPME genes during F. graminearum progression within the spike revealed those genes that responded more promptly to pathogen invasion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-wide identification, expression analysis of GH3 family genes in Medicago truncatula under stress-related hormones and Sinorhizobium meliloti infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjun; Yue, Runqing; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Houqing; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2015-01-01

    Auxin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of plant growth and development by controlling the expression of auxin response genes rapidly. As one of the major auxin early response gene families, Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3) genes are involved in auxin homeostasis by conjugating excess auxins to amino acids. However, how GH3 genes function in environmental stresses and rhizobial infection responses in Medicago truncatula are largely unknown. Here, based on the latest updated M. truncatula genome, a comprehensive identification and expression profiling analysis of MtGH3 genes were performed. Our data showed that most of MtGH3 genes were expressed in tissue-specific manner and were responsive to environmental stress-related hormones. To understand the possible roles of MtGH3 genes involved in symbiosis establishment between M. truncatula and symbiotic bacteria, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to test the expressions of MtGH3 genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection. The expression levels of most MtGH3 genes were upregulated in shoots and downregulated in roots by S. meliloti infection. The differences in expression responses to S. meliloti infection between roots and shoots were in agreement with the results of free indoleacetic acid (IAA) content measurements. The identification and expression analysis of MtGH3 genes at the early phase of S. meliloti infection may help us to understand the role of GH3-mediated IAA homeostasis in the regulation of nodule formation in model legumes M. truncatula.

  13. Genome-wide survey of B-box proteins in potato (Solanum tuberosum)—Identification, characterization and expression patterns during diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talar, Urszula; Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Czarnecka, Jagoda; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Plant B-box domain proteins (BBX) mediate many light-influenced developmental processes including seedling photomorphogenesis, seed germination, shade avoidance and photoperiodic regulation of flowering. Despite the wide range of potential functions, the current knowledge regarding BBX proteins in major crop plants is scarce. In this study, we identify and characterize the StBBX gene family in potato, which is composed of 30 members, with regard to structural properties and expression profiles under diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolations. Based on domain organization and phylogenetic relationships, StBBX genes have been classified into five groups. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that expression of most of them oscillates following a 24-h rhythm; however, large differences in expression profiles were observed between the genes regarding amplitude and position of the maximal and minimal expression levels in the day/night cycle. On the basis of the time-of-day/time-of-night, we distinguished three expression groups specifically expressed during the light and two during the dark phase. In addition, we showed that the expression of several StBBX genes is under the control of the circadian clock and that some others are specifically associated with the etiolation and de-etiolation conditions. Thus, we concluded that StBBX proteins are likely key players involved in the complex diurnal and circadian networks regulating plant development as a function of light conditions and day duration. PMID:28552939

  14. Genome-wide survey of B-box proteins in potato (Solanum tuberosum)-Identification, characterization and expression patterns during diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talar, Urszula; Kiełbowicz-Matuk, Agnieszka; Czarnecka, Jagoda; Rorat, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    Plant B-box domain proteins (BBX) mediate many light-influenced developmental processes including seedling photomorphogenesis, seed germination, shade avoidance and photoperiodic regulation of flowering. Despite the wide range of potential functions, the current knowledge regarding BBX proteins in major crop plants is scarce. In this study, we identify and characterize the StBBX gene family in potato, which is composed of 30 members, with regard to structural properties and expression profiles under diurnal cycle, etiolation and de-etiolations. Based on domain organization and phylogenetic relationships, StBBX genes have been classified into five groups. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we found that expression of most of them oscillates following a 24-h rhythm; however, large differences in expression profiles were observed between the genes regarding amplitude and position of the maximal and minimal expression levels in the day/night cycle. On the basis of the time-of-day/time-of-night, we distinguished three expression groups specifically expressed during the light and two during the dark phase. In addition, we showed that the expression of several StBBX genes is under the control of the circadian clock and that some others are specifically associated with the etiolation and de-etiolation conditions. Thus, we concluded that StBBX proteins are likely key players involved in the complex diurnal and circadian networks regulating plant development as a function of light conditions and day duration.

  15. A genome-wide survey of maize lipid-related genes: candidate genes mining,digital gene expression profiling and colocation with QTL for maize kernel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Lipids play an important role in plants due to their abundance and their extensive participation in many metabolic processes.Genes involved in lipid metabolism have been extensively studied in Arabidopsis and other plant species.In this study,a total of 1003 maize lipid-related genes were cloned and annotated,including 42 genes with experimental validation,732 genes with full-length cDNA and protein sequences in public databases and 229 newly cloned genes.Ninety-seven maize lipid-related genes with tissue-preferential expression were discovered by in silico gene expression profiling based on 1984483 maize Expressed Sequence Tags collected from 182 cDNA libraries.Meanwhile,70 QTL clusters for maize kernel oil were identified,covering 34.5% of the maize genome.Fifty-nine (84%) QTL clusters co-located with at least one lipid-related gene,and the total number of these genes amounted to 147.Interestingly,thirteen genes with kernel-preferential expression profiles fell within QTL clusters for maize kernel oil content.All the maize lipid-related genes identified here may provide good targets for maize kernel oil QTL cloning and thus help us to better understand the molecular mechanism of maize kernel oil accumulation.

  16. Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Siela N; Florez, Sergio; Shen, Xiangling; Niemenak, Nicolas; Zhang, Yufan; Curtis, Wayne; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2014-07-16

    Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation. These differences in gene

  17. Genome-wide analysis reveals divergent patterns of gene expression during zygotic and somatic embryo maturation of Theobroma cacao L., the chocolate tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Theobroma cacao L. is a tropical fruit tree, the seeds of which are used to create chocolate. In vitro somatic embryogenesis (SE) of cacao is a propagation system useful for rapid mass-multiplication to accelerate breeding programs and to provide plants directly to farmers. Two major limitations of cacao SE remain: the efficiency of embryo production is highly genotype dependent and the lack of full cotyledon development results in low embryo to plant conversion rates. With the goal to better understand SE development and to improve the efficiency of SE conversion we examined gene expression differences between zygotic and somatic embryos using a whole genome microarray. Results The expression of 28,752 genes was determined at 4 developmental time points during zygotic embryogenesis (ZE) and 2 time points during cacao somatic embryogenesis (SE). Within the ZE time course, 10,288 differentially expressed genes were enriched for functions related to responses to abiotic and biotic stimulus, metabolic and cellular processes. A comparison ZE and SE expression profiles identified 10,175 differentially expressed genes. Many TF genes, putatively involved in ethylene metabolism and response, were more strongly expressed in SEs as compared to ZEs. Expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and seed storage protein genes were also differentially expressed in the two types of embryos. Conclusions Large numbers of genes were differentially regulated during various stages of both ZE and SE development in cacao. The relatively higher expression of ethylene and flavonoid related genes during SE suggests that the developing tissues may be experiencing high levels of stress during SE maturation caused by the in vitro environment. The expression of genes involved in the synthesis of auxin, polyunsaturated fatty acids and secondary metabolites was higher in SEs relative to ZEs despite lack of lipid and metabolite accumulation

  18. Genome-wide prediction and functional validation of promoter motifs regulating gene expression in spore and infection stages of Phytophthora infestans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Roy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most eukaryotic pathogens have complex life cycles in which gene expression networks orchestrate the formation of cells specialized for dissemination or host colonization. In the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the potato late blight pathogen, major shifts in mRNA profiles during developmental transitions were identified using microarrays. We used those data with search algorithms to discover about 100 motifs that are over-represented in promoters of genes up-regulated in hyphae, sporangia, sporangia undergoing zoosporogenesis, swimming zoospores, or germinated cysts forming appressoria (infection structures. Most of the putative stage-specific transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs thus identified had features typical of TFBSs such as position or orientation bias, palindromy, and conservation in related species. Each of six motifs tested in P. infestans transformants using the GUS reporter gene conferred the expected stage-specific expression pattern, and several were shown to bind nuclear proteins in gel-shift assays. Motifs linked to the appressoria-forming stage, including a functionally validated TFBS, were over-represented in promoters of genes encoding effectors and other pathogenesis-related proteins. To understand how promoter and genome architecture influence expression, we also mapped transcription patterns to the P. infestans genome assembly. Adjacent genes were not typically induced in the same stage, including genes transcribed in opposite directions from small intergenic regions, but co-regulated gene pairs occurred more than expected by random chance. These data help illuminate the processes regulating development and pathogenesis, and will enable future attempts to purify the cognate transcription factors.

  19. Genome-wide analysis correlates Ayurveda Prakriti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Nizamuddin, Sheikh; Sharath, Anugula; Jyothi, Vuskamalla; Rotti, Harish; Raval, Ritu; Nayak, Jayakrishna; Bhat, Balakrishna K; Prasanna, B V; Shintre, Pooja; Sule, Mayura; Joshi, Kalpana S; Dedge, Amrish P; Bharadwaj, Ramachandra; Gangadharan, G G; Nair, Sreekumaran; Gopinath, Puthiya M; Patwardhan, Bhushan; Kondaiah, Paturu; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Valiathan, Marthanda Varma Sankaran; Thangaraj, Kumarasamy

    2015-10-29

    The practice of Ayurveda, the traditional medicine of India, is based on the concept of three major constitutional types (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) defined as "Prakriti". To the best of our knowledge, no study has convincingly correlated genomic variations with the classification of Prakriti. In the present study, we performed genome-wide SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) analysis (Affymetrix, 6.0) of 262 well-classified male individuals (after screening 3416 subjects) belonging to three Prakritis. We found 52 SNPs (p ≤ 1 × 10(-5)) were significantly different between Prakritis, without any confounding effect of stratification, after 10(6) permutations. Principal component analysis (PCA) of these SNPs classified 262 individuals into their respective groups (Vata, Pitta and Kapha) irrespective of their ancestry, which represent its power in categorization. We further validated our finding with 297 Indian population samples with known ancestry. Subsequently, we found that PGM1 correlates with phenotype of Pitta as described in the ancient text of Caraka Samhita, suggesting that the phenotypic classification of India's traditional medicine has a genetic basis; and its Prakriti-based practice in vogue for many centuries resonates with personalized medicine.

  20. Identification of novel type 1 diabetes candidate genes by integrating genome-wide association data, protein-protein interactions, and human pancreatic islet gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Regine; Brorsson, Caroline; Palleja, Albert;

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have heralded a new era in susceptibility locus discovery in complex diseases. For type 1 diabetes, >40 susceptibility loci have been discovered. However, GWAS do not inevitably lead to identification of the gene or genes in a given locus associated...... with disease, and they do not typically inform the broader context in which the disease genes operate. Here, we integrated type 1 diabetes GWAS data with protein-protein interactions to construct biological networks of relevance for disease. A total of 17 networks were identified. To prioritize...... and substantiate these networks, we performed expressional profiling in human pancreatic islets exposed to proinflammatory cytokines. Three networks were significantly enriched for cytokine-regulated genes and, thus, likely to play an important role for type 1 diabetes in pancreatic islets. Eight of the regulated...

  1. Genome-wide profiling of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in primary epididymal, inguinal, and brown adipocytes reveals depot-selective binding correlated with gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siersbæk, Majken; Loft, Anne; Jørgensen, Mads Malik Aagaard

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation and function. We and others have previously mapped PPARγ binding at a genome-wide level in murine and human adipocyte cell lines and in primary human adipocytes. However, little is known about...... how binding patterns of PPARγ differ between brown and white adipocytes and among different types of white adipocytes. Here we have employed chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing to map and compare PPARγ binding in in vitro differentiated primary mouse adipocytes isolated from...... epididymal, inguinal, and brown adipose tissues. While these PPARγ binding profiles are overall similar, there are clear depot-selective binding sites. Most PPARγ binding sites previously mapped in 3T3-L1 adipocytes can also be detected in primary adipocytes, but there are a large number of PPARγ binding...

  2. Genome-Wide Detection and Analysis of Multifunctional Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, Yuri; Ghersi, Dario; Singh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Many genes can play a role in multiple biological processes or molecular functions. Identifying multifunctional genes at the genome-wide level and studying their properties can shed light upon the complexity of molecular events that underpin cellular functioning, thereby leading to a better understanding of the functional landscape of the cell. However, to date, genome-wide analysis of multifunctional genes (and the proteins they encode) has been limited. Here we introduce a computational approach that uses known functional annotations to extract genes playing a role in at least two distinct biological processes. We leverage functional genomics data sets for three organisms—H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, and S. cerevisiae—and show that, as compared to other annotated genes, genes involved in multiple biological processes possess distinct physicochemical properties, are more broadly expressed, tend to be more central in protein interaction networks, tend to be more evolutionarily conserved, and are more likely to be essential. We also find that multifunctional genes are significantly more likely to be involved in human disorders. These same features also hold when multifunctionality is defined with respect to molecular functions instead of biological processes. Our analysis uncovers key features about multifunctional genes, and is a step towards a better genome-wide understanding of gene multifunctionality. PMID:26436655

  3. High-resolution genome-wide mapping of histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Tae-young; Ngau, Wing Chi; Cui, Kairong; Landsman, David; Zhao, Keji

    2004-08-01

    The expression patterns of eukaryotic genomes are controlled by their chromatin structure, consisting of nucleosome subunits in which DNA of approximately 146 bp is wrapped around a core of 8 histone molecules. Post-translational histone modifications play an essential role in modifying chromatin structure. Here we apply a combination of SAGE and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols to determine the distribution of hyperacetylated histones H3 and H4 in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. We call this approach genome-wide mapping technique (GMAT). Using GMAT, we find that the highest acetylation levels are detected in the 5' end of a gene's coding region, but not in the promoter. Furthermore, we show that the histone acetyltransferase, GCN5p, regulates H3 acetylation in the promoter and 5' end of the coding regions. These findings indicate that GMAT should find valuable applications in mapping target sites of chromatin-modifying enzymes.

  4. AID/APOBEC cytosine deaminase induces genome-wide kataegis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Artem G

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clusters of localized hypermutation in human breast cancer genomes, named “kataegis” (from the Greek for thunderstorm, are hypothesized to result from multiple cytosine deaminations catalyzed by AID/APOBEC proteins. However, a direct link between APOBECs and kataegis is still lacking. We have sequenced the genomes of yeast mutants induced in diploids by expression of the gene for PmCDA1, a hypermutagenic deaminase from sea lamprey. Analysis of the distribution of 5,138 induced mutations revealed localized clusters very similar to those found in tumors. Our data provide evidence that unleashed cytosine deaminase activity is an evolutionary conserved, prominent source of genome-wide kataegis events. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Professor Sandor Pongor, Professor Shamil R. Sunyaev, and Dr Vladimir Kuznetsov.

  5. Comparison of TCDD-elicited genome-wide hepatic gene expression in Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nault, Rance; Kim, Suntae; Zacharewski, Timothy R., E-mail: tzachare@msu.edu

    2013-03-01

    Although the structure and function of the AhR are conserved, emerging evidence suggests that downstream effects are species-specific. In this study, rat hepatic gene expression data from the DrugMatrix database (National Toxicology Program) were compared to mouse hepatic whole-genome gene expression data following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For the DrugMatrix study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were gavaged daily with 20 μg/kg TCDD for 1, 3 and 5 days, while female C57BL/6 ovariectomized mice were examined 1, 3 and 7 days after a single oral gavage of 30 μg/kg TCDD. A total of 649 rat and 1386 mouse genes (|fold change| ≥ 1.5, P1(t) ≥ 0.99) were differentially expressed following treatment. HomoloGene identified 11,708 orthologs represented across the rat Affymetrix 230 2.0 GeneChip (12,310 total orthologs), and the mouse 4 × 44K v.1 Agilent oligonucleotide array (17,578 total orthologs). Comparative analysis found 563 and 922 orthologs differentially expressed in response to TCDD in the rat and mouse, respectively, with 70 responses associated with immune function and lipid metabolism in common to both. Moreover, QRTPCR analysis of Ceacam1, showed divergent expression (induced in rat; repressed in mouse) functionally consistent with TCDD-elicited hepatic steatosis in the mouse but not the rat. Functional analysis identified orthologs involved in nucleotide binding and acetyltransferase activity in rat, while mouse-specific responses were associated with steroid, phospholipid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. These results provide further evidence that TCDD elicits species-specific regulation of distinct gene networks, and outlines considerations for future comparisons of publicly available microarray datasets. - Highlights: ► We performed a whole-genome comparison of TCDD-regulated genes in mice and rats. ► Previous species comparisons were extended using data from the DrugMatrix database. ► Less than 15% of TCDD

  6. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK Gene Family in Brassica rapa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Lu

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the MAPK gene family has hitherto not been performed in Brassica rapa. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the B. rapa genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 BraMAPK genes retrieved from the Brassica Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from B. rapa and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D. Gene number expansion was observed for BraMAPK genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the Brassica progenitor. Except for five members of the BraMAPK10 subfamily, the identified BraMAPKs were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five BraMAPKs were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in B. rapa. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in B. rapa.

  7. Genome-Wide Survey and Expression Profile Analysis of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Gene Family in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Guo, Wenjin; Lu, Junxing; Yu, Hao; Qu, Cunmin; Tang, Zhanglin; Li, Jiana; Chai, Yourong; Liang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are fundamental signal transduction modules in plants, controlling cell division, development, hormone signaling, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Although MAPKs have been investigated in several plant species, a comprehensive analysis of the MAPK gene family has hitherto not been performed in Brassica rapa. In this study, we identified 32 MAPKs in the B. rapa genome by conducting BLASTP and syntenic block analyses, and screening for the essential signature motif (TDY or TEY) of plant MAPK proteins. Of the 32 BraMAPK genes retrieved from the Brassica Database, 13 exhibited exon splicing errors, excessive splicing of the 5' sequence, excessive retention of the 5' sequence, and sequencing errors of the 3' end. Phylogenetic trees of the 32 corrected MAPKs from B. rapa and of MAPKs from other plants generated by the neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods suggested that BraMAPKs could be divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D). Gene number expansion was observed for BraMAPK genes in groups A and D, which may have been caused by the tandem duplication and genome triplication of the ancestral genome of the Brassica progenitor. Except for five members of the BraMAPK10 subfamily, the identified BraMAPKs were expressed in most of the tissues examined, including callus, root, stem, leaf, flower, and silique. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that at least six and five BraMAPKs were induced or repressed by various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments, respectively, suggesting their potential roles in the abiotic stress response and various hormone signal transduction pathways in B. rapa. This study provides valuable insight into the putative physiological and biochemical functions of MAPK genes in B. rapa.

  8. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    Background The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male) from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process. Results Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes). These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes’ expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary. Conclusion This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms. PMID:28319194

  9. Comparison of TCDD-elicited genome-wide hepatic gene expression in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Rance; Kim, Suntae; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2013-03-01

    Although the structure and function of the AhR are conserved, emerging evidence suggests that downstream effects are species-specific. In this study, rat hepatic gene expression data from the DrugMatrix database (National Toxicology Program) were compared to mouse hepatic whole-genome gene expression data following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For the DrugMatrix study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged daily with 20μg/kg TCDD for 1, 3 and 5days, while female C57BL/6 ovariectomized mice were examined 1, 3 and 7days after a single oral gavage of 30μg/kg TCDD. A total of 649 rat and 1386 mouse genes (|fold change|≥1.5, P1(t)≥0.99) were differentially expressed following treatment. HomoloGene identified 11,708 orthologs represented across the rat Affymetrix 230 2.0 GeneChip (12,310 total orthologs), and the mouse 4×44K v.1 Agilent oligonucleotide array (17,578 total orthologs). Comparative analysis found 563 and 922 orthologs differentially expressed in response to TCDD in the rat and mouse, respectively, with 70 responses associated with immune function and lipid metabolism in common to both. Moreover, QRTPCR analysis of Ceacam1, showed divergent expression (induced in rat; repressed in mouse) functionally consistent with TCDD-elicited hepatic steatosis in the mouse but not the rat. Functional analysis identified orthologs involved in nucleotide binding and acetyltransferase activity in rat, while mouse-specific responses were associated with steroid, phospholipid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. These results provide further evidence that TCDD elicits species-specific regulation of distinct gene networks, and outlines considerations for future comparisons of publicly available microarray datasets.

  10. Genome-wide identification of CAMTA gene family members in Medicago truncatula and their expression during root nodule symbiosis and hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun eYang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calmodulin-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs are well-characterized calmodulin-binding transcription factors in the plant kingdom. Previous work shows that CAMTAs play important roles in various biological processes including disease resistance, herbivore attack response and abiotic stress tolerance. However, studies that address the function of CAMTAs during the establishment of symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia are still lacking. This study undertook comprehensive identification and analysis of CAMTA genes using the latest updated M. truncatula genome. All the MtCAMTA genes were expressed in a tissues-specific manner and were responsive to environmental stress-related hormones. The expression profiling of MtCAMTA genes during the early phase of Sinorhizobium meliloti infection was also analyzed. Our data showed that the expression of most MtCAMTA genes was suppressed in roots by S. meliloti infection. The responsiveness of MtCAMTAs to S. meliloti infection indicated that they may function as calcium-regulated transcription factors in the early nodulation signaling pathway. In addition, bioinformatics analysis showed that CAMTA binding sites existed in the promoter regions of various early rhizobial infection response genes, suggesting possible MtCAMTAs-regulated downstream candidate genes during the early phase of S. meliloti infection. Taken together, these results provide basic information about MtCAMTAs in the model legume M. truncatula, and the involvement of MtCAMTAs in nodule organogenesis. This information furthers our understanding of MtCAMTA protein functions in M. truncatula and opens new avenues for continued research.

  11. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Family and the Expression Patterns of DREB Genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huili; Lv, Hao; Li, Long; Liu, Jun; Mu, Shaohua; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor family, one of the largest families unique to plants, performs a significant role in terms of regulation of growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a fast-growing non-timber forest species with the highest ecological, economic and social values of all bamboos in Asia. The draft genome of moso bamboo and the available genomes of other plants provide great opportunities to research global information on the AP2/ERF family in moso bamboo. In total, 116 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in moso bamboo. The phylogeny analyses indicated that the 116 AP2/ERF genes could be divided into three subfamilies: AP2, RAV and ERF; and the ERF subfamily genes were divided into 11 groups. The gene structures, exons/introns and conserved motifs of the PeAP2/ERF genes were analyzed. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns and divergence showed the PeAP2/ERF genes underwent a large-scale event around 15 million years ago (MYA) and the division time of AP2/ERF family genes between rice and moso bamboo was 15-23 MYA. We surveyed the putative promoter regions of the PeDREBs and showed that largely stress-related cis-elements existed in these genes. Further analysis of expression patterns of PeDREBs revealed that the most were strongly induced by drought, low-temperature and/or high salinity stresses in roots and, in contrast, most PeDREB genes had negative functions in leaves under the same respective stresses. In this study there were two main interesting points: there were fewer members of the PeDREB subfamily in moso bamboo than in other plants and there were differences in DREB gene expression profiles between leaves and roots triggered in response to abiotic stress. The information produced from this study may be valuable in overcoming challenges in cultivating moso bamboo.

  12. Genome-wide expression profiling of in vivo-derived bloodstream parasite stages and dynamic analysis of mRNA alterations during synchronous differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazal Peter

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosomes undergo extensive developmental changes during their complex life cycle. Crucial among these is the transition between slender and stumpy bloodstream forms and, thereafter, the differentiation from stumpy to tsetse-midgut procyclic forms. These developmental events are highly regulated, temporally reproducible and accompanied by expression changes mediated almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level. Results In this study we have examined, by whole-genome microarray analysis, the mRNA abundance of genes in slender and stumpy forms of T.brucei AnTat1.1 cells, and also during their synchronous differentiation to procyclic forms. In total, five biological replicates representing the differentiation of matched parasite populations derived from five individual mouse infections were assayed, with RNAs being derived at key biological time points during the time course of their synchronous differentiation to procyclic forms. Importantly, the biological context of these mRNA profiles was established by assaying the coincident cellular events in each population (surface antigen exchange, morphological restructuring, cell cycle re-entry, thereby linking the observed gene expression changes to the well-established framework of trypanosome differentiation. Conclusion Using stringent statistical analysis and validation of the derived profiles against experimentally-predicted gene expression and phenotypic changes, we have established the profile of regulated gene expression during these important life-cycle transitions. The highly synchronous nature of differentiation between stumpy and procyclic forms also means that these studies of mRNA profiles are directly relevant to the changes in mRNA abundance within individual cells during this well-characterised developmental transition.

  13. Genome-wide analysis of the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper: comprehensive sequence and expression profile analysis under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng eGuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are present in all plant species and play important roles in alleviating heat stress and enhancing plant thermotolerance by preventing the irreversible aggregation of denaturing proteins. However, very little is known about the CaHsp20 gene family in pepper (Capsicum annuum L., an important vegetable crop with character of temperate but thermosensitive. In this study, a total of 35 putative pepper Hsp20 genes (CaHsp20s were identified and renamed on the basis of their molecular weight, and then their gene structure, genome location, gene duplication, phylogenetic relationship and interaction network were also analyzed. The expression patterns of CaHsp20 genes in four different tissues (root, stem, leaf and flower from the thermotolerant line R9 under heat stress condition were measured using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The transcripts of most CaHsp20 genes maintained a low level in all of the four tissues under normal temperature condition, but were highly induced by heat stress, while the expression of CaHsp16.6b, 16.7 and 23.8 were only detected in specific tissues and were not so sensitive to heat stress like other CaHsp20 genes. In addition, compared to those in thermotolerant line R9, the expression peak of most CaHsp20 genes in thermosensitive line B6 under heat stress was hysteretic, and several CaHsp20 genes (CaHsp16.4, 18.2a, 18.7, 21.2, 22.0, 25.8 and 25.9 showed higher expression levels in both line B6 and R9. These data suggest that the CaHsp20 genes may be involved in heat stress and defense responses in pepper, which provides the basis for further functional analyses of CaHsp20s in the formation of pepper acquired thermotoleance.

  14. Genome wide selection in Citrus breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, I B; Borém, A; Cristofani-Yaly, M; de Resende, M D V; Azevedo, C F; Bastianel, M; Novelli, V M; Machado, M A

    2016-10-17

    Genome wide selection (GWS) is essential for the genetic improvement of perennial species such as Citrus because of its ability to increase gain per unit time and to enable the efficient selection of characteristics with low heritability. This study assessed GWS efficiency in a population of Citrus and compared it with selection based on phenotypic data. A total of 180 individual trees from a cross between Pera sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and Murcott tangor (Citrus sinensis Osbeck x Citrus reticulata Blanco) were evaluated for 10 characteristics related to fruit quality. The hybrids were genotyped using 5287 DArT_seq(TM) (diversity arrays technology) molecular markers and their effects on phenotypes were predicted using the random regression - best linear unbiased predictor (rr-BLUP) method. The predictive ability, prediction bias, and accuracy of GWS were estimated to verify its effectiveness for phenotype prediction. The proportion of genetic variance explained by the markers was also computed. The heritability of the traits, as determined by markers, was 16-28%. The predictive ability of these markers ranged from 0.53 to 0.64, and the regression coefficients between predicted and observed phenotypes were close to unity. Over 35% of the genetic variance was accounted for by the markers. Accuracy estimates with GWS were lower than those obtained by phenotypic analysis; however, GWS was superior in terms of genetic gain per unit time. Thus, GWS may be useful for Citrus breeding as it can predict phenotypes early and accurately, and reduce the length of the selection cycle. This study demonstrates the feasibility of genomic selection in Citrus.

  15. Genome-wide gene expression analysis suggests an important role of hypoxia in the pathogenesis of endemic osteochondropathy Kashin-Beck disease.

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    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD is an endemic osteochondropathy, the pathogenesis of which remains unclear now. In this study, we compared gene expression profiles of articular cartilage derived respectively from KBD patients and normal controls. Total RNA were isolated, amplified, labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 1A 22 k whole genome microarray chip. qRT-PCR was conducted to validate our microarray data. We detected 57 up-regulated genes (ratios ≥2.0 and 24 down-regulated genes (ratios ≤0.5 in KBD cartilage. To further identify the key genes involved in the pathogenesis of KBD, Bayesian analysis of variance for microarrays (BAM software was applied and identified 12 potential key genes with an average ratio 6.64, involved in apoptosis, metabolism, cytokine & growth factor and cytoskeleton & cell movement. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA software was used to identify differently expressed gene ontology categories and pathways. GSEA found that a set of apoptosis, hypoxia and mitochondrial function related gene ontology categories and pathways were significantly up-regulated in KBD compared to normal controls. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that chronic hypoxia-induced mitochondrial damage and apoptosis might play an important role in the pathogenesis of KBD. Our efforts may help to understand the pathogenesis of KBD as well as other osteoarthrosis with similar articular cartilage lesions.

  16. Genome-wide study reveals an important role of spontaneous autoimmunity, cardiomyocyte differentiation defect and antiangiogenic activities in gender-specific gene expression in Keshan disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Shulan; Tan Wuhong; Wang Sen; Wu Cuiyan; Wang Pan; Wang Bin; Su Xiaohui

    2014-01-01

    Background Keshan disease (KD) is an endemic cardiomyopathy in China.The etiology of KD is still under debate and there is no effective approach to preventing and curing this disease.Young women of child-bearing age are the most frequent victims in rural areas.The aim of this study was to determine the differences between molecular pathogenic mechanisms in male and female KD sufferers.Methods We extracted RNA from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of KD patients (12 women and 4 men) and controls (12 women and 4 men).Then the isolated RNA was amplified,labeled and hybridized to Agilent human 4×44k whole genome microarrays.Gene expression was examined using oligonucleotide microarray analysis.A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was also performed to validate our microarray results.Results Among the genes differentially expressed in female KD patients we identified:HLA-DOA,HLA-DRA,and HLA-DQA1 associated with spontaneous autoimmunity; BMP5 and BMP7,involved in cardiomyocyte differentiation defect; and ADAMTS 8,CCL23,and TNFSF15,implicated in anti-angiogenic activities.These genes are involved in the canonical pathways and networks recognized for the female KD sufferers and might be related to the pathogenic mechanism of KD.Conclusion Our results might help to explain the higher susceptibility of women to this disease.

  17. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the CaNAC family members in chickpea during development, dehydration and ABA treatments.

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    Chien Van Ha

    Full Text Available The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control, dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR. Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought.

  18. Integrative genome-wide expression analysis bears evidence of estrogen receptor-independent transcription in heregulin-stimulated MCF-7 cells.

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    Takeshi Nagashima

    Full Text Available Heregulin beta-1 (HRG is an extracellular ligand that activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K/Akt signaling pathways through ErbB receptors. MAPK and Akt have been shown to phosphorylate the estrogen receptor (ER at Ser-118 and Ser-167, respectively, thereby mimicking the effects of estrogenic activity such as estrogen responsive element (ERE-dependent transcription. In the current study, integrative analysis was performed using two tiling array platforms, comprising histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9 acetylation and RNA mapping, together with array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH analysis in an effort to identify HRG-regulated genes in ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Through application of various threshold settings, 333 (326 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated HRG-regulated genes were detected. Prediction of upstream transcription factors (TFs and pathway analysis indicated that 21% of HRG-induced gene regulation may be controlled by the MAPK cascade, while only 0.6% of the gene expression is controlled by ERE. A comparison with previously reported estrogen (E2-regulated gene expression data revealed that only 12 common genes were identified between the 333 HRG-regulated (3.6% and 239 E2-regulated (5.0% gene groups. However, with respect to enriched upstream TFs, 4 common TFs were identified in the 14 HRG-regulated (28.6% and 13 E2-regulated (30.8% gene groups. These results indicated that while E2 and HRG may induce common TFs, the regulatory mechanisms that govern HRG- and E2-induced gene expression differ.

  19. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the CaNAC Family Members in Chickpea during Development, Dehydration and ABA Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Chien Van; Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Watanabe, Yasuko; Tran, Uyen Thi; Sulieman, Saad; Mochida, Keiichi; Van Nguyen, Dong; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2014-01-01

    The plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulation of diverse biological processes, including development, growth, cell division and responses to environmental stimuli. In this study, we identified the members of the NAC TF family of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and assess their expression profiles during plant development and under dehydration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments in a systematic manner. Seventy-one CaNAC genes were detected from the chickpea genome, including 8 membrane-bound members of which many might be involved in dehydration responses as judged from published literature. Phylogenetic analysis of the chickpea and well-known stress-related Arabidopsis and rice NACs enabled us to predict several putative stress-related CaNACs. By exploring available transcriptome data, we provided a comprehensive expression atlas of CaNACs in various tissues at different developmental stages. With the highest interest in dehydration responses, we examined the expression of the predicted stress-related and membrane-bound CaNACs in roots and leaves of chickpea seedlings, subjected to well-watered (control), dehydration and ABA treatments, using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Nine-teen of the 23 CaNACs examined were found to be dehydration-responsive in chickpea roots and/or leaves in either ABA-dependent or -independent pathway. Our results have provided a solid foundation for selection of promising tissue-specific and/or dehydration-responsive CaNAC candidates for detailed in planta functional analyses, leading to development of transgenic chickpea varieties with improved productivity under drought. PMID:25479253

  20. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the SUC and SWEET gene families of sucrose transporters in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.

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    JIAN Hongju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported. In our study, 22 and 68 members of the SUT/SUCs and SWEET gene families, respectively, were identified in the oilseed rape (Brassica napus genome through homology searches. An analysis of the chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, gene structures, motifs and the cis-acting regulatory elements in the promoters of BnSUC and BnSWEET genes were analysed. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 18 BnSUC and 16 BnSWEET genes in different tissues of ‘ZS11’ and the expression of 9 BnSUC and 7 BnSWEET genes in ‘ZS11’ under various conditions, including biotic stress (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, abiotic stresses (drought, salt and heat, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin, brassinolide, gibberellin and salicylic acid. In conclusion, our study provides the first comprehensive analysis of the oilseed rape SUC and SWEET gene families. Information regarding the phylogenetic relationships, gene structure and expression profiles of the SUC and SWEET genes in the different tissues of oilseed rape helps to identify candidates with potential roles in specific developmental processes. Our study advances our understanding of the important roles of sucrose transport in oilseed rape.

  1. Genome-wide analysis of the mouse lung transcriptome reveals novel molecular gene interaction networks and cell-specific expression signatures

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    Williams Robert W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lung is critical in surveillance and initial defense against pathogens. In humans, as in mice, individual genetic differences strongly modulate pulmonary responses to infectious agents, severity of lung disease, and potential allergic reactions. In a first step towards understanding genetic predisposition and pulmonary molecular networks that underlie individual differences in disease vulnerability, we performed a global analysis of normative lung gene expression levels in inbred mouse strains and a large family of BXD strains that are widely used for systems genetics. Our goal is to provide a key community resource on the genetics of the normative lung transcriptome that can serve as a foundation for experimental analysis and allow predicting genetic predisposition and response to pathogens, allergens, and xenobiotics. Methods Steady-state polyA+ mRNA levels were assayed across a diverse and fully genotyped panel of 57 isogenic strains using the Affymetrix M430 2.0 array. Correlations of expression levels between genes were determined. Global expression QTL (eQTL analysis and network covariance analysis was performed using tools and resources in GeneNetwork http://www.genenetwork.org. Results Expression values were highly variable across strains and in many cases exhibited a high heri-tability factor. Several genes which showed a restricted expression to lung tissue were identified. Using correlations between gene expression values across all strains, we defined and extended memberships of several important molecular networks in the lung. Furthermore, we were able to extract signatures of immune cell subpopulations and characterize co-variation and shared genetic modulation. Known QTL regions for respiratory infection susceptibility were investigated and several cis-eQTL genes were identified. Numerous cis- and trans-regulated transcripts and chromosomal intervals with strong regulatory activity were mapped. The Cyp1a1 P

  2. Genome-Wide Analysis of the AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Family and the Expression Patterns of DREB Genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Liu, Jun; Mu, Shaohua; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The AP2/ERF transcription factor family, one of the largest families unique to plants, performs a significant role in terms of regulation of growth and development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a fast-growing non-timber forest species with the highest ecological, economic and social values of all bamboos in Asia. The draft genome of moso bamboo and the available genomes of other plants provide great opportunities to research global information on the AP2/ERF family in moso bamboo. In total, 116 AP2/ERF transcription factors were identified in moso bamboo. The phylogeny analyses indicated that the 116 AP2/ERF genes could be divided into three subfamilies: AP2, RAV and ERF; and the ERF subfamily genes were divided into 11 groups. The gene structures, exons/introns and conserved motifs of the PeAP2/ERF genes were analyzed. Analysis of the evolutionary patterns and divergence showed the PeAP2/ERF genes underwent a large-scale event around 15 million years ago (MYA) and the division time of AP2/ERF family genes between rice and moso bamboo was 15–23 MYA. We surveyed the putative promoter regions of the PeDREBs and showed that largely stress-related cis-elements existed in these genes. Further analysis of expression patterns of PeDREBs revealed that the most were strongly induced by drought, low-temperature and/or high salinity stresses in roots and, in contrast, most PeDREB genes had negative functions in leaves under the same respective stresses. In this study there were two main interesting points: there were fewer members of the PeDREB subfamily in moso bamboo than in other plants and there were differences in DREB gene expression profiles between leaves and roots triggered in response to abiotic stress. The information produced from this study may be valuable in overcoming challenges in cultivating moso bamboo. PMID:25985202

  3. A genome-wide survey of highly expressed non-coding RNAs and biological validation of selected candidates in Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

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    Keunsub Lee

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that has the natural ability of delivering and integrating a piece of its own DNA into plant genome. Although bacterial non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs have been shown to regulate various biological processes including virulence, we have limited knowledge of how Agrobacterium ncRNAs regulate this unique inter-Kingdom gene transfer. Using whole transcriptome sequencing and an ncRNA search algorithm developed for this work, we identified 475 highly expressed candidate ncRNAs from A. tumefaciens C58, including 101 trans-encoded small RNAs (sRNAs, 354 antisense RNAs (asRNAs, 20 5' untranslated region (UTR leaders including a RNA thermosensor and 6 riboswitches. Moreover, transcription start site (TSS mapping analysis revealed that about 51% of the mapped mRNAs have 5' UTRs longer than 60 nt, suggesting that numerous cis-acting regulatory elements might be encoded in the A. tumefaciens genome. Eighteen asRNAs were found on the complementary strands of virA, virB, virC, virD, and virE operons. Fifteen ncRNAs were induced and 7 were suppressed by the Agrobacterium virulence (vir gene inducer acetosyringone (AS, a phenolic compound secreted by the plants. Interestingly, fourteen of the AS-induced ncRNAs have putative vir box sequences in the upstream regions. We experimentally validated expression of 36 ncRNAs using Northern blot and Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends analyses. We show functional relevance of two 5' UTR elements: a RNA thermonsensor (C1_109596F that may regulate translation of the major cold shock protein cspA, and a thi-box riboswitch (C1_2541934R that may transcriptionally regulate a thiamine biosynthesis operon, thiCOGG. Further studies on ncRNAs functions in this bacterium may provide insights and strategies that can be used to better manage pathogenic bacteria for plants and to improve Agrobacterum-mediated plant transformation.

  4. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome

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    Yuan Xiguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC, a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1 exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2 performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3 iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. Results We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma. When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Conclusions Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes

  5. The EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein super-family: a genome-wide analysis of gene expression patterns in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, F; Venail, J; Schwaller, B; Celio, M R

    2015-05-21

    In mice, 249 putative members of the superfamily of EF-hand domain Ca(2+)-binding proteins, manifesting great diversity in structure, cellular localization and functions have been identified. Three members in particular, namely, calbindin-D28K, calretinin and parvalbumin, are widely used as markers for specific neuronal subpopulations in different regions of the brain. The aim of the present study was to compile a comprehensive atlas of the gene-expression profiles of the entire EF-hand gene superfamily in the murine brain. This was achieved by a meticulous examination of the in-situ hybridization images in the Allen Brain Atlas database. Topographically, our analysis focused on the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex (barrel cortex in the primary somatosensory area), basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons and medulla, and on clearly identifiable sub-structures within each of these areas. The expression profiles of four family-members, namely hippocalcin-like 4, neurocalcin-δ, plastin 3 and tescalcin, that have not been hitherto reported, at either the mRNA (in-situ-hybridization) or the protein (immunohistochemical) levels, are now presented for the first time. The fruit of our analysis is a document in which the gene-expression profiles of all members of the EF-hand family genes are compared, and in which future possible neuronal markers for specific cells/brain areas are identified. The assembled information could afford functional clues to investigators, conducive to further experimental pursuit.

  6. Integrative genome-wide approaches in embryonic stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Huang, Jing

    2010-10-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocysts. They can differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers and essentially any type of somatic cells. They therefore hold great potential in tissue regeneration therapy. The ethical issues associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells are resolved by the technical break-through of generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from various types of somatic cells. However, how ES and iPS cells self-renew and maintain their pluripotency is still largely unknown in spite of the great progress that has been made in the last two decades. Integrative genome-wide approaches, such as the gene expression microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation based microarray (ChIP-chip) and chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the mechanism of the pluripotency, reprogramming and DNA damage response of ES and iPS cells. This frontier article summarizes the fundamental biological questions about ES and iPS cells and reviews the recent advances in ES and iPS cell research using genome-wide technologies. To this end, we offer our perspectives on the future of genome-wide studies on stem cells.

  7. Influence of vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation on genome wide expression of white blood cells: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

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    Arash Hossein-nezhad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although there have been numerous observations of vitamin D deficiency and its links to chronic diseases, no studies have reported on how vitamin D status and vitamin D3 supplementation affects broad gene expression in humans. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin D status and subsequent vitamin D supplementation on broad gene expression in healthy adults. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01696409. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A randomized, double-blind, single center pilot trial was conducted for comparing vitamin D supplementation with either 400 IUs (n = 3 or 2000 IUs (n = 5 vitamin D3 daily for 2 months on broad gene expression in the white blood cells collected from 8 healthy adults in the winter. Microarrays of the 16 buffy coats from eight subjects passed the quality control filters and normalized with the RMA method. Vitamin D3 supplementation that improved serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations was associated with at least a 1.5 fold alteration in the expression of 291 genes. There was a significant difference in the expression of 66 genes between subjects at baseline with vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD20 ng/ml. After vitamin D3 supplementation gene expression of these 66 genes was similar for both groups. Seventeen vitamin D-regulated genes with new candidate vitamin D response elements including TRIM27, CD83, COPB2, YRNA and CETN3 which have been shown to be important for transcriptional regulation, immune function, response to stress and DNA repair were identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that any improvement in vitamin D status will significantly affect expression of genes that have a wide variety of biologic functions of more than 160 pathways linked to cancer, autoimmune disorders and cardiovascular disease with have been associated with vitamin D deficiency. This study reveals for the first time molecular finger prints that help explain the nonskeletal health

  8. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and a forward genetic screen show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Enjalbert, Brice

    2009-04-01

    Candida albicans is more pathogenic than Candida dubliniensis. However, this disparity in virulence is surprising given the high level of sequence conservation and the wide range of phenotypic traits shared by these two species. Increased sensitivity to environmental stresses has been suggested to be a possible contributory factor to the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. In this study, we investigated, in the first comparison of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis by transcriptional profiling, global gene expression in each species when grown under conditions in which the two species exhibit differential stress tolerance. The profiles revealed similar core responses to stresses in both species, but differences in the amplitude of the general transcriptional responses to thermal, salt and oxidative stress. Differences in the regulation of specific stress genes were observed between the two species. In particular, ENA21, encoding a sodium ion transporter, was strongly induced in C. albicans but not in C. dubliniensis. In addition, ENA21 was identified in a forward genetic screen for C. albicans genomic sequences that increase salt tolerance in C. dubliniensis. Introduction of a single copy of CaENA21 was subsequently shown to be sufficient to confer salt tolerance upon C. dubliniensis.

  9. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, evolution and expression patterns of AP2/ERF genes and cytokinin response factors in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

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    Zhenning Liu

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF transcription factor family is one of the largest families involved in growth and development, hormone responses, and biotic or abiotic stress responses in plants. In this study, 281 AP2/ERF transcription factor unigenes were identified in Chinese cabbage. These superfamily members were classified into three families (AP2, ERF, and RAV. The ERF family was subdivided into the DREB subfamily and the ERF subfamily with 13 groups (I- XI based on sequence similarity. Duplication, evolution and divergence of the AP2/ERF genes in B. rapa and Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated and estimated. Cytokinin response factors (CRFs, as a subclade of the AP2/ERF family, are important transcription factors that define a branch point in the cytokinin two-component signal (TCS transduction pathway. Up to 21 CRFs with a conserved CRF domain were retrieved and designated as BrCRFs. The amino acid sequences, conserved regions and motifs, phylogenetic relationships, and promoter regions of the 21 BrCRFs were analyzed in detail. The BrCRFs broadly expressed in various tissues and organs. The transcripts of BrCRFs were regulated by factors such as drought, high salinity, and exogenous 6-BA, NAA, and ABA, suggesting their involvement in abiotic stress conditions and regulatory mechanisms of plant hormone homeostasis. These results provide new insight into the divergence, variation, and evolution of AP2/ERF genes at the genome-level in Chinese cabbage.

  10. Genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of citrus sucrose synthase genes: investigation of possible roles in the regulation of sugar accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Zahidul; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Jin, Long-Fei; Liu, Yong-Zhong; Peng, Shu-Ang

    2014-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus) (EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme for the sugar accumulation that is critical to form fruit quality. In this study, extensive data-mining and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least six Sus genes (CitSus1-6) in the citrus genome. Gene structure and phylogeny analysis showed an evolutionary consistency with other plant species. The six Sus genes contain 12-15 exons and 11-14 introns and were evenly distributed into the three plant Sus groups (CitSus1 and CitSus2 in the Sus I group, CitSus3 and CitSus6 in the Sus II group, and CitSus4 and CitSus5 in the Sus III group). Transcripts of these six CitSus genes were subsequently examined. For tissues and organs, CitSus1 and 2 were predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS) whereas CitSus3 and 4 were predominantly expressed in early leaves (immature leaves), and CitSus5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in fruit JS and in mature leaves. During fruit development, CitSus5 transcript increased significantly and CitSus6 transcript decreased significantly in fruit JS. In the fruit segment membrane (SM), the transcript levels of CitSus2 and 5 were markedly higher and the abundant levels of CitSus3 and 6 gradually decreased. Moreover, transcript levels of CitSus1-4 examined were higher and the CitSus5 transcript level was lower in the fruit SM than in fruit JS, while CitSus6 had a similar transcript level in fruit JS and SM. In addition, transcripts of CitSus1-6 responded differently to dehydration in mature leaves or to mild drought stress in fruit JS and SM. Finally, the possible roles of Sus genes in the regulation of sugar accumulation are discussed; however, further study is required.

  11. Genome-wide identification and expression profile analysis of citrus sucrose synthase genes: investigation of possible roles in the regulation of sugar accumulation.

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    Mohammad Zahidul Islam

    Full Text Available Sucrose synthase (Sus (EC 2.4.1.13 is a key enzyme for the sugar accumulation that is critical to form fruit quality. In this study, extensive data-mining and PCR amplification confirmed that there are at least six Sus genes (CitSus1-6 in the citrus genome. Gene structure and phylogeny analysis showed an evolutionary consistency with other plant species. The six Sus genes contain 12-15 exons and 11-14 introns and were evenly distributed into the three plant Sus groups (CitSus1 and CitSus2 in the Sus I group, CitSus3 and CitSus6 in the Sus II group, and CitSus4 and CitSus5 in the Sus III group. Transcripts of these six CitSus genes were subsequently examined. For tissues and organs, CitSus1 and 2 were predominantly expressed in fruit juice sacs (JS whereas CitSus3 and 4 were predominantly expressed in early leaves (immature leaves, and CitSus5 and 6 were predominantly expressed in fruit JS and in mature leaves. During fruit development, CitSus5 transcript increased significantly and CitSus6 transcript decreased significantly in fruit JS. In the fruit segment membrane (SM, the transcript levels of CitSus2 and 5 were markedly higher and the abundant levels of CitSus3 and 6 gradually decreased. Moreover, transcript levels of CitSus1-4 examined were higher and the CitSus5 transcript level was lower in the fruit SM than in fruit JS, while CitSus6 had a similar transcript level in fruit JS and SM. In addition, transcripts of CitSus1-6 responded differently to dehydration in mature leaves or to mild drought stress in fruit JS and SM. Finally, the possible roles of Sus genes in the regulation of sugar accumulation are discussed; however, further study is required.

  12. Genome-wide analyses of small noncoding RNAs in streptococci

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    Nadja ePatenge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococci represent a diverse group of Gram-positive bacteria, which colonize a wide range of hosts among animals and humans. Streptococcal species occur as commensal as well as pathogenic organisms. Many of the pathogenic species can cause severe, invasive infections in their hosts leading to a high morbidity and mortality. The consequence is a tremendous suffering on the part of men and livestock besides the significant financial burden in the agricultural and healthcare sectors. An environmentally stimulated and tightly controlled expression of virulence factor genes is of fundamental importance for streptococcal pathogenicity. Bacterial small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs modulate the expression of genes involved in stress response, sugar metabolism, surface composition, and other properties that are related to bacterial virulence. Even though the regulatory character is shared by this class of RNAs, variation on the molecular level results in a high diversity of functional mechanisms. The knowledge about the role of sRNAs in streptococci is still limited, but in recent years, genome-wide screens for sRNAs have been conducted in an increasing number of species. Bioinformatics prediction approaches have been employed as well as expression analyses by classical array techniques or next generation sequencing. This review will give an overview of whole genome screens for sRNAs in streptococci with a focus on describing the different methods and comparing their outcome considering sRNA conservation among species, functional similarities, and relevance for streptococcal infection.

  13. Genome-wide analyses of radioresistance-associated miRNA expression profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma using next generation deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapidly growing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs are involved in a wide range of cancer malignant behaviours including radioresistance. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate miRNA expression patterns associated with radioresistance in NPC. METHODS: The differential expression profiles of miRNAs and mRNAs associated with NPC radioresistance were constructed. The predicted target mRNAs of miRNAs and their enriched signaling pathways were analyzed via biological informatical algorithms. Finally, partial miRNAs and pathways-correlated target mRNAs were validated in two NPC radioreisitant cell models. RESULTS: 50 known and 9 novel miRNAs with significant difference were identified, and their target mRNAs were narrowed down to 53 nasopharyngeal-/NPC-specific mRNAs. Subsequent KEGG analyses demonstrated that the 53 mRNAs were enriched in 37 signaling pathways. Further qRT-PCR assays confirmed 3 down-regulated miRNAs (miR-324-3p, miR-93-3p and miR-4501, 3 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-371a-5p, miR-34c-5p and miR-1323 and 2 novel miRNAs. Additionally, corresponding alterations of pathways-correlated target mRNAs were observed including 5 up-regulated mRNAs (ICAM1, WNT2B, MYC, HLA-F and TGF-β1 and 3 down-regulated mRNAs (CDH1, PTENP1 and HSP90AA1. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an overview of miRNA expression profile and the interactions between miRNA and their target mRNAs, which will deepen our understanding of the important roles of miRNAs in NPC radioresistance.

  14. A genome-wide SNP scan accelerates trait-regulatory genomic loci identification in chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujur, Alice; Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Das, Shouvik; Ranjan, Rajeev; Shree, Tanima; Saxena, Maneesha S.; Badoni, Saurabh; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C.L.L.; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    We identified 44844 high-quality SNPs by sequencing 92 diverse chickpea accessions belonging to a seed and pod trait-specific association panel using reference genome- and de novo-based GBS (genotyping-by-sequencing) assays. A GWAS (genome-wide association study) in an association panel of 211, including the 92 sequenced accessions, identified 22 major genomic loci showing significant association (explaining 23–47% phenotypic variation) with pod and seed number/plant and 100-seed weight. Eighteen trait-regulatory major genomic loci underlying 13 robust QTLs were validated and mapped on an intra-specific genetic linkage map by QTL mapping. A combinatorial approach of GWAS, QTL mapping and gene haplotype-specific LD mapping and transcript profiling uncovered one superior haplotype and favourable natural allelic variants in the upstream regulatory region of a CesA-type cellulose synthase (Ca_Kabuli_CesA3) gene regulating high pod and seed number/plant (explaining 47% phenotypic variation) in chickpea. The up-regulation of this superior gene haplotype correlated with increased transcript expression of Ca_Kabuli_CesA3 gene in the pollen and pod of high pod/seed number accession, resulting in higher cellulose accumulation for normal pollen and pollen tube growth. A rapid combinatorial genome-wide SNP genotyping-based approach has potential to dissect complex quantitative agronomic traits and delineate trait-regulatory genomic loci (candidate genes) for genetic enhancement in crop plants, including chickpea. PMID:26058368

  15. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) metal tolerance proteins and analysis of their expression patterns under zinc, manganese, copper, and cadmium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Tong, Ya-Hua; Zhou, Xue; Ling, Li-Li; Chun, Chang-Pin; Cao, Li; Zeng, Ming; Peng, Liang-Zhi

    2017-09-20

    Plant metal tolerance proteins (MTPs) play important roles in heavy metal homeostasis; however, related information in citrus plants is limited. Citrus genome sequencing and assembly have enabled us to perform a systematic analysis of the MTP gene family. We identified 12 MTP genes in sweet orange, which we have named as CitMTP1 and CitMTP3 to CitMTP12 based on their sequence similarity to Arabidopsis thaliana MTPs. The CitMTPs were predicted to encode proteins of 864 to 2556 amino acids in length that included 4 to 6 putative transmembrane domains (TMDs). Furthermore, all the CitMTPs contained a highly conserved signature sequence encompassing the TMD-II and the start of the TMD-III. Phylogenetic analysis further classified the CitMTPs into Fe/Zn-MTP, Mn-MTP, and Zn-MTP subgroups, which coincided with the MTPs of A. thaliana and rice. The closely clustered CitMTPs shared a similar gene structure. Expression analysis indicated that most CitMTP transcripts were upregulated to various extents under heavy metal stress. Among these, CitMTP5 in the roots and CitMTP11 in the leaves during Zn stress, CitMTP8 in the roots and CitMTP8.1 in the leaves during Mn stress, CitMTP12 in the roots and CitMTP1 in the leaves during Cu stress, and CitMTP11 in the roots and CitMTP1 in the leaves during Cd stress showed the highest extent of upregulation. These findings are suggestive of their individual roles in heavy metal detoxification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring and dissecting genome-wide gene expression responses of Penicillium chrysogenum to phenylacetic acid consumption and penicillinG production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hage Susanne

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the discovery of the antibacterial activity of penicillin by Fleming 80 years ago, improvements of penicillin titer were essentially achieved by classical strain improvement through mutagenesis and screening. The recent sequencing of Penicillium chrysogenum strain Wisconsin1255-54 and the availability of genomics tools such as DNA-microarray offer new perspective. Results In studies on β-lactam production by P. chrysogenum, addition and omission of a side-chain precursor is commonly used to generate producing and non-producing scenarios. To dissect effects of penicillinG production and of its side-chain precursor phenylacetic acid (PAA, a derivative of a penicillinG high-producing strain without a functional penicillin-biosynthesis gene cluster was constructed. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures of the high-producing and cluster-free strains, PAA addition caused a small reduction of the biomass yield, consistent with PAA acting as a weak-organic-acid uncoupler. Microarray-based analysis on chemostat cultures of the high-producing and cluster-free strains, grown in the presence and absence of PAA, showed that: (i Absence of a penicillin gene cluster resulted in transcriptional upregulation of a gene cluster putatively involved in production of the secondary metabolite aristolochene and its derivatives, (ii The homogentisate pathway for PAA catabolism is strongly transcriptionally upregulated in PAA-supplemented cultures (iii Several genes involved in nitrogen and sulfur metabolism were transcriptionally upregulated under penicillinG producing conditions only, suggesting a drain of amino-acid precursor pools. Furthermore, the number of candidate genes for penicillin transporters was strongly reduced, thus enabling a focusing of functional analysis studies. Conclusion This study demonstrates the usefulness of combinatorial transcriptome analysis in chemostat cultures to dissect effects of biological and process

  17. A genome-wide association study of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Atzmon, Gil; Demerath, Ellen W; Garcia, Melissa E; Kaplan, Robert C; Kumari, Meena; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Milaneschi, Yuri; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J; Völker, Uwe; Yu, Lei; Arnold, Alice; Benjamin, Emelia J; Biffar, Reiner; Buchman, Aron S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Couper, David; De Jager, Philip L; Evans, Denis A; Harris, Tamara B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Kocher, Thomas; Kuningas, Maris; Launer, Lenore J; Lohman, Kurt K; Lutsey, Pamela L; Mackenbach, Johan; Marciante, Kristin; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiman, Eric M; Rotter, Jerome I; Seshadri, Sudha; Shardell, Michelle D; Smith, Albert V; van Duijn, Cornelia; Walston, Jeremy; Zillikens, M Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Bennett, David A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Liu, Yongmei; Murabito, Joanne M; Newman, Anne B; Tiemeier, Henning; Franceschini, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Human longevity and healthy aging show moderate heritability (20%-50%). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from 9 studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium for 2 outcomes: (1) all-cause mortality, and (2) survival free of major disease or death. No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was a genome-wide significant predictor of either outcome (p < 5 × 10(-8)). We found 14 independent SNPs that predicted risk of death, and 8 SNPs that predicted event-free survival (p < 10(-5)). These SNPs are in or near genes that are highly expressed in the brain (HECW2, HIP1, BIN2, GRIA1), genes involved in neural development and function (KCNQ4, LMO4, GRIA1, NETO1) and autophagy (ATG4C), and genes that are associated with risk of various diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to considerable overlap between the traits, pathway and network analysis corroborated these findings. These findings indicate that variation in genes involved in neurological processes may be an important factor in regulating aging free of major disease and achieving longevity.

  18. Genome-wide mapping of DNA methylation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Li

    Full Text Available Cytosine DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification termed as the fifth base that functions in diverse processes. Till now, the genome-wide DNA methylation maps of many organisms has been reported, such as human, Arabidopsis, rice and silkworm, but the methylation pattern of bird remains rarely studied. Here we show the genome-wide DNA methylation map of bird, using the chicken as a model organism and an immunocapturing approach followed by high-throughput sequencing. In both of the red jungle fowl and the avian broiler, DNA methylation was described separately for the liver and muscle tissue. Generally, chicken displays analogous methylation pattern with that of animals and plants. DNA methylation is enriched in the gene body regions and the repetitive sequences, and depleted in the transcription start site (TSS and the transcription termination site (TTS. Most of the CpG islands in the chicken genome are kept in unmethylated state. Promoter methylation is negatively correlated with the gene expression level, indicating its suppressive role in regulating gene transcription. This work contributes to our understanding of epigenetics in birds.

  19. Genome-Wide Profiling of Histone Modifications (H3K9me2 and H4K12ac) and Gene Expression in Rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) Inoculated Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Vasudevan; Kalavacharla, Venu; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Bhide, Ketaki P; Sripathi, Venkateswara R; Smolinski, Tomasz G; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Thurston, Yaqoob; Todd, Antonette; Kingham, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Histone modifications such as methylation and acetylation play a significant role in controlling gene expression in unstressed and stressed plants. Genome-wide analysis of such stress-responsive modifications and genes in non-model crops is limited. We report the genome-wide profiling of histone methylation (H3K9me2) and acetylation (H4K12ac) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) stress using two high-throughput approaches, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed 1,235 and 556 histone methylation and acetylation responsive genes from common bean leaves treated with the rust pathogen at 0, 12 and 84 hour-after-inoculation (hai), while RNA-Seq analysis identified 145 and 1,763 genes differentially expressed between mock-inoculated and inoculated plants. The combined ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq analyses identified some key defense responsive genes (calmodulin, cytochrome p450, chitinase, DNA Pol II, and LRR) and transcription factors (WRKY, bZIP, MYB, HSFB3, GRAS, NAC, and NMRA) in bean-rust interaction. Differential methylation and acetylation affected a large proportion of stress-responsive genes including resistant (R) proteins, detoxifying enzymes, and genes involved in ion flux and cell death. The genes identified were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) and EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOGs). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified a putative pathway with ten key genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions. This first report of an integrated analysis of histone modifications and gene expression involved in the bean-rust interaction as reported here provides a comprehensive resource for other epigenomic regulation studies in non-model species under stress.

  20. Sexually dimorphic genome-wide binding of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) determines male-female differences in the expression of hepatic lipid processing genes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosters, Astrid; Sun, Deqiang; Wu, Hao; Tian, Feng; Felix, Julio C; Li, Wei; Karpen, Saul J

    2013-01-01

    Many hepatic functions including lipid metabolism, drug metabolism, and inflammatory responses are regulated in a sex-specific manner due to distinct patterns of hepatic gene expression between males and females. Regulation for the majority of these genes is under control of Nuclear Receptors (NRs). Retinoid X Receptor alpha (RXRα) is an obligate partner for multiple NRs and considered a master regulator of hepatic gene expression, yet the full extent of RXRα chromatin binding in male and female livers is unclear. ChIP-Seq analysis of RXRα and RNA Polymerase2 (Pol2) binding was performed livers of both genders and combined with microarray analysis. Mice were gavage-fed with the RXR ligand LG268 for 5 days (30 mg/kg/day) and RXRα-binding and RNA levels were determined by ChIP-qPCR and qPCR, respectively. ChIP-Seq revealed 47,845 (male) and 46,877 (female) RXRα binding sites (BS), associated with ∼12,700 unique genes in livers of both genders, with 91% shared between sexes. RXRα-binding showed significant enrichment for 2227 and 1498 unique genes in male and female livers, respectively. Correlating RXRα binding strength with Pol2-binding revealed 44 genes being male-dominant and 43 female-dominant, many previously unknown to be sexually-dimorphic. Surprisingly, genes fundamental to lipid metabolism, including Scd1, Fasn, Elovl6, and Pnpla3-implicated in Fatty Liver Disease pathogenesis, were predominant in females. RXRα activation using LG268 confirmed RXRα-binding was 2-3 fold increased in female livers at multiple newly identified RXRα BS including for Pnpla3 and Elovl6, with corresponding ∼10-fold and ∼2-fold increases in Pnpla3 and Elovl6 RNA respectively in LG268-treated female livers, supporting a role for RXRα regulation of sexually-dimorphic responses for these genes. RXRα appears to be one of the most widely distributed transcriptional regulators in mouse liver and is engaged in determining sexually-dimorphic expression of key lipid

  1. Expression profile analysis of the oxygen response in the nitrogen-fixing Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 by genome-wide DNA microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU YueTan; YAN YongLiang; PING ShuZhen; LU Wei; CHEN Ming; ZHANG Wei; WANG YiPing; JIN Qi; LIN Min

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501, an associative nitrogen-fixing bacterium, was isolated from the rice paddy rhizosphere. This bacterium fixes nitrogen under microaerobic conditions. In this study, ge-nome-wide DNA microarrays were used to analyze the global transcription profile of A1501 under aerobic and microaerobic conditions. The expression of 135 genes was significantly altered by more than 2-fold in response to oxygen stress. Among these genes, 68 were down-regulated under aerobic conditions; these genes included those responsible for nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Sixty-seven genes were up-regulated under aerobic conditions; these genes included sodC, encoding a copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, PST2179, encoding an NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductase, PST3584, encoding a 2OG-Fe(Ⅱ) oxygenase, and PST3602, encoding an NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase. Addi-tionally, seven genes involved in capsular polysaccharide and antigen oligosaccharide biosynthesis together with 17 genes encoding proteins of unknown function were up-regulated under aerobic con-ditions. The overall analysis suggests that the genes we identified are involved in the protection of the bacterium from oxygen, but the mechanisms of their action remain to be elucidated.

  2. A Genome-Wide Perspective on Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, Alexander; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Mammals have at least 210 histologically diverse cell types (Alberts, Molecular biology of the cell. Garland Science, New York, 2008) and the number would be even higher if functional differences are taken into account. The genome in each of these cell types is differentially programmed to expres...

  3. Genome-wide Association Study of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S Evelyn; Yu, Dongmei; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Neale, Benjamin M; Fagerness, Jesen A; Mathews, Carol A; Arnold, Paul D; Evans, Patrick D; Gamazon, Eric R; Osiecki, Lisa; McGrath, Lauren; Haddad, Stephen; Crane, Jacquelyn; Hezel, Dianne; Illman, Cornelia; Mayerfeld, Catherine; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Liu, Chunyu; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Tikhomirov, Anna; Edlund, Christopher K; Rauch, Scott L; Moessner, Rainald; Falkai, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Lennertz, Leonard; Wagner, Michael; Bellodi, Laura; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Richter, Margaret A; Cook, Edwin H; Kennedy, James L; Rosenberg, David; Stein, Dan J; Hemmings, Sian MJ; Lochner, Christine; Azzam, Amin; Chavira, Denise A; Fournier, Eduardo; Garrido, Helena; Sheppard, Brooke; Umaña, Paul; Murphy, Dennis L; Wendland, Jens R; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Denys, Damiaan; Blom, Rianne; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Westenberg, Herman GM; Walitza, Susanne; Egberts, Karin; Renner, Tobias; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Cappi, Carolina; Hounie, Ana G; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Sampaio, Aline S; Vallada, Homero; Nicolini, Humberto; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Camarena, Beatriz; Delorme, Richard; Leboyer, Marion; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Voyiaziakis, Emanuel; Heutink, Peter; Cath, Danielle C; Posthuma, Danielle; Smit, Jan H; Samuels, Jack; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Cullen, Bernadette; Fyer, Abby J; Grados, Marco A; Greenberg, Benjamin D; McCracken, James T; Riddle, Mark A; Wang, Ying; Coric, Vladimir; Leckman, James F; Bloch, Michael; Pittenger, Christopher; Eapen, Valsamma; Black, Donald W; Ophoff, Roel A; Strengman, Eric; Cusi, Daniele; Turiel, Maurizio; Frau, Francesca; Macciardi, Fabio; Gibbs, J Raphael; Cookson, Mark R; Singleton, Andrew; Hardy, John; Crenshaw, Andrew T; Parkin, Melissa A; Mirel, Daniel B; Conti, David V; Purcell, Shaun; Nestadt, Gerald; Hanna, Gregory L; Jenike, Michael A; Knowles, James A; Cox, Nancy; Pauls, David L

    2014-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, debilitating neuropsychiatric illness with complex genetic etiology. The International OCD Foundation Genetics Collaborative (IOCDF-GC) is a multi-national collaboration established to discover the genetic variation predisposing to OCD. A set of individuals affected with DSM-IV OCD, a subset of their parents, and unselected controls, were genotyped with several different Illumina SNP microarrays. After extensive data cleaning, 1,465 cases, 5,557 ancestry-matched controls and 400 complete trios remained, with a common set of 469,410 autosomal and 9,657 X-chromosome SNPs. Ancestry-stratified case-control association analyses were conducted for three genetically-defined subpopulations and combined in two meta-analyses, with and without the trio-based analysis. In the case-control analysis, the lowest two p-values were located within DLGAP1 (p=2.49×10-6 and p=3.44×10-6), a member of the neuronal postsynaptic density complex. In the trio analysis, rs6131295, near BTBD3, exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold with a p-value=3.84 × 10-8. However, when trios were meta-analyzed with the combined case-control samples, the p-value for this variant was 3.62×10-5, losing genome-wide significance. Although no SNPs were identified to be associated with OCD at a genome-wide significant level in the combined trio-case-control sample, a significant enrichment of methylation-QTLs (p<0.001) and frontal lobe eQTLs (p=0.001) was observed within the top-ranked SNPs (p<0.01) from the trio-case-control analysis, suggesting these top signals may have a broad role in gene expression in the brain, and possibly in the etiology of OCD. PMID:22889921

  4. New Genome-Wide Algorithm Identifies Novel In-Vivo Expressed Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Antigens Inducing Human T-Cell Responses with Classical and Unconventional Cytokine Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppola, Mariateresa; van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Franken, Kees L. M. C.

    2016-01-01

    . By further analysing high-level conservation among whole-genome sequenced Mtb-complex strains (n = 219) and algorithms predicting HLA-class-Ia and II presented epitopes, we selected the most promising IVE-TB candidate antigens. Several of these were recognized by T-cells from in-vitro Mtb-PPD and ESAT6/CFP10...

  5. Genome-wide analysis reveals coating of the mitochondrial genome by TFAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun E Wang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria contain a 16.6 kb circular genome encoding 13 proteins as well as mitochondrial tRNAs and rRNAs. Copies of the genome are organized into nucleoids containing both DNA and proteins, including the machinery required for mtDNA replication and transcription. The transcription factor TFAM is critical for initiation of transcription and replication of the genome, and is also thought to perform a packaging function. Although specific binding sites required for initiation of transcription have been identified in the D-loop, little is known about the characteristics of TFAM binding in its nonspecific packaging state. In addition, it is unclear whether TFAM also plays a role in the regulation of nuclear gene expression. Here we investigate these questions by using ChIP-seq to directly localize TFAM binding to DNA in human cells. Our results demonstrate that TFAM uniformly coats the whole mitochondrial genome, with no evidence of robust TFAM binding to the nuclear genome. Our study represents the first high-resolution assessment of TFAM binding on a genome-wide scale in human cells.

  6. Genome-wide computational prediction and analysis of core promoter elements across plant monocots and dicots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcription initiation, essential to gene expression regulation, involves recruitment of basal transcription factors to the core promoter elements (CPEs). The distribution of currently known CPEs across plant genomes is largely unknown. This is the first large scale genome-wide report on the compu...

  7. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.;

    2011-01-01

    this technique for reliable gene expression quantification of phytoplasmas on a large scale. In our experimental setup, 242 genes of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were tested for differences in expression in plant and insect host environments, and were shown to be predominantly...

  8. Use of quantitative real time PCR for a genome-wide study of AYWB phytoplasma gene expression in plant and insect hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarova, Olga; MacLean, Allyson M.; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are obligate parasites of plants and insects and cause significant crop yield losses worldwide. A number of microarray gene expression studies have been performed to understand better the effects of phytoplasma infection on plant physiology. However, little effort has been made...... this technique for reliable gene expression quantification of phytoplasmas on a large scale. In our experimental setup, 242 genes of aster yellows phytoplasma strain witches' broom (AY-WB) were tested for differences in expression in plant and insect host environments, and were shown to be predominantly...... expressed in the plant or insect hosts. In silico operon prediction corroborated the experimental data. Our findings suggest that the delta delta Ct method can be used to study the physiology of this pathogen...

  9. Genome wide analysis of differentially expressed genes in HK-2 cells, a line of human kidney epithelial cells in response to oxalate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweaty Koul

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is a multi-factorial disease which, in the majority of cases, involves the renal deposition of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a metabolic end product excreted primarily by the kidney. Previous studies have shown that elevated levels of oxalate are detrimental to the renal epithelial cells; however, oxalate renal epithelial cell interactions are not completely understood. In this study, we utilized an unbiased approach of gene expression profiling using Affymetrix HG_U133_plus2 gene chips to understand the global gene expression changes in human renal epithelial cells [HK-2] after exposure to oxalate. We analyzed the expression of 47,000 transcripts and variants, including 38,500 well characterized human genes, in the HK2 cells after 4 hours and 24 hours of oxalate exposure. Gene expression was compared among replicates as per the Affymetrix statistical program. Gene expression among various groups was compared using various analytical tools, and differentially expressed genes were classified according to the Gene Ontology Functional Category. The results from this study show that oxalate exposure induces significant expression changes in many genes. We show for the first time that oxalate exposure induces as well as shuts off genes differentially. We found 750 up-regulated and 2276 down-regulated genes which have not been reported before. Our results also show that renal cells exposed to oxalate results in the regulation of genes that are associated with specific molecular function, biological processes, and other cellular components. In addition we have identified a set of 20 genes that is differentially regulated by oxalate irrespective of duration of exposure and may be useful in monitoring oxalate nephrotoxicity. Taken together our studies profile global gene expression changes and provide a unique insight into oxalate renal cell interactions and oxalate nephrotoxicity.

  10. Sex-specific mouse liver gene expression: genome-wide analysis of developmental changes from pre-pubertal period to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conforto Tara L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early liver development and the transcriptional transitions during hepatogenesis are well characterized. However, gene expression changes during the late postnatal/pre-pubertal to young adulthood period are less well understood, especially with regards to sex-specific gene expression. Methods Microarray analysis of male and female mouse liver was carried out at 3, 4, and 8 wk of age to elucidate developmental changes in gene expression from the late postnatal/pre-pubertal period to young adulthood. Results A large number of sex-biased and sex-independent genes showed significant changes during this developmental period. Notably, sex-independent genes involved in cell cycle, chromosome condensation, and DNA replication were down regulated from 3 wk to 8 wk, while genes associated with metal ion binding, ion transport and kinase activity were up regulated. A majority of genes showing sex differential expression in adult liver did not display sex differences prior to puberty, at which time extensive changes in sex-specific gene expression were seen, primarily in males. Thus, in male liver, 76% of male-specific genes were up regulated and 47% of female-specific genes were down regulated from 3 to 8 wk of age, whereas in female liver 67% of sex-specific genes showed no significant change in expression. In both sexes, genes up regulated from 3 to 8 wk were significantly enriched (p p Ihh; female-specific Cdx4, Cux2, Tox, and Trim24 and may contribute to the developmental changes that lead to global acquisition of liver sex-specificity by 8 wk of age. Conclusions Overall, the observed changes in gene expression during postnatal liver development reflect the deceleration of liver growth and the induction of specialized liver functions, with widespread changes in sex-specific gene expression primarily occurring in male liver.

  11. Genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming under drought stress

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Soil water deficit is one of the major factors limiting plant productivity. Plants cope with this adverse environmental condition by coordinating the up- or downregulation of an array of stress responsive genes. Reprogramming the expression of these genes leads to rebalanced development and growth that are in concert with the reduced water availability and that ultimately confer enhanced stress tolerance. Currently, several techniques have been employed to monitor genome-wide transcriptional reprogramming under drought stress. The results from these high throughput studies indicate that drought stress-induced transcriptional reprogramming is dynamic, has temporal and spatial specificity, and is coupled with the circadian clock and phytohormone signaling pathways. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. All rights are reserved.

  12. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Toru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1 and second-largest follicles (F2, and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in terms of healthy and atretic conditions by investigating mRNA localization of identified genes. Methods Global gene expression profiles of F1 (10.7 +/- 0.7 mm and F2 (7.8 +/- 0.2 mm were analyzed by hierarchical cluster analysis and expression profiles of 16 representative genes were confirmed by QPCR analysis. In addition, localization of six identified transcripts was investigated in healthy and atretic follicles using in situ hybridization. The healthy or atretic condition of examined follicles was classified by progesterone and estradiol concentrations in follicular fluid. Results Hierarchical cluster analysis of microarray data classified the follicles into two clusters. Cluster A was composed of only F2 and was characterized by high expression of 31 genes including IGFBP5, whereas cluster B contained only F1 and predominantly expressed 45 genes including CYP19 and FSHR. QPCR analysis confirmed AMH, CYP19, FSHR, GPX3, PlGF, PLA2G1B, SCD and TRB2 were greater in F1 than F2, while CCL2, GADD45A, IGFBP5, PLAUR, SELP, SPP1, TIMP1 and TSP2 were greater in F2 than in F1. In situ hybridization showed that AMH and CYP19 were detected in granulosa cells (GC of healthy as well as atretic follicles. PlGF was localized in GC and in the theca layer (TL of healthy follicles. IGFBP5 was detected in both GC and TL of atretic follicles. GADD45A and TSP2 were localized in both GC and TL of atretic follicles, whereas healthy follicles expressed them only in GC. Conclusion We demonstrated that global gene expression profiling of F

  13. Genome-wide Pleiotropy Between Parkinson Disease and Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witoelar, Aree; Jansen, Iris E; Wang, Yunpeng; Desikan, Rahul S; Gibbs, J Raphael; Blauwendraat, Cornelis; Thompson, Wesley K; Hernandez, Dena G; Djurovic, Srdjan; Schork, Andrew J; Bettella, Francesco; Ellinghaus, David; Franke, Andre; Lie, Benedicte A; McEvoy, Linda K; Karlsen, Tom H; Lesage, Suzanne; Morris, Huw R; Brice, Alexis; Wood, Nicholas W; Heutink, Peter; Hardy, John; Singleton, Andrew B; Dale, Anders M; Gasser, Thomas; Andreassen, Ole A; Sharma, Manu

    2017-07-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and pathway analyses supported long-standing observations of an association between immune-mediated diseases and Parkinson disease (PD). The post-GWAS era provides an opportunity for cross-phenotype analyses between different complex phenotypes. To test the hypothesis that there are common genetic risk variants conveying risk of both PD and autoimmune diseases (ie, pleiotropy) and to identify new shared genetic variants and their pathways by applying a novel statistical framework in a genome-wide approach. Using the conjunction false discovery rate method, this study analyzed GWAS data from a selection of archetypal autoimmune diseases among 138 511 individuals of European ancestry and systemically investigated pleiotropy between PD and type 1 diabetes, Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis. NeuroX data (6927 PD cases and 6108 controls) were used for replication. The study investigated the biological correlation between the top loci through protein-protein interaction and changes in the gene expression and methylation levels. The dates of the analysis were June 10, 2015, to March 4, 2017. The primary outcome was a list of novel loci and their pathways involved in PD and autoimmune diseases. Genome-wide conjunctional analysis identified 17 novel loci at false discovery rate less than 0.05 with overlap between PD and autoimmune diseases, including known PD loci adjacent to GAK, HLA-DRB5, LRRK2, and MAPT for rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. Replication confirmed the involvement of HLA, LRRK2, MAPT, TRIM10, and SETD1A in PD. Among the novel genes discovered, WNT3, KANSL1, CRHR1, BOLA2, and GUCY1A3 are within a protein-protein interaction network with known PD genes. A subset of novel loci was significantly associated with changes in methylation or expression levels of adjacent genes. The study findings provide novel mechanistic

  14. A genome-wide scan for preeclampsia in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lachmeijer, AMA; Arngrimsson, R; Bastiaans, EJ; Frigge, ML; Pals, G; Sigurdardottir, S; Stefansson, H; Palsson, B; Nicolae, D; Kong, A; Aarnoudse, JG; Gulcher, [No Value; Dekker, GA; ten Kate, LP; Stefansson, K

    2001-01-01

    Preeclampsia, hallmarked by de novo hypertension and proteinuria in pregnancy, has a familial tendency. Recently, a large Icelandic genome-wide scan provided evidence for a maternal susceptibility locus for preeclampsia on chromosome 2p13 which was confirmed by a genome scan from Australia and New

  15. Genome-wide association study of clinical dimensions of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanous, Ayman H; Zhou, Baiyu; Aggen, Steven H;

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sources of evidence suggest that genetic factors influence variation in clinical features of schizophrenia. The authors present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of dimensional symptom scores among individuals with schizophrenia....

  16. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  17. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10−8 to P = 10−190). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including g...

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  19. Cancer genetic association studies in the genome-wide age

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Sharon A

    2008-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of hundreds of thousands of SNPs have led to a deluge of studies of genetic variation in cancer and other common diseases. Large case–control and cohort studies have identified novel SNPs as markers of cancer risk. Genome-wide association study SNP data have also advanced understanding of population-specific genetic variation. While studies of risk profiles, combinations of SNPs that may increase cancer risk, are not yet clinically applicable, future, large-sca...

  20. Genome-wide association study of multiplex schizophrenia pedigrees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinson, Douglas F; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs).......The authors used a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of multiply affected families to investigate the association of schizophrenia to common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and rare copy number variants (CNVs)....

  1. Genome-Wide Expression Analysis of Human In Vivo Irritated Epidermis: Differential Profiles Induced by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Nonanoic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Anders; Andersen, Klaus E; Clemmensen, Ole

    2010-01-01

    the differential molecular events induced in the epidermis by different irritants, we collected sequential biopsies ((1/2), 4, and 24 hours after a single exposure and at day 11 after repeated exposure) from human volunteers exposed to either sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) or nonanoic acid (NON). Gene expression...

  2. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that cadmium stress signaling controls the expression of genes in drought stress signal pathways in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youko Oono

    Full Text Available Plant growth is severely affected by toxic concentrations of the non-essential heavy metal cadmium (Cd. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq following cadmium exposure is required to further understand plant responses to Cd and facilitate future systems-based analyses of the underlying regulatory networks. In this study, rice plants were hydroponically treated with 50 µM Cd for 24 hours and ∼60,000 expressed transcripts, including transcripts that could not be characterized by microarray-based approaches, were evaluated. Upregulation of various ROS-scavenging enzymes, chelators and metal transporters demonstrated the appropriate expression profiles to Cd exposure. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis of the responsive transcripts indicated the upregulation of many drought stress-related genes under Cd exposure. Further investigation into the expression of drought stress marker genes such as DREB suggested that expression of genes in several drought stress signal pathways was activated under Cd exposure. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analyses of randomly selected Cd-responsive metal transporter transcripts under various metal ion stresses suggested that the expression of Cd-responsive transcripts might be easily affected by other ions. Our transcriptome analysis demonstrated a new transcriptional network linking Cd and drought stresses in rice. Considering our data and that Cd is a non-essential metal, the network underlying Cd stress responses and tolerance, which plants have developed to adapt to other stresses, could help to acclimate to Cd exposure. Our examination of this transcriptional network provides useful information for further studies of the molecular mechanisms of plant adaptation to Cd exposure and the improvement of tolerance in crop species.

  3. Genome-wide mRNA expression analysis of hepatic adaptation to high-fat diets reveals switch from an inflammatory to steatotic transcriptional program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Radonjic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Excessive exposure to dietary fats is an important factor in the initiation of obesity and metabolic syndrome associated pathologies. The cellular processes associated with the onset and progression of diet-induced metabolic syndrome are insufficiently understood. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify the mechanisms underlying the pathological changes associated with short and long-term exposure to excess dietary fat, hepatic gene expression of ApoE3Leiden mice fed chow and two types of high-fat (HF diets was monitored using microarrays during a 16-week period. A functional characterization of 1663 HF-responsive genes reveals perturbations in lipid, cholesterol and oxidative metabolism, immune and inflammatory responses and stress-related pathways. The major changes in gene expression take place during the early (day 3 and late (week 12 phases of HF feeding. This is also associated with characteristic opposite regulation of many HF-affected pathways between these two phases. The most prominent switch occurs in the expression of inflammatory/immune pathways (early activation, late repression and lipogenic/adipogenic pathways (early repression, late activation. Transcriptional network analysis identifies NF-kappaB, NEMO, Akt, PPARgamma and SREBP1 as the key controllers of these processes and suggests that direct regulatory interactions between these factors may govern the transition from early (stressed, inflammatory to late (pathological, steatotic hepatic adaptation to HF feeding. This transition observed by hepatic gene expression analysis is confirmed by expression of inflammatory proteins in plasma and the late increase in hepatic triglyceride content. In addition, the genes most predictive of fat accumulation in liver during 16-week high-fat feeding period are uncovered by regression analysis of hepatic gene expression and triglyceride levels. CONCLUSIONS: The transition from an inflammatory to a steatotic transcriptional program

  4. Genome-wide examination of myoblast cell cycle withdrawal duringdifferentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xun; Collier, John Michael; Hlaing, Myint; Zhang, Leanne; Delshad, Elizabeth H.; Bristow, James; Bernstein, Harold S.

    2002-12-02

    Skeletal and cardiac myocytes cease division within weeks of birth. Although skeletal muscle retains limited capacity for regeneration through recruitment of satellite cells, resident populations of adult myocardial stem cells have not been identified. Because cell cycle withdrawal accompanies myocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that C2C12 cells, a mouse myoblast cell line previously used to characterize myocyte differentiation, also would provide a model for studying cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. C2C12 cells were differentiated in culture medium containing horse serum and harvested at various time points to characterize the expression profiles of known cell cycle and myogenic regulatory factors by immunoblot analysis. BrdU incorporation decreased dramatically in confluent cultures 48 hr after addition of horse serum, as cells started to form myotubes. This finding was preceded by up-regulation of MyoD, followed by myogenin, and activation of Bcl-2. Cyclin D1 was expressed in proliferating cultures and became undetectable in cultures containing 40 percent fused myotubes, as levels of p21(WAF1/Cip1) increased and alpha-actin became detectable. Because C2C12 myoblasts withdraw from the cell cycle during myocyte differentiation following a course that recapitulates this process in vivo, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify other gene products involved in this process. Using microarrays containing approximately 10,000 minimally redundant mouse sequences that map to the UniGene database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we compared gene expression profiles between proliferating, differentiating, and differentiated C2C12 cells and verified candidate genes demonstrating differential expression by RT-PCR. Cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed groups of gene products involved in cell cycle withdrawal, muscle differentiation, and apoptosis. In addition, we identified several genes, including DDAH2 and Ly

  5. Genome-Wide Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with the High Yielding of Oleoresin in Secondary Xylem of Masson Pine (Pinus massoniana Lamb by Transcriptomic Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Liu

    Full Text Available Masson pine is an important timber and resource for oleoresin in South China. Increasing yield of oleoresin in stems can raise economic benefits and enhance the resistance to bark beetles. However, the genetic mechanisms for regulating the yield of oleoresin were still unknown. Here, high-throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the transcriptome and compare the gene expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes. A total of 40,690,540 reads were obtained and assembled into 137,499 transcripts from the secondary xylem tissues. We identified 84,842 candidate unigenes based on sequence annotation using various databases and 96 unigenes were candidates for terpenoid backbone biosynthesis in pine. By comparing the expression profiles of high and low oleoresin-yielding genotypes, 649 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified. GO enrichment analysis of DEGs revealed that multiple pathways were related to high yield of oleoresin. Nine candidate genes were validated by QPCR analysis. Among them, the candidate genes encoding geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPS and (--alpha/beta-pinene synthase were up-regulated in the high oleoresin-yielding genotype, while tricyclene synthase revealed lower expression level, which was in good agreement with the GC/MS result. In addition, DEG encoding ABC transporters, pathogenesis-related proteins (PR5 and PR9, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein and ethylene responsive transcription factors (ERFs were also confirmed to be critical for the biosynthesis of oleoresin. The next-generation sequencing strategy used in this study has proven to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to the yield of oleoresin in masson pine. The candidate genes encoding GGPS, (--alpha/beta-pinene, tricyclene synthase, ABC transporters, non-specific lipid-transfer protein-like protein, phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase

  6. A transcription factor map as revealed by a genome-wide gene expression analysis of whole-blood mRNA transcriptome in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Riveros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence suggest that transcription factors are involved in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS but complete mapping of the whole network has been elusive. One of the reasons is that there are several clinical subtypes of MS and transcription factors that may be involved in one subtype may not be in others. We investigate the possibility that this network could be mapped using microarray technologies and contemporary bioinformatics methods on a dataset derived from whole blood in 99 untreated MS patients (36 Relapse Remitting MS, 43 Primary Progressive MS, and 20 Secondary Progressive MS and 45 age-matched healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used two different analytical methodologies: a non-standard differential expression analysis and a differential co-expression analysis, which have converged on a significant number of regulatory motifs that are statistically overrepresented in genes that are either differentially expressed (or differentially co-expressed in cases and controls (e.g., V$KROX_Q6, p-value <3.31E-6; V$CREBP1_Q2, p-value <9.93E-6, V$YY1_02, p-value <1.65E-5. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analysis uncovered a network of transcription factors that potentially dysregulate several genes in MS or one or more of its disease subtypes. The most significant transcription factor motifs were for the Early Growth Response EGR/KROX family, ATF2, YY1 (Yin and Yang 1, E2F-1/DP-1 and E2F-4/DP-2 heterodimers, SOX5, and CREB and ATF families. These transcription factors are involved in early T-lymphocyte specification and commitment as well as in oligodendrocyte dedifferentiation and development, both pathways that have significant biological plausibility in MS causation.

  7. Genome-wide patterns of carbon and nitrogen regulation of gene expression validate the combined carbon and nitrogen (CN)-signaling hypothesis in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Palenchar, Peter M; Kouranov, Andrei; Lejay, Laurence V; Coruzzi, Gloria M.

    2004-01-01

    Background Carbon and nitrogen are two signals that influence plant growth and development. It is known that carbon- and nitrogen-signaling pathways influence one another to affect gene expression, but little is known about which genes are regulated by interactions between carbon and nitrogen signaling or the mechanisms by which the different pathways interact. Results Microarray analysis was used to study global changes in mRNA levels due to carbon and nitrogen in Arabidopsis thaliana. An in...

  8. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny, and expression analyses of the 14-3-3 family reveal their involvement in the development, ripening and abiotic stress response in banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    meiying li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana.

  9. Genome-wide analysis reveals PADI4 cooperates with Elk-1 to activate c-Fos expression in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesen Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptidylarginine deiminase IV (PADI4 catalyzes the conversion of positively charged arginine and methylarginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline, and this activity has been linked to the repression of a limited number of target genes. To broaden our knowledge of the regulatory potential of PADI4, we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with promoter tiling array (ChIP-chip analysis to more comprehensively investigate the range of PADI4 target genes across the genome in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results showed that PADI4 is enriched in gene promoter regions near transcription start sites (TSSs; and, surprisingly, this pattern of binding is primarily associated with actively transcribed genes. Computational analysis found potential binding sites for Elk-1, a member of the ETS oncogene family, to be highly enriched around PADI4 binding sites; and coimmunoprecipitation analysis then confirmed that Elk-1 physically associates with PADI4. To better understand how PADI4 may facilitate gene transactivation, we then show that PADI4 interacts with Elk-1 at the c-Fos promoter and that, following Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF stimulation, PADI4 catalytic activity facilitates Elk-1 phosphorylation, histone H4 acetylation, and c-Fos transcriptional activation. These results define a novel role for PADI4 as a transcription factor co-activator.

  10. Genome-Wide Identification, Phylogeny, and Expression Analyses of the 14-3-3 Family Reveal Their Involvement in the Development, Ripening, and Abiotic Stress Response in Banana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiying; Ren, Licheng; Xu, Biyu; Yang, Xiaoliang; Xia, Qiyu; He, Pingping; Xiao, Susheng; Guo, Anping; Hu, Wei; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Plant 14-3-3 proteins act as critical components of various cellular signaling processes and play an important role in regulating multiple physiological processes. However, less information is known about the 14-3-3 gene family in banana. In this study, 25 14-3-3 genes were identified from the banana genome. Based on the evolutionary analysis, banana 14-3-3 proteins were clustered into ε and non-ε groups. Conserved motif analysis showed that all identified banana 14-3-3 genes had the typical 14-3-3 motif. The gene structure of banana 14-3-3 genes showed distinct class-specific divergence between the ε group and the non-ε group. Most banana 14-3-3 genes showed strong transcript accumulation changes during fruit development and postharvest ripening in two banana varieties, indicating that they might be involved in regulating fruit development and ripening. Moreover, some 14-3-3 genes also showed great changes after osmotic, cold, and salt treatments in two banana varieties, suggested their potential role in regulating banana response to abiotic stress. Taken together, this systemic analysis reveals the involvement of banana 14-3-3 genes in fruit development, postharvest ripening, and response to abiotic stress and provides useful information for understanding the functions of 14-3-3 genes in banana. PMID:27713761

  11. Genome-wide microarray-based analysis of miRNAs expression in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Chen; Ze-Hui Yan; Yu-Ming Wang; Bao-Yan Xu; Guo-Hong Deng

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe clinical syndrome that may cause a high mortality. However, the mechanism is still not clear. Characterization of the microRNA (miRNA) proifles in ACLF patients may provide new clues to the pathogenesis and management of this syndrome. METHODS: Genome-wide  microarray  was  performed  to compare the different miRNA expression proifles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a pair of monozygotic twins, an ACLF patient and an HBV asymptomatic carrier (AsC). The case-control miRNA proifles were compared and conifrmed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 104 ACLF patients and 96 AsCs. A combined computational prediction algorithm was used to predict the potential target genes. RESULTS: Forty-ifve miRNAs were increased and eight miRNAs were decreased in the ACLF group. The expressions of hsa-let-7a and hsa-miR-16 were increased by 8.58- and 8.63-fold in ACLF patients compared with that in AsCs, respectively (P CONCLUSIONS: Our  results  showed  that  there  is  a  close relationship  between  speciifc  miRNAs  of  peripheral  blood mononuclear cells and ACLF. hsa-miR-16 and hsa-let-7a may contribute to the development of ACLF.

  12. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the apple ASR gene family in response to Alternaria alternata f. sp. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaihui; Zhong, Yan; Li, Yingjun; Zheng, Dan; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2016-10-01

    The ABA/water stress/ripening-induced (ASR) gene family exists universally in higher plants, and many ASR genes are up-regulated during periods of environmental stress and fruit ripening. Although a considerable amount of research has been performed investigating ASR gene response to abiotic stresses, relatively little is known about their roles in response to biotic stresses. In this report, we identified five ASR genes in apple (Malus × domestica) and explored their phylogenetic relationship, duplication events, and selective pressure. Five apple ASR genes (Md-ASR) were divided into two clades based on phylogenetic analysis. Species-specific duplication was detected in M. domestica ASR genes. Leaves of 'Golden delicious' and 'Starking' were infected with Alternaria alternata f. sp. mali, which causes apple blotch disease, and examined for the expression of the ASR genes in lesion areas during the first 72 h after inoculation. Md-ASR genes showed different expression patterns at different sampling times in 'Golden delicious' and 'Starking'. The activities of stress-related enzymes, peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and polyphenoloxidase (PPO), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were also measured in different stages of disease development in two cultivars. The ASR gene expression patterns and theses physiological indexes for disease resistance suggested that Md-ASR genes are involved in biotic stress responses in apple.

  13. Cross-analysis of gene and miRNA genome-wide expression profiles in human fibroblasts at different stages of transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostano, Paola; Bione, Silvia; Belgiovine, Cristina; Chiodi, Ilaria; Ghimenti, Chiara; Scovassi, A Ivana; Chiorino, Giovanna; Mondello, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a cellular system constituted of human telomerase immortalized fibroblasts that gradually underwent neoplastic transformation during propagation in culture. We exploited this cellular system to investigate gene and miRNA transcriptional programs in cells at different stages of propagation, representing five different phases along the road to transformation, from non-transformed cells up to tumorigenic and metastatic ones. Here we show that gene and miRNA expression profiles were both able to divide cells according to their transformation phase. We identified more than 1,700 genes whose expression was highly modulated in cells at at least one propagation stage and we found that the number of modulated genes progressively increased at successive stages of transformation. These genes identified processes significantly deregulated in tumorigenic cells, such as cell differentiation, cell movement and extracellular matrix remodeling, cell cycle and apoptosis, together with upregulation of several cancer testis antigens. Alterations in cell cycle, apoptosis, and cancer testis antigen expression were particular hallmarks of metastatic cells. A parallel deregulation of a panel of 43 miRNAs strictly connected to the p53 and c-Myc pathways and with oncogenic/oncosuppressive functions was also found. Our results indicate that cen3tel cells can be a useful model for human fibroblast neoplastic transformation, which appears characterized by complex and peculiar alterations involving both genetic and epigenetic reprogramming, whose elucidation could provide useful insights into regulatory networks underlying cancerogenesis.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Cai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes. We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species, Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium arboreum, and G. raimondii. These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G. raimondii with uneven distribution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups, with 20 members in group I, 88 in group II, and 12 in group III. The 88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups, groups IIa–e, containing 7, 16, 37, 15, and 13 members, respectively. We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins. The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response. Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  15. Genome-wide analysis of the WRKY transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the expression of orthologs in cultivated tetraploid cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiping; Cai; Erli; Niu; Hao; Du; Liang; Zhao; Yue; Feng; Wangzhen; Guo

    2014-01-01

    WRKY proteins are members of a family of transcription factors in higher plants that function in plant responses to various physiological processes.We identified 120 candidate WRKY genes from Gossypium raimondii with corresponding expressed sequence tags in at least one of four cotton species,Gossypium hirsutum,Gossypium barbadense,Gossypium arboreum,and G.raimondii.These WRKY members were anchored on 13 chromosomes in G.raimondii with uneven distribution.Phylogenetic analysis showed that WRKY candidate genes can be classified into three groups,with 20 members in group I,88 in group II,and 12 in group III.The88 genes in group II were further classified into five subgroups,groups IIa–e,containing 7,16,37,15,and 13 members,respectively.We characterized diversity in amino acid residues in the WRKY domain and/or other zinc finger motif regions in the WRKY proteins.The expression patterns of WRKY genes revealed their important roles in diverse functions in cotton developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and stress response.Structural and expression analyses show that WRKY proteins are a class of important regulators of growth and development and play key roles in response to stresses in cotton.

  16. Genome-wide expression changes induced by HTLV-1 Tax: evidence for MLK-3 mixed lineage kinase involvement in Tax-mediated NF-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, P W; Iha, H; Iwanaga, Y; Bittner, M; Chen, Y; Jiang, Y; Gooden, G; Trent, J M; Meltzer, P; Jeang, K T; Zeichner, S L

    2001-07-27

    The Tax protein of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), an oncoprotein that transactivates viral and cellular genes, plays a key role in HTLV-1 replication and pathogenesis. We used cDNA microarrays to examine Tax-mediated transcriptional changes in the human Jurkat T-cell lines JPX-9 and JPX-M which express Tax and Tax-mutant protein, respectively, under the control of an inducible promoter. Approximately 300 of the over 2000 genes examined were differentially expressed in the presence of Tax. These genes were grouped according to their function and are discussed in the context of existing findings in the literature. There was strong agreement between our results and genes previously reported as being Tax-responsive. Genes that were differentially expressed in the presence of Tax included those related to apoptosis, the cell cycle and DNA repair, signaling factors, immune modulators, cytokines and growth factors, and adhesion molecules. Functionally, we provide evidence that one of these genes, the mixed-lineage kinase MLK-3, is involved in Tax-mediated NF-kappa-B signaling. Our current results provide additional insights into Tax-mediated signaling.

  17. Genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung tissues of pig breeds differing in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Xing

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV is an infectious disease characterized by severe reproductive deficiency in pregnant sows, typical respiratory symptoms in piglets, and high mortality rate of piglets. In this study, we employed an Affymetrix microarray chip to compare the gene expression profiles of lung tissue samples from Dapulian (DPL pigs (a Chinese indigenous pig breed and Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire (DLY pigs after infection with PRRSV. During infection with PRRSV, the DLY pigs exhibited a range of clinical features that typify the disease, whereas the DPL pigs showed only mild signs of the disease. Overall, the DPL group had a lower percentage of CD4(+ cells and lower CD4(+/CD8(+ratios than the DLY group (p<0.05. For both IL-10 and TNF-α, the DLY pigs had significantly higher levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01. The DLY pigs have lower serum IFN-γ levels than the DPL pigs (p<0.01. The serum IgG levels increased slightly from 0 dpi to 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi (p<0.0001. Microarray data analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed (DE genes in the lung tissue samples from the DLY and DPL pigs (q≤5%, of which LOC100516029 and LOC100523005 were up-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs, while the other 14 genes were down-regulated in the PRRSV-infected DPL pigs compared with the PRRSV-infected DLY pigs. The mRNA expression levels of 10 out of the 16 DE genes were validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and their fold change was consistent with the result of microarray data analysis. We further analyzed the mRNA expression level of 8 differentially expressed genes between the DPL and DLY pigs for both uninfected and infected groups, and found that TF and USP18 genes were important in underlying porcine resistance or susceptibility to PRRSV.

  18. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes families in Citrullus lanatus under various abiotic stresses and grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chenliang; Dong, Wenqi; Zhan, Yihua; Huang, Zong-An; Li, Zhimiao; Kim, Il Seop; Zhang, Chenghao

    2017-04-07

    Auxin plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development as well as in the response of plants to abiotic stresses. Auxin is transported by three kinds of major protein families, including the AUXIN RESISTANT 1/LIKE AUX1 (AUX⁄LAX) influx carriers, the PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers and the ATP binding cassette B/P-glycoprotein/Multidrug-resistance (ABCB/MDR/PGP) efflux/condition carriers. The biological function of several auxin transporter genes has been well characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their function in response to exogenous auxin and abiotic stresses in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus. L) remained unknown. Here, the latest updated watermelon genome was used to characterise the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes from watermelon. The genome-wide analysis of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB family genes, including chromosome localisation, gene structure, and phylogenic relationships, was carried out. Seven ClLAXs, 11 ClPINs and 15 ClABCBs were mapped on 10 watermelon chromosomes. The expression profiles of the ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under exogenous indole-3-acetic acid and various abiotic stresses (salt, drought, and cold stresses) treatments were performed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The transcriptional level of majority ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes were changed by abiotic stresses in both shoots and roots. We also analysed the expression levels of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes in graft response. Analysis of the expression patterns of ClLAX, ClPIN and ClABCB genes under salt, drought, cold treatment and grafting response helps us to understand the possible roles of auxin transporter genes in watermelon adaptation to environmental stresses.

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of Human MicroRNA Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing studies have shown that microRNA (miRNA stability plays important roles in physiology. However, the global picture of miRNA stability remains largely unknown. Here, we had analyzed genome-wide miRNA stability across 10 diverse cell types using miRNA arrays. We found that miRNA stability shows high dynamics and diversity both within individual cells and across cell types. Strikingly, we observed a negative correlation between miRNA stability and miRNA expression level, which is different from current findings on other biological molecules such as proteins and mRNAs that show positive and not negative correlations between stability and expression level. This finding indicates that miRNA has a distinct action mode, which we called “rapid production, rapid turnover; slow production, slow turnover.” This mode further suggests that high expression miRNAs normally degrade fast and may endow the cell with special properties that facilitate cellular status-transition. Moreover, we revealed that the stability of miRNAs is affected by cohorts of factors that include miRNA targets, transcription factors, nucleotide content, evolution, associated disease, and environmental factors. Together, our results provided an extensive description of the global landscape, dynamics, and distinct mode of human miRNA stability, which provide help in investigating their functions in physiology and pathophysiology.

  20. Genome-wide significant risk associations for mucinous ovarian carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Linda E.; Lawrenson, Kate; Tyrer, Jonathan; Li, Qiyuan; M. Lee, Janet; Seo, Ji-Heui; Phelan, Catherine M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqin; Spindler, Tassja J.; Aben, Katja K.H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Iain; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moes-Sosnowska, Joanna; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wlodzimierz, Sawicki; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A.; Freedman, Matthew L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Berchuck, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified several risk associations for ovarian carcinomas (OC) but not for mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Genotypes from OC cases and controls were imputed into the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel. Analysis of 1,644 MOC cases and 21,693 controls identified three novel risk associations: rs752590 at 2q13 (P = 3.3 × 10−8), rs711830 at 2q31.1 (P = 7.5 × 10−12) and rs688187 at 19q13.2 (P = 6.8 × 10−13). Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) analysis in ovarian and colorectal tumors (which are histologically similar to MOC) identified significant eQTL associations for HOXD9 at 2q31.1 in ovarian (P = 4.95 × 10−4, FDR = 0.003) and colorectal (P = 0.01, FDR = 0.09) tumors, and for PAX8 at 2q13 in colorectal tumors (P = 0.03, FDR = 0.09). Chromosome conformation capture analysis identified interactions between the HOXD9 promoter and risk SNPs at 2q31.1. Overexpressing HOXD9 in MOC cells augmented the neoplastic phenotype. These findings provide the first evidence for MOC susceptibility variants and insights into the underlying biology of the disease. PMID:26075790

  1. Genome-wide identification and characterization of TIFY family genes in Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) and expression profiling analysis under dehydration and cold stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Si-Han; Guo, Han-Du; Zhong, Xiao-Juan; He, Jiao; Li, Xi; Jiang, Ming-Yan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Ma, Ming-Dong; Chen, Qi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    The proteins containing the TIFY domain belong to a plant-specific family of putative transcription factors and could be divided into four subfamilies: ZML, TIFY, PPD and JAZ. They not only function as key regulators of jasmonate hormonal response, but are also involved in responding to abiotic stress. In this study, we identified 24 TIFY genes (PeTIFYs) in Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) of Poaceae by analyzing the whole genome sequence. One PeTIFY belongs to TIFY subfamily, 18 and five belong to JAZ and ZML subfamilies, respectively. Two equivocal gene models were re-predicted and a putative retrotransposition event was found in a ZML protein. The distribution and conservation of domain or motif, and gene structure were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis with TIFY proteins of Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa indicated that JAZ subfamily could be further divided to four groups. Evolutionary analysis revealed intragenomic duplication and orthologous relationship between P. edulis, O. sativa, and B. distachyon. Calculation of the non-synonymous (Ka) and synonymous (Ks) substitution rates and their ratios indicated that the duplication of PeTIFY may have occurred around 16.7 million years ago (MYA), the divergence time of TIFY family among the P. edulis-O. sativa, P. edulis-B. distachyon, and O. sativa-B. distachyon was approximately 39 MYA, 39 MYA, and 45 MYA, respectively. They appear to have undergone extensive purifying selection during evolution. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that more than 50% of PeTIFY genes could be up-regulated by cold and dehydration stresses, and some PeTIFYs also share homology to know TIFYs involved in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results made insights into TIFY family of Moso bamboo, an economically important non-timber forest resource, and provided candidates for further identification of genes involved in regulating responses to abiotic stress.

  2. Genome-wide non-CpG methylation of the host genome during M. tuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Garima; Sowpati, Divya Tej; Singh, Prakruti; Khan, Mehak Zahoor; Ganji, Rakesh; Upadhyay, Sandeep; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar; Khosla, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    A mammalian cell utilizes DNA methylation to modulate gene expression in response to environmental changes during development and differentiation. Aberrant DNA methylation changes as a correlate to diseased states like cancer, neurodegenerative conditions and cardiovascular diseases have been documented. Here we show genome-wide DNA methylation changes in macrophages infected with the pathogen M. tuberculosis. Majority of the affected genomic loci were hypermethylated in M. tuberculosis infected THP1 macrophages. Hotspots of differential DNA methylation were enriched in genes involved in immune response and chromatin reorganization. Importantly, DNA methylation changes were observed predominantly for cytosines present in non-CpG dinucleotide context. This observation was consistent with our previous finding that the mycobacterial DNA methyltransferase, Rv2966c, targets non-CpG dinucleotides in the host DNA during M. tuberculosis infection and reiterates the hypothesis that pathogenic bacteria use non-canonical epigenetic strategies during infection. PMID:27112593

  3. Functional annotations of diabetes nephropathy susceptibility loci through analysis of genome-wide renal gene expression in rat models of diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yaomin; Kaisaki, Pamela J; Argoud, Karène

    2009-01-01

    of spontaneous (genetically determined) mild hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance (Goto-Kakizaki-GK) and experimentally induced severe hyperglycaemia (Wistar-Kyoto-WKY rats injected with streptozotocin [STZ]). RESULTS: Different patterns of transcription regulation in the two rat models of diabetes likely...... number of protein coding sequences of unknown function which can be considered as functional and, when they map to DN loci, positional candidates for DN. Further expression analysis of rat orthologs of human DN positional candidate genes provided functional annotations of known and novel genes...

  4. Molecular-timetable methods for detection of body time and rhythm disorders from single-time-point genome-wide expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Hiroki R.; Chen, Wenbin; Minami, Yoichi; Honma, Sato; Honma, Kenichi; Iino, Masamitsu; Hashimoto, Seiichi

    2004-01-01

    Detection of individual body time (BT) via a single-time-point assay has been a longstanding unfulfilled dream in medicine, because BT information can be exploited to maximize potency and minimize toxicity during drug administration and thus will enable highly optimized medication. To achieve this dream, we created a “molecular timetable” composed of >100 “time-indicating genes,” whose gene expression levels can represent internal BT. Here we describe a robust method called the “molecular-tim...

  5. Genome-wide profiling of long non-coding RNA expression patterns in the EGFR-TKI resistance of lung adenocarcinoma by microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Yu, Dan-Dan; Hu, Yong; Yan, Dali; Chen, Xiu; Cao, Hai-Xia; Yu, Shao-Rong; Wang, Zhuo; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) make lung adenocarcinoma cells sensitive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Long-term cancer therapy may cause the occurrence of acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in tumor formation, tumor metastasis and the development of EGFR-TKI resistance in lung cancer. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of EGFR-TKI resistance, we generated an EGFR-TKI-resistant HCC827-8-1 cell line and analyzed expression patterns by lncRNA microarray and compared it with its parental HCC827 cell line. A total of 1,476 lncRNA transcripts and 1,026 mRNA transcripts were dysregulated in the HCC827‑8-1 cells. The expression levels of 7 chosen lncRNAs were validated by real-time quantitative PCR. As indicated by functional analysis, several groups of lncRNAs may be involved in the bio-pathways associated with EGFR-TKI resistance through their cis- and/or trans‑regulation of protein-coding genes. Thus, lncRNAs may be used as novel candidate biomarkers and potential targets in EGFR-TKI therapy in the future.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Small RNA Biogenesis Purveyors Reveal Their Role in Regulation of Biotic Stress Responses in Three Legume Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stress in legume crops is one of the major threats to crop yield and productivity. Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to combat different stresses imposed on them. One such mechanism, deciphered in the last decade, is small RNA (sRNA mediated defense in plants. Small RNAs (sRNAs have emerged as one of the major players in gene expression regulation in plants during developmental stages and under stress conditions. They are known to act both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Dicer-like (DCL, Argonaute (AGO, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RDR constitute the major components of sRNA biogenesis machinery and are known to play a significant role in combating biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is, therefore, focused on identification and characterization of sRNA biogenesis proteins in three important legume crops, namely chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins between legume species classified them into distinct clades and suggests the evolutionary conservation of these genes across the members of Papillionidoids subfamily. Variable expression of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to the biotic stresses among the three legumes indicate the possible existence of specialized regulatory mechanisms in different legumes. This is the first ever study to understand the role of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to pathogen attacks in the studied legumes.

  7. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junpeng; Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang; Ma, Yuling; Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie; Chen, Dan; Chen, Qin; Ma, Haoli

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes.

  8. Genome-wide Screening of Regulators of Catalase Expression: ROLE OF A TRANSCRIPTION COMPLEX AND HISTONE AND tRNA MODIFICATION COMPLEXES ON ADAPTATION TO STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia; Encinar Del Dedo, Javier; Ayté, José; Hidalgo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental cues, the mitogen-activated protein kinase Sty1-driven signaling cascade activates hundreds of genes to induce a robust anti-stress cellular response in fission yeast. Thus, upon stress imposition Sty1 transiently accumulates in the nucleus where it up-regulates transcription through the Atf1 transcription factor. Several regulators of transcription and translation have been identified as important to mount an integral response to oxidative stress, such as the Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyl transferase or Elongator complexes, respectively. With the aim of identifying new regulators of this massive gene expression program, we have used a GFP-based protein reporter and screened a fission yeast deletion collection using flow cytometry. We find that the levels of catalase fused to GFP, both before and after a threat of peroxides, are altered in hundreds of strains lacking components of chromatin modifiers, transcription complexes, and modulators of translation. Thus, the transcription elongation complex Paf1, the histone methylase Set1-COMPASS, and the translation-related Trm112 dimers are all involved in full expression of Ctt1-GFP and in wild-type tolerance to peroxides.

  9. A novel statistic for genome-wide interaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuesen; Dong, Hua; Luo, Li; Zhu, Yun; Peng, Gang; Reveille, John D; Xiong, Momiao

    2010-09-23

    Although great progress in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has been made, the significant SNP associations identified by GWAS account for only a few percent of the genetic variance, leading many to question where and how we can find the missing heritability. There is increasing interest in genome-wide interaction analysis as a possible source of finding heritability unexplained by current GWAS. However, the existing statistics for testing interaction have low power for genome-wide interaction analysis. To meet challenges raised by genome-wide interactional analysis, we have developed a novel statistic for testing interaction between two loci (either linked or unlinked). The null distribution and the type I error rates of the new statistic for testing interaction are validated using simulations. Extensive power studies show that the developed statistic has much higher power to detect interaction than classical logistic regression. The results identified 44 and 211 pairs of SNPs showing significant evidence of interactions with FDRanalysis is a valuable tool for finding remaining missing heritability unexplained by the current GWAS, and the developed novel statistic is able to search significant interaction between SNPs across the genome. Real data analysis showed that the results of genome-wide interaction analysis can be replicated in two independent studies.

  10. Genome-wide Analysis of Gene Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yun

    IP-seq and small RNA-seq, we delineated the landscape of the promoters with bidirectional transcriptions that yield steady-state RNA in only one directions (Paper III). A subsequent motif analysis enabled us to uncover specific DNA signals – early polyA sites – that make RNA on the reverse strand sensitive...... they regulated or if the sites had global elevated usage rates by multiple TFs. Using RNA-seq, 5’end-seq in combination with depletion of 5’exonuclease as well as nonsensemediated decay (NMD) factors, we systematically analyzed NMD substrates as well as their degradation intermediates in human cells (Paper V......). Gene enrichment analysis on the detected NMD substrates revealed an unappreciated NMD-based regulatory mechanism of the genes hosting multiple intronic snoRNAs, which can facilitate differential expression of individual snoRNAs from a single host gene locus. Finally, supported by RNA-seq and small RNA-seq...

  11. Genome-wide association study of antisocial personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautiainen, M-R; Paunio, T; Repo-Tiihonen, E; Virkkunen, M; Ollila, H M; Sulkava, S; Jolanki, O; Palotie, A; Tiihonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) remains unclear. Although the most consistent biological finding is reduced grey matter volume in the frontal cortex, about 50% of the total liability to developing ASPD has been attributed to genetic factors. The contributing genes remain largely unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the genetic background of ASPD. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a replication analysis of Finnish criminal offenders fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for ASPD (N=370, N=5850 for controls, GWAS; N=173, N=3766 for controls and replication sample). The GWAS resulted in suggestive associations of two clusters of single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 6p21.2 and at 6p21.32 at the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region. Imputation of HLA alleles revealed an independent association with DRB1*01:01 (odds ratio (OR)=2.19 (1.53–3.14), P=1.9 × 10-5). Two polymorphisms at 6p21.2 LINC00951–LRFN2 gene region were replicated in a separate data set, and rs4714329 reached genome-wide significance (OR=1.59 (1.37–1.85), P=1.6 × 10−9) in the meta-analysis. The risk allele also associated with antisocial features in the general population conditioned for severe problems in childhood family (β=0.68, P=0.012). Functional analysis in brain tissue in open access GTEx and Braineac databases revealed eQTL associations of rs4714329 with LINC00951 and LRFN2 in cerebellum. In humans, LINC00951 and LRFN2 are both expressed in the brain, especially in the frontal cortex, which is intriguing considering the role of the frontal cortex in behavior and the neuroanatomical findings of reduced gray matter volume in ASPD. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing genome-wide significant and replicable findings on genetic variants associated with any personality disorder. PMID:27598967

  12. Genome-wide survey of Aux/IAA gene family members in potato (Solanum tuberosum): Identification, expression analysis, and evaluation of their roles in tuber development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Junpeng [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Cao, Xiaoli; Shi, Shandang [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Yuling [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Innovation Experimental College, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Wang, Kai; Liu, Shengjie [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Chen, Dan [School of Life Sciences and Technology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Chen, Qin [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China); Ma, Haoli, E-mail: mahaoli@nwsuaf.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Agronomy, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) genes encode short-lived nuclear proteins that are known to be involved in the primary cellular responses to auxin. To date, systematic analysis of the Aux/IAA genes in potato (Solanum tuberosum) has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 26 potato Aux/IAA genes were identified (designated from StIAA1 to StIAA26), and the distribution of four conserved domains shared by the StIAAs were analyzed based on multiple sequence alignment and a motif-based sequence analysis. A phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA gene families of potato and Arabidopsis was also conducted. In order to assess the roles of StIAA genes in tuber development, the results of RNA-seq studies were reformatted to analyze the expression patterns of StIAA genes, and then verified by quantitative real-time PCR. A large number of StIAA genes (12 genes) were highly expressed in stolon organs and in during the tuber initiation and expansion developmental stages, and most of these genes were responsive to indoleacetic acid treatment. Our results suggested that StIAA genes were involved in the process of tuber development and provided insights into functional roles of potato Aux/IAA genes. - Highlights: • A systematic analysis of the potato AUX/IAA gene family were performed. • StIAA genes were related to auxin perception and signal transduction. • Candidate StIAA genes likely related to tuber initiation and expansion were screened.

  13. Genome-wide analysis reveals a complex pattern of genomic imprinting in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B Wolf

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression resulting from genomic imprinting plays an important role in modulating complex traits ranging from developmental processes to cognitive abilities and associated disorders. However, while gene-targeting techniques have allowed for the identification of imprinted loci, very little is known about the contribution of imprinting to quantitative variation in complex traits. Most studies, furthermore, assume a simple pattern of imprinting, resulting in either paternal or maternal gene expression; yet, more complex patterns of effects also exist. As a result, the distribution and number of different imprinting patterns across the genome remain largely unexplored. We address these unresolved issues using a genome-wide scan for imprinted quantitative trait loci (iQTL affecting body weight and growth in mice using a novel three-generation design. We identified ten iQTL that display much more complex and diverse effect patterns than previously assumed, including four loci with effects similar to the callipyge mutation found in sheep. Three loci display a new phenotypic pattern that we refer to as bipolar dominance, where the two heterozygotes are different from each other while the two homozygotes are identical to each other. Our study furthermore detected a paternally expressed iQTL on Chromosome 7 in a region containing a known imprinting cluster with many paternally expressed genes. Surprisingly, the effects of the iQTL were mostly restricted to traits expressed after weaning. Our results imply that the quantitative effects of an imprinted allele at a locus depend both on its parent of origin and the allele it is paired with. Our findings also show that the imprinting pattern of a locus can be variable over ontogenetic time and, in contrast to current views, may often be stronger at later stages in life.

  14. Gene expression profiling signatures for the diagnosis and prevention of oral cavity carcinogenesis-genome-wide analysis using RNA-seq technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Urvalek, Alison M; Osei-Sarfo, Kwame; Zhang, Tuo; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2015-09-15

    We compared the changes in global gene expression between an early stage (the termination of the carcinogen treatment and prior to the appearance of frank tumors) and a late stage (frank squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)) of tongue carcinogenesis induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) in a mouse model of human oral cavity and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gene ontology and pathway analyses show that increases in "cell cycle progression" and "degradation of basement membrane and ECM pathways" are early events during SCC carcinogenesis and that changes in these pathways are even greater in the actual tumors. Myc, NFκB complex (NFKB1/RELA), and FOS transcription networks are the major transcriptional networks induced in early stage tongue carcinogenesis. Decreases in metabolism pathways, such as in "tricarboxylic acid cycle" and "oxidative phosphorylation", occurred only in the squamous cell carcinomas and not in the early stages of carcinogenesis. We detected increases in ALDH1A3, PTGS2, and KRT1 transcripts in both the early and late stages of carcinogenesis. The identification of the transcripts and pathways that change at an early stage of carcinogenesis provides potentially useful information for early diagnosis and for prevention strategies for human tongue squamous cell carcinomas.

  15. Genome-wide identification and expression analysis of rice pectin methylesterases: Implication of functional roles of pectin modification in rice physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ho Young; Nguyen, Hong Phuong; Lee, Chanhui

    2015-07-01

    Pectin, which is enriched in primary cell walls and middle lamellae, is an essential polysaccharide in all higher plants. Homogalacturonans (HGA), a major form of pectin, are synthesized and methylesterified by enzymes localized in the Golgi apparatus and transported into the ce